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Sample records for ages 0-14 cervix

  1. Cervix

    MedlinePlus

    The cervix is the lower end of the womb (uterus). It is at the top of the vagina . It ... centimeters) long. The cervical canal passes through the cervix. It allows blood from a menstrual period and ...

  2. Incidence of cancer in children aged 0-14 years in Taiwan, 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yen-Lin; Lo, Wei-Cheng; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Yang, Ya-Wen; Lu, Meng-Yao; Hsu, Wen-Ming; Ho, Wan-Ling; Li, Meng-Ju; Miser, James S; Lin, Dong-Tsamn; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2015-02-01

    Studies have found lower risk of childhood cancer among Asian children. We aim to characterize the recent incidence and incidence-trend of childhood cancer in Taiwan after the National Health Insurance program was launched in March 1995. Data were extracted from the Taiwan Cancer Registry, a population-based database established in 1979. Cases diagnosed at age 0-14 from 1996 to 2010 were analyzed and categorized according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer, Third Edition (ICCC-3). In total, 8032 childhood cancer cases were included, with a microscopic verification rate of 93.9%. The overall age-standardized rate (ASR) of incidence adjusted to the 2000 World Standard Population is 125.0 cases/million, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.3. The top five cancer types (ICCC-3 subgroup[s]; ASR per million) are acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ia, 30.3), acute myeloid leukemia (Ib; 9.4), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (IIb,c,e, 9.0), extracranial germ cell tumor (Xb,c; 8.3), and neuroblastoma (IVa; 7.8). The median age of diagnosis was 6 years for both genders. During the study period, the ASR of childhood cancer has been increasing at a rate of 1.2% per year (95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.7%). In contrast to Western countries, China, Japan, and Taiwan have lower incidence of childhood cancer; however, Taiwan's incidence rates of childhood germ cell tumors and hepatic tumors are higher. In conclusion, this population-based study reveals that the incidence rate of childhood cancer in Taiwan is rising consistently. The high incidence of germ cell tumors warrants further investigation.

  3. Age as a prognostic factor in carcinoma of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Lybeert, M L; Meerwaldt, J H; van Putten, W L

    1987-06-01

    To investigate whether age is a prognostic factor in patients with carcinoma of the cervix, a retrospective study was undertaken of 261 patients, aged 45 years or less, who were referred to the Rotterdamsch Radio-Therapeutisch Instituut (RRTI) between 1973 and 1982. Patients were referred for either primary treatment--surgery or radiotherapy--or for adjuvant radiotherapy. Overall 5-year survival figures were rather low, which may be explained by negative patient selection as the RRTI is a referral hospital: stage IB, 72%; stage IIA; 61%; stage IIB; 52%; stage III; 29%. A particular poor survival was noted for patients (n = 22) aged 28 or less. Overall 5-year survival of these patients was only 39% in contrast to 67% 5-year survival of older patients. This difference was highly significant (p less than 0.002). Even if corrected for stage, very young patients had a poorer prognosis (stage IB: 45% versus 75% 5-year survival of older patients). Within the older age group, no trend towards a better prognosis with increasing age could be identified. As a treatment was similar for all patients, no explanation is available for this observation.

  4. Effect of reproductive ageing on pregnant mouse uterus and cervix

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rima; Moffatt, James D.; Mourmoura, Evangelia; Demaison, Luc; Seed, Paul T.; Poston, Lucilla

    2017-01-01

    Key points Older pregnant women have a greater risk of operative delivery, still birth and post‐term induction.This suggests that maternal age can influence the timing of birth and processes of parturition.We have found that increasing maternal age in C57BL/6J mice is associated with prolongation of gestation and length of labour.Older pregnant mice also had delayed progesterone withdrawal and impaired myometrial function.Uterine ageing and labour dysfunction should be investigated further in older primigravid women. Abstract Advanced maternal age (≥35 years) is associated with increased rates of operative delivery, stillbirth and post‐term labour induction. The physiological causes remain uncertain, although impaired myometrial function has been implicated. To investigate the hypothesis that maternal age directly influences successful parturition, we assessed the timing of birth and fetal outcome in pregnant C57BL/6J mice at 3 months (young) and 5 months (intermediate) vs. 8 months (older) of age using infrared video recording. Serum progesterone profiles, myometrium and cervix function, and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex enzymatic activities were also examined. Older pregnant mice had a longer mean gestation and labour duration (P < 0.001), as well as reduced litter size (P < 0.01) vs. 3‐month‐old mice. Older mice did not exhibit the same decline in serum progesterone concentrations as younger mice. Cervical tissues from older mice were more distensible than younger mice (P < 0.05). Oxytocin receptor and connexin‐43 mRNA expression were reduced in the myometrium from 8‐month‐old vs. 3‐month‐old mice (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively) in tandem with more frequent but shorter duration spontaneous myometrial contractions (P < 0.05) and an attenuated contractile response to oxytocin. Myometrial mitochondrial copy number was reduced in older mice, although there were no age‐induced changes to the enzymatic

  5. The Change of Stretched Penile Length and Anthropometric Data in Korean Children Aged 0-14 Years: Comparative Study of Last 25 Years.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungchan; Chung, Jae Min; Kang, Dong Il; Ryu, Dong Soo; Cho, Won Yeol; Lee, Sang Don

    2016-10-01

    There has been a great improvement in height and weight of Korean children owing to economic development over the last 25 years. This study aimed to evaluate the penile length of Korean children today and to compare it with a previous Korean study reported in 1987. The cross-sectional study was conducted with 909 Korean boys aged 0-14 years who had been brought to outpatient clinics of five tertiary hospitals (Busan, Ulsan, and Changwon) between September 2013 and May 2015. The stretched penile length (SPL) was measured and the testicular size was measured using orchidometry (mL). Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the result of our study and the study reported in 1987. SPL of Korean children gradually increased from 4.1 ± 0.8 cm at 0-1 year old to 9.6 ± 3.0 cm at 13-14 years old, the most rapidly during the age of 13. While body weight and testicular size significantly increased from 1987 in most of age groups, there were no significant changes in SPL although there was in some age groups. Height decreased in the infants < 1 year old and increased in the children > 6 years old. With the great economic development over the last quarter century in Korea, height, body weight, and testicular size of children significantly increased but there was no significant change in SPL except penile growth pattern.

  6. Cervix Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes to the cells of the cervix, including cervical cancer. Other problems with the cervix include: Cervicitis - ... the cervix. This is usually from an infection. Cervical incompetence - This can happen during pregnancy. The opening ...

  7. Cervix cryosurgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... enough to freeze and destroy the tissue. An "ice ball" forms on the cervix, killing the abnormal cells. For the treatment to be most effective: The freezing is done for 3 minutes The cervix is ...

  8. Influence of breed and age on morphometry and depth of inseminating catheter penetration in the ewe cervix: a postmortem study.

    PubMed

    Kaabi, M; Alvarez, M; Anel, E; Chamorro, C A; Boixo, J C; de Paz, P; Anel, L

    2006-11-01

    A detailed examination of the cervical canal in the ewe was carried out. This analysis could be used to design new catheters for artificial insemination (AI) to achieve deeper cervical penetration and therefore better fertility results. Three hundred and sixty-five cervices from four sheep breeds (Churra, Assaf, Merino, Castellana) obtained postmortem were used. Cervix morphometry and depth of cervical penetration using two types of catheters were determined. A conventional straight catheter for ovine artificial insemination (IMV), and a bent catheter, ending in a stainless steel needle, 9 cm in length and with an 8 mm tip bent 45 degrees , were used. The results showed that the morphometry of the cervix depends on breed and age of the ewe. The cervices of Churra breed were shorter and narrower, and had a higher number of folds than those of other breeds. Postmortem cervical penetration was deeper when the cervices were longer and wider, and with fewer folds (Merino and Castellana breeds). In ageing ewes, the cervix tended to become longer and wider, with loose folds. This decreased structural complexity and significantly improved cervical penetration. The bent catheter allowed significantly greater cervical penetration than the straight IMV one.

  9. Incidence of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in subjects 0-14 years of age in the Comunidad of Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Serrano Ríos, M; Moy, C S; Martín Serrano, R; Minuesa Asensio, A; de Tomás Labat, M E; Zarandieta Romero, G; Herrera, J

    1990-07-01

    A retrospective, population-based registry was established in the Comunidad of Madrid, Spain (total population: 4,780,572; under age 15: 1,105,243) to investigate the epidemiology of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Included were all cases diagnosed with diabetes between 1985 and 1988, with age onset less than 15 years, and using insulin at discharge from hospital. Using the capture-recapture method employing hospital records as the primary source and membership files of the Spanish Diabetic Association as the secondary source, the ascertainment was 90%. The overall annual incidence was estimated to be 11.3/100,000 (Poison 95% confidence interval: 10.3-12.4). There was no temporal increase in incidence, nor was there a significant sex difference in incidence rates, either overall or by year. The seasonal onset pattern showed the highest incidence in winter (December-February) and lowest in summer (June-August) (r = 7.36, p less than 0.05). The age-adjusted (world standard) incidence of 10.9/100,000 was inconsistent with the hypothesis of a north-south gradient in diabetes risk.

  10. Insufficient cervix

    MedlinePlus

    ... by the 4th month Having past late-term abortions Having a cervix that did not develop normally ... of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by VeriMed ...

  11. Cancer of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.J. )

    1990-08-01

    Since the introduction of the Papanicolaou smear and colposcopy, cervical cancers can be diagnosed and treated easily in their preinvasive state. Although theoretically cancer of the cervix should be detected and treated before becoming invasive disease, there are still too many women who develop invasive cancer of the cervix and require radical surgery and/or radiation therapy. The management of patients with recurrent or advanced disease is difficult and challenging.36 references.

  12. Lymphoma of the Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Parnis, Juanita; Camilleri, David J.; Babic, Darko; DeGaetano, James; Savona-Ventura, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Primary non-Hodgkins lymphoma of the uterine cervix is a very rare diagnosis. A 54-year-old woman presented with a 3-month history of postmenopausal bleeding per vaginum. On examination, a friable, fungating lesion was seen on the cervix. Histology revealed a CD 20 positive high-grade non-Hodgkin's diffuse large B cell lymphoma from cervical biopsies and endometrial curettage. She was diagnosed as stage IE after workup and subsequently treated with six cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy of the involved field. PMID:23091747

  13. Prevention of cervix cancer.

    PubMed

    Rock, C L; Michael, C W; Reynolds, R K; Ruffin, M T

    2000-03-01

    Cervix carcinoma is an important health problem world-wide, being the second most common cancer among women, ranking first in many developing countries. A number of important epidemiological risk factors have been identified as contributing to the development of CIN and invasive cervix carcinoma. Of key importance is infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), which is the primary risk factor. There are evolving primary and secondary preventive strategies that could further reduce the burden from cervical carcinoma. The possible primary preventive strategies include risk reduction, diet or dietary supplements, HPV vaccines, and other chemopreventive agents. The possible advances in secondary preventive strategies include new technologies for Pap smears, HPV typing triage, and other adjuvant screening procedures. The impact of these strategies will depend upon evidence to support their use along with the characteristics of the population and environment in which they are used.

  14. Primary Tuberculosis of Cervix: A Coincidental Finding

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Nalini; Singh, Ahanthem Santa; Khonglah, Yookarin; Mishra, Jaya

    2016-01-01

    Background: 95% of Tuberculosis (TB) of the female genital tract (FGT) is located in tissues other than the cervix. A rare case of primary TB of the cervix which was diagnosed coincidently in a patient of endometrioma was reported in this study. Case Presentation: A 34 year old nullipara, a diagnosed case of endometrioma had a small cervical growth. Pap smear and biopsy was taken and sent for histopathological examination. Her histopathological examination revealed multiple epitheloid cell granuloma and langerhans type giant cell caeseation. Ziehl neelsen staining was positive for acid fast bacilli (AFB). The patient was started on antituberculosis under directly observed therapy along with oral contraceptive pills. Patient was on regular follow-up and clinically she was doing well. Conclusion: Although cervical tuberculosis is very rare but for an abnormal looking cervix, cervical tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in woman of all the age groups especially in areas where tuberculosis is rampant since these cases are potentially curable with medical therapy. Many of these patients are in reproductive age group. In young women, early diagnosis prevents further damage in reproductive tract and can improve their reproductive potential. PMID:27921005

  15. STRUCTURAL BASIS OF THE VASCULAR HEMOSTATIC MECHANISM IN THE UTERINE CERVIX.

    PubMed

    Prokopchook-Lyckbäck, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the angioarchitectonics and the functional morphology of the vessels of the cervix and to clarify the role of structural features of these vessels in preventing hemorrhaging in parturition during cervical dilatation. Cervixes uteri were obtained from corpses of 30 women of various ages and 5 ablated at labor. Series of histotopographical specimens of the cervixes were processed using histological and histochemical methods. Peculiar features of the angioarchitectonics, histotopography and structure of cervical vessels were encountered. Arteries penetrating the cervix are surrounded by tight muffs of anastomizing veins that are closely adjacent to the arteries. In other cases, the arteries are located within the lumen of veins--"vessels within vessels". Cervical arteries make up subendocervical convolutions. During pregnancy, smooth muscle "cushions" develop in the vessels. The cervix is pierced by a network of veins that divide the cervical tissue into separate stromal "lobules". This peculiar vascular architecture might be important structural basis of the vascular hemostatic mechanism in the neck of the uterus triggered by labor. It prevents vessel rupture, hemorrhaging and amniotic fluid and air embolism during cervical dilatation. The venous network that passes through the cervix makes it easy for the separate stromal "lobules" of the cervix to move relative to each other during cervical dilatation.

  16. Control of cancer of the cervix uteri*

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Cancer of the uterine cervix is a global problem. It is the most common cancer in women in developing countries and is the second most common cancer in women worldwide, with approximately half a million new cases each year. It is strongly linked with an early onset of sexual activity and multiple sexual partners; recent evidence points to a causal link between some of the precursor lesions of this cancer and specific papillomavirus infections. Cervical cancer has significant morbidity and mortality if it is not detected before it reaches an advanced stage with symptoms. If the disease is detected in an early asymptomatic stage it is nearly always curable by surgery or radiotherapy. Therefore today, cytological screening is the mainstay for control of cervical cancer. In some developed countries, screening programmes for cervical carcinoma have been in operation for many years. In places where large well-organized programmes have been functioning, significant decreases in mortality, in the range of 50-60%, have been observed. The favourable effects result primarily from the removal of intraepithelial lesions preventing the occurrence of invasive tumours. In countries where resources are limited, the aim should be to screen every woman once in her lifetime between 35 and 40 years of age. When more resources are available the frequency of screening should be increased to once every ten or five years for the age groups 35 to 55 years and, ideally, once every three years for women aged between 25 and 60 years. PMID:3490930

  17. Epidemiology of cancer of the cervix: global and national perspective.

    PubMed

    Shanta, V; Krishnamurthi, S; Gajalakshmi, C K; Swaminathan, R; Ravichandran, K

    2000-02-01

    Cancer of the uterine cervix is one of the leading causes of cancer death among women worldwide. The estimated new cancer cervix cases per year is 500,000 of which 79% occur in the developing countries. Cancer cervix occupies either the top rank or second among cancers in women in the developing countries, whereas in the affluent countries cancer cervix does not even find a place in the top 5 leading cancers in women. The truncated rate (TR) in the age group 35-64 years in Chennai, India, is even higher (99.1/100,000; 1982-95) than rate reported from Cali, Colombia (77.4/100,000, 1987-91). The cervical cancer burden in India alone is estimated as 100,000 in 2001 AD. The differential pattern of cervical cancer and the wide variation in incidence are possibly related to environmental differences. Aetiologic association and possible risk factors for cervical carcinoma have been extensively studied. The factors are: Sexual and reproductive factors, socio-economic factors (education and income), viruses e.g., herpes simplex virus (HSV), human papillomavirus (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in cervical carcinogenesis and other factors like smoking, diet, oral contraceptives, hormones, etc. The accumulated evidence suggests that cervical cancer is preventable and is highly suitable for primary prevention. Sexual hygiene, use of barrier contraceptives and ritual circumcision can undoubtedly reduce cervical cancer incidence. Education, cervical cancer screening of high risk groups and improvement in socio-economic status can reduce cervical cancer morbidity and mortality significantly.

  18. [Radiotherapy of cervix and endometrial carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Barillot, I; Haie-Méder, C; Charra Brunaud, C; Peignaux, K; Kerr, C; Thomas, L

    2016-09-01

    External irradiation and brachytherapy still have a major place in the treatment of cervix and endometrial carcinoma. This review presents the French guidelines in terms of preparation and choice of irradiation techniques of these gynecological malignancies.

  19. Obstructive ureteropathy following radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Parliament, M.; Genest, P.; Girard, A.; Gerig, L.; Prefontaine, M.

    1989-05-01

    Between January 1959 and December 1986, 10 of 328 patients (3%) treated with curative intent using primary radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix developed obstructive ureteropathy due to fibrosis. The mean age of the patients with obstructive ureteropathy was 45 years and the median time to obstruction was 26 months. The obstruction was unilateral in 8 cases and involved the parametrial portion of the ureter in at least 5 cases. No predisposing risk factor was found to be associated with the development of obstructive ureteropathy. After corrective surgery, renal function remained normal in 8 patients, and resolution of the hydronephrosis occurred in 4 patients.

  20. A debate about ultrasound and anatomic aspects of the cervix in spontaneous preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Bohîlțea, RE; Munteanu, O; Turcan, N; Baros, A; Bodean, O; Voicu, D; Cîrstoiu, MM

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is the legal first global cause of neonatal death. The cervix has two roles: it has to stay closed to allow the fetus to undergo a normal development during gestation, and at term, the cervix has to dilate under the pressure of uterine contractions to allow the delivery. The purpose of this article is to establish if the ultrasound measured length of the cervix and its appearance are predictive for the spontaneous preterm birth. Cervical insufficiency can be described by painless cervical dilatation leading to pregnancy losses/ births, with no other risk factors present. During gestation, the physiological softening of the cervix is determined by the extracellular matrix components, particular decorin, and thrombospondin 2. The direction of the collagen fibers remains the same – circumferential direction, but the collagen solubility increases. Therefore, during pregnancy, the cervical tissue is more hydrated and has higher collagen extractability than non-pregnant tissue. Women with cervical incompetence have increased levels of smooth muscle cells than normal pregnant women, the number of elastic fibers is low, and also the concentration of hydroxyproline is decreased. Transvaginal ultrasound is the suitable gold standard exam that can offer essential information about the cervical length and state of the internal os in early asymptomatic stage of cervical insufficiency for predicting and preventing preterm birth. In our experience, a transvaginal ultrasound screening for the measurement of the cervix is required. We consider that the proper gestational age for the prediction of a preterm birth is at 18-22 weeks of gestation for the general population and earlier for patients with a history of preterm birth. Just from an observational point of view, we concluded with the fact that the cerclage of the cervix is unnecessary if the cervical length is above 2 cm and if the internal cervical os is closed. In the absence of funneling, the probability of

  1. [Cervix uteri cancer in Poland--epidemiological opening balance and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Didkowska, Joanna; Wojciechowska, Urszula; Zatoński, Witold

    2006-09-01

    Cancer is one of the main causes of death among young and middle-aged females. In case of some cancer sites there is a possibility of undertaking an intervention, which would diminish the risk of death--to this group belongs first of all malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri. The date of beginning first cervix uteri cancer screening in Poland is approaching, therefore presenting epidemiological opening balance and possible scenarios of changes it worthwhile. This work uses data on morbidity and mortality due to malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri cancer in Polish population. Time trends analysis was based on so-called "breakpoint" (joinpoint analysis). Cervix uteri cancer mortality trend is characterized by two breakpoints (1971 and 1993). In the period of 1963-1970 there was an increase of mortality and then after the trend reversed: percentage decline was estimated at the level of 0.8% yearly in 1971-1992 and 2.4% yearly in 1993-2002. Hypothetical scenarios of changes in cervix uteri cancer mortality show, that lack of intervention will cause mortality among Polish females at the level recorded in Finland 25 years ago. Optimistic variant would allow on diminishing mortality in Poland down to the level observed currently in Finland, in around 30 years. Implementing preventive cervix uteri cancer screening is currently the most urgent challenge of public health. If the preventive screening program will still be in the phase of plans and projects, then in 30 years time Poland will be in the point which Finland reached in the end of 1970s, and our civilizing underdevelopment will reach half a century.

  2. Strategies in late stage cervix carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Krochak, R.

    1986-03-01

    Stage IIB-IV squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix when treated by irradiation has a significant failure rate. Causes of pelvic and distant failure are discussed. New techniques employed to improve local control and decrease distant metastasis are presented. Data on morbidity, mortality, and survival will be reviewed with respect to these new strategies employed.

  3. Coumarin-4 laser efficiency up to 0. 14% under coaxial flash-lamp pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, F.G.; Yu, C.L.

    1987-02-01

    Under coaxial flash lamp pumping the laser efficiency of coumarin-4 in slightly basic ethyl alcohol solution as an active medium has reached a value of 0.14%. That is three times higher than that in the basic aqueous solution. Its tunable wavelength range of laser output has extended from 440 to 510 nm with the maximum at 460 nm.

  4. The role of the cervix in fertility: is it time for a reappraisal?

    PubMed

    Martyn, F; McAuliffe, F M; Wingfield, M

    2014-10-10

    Knowledge regarding the role of the cervix in fertility has expanded considerably over the past 20 years and in this article, we propose that it is now time for its function to be reappraised. First, we review the anatomy of the cervix and the vaginal ecosystem that it inhabits. Then, we examine the physiology and the role of the cervical mucus. The ongoing mystery of the exact mechanism of the sperm-cervical mucus interaction is reviewed and the key players that may unlock this mystery in the future are discussed. The soluble and cellular biomarkers of the lower female genital tract which are slowly being defined by contemporary research are reviewed. Attempts to standardize these markers, in this milieu, are hindered by the changes that may be attributed to endogenous or exogenous factors such as: age, hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle, ectropion, infection, smoking and exposure to semen during sexual intercourse. We review what is known about the immunology of the cervix. With the widespread use of large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) for treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, the anatomy of the cervix is changing for many women. While LLETZ surgery has had very positive effects in the fight against cervical cancer, we debate the impact it could have on a woman's fertility.

  5. Investigating the mechanical function of the cervix during pregnancy using finite element models derived from high-resolution 3D MRI.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M; House, M; Jambawalikar, S; Zork, N; Vink, J; Wapner, R; Myers, K

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is a strong contributor to perinatal mortality, and preterm infants that survive are at risk for long-term morbidities. During most of pregnancy, appropriate mechanical function of the cervix is required to maintain the developing fetus in utero. Premature cervical softening and subsequent cervical shortening are hypothesized to cause preterm birth. Presently, there is a lack of understanding of the structural and material factors that influence the mechanical function of the cervix during pregnancy. In this study we build finite element models of the pregnant uterus, cervix, and fetal membrane based on magnetic resonance imagining data in order to examine the mechanical function of the cervix under the physiologic loading conditions of pregnancy. We calculate the mechanical loading state of the cervix for two pregnant patients: 22 weeks gestational age with a normal cervical length and 28 weeks with a short cervix. We investigate the influence of (1) anatomical geometry, (2) cervical material properties, and (3) fetal membrane material properties, including its adhesion properties, on the mechanical loading state of the cervix under physiologically relevant intrauterine pressures. Our study demonstrates that membrane-uterus interaction, cervical material modeling, and membrane mechanical properties are factors that must be deliberately and carefully handled in order to construct a high quality mechanical simulation of pregnancy.

  6. Zn1.86Cd0.14(OH)VO4

    PubMed Central

    Đorđević, Tamara; Stojanović, Jovica; Karanović, Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, dizinc cadmium hydroxide tetraoxido­vanadate, Zn1.86Cd0.14(OH)VO4, was prepared under low-temperature hydro­thermal conditions. It is isostructural with Zn2(OH)VO4 and Cu2(OH)VO4. In the crystal structure, chains of edge-sharing [ZnO6] octahedra are inter­connected by VO4 tetra­hedra (site symmetries of both V atoms and their coordination polyhedra are .m.) to form a three-dimensional [Zn(OH)VO4]2− framework with channels occupied by Zn and Zn/Cd cations adopting trigonal–bipyramidal and distorted octa­hedral coordinations, respectively. Zn1.86Cd0.14(OH)VO4 is topologically related to adamite-type phases, and descloizite- and tsumcorite-type structures. PMID:21589202

  7. Mullerian adenosarcoma of the cervix with heterologous elements and sarcomatous overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Karen R.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical adenosarcomas are exceedingly infrequent tumors that occur most often in women of reproductive age. Adenosarcomas comprise benign epithelial elements and malignant stromal elements. The malignant stromal elements can either be homologous, such as fibroblasts or smooth muscle, or heterologous, like cartilage, striated muscle, or bone. We report a case of adenosarcoma of the cervix with heterologous elements and sarcomatous overgrowth in a 38-year-old woman. PMID:26722175

  8. Shape priors for segmentation of the cervix region within uterine cervix images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotenberg, Shelly; Gordon, Shiri; Greenspan, Hayit

    2008-03-01

    The work focuses on a unique medical repository of digital Uterine Cervix images ("Cervigrams") collected by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Health, in longitudinal multi-year studies. NCI together with the National Library of Medicine is developing a unique web-based database of the digitized cervix images to study the evolution of lesions related to cervical cancer. Tools are needed for the automated analysis of the cervigram content to support the cancer research. In recent works, a multi-stage automated system for segmenting and labeling regions of medical and anatomical interest within the cervigrams was developed. The current paper concentrates on incorporating prior-shape information in the cervix region segmentation task. In accordance with the fact that human experts mark the cervix region as circular or elliptical, two shape models (and corresponding methods) are suggested. The shape models are embedded within an active contour framework that relies on image features. Experiments indicate that incorporation of the prior shape information augments previous results.

  9. In vivo Raman spectroscopy of cervix cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubina, S.; Sathe, Priyanka; Dora, Tapas Kumar; Chopra, Supriya; Maheshwari, Amita; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Cervix-cancer is the third most common female cancer worldwide. It is the leading cancer among Indian females with more than million new diagnosed cases and 50% mortality, annually. The high mortality rates can be attributed to late diagnosis. Efficacy of Raman spectroscopy in classification of normal and pathological conditions in cervix cancers on diverse populations has already been demonstrated. Our earlier ex vivo studies have shown the feasibility of classifying normal and cancer cervix tissues as well as responders/non-responders to Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). The present study was carried out to explore feasibility of in vivo Raman spectroscopic methods in classifying normal and cancerous conditions in Indian population. A total of 182 normal and 132 tumor in vivo Raman spectra, from 63 subjects, were recorded using a fiberoptic probe coupled HE-785 spectrometer, under clinical supervision. Spectra were acquired for 5 s and averaged over 3 times at 80 mW laser power. Spectra of normal conditions suggest strong collagenous features and abundance of non-collagenous proteins and DNA in case of tumors. Preprocessed spectra were subjected to Principal Component-Linear Discrimination Analysis (PCLDA) followed by leave-one-out-cross-validation. Classification efficiency of ~96.7% and 100% for normal and cancerous conditions respectively, were observed. Findings of the study corroborates earlier studies and suggest applicability of Raman spectroscopic methods in combination with appropriate multivariate tool for objective, noninvasive and rapid diagnosis of cervical cancers in Indian population. In view of encouraging results, extensive validation studies will be undertaken to confirm the findings.

  10. Apparatus for treating carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, P.P.

    1984-03-06

    Disclosed is an apparatus for treating carcinoma of the uterine cervix by judiciously applying radioactive material immediately adjacent the uterine cervix for an extended period of time empirically determined by the radiologist. The novel apparatus comprises three radioactively chargeable components including a central tubular tandem vaginally insertable longitudinally into the uterine cervix and two non-lineal tubular ovoidal assemblies longitudinally locatable at the cervix and positioned laterally between the respective vaginal walls and the uterine cervix. The ovoidal assemblies are conveniently removably and pivotably connected to the central tandem component externally of the vaginal along the sagittal plane through a novel adapter member whereby the radioactively chargeable ovoidal assemblies tend to remain within a laterally extending plane located substantially midway the transversely separated vasicovaginal and rectovaginal septa, even though the patient periodically shifts her reclining posture during the extended treatment by said vaginally protruding apparatus.

  11. Automatic evaluation of uterine cervix segmentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotenberg, Shelly; Gordon, Shiri; Long, Rodney; Antani, Sameer; Jeronimo, Jose; Greenspan, Hayit

    2007-03-01

    In this work we focus on the generation of reliable ground truth data for a large medical repository of digital cervicographic images (cervigrams) collected by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This work is part of an ongoing effort conducted by NCI together with the National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to develop a web-based database of the digitized cervix images in order to study the evolution of lesions related to cervical cancer. As part of this effort, NCI has gathered twenty experts to manually segment a set of 933 cervigrams into regions of medical and anatomical interest. This process yields a set of images with multi-expert segmentations. The objectives of the current work are: 1) generate multi-expert ground truth and assess the diffculty of segmenting an image, 2) analyze observer variability in the multi-expert data, and 3) utilize the multi-expert ground truth to evaluate automatic segmentation algorithms. The work is based on STAPLE (Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation), which is a well known method to generate ground truth segmentation maps from multiple experts' observations. We have analyzed both intra- and inter-expert variability within the segmentation data. We propose novel measures of "segmentation complexity" by which we can automatically identify cervigrams that were found difficult to segment by the experts, based on their inter-observer variability. Finally, the results are used to assess our own automated algorithm for cervix boundary detection.

  12. A 0.14 THz relativistic coaxial overmoded surface wave oscillator with metamaterial slow wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Weijie; Wang, Jianguo Chen, Zaigao; Cai, Libing; Wang, Yue; Wang, Guangqiang; Qiao, Hailiang

    2014-12-15

    This paper presents a new kind of device for generating the high power terahertz wave by using a coaxial overmoded surface wave oscillator with metamaterial slow wave structure (SWS). A metallic metamaterial SWS is used to avoid the damage of the device driven by a high-voltage electron beam pulse. The overmoded structure is adopted to make it much easy to fabricate and assemble the whole device. The coaxial structure is used to suppress the mode competition in the overmoded device. Parameters of an electron beam and geometric structure are provided. Particle-in-cell simulation results show that the high power terahertz wave at the frequency of 0.14 THz is generated with the output power 255 MW and conversion efficiency about 21.3%.

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma of cervix metastatic to ileal loop

    SciTech Connect

    Hulecki, S.J.; Klein, F.A.; Davis, J.E.

    1985-12-01

    A case is presented of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix with an isolated metastasis to an ileal loop six years after diversion and seven years after definitive treatment of the primary lesion with irradiation.

  14. Primary follicular lymphoma of the cervix uteri: a review.

    PubMed

    Korcum, Aylin Fidan; Karadogan, Ihsan; Aksu, Gamze; Aralasmak, Ayse; Erdogan, Gulgun

    2007-09-01

    Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the cervix is a rare disease, of which a subgroup of follicular lymphoma constitutes only 8.5%. There is not an established treatment protocol neither for primary cervical lymphoma nor for its follicular subgroup. We presented a case with Ann Arbor stage IEA (Extra-nodal involvement and absence of weight loss, fever, night sweat) primary follicular lymphoma of the cervix. She was treated with chemotherapy followed by pelvic radiotherapy. Upon relapse with a nodal neck mass, she was treated with rituximab alone. She remained well for 23 months after rituximab. In the 39 months of follow-up, there was no evidence of disease. In the light of our case, we reviewed the reported cases of primary follicular lymphoma of the cervix while discussing their treatment protocols and the cases of primary cervix lymphoma treated with rituximab.

  15. Endoscopic OCT for imaging of uterine body and cervix pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhova, Natalia M.; Kuznetzova, Irina N.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Snopova, Ludmila; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Sergeev, Alexander M.

    1998-04-01

    First results of endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in gynecology are presented. We have studied mucosa of uterus, uterine cervix and vagina in vivo. Images of healthy endometrium in different stages of menstrual cycle have been recorded. For uterine cervix not only OCT data of normal state but some kids of pathology have been analyzed. Capability of OCT to identify alterations of mucosa makes this method promising for early diagnosis of tumors and precise guiding of excisional biopsy.

  16. Postirradiation sarcoma (malignant fibrous histiocytoma) following cervix cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkston, J.A.; Sekine, I.

    1982-02-01

    A case of postirradiation sarcoma is described. The tumor, a malignant fibrous histiocytoma, occurred in the radiation field 11 years following postoperative external beam radiation therapy (7000 rad) for carcinoma of the cervix. Reports of postirradiation malignant fibrous histiocytoma are rare, and the occurrence of this neoplasm following treatment of cervix cancer has not previously been described. The literature concerning postirradiation bone and soft tissue sarcomas is briefly reviewed, with special attention to malignant fibrous histiocytomas.

  17. [Morphologic and biochemical aspects of prostaglandin-induced cervix ripening].

    PubMed

    Rath, W; Adelmann-Grill, B C; Schauer, A; Kuhn, W

    1987-01-01

    For examination by electron microscopy tissue samples were taken from the posterior lip of the cervix of 8 patients having a termination of pregnancy at 9-12th week gestation and 16 patients of comparable gestational age who had an intracervical application of either 2 ml 5% tylose or 50 micrograms sulprostone-tylose gel 8 hours before biopsy. The efficacy of cervical priming was demonstrated objectively by tonometric studies. In addition, collagenase and protease activities were determined in the cervical tissue extracts of the different treatment groups. For identification of typical collagen fragments SDS-polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis were carried out on the acetic acid soluble extracts. The local application of sulprostone gel induced a marked multifocal loosening of the collagenous framework; there was no evidence for leucocyte infiltration or necrosis caused by the prostaglandin (PG) pretreatment. In the areas of disorganized collagen fibres cervical fibroblasts seemed to be activated characterized by fine granular loosening of the cytoplasma, dilated cisternae of rough endoplasmatic reticulum, vacuolized enlarged mitochondria and an increased number of cytoplasmatic vesicles close to the cell surface. Collagenase and protease activities were found in all extracts of the different treatment groups, however, PG-application led to no significant increase in enzymatic activities. There was no evidence for the presence of typical collagen cleavage products in the SDS-electrophoresis. Contradictory to the hitherto published literature enzymatic collagen degradation does not play an essential role in PG-induced cervical ripening.

  18. Congenital pouch colon in a girl associated with bilateral atresia of cervix uteri and uterus didelphys.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Rajiv; Puri, Manju; Saxena, Rahul; Agarwala, Surendrakumar; Puri, Archana; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy

    2013-04-01

    This report describes a girl with congenital pouch colon (CPC), uterus didelphys with septate vagina, and a cloacal anomaly. The girl underwent cloacal reconstruction at the age of 15 months. Subsequently, at puberty, the child had primary amenorrhea with severe cyclic abdominal pain due to endometriosis of both the uteruses and adnexal cysts with hematometra and hematosalpinx. Laparotomy with removal of both uteri and the left fallopian tube was performed. Both uteri had atresia of the cervix uteri. This report emphasizes the need for comprehensive evaluation and a long-term management strategy for associated gynecologic anomalies in girls with CPC, especially with regard to patency of the outflow tract.

  19. Shear Wave Speed Estimation in the Human Uterine Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Lindsey C.; Feltovich, Helen; Palmeri, Mark L.; Dahl, Jeremy J.; del Rio, Alejandro Munoz; Hall, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our goals were to explore the spatial variability within the cervix and the sensitivity of shear wave speeds (SWS) to assess softness/stiffness differences in ripened (softened) versus unripened tissue. Methods We obtained SWS estimates from hysterectomy specimens (n=22), a subset of which were ripened (n = 13). Multiple measurements were made longitudinally along the cervical canal on both the anterior and posterior sides of the cervix. Statistical tests of differences in the proximal vs. distal, anterior vs. posterior, and ripened vs. unripened cervix were performed with individual two-sample t-tests and a linear mixed model. Results We discovered that SWS estimates monotonically increase from distal to proximal longitudinally along the cervix, that they also vary in the anterior compared to the posterior cervix, and that they are significantly different in ripened vs. unripened cervical tissue. Specifically, the mid position SWS estimates for the unripened group were 3.45±0.95 m/s (anterior) and 3.56±0.92 m/s (posterior), and 2.11±0.45 m/s (anterior) and 2.68±0.57 m/s (posterior) for the ripened (p<0.001). Conclusions We propose that shear wave speed estimation may be a valuable research and, ultimately, diagnostic tool for objective quantification of cervical stiffness/softness. PMID:23836486

  20. Magnetization and NMR studies in SmFeAsO0.86F0.14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoshray, Amitabha; Majumder, Mayukh; Poddar, Asok; Mazumdar, Chandan; Ghoshray, Kajal; Berardan, David

    2012-06-01

    The Physical properties along with NMR measurements in SmFeAsO0.86F0.14 have been carried out. Superconducting transition TC (onset) remains invariant even under a magnetic field of 7 T. 75As NMR signal could not be measured below 180K in both SmFeAsO and SmFeAsO0.86F0.14 although the later does not show any SDW transition. 19F hyperfine coupling constant found to be temperature independent.

  1. Comparative performance analysis of cervix ROI extraction and specular reflection removal algorithms for uterine cervix image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Long, L. Rodney; Jeronimo, Jose; Thoma, George R.

    2007-03-01

    Cervicography is a technique for visual screening of uterine cervix images for cervical cancer. One of our research goals is the automated detection in these images of acetowhite (AW) lesions, which are sometimes correlated with cervical cancer. These lesions are characterized by the whitening of regions along the squamocolumnar junction on the cervix when treated with 5% acetic acid. Image preprocessing is required prior to invoking AW detection algorithms on cervicographic images for two reasons: (1) to remove Specular Reflections (SR) caused by camera flash, and (2) to isolate the cervix region-of-interest (ROI) from image regions that are irrelevant to the analysis. These image regions may contain medical instruments, film markup, or other non-cervix anatomy or regions, such as vaginal walls. We have qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated the performance of alternative preprocessing algorithms on a test set of 120 images. For cervix ROI detection, all approaches use a common feature set, but with varying combinations of feature weights, normalization, and clustering methods. For SR detection, while one approach uses a Gaussian Mixture Model on an intensity/saturation feature set, a second approach uses Otsu thresholding on a top-hat transformed input image. Empirical results are analyzed to derive conclusions on the performance of each approach.

  2. Morphological characteristics of the cervix in domestic sows.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás, Leticia; Cuevas, Estela; Bravo, Iván; Castelán, Francisco; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita

    2012-12-01

    Artificial insemination is commonly practiced in several domestic animals, including sows. Postcervical insemination is used to increase the fertility index, given that the volume of semen is optimized. Knowledge of the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the genital tract can be used to improve our understanding of the fertilization process that occurs during artificial insemination, and possibly to improve the technique. The aim of our study was to examine the gross morphology and histological properties of the cervix of recently slaughtered multiparous sows, using different stains. The results indicate that the porcine cervix has two regions: a uterine region characterized by the presence of glandular acini, and a vaginal region with a large vascular network. Both regions showed a mixed secretory activity by epithelial cells, which produced sulfated mucins (mucous secretion), intermingled with abundant glycogen-rich cells (serous secretion). This study contributes to the understanding of the morphologic features of the porcine cervix.

  3. [Ultrasound of cervix uteri transvaginal in preterm birth].

    PubMed

    Onofriescu, M; Târnovanu, Mihaela; Scurtu, B; Luca, A; Radu, E; Iftime, Irina

    2006-01-01

    Premature birth is a social problem due to its implications in the natal mortality and morbidity. This is the reason why it is necessary to establish new methods which could identify pregnant women with high risk of premature birth. Besides the measurable biochemical factors such as fetal fibronectin and salivary estriol, I1-6 sonography is a simple method highly efficient and of reasonable financial costs among all the sonographic means of observing the cervix uteri. The transvaginal sonography is the "golden standard", permitting the most faithful assessment of the pursued parameters--the length of the cervix, the aspect of the internal os (funneling), the cervix index. The experience gathered up to now shows that all of these investigations have a predictive value which is more negative than positive, but when used together they could lead to an improved result.

  4. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of cervix--a case report.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sanhita; Chakravorty, Shilaj; Kapoor, Poonam; Chattopadhyay, Debjit

    2005-07-01

    Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of uterine cervix is a rare variant of cervical carcinoma with features of high aggressiveness. It is difficult to manage these tumors. It is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and its prognosis is generally poor. The present report describes a 65 year old woman who presented with postmenopausal bleeding and had a friable polypoidal growth hanging from the cervix. Microscopic examination of the growth showed features of small cell carcinoma. Neuroendocrine cellular characteristics were assessed by using antibodies against neuron specific enolase. The case is being reported to create awareness of this rare entity

  5. Abnormalities of uterine cervix in women with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Jyoti; Bratcher, Jason; Korelitz, Burton; Vakher, Katherine; Mannor, Shlomo; Shevchuk, Maria; Panagopoulos, Gworgia; Ofer, Adam; Tamas, Ecaterina; Kotsali, Panayota; Vele, Oana

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of abnormalities of the uterine cervix in women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) when compared to healthy controls. METHODS: One hundred and sixteen patients with IBD [64 with Crohn’s disease (CD) and 52 with ulcerative colitis (UC)] were matched to 116 healthy controls by age (+/- 2 years) at the time of most recent papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Data collected consisted of age, race, marital status, number of pregnancies, abortions/miscarriages, duration and severity of IBD, Pap smear results within five years of enrollment, and treatment with immunosuppressive drugs. Pap smear results were categorized as normal or abnormal including atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL), and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL). RESULTS: The median age at the time of Pap smear was 46 (range: 17-74) years for the IBD group and matched controls (range: 19-72 years). There were more Caucasian subjects than other ethnicities in the IBD patient group (P = 0.025), as well as fewer abortions (P = 0.008), but there was no significant difference regarding marital status. Eighteen percent of IBD patients had abnormal Pap smears compared to 5% of controls (P = 0.004). Subgroup analysis of the IBD patients revealed no significant differences between CD and UC patients in age, ethnicity, marital status, number of abortions, disease severity, family history of IBD, or disease duration. No significant difference was observed in the number of abnormal Pap smears or the use of immunosuppressive medications between CD and UC patients (P = 0.793). No definitive observation could be made regarding HPV status, as this was not routinely investigated during the timeframe of our study. CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of IBD in women is related to an increased risk of abnormal Pap smear, while type of IBD and exposure to immunosuppressive medications are not. This has significant implications

  6. The mechanical role of the cervix in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kristin M; Feltovich, Helen; Mazza, Edoardo; Vink, Joy; Bajka, Michael; Wapner, Ronald J; Hall, Timothy J; House, Michael

    2015-06-25

    Appropriate mechanical function of the uterine cervix is critical for maintaining a pregnancy to term so that the fetus can develop fully. At the end of pregnancy, however, the cervix must allow delivery, which requires it to markedly soften, shorten and dilate. There are multiple pathways to spontaneous preterm birth, the leading global cause of death in children less than 5 years old, but all culminate in premature cervical change, because that is the last step in the final common pathway to delivery. The mechanisms underlying premature cervical change in pregnancy are poorly understood, and therefore current clinical protocols to assess preterm birth risk are limited to surrogate markers of mechanical function, such as sonographically measured cervical length. This is what motivates us to study the cervix, for which we propose investigating clinical cervical function in parallel with a quantitative engineering evaluation of its structural function. We aspire to develop a common translational language, as well as generate a rigorous integrated clinical-engineering framework for assessing cervical mechanical function at the cellular to organ level. In this review, we embark on that challenge by describing the current landscape of clinical, biochemical, and engineering concepts associated with the mechanical function of the cervix during pregnancy. Our goal is to use this common platform to inspire novel approaches to delineate normal and abnormal cervical function in pregnancy.

  7. The mechanical role of the cervix in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kristin M.; Feltovich, Helen; Mazza, Edoardo; Vink, Joy; Bajka, Michael; Wapner, Ronald J.; Hall, Timothy J.; House, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate mechanical function of the uterine cervix is critical for maintaining a pregnancy to term so that the fetus can develop fully. At the end of pregnancy, however, the cervix must allow delivery, which requires it to markedly soften, shorten and dilate. There are multiple pathways to spontaneous preterm birth, the leading global cause of death in children less than 5 years old, but all culminate in premature cervical change, because that is the last step in the final common pathway to delivery. The mechanisms underlying premature cervical change in pregnancy are poorly understood, and therefore current clinical protocols to assess preterm birth risk are limited to surrogate markers of mechanical function, such as sonographically measured cervical length. This is what motivates us to study the cervix, for which we propose investigating clinical cervical function in parallel with a quantitative engineering evaluation of its structural function. We aspire to develop a common translational language, as well as generate a rigorous integrated clinical-engineering framework for assessing cervical mechanical function at the cellular to organ level. In this review, we embark on that challenge by describing the current landscape of clinical, biochemical, and engineering concepts associated with the mechanical function of the cervix during pregnancy. Our goal is to use this common platform to inspire novel approaches to delineation of normal and abnormal cervical function in pregnancy. PMID:25841293

  8. Treatment of stage III carcinoma of the uterine cervix with telecobalt irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Souhami, L.; Melo, J.A.; Pareja, G.

    1987-11-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of 148 patients with histologically proven carcinoma of the cervix, stage III, treated with irradiation. All patients received external irradiation with cobalt 60 followed by intracavitary radium application. The median age was 55 years. Squamous cell carcinoma was found in 96.5% of the cases. The 8-year actuarial survival rate was 41%. Bilateral parametrial invasion proved to be a strong prognostic factor. Patients with unilateral disease had a survival rate of 43% whereas in those with bilateral involvement it was only 15% (P less than 0.005). The total pelvic failure rate was 29.5%. The overall incidence of distant metastasis was 11%. The complication rate (minor and major complications) was high, with vaginal stenosis (22.5%), proctitis (21.5%), cystitis (13.5%), and fistulae (4%) occurring in 33, 32, 20, and 6 patients, respectively. New treatment modalities are urgently needed for advanced carcinoma of the cervix. Bilateral parametrial involvement is an unfavorable prognostic factor and this should be kept in mind when designing new protocols.

  9. Systematic gene microarray analysis of the lncRNA expression profiles in human uterine cervix carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Fu, Ziyi; Ji, Chenbo; Gu, Pingqing; Xu, Pengfei; Yu, Ningzhu; Kan, Yansheng; Wu, Xiaowei; Shen, Rong; Shen, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The human uterine cervix carcinoma is one of the most well-known malignancy reproductive system cancers, which threatens women health globally. However, the mechanisms of the oncogenesis and development process of cervix carcinoma are not yet fully understood. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proved to play key roles in various biological processes, especially development of cancer. The function and mechanism of lncRNAs on cervix carcinoma is still rarely reported. We selected 3 cervix cancer and normal cervix tissues separately, then performed lncRNA microarray to detect the differentially expressed lncRNAs. Subsequently, we explored the potential function of these dysregulated lncRNAs through online bioinformatics databases. Finally, quantity real-time PCR was carried out to confirm the expression levels of these dysregulated lncRNAs in cervix cancer and normal tissues. We uncovered the profiles of differentially expressed lncRNAs between normal and cervix carcinoma tissues by using the microarray techniques, and found 1622 upregulated and 3026 downregulated lncRNAs (fold-change>2.0) in cervix carcinoma compared to the normal cervical tissue. Furthermore, we found HOXA11-AS might participate in cervix carcinogenesis by regulating HOXA11, which is involved in regulating biological processes of cervix cancer. This study afforded expression profiles of lncRNAs between cervix carcinoma tissue and normal cervical tissue, which could provide database for further research about the function and mechanism of key-lncRNAs in cervix carcinoma, and might be helpful to explore potential diagnosis factors and therapeutic targets for cervix carcinoma.

  10. Cloprostenol treatment of feline open-cervix pyometra.

    PubMed

    García Mitacek, María C; Stornelli, María C; Tittarelli, Claudia M; Nuñez Favre, Romina; de la Sota, Rodolfo L; Stornelli, María A

    2014-02-01

    Treatment with cloprostenol, a prostaglandin synthetic analogue, was evaluated in five queens with open-cervix pyometra. Cloprostenol was administered (5 μg/kg body weight SC) on 3 consecutive days and amoxicillin (20 mg/kg body weight IM) on 7 consecutive days. Transient post-injection reactions caused by cloprostenol administration included diarrhea, vomiting and vocalizations. Reactions began as quickly as 10 mins after cloprostenol administration and lasted as long as 30 mins. All queens improved clinically after cloprostenol treatment and remained healthy until the end of the study, 1 year after treatment. All queens resumed normal estrous cycles without further treatment and two (40%) delivered a normal litter. In conclusion, use of cloprostenol is an acceptable treatment for open-cervix pyometra in queens.

  11. Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Cervix: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    V, Pavithra; Shalini, C.N. Sai; Priya, Shanmuga; Rani, Usha; Rajendiran, S; Joseph, Leena Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare and a very aggressive tumour. Once being considered to be a rare type of squamous cell carcinoma, evidence has proven that most of the tumours express one or more markers of neuroendocrine differentiation. The behaviour of this rare malignancy is different from that of squamous cell carcinomas, with a high propensity for nodal and distant metastases. Hence, there is a need to highlight this histopathological entity. PMID:24701511

  12. Applicator modeling for electromagnetic thermotherapy of cervix cancer.

    PubMed

    Rezaeealam, Behrooz

    2015-03-01

    This report proposes an induction heating coil design that can be used for producing strong magnetic fields around ferromagnetic implants located in the cervix of uterus. The effect of coil design on the uniformity and extent of heat generation ability is inspected. Also, a numerical model of the applicator is developed that includes the ferromagnetic implants, and is coupled to the bioheat transfer model of the body tissue. Then, the ability of the proposed applicator for electromagnetic thermotherapy is investigated.

  13. Sacral plexus injury after radiotherapy for carcinoma of cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Stryker, J.A.; Sommerville, K.; Perez, R.; Velkley, D.E. )

    1990-10-01

    A 42-year-old woman developed lower extremity weakness and sensory loss 1 year after external and intracavitary radiotherapy for Stage IB carcinoma of cervix. She has been followed for 5 years posttreatment, and the neurologic abnormalities have persisted, but no evidence of recurrent carcinoma has been found. We believe this to be a rare case of sacral plexus radiculopathy developing as a late complication after radiotherapy. Suggestions are made for improving the radiotherapy technique to prevent this complication in future cases.

  14. A comparison of four methods of ripening the unfavourable cervix.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P D

    1978-12-01

    A comparison was made between four methods of ripening the unfavourable cervix (extra-amniotic prostaglandin E2 gel, oral prostaglandin E2, intravaginal prostaglandin E2 and intravenous oxytocin) in a clinical trial involving 60 primigravidae. In all groups there was an improvement in cervical status. This was significantly greater in those patients who received extra-amniotic prostaglandin gel and they also showed significant decreases in the mean induction-delivery interval and in the incidence of Caesarean section.

  15. Histopathogenesis of carcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix*

    PubMed Central

    Wahi, P. N.; Kehar, Usha; Mali, S.; Misra, G. D.

    1962-01-01

    Cancer of the cervix is amenable to treatment provided it is diagnosed at the preinvasive stage, and it is therefore imperative to be able to identify cases of symptomless cervical cancer, which invariably presents no visible alteration in the appearance of the mucous membrane. Fortunately, this is possible by study of vaginal smears for exfoliated cells. In view of the ease with which carcinoma of the uterine cervix can be induced in mice and of its similarity to analogous lesions in women, it was thought that study of early cytological and morphological changes in cervical carcinoma of the mouse—especially at the in situ stage—might prove valuable for biological and therapeutic studies of human cervical carcinoma. This paper reports on study of the progressive epithelial changes in the mouse cervix by means of exfoliated cells in vaginal smears and histological examination of the cervical epithelium after intravaginal painting with 3,4-benzpyrene. The authors consider that basal cell hyperplasia and the early grades of dysplasia are reversible if the carcinogenic agent is withdrawn, but that the lesion is likely to be invasive and progressive once the presence of large numbers of squamoid cells indicates that the dysplastic changes involve the superficial layers. ImagesFIG. 1-5FIG. 6-10FIG. 11-15FIG. 16-20FIG. 21-25 PMID:14004393

  16. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix presenting with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Young; Yun, Hye Jung; Lee, Yong Seok; Lee, Hae Nam; Kim, Chan Joo

    2013-11-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is rare. It is estimated that 10% of patients with small-cell lung cancer have syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and hyponatremia has been reported to be significantly associated with a poor prognosis. A proportion of small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix exhibit neuroendocrine characteristics as revealed by immunohistochemistry, However, cases presenting typical symptoms due to SIADH are extremely rare. This report of the SIADH of the uterine cervix is a rare case in the small cell carcinoma of the cervix presenting with tumor-associated paraneoplastic syndrome.

  17. Superconducting properties in heavily overdoped Ba(Fe0.86Co0.14)2As2 single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Jeehoon; Haberkorn, N.; Gofryk, K.; ...

    2014-10-05

    Here, we report the intrinsic superconducting parameters in a heavily overdoped Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 (x=0.14) single crystal and their influence in the resulting vortex dynamics. We also find a bulk superconducting critical temperature of 9.8 K, magnetic penetration depth λab (0)=660 ± 50 nm, coherence length ζab (0)=6.4 ± 0.2 nm, and the upper critical field anisotropy γT→ Tc approximate to 3.7. The vortex phase diagram, in comparison with the optimally doped compound, presents a narrow collective creep regime. Furthermore, the intrinsic pinning energy plays an important role in the resulting vortex dynamics as compared with similar pinning landscape and comparable intrinsicmore » thermal fluctuations.« less

  18. Pap smear screening for small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jong; Choi, Young Mi; Chung, Chan Kyung; Lee, San Hui; Yim, Ga Won; Kim, Sang Wun; Nam, Eun Ji

    2011-01-01

    Objective Small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (SMCC) is extremely rare, and an aggressive disease that proliferates rapidly. It was often reported that the diagnostic accuracy of cytologic smears in diagnosing SMCC was low. This is a report of the Severance Hospital experience with the patients suffering from SMCC. Methods Twenty-seven patients with small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix were diagnosed and treated at the Severance Hospital from November 1991 to January 2010. The data were analyzed retrospectively, based on the available charts and pathology reports. Various fields, such as chief complaints and symptoms present at first clinic visit, age, International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO) clinical stage, treatment modality, the 5-year overall survival rate, and recurrence rate were investigated. Results Among the 27 patients diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, 18 of them (66.7%) presented with symptoms, including vaginal bleeding, at the first clinic visit, and the remaining 9 patients (33.3%) showed abnormal Pap smear screening in the process of their routine health check-up. The median age of the patients was 54 years (range, 24 to 77 years). FIGO stage IIB was the most common stage (11 of 27 patients). The 5-year overall survival rate of 21 patients, who could be followed up, was 57.2%. Six patients showed recurrence after remission, and the mean disease free interval of them was 9.2 months (range, 6 to 11 months). Abnormal Pap smear screening results of 9 patients was investigated, and the diagnostic accuracy of the cytologic findings was 22.2%. Conclusion Our study was consistent with the concept that Pap smear screening might not be helpful in early diagnosis of SMCC considering its low diagnostic accuracy. Further large-scale multicenter prospective studies are definitely needed in order to produce abundant information about optimal therapy and diagnosis. PMID:21607094

  19. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: A Report of 2 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kharmoum, Jinane; Ech-Charif, Soumaya; El Khannoussi, Basma

    2017-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is malignant tumor that exceptionally occurs in the uterine cervix. It is mostly seen in postmenopausal women and has an aggressive clinical course. We report two cases of an adenoid cystic carcinoma associated with a high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix and discuss briefly its clinical and pathological characteristics. PMID:28348909

  20. Reports: plasma and dietary phytoestrogens and risk of premalignant lesions of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; McDuffie, Katharine; Franke, Adrian A; Killeen, Jeffrey; Goodman, Marc T

    2004-01-01

    A number of epidemiological studies have observed an inverse association between phytoestrogens and risk of certain hormonally dependent cancers. We undertook an exploratory analysis of the relationship between specific phytoestrogens and premalignant cervical lesions. A case-control study of 122 women with histologically confirmed cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) of the cervix and 183 cytologically normal controls was conducted from 1992 to 1996 in Honolulu, Hawaii. A cervical cell sample was obtained for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Dietary information was collected using a structured survey, and a fasting blood sample was taken for measurement of five isoflavonoids (genistein, glycitein, daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, and equol), two flavonoids (hesperetin and naringenin), and two lignans (enterodiol and enterolactone). Plasma levels of equol and enterodiol were positively associated with cervical SIL risk: odds ratio, OR = 6.5; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.4-29.2; P for trend = 0.02 and OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.1-6.3; P for trend = 0.01, respectively, for the highest relative to the lowest quartile level after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, HPV infection, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and lifetime number of sexual partners. A nonsignificant positive association with cervical SIL risk was observed for plasma enterolactone. Consistent with the relationships observed for the plasma lignans, dietary sources of lignans, including garlic and taro leaves/ong choy/marunggay, were positively associated with cervical SIL risk. A positive association was also suggested for other lignan sources such as seaweed, onions, grapefruit, and seeds. This is the first study to observe a positive association between specific phytoestrogens and premalignancies of the cervix. The results of this investigation should be considered preliminary and need to be verified in larger, prospective studies.

  1. Priming effect of misoprostol on estrogen pretreated cervix in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Rusen; Kafkasli, Ayse; Burak, Feza; Germen, Aysegul Tezcan

    2005-07-01

    Misoprostol, which is a prostaglandin E1 analogue, is effectively used in cervical priming in women both for labor induction and for gynecological procedures. Although its efficacy is well documented in reproductive age women, during postmenopausal period this efficacy is limited probably due to estrogen deficit. Our objective is to evaluate if estrogen deficit in postmenopausal women is important for the effect of misoprostol on cervical ripening before diagnostic procedures. In this study, 45 patients were randomly allocated to estrogen or placebo group. The study group received local estrogen cream and other group received chlindamycine phosphate cream as placebo. The patients were given oral misoprostol 24 and 12 hours before the procedure for uterine cavity evaluation. Cervix was dilated by using Heagar dilator up to 6 mm. Data were analyzed by Student t-test, Mann-Whitney's U-test, chi-square test and paired samples t-test where appropriate. Basal cervical widths for the estrogen and placebo groups were 4.4 +/- 0.7 and 3.7 +/- 0.7 mm, respectively (p < 0.01). Mean time required for dilatation of cervix was 44.4 +/- 16.2 seconds for the estrogen group and 61.4 +/- 18.3 seconds for the placebo group (p < 0.01). As a conclusion, misoprostol treatment alone is not effective to get cervical priming in postmenopausal women, and as shown in our study, pretreatment with local estrogen overcome the failure. To get a beneficial effect of misoprostol on cervical ripening, estrogenic activity is necessary and when pretreated with local estrogen, misoprostol ameliorates cervical priming in postmenopausal women.

  2. Radical hysterectomy versus radiation therapy for stage IB squamous cell cancer of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, M.P.; Morley, G.W. )

    1991-07-15

    Three hundred forty-five patients with Stage IB squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were treated at the University of Michigan Medical Center from 1970 to 1985. The overall cumulative 5-year survival rate was 89% and the mean age was 44.6 years. In 213 patients undergoing radical hysterectomy the cumulative 5-year survival rate was 92%; 14 patients were explored for radical hysterectomy that was not performed due to high risk features and their survival rate was 50%. Ninety-seven patients underwent radiation therapy as initial treatment and had a 5-year survival rate of 86%. There was no significant difference when radiation therapy was compared with radical hysterectomy (P = 0.098). The survival rates for lesions 3 cm or smaller were 94% for radical hysterectomy and 88% for radiation therapy. When the lesion was larger than 3 cm, the survival rates were 82% with radical surgery and 73% with radiation therapy. Metastatic disease to lymph nodes was present in 26 of the 213 patients undergoing radical hysterectomy. When 1 to 3 nodes were involved 16 of 19 patients survived and when 4 to 10 nodes were involved 3 of 7 patients survived. The addition of radiation therapy did not influence survival. Complications were similar in both treatment groups. Fistulas occurred in 4 of 213 patients undergoing radical hysterectomy and 1 of 111 undergoing radiation. Second surgery for a complication was required in 6 of 213 patients undergoing radical hysterectomy and 7 of 111 undergoing radiation. Survival and complication rates in early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix are equal with either radical surgery or radiation therapy.

  3. Extra-amniotic prostaglandin E2 and the unfavourable cervix.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J; Sims, C; Craft, I

    1976-10-02

    A small dose of prostaglandin E2 suspended in a viscous medium was instilled as a single application into the extra-amniotic space of patients with unfavourable induction features the day before planned induction in an attempt to improve the condition of the cervix. Two groups of 15 patients were studied, one receiving prostaglandin E2 250 mug suspended in methyl ethyl cellulose ('Tylose') 6% solution, and the other tylose alone. Cervical status did not change in those receiving tylose alone, whereas a significant improvement occurred in 14 out of 15 patients receiving the prostaglandin. Labour began before formal induction in 1 patient receiving tylose and in 8 receiving prostaglandin.

  4. [Radiotherapy for cervix carcinomas: clinical target volume delineation].

    PubMed

    Gnep, K; Mazeron, R

    2013-10-01

    Concurrent chemoradiation followed by brachytherapy is currently the standard treatment for locally advanced cervix carcinomas. Modern radiation techniques require planning based on 3D images, and therefore an accurate delineation of target volumes. The clinical target volume (CTV) used for the different phases of treatment are now well defined, but are not always easy to delineate on a CT scan which is currently the standard examination for simulation in radiotherapy. MRI and PET-CT are routinely performed at diagnosis, and can be used to improve the accuracy of the delineation. The objective of this review is to describe the definitions and recommendations of CTV in the treatment of cervical cancer.

  5. Unveiling the sodium intercalation properties in Na1.86□0.14Fe3(PO4)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essehli, R.; Ben Yahia, H.; Maher, K.; Sougrati, M. T.; Abouimrane, A.; Park, J.-B.; Sun, Y.-K.; Al-Maadeed, M. A.; Belharouak, I.

    2016-08-01

    The new compound Na1.86□0.14Fe3(PO4)3 was successfully synthesized via hydrothermal synthesis and its crystal structure was determined using powder X-ray diffraction data. Na1.86Fe3(PO4)3 was also characterized by operando XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic cycling. Na1.86Fe3(PO4)3 crystallizes with the alluaudite-type structure with the eight coordinated Na1 and Na2 sodium atoms located within the channels. The combination of the Rietveld- and Mössbauer-analyses confirms that the sodium vacancies in the Na1 site are linked to a partial oxidation of Fe2+ during synthesis. The electrochemical tests indicated that Na1.86Fe3(PO4)3 is a 3 V sodium intercalating cathode. At the current densities of 5, 10, and 20 mA g-1, the material delivers the specific capacities of 109, 97, and 80 mA h g-1, respectively. After 100 charge and discharge cycles, Na1.86Fe3(PO4)3 exhibited good sodium removal and uptake behavior although no optimizations of particle size, morphology, and carbon coating were performed.

  6. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Hyun Sil; Lee, Sun Kyung; Yoon, Gun; Kim, Hwi Gon; Lee, Dong Hyung; Na, Yong Jin; Choi, Ook Hwan; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) of the uterine cervix is exceedingly uncommon. We herein report a rare case of cervical LELC. A 45-year-old woman was admitted to gynecology department with vaginal bleeding for one month. Liquid-based cytology revealed atypical endometrial cells, not otherwise specified on her cervix. On a hysteroscopy, an endocervical mass was identified and the pathologic result was consistent with poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-D-glucose integrated with computed tomography revealed a 3.1-cm endocervical mass without distant metastasis or enlarged lymph nodes. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage was IB1. A radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection were performed. The pathologic diagnosis was a poorly differentiated carcinoma, showing features of LELC. She has been followed for 8 months without adjuvant treatment since the surgery, during which time there has been no evidence of tumor recurrence or metastasis. PMID:28217683

  7. Enzymatic collagen degradation in the pregnant guinea pig cervix during physiological maturation of the cervix and after local application of prostaglandins.

    PubMed

    Rath, W; Adelmann-Grill, B C; Osmers, R; Kuhn, W

    1989-09-01

    The role of enzymatic collagen degradation in prostaglandin-induced and physiological cervical ripening was studied in guinea pigs. The cervices were removed from (a) 8 non-pregnant guinea pigs, (b) 8 animals at day 45 of pregnancy, (c) 14 pregnant animals of comparable gestational age which had either an intracervical application of 0.2 ml 5% tylose or 10 micrograms sulprostone gel, and (d) 8 guinea pigs at day 63 to 65 of pregnancy. Collagenase activity was assayed in a highly specific and sensitive system using native collagen type I as substrate. Protease activity was measured by the method of Green and Shaw. Collagen fragments were identified by SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of acetic-soluble fractions. Collagenase and protease activities were found in all extracts from the different groups. However, there were no differences in enzymatic activities between the non-pregnant, early-pregnant and late-pregnant cervical specimens. Prostaglandin pre-treatment of the cervix led to no significant increase in either collagenase or protease activity as compared to the control groups. The absence of typical collagen degradation products in the SDS-PAGE suggested that no significant collagen breakdown had taken place. In contrast to previously published literature, we conclude that enzymatic collagen degradation is unlikely to be a key factor in prostaglandin-induced and physiological cervical ripening.

  8. Implementation of a modified birdcage resonator for 19F/1H MRI at low fields (0.14 T).

    PubMed

    Samaratunga, R C; Pratt, R G; Zhu, Y; Massoth, R J; Thomas, S R

    1994-05-01

    Fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance of perfluorinated blood substitute materials provides a method for determination of oxygen tension (pO2) in vivo. Use of a double resonant 19F/1H radio frequency coil allows convenient correlation between the high resolution anatomic presentation of proton images and the fluorine distribution. However, quantitative 19F measurements require an RF coil with good H1 field homogeneity over the image volume and a high quality factor (Q) to minimize errors caused by the low signal-to-noise levels available in in vivo imaging and image nonuniformities introduced by the large chemical shift of fluorocarbons. The birdcage coil design provides a high Q structure with optimum H1 field uniformity and fill factor. However, at low resonance frequencies, the inherently low inductance of the birdcage geometry requires the use of a large number of chip capacitors giving rise to unwieldy coil fabrication and increased cost. This communication describes a modification to the birdcage design that reduces the chip capacitor requirement by at least a factor of 4 for a given dimension, yet retains the essential characteristics of the birdcage design. The modified structure was tuned for double resonance at 5.7/6.0 MHz for 19F/1H magnetic resonance imaging at 0.14 T. For a coil with a length to diameter ratio of 1.67, an H1 uniformity of +/- 2% for the 19F resonance was obtained over a cylindrical region with radius approximately 0.6r (r = radius of coil) and length approximately 1.8r within the coil.

  9. US of the Nongravid Cervix with Multimodality Imaging Correlation: Normal Appearance, Pathologic Conditions, and Diagnostic Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Wildenberg, Joseph C; Yam, Benjamin L; Langer, Jill E; Jones, Lisa P

    2016-01-01

    The adult uterine cervix may exhibit a wide variety of pathologic conditions that include benign entities (eg, cervicitis, hyperplasia, nabothian cysts, cervical polyps, leiomyomas, endometriosis, and congenital abnormalities) as well as malignant lesions, particularly cervical carcinoma. In addition, lesions that arise in the uterine body may secondarily involve the cervix, such as endometrial carcinoma and prolapsed intracavitary masses. Many of these conditions can be identified and characterized at ultrasonography (US), which is considered the first-line imaging examination for the female pelvis. However, examination of the cervix is often cursory during pelvic US, such that cervical disease may be overlooked or misdiagnosed. Transabdominal US of the cervix may not afford sufficient spatial resolution to depict cervical disease in many patients; therefore, endovaginal US is considered the optimal technique. Use of supplemental imaging techniques, particularly the application of transducer pressure on the cervix, may be helpful. This review describes the normal appearance of the cervix at US, the appearance of cervical lesions and conditions that mimic abnormalities at US, and optimal US techniques for evaluation of the cervix. This information will help radiologists detect and diagnose cervical abnormalities more confidently at pelvic US. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  10. Cervix Regression and Motion During the Course of External Beam Chemoradiation for Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beadle, Beth M.; Jhingran, Anuja; Salehpour, Mohammad; Sam, Marianne; Iyer, Revathy B.; Eifel, Patricia J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the magnitude of cervix regression and motion during external beam chemoradiation for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Sixteen patients with cervical cancer underwent computed tomography scanning before, weekly during, and after conventional chemoradiation. Cervix volumes were calculated to determine the extent of cervix regression. Changes in the center of mass and perimeter of the cervix between scans were used to determine the magnitude of cervix motion. Maximum cervix position changes were calculated for each patient, and mean maximum changes were calculated for the group. Results: Mean cervical volumes before and after 45 Gy of external beam irradiation were 97.0 and 31.9 cc, respectively; mean volume reduction was 62.3%. Mean maximum changes in the center of mass of the cervix were 2.1, 1.6, and 0.82 cm in the superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and right-left lateral dimensions, respectively. Mean maximum changes in the perimeter of the cervix were 2.3 and 1.3 cm in the superior and inferior, 1.7 and 1.8 cm in the anterior and posterior, and 0.76 and 0.94 cm in the right and left lateral directions, respectively. Conclusions: Cervix regression and internal organ motion contribute to marked interfraction variations in the intrapelvic position of the cervical target in patients receiving chemoradiation for cervical cancer. Failure to take these variations into account during the application of highly conformal external beam radiation techniques poses a theoretical risk of underdosing the target or overdosing adjacent critical structures.

  11. The New (g-2) Experiment: A proposal to measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment to +-0.14 ppm precision

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, R.M.; Lynch, K.R.; Miller, J.P.; Roberts, B.L.; Morse, W.M.; Semertzides, Y.K.; Druzhinin, V.P.; Khazin, B.I.; Koop, I.A.; Logashenko, I.; Redin, S.I.; /Boston U. /Brookhaven /Novosibirsk, IYF /Cornell U., CIHEP /Fermilab /Frascati /Illinois U., Urbana /James Madison U. /Groningen, KVI /KEK, Tsukuba /Kentucky U.

    2009-02-01

    We propose to measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment, a{sub {mu}}, to 0.14 ppm-a fourfold improvement over the 0.54 ppm precision obtained in the BNL experiment E821. The muon anomaly is a fundamental quantity and its precise determination will have lasting value. The current measurement was statistics limited, suggesting that greater precision can be obtained in a higher-rate, next-generation experiment. We outline a plan to use the unique FNAL complex of proton accelerators and rings to produce high-intensity bunches of muons, which will be directed into the relocated BNL muon storage ring. The physics goal of our experiment is a precision on the muon anomaly of 16 x 10{sup -11}, which will require 21 times the statistics of the BNL measurement, as well a factor of 3 reduction in the overall systematic error. Our goal is well matched to anticipated advances in the worldwide effort to determine the standard model (SM) value of the anomaly. The present comparison, {Delta}a{sub {mu}} (Expt: -SM) = (295 {+-} 81) x 10{sup -11}, is already suggestive of possible new physics contributions to the muon anomaly. Assuming that the current theory error of 51 x 10{sup -11} is reduced to 30 x 10{sup -11} on the time scale of the completion of our experiment, a future {Delta}a{sub {mu}} comparison would have a combined uncertainty of {approx} 34 x 10{sup -11}, which will be a sensitive and complementary benchmark for proposed standard model extensions. The experimental data will also be used to improve the muon EDM limit by up to a factor of 100 and make a higher-precision test of Lorentz and CPT violation. We describe in this Proposal why the FNAL complex provides a uniquely ideal facility for a next-generation (g-2) experiment. The experiment is compatible with the fixed-target neutrino program; indeed, it requires only the unused Booster batch cycles and can acquire the desired statistics in less than two years of running. The proton beam preparations are largely aligned

  12. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  13. Molluscum Contagiosum of Cervix – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bagel, Ankita; Munisamaiah, Munikrishna; Raghavendra Prasad, Bachu Narayanaswamy

    2017-01-01

    Molluscum Contagiosum (MC) is a common viral infection of skin caused by a double stranded DNA Pox virus affecting both adults and children. MC is primarily an infection of school-going children (one to five years), occasionally it affects adults and immunocompromised individuals. Transmission of virus occurs by direct contact with infected persons or contaminated objects. Most common sites are skin of face, trunk and extremities in children, genitals in adults and rarely palms, soles and mucous membranes. The occurrence of MC in genitals is lowest (3%). We present a case report of Molluscum Contagiosum of cervix which is a rare site; only one case has been reported in medical literature till date. PMID:28273975

  14. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the cervix: a rare diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Irfan; Chufal, Kundan Singh; Bhargava, Amit; Bashir, Irfan

    2017-01-04

    A 48-year-old woman presented with symptoms of lower abdominal pain and vaginal discharge for 6 months. Clinical examination and pelvic ultrasound scan suggested a diagnosis of infected Gartner's cyst, for which she underwent vaginal cystectomy. However, histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed a diagnosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the cervix. Further investigations revealed the stage to be FIGO IIIB, which was inoperable. She received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide, cisplatin and etoposide, every 21 days), but the tumour did not respond to treatment and she was started on radiotherapy with definitive intent (55.8 Gray in 31 fractions over 6.2 weeks). A PET-CT performed 2 months after completion of radiotherapy showed complete response, and she is now receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.

  15. Isolated hydatid cyst of uterine cervix: A case report.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Zahide; Karcaaltincaba, Deniz; Ergün, Yusuf; Doğan, Ayşe Çitil; Çaydere, Muzaffer; Küçük, Hamit

    2014-04-01

    Hydatid disease is an endemic infection which can affect any organ, mainly the liver and lungs. Peritoneal echinococcosis is usually known to occur secondary to hepatic hydatid cyst rupture into the peritoneal cavity. An isolated cyst in the pelvic cavity is considered as primary only when there are no other hydatid cysts. Herein, we report an isolated pelvic-cervical hydatid cyst which presented without any involvement of the other abdominal organs or lungs. Our patient, a 27-year-old woman with the primary complaints of dyspareunia and chronic pelvic pain, had thin-walled large cystic mass originating from the cervix, diagnosed by ultrasonography. She underwent surgery with the most likely initial diagnosis of exophytic fibroid with cystic degeneration. Gynecologists should be aware of the possibility of isolated primary hydatid cyst of the pelvic cavity and should consider this condition in the differential diagnosis of cystic pelvic masses, especially in areas where the disease is endemic.

  16. Density of Stromal Cells and Macrophages Associated With Collagen Remodeling in the Human Cervix in Preterm and Term Birth.

    PubMed

    Dubicke, Aurelija; Ekman-Ordeberg, Gunvor; Mazurek, Patricia; Miller, Lindsay; Yellon, Steven M

    2016-05-01

    Remodeling of the cervix occurs in advance of labor both at term and at preterm birth. Morphological characteristics associated with remodeling in rodents were assessed in cervix biopsies from women at term (39 weeks' gestation) and preterm (<33 weeks' gestation). Collagen I and III messenger RNA and hydroxyproline concentrations declined in cervix biopsies from women in labor at term and preterm compared to that in the cervix from nonlaboring women. Extracellular collagen was more degraded in sections of cervix from women at term, based on optical density of picrosirius red stain, versus that in biopsies from nonpregnant women. However, collagen structure was unchanged in the cervix from women at preterm labor versus the nonpregnant group. As an indication of inflammation, cell nuclei density was decreased in cervix biopsies from pregnant women irrespective of labor compared to the nonpregnant group. Moreover, CD68-stained macrophages increased to an equivalent extent in cervix subepithelium and stroma from groups in labor, both at term and preterm, as well as in women not in labor at term. Evidence for a similar inflammatory process in the remodeled cervix of women at term and preterm birth parallels results in rodent models. Thus, a conserved final common mechanism involving macrophages and inflammation may characterize the transition to a ripe cervix before birth at term and in advance of premature birth.

  17. Collagen and glycosaminoglycan profiles in the canine cervix during different stages of the estrous cycle and in open- and closed-cervix pyometra.

    PubMed

    Linharattanaruksa, Pichanun; Srisuwatanasagul, Sayamon; Ponglowhapan, Suppawiwat; Khalid, Muhammad; Chatdarong, Kaywalee

    2014-03-01

    The extracellular matrix of the cervix that comprises collagen, elastin, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is thought to have an essential role in cervical relaxation. This study investigated the proportion of collagen and smooth muscle as well as the GAGs in cervices obtained from healthy bitches at different stages of the estrous cycle and bitches with open- and closed-cervix pyometra. Cervices were collected after ovariohysterectomy. The proportion of collagen to smooth muscle was determined using Masson's trichrome staining. Alcian blue staining was used to evaluate the relative distribution of cervical GAGs. The proportion of cervical collagen relative to smooth muscle was higher at estrus compared to anestrus (P≤0.05). It was also higher (P≤0.05) in bitches with open- compared to those with closed-cervix pyometra. Overall, hyaluronan (HA) was the predominant GAG in the canine cervix. In the luminal epithelium, the staining intensity for HA was stronger in estrus than in anestrus (P≤0.05), but not in diestrus (P>0.05). On the contrary, the intensity for the combined keratan sulfate (KS) and heparan sulfate (HS) was stronger in anestrus than in estrus and diestrus (P≤0.05). In bitches with pyometra, the staining intensity of the stroma for KS and HS was weaker in open- compared to closed-cervix pyometra (P≤0.05). Collectively, the different profiles of collagen and GAG suggest that the metabolism of both collagen and GAGs in the canine cervix is associated with hormonal statuses during the estrous cycle and cervical patency of bitches with pathological uterine conditions, such as pyometra.

  18. Collagen and Glycosaminoglycan Profiles in the Canine Cervix during Different Stages of the Estrous Cycle and in Open- and Closed-Cervix Pyometra

    PubMed Central

    LINHARATTANARUKSA, Pichanun; SRISUWATANASAGUL, Sayamon; PONGLOWHAPAN, Suppawiwat; KHALID, Muhammad; CHATDARONG, Kaywalee

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The extracellular matrix of the cervix that comprises collagen, elastin, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is thought to have an essential role in cervical relaxation. This study investigated the proportion of collagen and smooth muscle as well as the GAGs in cervices obtained from healthy bitches at different stages of the estrous cycle and bitches with open- and closed-cervix pyometra. Cervices were collected after ovariohysterectomy. The proportion of collagen to smooth muscle was determined using Masson’s trichrome staining. Alcian blue staining was used to evaluate the relative distribution of cervical GAGs. The proportion of cervical collagen relative to smooth muscle was higher at estrus compared to anestrus (P≤0.05). It was also higher (P≤0.05) in bitches with open- compared to those with closed-cervix pyometra. Overall, hyaluronan (HA) was the predominant GAG in the canine cervix. In the luminal epithelium, the staining intensity for HA was stronger in estrus than in anestrus (P≤0.05), but not in diestrus (P>0.05). On the contrary, the intensity for the combined keratan sulfate (KS) and heparan sulfate (HS) was stronger in anestrus than in estrus and diestrus (P≤0.05). In bitches with pyometra, the staining intensity of the stroma for KS and HS was weaker in open- compared to closed-cervix pyometra (P≤0.05). Collectively, the different profiles of collagen and GAG suggest that the metabolism of both collagen and GAGs in the canine cervix is associated with hormonal statuses during the estrous cycle and cervical patency of bitches with pathological uterine conditions, such as pyometra. PMID:24152876

  19. Comparison of Measurements of the Uterus and Cervix Obtained by Magnetic Resonance and Transabdominal Ultrasound Imaging to Identify the Brachytherapy Target in Patients With Cervix Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dyk, Sylvia van; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Schneider, Michal; Bernshaw, David; Narayan, Kailash

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To compare measurements of the uterus and cervix obtained with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transabdominal ultrasound to determine whether ultrasound can identify the brachytherapy target and be used to guide conformal brachytherapy planning and treatment for cervix cancer. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients undergoing curative treatment with radiation therapy between January 2007 and March 2012 were included in the study. Intrauterine applicators were inserted into the uterine canal while patients were anesthetized. Images were obtained by MRI and transabdominal ultrasound in the longitudinal axis of the uterus with the applicator in treatment position. Measurements were taken at the anterior and posterior surface of the uterus at 2.0-cm intervals along the applicator, from the external os to the tip of the applicator. Data were analyzed using Bland Altman plots examining bias and 95% limits of agreement. Results: A total of 192 patients contributed 1668 measurements of the cervix and uterus. Mean (±SD) differences of measurements between imaging modalities at the anterior and posterior uterine surface ranged from 1.5 (±3.353) mm to 3.7 (±3.856) mm, and −1.46 (±3.308) mm to 0.47 (±3.502) mm, respectively. The mean differences were less than 3 mm in the cervix. The mean differences were less than 1.5 mm at all measurement points on the posterior surface. Conclusion: Differences in the measurements of the cervix and uterus obtained by MRI and ultrasound were within clinically acceptable limits. Transabdominal ultrasound can be substituted for MRI in defining the target volume for conformal brachytherapy treatment of cervix cancer.

  20. Randomized Trial of Oral Misoprostol Treatment for Cervical Ripening Before Tandem Application in Cervix Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cepni, Kimia; Gul, Sule; Cepni, Ismail; Gueralp, Onur; Sal, Veysel; Mayadagli, Alpaslan

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of oral misoprostol administered to facilitate tandem application to the cervix as a part of brachytherapy in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighty patients with cervical cancer who had been planned to undergo brachytherapy at Dr. Luetfi Kirdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital were evaluated in a double-blind, prospective, randomized trial. Patients were divided randomly into two groups of 40 patients. The first and second groups received 400 {mu}g of misoprostol orally and placebo, respectively, 3 h before tandem application. The two groups were compared in terms of age, diameter of tumor, parity, age at first intercourse, amount of bleeding and pain at first tandem application, length of endometrial cavity measured by hysterometer, and size of Hegar dilators used for cervical dilatation. Results: Of all cases, 63.6%, 16.3%, 10%, 6.3%, 2.5%, and 1.3% were Stage IIB, IIIB, IIIA, IVA, IIA and IIC, respectively. Mean ({+-}SD) age (range) was 49.3 {+-} 13.1 (25-83) years and 56.6 {+-} 13.2 (30-78) years in the study and control groups, respectively (p = 0.015). Age at first intercourse, diameter of tumor, parity, amount of bleeding at first tandem application, and length of endometrial cavity measured by hysterometer were not significantly different between the two groups. Pain score was significantly higher in the control group (p < 0.001). Application was significantly easier in the study group compared with controls (p < 0.001). Average size of initial Hegar dilators used for cervical dilatation was significantly higher in the study group compared with controls (p = 0.017). Conclusion: Administration of misoprostol 400 {mu}g orally for cervical ripening before tandem application facilitates the procedure, increases patient tolerability and comfort, and may decrease complication rates.

  1. The effect of hyaluronic acid (Cicatridine) on healing and regeneration of the uterine cervix and vagina and vulvar dystrophy therapy.

    PubMed

    Markowska, J; Madry, R; Markowska, A

    2011-01-01

    Procedures aimed at the treatment of precancerous lesions and ectopia on the uterine cervix are frequently linked to lesions of anatomical structures. The application of hyaluronic acid (Cicatridine vaginal ovules) promotes accelerated healing of the uterine cervix and acquisition of a normal shape in the uterine cervix canal. Local application of hyaluronic acid in the vagina following radiotherapy due to cancer in the uterine cervix or endometrium favourably affects the healing of post-irradiation lesions in the vagina and improves quality of life. Over 90% of patients responded positively to the application of hyaluronic acid in the form of a cream on dystrophic lesions in the vulva. Hyaluronic acid aids the healing process of post-procedural wounds in the uterine cervix, following radiotherapy applied due to cancer of the uterine cervix, endometrium and in vulvar dystrophy.

  2. Distribution of lymphatic tissues and autonomic nerves in supporting ligaments around the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianping; Feng, Lanlan; Lu, Yi; Guo, Dongxia; Xi, Tengteng; Wang, Xiaochun

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the distribution of lymphatic tissues and nerves in the supporting ligaments around the cervix uteri for their tomographical relationship, 9 adult female cadavers were used in this study. Following the incision of all supporting ligaments around the cervix, hematoxylin and esosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining of various sections of these ligaments was performed to enable the distribution of lymph tissues and autonomic nerves to be observed. Four lymph nodes were identified in three cadaver specimens. Three lymph nodes were present at a distance of 2.0 cm from the cervix in the cranial side of the cardinal ligaments (CLs), and one lymph node was located at a distance of 4.0 cm from the cervix in the cranial side of the uterosacral ligament (USL). The lymphatic vessels were dispersed in the CLs, scattered in the cervical side of the USLs, and occasionally distributed in the vesicouterine ligaments (VULs). In the CLs, parasympathetic nerves were located at the pelvic lateral wall and went downwards and medially into the cervix, while sympathetic fibers were located in the middle and lower parts of the ligaments. In the USLs, the autonomic nerves, which consisted primarily of sympathetic fibers, went downwards and laterally from the pelvic wall to the cervix. In the VULs, parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves were located in the inner sides of the vesical veins in the deep layers of the ligaments. It is concluded that there are few lymphatic tissues in the supporting ligaments around the cervix uteri, and that nerve‑sparing radical hysterectomy (NSRH) may be a safe method for the treatment of early‑stage cervical cancer.

  3. Macrophage gene expression associated with remodeling of the prepartum rat cervix: microarray and pathway analyses.

    PubMed

    Dobyns, Abigail E; Goyal, Ravi; Carpenter, Lauren Grisham; Freeman, Tom C; Longo, Lawrence D; Yellon, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    As the critical gatekeeper for birth, prepartum remodeling of the cervix is associated with increased resident macrophages (Mφ), proinflammatory processes, and extracellular matrix degradation. This study tested the hypothesis that expression of genes unique to Mφs characterizes the prepartum from unremodeled nonpregnant cervix. Perfused cervix from prepartum day 21 postbreeding (D21) or nonpregnant (NP) rats, with or without Mφs, had RNA extracted and whole genome microarray analysis performed. By subtractive analyses, expression of 194 and 120 genes related to Mφs in the cervix from D21 rats were increased and decreased, respectively. In both D21 and NP groups, 158 and 57 Mφ genes were also more or less up- or down-regulated, respectively. Mφ gene expression patterns were most strongly correlated within groups and in 5 major clustering patterns. In the cervix from D21 rats, functional categories and canonical pathways of increased expression by Mφ gene related to extracellular matrix, cell proliferation, differentiation, as well as cell signaling. Pathways were characteristic of inflammation and wound healing, e.g., CD163, CD206, and CCR2. Signatures of only inflammation pathways, e.g., CSF1R, EMR1, and MMP12 were common to both D21 and NP groups. Thus, a novel and complex balance of Mφ genes and clusters differentiated the degraded extracellular matrix and cellular genomic activities in the cervix before birth from the unremodeled state. Predicted Mφ activities, pathways, and networks raise the possibility that expression patterns of specific genes characterize and promote prepartum remodeling of the cervix for parturition at term and with preterm labor.

  4. Statistical Analysis of Shear Wave Speed in the Uterine Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Lindsey C.; Feltovich, Helen; Palmeri, Mark L.; del Rio, Alejandro Muñoz; Hall, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Although cervical softening is critical in pregnancy, there currently is no objective method for assessing the softness of the cervix. Shear wave speed (SWS) estimation is a noninvasive tool used to measure tissue mechanical properties such as stiffness. The goal of this study was to determine the spatial variability and assess the ability of SWS to classify ripened vs. unripened tissue samples. Ex vivo human hysterectomy samples (n = 22) were collected, a subset (n = 13) were ripened. SWS estimates were made at 4–5 locations along the length of the canal on both anterior and posterior halves. A linear mixed model was used for a robust multivariate analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) were calculated to describe the utility of SWS to classify ripened vs. unripened tissue samples. Results showed that all variables used in the linear mixed model were significant (p<0.05). Estimates at the mid location for the unripened group were 3.45 ± 0.95 m/s (anterior) and 3.56 ± 0.92 m/s (posterior), and 2.11 ± 0.45 m/s (anterior) and 2.68 ± 0.57 m/s (posterior) for the ripened (p < 0.001). The AUC’s were 0.91 and 0.84 for anterior and posterior respectively suggesting SWS estimates may be useful for quantifying cervical softening. PMID:25392863

  5. Bladder and rectal complications following radiotherapy for cervix cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stryker, J.A.; Bartholomew, M.; Velkley, D.E.; Cunningham, D.E.; Mortel, R.; Craycraft, G.; Shafer, J.

    1988-01-01

    One-hundred and thirty-two patients with cervix carcinoma who were treated with whole pelvis irradiation and two intracavitary applications had bladder and rectal dosimetry during brachytherapy with contrast agents placed into the bladder and rectum prior to orthogonal simulator radiographs. Doses were computer calculated at points A and B, F (bladder), R1 (rectum), and R2 (rectosigmoid). Late occurring bladder and rectal complications were graded on a severity scale of 1 to 3, and 14% had grade 2 or 3 injuries (9% developed fistulas). Statistical evaluation of the data showed that severe bladder and rectal injuries occur more commonly in stage IIIA and IIIB disease and in those receiving high external beam doses (5000 rad +). Analysis of variance tests revealed a significant correlation of brachytherapy dose to points R1 and R2 with severe rectal injuries but there was not a correlation of dose to F with bladder injuries. Nor was there correlation of injuries with dose to point A or the milligram-hour dose. We conclude that our technique for rectal dosimetry is adequate but that an improved technique of bladder dosimetry is needed. Also, when combining whole pelvis irradiation with two intracavitary applications (4000 rad to point A), the whole pelvis dose should probably not exceed 4000-4500 rad.

  6. Brachytherapy in cancer cervix: Time to move ahead from point A?

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Anurita; Datta, Niloy Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Brachytherapy forms an integral part of the radiation therapy in cancer cervix. The dose prescription for intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) in cancer cervix is based on Tod and Meredith’s point A and has been in practice since 1938. This was proposed at a time when accessibility to imaging technology and dose computation facilities was limited. The concept has been in practice worldwide for more than half a century and has been the fulcrum of all ICBT treatments, strategies and outcome measures. The method is simple and can be adapted by all centres practicing ICBT in cancer cervix. However, with the widespread availability of imaging techniques, clinical use of different dose-rates, availability of a host of applicators fabricated with image compatible materials, radiobiological implications of dose equivalence and its impact on tumour and organs at risk; more and more weight is being laid down on individualised image based brachytherapy. Thus, computed tomography, magnetic-resonance imaging and even positron emission computerized tomography along with brachytherapy treatment planning system are being increasingly adopted with promising outcomes. The present article reviews the evolution of dose prescription concepts in ICBT in cancer cervix and brings forward the need for image based brachytherapy to evaluate clinical outcomes. As is evident, a gradual transition from “point” based brachytherapy to “profile” based image guided brachytherapy is gaining widespread acceptance for dose prescription, reporting and outcome evaluation in the clinical practice of ICBT in cancer cervix. PMID:25302176

  7. Evidence for the presence of a large keratan sulphate proteoglycan in the human uterine cervix.

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, D C; Henning, A; Winkler, M; Rath, W; Haubeck, H D; Greiling, H

    1996-01-01

    Profound changes occur in the uterine cervix during pregnancy. In particular, the extracellular matrix of the connective tissue is remodelled extensively. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in this process, we have analysed the proteoglycan pattern in the human cervix from pregnant and non-pregnant women. Proteoglycans of the cervix tissue specimen were extracted with 4 M guanidine hydrochloride and precipitated with 80% ethanol. Purification of proteoglycans was performed by several chromatographic steps. Characterization of proteoglycans was done by SDS/PAGE before and after digestion with glycosaminoglycan-specific enzymes. Proteoglycans were detected by combined Alcian Blue/silver staining or, after blotting of biotin-labelled proteoglycans on to poly(vinylidene difluoride) membrane, with peroxidase-conjugated avidin or by the use of keratan sulphate- or decorin-specific monoclonal antibodies. In contrast with previous reports, where only chondroitin/dermatan sulphate proteoglycans have been found in the uterine cervix, we have shown in the present study the existence of a large keratan sulphate proteoglycan with an M(r) > 220,000 in cervix samples from non-pregnant and pregnant women. This proteoglycan showed a strong reaction with the keratan sulphate-specific monoclonal antibody 5D4 and could be degraded by keratanases. The size of the core protein of this keratan sulphate proteoglycan was estimated to be about M(r) 220,000. PMID:8973545

  8. Glycosaminoglycan Distribution in the Rat Uterine Cervix During the Estrous Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Cubas, Jairo Jose Matozinho; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Oliveira-Filho, Ricardo Martins; Simões, Manuel Jesus; Baracat, Edmund C; Soares, José Maria

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the amount of glycosaminoglycans in the uterine cervix during each phase of the rat estrous cycle. DESIGN: Based on vaginal smears, forty female, regularly cycling rats were divided into four groups (n = 10 for each group): GI – proestrous, GII – estrous, GIII – metaestrous and GIV – diestrous. Animals were sacrificed at each phase of the cycle, and the cervix was immediately removed and submitted to biochemical extraction and determination of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid. The results were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-hoc test. RESULTS: The uterine cervix had the highest amount of total sulfated glycosaminoglycans and dermatan sulfate during the estrous phase (8.90 ± 0.55 mg/g of cetonic extract, p<0.001; and 8.86 ± 0.57 mg/g of cetonic extract, p<0.001). In addition, there was more heparan sulfate at the cervix during the proestrous phase (0.185 ± 0.03 mg/g of cetonic extract) than during any other phase (p<0.001). There were no significant changes in the concentration of hyaluronic acid in the uterine cervix during the estrous cycle. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the amount of total sulfated glycosaminoglycans may be influenced by hormonal fluctuations related to the estrous cycle, with dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate being the glycosaminoglycans most sensitive to hormonal change. PMID:20668628

  9. Pseudoneoplastic glandular lesions of the uterine cervix: a selective review.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Marisa R

    2014-07-01

    Pseudoneoplastic glandular lesions of the cervix continue to be diagnostically challenging for the surgical pathologist. This review covers a select number of these lesions that may be misinterpreted as premalignant or malignant, with an emphasis on those about which Dr Scully has advanced our knowledge. The topics covered include microglandular hyperplasia, mesonephric hyperplasia, diffuse laminar endocervical glandular hyperplasia, lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia, and endocervical adenomyoma. The first listed entity has a greater diversity of morphology than the name might imply including, but not limited to solid growth and prominent hyaline stroma. The second entity may be remarkably diffuse within the cervical wall and reasonably result in consideration of diagnoses such as minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (adenoma malignum), but has nonmucinous epithelium and bland cytology. The third entity, one of the least common of those considered, represents a peculiar form of reactive hyperplasia of the endocervical epithelium. The fourth entity is the one about which knowledge is still fast advancing. In pure form with no atypia it is almost certainly a clinically benign process, but a subset of cases show cytologic atypia and an occasional association with adenocarcinoma is seen. Finally, adenomyomas of the uterus in general have received much attention in recent years, mostly in the corpus, but the less common endocervical variant may be particularly problematic because mucinous epithelium in abundant myogenic stroma may be potentially confused with an infiltrating differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma. Although immunohistochemistry may play a role on occasion in evaluating benign endocervical glandular proliferations the mainstay of their interpretation remains conventional morphologic analysis of routinely stained slides.

  10. Vibrational spectroscopy studies of formalin-fixed cervix tissues.

    PubMed

    Krishna, C M; Sockalingum, G D; Vadhiraja, B M; Maheedhar, K; Rao, A C K; Rao, L; Venteo, L; Pluot, M; Fernandes, D J; Vidyasagar, M S; Kartha, V B; Manfait, M

    2007-02-15

    Optical histopathology is fast emerging as a potential tool in cancer diagnosis. Fresh tissues in saline are ideal samples for optical histopathology. However, evaluation of suitability of ex vivo handled tissues is necessitated because of severe constraints in sample procurement, handling, and other associated problems with fresh tissues. Among these methods, formalin-fixed samples are shown to be suitable for optical histopathology. However, it is necessary to further evaluate this method from the point of view discriminating tissues with minute biochemical variations. A pilot Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopic studies of formalin-fixed tissues normal, malignant, and after-2-fractions of radiotherapy from the same malignant cervix subjects were carried out, with an aim to explore the feasibility of discriminating these tissues, especially the tissues after-2-fractions of radiotherapy from other two groups. Raman and FTIR spectra exhibit large differences for normal and malignant tissues and subtle differences are seen between malignant and after-2-fractions of radiotherapy tissues. Spectral data were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and it provided good discrimination of normal and malignant tissues. PCA of data of three tissues, normal, malignant, and 2-fractions after radiotherapy, gave two clusters corresponding to normal and malignant + after-2-fractions of radiotherapy tissues. A second step of PCA was required to achieve discrimination between malignant and after-2-fractions of radiotherapy tissues. Hence, this study not only further supports the use of formalin-fixed tissues in optical histopathology, especially from Raman spectroscopy point of view, it also indicates feasibility of discriminating tissues with minute biochemical differences such as malignant and after-2-fractions of radiotherapy.

  11. A population-based survey of the management of women with cancer of the cervix

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, F; Dey, P; Collins, S

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of diagnostic throughput on survival outcome for women with cancer of the cervix. We conducted a case note review of 359 women in Lancashire and Greater Manchester diagnosed with cancer of the cervix during 1990, identified from records held by the North Western Regional Cancer Registry. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were undertaken to investigate the influence on survival of woman, disease and treatment related factors. Following adjustment for woman- and disease-related factors there was no evidence of a statistically significant association between diagnostic throughput and survival. The findings of this study do not support the need for any change in the referral patterns to gynaecologists of women with symptoms suggestive of cancer of the cervix. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10471045

  12. Coexisting malignant melanoma and blue nevus of the uterine cervix: an unusual combination.

    PubMed

    Parada, David; Peña, Karla B; Riu, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) and blue nevi of the uterine cervix are an extremely rare neoplasm, probably derived from embryologic migration of melanocytes from the neural crest. MM displays aggressive behavior with a poor prognosis. We report the case of a 76-year-old postmenopausal woman abnormal vaginal bleeding. She underwent a hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with paraaortic-iliac lymphadenectomy. Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies were consistent with the diagnosis of MM and blue nevi in the uterine cervix. Although it is extremely rare, this case suggests that MM of the uterine cervix should be considered in the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated neoplasm. Early diagnosis is essential in order to warrant a better prognosis, although there are no cases of cure described.

  13. Trends in cancer incidence in female breast, cervix uteri, corpus uteri, and ovary in India.

    PubMed

    Yeole, Balkrishna B

    2008-01-01

    Trends in breast, cervix uteri, corpus uteri and ovarian cancers in six population based cancer registries (Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Bhopal, and Barshi) were evaluated over a period of the last two decades. For studying trends we used a model that fits this data is the logarithm of Y=ABx which represents a Linear Regression model. This approach showed a decreasing trend for cancer of the cervix and increasing trends for cancers of breast, ovary and corpus uteri throughout the entire period of observation in most of the registries. The four cancers, breast, cervix, corpus uteri and ovary, constitute more than 50% of total cancers in women. As all these cancers are increasing, to understand their etiology in depth, analytic epidemiology studies should be planned in a near future on a priority basis.

  14. Evaluation of human papillomavirus elimination from cervix uteri by infrared laser exposure.

    PubMed

    Dymkovets, V P; Ezhov, V V; Manykin, A A; Belov, S V; Danileiko, Yu K; Osiko, V V; Salyuk, V A

    2011-12-01

    Elimination of types 16 and 18 human papilloma virus from the surface of cervix uteri for secondary prevention of cervical cancer was evaluated. The method is protected by patent of invention of the Russian Federation. Infrared laser therapy of cervix uteri was carried out in patients with precancer diseases of cervix uteri at Department of Gynecology of Municipal Clinical Hospital No. 52 (Moscow). Papillomavirus infection was eliminated using a Russian diode laser (lambda=1.06 μ, radiation power 10 W) with a collimating headpiece using carbon die at a distance of 10-12 cm from the exposed surface. The treatment resulted in a high percentage of elimination of types 16 and 18 oncogenic virus 4-6 weeks and during delayed periods after exposure.

  15. A SONOGRAPHIC SHORT CERVIX AS THE ONLY CLINICAL MANIFESTATION OF INTRA-AMNIOTIC INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    HASSAN, SONIA; ROMERO, ROBERTO; HENDLER, ISRAEL; GOMEZ, RICARDO; KHALEK, NAHLA; ESPINOZA, JIMMY; NIEN, JYH KAE; BERRY, STANLEY M.; BUJOLD, EMMANUEL; CAMACHO, NATALIA; SOROKIN, YORAM

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A sonographically short cervix is a powerful predictor of spontaneous preterm delivery. However, the etiology and optimal management of a patient with a short cervix in the mid-trimester of pregnancy remain uncertain. Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and intra-amniotic inflammation are frequently present in patients with spontaneous preterm labor or acute cervical insufficiency. This study was conducted to determine the rate of MIAC and intra-amniotic inflammation in patients with a cervical length <25 mm in the mid-trimester. STUDY DESIGN A retrospective cohort study was conducted of patients referred to our high risk clinic because of a sonographic short cervix or a history of a previous preterm birth. Amniocenteses were performed for the evaluation of MIAC and for karyotype analysis in patients with a short cervix. Fluid was cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, as well as genital mycoplasmas. Patients with MIAC were treated with antibiotics selected by their physician. RESULTS Of 152 patients with a short cervix at 14–24 weeks, 57 had amniotic fluid analysis. The prevalence of MIAC was 9% (5/57). Among these patients, the rate of preterm delivery (<32 weeks) was 40% (2/5). Microorganisms isolated from amniotic fluid included Ureaplasma urealyticum (n=4) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (n=1). Patients with a positive culture for Ureaplasma urealyticum received intravenous Azithromycin. Three patients with Ureaplasma urealyticum had a sterile amniotic fluid culture after treatment, and subsequently delivered at term. The patient with Fusobacterium nucleatum developed clinical chorioamnionitis and was induced. CONCLUSION 1) Sub-clinical MIAC was detected in 9% of patients with a sonographically short cervix (<25 mm); and 2) maternal parenteral treatment with antibiotics can eradicate MIAC caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum. This was associated with delivery at term in the three patients whose successful treatment was documented by

  16. Collagen and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in the ewe cervix during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Piñón, M; Tasende, C; Casuriaga, D; Bielli, A; Genovese, P; Garófalo, E G

    2015-09-15

    The cervical collagen remodeling during the estrous cycle of the ewe was examined. The collagen concentration determined by a hydroxyproline assay and the area occupied by collagen fibers (%C), determined by van Gieson staining, were assessed in the cranial and caudal cervix of Corriedale ewes on Days 1 (n = 6), 6 (n = 5), or 13 (n = 6) after estrous detection (defined as Day 0). In addition, the gelatinase activity by in situ and SDS-PAGE gelatin zymographies and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9, respectively) expression by immunohistochemistry were determined. The collagen concentration and %C were lowest on Day 1 of the estrous cycle (P < 0.04), when MMP-2 activity was highest (P < 0.006) and the ratio of activated to latent MMP-2 trend to be highest (P = 0.0819). The MMP-2 activity was detected in 73% of the homogenized cervical samples, and its expression was mainly detected in active fibroblasts. By contrast, the MMP-9 activity was detected in 9% of the samples, and its scarce expression was associated with plasmocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression was maximal on Day 1 in the cranial cervix and on Day 13 in the caudal cervix and was lower in the cranial than in the caudal cervix (P < 0.0001). This time-dependent increase in MMP-2 expression that differed between the cranial and caudal cervix may reflect their different physiological roles. The decrease in the collagen content and increase in fibroblast MMP-2 activity in sheep cervix on Day 1 of the estrous cycle suggests that cervical dilation at estrus is due to the occurrence of collagen fiber degradation modulated by changes in periovulatory hormone levels.

  17. MicroRNA-200a locally attenuates progesterone signaling in the cervix, preventing embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Hirofumi; Saito-Fujita, Tomoko; Hirota, Yasushi; Egashira, Mahiro; Matsumoto, Leona; Matsuo, Mitsunori; Hiraoka, Takehiro; Koga, Kaori; Yamauchi, Naoko; Fukayama, Masashi; Bartos, Amanda; Cha, Jeeyeon; Dey, Sudhansu K; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2014-07-01

    Although cervical pregnancy and placenta previa, in which the embryo and placenta embed in or adjacent to the cervix, are life-threatening complications that result in massive bleeding and poor pregnancy outcomes in women, the incidence of these aberrant conditions is uncommon. We hypothesized that a local molecular mechanism is normally in place to prevent embryo implantation in the cervix. The ovarian hormones progesterone (P(4)) and estrogen differentially direct differentiation and proliferation of endometrial cells, which confers the receptive state for implantation: P(4) dominance causes differentiation of the luminal epithelium but increases stromal cell proliferation in preparation of the uterus for implantation. In search for the cause of cervical nonresponsiveness to implantation, we found that the statuses of cell proliferation and differentiation between the uterus and cervix during early pregnancy are remarkably disparate under identical endocrine milieu in both mice and humans. We also found that cervical levels of progesterone receptor (PR) protein are low compared with uterine levels during this period, and the low PR protein levels are attributed to elevated levels of microRNA(miR)-200a in the cervix. These changes were associated with up-regulation of the P(4)-metabolizing enzyme 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (200α-HSD) and down-regulation of its transcriptional repressor signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 in the cervix. The results provide evidence that elevated levels of miR-200a lead to down-regulation of P(4)-PR signaling and up-regulation of (200α-HSD) in the cervix, rendering it nonresponsive to implantation. These findings may point toward not only the physiological but also the pathological basis of the cervical milieu in embryo implantation.

  18. Automated analysis of cervix images to grade the severity of cancer.

    PubMed

    Pallavi, V; Payal, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a method to objectively analyze the severity of cancer in images obtained from cervix. We propose a novel method to identify the transformation zone in post Lugol's iodine images and acetic acid images that are obtained from the cervix to grade the severity of cancer. We segment the Lugol's iodine image to identify the abnormal tissues and map them to acetic acid images to accurately identify the abnormal tissues in post acetic acid images as well. This information is further used to obtain an opacity difference score that could be used for grading the cancer.

  19. Maturation of the uterine cervix by repeated intracervical instillation of prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Milliez, J M; Jannet, D; Touboul, C; el Medjadji, M; Paniel, B J

    1991-09-01

    An attempt was made to ripen the uterine cervix in 100 high-risk pregnancy patients (pregnancy between 34 to 41 weeks' gestation), with the use of intracervical instillations of 0.25 mg of prostaglandin E2 mixed with a tylose gel. The maturation process was repeated every 48 hours. Forty-nine patients were delivered of infants after the first maturation and 51 patients required between two and nine instillations. In patients requiring multiple instillations, the mean delay between the first procedure and delivery was 9 +/- 4 days (range, 2.4 to 16 days). Among the 59 nulliparous women, only 23 were delivered of infants after a single maturation and 36 required multiple maturations (p less than 0.02). When the group of patients who were delivered of infants after a single maturation process was compared with the group requiring multiple maturations, no difference could be seen with regard to age, term of pregnancy, or Bishop cervical score at the time of inclusion in the study. The myometrial activity and the onset labor induced by prostaglandin E2, were similar in both groups. Fetal heart rate decelerations occurred in 16.3% (8/49) of the patients with single maturations and in 17.6% (9/51) of the patients who required multiple maturations. The outcome of the pregnancy and the rate of cesarean sections (24% and 27%) were similar in both groups. No patients required cesarean sections because of failed induction of labor. Cervical ripening after repeated applications of 0.25 mg of prostaglandin E2 seems to be safe for the fetus, providing that the patient is closely supervised.

  20. Initial experimentation on the nonvented fill of a 0.14 cu m (5 cu ft) dewar with nitrogen and hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.; Moran, Matthew E.; Nyland, Ted W.

    1990-01-01

    A series of nonvented fills were performed on a 0.14 cu m (5 cu ft) stainless steel dewar. Fills were conducted with a 120 deg cone angle spray nozzle over a range of inflow and initial wall temperatures with both liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen. Fill levels in excess of 85 percent liquid were achieved for four out of four nitrogen and two out of five hydrogen tests. Previously developed analytical models were compared to the test results and shown to have general trend agreement.

  1. Initial experimentation on the nonvented fill of a 0.14m3 (5 ft. 3) dewar with nitrogen and hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.; Moran, Matthew E.; Nyland, Ted W.

    1990-01-01

    A series of nonvented fills were performed on a 0.14 cu m (5 cu ft) stainless steel dewar. Fills were conducted with a 120 deg cone angle spray nozzle over a range of inflow and initial wall temperatures with both liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen. Fill levels in excess of 85 percent liquid were achieved for four out of four nitrogen and two out of five hydrogen tests. Previously developed analytical models were compared to the test results and shown to have general trend agreement.

  2. Clear cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: clinical characteristics and feasibility of fertility-preserving treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiang; Jin, Ying; Li, Yan; Huang, Hui-Fang; Wu, Ming; Shen, Keng; Pan, Ling-Ya

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) in the post-diethylstilbestrol (DES) era and to evaluate the feasibility of fertility-preserving treatment. The records of 32 patients with CCAs who were treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from August 1986 to June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Three of the patients had undergone fertility-preserving treatment. The incidence of CCA among cervical adenocarcinomas was 15.2%. The median age was 38 years: 11 patients (34.4%) were diagnosed before 30 years of age and two (6.3%) after 70 years of age. Ten patients (31.2%) were nulliparous. No patient had been exposed to DES. Twenty-nine patients (90.6%) presented with obvious symptoms, and the cervix appeared abnormal in 26 patients (81.3%). Cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) tests were abnormal in all four patients in whom they were performed (three had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and one had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance). The distribution by stage was 56.3% stage I, 34.4% stage II, 6.3% stage III, and 3.1% stage IV. Treatments mainly included surgery for patients with stage I to IIA CCA and radiochemotherapy for patients with advanced CCA. The overall 5-year progression-free survival was 72.2%. Patients with stage I to IIA CCA had better 5-year progression-free survival than did patients with stage IIB to IV CCA (81.5% versus 40.0%, P=0.003). The three patients who had undergone fertility-preserving treatment had no recurrences. CCA may also affect adolescents and children without prior DES exposure, who are often misdiagnosed as having functional uterine bleeding. Radiotherapy appears to be effective for local control but to have no effect on distant recurrences. In our study, the prognosis of patients with early-stage CCA, including those who had undergone fertility-preserving treatment, was not inferior to that of patients with

  3. Primary uterine cervix melanoma resembling malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pusceddu, Sara; Bajetta, Emilio; Buzzoni, Roberto; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Platania, Marco; Del Vecchio, Michele; Ditto, Antonino

    2008-10-01

    A rare variant of malignant melanoma (MM) of the uterine cervix that mimics a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is described. A 43-year-old white woman was admitted to the hospital complaining of genital discharge and vaginal bleeding. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-ovariectomy plus pelvic lymphadenectomy were performed, and the diagnosis was MPNST, FIGO IIB. Pathological examination showed a diffuse proliferation of amelanotic spindle cells and large, highly atypical, frequently multinucleated, bizarre, and S100-, HMB-45-, vimentin-positive cells. The patient remained disease-free for 43 months, when an abdominal computed tomographic scan showed local polypoid vaginal lesions, with histological features of typical MM. A pathological review was obtained in our institution by a gynecological pathologist, who defined the primary neoplasm in the cervix as an MM, with a pattern of growth histologically simulating an MPNST, metastatic to the vagina. To our knowledge, this is the first report in literature of MM of the uterine cervix resembling MPNST. Despite its rarity, this variant of MM should be considered when a diagnosis of cervix MPNST is made. The histological and immunohistochemical features of these different entities should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  4. Distinct functions and regulation of epithelial progesterone receptor in the mouse cervix, vagina, and uterus.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Fabiola F; Son, Jieun; Hewitt, Sylvia C; Jang, Eunjung; Lydon, John P; Korach, Kenneth S; Chung, Sang-Hyuk

    2016-04-05

    While the function of progesterone receptor (PR) has been studied in the mouse vagina and uterus, its regulation and function in the cervix has not been described. We selectively deleted epithelial PR in the female reproductive tracts using the Cre/LoxP recombination system. We found that epithelial PR was required for induction of apoptosis and suppression of cell proliferation by progesterone (P4) in the cervical and vaginal epithelium. We also found that epithelial PR was dispensable for P4 to suppress apoptosis and proliferation in the uterine epithelium. PR is encoded by the Pgr gene, which is regulated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) in the female reproductive tracts. Using knock-in mouse models expressing ERα mutants, we determined that the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and AF2 domain of ERα were required for upregulation of Pgr in the cervix and vagina as well as the uterine stroma. The ERα AF1 domain was required for upregulation of Pgr in the vaginal stroma and epithelium and cervical epithelium, but not in the uterine and cervical stroma. ERα DBD, AF1, and AF2 were required for suppression of Pgr in the uterine epithelium, which was mediated by stromal ERα. Epithelial ERα was responsible for upregulation of epithelial Pgr in the cervix and vagina. Our results indicate that regulation and functions of epithelial PR are different in the cervix, vagina, and uterus.

  5. [The morphological features of the nervous and vascular components of communication systems in the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Dorosevich, A E; Bekhtereva, I A; Sudilovskaia, V V

    2009-01-01

    The investigation has indicated the presence of adrenergic and cholinergic autonomic nerve terminals (ANT) in the tissues of squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix uteri in a tumor growth area and contralaterally. Heterogeneity of the local neuromediator background in the tumor growth area and contralaterally may be explained, by studying the specific features of the cell microenvironment of ANT.

  6. Permanent Lateral Deviation and Stenosis of the Cervix in an Infertile Jennet.

    PubMed

    Quartuccio, M; Marino, G; Mannarino, C; Cristarella, S

    2016-04-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the uterus and the cervix are rare in horses, often associated with infertility, despite normal ovarian activity and sexual behaviour. An abnormality of the cervix in a 5-year-old jennet with a history of infertility was described. Clinical and ultrasound examination of the genital tract showed a normal development of the uterus with regular cyclic activity in both the ovaries. Vaginoscopy revealed a normal development of the vagina and a cervix deviated on the left side of the vagina by a thick dorsoventral fold. The lateral deviation was permanent in any stage of oestrus cycle. Furthermore, the cervical os was narrow and digital penetration was not realizable. Using a 5-mm catheter, the full penetration was not possible even during oestrus; moreover, the inoculation of fluid could be revealed in uterus by ultrasound (fluid was not present before inoculation), demonstrating a minimal patency. An abnormal and permanent lateral displacement of a stenotic cervix was suspected as the primary cause of infertility in the jennet.

  7. Prepeak and first sharp diffraction peak in the structure factor of (Cs(2)O)(0.14)(B(2)O(3))(0.86) glass: influence of temperature.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Giovanna; Crupi, Cristina; González, Miguel Angel; Basile, Emilia; Conti Nibali, Valeria; Mondelli, Claudia

    2010-10-07

    Neutron diffraction measurements on (Cs(2)O)(0.14)(B(2)O(3))(0.86) glass were performed at varying temperature over an extended range from room temperature to 800 K. It was found that, in the same Q range where the first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) is observed in the static structure factor of almost all glass-forming systems, cesium borate glass shows two peaks. The intensities of these peaks increase with temperature, and their positions shift to lower Q values, in agreement with the peculiarities of the FSDP of network glasses. A description of this anomalous temperature dependence in terms of thermal relaxations of strained bonding arrangements of boron oxide units lying on the boundaries of cages present in the boron skeleton matrix is suggested. By comparing the diffraction patterns of a (Cs(2)O)(0.14)(B(2)O(3))(0.86) sample before and after a high-temperature thermal treatment with the spectra of cesium crystals, a correspondence between the medium-range structure in the glass and the related crystalline phases has been inferred.

  8. The localization of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in the endometrium and the cervix of dogs at different stages of the oestrous cycle and with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Chotimanukul, S; Sirivaidyapong, S

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to localize and evaluate the role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in the endometrium and cervix of bitches at different stages of the oestrous cycle and in bitches with pyometra. Sixty-seven nulliparous dogs, ranging in age from 1 to 13 years, were allocated amongst five groups (pro-oestrus; n = 7, oestrus; n = 10, dioestrus; n = 16, anoestrus; n = 11, pyometra; n = 23). Blood samples were collected for the measurement of progesterone concentration. The mean progesterone concentration was analysed as a parameter for validating the stage of the oestrous cycle in bitches. Tissues collected from uterine horn and cervix were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for immunohistochemical examination of TLR2. The expression of TLR2 was assessed semi-quantitatively. No pathological changes were found in the uterine samples of healthy dogs. In bitches with pyometra, the glandular epithelium expressed TLR2 more intensely than the surface epithelium. The expression of TLR2 in the glandular epithelium was also significantly higher in healthy dogs at oestrus, dioestrus and dogs with pyometra compared with anoestrous dogs (p < 0.01). The expression of TLR2 in the stroma was not observed in the group of healthy dogs at all stages. The surface epithelium of cervix in dogs with pyometra expressed TLR2 significantly more intensely than did the stoma, whereas the expression of TLR2 during oestrus and dioestrus was absent in the stroma of cervix. This study provides the first report of immunohistochemical localization of TLR2 in the canine reproductive tract. In the present study, TLR2 was expressed in endometrial epithelium but was absent in the endometrial stroma of healthy dogs at all oestrous cycle stages. These findings suggest differential expression of TLR in endometrial cells. On the other hand, the lack of TLR2 in the stroma of healthy uteri of dogs may predispose to infection from the invading pathogens once the epithelial cells have been destroyed by the

  9. 90° phase-matched up-conversion of CO2 laser radiation in AgGa0.86In0.14S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanno, F.; Kato, K.

    2012-11-01

    The CO2 laser radiation at 10.5910-9.2714 μm was up-converted to the visible in the 90° phase-matched AgGa0.86In0.14S2 crystal by mixing with the output of the 0.3547 μm pumped BBO optical parametric oscillator at 25-120 °C. The new Sellmeier and thermo-optic dispersion formulas that reproduce these experimental results correctly as well as the previously published data [Banerjee et al. in Appl Phys B 87:101, (2007); Opt Commun 227:202 (2007)] for difference-frequency generation at 4.05-6.98 μm and second-harmonic generation at 5.2955 μm are presented.

  10. Characterizing LipR from Pseudomonas sp. R0-14 and Applying in Enrichment of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Algal Oil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenjuan; Xu, Li; Zhang, Houjin; Yan, Yunjun

    2015-11-01

    In this study, Pseudomonas R0-14, which was isolated from Arctic soil samples, showed a clear halo when grown on M9 medium agarose plates containing olive oil-rhodamine B as substrate, suggesting that it expressed putative lipase(s). A putative lipase gene, lipR, was cloned from R0-14 by genome walking and Touchdown PCR. lipR encodes a 562-amino-acid polypeptide showing a typical α/β hydrolase structure with a catalytic triad consisting of Ser153-Asp202-His260 and one α-helical lid (residues 103-113). A phylogenetic analysis revealed that LipR belongs to the lipase subfamily I.3. LipR was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and biochemically characterized. Recombinant LipR exhibited its maximum activity towards p-nitrophenyl butyrate at pH 8.5 and 60°C with a Km of 0.37 mM and a kcat of 6.42 s(-1). It retained over 90% of its original activity after incubation at 50°C for 12 h. In addition, LipR was activated by Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Ba(2+), and Sr(2+), while strongly inhibited by Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Moreover, it showed a certain tolerance to organic solvents, including acetonitrile, isopropanol, acetone, methanol, and tert-butanol. When algal oil was hydrolyzed by LipR for 24 h, there was an enrichment of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (1.22%, 1.65-fold), docosapentaenoic acid (21.24%, 2.04-fold), and docosahexaenoic acid (36.98%, 1.33-fold), and even a certain amount of diacylglycerols was also produced. As a result, LipR has great prospect in industrial applications, especially in food and/or cosmetics applications.

  11. Case Report of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma of Uterine Cervix Treated at a Semiurban Cancer Centre in North India

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Epari

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoma of the uterine cervix is very rare. We report a case of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the uterine cervix treated at a newly commissioned semiurban cancer centre in north India in 2015. Data for this study was obtained from the hospital electronic medical records and the patient's case file. We also reviewed published case reports of uterine and cervical lymphoma involving forty-one patients. We treated a case of stage IV DLBCL cervix with six cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) and intrathecal methotrexate followed by consolidation with radiotherapy. The patient showed complete response to chemotherapy. We conclude that, in advanced stage lymphoma involving uterus and cervix, combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is effective in short term. PMID:27597906

  12. Cancer of the Cervix – From Bleak Past to Bright Future; a Review, with an Emphasis on Cancer of the Cervix in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Nor Hayati, Othman

    2003-01-01

    Cancer of the cervix has the potential to be eradicated since the initiating cause is known. There was not much known about this cancer until the time of the Renaissance. In Malaysia, it is the second most common cancer among females after breast cancer. The strategies on prevention in this country are still not optimal. This article highlights the problems and also discusses the pathogenesis of this disease. The key to prevention is screening and the future is the era of molecular pap smear. PMID:23365496

  13. Single-organ vasculitis of the cervix accompanying human papillomavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Gözüküçük, Murat; Gürsoy, Aslı Yarcı; Kankaya, Duygu; Atabekoglu, Cem

    2016-01-01

    Single-organ vasculitis (SOV) has rarely been reported to involve the female genital tract but mostly the uterine cervix. A 39-year-old woman was diagnosed to have a high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesion and was treated by large loop excision of the transformation zone. Histopathological evaluation of the excised specimen confirmed the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III accompanied by human papillomavirus infection. The excised second specimen showed the evidence of vasculitis of medium-sized vessels of the cervix, which is a quite rare form of SOV. It seems to be important to be aware of the localized form of polyarteritis nodosa limited to the female genital tract to prevent unnecessary immunosuppressive therapies. PMID:28386466

  14. Right ventricular metastatic tumor from a primary carcinoma of uterine cervix: A cause of pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gwan Hee; Kwon, Do Youn; Ulak, Roshani; Lee, Jong-Min; Lee, Seon-Kyung

    2017-01-01

    The presence of intracavitary cardiac metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is extremely rare. The diagnosis is made almost exclusively postmortem. Apart from causing intracardiac obstruction, it can present as pulmonary emboli and the prognosis is extremely poor. It is important to suspect this diagnosis in patient with recurrent pulmonary emboli. Due to the rarity of this condition it is very difficult to standardize care for these patients. However, it is possible that aggressive therapy may lengthen patients' survival and quality of life. We present a case of isolated intracavitary cardiac metastasis arising from a squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, 44-year-old woman, diagnosed as stage complaint of fatigue and dyspnea on mild exertion. The echocardiogram showed a mass in the right ventricle and suspicious pulmonary embolism. We took an aggressive therapeutic approach. The pathological examination of the resected tissue revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:28217685

  15. Altered miRNA expression in the cervix during pregnancy associated with lead and mercury exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Alison P; Burris, Heather H; Just, Allan C; Motta, Valeria; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Svensson, Katherine; Oken, Emily; Solano-Gonzalez, Maritsa; Mercado-Garcia, Adriana; Pantic, Ivan; Schwartz, Joel; Tellez-Rojo, Martha M; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Wright, Robert O

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Toxic metals including lead and mercury are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to assess the association between miRNA expression in the cervix during pregnancy with lead and mercury levels. Materials & methods: We obtained cervical swabs from pregnant women (n = 60) and quantified cervical miRNA expression. Women's blood lead, bone lead and toenail mercury levels were analyzed. We performed linear regression to examine the association between metal levels and expression of 74 miRNAs adjusting for covariates. Results: Seventeen miRNAs were negatively associated with toenail mercury levels, and tibial bone lead levels were associated with decreased expression of miR-575 and miR-4286. Conclusion: The findings highlight miRNAs in the human cervix as novel responders to maternal chemical exposure during pregnancy. PMID:26418635

  16. Effect of spasmoanalgetic Dolantin on the electromyographic activity of the cervix during labour.

    PubMed

    Pajntar, M; Rudel, D

    1992-01-01

    The influence of spasmoanalgetic Dolantin on electrical activity of the smooth musculature of the cervix during labour was studied in 50 primiparous women after induction of labour. The highest electrical activity was measured at the time of uterine contraction (AC) and between contractions (BC). The basic pattern of Dolantin-produced changes in muscular contractions in the cervix observed via EMG activity is that of the EMG activity diminishing with contractions of the uterine corpus and even more so in the period between contractions. Dolantin administered during the latent phase of induced labour did not accelerate cervical dilatation either in the latent or in the active phase of amniotomy- and Oxytocin-induced labour.

  17. [Caruncle removal in cattle--subsequent treatment and use of a new cervix dilator].

    PubMed

    Glock, H

    1996-04-01

    Retention of the fetal membranes in bovines is frequently accompanied by necrosis of the caruncles. This is dependent on the kind of bacterial contamination and seems to be of regional variety. Necrosis of the caruncles requires extirpation which is the only treatment to save life, fertility and economic benefit of the animal. Following extirpation after-treatment over a period of eight to nine days essentially influences the success. Antibiotic therapy is not the main principle of treatment but to handle the atony of the uterus and its fatal consequences caused by the inflammatory contents. Since the cervix necessarily has to remain open for the period of treatment the use of a recently developed cervix dilatator (Ludwig Bertram GmbH, Hannover) is described and recommended.

  18. Light-guided hysteroscopic resection of complete septate uterus with preservation of duplicated cervix.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jehn-Hsiahn; Chen, Mei-Jou; Shih, Jin-Chung; Chen, Chin-Der; Chen, Shee-Uan; Yang, Yu-Shih

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study, performed at a tertiary university hospital, was to propose a novel method of hysteroscopic resection of complete septate uterus with preservation of duplicated cervix. The retrospective study included 5 women with complete septate uterus and cervical duplication and who also experienced infertility with or without pregnancy loss. All patients underwent bougie-guided or light-guided hysteroscopic perforation of the uterine septum above the endocervix, followed by septum resection. The success rate of complete uterine septum perforation under bougie guidance was 60% (3 of 5 procedures), and of light guidance was 100% (2 procedures). After hysteroscopic septum resection, 2 of 5 women achieved pregnancy within 3 months and delivered uneventfully at term. It is concluded that light guidance is superior to bougie guidance for hysteroscopic perforation of complete septate uterus with preservation of the duplicated cervix.

  19. Stage IB adenocarcinoma of the cervix: metastatic potential and patterns of dissemination

    SciTech Connect

    Kjorstad, K.E.; Bond, B.

    1984-10-01

    The metastatic potential patterns of dissemination have been investigated in 150 patients with Stage 1B adenocarcinoma of the cervix treated during a 20-year period from 1956 to 1977. All cases with the exception of one were treated with a combination of intracavitary radium implants followed by a radical surgical procedure with pelvic lymph node dissection. It was found that the incidence of pelvic metastases and distant recurrences and the survival rates were the same as in previously published reports for squamous cell carcinomas treated in the same manner. In one respect adenocarcinomas showed a significant difference when compared with squamous cell cancers: The incidence of residual tumor in the hysterectomy specimens after intracavitary treatment was much higher (30% versus 11%). This is considered a strong argument for surgical treatment of patients with early stages of adenocarcinoma of the cervix.

  20. An evaluation of the computed tomographic scanner for the staging of carcinoma of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, D.E.; Whitley, N.D.; Prempree, T.; Villasanta, U.

    1982-12-01

    Twenty patients with invasive carcinoma of the cervix (FIGO stages IB-IV) were staged by routine pelvic examination, intravenous urography, chemistry studies, and barium enema. All patients received a CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis followed by pelvic examination under anesthesia (EUA). CT agreed with EUA staging in 13 of 20 patients (65%). All patients had surgical para-aortic lymph node sampling. The sensitivity of CT for para-aortic lymph node involvement was 67% and the specificity was 92%. CT scanning is equal to other clinical staging procedures for carcinoma of the cervix. It offers the avantages of being noninvasive and visualizing tumor for the construction of radiation portals. CT is useful in the detection of para-aoric lymphadenopathy; however, the presence of normal sized or enlarged nodes makes pathologic examination, either by needle aspiration or surgery, necessary.

  1. The risk of second primaries subsequent to irradiation for cervix cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.Y.; Perez, C.A.; Ettinger, N.; Fineberg, B.B.

    1982-02-01

    A review of 1048 patients with cancer of the cervix treated with radiation, either alone or combined with surgery, disclosed 32 cases of second primary malignancies occurring from 1 to 16 years subsequent to treatment. Using the person years approach, the incidence rate of second primaries was 5.49 per 1000 person years, which is not significantly different from population based rates. The anatomic locations of the new malignancies and the times from treatment of the cervix cancer to diagnosis of new primary are presented; the possible carcinogenic effects of radiation are discussed. In this group of patients, it was concluded that under the period of observation irradiation administered at therapeutic doses did not increase the probability of second malignancy in the pelvis or at other sites.

  2. Combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy for advanced carcinoma of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Lipsztein, R.; Kredentser, D.; Dottino, P.; Goodman, H.M.; Dalton, J.F.; Bloomer, W.D.; Cohen, C.

    1987-12-01

    Ten patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix received induction chemotherapy with cis-platinum, mitomycin-C, vincristine, and bleomycin (BOMP) over a 5 week period, followed by radiotherapy with concomitant weekly cisplatinum. Two patients were FIGO stage I-B barrel-shaped, five were stage II-B, and three were III-B. All patients responded to induction chemotherapy with five complete and five partial responses. At the completion of radiation therapy, nine patients had negative biopsies. One patient never reached a complete response and died of distant metastasis. Another underwent total exenteration for a central recurrence and was found to have microscopic paraaortic lymph node involvement. A third recurred in the parametrium. Two patients with barrel-shaped tumors underwent extrafascial hysterectomies; both had negative specimens and tolerated surgery well. Although follow-up is short, this new approach for advanced carcinoma of the cervix yielded excellent results and was well tolerated.

  3. Radiography of the distal colon and rectum after irradiation of carcinoma of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.E.

    1981-04-01

    High dose therapeutic irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix, usually delivered using a combination of external and intracavitary sources, may damage the rectum, sigmoid, distal small bowel, vagina, and urinary bladder. A pretreatment barium enema is valuable for baseline comparison should symptoms developing after treatment necessitate radiographic evaluation of the colon and rectum. Included in this review are a summary of radiation therapy techniques for carcinoma of the cervix, the radiation tolerance of normal pelvic structures, and the histopathology of changes in the bowel following irradiation. The spectrum of radiographic manifestations of radiation effect on the rectum and sigmoid is presented and contrasted with changes secondary to recurrent of persistent tumor. Gradations of symmetrical volume loss characterize radiation change, whereas mass effect, asymmetrical narrowing of the colon lumen, or fixation are more typical of tumor recurrence.

  4. Heterotransplantation of human cervix cancers in radiation-conditioned or nonconditioned athymic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.; van Nagell, J.R.

    1985-12-01

    Primary human cervix cancers were implanted into athymic nude mice from 23 patient biopsy specimens. Tissue/tumor samples were implanted as chunks by trocar in different sites in irradiated (400 rad) or nonirradiated nude mice. Without irradiation 1 of 9 (11%) implanted tumors grew progressively and 13 of 26 (50%) implanted sites formed small implantation nodules that remained stable and usually regressed. In nude mice given 400-rad irradiation, 3 of 12 (25%) showed progressive tumor growth, 8 of 12 (67%) patient samples showed growth, and 24 of 36 (67%) implanted sites showed growth. Correlation with clinical data showed that the higher-stage and more malignant tumors were more likely to show progressive growth patterns, as was noted in three of five Stage III/IV cervix tumors grafted into 400-rad conditioned mice. Conversely, the lower-stage tumors were much less likely to show growth, and zero of nine samples with Stage I/II tumors showed progressive growth.

  5. Uterine perforation during intracavitary application: prognostic significance in carcinoma of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, R.Y.; Levy, D.S.; Brascho, D.J.; Hatch, K.D.

    1983-04-01

    All cases of uterine perforation occurring during intracavitary application for carcinoma of the cervix over a 13-year period (1968-1981) were reviewed. There were 14 perforations out of 799 applications in 622 patients, for an incidence of 2.25% of patients and 1.75% of applications. In most cases, it is sufficient to halt the application and carefully monitor the patient, as supported by the uneventful post-perforation course in 12 cases. Nine patients (64%) underwent subsequent intracavitary application without further complications; of these, 8 are still living or died without evidence of tumor. In the other 5, it was impossible to locate the cervical canal on subsequent applications. Alternative treatments, results of therapy, and analysis of failures are presented. The authors conclude that there is no direct evidence that uterine perforation alters the prognosis following radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix.

  6. Vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum: a rare complication of therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    LaPolla, J.; Foucar, E.; Leshin, B.; Whitaker, D.; Anderson, B.

    1985-11-01

    The clinical and pathological features of a case of multifocal lymphangioma circumscriptum of the vulva are reported in a patient with chronic lymphedema of a lower extremity. Ten years previously the patient had been treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Although lymphangioma circumscriptum is an extremely rare complication of altered lymphatic drainage, the presence of multiple noninflammatory vesicular appearing lesions in this setting should suggest the correct diagnosis.

  7. [Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with perineural differentiation (malignant perineurinoma) of the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Dolzhikov, A A; Mukhina, T S

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a case of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with perineural differentiation and at the rare site of the cervix uteri in a 57-year-old patient. The diagnosis was established on the basis of extensive immunohistochemical examination, by excluding the similar neoplasms and detecting an immunophenotype characteristic of perineural differentiation. There are data available in the literature on the morphological and immunophenotypical characteristics of this tumor.

  8. Radiation changes in vaginal and cervical cytology in carcinoma of the cervix uteri

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Gupta, Y.N.; Sanyal, B.

    1982-02-01

    Radiation changes are observed in all postirradiated smears of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix from 56 females, although to a variable degree. After 1 year the changes subside gradually. A high cornification index is a good guide for recurrence. The significance of dysplastic cells as premonition for recurrence is debatable. The presence of malignant cells at any stage was considered of grave significance, and indicates poor radiation response or recurrence.

  9. Magnetism and superconductivity in Eu0.2Sr0.8(Fe0.86Co0.14)2As2 probed by 75As NMR.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, R; Nath, R; Khuntia, P; Jeevan, H S; Gegenwart, P; Baenitz, M

    2012-02-01

    We report bulk superconductivity (SC) in Eu(0.2)Sr(0.8)(Fe(0.86)Co(0.14))(2)As(2) single crystals by means of electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements with T(c) is approximately equal to 20 K and an antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering of Eu(2+) moments at T(N) is approximately equal to 2.0 K in zero field. (75)As NMR experiments have been performed in the two external field directions (H is parallel to ab) and (H is parallel to c). (75)As-NMR spectra are analysed in terms of first-order quadrupolar interaction. Spin-lattice relaxation rates (1/T(1)) follow a T(3) law in the temperature range 4.2-15 K. There is no signature of a Hebel-Slichter coherence peak just below the SC transition, indicating a non-s-wave or s(±) type of superconductivity. In the temperature range 160-18 K 1/T(1)T follows the C/(T+θ) law reflecting 2D AFM spin fluctuations.

  10. Effects of Intercritical Annealing Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Fe-7.9Mn-0.14Si-0.05Al-0.07C Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xianming; Shen, Yongfeng; Qiu, Lina; Liu, Yandong; Sun, Xin; Zuo, Liang

    2014-12-09

    A medium Mn steel has been designed to achieve an excellent combination of strength and ductility based on the TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) concept for automotive applications. Following six passes of hot rolling at 850 °C, the Fe-7.9Mn-0.14Si-0.05Al-0.07C (wt.%) steel was warm-rolled at 630 °C for seven passes and subsequently air cooled to room temperature. The sample was subsequently intercritically annealed at various temperatures for 30 min to promote the reverse transformation of martensite into austenite. The obtained results show that the highest volume fraction of austenite is 39% for the sample annealed at 600 °C. This specimen exhibits a yield stress of 910 MPa and a high ultimate tensile stress of 1600 MPa, with an elongation-to-failure of 0.29 at a strain rate of 1 × 10⁻³/s. The enhanced work-hardening ability of the investigated steel is closely related to martensitic transformation and the interaction of dislocations. Especially, the alternate arrangement of acicular ferrite (soft phase) and ultrafine austenite lamellae (50–200 nm, strong and ductile phase) is the key factor contributing to the excellent combination of strength and ductility. On the other hand, the as-warm-rolled sample also exhibits the excellent combination of strength and ductility, with elongation-to-failure much higher than those annealed at temperatures above 630 °C.

  11. Robust random telegraph conductivity noise in single crystals of the ferromagnetic insulating manganite La0.86Ca0.14MnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybytek, J.; Fink-Finowicki, J.; Puźniak, R.; Shames, A.; Markovich, V.; Mogilyansky, D.; Jung, G.

    2017-03-01

    Robust random telegraph conductivity fluctuations have been observed in La0.86Ca0.14MnO3 manganite single crystals. At room temperatures, the spectra of conductivity fluctuations are featureless and follow a 1 /f shape in the entire experimental frequency and bias range. Upon lowering the temperature, clear Lorentzian bias-dependent excess noise appears on the 1 /f background and eventually dominates the spectral behavior. In the time domain, fully developed Lorentzian noise appears as pronounced two-level random telegraph noise with a thermally activated switching rate, which does not depend on bias current and applied magnetic field. The telegraph noise is very robust and persists in the exceptionally wide temperature range of more than 50 K. The amplitude of the telegraph noise decreases exponentially with increasing bias current in exactly the same manner as the sample resistance increases with the current, pointing out the dynamic current redistribution between percolation paths dominated by phase-separated clusters with different conductivity as a possible origin of two-level conductivity fluctuations.

  12. Remodeling of the cervix and parturition in mice lacking the progesterone receptor B isoform.

    PubMed

    Yellon, Steven M; Oshiro, Bryan T; Chhaya, Tejas Y; Lechuga, Thomas J; Dias, Rejane M; Burns, Alexandra E; Force, Lindsey; Apostolakis, Ede M

    2011-09-01

    Withdrawal of progestational support for pregnancy is part of the final common pathways for parturition, but the role of nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR) isoforms in this process is not known. To determine if the PGR-B isoform participates in cervical remodeling at term, cervices were obtained from mice lacking PGR-B (PGR-BKO) and from wild-type (WT) controls before or after birth. PGR-BKO mice gave birth to viable pups at the same time as WT controls during the early morning of Day 19 postbreeding. Morphological analyses indicated that by the day before birth, cervices from PGR-BKO and WT mice had increased in size, with fewer cell nuclei/area as well as diminished collagen content and structure, as evidenced by optical density of picrosirius red-stained sections, compared to cervices from nonpregnant mice. Moreover, increased numbers of resident macrophages, but not neutrophils, were found in the prepartum cervix of PGR-BKO compared to nonpregnant mice, parallel to findings in WT mice. These results suggest that PGR-B does not contribute to the growth or degradation of the extracellular matrix or proinflammatory processes associated with recruitment of macrophages in the cervix leading up to birth. Rather, other receptors may contribute to the progesterone-dependent mechanism that promotes remodeling of the cervix during pregnancy and in the proinflammatory process associated with ripening before parturition.

  13. Elastographic measurement of the cervix during pregnancy: Current status and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunjung

    2017-01-01

    The cervix is a cylindrical structure that is proximally connected to the uterus and distally to the vaginal cavity. The Bishop score has been used to evaluate the cervix during pregnancy. However, alternatives have been evaluated because the Bishop score is uncomfortable for patients, relies on a subjective examination, and lacks internal os data. Elastography has been used to assess the cervix, as it can estimate tissue stiffness. Recent articles on elastography for cervical assessment during pregnancy have focused on its usefulness for prediction of preterm birth and successful labor induction. There is a clinical need for cervical elastography, as an evaluation of biomechanical factors, because cervical length only assesses morphological changes. However, until now, cervical elastography has been studied in the limited field, and not shown a uniformed methodological technique. In this review, the current status, limitations, and future possibility of cervical elastography were discussed. Future studies should focus on overcoming the limitations of cervical elastography. Although the cervical elastography is presently an incompletely defined technique, it needs to be improved and evaluated as a method for use in combination with cervical length. PMID:28217665

  14. [Labor induction with an unfavorable cervix by the modified Krause method].

    PubMed

    Benavides de la Garza, L; Cerda Hinojosa, J; Benavides de Anda, L

    1994-09-01

    When delivery induction with an unfavorable cervix, is required, the traditional conduct has been to use oxitocin and more recently prostaglandins as gel. The purpose of this report is to communicate the experience of a prospective work with a group of 48 patients with amenorrhea from 16 to 42.5 weeks of gestation with an unfavorable cervix. The idea was to modify cervical features in order to facilitate delivery induction in patients with the following diagnosis: 1, Prolonged pregnancy in 32 patients. 2. Severe pre-eclampsia in seven. 3. High blood pressure in five. 4. Intrauterine growth retardation in four. All the patients were evaluated with a Bishop index of three or less. The procedure consisted of introduction of a No. 14 or 16 Foley catheter through the cervical canal, filling the balloon with 30 ml, and simultaneous application of intravenous oxitocin controlled with an infusion pump. Cervical maturation was seen in all the patients, time was from 2 to 24 hours. In all the cases Bishop's index was greater than five after the procedure. Delivery via was vaginal in 26 patients, and cesarean section in 22. There were no infectious complications, nor other type in women nor in newborns. It was concluded that despite criticism, this procedure has shown to be useful, dependable, to mature the cervix, its is available for all gyneco-obstetricians and easy to carry out.

  15. Content analysis of uterine cervix images: initial steps towards content based indexing and retrieval of cervigrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Shiri; Zimmerman, Gali; Long, Rodney; Antani, Sameer; Jeronimo, Jose; Greenspan, Hayit

    2006-03-01

    This work is motivated by the need for visual information extraction and management in the growing field of medical image archives. In particular the work focuses on a unique medical repository of digital cervicographic images ("Cervigrams") collected by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in a longitudinal multi-year study carried out in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. NCI together with the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is developing a unique Web-based database of the digitized cervix images to study the evolution of lesions related to cervical cancer. Such a database requires specific tools that can analyze the cervigram content and represent it in a way that can be efficiently searched and compared. We present a multi-step scheme for segmenting and labeling regions of medical and anatomical interest within the cervigram, utilizing statistical tools and adequate features. The multi-step structure is motivated by the large diversity of the images within the database. The algorithm identifies the cervix region within the image. It than separates the cervix region into three main tissue types: the columnar epithelium (CE), the squamous epithelium (SE), and the acetowhite (AW), which is visible for a short time following the application of acetic acid. The algorithm is developed and tested on a subset of 120 cervigrams that were manually labeled by NCI experts. Initial segmentation results are presented and evaluated.

  16. A Case of Malignant Melanoma of the Uterine Cervix with Disseminated Metastases throughout the Vaginal Wall

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Nami; Mabuchi, Yasushi; Yagi, Shigetaka; Minami, Sawako; Okuhira, Hisako; Yamamoto, Yuki; Nakamura, Yasushi; Ino, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) in the female genital tract accounts for less than 2% of all melanomas, and the vast majority associated occur in the vulva and vagina. Primary MM of the uterine cervix is extremely rare and its prognosis is very poor. We report a case of primary MM of the cervix with dissemination throughout the vaginal wall. A 66-year-old woman presented with postmenopausal bleeding. Gynecologic examination demonstrated a 2 cm polypoid blackish-pigmented tumor on the cervix with multiple small blackish-pigmented lesions throughout the vaginal wall. Cervical Pap smear cytology showed malignant melanoma. MRI and PET/CT did not detect any distant or lymph node metastases. She underwent radical hysterectomy, pelvic lymphadenectomy, and total vaginectomy. The pathological diagnosis was FIGO stage IIIA primary cervical MM. She received adjuvant chemotherapy with 6 courses of dacarbazine, but 6 months later, multiple lung metastases were detected. Despite 4 courses of anti-PD-1 antibody (nivolumab) treatment, she died of the disease 13 months after surgery. PMID:28197351

  17. Radiation dose delivery verification in the treatment of carcinoma-cervix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrotriya, D.; Kumar, S.; Srivastava, R. N. L.

    2015-06-01

    The accurate dose delivery to the clinical target volume in radiotherapy can be affected by various pelvic tissues heterogeneities. An in-house heterogeneous woman pelvic phantom was designed and used to verify the consistency and computational capability of treatment planning system of radiation dose delivery in the treatment of cancer cervix. Oncentra 3D-TPS with collapsed cone convolution (CCC) dose calculation algorithm was used to generate AP/PA and box field technique plan. the radiation dose was delivered by Primus Linac (Siemens make) employing high energy 15 MV photon beam by isocenter technique. A PTW make, 0.125cc ionization chamber was used for direct measurements at various reference points in cervix, bladder and rectum. The study revealed that maximum variation between computed and measured dose at cervix reference point was 1% in both the techniques and 3% and 4% variation in AP/PA field and 5% and 4.5% in box technique at bladder and rectum points respectively.

  18. Radiation dose delivery verification in the treatment of carcinoma-cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Shrotriya, D. Srivastava, R. N. L.; Kumar, S.

    2015-06-24

    The accurate dose delivery to the clinical target volume in radiotherapy can be affected by various pelvic tissues heterogeneities. An in-house heterogeneous woman pelvic phantom was designed and used to verify the consistency and computational capability of treatment planning system of radiation dose delivery in the treatment of cancer cervix. Oncentra 3D-TPS with collapsed cone convolution (CCC) dose calculation algorithm was used to generate AP/PA and box field technique plan. the radiation dose was delivered by Primus Linac (Siemens make) employing high energy 15 MV photon beam by isocenter technique. A PTW make, 0.125cc ionization chamber was used for direct measurements at various reference points in cervix, bladder and rectum. The study revealed that maximum variation between computed and measured dose at cervix reference point was 1% in both the techniques and 3% and 4% variation in AP/PA field and 5% and 4.5% in box technique at bladder and rectum points respectively.

  19. Immunophenotype and human papillomavirus status of serous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Togami, Shinichi; Sasajima, Yuko; Kasamatsu, Takahiro; Oda-Otomo, Rie; Okada, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Mitsuya; Ikeda, Shun-ichi; Kato, Tomoyasu; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Serous adenocarcinoma of the cervix (SACC) is a very rare tumor. Our study aimed to characterize the immune profile and human papillomavirus (HPV) status of SACC, in comparison with other serous adenocarcinomas arising in the female genital tract. The pathological specimens obtained from 81 patients with serous carcinoma of the uterine cervix (n = 12), 29 endometrium, 20 ovary and 20 patients with mucinous carcinoma of the uterine cervix were reviewed. We assessed the expression of WT-1, p53, p16, HER2, CEA, and CA125 by immunohistochemistry and HPV DNA by PCR in 12 SACC samples. Their immune profile was compared with that of uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC), ovarian serous adenocarcinoma (OSA), and mucinous endocervical adenocarcinoma (MEA). WT-1 and HER2 were expressed in very few SACC samples (0 and 0%, respectively), but p16, CA125, CEA and p53 were present in 100, 92, 58 and 50%, respectively. The difference in WT-1 expression between SACC and UPSC, MEA is not significant, but SACC differ significantly from OSA (p < 0.01). HPV DNA (type 16 or 18) was detected in 4 of the 12 SACC. The immunophenotype of SACC was similar to UPSC, whereas the frequency of expression of WT-1 was significantly lower in SACC than OSA. It appeared that p53 expression was associated with worse clinical outcome in patients with SACC, and that HPV infection was related to its occurrence.

  20. Cytologic characteristics of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix uteri--case report.

    PubMed

    Barisić, Ana; Mahovlić, Vesna; Ovanin-Rakić, Ana; Skopljanac-Macina, Lada; Rajhvajn, Sanda; Juric, Danijela; Babić, Damir

    2010-03-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare malignancy, usually found in the salivary glands, although this unusual tumor can be found at other sites of the body. In particular, regarding adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix (ACCC) most frequently reports are given for postmenopausal women. In this respect, our work is one among very few in the literature that considers a cytologic picture of this uncommon cervix carcinoma. The case of 74 year old patient with postmenopausal bleeding is described. Both Pap smear and air dried smear of the uterine cervix were analyzed. The cytologic findings revealed very few small clusters of abnormal glandular cells, as well as some amorphous eosinophilic globule-like material, with granulomatous and necrotic background. The latter includes a lot of histiocytes, multinucleated giant cells, large aggregates of epitheloid cells and lymphocytes. Histology revealed the diagnosis of ACCC. We emphasize the importance of careful screening of Pap smear that might be crucial in the case of suspicious clinical findings in postmenopausal women, when the possibility of ACCC has to be considered.

  1. Long-term Outcome after Radiotherapy for FIGO Stage IIIB and IVA Carcinoma of the Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, Anamaria R.; Amdur, Robert J. . E-mail: amdurrj@shands.ufl.edu; Morris, Christopher G.; Morgan, Linda S.; Mendenhall, William M.

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: To report the long-term outcome after radiotherapy with curative intent for Stage IIIB and IVA carcinoma of the cervix. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 91 patients treated with radiotherapy with curative intent at University of Florida between January 1980 and December 2003 for Stage IIIB (84 patients) or IVA (7 patients) carcinoma of the cervix. Results: The median follow-up of the surviving patients was 8.8 years. The 5- and 10-year estimates of local control, regional control, locoregional control, relapse-free survival, and overall survival were 53% and 53%, 55% and 47%, 34% and 29%, 30% and 26%, and 29% and 21%, respectively. Ninety percent of the recurrences occurred within 2 years of treatment. Of these, 60% of all failures were local, 29% were regional, and 11% were distant failures alone. Also, 17% of the failures were in the paraaortic nodes with no evidence of failure in the pelvis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted with the endpoint of relapse-free or overall survival. No factor was statistically significant. Complications from therapy were scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grading system; the overall severe late complication rate was 13% (Grade 3-5). Conclusion: This series is one of the most mature of published reports. With long-term follow-up, approximately one-third of patients with Stage IIIB or IVA carcinoma of the cervix were cured, with a 13% complication rate.

  2. High strain rate superplasticity of a 25 Wt Pct Cr-7 Wt Pct Ni-3 Wt Pct Mo-0.14 Wt Pct N duplex stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehara, Yasuhiro

    1991-05-01

    Effects of prior thermomechanical treatments on the superplasticity of a 25 wt pct Cr-7 wt pct Ni-3 wt pct Mo-0.14 wt pct N δ/γ duplex stainless steel have been studied by means of hot tensile testing with constant crosshead speeds. The objective is to increase the strain rate suitable for superplasticity. The strain rate is found to be markedly increased by a special prior treatment, i.e., solution treatment at temperatures in the δ single-phase region with subsequent heavy cold-rolling. In hot tensile tests at 1273 K, elongations greater than 1000 and 300 pct were observed at initial strain rates (έ) of 10-3 to 10-1 s-1 and 1 x 100 s-1, respectively. The results for strain rates <10-1 s-1 can be explained in terms of a structural superplastic effect due to grain refinement. In the case of έ > 10-1 s-1, transformation superplastic effects due to γ-phase precipitation from the σ-ferrite matrix are also important, especially in the early stages of deformation. In the equiaxed δ/γ microduplex structures during stable superplastic deformation, there exists a mixture of two different structures, i.e., dislocated and recovered/ recrystallized δ grains with a homogeneous dispersion of dislocation-free γ particles. This result shows that dynamic recrystallization of δ grains occurs locally and intermittently due to the dispersion of relatively hard γ particles. The apparent average grain growth rate during deformation is small compared to static grain growth, because grain refinement due to dynamic recrystallization reduces the superplasticity-enhanced grain growth.

  3. Effects of Intercritical Annealing Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Fe-7.9Mn-0.14Si-0.05Al-0.07C Steel

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Xianming; Shen, Yongfeng; Qiu, Lina; ...

    2014-12-09

    A medium Mn steel has been designed to achieve an excellent combination of strength and ductility based on the TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) concept for automotive applications. Following six passes of hot rolling at 850 °C, the Fe-7.9Mn-0.14Si-0.05Al-0.07C (wt.%) steel was warm-rolled at 630 °C for seven passes and subsequently air cooled to room temperature. The sample was subsequently intercritically annealed at various temperatures for 30 min to promote the reverse transformation of martensite into austenite. The obtained results show that the highest volume fraction of austenite is 39% for the sample annealed at 600 °C. This specimen exhibits amore » yield stress of 910 MPa and a high ultimate tensile stress of 1600 MPa, with an elongation-to-failure of 0.29 at a strain rate of 1 × 10⁻³/s. The enhanced work-hardening ability of the investigated steel is closely related to martensitic transformation and the interaction of dislocations. Especially, the alternate arrangement of acicular ferrite (soft phase) and ultrafine austenite lamellae (50–200 nm, strong and ductile phase) is the key factor contributing to the excellent combination of strength and ductility. On the other hand, the as-warm-rolled sample also exhibits the excellent combination of strength and ductility, with elongation-to-failure much higher than those annealed at temperatures above 630 °C.« less

  4. The association of beta-2 adrenoceptor genotype with short-cervix mediated preterm birth: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Russell; Smiley, Richard; Thom, Elizabeth A.; Grobman, William A.; Iams, Jay D.; Mercer, Brian M.; Saade, George; Tita, Alan T.; Reddy, Uma M.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Sorokin, Yoram; Blackwell, Sean C.; Esplin, M. Sean; Tolosa, Jorge E.; Caritis, Steve N.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if β2-adrenoceptor (β2AR) genotype is associated with shortening of the cervix or with preterm birth (PTB) risk among subjects with a short cervix in the second trimester. DESIGN A case-control ancillary study to a multicenter randomized controlled trial. SETTING 14 participating centers of the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. POPULATION 439 subjects, including 315 with short cervix and 124 with normal cervical length. METHODS Nulliparous women with cervical length <30mm upon 16–22 week transvaginal sonogram and controls frequency-matched for race/ethnicity with cervical lengths ≥40mm were studied. β2AR genotype was determined at positions encoding for amino acid residues 16 and 27. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Genotype distributions were compared between case and control groups. Within the short cervix group, pregnancy outcomes were compared by genotype, with a primary outcome of PTB <37 weeks. RESULTS Genotype data were available at position 16 for 433 subjects and position 27 for 437. Using a recessive model testing for association between short cervix and genotype, and adjusted for ethnicity, there was no statistical difference between cases and controls for Arg16 homozygosity (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4–1.3) or Gln27 homozygosity (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.3–2.7). Among cases, Arg16 homozygosity was not associated with protection from PTB or spontaneous PTB. Gln27 homozygosity was not associated with PTB risk, although sample size was limited. CONCLUSIONS β2AR genotype does not seem to be associated with short cervical length or with PTB following the second-trimester identification of a short cervix. Influences on PTB associated with β2AR genotype do not appear to involve a short cervix pathway. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT β2AR gene variation was not associated with short cervix or with PTB risk following a short cervix diagnosis. PMID:25600430

  5. Effect of Saffron (Fan Hong Hua) On the Readiness of The Uterine Cervix In Term Pregnancy: A Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sadi, Roghaieh; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Ahmadi-Bonabi, Afkham

    2016-01-01

    Background Readiness of the cervix is required for successful induction of labor, and there are a number of ways in which this can be achieved. Objectives The aim of the present study was to assess whether taking saffron orally could have an effect on the cervical readiness (primary outcome) and some delivery and neonatal outcomes (secondary outcomes) in women in the stage of term pregnancy. Patients and Methods In this double-blind trial, 50 women with a gestational age of 39 to 41 weeks, no indication of cesarean section, a Bishop’s score of less than 4, who had plan to have vaginal delivery at Shohada hospital of Bonab, Iran were randomized into two groups receiving three 250mg saffron or placebo pills in 24 hours. The readiness of the cervix was assessed using the Bishop’s score. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the scores between the groups. Results There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of the Bishop’s score at the baseline (P = 0.792) and 10-12 hours after starting the intervention (P = 0.159). The Bishop’s score was significantly higher in the saffron group 20 - 24 hours after the intervention was started (P = 0.029) and just after onset of active uterine contractions (P = 0.003). In the saffron group, there was no cesarean section and 1 meconium staining of the fetus, but 3 and 4, respectively, in the placebo group. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of the timing of the onset of spontaneous active uterine contractions, the duration of the first and second stages of labor, the need for delivery augmentation, and the first and fifth minutes of neonatal Apgar (P > 0.05). No adverse event was reported in any of the groups. Conclusions Saffron can increase the readiness of the cervix in term pregnancies. However, the study limitations do not allow for any definite conclusions for its use in clinical practice, and more research is needed to assess its effect on delivery and

  6. Identification of lymphatic vessels and prognostic value of lymphatic microvessel density in lesions of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Saptefraţi, L; Cîmpean, Anca Maria; Ciornîi, A; Ceauşu, Raluca; Eşanu, N; Raica, M

    2009-01-01

    Incomplete characterization of the uterine cervix cancer from molecular point of view represents the main problem for the use of a proper therapy in this disease. Few data are available about D2-40 expression in lymphatic endothelial cells and also in tumor cells from uterine cervix cancer. The aim of the present work was to study the involvement of lymphatics in prognosis and tumor progression of the uterine cervix lesions. We used D2-40 immunostaining to highlight lymphatic vessels from squamous cell metaplasia (n=17), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (n=11), carcinoma in situ (n=3), microinvasive carcinoma (n=4) and invasive carcinoma (n=19) using Avidin-Biotin technique (LSAB+). Type and distribution of lymphatics in different lesions of the cervix were analyzed. We found significant correlation between lymphatic microvessel density and tumor grade and particular distribution of the lymphatics linked to histopathologic type of the lesions. Also, differences was found in lymphovascular invasion interpretation between routine Hematoxylin and Eosin staining specimens and immunohistochemical ones. Our results showed differences in the distribution and D2-40 expression in lymphatic vessels and tumor cells from the cervix lesions linked to histopathology and tumor grade.

  7. The Dosimetric Consequences of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy for Cervix Cancer: The Impact of Organ Motion, Deformation and Tumour Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Karen Siah Huey

    Hypothesis: In intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for cervix cancer, the dose received by the tumour target and surrounding normal tissues is significantly different to that indicated by a single static plan. Rationale: The optimal use of IMRT in cervix cancer requires a greater attention to clinical target volume (CTV) definition and tumour & normal organ motion to assure maximum tumour control with the fewest side effects. Research Aims: 1) Generate consensus CTV contouring guidelines for cervix cancer; 2) Evaluate intra-pelvic tumour and organ dynamics during radiotherapy; 3) Analyze the dose consequences of intra-pelvic organ dynamics on different radiotherapy strategies. Results: Consensus CTV definitions were generated using experts-in-the-field. Substantial changes in tumour volume and organ motion, resulted in significant reductions in accumulated dose to tumour targets and variability in accumulated dose to surrounding normal tissues. Significance: Formalized CTV definitions for cervix cancer is important in ensuring consistent standards of practice. Complex and unpredictable tumour and organ dynamics mandates daily soft-tissue image guidance if IMRT is used. To maximize the benefits of IMRT for cervix cancer, a strategy of adaptation is necessary.

  8. Using imaging-based, three-dimensional models of the cervix and uterus for studies of cervical changes during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    House, Michael; McCabe, Reid; Socrate, Simona

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth affects over 12% of all pregnancies in the United States for an annual healthcare cost of $26 billion. Preterm birth is a multifactorial disorder but cervical abnormalities are a prominent feature in many patients. Women with a short cervix are known to be at increased risk for preterm birth and a short cervix is used to target therapy to prevent preterm birth. Although the clinical significance of a short cervix is well known, the three-dimensional anatomical changes that lead to cervical shortening are poorly understood. Here, we review our previous studies of the three-dimensional anatomy of the cervix and uterus during pregnancy. The rationale for these studies was to improve our understanding of the deformation mechanisms leading to cervical shortening. Both magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound were used to obtain anatomical data in healthy, pregnant volunteers. Solid models were constructed from the 3D imaging data. These solid models were used to create numerical models suitable for biomechanical simulation. Three simulations were studied: cervical funneling, uterine growth, and fundal pressure. These simulations showed that cervical changes are a complex function of the tissue properties of the cervical stroma, the loading conditions associated with pregnancy and the 3D anatomical geometry of the cervix and surrounding structures. An improved understanding of these cervical changes could point to new approaches to prevent undesired cervical shortening. This new insight should lead to therapeutic strategies to delay or prevent preterm birth.

  9. Collagen Fiber Orientation and Dispersion in the Upper Cervix of Non-Pregnant and Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kristin M.; Vink, Joy Y.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Hendon, Christine P.

    2016-01-01

    The structural integrity of the cervix in pregnancy is necessary for carrying a pregnancy until term, and the organization of human cervical tissue collagen likely plays an important role in the tissue’s structural function. Collagen fibers in the cervical extracellular matrix exhibit preferential directionality, and this collagen network ultrastructure is hypothesized to reorient and remodel during cervical softening and dilation at time of parturition. Within the cervix, the upper half is substantially loaded during pregnancy and is where the premature funneling starts to happen. To characterize the cervical collagen ultrastructure for the upper half of the human cervix, we imaged whole axial tissue slices from non-pregnant and pregnant women undergoing hysterectomy or cesarean hysterectomy respectively using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and implemented a pixel-wise fiber orientation tracking method to measure the distribution of fiber orientation. The collagen fiber orientation maps show that there are two radial zones and the preferential fiber direction is circumferential in a dominant outer radial zone. The OCT data also reveal that there are two anatomic regions with distinct fiber orientation and dispersion properties. These regions are labeled: Region 1—the posterior and anterior quadrants in the outer radial zone and Region 2—the left and right quadrants in the outer radial zone and all quadrants in the inner radial zone. When comparing samples from nulliparous vs multiparous women, no differences in these fiber properties were noted. Pregnant tissue samples exhibit an overall higher fiber dispersion and more heterogeneous fiber properties within the sample than non-pregnant tissue. Collectively, these OCT data suggest that collagen fiber dispersion and directionality may play a role in cervical remodeling during pregnancy, where distinct remodeling properties exist according to anatomical quadrant. PMID:27898677

  10. Radical radiotherapy for cervix cancer: The effect of waiting time on outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Choan, E. . E-mail: ce@ottawahospital.on.ca; Dahrouge, Simone; Samant, Rajiv; Mirzaei, Ameneh; Price, Julie

    2005-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the effect of treatment waiting time on clinical outcome for patients with cervix cancers treated with radical radiotherapy. Methods and materials: A retrospective analysis was conducted on all cervix cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy between 1990 and 2001 at the Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre. Analyses were performed according to the three following separate definitions of waiting times: interval from start of radiotherapy to (1) date of initial biopsy (2) date of examination under anesthesia, and (3) date of radiation oncology consultation. Associations between waiting times and patient characteristics and disease control were investigated using t-tests, analyses of variance, and Cox regression analyses. Results: A total of 195 patients were studied. The vast majority of patients were treated within 5, 6, and 8 weeks of their consultation (91%), examination under anesthesia (88%), and biopsy (81%), respectively. On average, delays between initial biopsy and treatment start were greater for older patients (p = 0.025) (5.8 weeks for <40 years old vs. 6.6 weeks for >70 years old) and those with smaller tumors (p < 0.001) (5.0 weeks for >4 cm vs. 6.3 weeks for {<=}4 cm). Univariate analysis revealed no adverse effect of treatment delay on tumor control. Multivariate analysis, with the inclusion of multiple prognostic tumor and treatment parameters, revealed an adverse effect of treatment delay on survival outcomes. Conclusions: Longer radiotherapy waiting times were found to be associated with diminished survival outcomes for patients treated radically for cervix cancer. The significance of this observed association requires further investigation.

  11. Tumor Heterogeneity of FIGO Stage III Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong Bae; Lee, Ik Jae; Kim, Song Yih; Kim, Jun Won; Yoon, Hong In; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Young Tae; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Gwi Eon

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze tumor heterogeneity based on tumor extent and suggest reappraisal of the system of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) for Stage III carcinoma of the uterine cervix from a radiotherapeutic viewpoint. Methods and Materials: Between 1986 and 2004, 407 patients with FIGO Stage III (FIGO Stage IIIa in 19 and IIIb in 388) were treated with external beam radiotherapy (RT) and high-dose rate brachytherapy. All patients were reviewed with respect to tumor extent. Patterns of failure and survival parameters were analyzed by use of the chi{sup 2} test and Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The complete response rate was 79.6%, and the 5-year overall survival rates for Stage IIIa and Stage IIIb carcinoma of the cervix were 82.1% and 54.8%, respectively. To determine which parameters of tumor extent had an influence on prognosis for Stage IIIb patients, pelvic wall (PW) extension and hydronephrosis (HD) retained significance on multivariate analysis. Stage IIIb patients were divided into three subgroups according to PW extension and HD: low risk (unilateral PW extension without HD), intermediate risk (HD without PW extension or bilateral PW extension without HD), and high risk (unilateral or bilateral PW extension with HD). The high-risk group had a remarkably low complete response rate, high locoregional failure rate, and low 5-year survival rate compared with the intermediate- and low-risk groups. Conclusions: FIGO Stage III carcinoma of the cervix covers considerably heterogeneous subgroups according to tumor extent. Before initiation of treatment, we suggest that physicians determine a tailored treatment policy based on tumor heterogeneity for each Stage III patient.

  12. External cobalt 60 irradiation alone for stage IIB carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Z.Z.; He, F.Z.

    1989-02-01

    From 1964 to 1980, 97 patients with Stage IIb carcinoma of cervix uteri were treated by external 60Co irradiation alone. Of these 97 patients, 94 (96.9%) had squamous cell carcinoma. The parametrial extension of the lesion almost reached the pelvic wall in 73.2% and vaginal extension reached to the upper half of vaginal in 24.7% of the patients. A tumor dose of 60 Gy was given to the whole pelvis by a four field technic (opposing parallel AP and lateral portals) in 6-8 weeks. A booster dose of 10 Gy was delivered to the cervix by a pair of reduced opposing parallel AP portals or a perineal portal in a week. The doses delivered were equivalent to the Time-Dose-Fractionation (TDF) value of 110-130 at the center of pelvis and 90-110 in the whole pelvis. The 5-year survival rate for all 97 patients was 56.7%. It was 59.8% when those who died of other diseases were excluded. The prognosis of patients without residual tumor on the cervix and/or vagina was better than that with residual tumor (p less than 0.01). Thirty-seven patients died of cancer (23 died of recurrence, 8 of distant metastases, 2 of both, and 4 were lost before the fifth year). Of these 37 patients, 97.3% died within 3 years after initial treatment. During the radiation treatment, reactions were moderate. Late complications included 19 (19.6%) with mild cystitis and 16 (16.5%) with mild proctitis, 2 (2.7%) developed recto-vaginal fistula. These results were slightly poorer than those using intracavitary and external irradiation or the combination of preoperative irradiation plus surgery. Yet, for patients with extensions nearing the pelvic wall or with contra-indications to surgery or intracavitary radiotherapy, external irradiation alone is still of value.

  13. Cervix-to-rectum measuring device in a radiation applicator for use in the treatment of cervical cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischell, D. R.; Mazique, J. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A cervix-to-rectum measuring device to be used in the treatment of cervical cancer is described. It includes a handle and a probe pivotably connected to the handle for insertion in the rectum. The measuring device further includes means for coupling the handle to an intrauterine radiation applicator when the latter is positioned in the uterine cervix and the probe is inserted in the rectum to pivot the handle about the probe. A gear is provided which is adapted to pivot with the probe. A pinion pivotably connected to the handle meshes with the gear. A pointer fixed to the pinion is displaced in response to the pivoting of the handle about the probe, and this displacement can be read from a scale on the handle, providing an indication of the cervix-to-rectum distance.

  14. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the uterine cervix diagnosed during pregnancy: a rare case with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Khosla, Divya; Rai, Bhavana; Patel, Firuza D; Sreedharanunni, Sreejesh; Dey, Pranab; Sharma, Suresh C

    2014-03-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the cervix are very rare. A 28-year-old pregnant woman presented with a cervical mass. The tumor was staged as IB2. The biopsy from tumor was suggestive of malignant small round cell tumor. She then underwent termination of pregnancy followed by radical hysterectomy. Based on morphologic and immunohistochemical profile, a diagnosis of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix was made. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient is alive and disease-free 33 months post-surgery. The present case highlights the importance of keeping primitive neuroectodermal tumors in the differential diagnosis of small cell neoplasms of the uterine cervix. Pregnancy should not be a barrier to early detection and treatment of this potentially aggressive tumor. The optimal treatment methods have not yet been established because of the rarity of the tumor.

  15. Cervix-to-rectum measuring device in a radiation applicator for use in the treatment of cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fischell, D.R.; Mazique, J.C.

    1981-10-01

    A cervix-to-rectum measuring device to be used in the treatment of cervical cancer is described. It includes a handle and a probe pivotably connected to the handle for insertion in the rectum. The measuring device further includes means for coupling the handle to an intrauterine radiation applicator when the latter is positioned in the uterine cervix and the probe is inserted in the rectum to pivot the handle about the probe. A gear is provided which is adapted to pivot with the probe. A pinion pivotably connected to the handle meshes with the gear. A pointer fixed to the pinion is displaced in response to the pivoting of the handle about the probe, and this displacement can be read from a scale on the handle, providing an indication of the cervix-to-rectum distance. Official Gazette of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

  16. Californium-252: isotope for modern radiotherapy of cervix, uterine and vaginal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Y; Beach, J L; van Nagell, J R

    1984-06-01

    Cf-252 is an isotope that can easily be after loaded into available gynecological applicators and used for bulky cervix, uterus or vaginal cancer therapy. It is economical, time and cost effective in use, and can be applied to the therapy of many patients throughout the world. It is more effective for neutron therapy than machine fast neutron therapy and is the only form of neutron therapy producing consistent complication-free 5-year cure of advanced cancers currently available. Cf-252 is an isotope for modern gynecological tumor therapy for the future. Isodose curves for Cf-252 implants revealed dose distributions conforming well to tumor.

  17. Multimodal multispectral imaging of the cervix in vivo for the detection of neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Anant; Harrell, Tim; Bambot, Shabbir B.; Faupel, Mark; Ferris, Daron

    2001-07-01

    Optical spectroscopy has been shown to be an effective method for detecting neoplasia of epithelial tissues. Most studies to date in this realm have applied fluorescence or reflectance spectroscopy alone as a preferred method of disease detection. We have been developing instrumentation which can acquire both reflectance and fluorescence images of the human cervix in vivo, with the goal of combining multispectral information from the two spectroscopic modalities. This instrumentation has been tested on a group of patients in a clinical setting. We have applied spectral and spatial analysis techniques to the acquired images to assess the capabilities of this technology to discriminate neoplastic from normal cervical tissue.

  18. Radiobiological compensation: A case study of uterine cervix cancer with concurrent chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Higmar; Yanez, Elvia; Lopez, Jesus

    2012-10-23

    The case of a patient diagnosed with uterine cervix cancer is presented as an example of the clinical application of the radiobiological compensation method implemented at Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Durango. Radiotherapy treatment was initially modified to compensate for the chemotherapy component and, as medical complications arose during treatment delivery resulting in an 18 days gap, new compensation followed. All physical and radiobiological assumptions to calculate the Biologically Effective Dose in the external beam and brachytherapy parts of the treatment are presented. Good local control of the tumor was achieved, the theoretical tolerance limits for the organs at risk were not surpassed and the patient manifested no extensive morbidity.

  19. Fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy of the cervix: pilot study on the potential and limitations for clinical implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, Colin; Bodenschatz, Nico; Lam, Sylvia; Lee, Marette; McAlpine, Jessica N.; Miller, Dianne M.; Van Niekerk, Dirk J. T.; Follen, Michele; Guillaud, Martial; MacAulay, Calum E.; Lane, Pierre M.

    2016-12-01

    Current diagnostic capabilities and limitations of fluorescence endomicroscopy in the cervix are assessed by qualitative and quantitative image analysis. Four cervical tissue types are investigated: normal columnar epithelium, normal and precancerous squamous epithelium, and stromal tissue. This study focuses on the perceived variability within and the subtle differences between the four tissue groups in the context of endomicroscopic in vivo pathology. Conclusions are drawn on the general ability to distinguish and diagnose tissue types, on the need for imaging depth control to enhance differentiation, and on the possible risks for diagnostic misinterpretations.

  20. Tuberculosis of the cervix and infertility: report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Guié, P; Iovenitti, P; N'guessan, K; Tegnan, J; Koffi, K; Carta, G; Anongba, S

    2008-01-01

    Tubercolosis is a frequent bacterial infection in less developed countries. Lung and lymph node localisations are common, while the genital apparatus is less involved. In this work a rare case of cervical tuberculosis followed by some lesions causing infertility in a 20-year-old woman is reported. The diagnosis was confirmed by a histological examination from a biopsy of the cervix. The patient was offered six-month antituberculosis therapy which eliminated the cervical lesions. A few years later she came under our care for infertility due to uterine adhesions diagnosed by hysterosalpingography. Now the patient is being treated for infertility complicated by amenorrhoea.

  1. Radiobiological compensation: A case study of uterine cervix cancer with concurrent chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Higmar; Yañez, Elvia; López, Jesús

    2012-10-01

    The case of a patient diagnosed with uterine cervix cancer is presented as an example of the clinical application of the radiobiological compensation method implemented at Centro Estatal de Cancerología de Durango. Radiotherapy treatment was initially modified to compensate for the chemotherapy component and, as medical complications arose during treatment delivery resulting in an 18 days gap, new compensation followed. All physical and radiobiological assumptions to calculate the Biologically Effective Dose in the external beam and brachytherapy parts of the treatment are presented. Good local control of the tumor was achieved, the theoretical tolerance limits for the organs at risk were not surpassed and the patient manifested no extensive morbidity.

  2. [Complications of surgical stage of treatment in patients with cancer of cervix uteri stage IIB].

    PubMed

    Kryzhanivs'ka, A Ie

    2013-11-01

    The results of treatment of 127 patients, suffering cervix uteri cancer stage IIB in period of 1998 - 2012 yrs, were analyzed. Complications of surgical stage of the combined treatment have had occurred in 40.9% patients, including 40.5% patients, to whom neoadjuvant chemotherapy was conducted and in 41.5%--radiation therapy (RTH). The main postoperative complications--retroperitoneal lymphatic cysts--were revealed in 35.4% patients. The factors, raising the risk of postoperative complications occurrence, are following: the primary tumor spreading, metastatic affection of lymphatic nodes of pelvic cavity, preoperative conduction of RTH or chemotherapy.

  3. Successful pregnancy after uterovaginal anastomosis in patients with congenital atresia of cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Prorocic, M; Vasiljevic, M; Tasic, L; Brankovic, S

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of successful pregnancy after effective uterovaginal anastomosis in a 26-years-old patient with congenital atresia of the cervix uteri. She spontaneously achieved pregnancy after four years of uterovaginal anastomosis. Gestation was at the eighth lunar month and the delivery was done by cesarean section due to rapidly progressing fetal asphyxia. The patient gave birth to a live healthy male, weighing 1,950 g, with an Apgar score of 5 and 8 at 1 and 5 min, respectively. The postoperative course was uneventful, and leakage of lochia was normal.

  4. Extended-field radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Podczaski, E.; Stryker, J.A.; Kaminski, P.; Ndubisi, B.; Larson, J.; DeGeest, K.; Sorosky, J.; Mortel, R. )

    1990-07-15

    The survival of cervical carcinoma patients with paraaortic/high common iliac nodal metastases was evaluated by retrospective chart review during a 13-year interval. Thirty-three patients with cervical carcinoma and surgically documented nodal metastases received primary, extended-field radiation therapy. Overall 2-year and 5-year actuarial survival rates after diagnosis were 37% and 31%, respectively. Survival was analyzed in terms of the variables patient age, clinical stage, tumor histologic type, the presence of enlarged paraaortic/high common iliac lymph nodes, the extent of nodal involvement (microscopic versus macroscopic), the presence of intraperitoneal disease, and whether intracavitary brachytherapy was administered. The use of intracavitary radiation therapy was associated with improved local control and survival (P = 0.017). None of the other variables were statistically related to patient survival. Twenty-two of the patients died of cervical cancer and five are surviving without evidence of cancer. Four patients died of intercurrent disease. Two patients developed bowel-related radiation complications; both patients received chemotherapy concurrent with the radiation therapy. One of the two patients died of radiation enteritis. The use of extended-field radiation therapy does benefit a small group of patients and may result in extended patient survival.

  5. Clinical Behaviors and Outcomes for Adenocarcinoma or Adenosquamous Carcinoma of Cervix Treated by Radical Hysterectomy and Adjuvant Radiotherapy or Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yi-Ting; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Tsai, Chien-Sheng; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Lee, Steve P.; Hong, Ji-Hong

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To compare clinical behaviors and treatment outcomes between patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma (AC/ASC) of the cervix treated with radical hysterectomy (RH) and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 318 Stage IB-IIB cervical cancer patients, 202 (63.5%) with SCC and 116 (36.5%) with AC/ASC, treated by RH and adjuvant RT/CCRT, were included. The indications for RT/CCRT were deep stromal invasion, positive resection margin, parametrial invasion, or lymph node (LN) metastasis. Postoperative CCRT was administered in 65 SCC patients (32%) and 80 AC/ASC patients (69%). Patients with presence of parametrial invasion or LN metastasis were stratified into a high-risk group, and the rest into an intermediate-risk group. The patterns of failure and factors influencing survival were evaluated. Results: The treatment failed in 39 SCC patients (19.3%) and 39 AC/ASC patients (33.6%). The 5-year relapse-free survival rates for SCC and AC/ASC patients were 83.4% and 66.5%, respectively (p = 0.000). Distant metastasis was the major failure pattern in both groups. After multivariate analysis, prognostic factors for local recurrence included younger age, parametrial invasion, AC/ASC histology, and positive resection margin; for distant recurrence they included parametrial invasion, LN metastasis, and AC/ASC histology. Compared with SCC patients, those with AC/ASC had higher local relapse rates for the intermediate-risk group but a higher distant metastasis rate for the high-risk group. Postoperative CCRT tended to improve survival for intermediate-risk but not for high-risk AC/ASC patients. Conclusions: Adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma is an independent prognostic factor for cervical cancer patients treated by RH and postoperative RT. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy could improve survival for intermediate-risk, but not necessarily high-risk, AC/ASC patients.

  6. Preparation for induction of labour of the unfavourable cervix with Foley catheter compared with vaginal prostaglandin.

    PubMed

    Thomas, I L; Chenoweth, J N; Tronc, G N; Johnson, I R

    1986-02-01

    Ripening of the unfavourable cervix prior to induction of labour using traction on a Foley catheter (32 patients) was compared with 40 mg of prostaglandin F2 alpha in Tylose gel applied to the external cervical os and held in place for 12 hours with a vaginal diaphragm (25 patients). Each patient in the above groups had a modified Bishop score of 0-3 and was randomly allocated to one or other group. Comparison was made with a further 25 patients in whom the cervical score was 4-6. Timing of amniotomy and commencement of Syntocinon infusion were equivalent for all patients. Prostaglandins conferred no advantage over Foley catheter in terms of amniotomy-delivery interval, operative delivery rate, and condition of the baby one minute after birth. The disadvantages of prostaglandins for cervical ripening are a longer preparation-delivery interval, and cost ($77 versus $4.75 for the Foley catheter). Currently, prostaglandins are not officially approved for use in Australia for induction of labour. It is suggested, therefore, that the Foley catheter is preferable for ripening the unfavourable cervix as a prelude to amniotomy.

  7. Association of educational levels with survival in Indian patients with cancer of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Krishnatreya, Manigreeva; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Sharma, Jagannath Dev; Nandy, Pintu; Gogoi, Gayatri

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was to assess the influence of educational level on the survival of uterine cervix cancer patients in our population. A total of 224 patients were registered in our registry, of which 178 had information on stage and different educational levels. The overall median survival (MS) was 23 months, with values of 18.5, 20.7 and 41.3 months for the illiterate, literate and qualified groups, respectively. In the illiterate patients, stage I was seen in 2.6% and stage IV in 11.8%, while in other 2 groups stage I was seen in 10% to 17% of patients at the time of diagnosis. The survival probability at around 50 months was around 42%, 30% and 26% (approximately) for qualified, literates and illiterates respectively [Log Rank (Mantel-Cox) showed p=0.023]. Emphasis on imparting education to females can be a part of comprehensive cancer control programme for improving the overall survival in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix in our population.

  8. Diagnosis of uterine cervix cancer using Müller polarimetry: a comparison with histopathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehbinder, Jean; Deby, Stanislas; Haddad, Huda; Teig, Benjamin; Nazac, André; Pierangelo, Angelo; Moreau, François

    2015-07-01

    Today around 275000 women a year in the world keep dying from the cancer of uterine cervix due to the difficulty to meet the logistic requirements of an organized screening in the developing world. Polarimetric imaging is a new promising technique with a tremendous potential for applications in biomedical diagnostics: it is sensitive to slight morphological changes in tissues, can provide wide field images for the screening and requires light sources such as a LED for example. This work intends to characterize the polarimetric response of the uterine cervix in its healthy and pathological states. An extensive series of ex-vivo measurements is in progress the Kremlin Bicêtre hospital near Paris using an imaging multispectral Mueller polarimeter in backscattering configuration. The goal of this study is to evaluate the performances of polarimetric imaging technique in terms of sensitivity and specificity for the detection of healthy epithelia (Healthy Squamous epithelium and Malpighian Metaplasia) with respect to the diagnosis provided by pathologists from histology slides as the "gold standard". We show that, at λ=550nm, performances as high as 62% sensitivity and 64% specificity are achieved by optimizing a simple threshold on the scalar retardance values.

  9. Tracking the Impact of Excisional Cervical Treatment on the Cervix using Biospectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Halliwell, Diane E.; Kyrgiou, Maria; Mitra, Anita; Kalliala, Ilkka; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Theophilou, Georgios; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Martin, Francis L.

    2016-01-01

    Local excisional treatment for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) is linked to significant adverse sequelae including preterm birth, with cone depth and radicality of treatment correlating to the frequency and severity of adverse events. Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy can detect underlying cervical disease more accurately than conventional cytology. The chemical profile of cells pre- and post-treatment may differ as a result of altered biochemical processes due to excision, or treatment of the disease. Since pre-treatment cervical length varies amongst women, the percentage of cervix excised may correlate more accurately to risk than absolute dimensions. We show that treatment for CIN significantly alters the biochemistry of the cervix, compared with women who have not had treatment; this is due to the removal of cervical tissue rather than the removal of the disease. However, the spectra do not seem to correlate to the cone depth or proportion of cervical length excised. Future research should aim to explore the impact of treatment in a larger cohort. PMID:27974821

  10. Examination of the cervix with the naked eye using acetic acid test.

    PubMed

    Ottaviano, M; La Torre, P

    1982-05-15

    Examination of the cervix was carried out on 2,400 patients, by use of acetic acid test with the naked eye and the colposcope. The physiologic transformation zone was clearly identified both with the naked eye and the colposcope in 1,568 of 1,594 (99%) cases. Colposcopic examination was unsatisfactory in 108 of the 264 (41%) patients in whom the cervix was completely covered by normal squamous epithelium. An atypical transformation zone (ATZ) was identified with the naked eye as white epithelium in 98.4% and as "suspicious" in 1.6% of 312 colposcopically controlled cases. An unsatisfactory colposcopic examination occurred in 39 of the 312 (12.5%) patients with an ATZ. Final histologic diagnosis for 312 ATZs was benign lesion in 169 of 312 (54.2%), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 1 and 2 in 81 of 312 (26%), grade 3 CIN in 56 of 312 (17.9%), and preclinical invasive carcinoma in 6 of 312 (1.9%). The detection of intraepithelial or preclinical invasive cervical neoplasias should not depend on the possession of a colposcope. On the other hand, the use of a colposcope is essential for the selection of CIN that can be treated with ultraconservative therapy or with colposcopically directed conization.

  11. Intracavitary irradiation of carcinomas of the uterus and cervix: the Creteil method

    SciTech Connect

    Pierquin, B.; Marinello, G.; Mege, J.P.; Crook, J.

    1988-12-01

    The Creteil method is a logical and simple system for intracavitary therapy of cervical and uterine cancer. The system is based on the use of a plastic cervico-vaginal moulage loaded with 0.5 mm diameter iridium 192 wire sources. The dimensions of both the moulage and the sources correspond to the size of the cervix being treated according to precisely defined relationships. The dose is specified on a reference isodose of a fixed value enclosing the pear-shaped target volume whose dimensions depend on the geometry of the sources. Source geometry in turn, depends on the size of the cervix. Thus, the dimensions of the target volume can be accurately predicted at the time of the application. Furthermore, treatment can be performed in a single application, with all sources having the same linear reference air kerma rate (or activity). Radioprotective measures are simple but effective and the patient is not subjected to the restrictions imposed by attachment to an after-loading apparatus. Our clinical results for early Stage T1 and T2a cervical tumors show excellent local control without major treatment complications or long term sequelae.

  12. [Breast metastasis of a squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. A case report].

    PubMed

    Yordanov, Y; Dimitrova, P

    2015-01-01

    The breast is an extremely rare target organ for metastasis of extramammary neoplasms. The occurence varies between 1.7% to 6.6% in autopsies; between 1.2% and 2% in clinical cases; and around 2.7% in sputum series. In accordance with the primary tumor localization, it is more common to find metastases of lymphoma, melanoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, tumors of the lung and ovarian tumors. Breast metastasis of the uterine cervix is a very seldomly found. According to the published literature so far there have been around 30 documented cases with such pathology. This study presents the case of a 48-year-old female with a squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, which was histologically verified in 2010. Three years after the initial tumor diagnosis, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the patient was found to have a cystic tumor formation in one of her breasts. The formation was painful to pressure. Quadrantectomy with an open bisopsy was performed to the patient. Histological and immunohistochemical diagnosis rejected primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. The differential diagnosis of metastatic lesions in the breast is problematic and requires careful clinical history, immunohistochemical study and multidisciplinary approach in the management. Mammary metastases are a bad predictor and they serve as an indicator of generalized dissemination of the primary tumor process.

  13. [Algorithm for the differential diagnosis of precancerous and regenerative changes in the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Sazonova, V Iu; Fedorova, V E; Danilova, N V

    2013-01-01

    Pretumoral changes in the epithelium of the cervix uteri include cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). CIN III should be differentiated with regenerative changes during epidermization of endocervicoses. Epidermization is proliferation of undifferentiated reserve cells that differentiate towards the squamous epithelium, by superseding the ectopic endocervical glandular epithelium. This process was called immature squamous metaplasia (ISM). The objective of the investigation was to define the significance of different morphological signs in the differential diagnosis of CIN III and ISM. One hundred and twelve cervical, CIN III, and immature squamous metaplasia biopsies were selected for examination. The selected cervical specimens were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of p16 and CK17 expression. The p16+, CK17- cases were taken as true CIN III and the pl 6-, CK17+ as a regenerative process. The basis for this investigation is the signs included by O.K. Khmelnitsky into an algorithm for the differential diagnosis of epidermizing pseudoerosion and intraepithelial cancer of the cervix uteri. The algorithm was reconsidered to objectify. The investigation established great differences in the number of significant mitoses in the study groups. A clear trend was found for differences in the number of acanthotic strands. A new differential diagnostic algorithm for CIN III and ISM, which included the number of significant mitoses and acanthotic strands and p16 and CK17 expression, was proposed.

  14. Role of paraaortic node irradiation in the treatment of cancer of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Nori, D.; Valentine, E.; Hilaris, B.S.

    1985-08-01

    One hundred and twenty-seven patients with previously untreated carcinoma of the uterine cervix underwent pretreatment laparotomy between 1971 and 1980. Thirty-one were found to have paraaortic metastasis. Twenty-seven patients received paraaortic node external supervoltage radiation to the entire paraaortic chain, 4400 cGy, over 4 1/2 weeks, with 600-800 cGy, boost over 1 week, limited to the area of metastasis as marked at laparotomy. Twenty-nine percent (8/27) of the patients with paraaortic node metastases who were irradiated have survived 5 years or more. Three of five patients (60%) with microscopic metastasis and five of twenty-two patients (23%) with gross metastasis in the paraaortic lymph nodes are long-term survivors. None of our long-term survivors have suffered late complications. There have been no fatalities from treatment related complications. The authors present a radiation technique for paraaortic radiation in these patients, and discuss the indications for paraaortic node radiation in cancer of the cervix.

  15. Detection of relaxin mRNA in the corpus luteum, uterus, and uterine cervix in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Tamada, Hiromichi; Kawate, Noritoshi; Kawata, Naoko; Inaba, Toshio; Kida, Kayoko; Hatoya, Shingo; Akune, Atsushi; Nakama, Kazuhiro; Kohsaka, Tetsuya; Sawada, Tsutomu

    2010-10-01

    In the pregnant bitch, the placenta is a major source of circulating relaxin, but its local expression in the reproductive organs is not clear. This study demonstrated expression of relaxin mRNA in the corpus luteum, uterus, uterine cervix as well as placenta in the pregnant and nonpregnant bitch by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

  16. Robotically assisted total laparoscopic radical trachelectomy for fertility sparing in stage IB1 adenosarcoma of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Geisler, John P; Orr, Curtis J; Manahan, Kelly J

    2008-10-01

    Adenosarcomas are rare cervical tumors with unknown optimal treatment, which often affects young women. A 23-year-old woman was found to have a stage IB1 adenosarcoma of the cervix. She underwent a robotically assisted total laparoscopic radical trachelectomy with the placement of abdominal cerclage for the sparing of fertility.

  17. Herpes virus infection and uterine cervix carcinoma. General considerations, personal experimental data and suggestions for a specific antiherpes adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Nastac, E; Hozoc, M; Stoian, M

    1982-01-01

    The authors review some data of the literature and results of personal investigations that point out a relationship between human herpes simplex virus infection and the etiopathogeny of uterine cervix carcinoma. On the ground of these data the authors suggest a "specific antiherpes" adjuvant therapy in this form of human cancer.

  18. Adenocarcinoma of the Cervix Uteri and Endometrium Combined With the Kartagener Syndrome on FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Chen, Yue; Huang, Zhanwen; Zhou, Fan

    2015-11-01

    A 45-year-old woman with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri and endometrium underwent FDG PET/CT for staging. No metastasis was found. However, the images revealed bronchiectasis, sinusitis, and situs inversus totalis, which are the triad of Kartagener syndrome.

  19. The Clinical Significance of Early (<20 Weeks) Versus Late (20–24 Weeks) Detection of a Sonographic Short Cervix in Asymptomatic Women in the Mid-Trimester

    PubMed Central

    Vaisbuch, Edi; Romero, Roberto; Erez, Offer; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Gotsch, Francesca; Romero, Vivian; Ward, Clara; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Mittal, Pooja; Sorokin, Yoram; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether the risk of early spontaneous preterm delivery (sPTD) in asymptomatic women with a sonographic cervical length ≤15 mm in the mid-trimester changes as a function of gestational age at diagnos Methods This cohort study included 109 asymptomatic patients with a sonographic sonographic cervical length ≤15 mm diagnosed at 14–24 weeks of gestation. Women with a multifetal gestation, cerclage, and those with a cervical dilatation >2 cm were excluded. The study population was stratified by gestational age at diagnosis (<20 weeks vs. 20–24 weeks) and by cervical length (≤10 mm vs. 11–15 mm). The primary outcome variables were PTD <28 and <32 weeks’ gestation and the diagnosis-to-delivery interval. Results 1) The median gestational age at diagnosis of a short cervix before 20 weeks and at 20–24 weeks was 18.9 and 22.7 weeks, respectively; 2) women diagnosed before 20 weeks had a higher rate of sPTD at <28 weeks (76.9% vs. 30.9%; p<0.001) and at <32 weeks (80.8% vs. 48.1%; p=0.004), and a shorter median diagnosis-to-delivery interval (21 vs. 61.5 days, p=0.003) than those diagnosed at 20–24 weeks; 3) The rate of amniotic fluid “sludge” was higher among patients diagnosed at <20 weeks of gestation than those diagnosed between 20 and 24 weeks (92.3% vs. 48.2%;p<0.001). Conclusions Asymptomatic women with a sonographic cervical length ≤15 mm diagnosed before 20 weeks have a dramatic and significantly higher risk of early preterm delivery than women diagnosed at 20–24 weeks. These findings can be helpful to physicians in counseling these patients, and may suggest different mechanisms of disease leading to a sonographic short cervix before or after 20 weeks of gestation. PMID:20503224

  20. Proteoglycan metabolism in the connective tissue of pregnant and non-pregnant human cervix. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Norman, M; Ekman, G; Ulmsten, U; Barchan, K; Malmström, A

    1991-04-15

    Profound changes occur in the cervix during pregnancy. In particular, the connective tissue is remodelled. To elucidate the mechanisms behind this process, the metabolism of cervical connective tissue was studied using tissue cultures. Cervical biopsies from non-pregnant and pregnant women were incubated with [35S]sulphate. The proteoglycans of the tissue specimens were purified by ion-exchange and gel chromatography and characterized by SDS/PAGE and by enzymic degradation. In the non-pregnant cervix, the incorporation of [35S]sulphate into the proteoglycans was linear for 48 h. During the first 6 h of incubation the accumulation of chiefly one small labelled proteoglycan (apparent Mr 110,000) substituted with dermatan sulphate was recorded. This is in accordance with the known proteoglycan composition of non-pregnant cervical tissue. In addition, small amounts of two larger radioactive dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (apparent Mr values 220,000 and greater than 500,000) were recorded. After longer periods of incubation the proportion of heparan sulphate proteoglycans increased considerably. The pregnant tissue showed a clearly different composition of labelled proteoglycans. An increased accumulation of the two larger dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans was seen in addition to the dominant small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan of the non-pregnant cervix. The rate of accumulation of these two proteoglycans was about 3 times higher in the pregnant tissue, whereas that of the small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan was only increased 2-fold. The fact that the concentration of proteoglycans in the pregnant cervix is approximately one-half of that in the non-pregnant cervix indicates that the turnover of proteoglycans in pregnant cervical tissue is significantly increased. The major effect of this profound change of metabolism was a 50% decrease in proteoglycan content and a 2-fold increased proportion of a dermatan sulphate proteoglycan with an

  1. Proteoglycan metabolism in the connective tissue of pregnant and non-pregnant human cervix. An in vitro study.

    PubMed Central

    Norman, M; Ekman, G; Ulmsten, U; Barchan, K; Malmström, A

    1991-01-01

    Profound changes occur in the cervix during pregnancy. In particular, the connective tissue is remodelled. To elucidate the mechanisms behind this process, the metabolism of cervical connective tissue was studied using tissue cultures. Cervical biopsies from non-pregnant and pregnant women were incubated with [35S]sulphate. The proteoglycans of the tissue specimens were purified by ion-exchange and gel chromatography and characterized by SDS/PAGE and by enzymic degradation. In the non-pregnant cervix, the incorporation of [35S]sulphate into the proteoglycans was linear for 48 h. During the first 6 h of incubation the accumulation of chiefly one small labelled proteoglycan (apparent Mr 110,000) substituted with dermatan sulphate was recorded. This is in accordance with the known proteoglycan composition of non-pregnant cervical tissue. In addition, small amounts of two larger radioactive dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (apparent Mr values 220,000 and greater than 500,000) were recorded. After longer periods of incubation the proportion of heparan sulphate proteoglycans increased considerably. The pregnant tissue showed a clearly different composition of labelled proteoglycans. An increased accumulation of the two larger dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans was seen in addition to the dominant small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan of the non-pregnant cervix. The rate of accumulation of these two proteoglycans was about 3 times higher in the pregnant tissue, whereas that of the small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan was only increased 2-fold. The fact that the concentration of proteoglycans in the pregnant cervix is approximately one-half of that in the non-pregnant cervix indicates that the turnover of proteoglycans in pregnant cervical tissue is significantly increased. The major effect of this profound change of metabolism was a 50% decrease in proteoglycan content and a 2-fold increased proportion of a dermatan sulphate proteoglycan with an

  2. STAT3:FOXM1 and MCT1 drive uterine cervix carcinoma fitness to a lactate-rich microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lidia Santos; Goncalves, Luis Gafeira; Silva, Fernanda; Domingues, Germana; Maximo, Valdemar; Ferreira, Joana; Lam, Eric W-F; Dias, Sergio; Felix, Ana; Serpa, Jacinta

    2016-04-01

    Uterine cervix cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide with human papillomavirus (HPV) as the etiologic factor. The two main histological variants, squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and adenocarcinomas (AC), resemble the cell morphology of exocervix and endocervix, respectively. Cancer metabolism is a cancer hallmark conditioned by the microenvironment. As uterine cervix homeostasis is dependent on lactate, we hypothesized lactate plays a role in uterine cervix cancer progression. Using in vitro (SiHa-SCC and HeLa-AC) and BALB-c/SCID models, we demonstrated that lactate metabolism is linked to histological types, with SCC predominantly consuming and AC producing lactate. MCT1 is a key factor, allowing lactate consumption and being regulated in vitro by lactate through the FOXM1:STAT3 pathway. In vivo models showed that SCC (SiHa) expresses MCT1 and is dependent on lactate to grow, whereas AC (HeLa) expresses MCT1 and MCT4, with higher growth capacities. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays (TMA) from human cervical tumors showed that MCT1 expression associates with the SCC type and metastatic behavior of AC, whereas MCT4 expression concomitantly increases from in situ SCC to invasive SCC and is significantly associated with the AC type. Consistently, FOXM1 expression is statistically associated with MCT1 positivity in SCC, whereas the expression of FOXO3a, a FOXM1 functional antagonist, is linked to MCT1 negativity in AC. Our study reinforces the role of the microenvironment in the metabolic adaptation of cancer cells, showing that cells that retain metabolic features of their normal counterparts are positively selected by the organ's microenvironment and will survive. In particular, MCT1 was shown to be a key element in uterine cervix cancer development; however, further studies are needed to validate MCT1 as a suitable therapeutic target in uterine cervix cancer.

  3. Spectropolarimetry biopsies of the cervix at an early cancer and dysplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yermolenko, S. B.; Peresunko, O. P.; Babechko, N. J.

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of the spectral anisotropic properties of layers of oncologic modified biological tissues with precancerous condition (CIN) and with cancer formation (G) of cervix according to linear dichroism determined in the wavelength range 300-800 nm was conducted. Comparison of results of animal testing of samples of biological samples oncologic modified human tissue was conducted, introduction of differentiation criterion spectropolarimetric precancerous condition and the stage cancer formation in the spectral band of 390-410 nm was proposed. Appropriate diagnostically important changes in the value ranges of linear dichroism at each stage of cancer formation (high- and low-grade dysplasia, high and low-grade adenocarcinoma) was determined. A differential method for diagnosis of epithelial cells in the above diseases was suggested.

  4. Seizure following chemotherapy (paclitaxel and cisplatin) in a patient of carcinoma cervix

    PubMed Central

    Dana, Rohitashwa; Spartacus, R. K.; Mutha, Shweta; Bhat, Prashanth

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin and paclitaxel both can cause peripheral neurotoxicity as an adverse effect; however, central nervous system neurotoxicity in the form of seizures is rare. We report a case of a 36-year-old female patient of metastatic carcinoma cervix, who developed seizure shortly after cisplatin infusion. Her laboratory investigations were within normal limits. Computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain did not reveal brain primary metastasis or meningeal carcinomatosis. She had no complaints of fever, no signs and symptoms of infection, and no history of seizure nor was she on any medication predisposing to such an event. Excluding several causes, seizure was thought to be most likely related to the chemotherapy and cisplatin was the more likely agent in view of observed temporal relationship with the adverse event. PMID:28066118

  5. Seizure following chemotherapy (paclitaxel and cisplatin) in a patient of carcinoma cervix.

    PubMed

    Dana, Rohitashwa; Spartacus, R K; Mutha, Shweta; Bhat, Prashanth

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin and paclitaxel both can cause peripheral neurotoxicity as an adverse effect; however, central nervous system neurotoxicity in the form of seizures is rare. We report a case of a 36-year-old female patient of metastatic carcinoma cervix, who developed seizure shortly after cisplatin infusion. Her laboratory investigations were within normal limits. Computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain did not reveal brain primary metastasis or meningeal carcinomatosis. She had no complaints of fever, no signs and symptoms of infection, and no history of seizure nor was she on any medication predisposing to such an event. Excluding several causes, seizure was thought to be most likely related to the chemotherapy and cisplatin was the more likely agent in view of observed temporal relationship with the adverse event.

  6. Thyroid Gland Metastasis from Cancer of the Uterine Cervix: An Extremely Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Celik, Suleyman Utku; Besli, Dilara; Sak, Serpil Dizbay; Genc, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid gland is a relatively uncommon site for a metastatic disease, although it is richly supplied with blood. The metastases may originate from various primary sites, mainly kidney, lung, head and neck, and breast. Thyroid metastasis from cervical carcinomas is extremely rare; and only a few cases have been previously reported in the literature. In patient with thyroid nodules and an oncological history, the possibility of thyroid metastasis should be seriously considered. Despite the rarity of the metastasis of cervical carcinoma to the thyroid, it is difficult to say appropriate treatment approach for these lesions. When managing such patients, decision-making should balance the possibility of gaining long-term survival against estimation of the aggressiveness of the disease and its possible complications. Here, a case of thyroid metastasis from a squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix presenting with cervical mass and difficulty in swallowing and its treatment is reported.

  7. Total and lipid-bound serum sialic acid as markers for carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Vivas, I; Spagnuolo, L; Palacios, P

    1992-08-01

    Concentrations of total sialic acid (TSA) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) were determined in serum samples from 88 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, 26 normal subjects, and 44 patients with benign uterine or ovarian disease. TSA concentrations in patients with cervical cancer were found to correlate with advanced-stage disease. LSA concentrations were only increased in stage IV of the disease. Sensitivity of the test for stage IB was zero for TSA and 27% for LSA. The specificity of both markers was about 80% due to a low incidence of false-positive values in the pathologic control group. Measurements of TSA or LSA appear to be of no value for the early detection of cervical cancer or to complement the clinical staging of this tumor.

  8. In vivo light scattering for the detection of cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Mourant, Judith R

    2008-01-01

    A noninvasive optical diagnostic system for detection of cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix was evaluated in vivo. The optical system included a fiber-optic probe designed to measure polarized and unpolarized light transport properties of a small volume of tissue. An algorithm for diagnosing tissue based on the optical measurements was developed that used four optical properties, three of which were related to light scattering properties and the fourth of which was related to hemoglobin concentration. A sensitivity of {approx}77% and specificities in the mid 60% range were obtained for separating high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cancer from other pathologies and normal tissue. The use of different cross-validation methods in algorithm development is analyzed, and the relative difficulties of diagnosing certain pathologies are assessed. Furthermore, the robustness of the optical system for use by different doctors and to changes in fiber-optic probe are also assessed, and potential improvements in the optical system are discussed.

  9. Automated and interactive lesion detection and segmentation in uterine cervix images.

    PubMed

    Alush, Amir; Greenspan, Hayit; Goldberger, Jacob

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a procedure for automatic extraction and segmentation of a class-specific object (or region) by learning class-specific boundaries. We describe and evaluate the method with a specific focus on the detection of lesion regions in uterine cervix images. The watershed segmentation map of the input image is modeled using a Markov random field (MRF) in which watershed regions correspond to binary random variables indicating whether the region is part of the lesion tissue or not. The local pairwise factors on the arcs of the watershed map indicate whether the arc is part of the object boundary. The factors are based on supervised learning of a visual word distribution. The final lesion region segmentation is obtained using a loopy belief propagation applied to the watershed arc-level MRF. Experimental results on real data show state-of-the-art segmentation results on this very challenging task that, if necessary, can be interactively enhanced.

  10. Polypeptide synthesis in columnar and squamous explants of human uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Cowan, M E; Ward, K; Woodman, C B; Skinner, G R

    1982-10-01

    There were quantitative and qualitative differences in the in-vitro synthesis of 3 polypeptides between squamous and columnar epithelial explants of human cervix. One cross-linked keratin-like polypeptide of mol. wt 50,000 was synthesized and phosphorylated by squamous but not by columnar explants; a second cross-linked keratin-like polypeptide of mol. wt 52,000, which was present in larger amounts in squamous than columnar explants, was both glycosylated and phosphorylated during in-vitro explantation of squamous tissue; a third polypeptide of mol. wt 25,200 which was keratin-like but not cross-linked, was synthesized in squamous-tissue explants but in only 4% of columnar-tissue explants.

  11. Polypeptide synthesis in columnar and squamous explants of human uterine cervix.

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, M. E.; Ward, K.; Woodman, C. B.; Skinner, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    There were quantitative and qualitative differences in the in-vitro synthesis of 3 polypeptides between squamous and columnar epithelial explants of human cervix. One cross-linked keratin-like polypeptide of mol. wt 50,000 was synthesized and phosphorylated by squamous but not by columnar explants; a second cross-linked keratin-like polypeptide of mol. wt 52,000, which was present in larger amounts in squamous than columnar explants, was both glycosylated and phosphorylated during in-vitro explantation of squamous tissue; a third polypeptide of mol. wt 25,200 which was keratin-like but not cross-linked, was synthesized in squamous-tissue explants but in only 4% of columnar-tissue explants. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6184064

  12. [Multiparameter magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of cancer of the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Tarachkova, E V; Strel'tsova, O N; Panov, V O; Bazaeva, I Ya; Tyurin, I E

    2015-01-01

    Cancer of the cervix uteri (CCU) ranks third in the incidence of malignancies in women. The choice of CCU treatment mainly depends on the extent of the tumor process, i.e., the stage of the disease. Determining the stage of CCU is based on the clinical classification of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) (2009) and has a number of substantial limitations in evaluating parametrial invasion, tumor spread to the pelvic wall, and involvement of regional lymph nodes and in determining the true tumor sizes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now the method of choice in staging invasive CCU. Multiparameter MRI will be able to enhance the efficiency of diagnosing microinvasive CCU as well (FIGO 2009), to plan surgical and/or chemoradiation treatment, to evaluate its efficiency, and to diagnose locally recurrent CCU.

  13. [Cervix priming in induced abortion in the 1st trimester using intracervical administration of sulprostone gel].

    PubMed

    Rath, W; Meyer, D; Harder, D; Hilgers, R; Kuhn, W

    1985-01-01

    In a prospective, randomised study 40 primigravidae were treated intracervically with 0.05 mg or 0.1 mg Sulprostone-Tylose gel in order to soften the cervix prior to first trimester termination of pregnancy. Curettage was performed on the average 7.5 hours after prostaglandin administration. For objective demonstration of the priming effect, the force required for dilatation of the cervical canal was measured in Newtons by a special tonometer before prostaglandin application and before operation. The maximal dilatability with a force of 10 N, the increase in dilatability after local PG application, and the patency of the cervix were measured. The occurrence of PG-induced lower abdominal pain associated with contractions was analysed with regard to the number of episodes at pain, their timing and the required amount of analgesics. A modified visual analogue scale was used to evaluate the subjective pain experience. The abortive effect of 0.1 mg Sulprostone was found to be more efficient than the 0.05 mg dose. There was no statistical significant difference between the two doses, however, for the priming effect detectable with the tonometer. The subjective experience of pain, use of analgesics and the frequency of gastrointestinal side effects were significantly higher with 0.1 mg than with 0.05 mg Sulprostone. The visual analogue scale allows the patient to quantify, at least to some extent, her experience of pain, and enables a differentiated analgetic therapy. Because of its effectiveness and low rate of side effects, the intracervical application of 0.05 mg Sulprostone gel promises to be an advantageous alternative to other methods of cervical priming.

  14. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of cervix: Cytological Features on Conventional Cervical Smear.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Ruchi; Arora, Vinod K; Singh, Bharat

    2017-03-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a rare neoplasm of the cervix. The importance of distinguishing this undifferentiated carcinoma with a predominant lymphocytic infiltrate lies in the fact that despite being poorly differentiated they have a better prognosis. The diagnosis however becomes more challenging when the pathologist is provided with a small cervical biopsy or a Papanicolaou smear. While the reports describing histology and their relation to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are many, there are only few case reports describing the cytology of these tumors. We describe the cytological features of LELC of cervix on conventional smear and correlate it with the histopathological findings of the same. A 67-year-old multiparous Hindu woman presented to the gynecology outpatient department with the history of postmenopausal bleeding for the past six months. The cytological examination of the cervical smear (Papanicolaou stain) was done followed by cervical and endometrial biopsy. Based on Papanicolaou smear and biopsy suggestive of a poorly differentiated carcinoma a radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Hysterectomy specimen showed the morphology of LELC and was then correlated with the cervical smears retrospectively. On review of cytological smears it was seen that the tumor cell clusters had an abundant lymphoid background, which was overlooked earlier. Immunohistochemistry for EBV was negative. We conclude that the presence of undifferentiated tumor cell clusters with ill-defined cell borders and large number of lymphoid cells in the background suggest the diagnosis of LELC on cervical cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:239-242. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Automated Weekly Replanning for Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy of Cervix Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, James

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: The adoption of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to treat cervical malignancies has been limited in part by complex organ and tumor motion during treatment. This study explores the limits of a highly adaptive, small-margin treatment scenario to accommodate this motion. In addition, the dosimetric consequences of organ and tumor motion are modeled using a combination of deformable registration and fractional dose accumulation techniques. Methods and Materials: Thirty-three cervix cancer patients had target volumes and organs-at-risk contoured on fused, pretreatment magnetic resonance-computed tomography images and weekly magnetic resonance scans taken during treatment. The dosimetric impact of interfraction organ and target motion was compared for two hypothetical treatment scenarios: a 3-mm margin plan with no replanning, and a 3-mm margin plan with an automated replan performed on the updated weekly patient geometry. Results: Of the 33 patients, 24 (73%) met clinically acceptable target coverage (98% of the clinical target volume receiving at least 95% of the prescription dose) using the 3-mm margin plan without replanning. The range in dose to 98% of the clinical target volume across all patients was 7.9% of the prescription dose if no replanning was performed. After weekly replanning, this range was tightened to 2.6% of the prescription dose and all patients met clinically acceptable target coverage while maintaining organ-at-risk dose sparing. Conclusions: The dosimetric impact of anatomical motion underscores the challenges of applying IMRT to treat cervix cancer. An appropriate adaptive strategy can ensure target coverage for small-margin IMRT treatments and maintain favorable organ-at-risk dose sparing.

  16. Sequential FDG-PET brachytherapy treatment planning in carcinoma of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lilie L.; Mutic, Sasa M.S.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Low, Daniel A.; Miller, Tom R.; Vicic, Milos; LaForest, Richard; Zoberi, Imran; Grigsby, Perry W. . E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of sequential {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging for brachytherapy treatment planning in patients with carcinoma of the cervix. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients with carcinoma of the cervix were included in this prospective study. The clinical stage of their disease was Ib (7), IIa (1), IIb (7), and IIIb (9). Patients were treated with irradiation and brachytherapy, with the majority receiving concurrent weekly cisplatin chemotherapy. Patients underwent diagnostic FDG-PET imaging before treatment, sequential FDG-PET brachytherapy imaging during treatment, and diagnostic FDG-PET 3 months after treatment completion. Delineation of the gross tumor volume, bladder, and rectum was performed for all scans using a commercially available treatment-planning system. Actual treatment delivery was based on two-dimensional orthogonal planning. Results: The mean gross tumor volume and percent coverage by the target isodose surface for the initial, mid, and last implant were 37 cm{sup 3}, 17 cm{sup 3}, and 10 cm{sup 3} and 68%, 76%, and 79%, respectively. Nine of 11 patients were found to have continued decrease in tumor volume as measured by FDG-PET, with 3 patients having complete regression of their tumor before treatment was completed. The maximal bladder and rectal doses obtained from three-dimensional dose-volume histograms were significantly higher than the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 38 bladder and rectal points obtained by two-dimensional treatment-planning. Conclusions: Sequential FDG-PET brachytherapy imaging identifies the tumor response in individual patients, potentially making patient-specific brachytherapy treatment planning possible.

  17. Pelvic Radiotherapy for Cancer of the Cervix: Is What You Plan Actually What You Deliver?

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Karen; Kelly, Valerie; Stewart, James; Xie, Jason; Cho, Young-Bin; Moseley, Joanne B.; Brock, Kristy; Fyles, Anthony; Lundin, Anna; Rehbinder, Henrik; Milosevic, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: Whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is increasingly being used to treat cervix cancer and other gynecologic tumors. However, tumor and normal organ movement during treatment can substantially detract from the benefits of this approach. This study explored the effect of internal anatomic changes on the dose delivered to the tumor and organs at risk using a strategy integrating deformable soft-tissue modeling with simulated dose accumulation. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients with cervix cancer underwent baseline and weekly pelvic magnetic resonance imaging during treatment. Interfraction organ motion and delivered (accumulated) dose was modeled for three treatment scenarios: four-field box, large-margin whole pelvic IMRT (20-mm planning target volume, but 10 mm inferiorly) and small-margin IMRT (5-mm planning target volume). Results: Individually, the planned dose was not the same as the simulated delivered dose; however, when taken as a group, this was not statistically significant for the four-field box and large-margin IMRT plans. The small-margin IMRT plans yielded adequate target coverage in most patients; however, significant target underdosing occurred in 1 patient who displayed excessive, unpredictable internal target movement. The delivered doses to the organs at risk were significantly reduced with the small-margin plan, although substantial variability was present among the patients. Conclusion: Simulated dose accumulation might provide a more accurate depiction of the target and organ at risk coverage during fractionated whole pelvic IMRT for cervical cancer. The adequacy of primary tumor coverage using 5-mm planning target volume margins is contingent on the use of daily image-guided setup.

  18. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Scan in an Unusual Case of Lymphoma with Secondary Involvement of Uterine Cervix Presenting as a Pathological Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Sasikumar, Arun; Joy, Ajith; Pillai, M. R. A.; Thomas, Boben

    2017-01-01

    A 48-year-old female presented with a pathological fracture of the right femur. 99mTc methylene diphosphonate bone scan revealed multiple areas of increased osteoblastic activity consistent with metastatic disease. Serum electrophoresis revealed monoclonal gammopathy. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) scan revealed metabolically active lesions in bulky uterine cervix and osteolytic skeletal lesions. Unusual pattern of FDG uptake in uterine cervix and osteolytic skeletal lesions warranted a biopsy of the uterine cervix which revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. 18F-FDG PET/CT scan helped in guiding the site of biopsy to reach a final diagnosis in this unusual case of lymphoma with a secondary involvement of uterine cervix presenting as a pathological fracture. PMID:28242988

  19. Identification of specific relaxin-binding cells in the cervix, mammary glands, nipples, small intestine, and skin of pregnant pigs.

    PubMed

    Min, G; Sherwood, O D

    1996-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that relaxin promotes growth and softening of the cervix and development of the mammary glands in the pregnant pig. An important aspect of understanding relaxin's mechanism of action in these tissues is to identify the specific cell type(s) that contains relaxin receptors, that is, to identify those cells that initiate relaxin's effects. The objective of the present study was to identify relaxin-binding cells in tissues known to respond to relaxin (cervix and mammary gland) as well as in tissues suspected of being responsive to relaxin (nipple, small intestine, and skin) in the pregnant pig. To accomplish that objective we developed an in vitro modification of an immunohistochemical technique recently developed for identification of relaxin-binding cells. Two groups of pregnant gilts were used: intact control (group C) and ovariectomized progesterone-treated (group OP). Group OP was ovariectomized on Day 40 of gestation (Day 40) and treated with progesterone (50 mg/2 ml corn oil i.m., twice daily) until Day 110 to maintain pregnancy. On Day 110, tissues from both groups were removed, cut into cubes (2-3 cm3), frozen in liquid nitrogen, and cryosectioned (8 microns). Specific cell types that bind relaxin were identified by sequential application of a biotinylated relaxin probe, antibiotin immunoglobulin G conjugated to 1 nm colloidal gold, and silver for signal amplification. The study demonstrates for the first time that relaxin binds with specificity to 1) blood vessels (cervix, mammary glands, nipples, small intestine); 2) smooth muscles in small intestine (circular, longitudinal, muscularis mucosa); and 3) skin from sites other than the mammary nipples (back, ear, thigh, leg). In addition, consistent with previous findings in the rat, prominent labeling was observed in epithelial cells in the cervix, mammary glands, and nipples; in smooth muscle cells in the cervix and mammary nipples; and in the skin of the nipples. There were no

  20. A study of accelerated radiation damage effects in PuO2 and gadolinia-stabilized cubic zirconia, Zr0.79Gd0.14Pu0.07O1.93, doped with 238Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burakov, B. E.; Yagovkina, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Polycrystalline samples of cubic zirconia, Zr0.79Gd0.14Pu0.07O1.93, doped with approximately 9.9 wt.% 238Pu, and PuO2 containing 11.0 wt. % 238Pu (and main isotope is 239Pu) have been repeatedly studied during many years by X-ray diffraction analysis. At a temperature of 25 °C the unit-cell parameter of PuO2 increases depending on accumulated dose, and is accompanied by decrease of coherent scattering region (CSR). Self-irradiation of Zr0.79Gd0.14Pu0.07O1.93 is accompanied with repeated change of unit-cell parameter and CSR.

  1. Results of flutter test OS6 obtained using the 0.14-scale wing/elevon model (54-0) in the NASA LaRC 16-foot transonic dynamics wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthold, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    A 0.14-scale dynamically scaled model of the space shuttle orbiter wing was tested in the Langley Research Center 16-Foot Transonic Dynamics Wind Tunnel to determine flutter, buffet, and elevon buzz boundaries. Mach numbers between 0.3 and 1.1 were investigated. Rockwell shuttle model 54-0 was utilized for this investigation. A description of the test procedure, hardware, and results of this test is presented.

  2. Results of flutter test OS7 obtained using the 0.14-scale space shuttle orbiter fin/rudder model number 55-0 in the NASA LaRC 16-foot transonic dynamics wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthold, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    A 0.14-scale dynamically scaled model of the space shuttle orbiter vertical tail was tested in a 16-foot transonic dynamic wind tunnel to determine flutter, buffet, and rudder buzz boundaries. Mach numbers between .5 and 1.11 were investigated. Rockwell shuttle model 55-0 was used for this investigation. A description of the test procedure, hardware, and results of this test is presented.

  3. Attendance at Cervical Cancer Screening and Use of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures on the Uterine Cervix Assessed from Individual Health Insurance Data (Belgium, 2002-2006)

    PubMed Central

    Arbyn, Marc; Fabri, Valérie; Temmerman, Marleen; Simoens, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the coverage for cervical cancer screening as well as the use of cervical cytology, colposcopy and other diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on the uterine cervix in Belgium, using individual health insurance data. Methods The Intermutualistic Agency compiled a database containing 14 million records from reimbursement claims for Pap smears, colposcopies, cervical biopsies and surgery, performed between 2002 and 2006. Cervical cancer screening coverage was defined as the proportion of women aged 25–64 that had a Pap smear within the last 3 years. Results Cervical cancer screening coverage was 61% at national level, for the target population of women between 25 and 64 years old, in the period 2004–2006. Differences between the 3 regions were small, but varied more substantially between provinces. Coverage was 70% for 25–34 year old women, 67% for those aged 35–39 years, and decreased to 44% in the age group of 60–64 years. The median screening interval was 13 months. The screening coverage varied substantially by social category: 40% and 64%, in women categorised as beneficiary or not-beneficiary of increased reimbursement from social insurance, respectively. In the 3-year period 2004–2006, 3.2 million screen tests were done in the target group consisting of 2.8 million women. However, only 1.7 million women got one or more smears and 1.1 million women had no smears, corresponding to an average of 1.88 smears per woman in three years of time. Colposcopy was excessively used (number of Pap smears over colposcopies = 3.2). The proportion of women with a history of conisation or hysterectomy, before the age of 65, was 7% and 19%, respectively. Conclusion The screening coverage increased slightly from 59% in 2000 to 61% in 2006. The screening intensity remained at a high level, and the number of cytological examinations was theoretically sufficient to cover more than the whole target population. PMID:24690620

  4. Cancer initiating-cells are enriched in the CA9 positive fraction of primary cervix cancer xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Marie-Egyptienne, Delphine Tamara; Chaudary, Naz; Kalliomäki, Tuula; Hedley, David William; Hill, Richard Peter

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that Cancer Initiating Cells (CIC) can be identified/enriched in cell populations obtained from solid tumors based on the expression of cell surface marker proteins. We used early passage primary cervix cancer xenografts to sort cells based on the expression of the intrinsic hypoxia marker Carbonic Anhydrase 9 (CA9) and tested their cancer initiation potential by limiting dilution assay. We demonstrated that CICs are significantly enriched in the CA9+ fraction in 5/6 models studied. Analyses of the expression of the stem cell markers Oct4, Notch1, Sca-1 & Bmi1 showed a trend toward an increase in the CA9+ populations, albeit not significant. We present evidence that enhanced autophagy does not play a role in the enhanced growth of the CA9+ cells. Our study suggests a direct in vivo functional link between hypoxic cells and CICs in primary cervix cancer xenografts. PMID:27901496

  5. Chemopreventive action of mace (Myristica fragrans, Houtt) on methylcholanthrene-induced carcinogenesis in the uterine cervix in mice.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S P; Rao, A R

    1991-03-01

    The present paper reports the chemopreventive action of mace (aril covering the testa of the seed of Myristica fragrans) on 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced carcinogenesis in the uterine cervix of virgin, young adult, Swiss albino mice. Placement of cotton-thread impregnated with beeswax containing MCA (approximately 600 micrograms) inside the canal of the uterine cervix results in the appearance of precancerous and cancerous lesions in the cervical epithelium. In this experiment using the cervical carcinogenesis model system, if mace was administered orally at the dose level of 10 mg/mouse per day for 7 days before and 90 days following carcinogen thread insertion, the cervical carcinoma incidence, as compared with that of the control (73.9%), was 21.4%. This decline in the incidence of carcinoma was highly significant (P less than 0.001). The incidence of precancerous lesions did not display any definite association with different treatments.

  6. Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix Presented as Submucosal Tumor Arising From a Background of Cervical Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Mariko; Kai, Keita; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Nakao, Yoshifumi; Yokoyama, Masatoshi; Aishima, Shinichi

    2017-03-08

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the uterine cervix without prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure is rare, and its etiology is unclear. We present a case of cervical CCC presenting as a submucosal tumor, which strongly suggests an association between cervical endometriosis and cervical CCC. A 56-year-old postmenopausal Japanese woman visited a gynecologic clinic with a complaint of watery vaginal discharge. A few atypical cells suggesting adenocarcinoma were detected in a cervical cytologic specimen. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic lesion with a solid component at the uterine cervix. Under a tentative diagnosis of cervical cancer, surgery was performed. Although a freshly resected specimen initially showed no tumorous lesion in the cervical mucosa, cutting of the mucosa revealed a solid tumor with a final diagnosis of CCC. The findings of aggregation of hemosiderin-laden macrophages and ectopic endometrium adjacent to the tumor strongly suggest that this tumor arose from cervical endometriosis.

  7. Giant condyloma of the cervix: an uncommon entity associated with low-risk human papilloma virus infection.

    PubMed

    Parra-Herran, Carlos; Herfs, Michael; Doria, Manuel; Crum, Christopher P; Nucci, Marisa R

    2013-02-01

    "Giant Condylomas" of the cervix are very uncommon, and have not been fully characterized in the English literature. We report 4 cases of cervical giant condyloma seen in our practice. Patients were predominantly young and presented with a cervical lesion producing bleeding or a mass effect. Biopsy/excision revealed a uniformly bland, exophytic squamous epithelial proliferation with viral cytopathic changes and absence of stromal invasion. Human papilloma virus types 6 and 11 were detected in all cases. Follow-up was uneventful without recurrence or spread. Giant condylomas of the cervix as defined in this report signify a benign albeit extensive variant of low-risk human papilloma virus infection. This term is proposed as a specific descriptor for such lesions and should be considered in the setting of any large well-differentiated exophytic cervical squamous lesion in young or immunosuppressed women. The term "giant condyloma of Buschke and Loewenstein" should be discontinued given the lack of specificity.

  8. Stage IB carcinoma of the cervix, the Norwegian Radium Hospital: results and complications. III. Urinary and gastrointestinal complications

    SciTech Connect

    Kjorstad, K.E.; Martimbeau, P.W.; Iversen, T.

    1983-02-01

    The combination of surgery and radiotherapy for early cases of cancer of the cervix has been accused of producing prohibitive complication rates. In a series of 612 patients with cancer of the cervix, Stage IB, the frequency of major complications from the urinary and gastrointestinal tract has been studied, and an attempt has been made in determining the most probable etiology of these complications. No significant increase in complications can be attributed to the use of preoperative intracavitary irradiation. In patients with pelvic lymph node metastases the combination of radical surgery and a full course of radiotherapy is associated with a high complication risk, as 12% of these patients developed major complications. Their 5-year survival, however, was high: 54%.

  9. Combined laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using split thickness skin graft in patients with congenital atresia of cervix

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuyin; Han, Tiantian; Ding, Jingxin; Hua, Keqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to introduce a new technique which is combined laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using split thickness skin graft in patients with congenital atresia of cervix and to evaluate the feasibility and the safety of it. Methods: This is a prospective observational study of 10 patients with congenital atresia of cervix who underwent combined laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using split thickness skin graft for cervicovaginal reconstruction from February 2013 to August 2014 in our hospital. All of the surgical procedures were carried out by the same operation team. Patient data were collected including operating time, estimated blood loss, hospital stay post-surgery, complications, total cost, and median vaginal length at 3 month, resumption of menstruation, vaginal stenosis and stricture of the cervix postoperatively. Results: The operative procedure lasted 237±46 (175-380) min. The estimated blood loss was 160±76 (50-300) ml. The hospital stay post-surgery was 12±2 (9-18) days. None of the patients had complications or required a blood transfusion. The mean total cost was $3352±1025. The average vaginal length at 3 month was 8.3±1.1 (8-10) cm. All patients had resumption of menstruation. The patients were followed for a mean of 5±2 (1-10) months. Cervical or vaginal stenosis did not occur in any of the patients. Conclusions: Our experiences of combined laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using split thickness skin graft in10 patients with congenital atresia of cervix were positive, with successful results and without complications, and cervical or vaginal stenosis. PMID:26309703

  10. Long-Term Outcome and Prognostic Factors for Adenocarcinoma/Adenosquamous Carcinoma of Cervix After Definitive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yi-Ting; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Tsai, Chien-Sheng; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Hsueh, Swei; Chen, Chien-Kuang; Lee, Steve P.; Hong, Ji-Hong

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: To study the outcomes of patients with adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma (AC/ASC) of the cervix primarily treated with radiotherapy (RT), identify the prognostic factors, and evaluate the efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) or salvage surgery. Methods and Materials: A total of 148 patients with Stage I-IVA AC/ASC of cervix after full-course definitive RT were included. Of the 148 patients, 77% had advanced stage disease. Treatment failure was categorized as either distant or local failure. Local failure was further separated into persistent tumor or local relapse after complete remission. The effectiveness of CCRT with cisplatin and/or paclitaxel was examined, and the surgical salvage rate for local failure was reviewed. Results: The 5-year relapse-free survival rate was 68%, 38%, 49%, 30%, and 0% for those with Stage IB/IIA nonbulky, IB/IIA bulky, IIB, III, and IVA disease, respectively, and appeared inferior to that of those with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix treated using the same RT protocol. Incomplete tumor regression after RT, a low hemoglobin level, and positive lymph node metastasis were independent poor prognostic factors for relapse-free survival. CCRT with weekly cisplatinum did not improve the outcome for our AC/ASC patients. Salvage surgery rescued 30% of patients with persistent disease. Conclusion: Patients with AC/ASC of the cervix primarily treated with RT had inferior outcomes compared to those with squamous cell carcinoma. Incomplete tumor regression after RT was the most important prognostic factor for local failure. Salvage surgery for patients with persistent tumor should be encouraged for selected patients. Our results did not demonstrate a benefit of CCRT with cisplatin for this disease.

  11. [Cervix cancer and pregnancy. Experience of 5 years at the Gynecology-Obstetrics Hospital No. 3, C. M. La Raza from the Mexican Institute of Social Security].

    PubMed

    Novoa Vargas, A; Padilla Cortez, M E; Bacelis Castaño, C

    1999-12-01

    Of the 300 clinical files of pregnant women, 22 were associated with cancer plus pregnancy in 5 years. Of them 7 were excluded in the work. 15 patients with CaCu and pregnancy were studied in the Gineco-Obstetric Hospital No. 3 C.M. La Raza of the IMSS México City in a period since 1st of January 1988 to 31st December of 1992. Early menarchia and sexual life, take an important roll in the mexican women as predisponent factors, multideliver and tobacco too. The colposcopy with manage cervix biopsy is the election method of diagnosis, with 99.5% of confiability. In the 15 patients, the estirpe was epidermoid cancer in all of them. The diagnosis of pregnancy age made in the first and third trimester of gestation. Only in 3 patients (20%) were founded visible lesion, this rename the necessity of make detection of CaCu during the pregnancy, because we will can found the cases in preinvader stages or early invader, that cure highly, like the cases seen in this work. Stages preinvader and early invaders during the pregnancy are highly curatives. We concluded that they have worst prognosis of survival, aggressivity and early relapse in patients with pregnancy stage by stage. The last because in the Historical Literature review about this topic, there was statistical relevance about pregnancy in the women with CaCu, using our work for reference. CaCu does change his prognosis associated with the pregnancy.

  12. [Facilitating cervix dilatation of the non-pregnant uterus by intracervical administration of gels containing prostaglandin and calcium chloride].

    PubMed

    Rath, W; Hüther, G; Hilgers, R; Meyer, A; Kuhn, W; Neuhoff, V

    1987-01-01

    In a prospective, randomised study, 50 non-pregnant patients were treated intracervically with 3 ml 5% tylose, 50 micrograms sulprostone, 100 micrograms sulprostone gel, 3 ml 2.5 mM or 9.0 mM calcium chloride gel in order to soften the cervix 12-14 hours before diagnostic curettage. The gel was not used in a further 20 patients. To objectively demonstrate the priming effect, the force required for dilatation of the cervical canal was measured in Newtons, using a mechanical tonometer both before gel application and before the operation. In comparison with the administration of tylose only, the intracervical application of either sulprostone gel or calcium chloride gel led to a significant improvement in cervical dilatability. Tylose alone had a slight but measurable effect on the cervix. An increase in sulprostone from 50 micrograms to 100 micrograms or calcium molarity from 2.5 mM to 9.0 mM brought no further improvement in the dilatory effect. Dilatation-induced cervical lesions could be avoided by preoperative cervical ripening. After application of sulprostone, 3 out of 20 patients experienced doses-dependent uterine cramps, while all patients treated with calcium chloride gel were free of side effects. The intracervical administration of sulprostone and calcium chloride gel allowed gentle dilatation of the non-pregnant cervix, thus lowering the risk of uterine lesions. Under clinical aspects, cervical priming facilitates diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, which, in exceptional cases, can be performed without anaesthesia.

  13. [Reoxygenation of tumors of the uterine cervix during combined radiotherapy using low dose gamma-neutron irradiation with californium-252].

    PubMed

    Tacev, T; Rasovská, O; Strnad, V; Krystof, V; Prokes, B; Vacek, A

    1989-03-01

    A polarographic method was used to follow the changes in oxygenation of a tumour of uterus cervix after intracavital irradiation by 252Cf by a physical dose of 2 Gy, applied at the beginning of a therapeutic cycle of combined radiotherapy. The results reached are compared with the results of tumour oxygenation in the course of a conventional therapeutic procedure. It has become apparent that even after the irradiation of a tumour of uterus cervix by a small dose of gamma-neutron radiation with 252Cf there is, beginning with 2nd week of therapy, a significant reoxygenation of the tumour population. The changes of oxygenation after a conventional irradiation have been less marked and reached, in the 4th week of therapy, only marginally significant increase. Differences in reoxygenation of tumours of uterus cervix were confirmed by analysis of the oxygen test. The importance of tumour reoxygenation after the application of 252Cf source of radiation for facilitation of its regression in a combined treatment with Californium-252 and gamma irradiation is discussed.

  14. [Clinical and pathological peculiarities of cervix in young women not giving birth with pseudo-erosions during hormonal contraception].

    PubMed

    Dzhangidze, M A; Dzhikiia, I V; Sakvarelidze, N A; Zakaraia, L K

    2006-01-01

    An early initiation of sexual life as the cause of problem concerning hormonal contraception with young women not given birth acquires a special actuality. It is known that no matter how carefully the operation of abortion is held, it is inevitably accompanied by the traumatization of cervix, especially in women with first pregnancy. According to the reference data the consequences of the first abortion in every third woman are the inflammatory diseases of reproductive organs, the infringement of menstruation, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, endometriosis, etc. It is known that the most effective method of avoiding the first pregnancy and in particular the first abortion is the hormonal contraception (HC). It is necessary to mention that there are numerous and diverse investigations dedicated to the study of condition of the cervix in the process of hormonal contraception. The detailed analysis of the literature in last 5-8 years show that the frequency of cervical cancer in women who use HC does not exceed the overall rate in the population. Besides the right choice of oral contraception (OC) for present contingent of women promotes the epithelization of the pseudo-erosions of the cervix.

  15. In vivo Raman spectroscopy of human uterine cervix: exploring the utility of vagina as an internal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Rubina; Dora, Tapas Kumar; Chopra, Supriya; Maheshwari, Amita; Kedar K., Deodhar; Bharat, Rekhi; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-08-01

    In vivo Raman spectroscopy is being projected as a new, noninvasive method for cervical cancer diagnosis. In most of the reported studies, normal areas in the cancerous cervix were used as control. However, in the Indian subcontinent, the majority of cervical cancers are detected at advanced stages, leaving no normal sites for acquiring control spectra. Moreover, vagina and ectocervix are reported to have similar biochemical composition. Thus, in the present study, we have evaluated the feasibility of classifying normal and cancerous conditions in the Indian population and we have also explored the utility of the vagina as an internal control. A total of 228 normal and 181 tumor in vivo Raman spectra were acquired from 93 subjects under clinical supervision. The spectral features in normal conditions suggest the presence of collagen, while DNA and noncollagenous proteins were abundant in tumors. Principal-component linear discriminant analysis (PC-LDA) yielded 97% classification efficiency between normal and tumor groups. An analysis of a normal cervix and vaginal controls of cancerous and noncancerous subjects suggests similar spectral features between these groups. PC-LDA of tumor, normal cervix, and vaginal controls further support the utility of the vagina as an internal control. Overall, findings of the study corroborate with earlier studies and facilitate objective, noninvasive, and rapid Raman spectroscopic-based screening/diagnosis of cervical cancers.

  16. Vaginal progesterone in risk reduction of preterm birth in women with short cervix in the midtrimester of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Meena

    2012-01-01

    Preterm birth is a major health problem for the neonate, family, country, and society in general. Despite many risk factors being identified for women destined to deliver preterm, short cervical length detected on transvaginal ultrasound is the most plausible, practical and sensitive risk factor for prediction of spontaneous preterm birth. The definition of short cervix has varied in various studies, but most commonly accepted is ≤2.5 cm in the midtrimester of pregnancy, though risk of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) increases as the cervical length decreases. Vaginal progesterone, a naturally occurring steroid hormone, is the most bioavailable form of progesterone for uterine and cervical effects with the fewest side effects. Multiple prospective studies have consistently shown its benefits in decreasing sPTB rate in women with asymptomatic midtrimester short cervix. The safety for mother and fetus, and tolerability of vaginal progesterone, particularly the gel form, is also well established. Vaginal progesterone is a minimally invasive intervention that is not painful and is very safe, with reasonable cost where the benefits (even if argued to be small) clearly outweigh the risks. Thus there should be little hesitation for implementation of universal transvaginal cervical length screening and preventive vaginal progesterone treatment for women with short cervix. PMID:23071418

  17. A probabilistic approach to segmentation and classification of neoplasia in uterine cervix images using color and geometric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Yeshwanth; Hernes, Dana; Tulpule, Bhakti; Yang, Shuyu; Guo, Jiangling; Mitra, Sunanda; Yagneswaran, Sriraja; Nutter, Brian; Jeronimo, Jose; Phillips, Benny; Long, Rodney; Ferris, Daron

    2005-04-01

    Automated segmentation and classification of diagnostic markers in medical imagery are challenging tasks. Numerous algorithms for segmentation and classification based on statistical approaches of varying complexity are found in the literature. However, the design of an efficient and automated algorithm for precise classification of desired diagnostic markers is extremely image-specific. The National Library of Medicine (NLM), in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute (NCI), is creating an archive of 60,000 digitized color images of the uterine cervix. NLM is developing tools for the analysis and dissemination of these images over the Web for the study of visual features correlated with precancerous neoplasia and cancer. To enable indexing of images of the cervix, it is essential to develop algorithms for the segmentation of regions of interest, such as acetowhitened regions, and automatic identification and classification of regions exhibiting mosaicism and punctation. Success of such algorithms depends, primarily, on the selection of relevant features representing the region of interest. We present color and geometric features based statistical classification and segmentation algorithms yielding excellent identification of the regions of interest. The distinct classification of the mosaic regions from the non-mosaic ones has been obtained by clustering multiple geometric and color features of the segmented sections using various morphological and statistical approaches. Such automated classification methodologies will facilitate content-based image retrieval from the digital archive of uterine cervix and have the potential of developing an image based screening tool for cervical cancer.

  18. Persisting cyclical uterine bleeding in patients treated with radical radiation therapy and hormonal replacement for carcinoma of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, M.J.; Bull, C.A.; Houghton, C.R.; Langlands, A.O. )

    1990-04-01

    Radical radiation therapy used for carcinoma of the cervix will ablate ovarian function. Since January 1986, our policy has been to administer oral combination oestrogen-progesterone replacement hormonal therapy to all premenopausal patients undergoing radical radiation with or without synchronous chemotherapy, for invasive cervix cancer. Five out of 22 (23%) such patients unexpectedly experienced between one and four episodes of cyclical per vaginal bleeding after the completion of radiation therapy. Bleeding episodes occurred in the absence of persistent tumor or radiation reaction, and suggest persisting endometrial response to exogenous hormonal stimulation. Uterine activity was temporarily retained in these five patients despite a minimal endometrial surface dose of between 4800 and 6490 cGy. The limited number of cycles before bleeding spontaneously ceased may represent the slow death of endometrial cells subsequent to radiation or radiochemotherapy treatment, and has not previously been described. In view of the paucity of data on the radiosensitivity of normal endometrium, we have carefully examined these patients who appear to have retained endometrial sensitivity to hormonal stimuli after radical radiation-chemotherapy for uterine cervix cancer.

  19. Adjuvant therapy after primary surgery for stage I-IIA carcinoma of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Thomas, G M

    1996-01-01

    Radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection is commonly used as a primary management option for treatment of stage IB/IIA carcinoma of the cervix. Overall cure rates approach 85%. However, a spectrum of relapse risk exists, depending on the presence or absence of primary tumor and nodal-related prognostic factors. Known factors include number and location of lymph nodes; size of primary, deep invasion in the cervix; capillary lymphatic space involvement; occult parametrial involvement; and positive or close surgical margins. Biologic determinants have yet to be identified. No systematic analysis has examined various combinations of prognostic factors to precisely define associated levels of risk and to predict the sites of relapse. Decreased local control and survival rates in some high-risk subgroups, usually those with nodal positivity, has led to the exploration of adjuvant therapies. Compiled data from retrospective series have defined the overall patterns of failure. Seventy-two percent of those relapsing have a component of pelvic failure, while 42% experience relapse in the pelvis alone. Fifty-eight percent have a component of distant failure but only 28% have distant disease alone. Adjuvant treatment options include pelvic radiotherapy, extended-field radiotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Trials of adjuvant chemotherapy are too few to evaluate the use of available agents. Pelvic radiotherapy has been shown to reduce the relapse risk when surgical margins are close or positive. It also reduces the risk of pelvic relapse and improves the relapse-free interval but has no apparent impact on overall survival in the groups that have been selected for treatment. The apparent lack of benefit may relate to the choice of patients with nodal involvement who, despite high risk of pelvic failure, most likely have a predominant pattern of distant failure. Maximization of the survival benefit of pelvic radiotherapy requires the

  20. Impact of heterogeneity-corrected dose calculation using a grid-based Boltzmann solver on breast and cervix cancer brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hofbauer, Julia; Kirisits, Christian; Resch, Alexandra; Xu, Yingjie; Sturdza, Alina; Pötter, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the impact of heterogeneity-corrected dose calculation on dosimetric quality parameters in gynecological and breast brachytherapy using Acuros, a grid-based Boltzmann equation solver (GBBS), and to evaluate the shielding effects of different cervix brachytherapy applicators. Material and methods Calculations with TG-43 and Acuros were based on computed tomography (CT) retrospectively, for 10 cases of accelerated partial breast irradiation and 9 cervix cancer cases treated with tandem-ring applicators. Phantom CT-scans of different applicators (plastic and titanium) were acquired. For breast cases the V20Gyαβ3 to lung, the D0.1cm3, D1cm3, D2cm3 to rib, the D0.1cm3, D1cm3, D10cm3 to skin, and Dmax for all structures were reported. For cervix cases, the D0.1cm3, D2cm3 to bladder, rectum and sigmoid, and the D50, D90, D98, V100 for the CTVHR were reported. For the phantom study, surrogates for target and organ at risk were created for a similar dose volume histogram (DVH) analysis. Absorbed dose and equivalent dose to 2 Gy fractionation (EQD2) were used for comparison. Results Calculations with TG-43 overestimated the dose for all dosimetric indices investigated. For breast, a decrease of ~8% was found for D10cm3 to the skin and 5% for D2cm3 to rib, resulting in a difference ~ –1.5 Gy EQD2 for overall treatment. Smaller effects were found for cervix cases with the plastic applicator, with up to –2% (–0.2 Gy EQD2) per fraction for organs at risk and –0.5% (–0.3 Gy EQD2) per fraction for CTVHR. The shielding effect of the titanium applicator resulted in a decrease of 2% for D2cm3 to the organ at risk versus 0.7% for plastic. Conclusions Lower doses were reported when calculating with Acuros compared to TG-43. Differences in dose parameters were larger in breast cases. A lower impact on clinical dose parameters was found for the cervix cases. Applicator material causes systematic shielding effects that can be taken into account. PMID

  1. Sensitization of cervix cancer cells to Adriamycin by Pentoxifylline induces an increase in apoptosis and decrease senescence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemotherapeutic drugs like Adriamycin (ADR) induces apoptosis or senescence in cancer cells but these cells often develop resistance and generate responses of short duration or complete failure. The methylxantine drug Pentoxifylline (PTX) used routinely in the clinics setting for circulatory diseases has been recently described to have antitumor properties. We evaluated whether pretreatment with PTX modifies apoptosis and senescence induced by ADR in cervix cancer cells. Methods HeLa (HPV 18+), SiHa (HPV 16+) cervix cancer cells and non-tumorigenic immortalized HaCaT cells (control) were treated with PTX, ADR or PTX + ADR. The cellular toxicity of PTX and survival fraction were determinated by WST-1 and clonogenic assay respectively. Apoptosis, caspase activation and ADR efflux rate were measured by flow cytometry, senescence by microscopy. IκBα and DNA fragmentation were determinated by ELISA. Proapoptotic, antiapoptotic and senescence genes, as well as HPV-E6/E7 mRNA expression, were detected by time real RT-PCR. p53 protein levels were assayed by Western blot. Results PTX is toxic (WST-1), affects survival (clonogenic assay) and induces apoptosis in cervix cancer cells. Additionally, the combination of this drug with ADR diminished the survival fraction and significantly increased apoptosis of HeLa and SiHa cervix cancer cells. Treatments were less effective in HaCaT cells. We found caspase participation in the induction of apoptosis by PTX, ADR or its combination. Surprisingly, in spite of the antitumor activity displayed by PTX, our results indicate that methylxantine, per se does not induce senescence; however it inhibits senescence induced by ADR and at the same time increases apoptosis. PTX elevates IκBα levels. Such sensitization is achieved through the up-regulation of proapoptotic factors such as caspase and bcl family gene expression. PTX and PTX + ADR also decrease E6 and E7 expression in SiHa cells, but not in HeLa cells. p53 was

  2. Immunohistochemical localization of specific relaxin-binding cells in the cervix, mammary glands, and nipples of pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Kuenzi, M J; Sherwood, O D

    1995-04-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that endogenous circulating relaxin promotes the growth and softening of the cervix, the development of the mammary glands, and the growth and development of nipples. Due to the remarkably similar modifications in the histological appearance of the extracellular matrix in the cervix, mammary glands, and nipples, we hypothesized that there may be a common mechanism(s) of action of relaxin in these tissues. A fundamental step toward understanding this mechanism is to identify specific cells that contain relaxin receptors, that is to identify those cells that initiate relaxin's effects within relaxin target tissues. To identify specific relaxin-binding cells in the cervix, mammary glands, and nipples of the pregnant rat, a biologically active biotinylated relaxin probe was prepared. This probe for putative relaxin receptors was administered to intact rats on day 18 of pregnancy. After 1 h, the animals were killed, and tissues were fixed by immersion in 4% paraformaldehyde for 10 h. Fixed tissues were rinsed in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and cryoprotected in an ascending series of 5%, 10%, and 20% sucrose solutions. The tissues were frozen in Tissue-Tek O.C.T. compound and stored at -70 C until sectioning. Frozen sections (12 microns) were cut on a Tissue Tek II cryostat at -24 C and thaw mounted on slides coated with 0.01% poly-l-lysine (mol wt, 300-6000). The biotinylated relaxin was localized in cryosections with an antibiotin immunoglobulin G conjugated to colloidal gold, which was subsequently visualized for light microscopy with silver intensification. Specific binding of the biotinylated relaxin was localized in the epithelial and smooth muscle cells of the cervix, the epithelial cells of the mammary glands, and the epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and skin of the nipples. We conclude that those cells exhibiting specific relaxin binding probably contain relaxin receptors and, therefore, mediate relaxin's effects in these

  3. Sterile Intra-amniotic Inflammation in Asymptomatic Patients with a Sonographic Short Cervix: Prevalence and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Roberto; Miranda, Jezid; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Gotsch, Francesca; Dong, Zhong; Ahmed, Ahmed I.; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.; Kim, Chong J.; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Yeo, Lami; Kim, Yeon Mee

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency and clinical significance of sterile- and microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation in asymptomatic patients with a sonographic short cervix. Methods Amniotic fluid (AF) samples obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis from 231 asymptomatic women with a sonographic short cervix [cervical length (CL) ≤25 mm] were analyzed using cultivation techniques (for aerobic and anaerobic as well as genital mycoplasmas) and broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). The frequency and magnitude of intra-amniotic inflammation [defined as an AF interleukin (IL)-6 concentration ≥2.6 ng/mL], acute histologic placental inflammation, spontaneous preterm delivery, and the amniocentesis-to-delivery interval were examined according to the results of AF cultures, PCR/ESI-MS and AF IL-6 concentrations. Results Ten percent (24/231) of patients with a sonographic short cervix had sterile intra-amniotic inflammation (an elevated AF IL-6 concentration without evidence of microorganisms using cultivation and molecular methods). Sterile intra-amniotic inflammation was significantly more frequent than microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation [10.4% (24/231) vs. 2.2% (5/231); p<0.001]. Patients with sterile intra-amniotic inflammation had a significantly higher rate of spontaneous preterm delivery <34 weeks of gestation [70.8% (17/24) vs. 31.6% (55/174); p<0.001] and a significantly shorter amniocentesis-to-delivery interval than patients without intra-amniotic inflammation [median 35, (IQR: 10 – 70) vs. median 71, (IQR: 47 – 98) days, (p<0.0001)]. Conclusion Sterile intra-amniotic inflammation is more common than microbial-associated intra-amniotic inflammation in asymptomatic women with a sonographic short cervix, and is associated with increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (<34 weeks). Further investigation is required to determine the causes of sterile

  4. Hydrothermal Synthesis of a New Double Perovskite-Type Bismuthate, (Ba0.75K0.14H0.11)BiO3·nH2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hong; Kumada, Nobuhiro; Yonesaki, Yoshinori; Takei, Takahiro; Kinomura, Nobukazu; Yashima, Masatomo; Azuma, Masaki; Oka, Kengo; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2009-01-01

    A new double perovskite-type bismuthate, (Ba0.75K0.14H0.11)BiO3·nH2O was prepared by low-temperature hydrothermal reaction. This compound had the double perovskite-type structure with a cubic cell of a = 0.85444(3) nm, in which the A site was occupied by Ba atoms, K atoms, and water molecules, and Bi atoms occupied one crystallographic site. This compound exhibited superconductive diamagnetism with an onset temperature of about 8 K.

  5. Radiation injuries to the bowel associated with the treatment of carcinoma of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Palmer, J A; Bush, R S

    1976-10-01

    Advances in radiation techniques and increased dosage have improved the cure rate of patients with cancer of the cervix to 65 percent. Associated with this increased dosage (betatron, 5,250 r and intracavitary 137-cesium, 4,000 r at point A) has been a serious complication incidence of 10 percent. Major intestinal complications usually become manifest within an 8 to 24 month period following radiation. Few are associated with tumor and the majority are amenable to surgical correction. Rectosigmoid stenosis is a common and frequently unrecognized complication. The 8 to 12 cm. segment of rectosigmoid, with its rigid wall and narrowed lumen, can be recognized on barium examination. The symptoms are those on incomplete obstruction and deterioration, frequently confused with tumor progression. Thirty-one patients have been treated by resection and low anterior anastomosis with relief of symptoms. Rectosigmoid stenosis progressing to necrosis, perforation, or fistula (an additional 29 patients) is treated best by the Hartmann operation as a first stage. This procedure has been less complicated than either colostomy alone or resection and anastomosis. Fifteen patients with low level rectovaginal fistula or stenosis were treated by defunctioning sigmoid colostomy. A loop transverse colostomy was unsatisfactory. Ileorectovaginal fistulas occurred in an additional six patients. Preoperative investigation should establish the presence or absence of an ileal component in all fistulas. Radiation ileitis is rare as an isolated finding but frequently is associated with severe rectosigmoid damage. Surgical treatment is seldom necessary but, if indicated (ten patients), resection appears to be preferable to bypass.

  6. Patient-derived xenograft models of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Rofstad, Einar K; Simonsen, Trude G; Huang, Ruixia; Andersen, Lise Mari K; Galappathi, Kanthi; Ellingsen, Christine; Wegner, Catherine S; Hauge, Anette; Gaustad, Jon-Vidar

    2016-04-10

    Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of cancer are considered to reflect the biology and treatment response of human tumors to a larger extent than xenograft models initiated from established cell lines. The characterization of a panel of four novel PDX models of cervical carcinoma of the uterine cervix is described in this communication. The outcome of treatment differed substantially among the donor patients, and the PDX models were found to mirror the histology, aggressiveness, and metastatic propensity of the donor patients' tumors. Two of the models (BK-12 and LA-19) were highly metastatic, one model (ED-15) was poorly metastatic, and one model (HL-16) was non-metastatic. The primary tumors of the two highly metastatic models showed high density of intratumoral lymphatics, whereas the other two models did not develop intratumoral lymphatics. The potential of the models to metastasize to lymph nodes was associated with high expression of both angiogenesis-related genes and cancer stem cell-related genes. The models may be highly valuable for studying mechanisms linking lymph node metastasis to lymphangiogenesis, hemangiogenesis, and the presence of cancer stem cells.

  7. Irradiation of para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix or endometrium

    SciTech Connect

    Komaki, R.; Mattingly, R.F.; Hoffman, R.G.; Barber, S.W.; Satre, R.; Greenberg, M.

    1983-04-01

    Twenty-two patients with biopsy-proved para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix (15 patients) or endometrium (7 patients) received a median dose of 5,000 rad/25 fractions. Para-aortic nodal metastases were controlled in 77% of cases. Control was significantly lower following radical retroperitoneal lymph node dissection than less extensive sampling procedures. Obstruction of the small bowel developed in 3 patients with tumor recurrence in the para-aortic region. Eight of the 10 patients who were disease-free at 2 years received >5,000 rad. Three patients were still alive without disease at 129, 63, and 60 months, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 40% for cervical cancer and 60% for endometrial cancer: in the former group, it was significantly different depending on whether the para-aortic nodes were irradiated (40%) or not (0%). The authors suggest that 5,000-5,500 rad in 5-5.5 weeks is well tolerated and can control aortic nodal metastases in cervical and possibly endometrial cancer.

  8. Locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the cervix on uterus didelphys: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Escande, Alexandre; Comte, Pauline; Fumagalli, Ingrid; Bresson, Lucie; Mubiayi, Ndaye; Lartigau, Eric

    2017-01-01

    In November 2013, a woman with Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome was diagnosed with a locally advanced left cervical adenocarcinoma. The patient’s malformation consisted of two uteri with two cervixes, a obstructed vagina, and a left renal agenesis. Classification FIGO: stage IIIa because of infiltration of the inferior third of the vagina wall. Locoregional management comprised an infrarenal lateral aortic lymphadenectomy followed by concomitant radio-chemotherapy to the pelvic (inguinal, pelvic, and infrarenal para aortic nodes) volumes. A total of 50.4 Gy were delivered (1.8 Gy/fraction/day) to the node (inguinal, pelvic, and aortic infrarenal) and pelvic volume; a concomitant boost to the primary cervical tumor and macroscopic nodes to 59.92 Gy (2.14 Gy/fraction/day) was performed. 20 Gy were delivered with intracavitary brachytherapy boost with mold technique and a pulsed-dose-rate technique due to the rarity of this uterine malformation. After 30 months of follow-up, there was no evidence of locoregional or distant recurrence. PMID:28344607

  9. Ex vivo Mueller polarimetric imaging of the uterine cervix: a first statistical evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehbinder, Jean; Haddad, Huda; Deby, Stanislas; Teig, Benjamin; Nazac, André; Novikova, Tatiana; Pierangelo, Angelo; Moreau, François

    2016-07-01

    Early detection through screening plays a major role in reducing the impact of cervical cancer on patients. When detected before the invasive stage, precancerous lesions can be eliminated with very limited surgery. Polarimetric imaging is a potential alternative to the standard screening methods currently used. In a previous proof-of-concept study, significant contrasts have been found in polarimetric images acquired for healthy and precancerous regions of excised cervical tissue. To quantify the ability of the technique to differentiate between healthy and precancerous tissue, polarimetric images of seventeen cervical conization specimens (cone-shaped or cylindrical wedges from the uterine cervix) are compared with results from histopathological diagnoses, which is considered to be the "gold standard." The sensitivity and specificity of the technique are calculated for images acquired at wavelengths of 450, 550, and 600 nm, aiming to differentiate between high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2-3) and healthy squamous epithelium. To do so, a sliding threshold for the scalar retardance parameter was used for the sample zones, as labeled after histological diagnosis. An optimized value of ˜83% is achieved for both sensitivity and specificity for images acquired at 450 nm and for a threshold scalar retardance value of 10.6 deg. This study paves the way for an application of polarimetry in the clinic.

  10. Pemphigus vulgaris of the cervix: diagnostic difficulties associated with the Pap test.

    PubMed

    Munhoz de Paula Alves Coelho, Karina; Stall, Jaqueline; Henrique Condeixa de França, Paulo; Cristina de Carvalho Tavares, Lara; Stefanello Bublitz, Giuliano; Loos, Beliza; Carvalho Costa, Luciana; Fronza Júnior, Hercílio

    2015-08-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare mucocutaneous disease caused by the abnormal production of antibodies against epithelial cell surface glycoproteins, resulting in loss of cell adhesion and intraepithelial blister formation. Cervical involvement in PV has been poorly reported, and there is little information regarding the criteria about consequential cytological changes identified in a Papanicolaou-stained cervicovaginal smear (Pap smear). Here, we report a case of PV manifesting in the cervix as well as the difficulty associated with the cytomorphological identification and interpretation of acantholytic cells. This case involved a 40-year-old patient with no history of Pap test abnormalities and no prior diagnosis of PV. In the cytological assessment, cells were identified both in isolation and in clusters that exhibited round nuclei of increased volume, inconspicuous nucleoli, and perinuclear halos. The patient underwent a cervical biopsy that revealed vesiculobullous lesions and morphological pattern consistent with PV. A skin biopsy confirmed this diagnosis. We concluded that knowledge of PV cytomorphology is important because difficulties associated with the identification and interpretation of acantholytic cells might be responsible for false positive diagnoses of cervical neoplasia. However, a suspected diagnosis of PV is possible if the cytological findings are carefully correlated with the clinical data.

  11. Human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Leminen, A.; Paavonen, J.; Vesterinen, E.; Wahlstroem, T.R.; Rantala, I.; Lehtinen, M. )

    1991-05-01

    Many reports have shown a link between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical squamous neoplasia. However, the association of HPV with cervical adenocarcinoma has been studied less extensively. The authors evaluated the presence of HPV-DNA in 106 patients with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix by in situ hybridization, using {sup 35}S-labeled probes for HPV 16 DNA and HPV 18 DNA. The overall prevalence of HPV-DNA was 18% (19 of 106). HPV 16 was present in 2 (2%) cases, HPV 18 was observed in 15 (14%) cases, and both HPV 16 and HPV 18 were found in 2 (2%) cases. There was a correlation between HPV-DNA positivity and tumor stage (P less than 0.01) and tumor size (P less than 0.05), but there was no relationship between HPV-DNA positivity and tumor differentiation, proliferation (S-phase fraction), ploidy, lymph node metastases, or five-year survival rate. These results suggest that HPV 18 DNA is associated with cervical adenocarcinoma but the presence of HPV 18 has no influence on overall survival.

  12. Relaxin-induced changes in adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels in the human cervix.

    PubMed

    Norström, A; Wiqvist, I

    1985-05-01

    The effects of porcine relaxin on the levels of cAMP in human cervical tissue were studied in vitro. The specimens were obtained by needle biopsy from women undergoing hysterectomy, legal abortion in the first trimester or elective Caesarean section at term, and were incubated in Krebs-Ringer buffer for 15 min in the presence of porcine relaxin (5 micrograms/ml, 3000 GPU/mg). cAMP was determined using a modified protein binding assay. The concentration of cAMP was higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Relaxin stimulated the production of cAMP in the 7th-8th week of gestation and at term but did not significantly alter the cervical cAMP levels in neither non-pregnant women nor in women in the 10th-12th week of pregnancy. Previous studies have shown that porcine relaxin reduces collagen synthesis in tissue from the human cervix and lower uterine segment. The present observations indicate that these effects can be mediated by cAMP.

  13. Chromosomal Radiosensitivity in Lymphocytes of Cervix Cancer Patients—Correlation with Side Effect after Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Lankoff, Anna; Lisowska, Halina; Banasik-Nowak, Anna; Arabski, Michał; Kedzierawski, Piotr; Florek, Agnieszka; Wojcik, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that cancer patients receiving similar radiotherapy treatments differ widely in normal tissue reactions ranging from undetectable to unacceptably severe levels. Therefore, an important goal of radiobiological research is to establish a test which would allow identifying individual radiosensitivity of patients prior to radiotherapy. The aim of the presented study is to assess the relationship between lymphocyte intrinsic radiosensitivity in vitro and early reaction of normal tissue in cervix cancer patients treated by radiotherapy. The following endpoints are analyzed in vitro: frequency of micronuclei, the kinetics of DNA repair and apoptosis. Acute normal tissue reaction to radiotherapy in the skin, bladder and rectum are scored according to the EORTC/RTOG scale. Our results show a wide inter-individual variability in chromosomal radiosensitivity in vitro. The majority of patients show a Grade 0, 1 or 2 reaction for all organs studied. No statistically significant correlation has been observed between the in vitro results in lymphocytes and the degree of early normal tissue and organ reaction.

  14. Predictive and Prognostic Significance of Glutathione Levels and DNA Damage in Cervix Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vidyasagar, Mamidipudi Srinivasa; Kodali, Maheedhar; Prakash Saxena, Pu

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the predictive significance of serum glutathione (GSH) and tumor tissue DNA damage in the treatment of cervical cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: This study included subjects undergoing hysterectomy (for normal cervix tissue) and cervical cancer patients who underwent conventional concurrent chemoradiotherapy (cisplatin once per week for 5 weeks with concurrent external radiotherapy of 2 Gy per fraction for 5 weeks, followed by two applications of intracavitary brachytherapy once per week after 2 weeks' rest). Blood was collected after two fractions, whereas both blood and tissues were collected after five fractions of radiotherapy in separate groups of subjects. Serum for total GSH content and tissues were processed for single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay for DNA damage analysis. Clinical tumor radioresponse was assessed 2 months after the completion of treatment as complete responders (CR) (100% shrinkage), partial responders (PR) (>50%), and nonresponders (NR) (<50%). Results: Serum GSH content depleted significantly after a total dose of 4 Gy and 10 Gy of radiotherapy with a single dose of cisplatin, which was significantly lesser in NR than of CR patients. Similarly, Olive Tail Moment, the index of DNA damage, indicated significantly higher values in the fifth fraction of radiotherapy (5-RT) than in pretreatment. The DNA damage after 5-RT in the NR subgroup was significantly lower than that of CR. Conclusions: Serum GSH analysis and tumor tissue SCGE assay found to be useful parameters for predicting chemoradioresponse prior to and also at an early stage of treatment of cervical cancers.

  15. Simple trachelectomy of early invasive cervix carcinoma in the second trimester.

    PubMed

    Chvatal, Radek; Oppelt, Peter; Koehler, Christian; Habelsberger, Alvin; Yaman, Cemil

    2011-01-01

    Although cervical carcinoma is among the most frequently encountered malignancies during pregnancy only a small number of cases during pregnancy have been reported. Usually, the patients have been treated by radical trachelectomy with or without chemotherapy during the pregnancy. Laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection with frozen section, simple trachelectomy and cerclage were performed in the 22(nd) week of pregnancy. The histologic examination confirmed a squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix of 35mm diameter, lymphangioinvasion (L1), low grade, clear surgical margin, negative pelvic lymph nodes according to stage Figo IB. Adjuvant chemotherapy with three cycles of cisplatin was performed after surgery. Delivery was performed by cesarean section followed by radical hysterectomy in the the 32(nd) week of pregnancy. Recurrent adjuvant chemotherapy with three cycles of cisplatin and local vaginal iridium radiation were performed after surgery. Patient had no surgery related complications. No relapse of cancer has been diagnosed during the following 16 months. Simple trachelectomy may be alternative treatment option to radical trachelectomy for pregnant women with early stage cervical cancer without lymph node metastasis.

  16. Pretreatment apoptosis in carcinoma of the cervix correlates with changes in tumour oxygenation during radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, M T; West, C M L; Cooper, R A; Stratford, I J; Logue, J P; Davidson, S E; Hunter, R D

    2000-01-01

    A relationship between hypoxia and apoptosis has been identified in vitro and in experimental tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between apoptosis, hypoxia and the change in oxygenation during radiotherapy in human squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Forty-two patients with locally advanced disease underwent pretreatment evaluation of tumour oxygenation using an Eppendorf computerized microneedle electrode. Twenty-two of these patients also had a second evaluation of tumour oxygenation after receiving 40–45 Gy external beam radiotherapy. Paraffin-embedded histological sections were obtained from random pretreatment biopsies for all 42 patients. Apoptotic index (AI) was quantified by morphology on TUNEL stained sections. No correlation was found between pretreatment measures of AI and either the median pO2(r = 0.12, P = 0.44) or percentage of values < 5 mmHg (r = –0.02, P = 0.89). A significant positive correlation was found between AI and the change in tumour oxygenation (ratio of pre:post-treatment % values < 5 mmHg) following radiotherapy (r = 0.61, P = 0.002). The lack of correlation between apoptosis and hypoxia may occur because the Eppendorf measures both acute and chronic hypoxia, and the relative ability of acute hypoxia to induce apoptosis is unknown. These results indicate that cell death via apoptosis may be a mechanism of tumour reoxygenation during radiotherapy. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10735502

  17. Hydroxyurea: a radiation potentiator in carcinoma of the uterine cervix. A randomized double-blind study

    SciTech Connect

    Piver, M.S.; Barlow, J.J.; Vongtama, V.; Blumenson, L.

    1983-12-01

    From June, 1972, to December, 1976, 40 patients with FIGO (International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics) Stage IIB carcinoma of the uterine cervix were entered into a prospective, double-blind, randomized study to evaluate the possible radiation-potentiating properties (i.e., improved survival) of the S-phase cell cycle-specific inhibitor of DNA synthesis, hydroxyurea. All patients were documented to be without aortic lymph node metastasis by pretherapy staging para-aortic lymphadenectomy. All 40 patients were followed up for longer than 5 years (5.2 to 9.2 years) or until death. The double-blind code was not broken until all patients had been followed up for a minimum of 2 to 5 years. Leukopenia (white blood cell count less than 2,500 mm3) was significantly increased in the patients given hydroxyurea as compared to those given placebo (P less than 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference relative to anemia, thrombocytopenia, radiation-induced skin reaction, and radiation-induced intestinal reaction between the patients given placebo or those given hydroxyurea. Life-table survival for the patients given hydroxyurea was 94% as compared to 53% for the patients given placebo (P . 0.006). Only one (5%) patient given hydroxyurea died of cervical cancer. Of the other patients who died in the group given hydroxyurea, all were confirmed by postmortem examination to have been without recurrent cervical cancer. In contrast, 45% (nine) of the patients given placebo died of cervical cancer.

  18. The influence of bone density on the radiotherapy of cervix cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, M. R.; Souza, D. N.

    2011-10-01

    Until the 1970s the irradiated region of a patient undergoing external beam radiotherapy was considered a homogeneous volume and a regular surface, with physical characteristics similar to water. With the improvement of medical imaging equipment, it has become possible to conduct planning in radiotherapy treatment that considers the heterogeneities and irregularities of a patient's anatomy. Consequently, such technological resources have brought greater accuracy to radiotherapy. In this study, we determined the variation in the average amount of absorbed dose on the target volume and at the point of prescription treatment by comparing the doses which were calculated in a planning system considering the patient both as a homogeneous, and as a heterogeneous medium. The results showed that when we take into account the volume of the upper vagina and cervix, and consider the pelvis as a heterogeneous medium, the calculated dose was under-estimated at some points in the studied volume with respect to the dose when this region was considered homogeneous.

  19. The rapid uptake of concurrent chemotherapy for cervix cancer patients treated with curative radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Barbera, Lisa . E-mail: lisa.barbera@sw.ca; Paszat, Lawrence; Thomas, Gillian; Covens, Al; Fyles, Anthony; Elit, Laurie; Qiu Feng

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: In 1999, a series of clinical trials along with a clinical announcement from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) suggested that chemotherapy should be used concurrently with pelvic radiation in the management of cervical cancer. The purpose of this study is to examine the rate of chemotherapy use, in the province of Ontario, before and after these publications. Methods: All incident cases of cervix cancer diagnosed between January 1, 1995, and March 31, 2001, were identified using the provincial cancer registry. These records were electronically linked to billing claims data and inpatient discharge abstract data. Patients receiving brachytherapy within 6 months of diagnosis were identified. The proportion receiving at least one injection of chemotherapy before brachytherapy was identified and compared in the 'pre' and 'post' publication group (April 1, 1999, cutoff). Results: We identified 1039 cases as receiving curative radiation. In the pre cohort, 9.4% of patients received chemotherapy (95% CI, 7.3-11.4%) vs. 67.4% in the post cohort (95% CI, 61.8-73.0%). The change occurred abruptly in the first quarter of 1999. Conclusion: There was a significant increase in chemotherapy use after the publication of the NCI alert and related trials. Reasons for rapid uptake are discussed.

  20. FDG-PET imaging for the assessment of physiologic volume response during radiotherapy in cervix cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lilie L.; Yang Zhiyun; Mutic, Sasa; Miller, Tom R.; Grigsby, Perry W. . E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the physiologic tumor volume response during treatment in cervical cancer using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Patients and Methods: This was a prospective study of 32 patients. Physiologic tumor volume in cubic centimeters was determined from the FDG-PET images using the 40% threshold method. Results: The mean pretreatment tumor volume was 102 cm{sup 3}. The mean volume by clinical Stages I, II, and III were 54, 79, and 176 cm{sup 3}, respectively. After 19.8 Gy external irradiation to the pelvis, the reduction in tumor volume was 29% (72 cm{sup 3}). An additional 13 Gy from high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy reduced the mean volume to 15.4 cm{sup 3}, and this was subsequently reduced to 8.6 cm{sup 3} with 13 Gy additional HDR brachytherapy (26 Gy, HDR). Four patients had physiologic FDG uptake in the cervix at 3 months after the completion of therapy. The mean time to the 50% reduction in physiologic tumor volume was 19.9 days and after combined external irradiation and HDR to 24.9 Gy. Conclusion: These results indicate that physiologic tumor volume determination by FDG-PET is feasible and that a 50% physiologic tumor volume reduction occurs within 20 days of starting therapy.

  1. Assessment of Structural Heterogeneity and Viscosity in the Cervix Using Shear Wave Elasticity Imaging: Initial Results from a Rhesus Macaque Model.

    PubMed

    Rosado-Mendez, Ivan M; Palmeri, Mark L; Drehfal, Lindsey C; Guerrero, Quinton W; Simmons, Heather; Feltovich, Helen; Hall, Timothy J

    2017-02-08

    Shear wave elasticity imaging has shown promise in evaluation of the pregnant cervix. Changes in shear wave group velocity have been attributed exclusively to changes in stiffness. This assumes homogeneity within the region of interest and purely elastic tissue behavior. However, the cervix is structurally/microstructurally heterogeneous and viscoelastic. We therefore developed strategies to investigate these complex tissue properties. Shear wave elasticity imaging was performed ex vivo on 14 unripened and 13 misoprostol-ripened cervix specimens from rhesus macaques. After tests of significant and uniform shear wave displacement, as well as reliability of estimates, group velocity decreased significantly from the distal (vaginal) to proximal (uterine) end of unripened, but not ripened, specimens. Viscosity was quantified by the slope of the phase velocity versus frequency. Dispersion was observed in both groups (median: 5.5 m/s/kHz, interquartile range: 1.5-12.0 m/s/kHz), also decreasing toward the proximal cervix. This work suggests that comprehensive assessment of complex tissues such as cervix requires consideration of structural heterogeneity and viscosity.

  2. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix confirmed with molecular analysis in a 23-year-old woman: A case report.

    PubMed

    Masoura, Sophia; Kourtis, Anargyros; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis; Kotoula, Vassiliki; Anagnostou, Eleftherios; Angelidou, Stamatia; Agorastos, Theodoros

    2012-04-15

    Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET) of the genital tract is very rare, especially in the cervix. A case report of a young woman with a diagnosis of PNET originating from the uterine cervix is presented here. A 23-year-old woman presented with abnormal uterine bleeding and sharp lower abdominal pain of two months duration. CT and MRI of the abdomen and thorax revealed the presence of a large mass in the uterine cervix, enlarged pelvic lymph nodes and broncho-pulmonary infiltrations with regional nodes. Pathological examination of the tumor revealed a malignant neoplasm composed predominantly of small cells, immunohistochemically positive for CD99, vimentin and c-Kit. Molecular testing demonstrated the expression of EWS/FLI1 fusion transcripts corresponding to the t(11;22)(q24;q12) translocation, which confirmed the diagnosis of PNET of the uterine cervix. Despite surgical excision and administration of the first cycle of adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient died from multiple-organ failure and cardiac arrest. PNET arising from the genital tract, especially in the uterine cervix, is very rare and presents a diagnostic challenge. A timely confirmation with molecular analysis is essential for the diagnosis of such a tumor at an unusual site as in the present case.

  3. [Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the uterine cervix successfully treated with rituximabplus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy-a case report].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Akari; Fujimi, Akihito; Kanisawa, Yuji; Matsuno, Teppei; Okuda, Toshinori; Minami, Shinya; Doi, Tadashi; Ishikawa, Kazuma; Uemura, Naoki; Jyomen, Yuko; Tomaru, Utano

    2013-12-01

    Primary malignant lymphoma of the uterine cervix is a rare disease, and the therapeutic strategy has not been clearly established. A 45-year old woman presented with vaginal bleeding and hypermenorrhea in January 2012. Physical examination revealed a mass in the pelvic cavity approximately the size of a neonate's head. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) showed a solid mass 11 cm in size in the uterine cervix with homogeneous low intensity on T1-weighted images, iso-high intensity on T2-weighted images, and heterogeneous iso-high intensity on gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate(Gd- DTPA)-enhanced images. Multiple lymphadenopathy were also detected in the pelvis. The Papanicolaou smear indicated class 5 cervical cytology, and a subsequent histological examination by a punch biopsy of the cervix showed diffuse infiltration of medium- to large-sized mononuclear cells that stained positive for CD20 and CD79a and negative for CD3, CD5, and EBER. Bone marrow biopsy revealed no abnormality. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography(PET-CT)showed strong fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG)accumulation in the uterine cervix mass, and in the pelvic and right inguinal lymphadenopathy. The patient was diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the uterine cervix, Ann Arbor stage II AE. She was successfully treated with 8 courses of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone(R-CHOP) chemotherapy, and maintains a complete remission.

  4. Topotecan for the treatment of recurrent and stage IVB carcinoma of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Paton, F; Paulden, M; Saramago, P; Manca, A; Misso, K; Palmer, S; Eastwood, A

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a summary of the evidence review group (ERG) report into the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of topotecan in combination with cisplatin for the treatment of recurrent and stage IVB carcinoma of the cervix, in accordance with the licensed indication, based upon the evidence submission from the manufacturer to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) as part of the single technology appraisal (STA) process. The outcomes measured were overall survival, progression-free survival, response rates, adverse effects of treatment, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. The manufacturer stated that topotecan plus cisplatin is the only combination regimen to date to have demonstrated a statistically significant survival advantage compared to cisplatin monotherapy in the licensed population. The clinical evidence came from three clinical trials comparing topotecan plus cisplatin with cisplatin monotherapy (GOG-0179), topotecan plus cisplatin with paclitaxel plus cisplatin (GOG-0169), and four cisplatin-based combination therapies: topotecan plus cisplatin, paclitaxel plus cisplatin, gemcitabine plus cisplatin, and vinorelbine plus cisplatin (GOG-0204). Results from GOG-0179 showed greater median overall survival with topotecan plus cisplatin than with cisplatin monotherapy: 9.4 months versus 6.5 months. Similar results were also reported for median progression-free survival. Response rates also showed an advantage with topotecan plus cisplatin compared with cisplatin monotherapy. The response rates in patients receiving cisplatin monotherapy were very low, but the potential reasons for this were not discussed in the manufacturer's submission. Patients receiving topotecan plus cisplatin experienced a greater number of adverse events and the ERG was concerned with some of the assumptions related to HRQoL. In the base-case direct comparison, the incremental cost

  5. Monitoring of organochlorine pesticides in blood of women with uterine cervix cancer.

    PubMed

    Polanco Rodríguez, Ángel G; Riba López, M Inmaculada; DelValls Casillas, T Ángel; Araujo León, J Alfredo; Mahjoub, Olfa; Prusty, Anjan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In Yucatan, Mexico, chronic exposure of Mayan population to pesticides is expected as about 30 per cent are drinking polluted water. Residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) were monitored in 18 municipalities of Yucatan with high mortality rates due to uterine cervix cancer. 70 blood samples collected from Mayan women living in livestock, agricultural and metropolitan area were analyzed for OCP. Solid Phase Extraction was performed on C18 cartridges and analyzed by Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detector. The results showed that the highest OCP levels were detected in blood of women living in the livestock area. OCP detected were endosulfan I (7.35 μg/mL), aldrin (3.69 μg/mL), 4,4' DDD (2.33 μg/mL), 1.39 and 1.46 μg/mL of δ-HCH. Women from the agricultural area had high concentrations of OCP in their blood, particularly dieldrin (1.19 μg/mL), and 1.26 μg/mL of 4,4' DDE. In the metropolitan area, 0.080 μg/mL of γ-HCH and 0.064 μg/mL of heptachlore were detected. This monitoring study was also based on epidemiological data of uterine cervical cancer. It was found that environmental factors may have facilitated the infiltration of OCP to the aquifer used for potable water supply. These factors in addition to poverty can have impacts on public health. This first exploratory study suggests that monitoring of OCP in human is important for the establishment of health promotion programs. The integrative analysis of both, environmental and social factors would be helpful to characterize the bioaccumulation of pesticides in humans.

  6. Cytomorphological characteristics of glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: histopathological correlation and human papillomavirus genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yoon Yang; Nahm, Ji Hae; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed to describe the cytomorphological and histopathological findings and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes for glassy cell carcinoma (GCC) of the uterine cervix. Five cases of cervical GCC, in which the glassy cell features constituted at least 95% of the specimen, were included. Four patients had stage IIB GCCs and one had stage IIIB GCC. All patients underwent concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Based on pretreatment cytology, only 1 of the 5 cases was correctly diagnosed as GCC. The remaining cases were diagnosed as carcinoma of undetermined type, adenocarcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, or unsatisfactory for evaluation. Cytological specimens had moderate cellularity and contained small clusters of tumor cells admixed with amphophilic, granular tumor diathesis. The tumor cells possessed large, round to oval nuclei and abundant, granular, ground-glass cytoplasm. The nuclei exhibited prominent eosinophilic nucleoli. The cytoplasm displayed sharp margins and molding, resulting in “intercellular windows” between neighboring attached cells. HPV genotyping revealed that high-risk HPV types 18, 16, and 31 were detected in 3, 1, and 1 cases, respectively. Consistent with this finding, all cases exhibited block p16 positivity, confirming the association of HPV infection with GCC. In conclusion, a distinct cytoplasmic margin, the characteristic histopathological feature of GCC, was observed in liquid-based cytological preparations. We suggest that sharp cytoplasmic outlines with molding and intercellular windows are characteristic cytomorphological features of GCC. Detection of high-risk HPV in all cases strongly supported the notion that high-risk HPV is involved in the pathogenesis of GCC. PMID:27708230

  7. Diagnostic efficacy of computer extracted image features in optical coherence tomography of the precancerous cervix

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wei; Qi, Xin; Tresser, Nancy J.; Kareta, Margarita; Belinson, Jerome L.; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the diagnostic efficacy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to identify cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher by computer-aided diagnosis (CADx). Methods: OCT has been investigated as a screening∕diagnostic tool in the management of preinvasive and early invasive cancers of the uterine cervix. In this study, an automated algorithm was developed to extract OCT image features and identify CIN 2 or higher. First, the cervical epithelium was detected by a combined watershed and active contour method. Second, four features were calculated: The thickness of the epithelium and its standard deviation and the contrast between the epithelium and the stroma and its standard deviation. Finally, linear discriminant analysis was applied to classify images into two categories: Normal∕inflammation∕CIN 1 and CIN 2∕CIN 3. The algorithm was applied to 152 images (74 patients) obtained from an international study. Results: The numbers of normal∕inflammatory∕CIN 1∕CIN 2∕CIN 3 images are 74, 29, 14, 24, and 11, respectively. Tenfold cross-validation predicted the algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 51% (95% CI: 36%–67%) and a specificity of 92% (95% CI: 86%–96%) with an empirical two-category prior probability estimated from the data set. Receiver operating characteristic analysis yielded an area under the curve of 0.86. Conclusions: The diagnostic efficacy of CADx in OCT imaging to differentiate high-grade CIN from normal∕low grade CIN is demonstrated. The high specificity of OCT with CADx suggests further investigation as an effective secondary screening tool when combined with a highly sensitive primary screening tool. PMID:21361180

  8. Chromosomal imbalances in four new uterine cervix carcinoma derived cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Alfredo; Monroy, Alberto; Arana, Rosa Ma; Taja, Lucía; Vázquez, Guelaguetza; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2003-01-01

    Background Uterine cervix carcinoma is the second most common female malignancy worldwide and a major health problem in Mexico, representing the primary cause of death among the Mexican female population. High risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to be the most important risk factor for the development of this tumor and cervical carcinoma derived cell lines are very useful models for the study of viral carcinogenesis. Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) experiments have detected a specific pattern of chromosomal imbalances during cervical cancer progression, indicating chromosomal regions that might contain genes that are important for cervical transformation. Methods We performed HPV detection and CGH analysis in order to initiate the genomic characterization of four recently established cervical carcinoma derived cell lines from Mexican patients. Results All the cell lines were HPV18 positive. The most prevalent imbalances in the cell lines were gains in chromosomes 1q23-q32, 3q11.2-q13.1, 3q22-q26.1, 5p15.1-p11.2, this alteration present as a high copy number amplification in three of the cell lines, 7p15-p13, 7q21, 7q31, 11q21, and 12q12, and losses in 2q35-qter, 4p16, 6q26-qter, 9q34 and 19q13.2-qter. Conclusions Analysis of our present findings and previously reported data suggest that gains at 1q31-q32 and 7p13-p14, as well as losses at 6q26-q27 are alterations that might be unique for HPV18 positive cases. These chromosomal regions, as well as regions with high copy number amplifications, coincide with known fragile sites and known HPV integration sites. The general pattern of chromosomal imbalances detected in the cells resembled that found in invasive cervical tumors, suggesting that the cells represent good models for the study of cervical carcinoma. PMID:12659655

  9. Progression or Regression? - Strengths and Weaknesses of the New Munich Nomenclature III for Cervix Cytology.

    PubMed

    Hilal, Z; Tempfer, C; Schiermeier, S; Reinecke, J; Ruppenkamp, C; Hilal, Z

    2015-10-01

    Introduction: Since 01. 01. 2015 the new Munich nomenclature III for gynaecological diagnostics of the cervix has been in force. The changes have led to controversial scientific discussions. This study reports for the first time on the consequences. Materials and Methods: The present data are based on smear screening results for the year 2014. The data of 63 134 patients were evaluated. Results: 2.27 % of all smears were remarkable. Group IIa was assigned to 0.91 %. Group II-p was somewhat more frequently recorded than group IIID1 (0.59 vs. 0.53 %). Groups IIID1 and IIID2 were found in 0.53 and 0.61 %, respectively, of the cases. Agreement with histology was found in 36.84 and 44.68 %, respectively. Glandular lesions represented the most frequent changes in group III. Histological clarification was obtained for 0.18 % of all remarkable findings. The relative incidence of high-grade precancerous conditions (CIN III) and invasive tumours amounted to 0.1 %. Conclusion: A close communication between gynaecologists and cytologists is mandatory for the correct usage of the new nomenclature. The future annual statistics of the health insurances can now be analysed in more detail. A statistical classification of glandular epithelial changes is now also possible for the first time. The heterogeneous group IIa constitutes an unnecessary uncertainty for patients and physicians. The splitting of the group IIID does not appear to have any advantage for the further clinical management. Further studies are needed to show whether or not the classification can stand up to international comparisons.

  10. Reporting small bowel dose in cervix cancer high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yixiang; Dandekar, Virag; Chu, James C H; Turian, Julius; Bernard, Damian; Kiel, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel (SB) is an organ at risk (OAR) that may potentially develop toxicity after radiotherapy for cervix cancer. However, its dose from brachytherapy (BT) is not systematically reported as in other OARs, even with image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT). This study aims to introduce consideration of quantified objectives for SB in BT plan optimization and to evaluate the feasibility of sparing SB while maintaining adequate target coverage. In all, 13 patients were included in this retrospective study. All patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) 45Gy in 25 fractions followed by high dose rate (HDR)-BT boost of 28Gy in 4 fractions using tandem/ring applicator. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomographic (CT) images were obtained to define the gross tumor volume (GTV), high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) and OARs (rectum, bladder, sigmoid colon, and SB). Treatment plans were generated for each patient using GEC-ESTRO recommendations based on the first CT/MRI. Treatment plans were revised to reduce SB dose when the [Formula: see text] dose to SB was > 5Gy, while maintaining other OAR constraints. For the 7 patients with 2 sets of CT and MRI studies, the interfraction variation of the most exposed SB was analyzed. Plan revisions were done in 6 of 13 cases owing to high [Formula: see text] of SB. An average reduction of 19% in [Formula: see text] was achieved. Meeting SB and other OAR constraints resulted in less than optimal target coverage in 2 patients (D90 of HR-CTV < 77Gyαβ10). The highest interfraction variation was observed for SB at 16 ± 59%, as opposed to 28 ± 27% for rectum and 21 ± 16% for bladder. Prospective reporting of SB dose could provide data required to establish a potential correlation with radiation-induced late complication for SB.

  11. Randomized comparison of viral oncolysate plus radiation and radiation alone in uterine cervix carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Freedman, R S; Bowen, J M; Atkinson, E N; Wallace, S; Lotzová, E; Silva, E; Edwards, C L; Delclos, L; Scott, W; Patenia, B

    1989-06-01

    A randomized, controlled study was performed in patients with high-risk, untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix to evaluate the adjunctive use of viral oncolysate (VO) prepared from the SW756 cell line. Seventy-five patients were stratified by tumor volume and randomized to receive radiation therapy (RT) alone or RT plus intradermal immunization with VO. Fifty-one (68%) patients relapsed with a median survival (MS) of 29.1 months and a median progression-free interval (MPFI) of 18.0 months. No differences in MS or median PFI were observed by treatment arm or site of relapse, although a trend toward improved MS and median PFI in patients with small-volume primary lesions was suggested. Serum surface-binding antibody activity (greater than or equal to 1:8) to the SW756 cell line was detected in 14 of 41 unselected patients prior to therapy. Virus hemagglutination inhibitory activity (greater than or equal to 1:8) was detected in 37 of 41 patients before treatment. four-fold increases in titer were observed to the SW756 cell line in 83% and to influenza in 74% of patients tested after immunization. Preirradiation measurements of phytohemagglutinin-induced blastogenesis by the relative proliferation index (RPI) method in 39 patients revealed RPI values less than 0.58 in nine patients, eight of whom relapsed. At 3-6 months after the initiation of irradiation, 32 of 39 patients had values less than 0.58. Patients in the RT group with values less than 0.58 had significantly more relapses than those who received RT plus VO.

  12. Variation in uterus position prior to brachytherapy of the cervix: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, MT; Anghel, R

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: brachytherapy is administered in the treatment of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer following chemoradiotherapy. Lack of local anatomy evaluation prior to this procedure might lead to the selection of an inappropriate brachytherapy applicator, increasing the risk of side effects (e.g. uterus perforation, painful procedure ...). Objective: To assess the movement of the uterus and cervix prior to brachytherapy in patients with gynecological cancer, in order to select the proper type of brachytherapy applicator. Also we wanted to promote the replacement of the plain X-ray brachytherapy with the image-guided procedure. Methods and results: We presented the case of a 41-year-old female diagnosed with a biopsy that was proven cervical cancer stage IIIB. At diagnosis, the imaging studies identified an anteverted uterus. The patient underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Prior to brachytherapy, the patient underwent a pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which identified a displacement of the uterus in the retroverted position. Discussion: A great variety of brachytherapy applicators is available nowadays. Major changes in uterus position and lack of evaluation prior to brachytherapy might lead to a higher rate of incidents during this procedure. Also, by using orthogonal simulation and bidimensional (2D) treatment planning, brachytherapy would undoubtedly fail to treat the remaining tumoral tissue. This is the reason why we proposed the implementation of a prior imaging of the uterus and computed tomography (CT)/ MRI-based simulation in the brachytherapy procedure. Abbreviations: MRI = magnetic resonance imaging, CT = computed tomography, CTV = clinical target volume, DVH = dose-volume histogram, EBRT = external beam radiotherapy, GTV = gross tumor volume, Gy = Gray (unit), ICRU = International Commission of Radiation Units, IGRT = image guided radiotherapy, IM = internal margin, IMRT = image modulated radiotherapy, ITV = internal target

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cancer of the Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Zwahlen, Daniel; Jezioranski, John; Chan, Philip; Haider, Masoom A.; Cho, Young-Bin; Yeung, Ivan; Levin, Wilfred; Manchul, Lee; Fyles, Anthony; Milosevic, Michael

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility and benefits of optimized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided brachytherapy (BT) for cancer of the cervix. Methods and Materials: A total of 20 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IB-IV cervical cancer had an MRI-compatible intrauterine BT applicator inserted after external beam radiotherapy. MRI scans were acquired, and the gross tumor volume at diagnosis and at BT, the high-risk (HR) and intermediate-risk clinical target volume (CTV), and rectal, sigmoid, and bladder walls were delineated. Pulsed-dose-rate BT was planned and delivered in a conventional manner. Optimized MRI-based plans were developed and compared with the conventional plans. Results: The HR CTV and intermediate-risk CTV were adequately treated (the percentage of volume treated to {>=}100% of the intended dose was >95%) in 70% and 85% of the patients with the conventional plans, respectively, and in 75% and 95% of the patients with the optimized plans, respectively. The minimal dose to the contiguous 2 cm{sup 3} of the rectal, sigmoid, and bladder wall volume was 16 {+-} 6.2, 25 {+-} 8.7, and 31 {+-} 9.2 Gy, respectively. With MRI-guided BT optimization, it was possible to maintain coverage of the HR-CTV and reduce the dose to the normal tissues, especially in patients with small tumors at BT. In these patients, the HR percentage of volume treated to {>=}100% of the intended dose approached 100% in all cases, and the minimal dose to the contiguous 2-cm{sup 3} of the rectum, sigmoid, and bladder was 12-32% less than with conventional BT planning. Conclusion: MRI-based BT for cervical cancer has the potential to optimize primary tumor dosimetry and reduce the dose to critical normal tissues, particularly in patients with small tumors.

  14. Photodynamic therapy of virus-associated precancer and early stages cancer of cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Trushina, O I; Novikova, E G; Sokolov, V V; Filonenko, E V; Chissov, V I; Vorozhtsov, G N

    2008-12-01

    We have analyzed the results of photodynamic therapy using light-sensitizing agent "Photogem" in 72 patients - 56 women with pre-cancerous lesions of cervix and 16 women with early cervical cancer (group 1); Photosens in 47 patients - 35 women with pre-cancerous lesions (CIN III), 12 women with non-invasive cervical cancer (carcinoma in situ) (group 2); and Alasens in 22 patients - 8 women with virus-associated pre-cancerous lesions (high-grade CIN III), 14 with virus-associated early cervical cancer (carcinoma in situ, cervical cancer 1A1) (group 3). The results were as follows: group 1 - complete regression of CIN III and non-invasive cervical cancer (carcinoma in situ) was achieved in 50 (89.2%) and 11 (68.8%) cases, significant regression was achieved in 2 cases (3.6%) and in 2 cases (12.5%), stabilization was achieved in 2 cases (3.6%) and in 2 cases (12.5%), progression was achieved in 2 cases (3.6%) and in 1 case (6.2%) accordingly. In the group of patients after PDT using Photosens complete regression of CIN III and non-invasive cervical cancer (carcinoma in situ) was achieved in 33 cases (94.2%) and in 10 cases (83.4%) cases, significant regression was achieved in 1 case (2.9%) and in 1 case (8.3%), stabilization was achieved in 1 cases (2.9%) and in 1 cases (8.3%). In the group of women after surgical treatment anti-viral efficacy was assessed. It s necessary to note that not a single relapse was observed. Anti-viral effect was registered in 49 (90.4%) cases The longest HPV-free period that we observed was 5 years. 12 women with CIN III and 4 women with carcinoma in situ became pregnant.

  15. Intra-Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy Using Cisplatin With Radiotherapy for Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneyasu, Yuko Nagai, Nobutaka; Nagata, Yasushi; Hashimoto, Yasutoshi; Yuki, Shintaro; Murakami, Yuji; Kenjo, Masahiro; Kakizawa, Hideaki; Toyota, Naoyuki; Fujiwara, Hisaya; Kudo, Yoshiki; Ito, Katsuhide

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of concomitant intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (IAIC) using cisplatin (CDDP) with radiotherapy for Stage III squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 29 cases of Stage III squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with radiotherapy and IAIC of CDDP from 1991 to 2006. External-beam therapy was given to the whole pelvis using four opposing parallel fields with an 18-MV linear accelerator unit. A central shield was used after 30-40 Gy with external whole-pelvic irradiation, and the total dose was 50 Gy. High-dose-rate brachytherapy was given with {sup 192}Ir microSelectron. The dose at Point A was 6 Gy per fraction, 2 fractions per week, and the total number of fractions was either 3 or 4. Two or three courses of IAIC were given concomitantly with CDDP 120 mg or carboplatin 300 mg. Results: We confirmed excellent medicine distribution directly by using computed tomographic angiography. The 5-year overall survival rate for Stage III patients was 62%, the cause-specific survival rate was 70%, and the local relapse-free survival rate was 89%. Local recurrence, distant metastasis, and occurrences of both were 7%, 38%, and 3%, respectively. The incidence of severe acute hematologic adverse reactions (Grade {>=}3) was 27% for all patients; however, all recovered without interruption of radiotherapy. Severe nonhematologic effects (Grade {>=}3) were 3%, including nausea and ileus. Only 1 patient's radiotherapy was interrupted for a period of 1 week because of ileus. Severe late complication rates (Grade {>=}3) for the bladder, rectum, and intestine were 3%, 3%, and 10%, respectively. Conclusion: A combination of IAIC and systemic chemotherapy should be considered to improve the prognosis of patients with Stage III squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.

  16. Semiquantitative and Quantitative Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measurements Predict Radiation Response in Cervix Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zahra, Mark A. Tan, Li Tee; Priest, Andrew N.; Graves, Martin J.; Arends, Mark; Crawford, Robin A.F.; Brenton, James D.; Lomas, David J.; Sala, Evis

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate semiquantitative and quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) measurements in predicting the response to radiotherapy in cervix cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with cervix cancer treated radically with chemoradiotherapy had DCE-MRI at three time points: before starting treatment, after 2 weeks of radiotherapy, and in the 5th week of radiotherapy. Semiquantitative measurements obtained from the signal intensity vs. time plots included arrival time of contrast, the slope and maximum slope of contrast uptake, time for peak enhancement, and the contrast enhancement ratio (CER). Pharmacokinetic modeling with a modeled vascular input function was used for the quantitative measurements volume transfer constant (K{sup trans}), rate constant (k{sub ep}), fraction plasma volume (fPV), and the initial area under gadolinium-time curve. The correlation of these measurements at each of the three time points with radiologic tumor response was investigated. Results: Thirteen patients had a total of 38 scans. There was no correlation between the DCE-MRI measurements and the corresponding tumor volumes. A statistically significant correlation with percentage tumor regression was shown with the pretreatment DCE-MRI semiquantitative parameters of peak time (p = 0.046), slope (p = 0.025), maximum slope (p = 0.046), and CER (p = 0.025) and the quantitative parameters K{sup trans} (p = 0.043) and k{sub ep} (p = 0.022). Second and third scan measurements did not show any correlation. Conclusions: This is the first study to show that pretreatment DCE-MRI quantitative parameters predict the radiation response in cervix cancer. These measurements may allow a more meaningful comparison of DCE-MRI studies from different centers.

  17. Radiation-induced Vulvar Angiokeratoma Along with Other Late Radiation Toxicities after Carcinoma Cervix: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Virendra; Naik, Ayush; Gupta, K L; Kausar, Mehlam

    2016-01-01

    Angiokeratoma including vulvar angiokeratoma is a very rare complication of radiation. Exact incidence is still unknown, we report a case that developed radiation-induced angiokeratoma of skin in the vulvar region along with other late radiation sequelae in the form of bone fracture, new bone formation, bone marrow widening, muscle hypertrophy, and subcutaneous fibrosis, 18 years after radiotherapy to the pelvic region for the treatment of carcinoma cervix. All these late radiation sequel are rare to be seen in a single patient, and none of the case reports could be found in the world literature. PMID:27057045

  18. Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma-Waldenström macroglobulinemia: an unusual presentation in ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Albawardi, Alia Saeed; Castella, Antonio; Almarzooqi, Saeeda Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma is an indolent malignancy of B cells and plasma cells. The disease presents in the adults with bone marrow and lymph nodes involvement. Extranodal involvement is rare but has been reported in spleen and liver. Herein, we present a case of a 50-year-old woman who underwent hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy for irregular uterine bleeding. Histologic examination of uterine cervix, uterine walls and fallopian tubes reveal dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate that was most pronounced in ovaries. This is the first case report on lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma-Waldenström macroglobulinemia initially presenting and secondarily involving both ovaries and other gynecological organs.

  19. Chemopreventive effects of Cuminum cyminum in chemically induced forestomach and uterine cervix tumors in murine model systems.

    PubMed

    Gagandeep; Dhanalakshmi, Sivanandhan; Méndiz, Ester; Rao, Agra Ramesha; Kale, Raosaheb Kathalupant

    2003-01-01

    Lately, a strong correlation has been established between diet and cancer. For ages, cumin has been a part of the diet. It is a popular spice regularly used as a flavoring agent in a number of ethnic cousins. In the present study, cancer chemopreventive potentials of different doses of a cumin seed-mixed diet were evaluated against benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced forestomach tumorigenesis and 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced uterine cervix tumorigenesis. Results showed a significant inhibition of stomach tumor burden (tumors per mouse) by cumin. Tumor burden was 7.33 +/- 2.10 in the B(a)P-treated control group, whereas it reduced to 3.10 +/- 0.57 (P < 0.001) by a 2.5% dose and 3.11 +/- 0.60 (P <0.001) by a 5% dose of cumin seeds. Cervical carcinoma incidence, compared with the MCA-treated control group (66.67%), reduced to 27.27% (P < 0.05) by a diet of 5% cumin seeds and to 12.50% (P < 0.05) by a diet of 7.5% cumin seeds. The effect of 2.5 and 5% cumin seed-mixed diets was also examined on carcinogen/xenobiotic metabolizing phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and lipid peroxidation in the liver of Swiss albino mice. Levels of cytochrome P-450 (cyt P-450) and cytochrome b5 (cyt b(5)) were significantly augmented (P < 0.05) by the 2.5% dose of cumin seed diet. The levels of cyt P-450 reductase and cyt b(5) reductase were increased (significance level being from P < 0.05 to P < 0.01) by both doses of cumin. Among the phase II enzymes, glutathione S-transferase specific activity increased (P < 0.005) by the 5% dose, whereas that of DT-diaphorase increased significantly (P < 0.05) by both doses used (2.5 and 5%). In the antioxidant system, significant elevation of the specific activities of superoxide dismutase (P < 0.01) and catalase (P < 0.05) was observed with the 5% dose of cumin. The activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase remained unaltered by both doses of cumin. The level

  20. Spectroscopic properties and high-power laser operation of Yb0.14:Y0.77Gd0.09Ca4O(BO3)3 mixed crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Xu, Honghao; Han, Wenjuan; Wang, Lisha; Liu, Junhai; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin

    2016-05-01

    We report, for the first time to our knowledge, on the spectroscopic properties and continuous-wave laser performance of Yb0.14:Y0.77Gd0.09Ca4O(BO3)3, a mixed rare earth calcium oxyborate Yb-ion crystal. Under simple end-pumping conditions with a 976-nm diode, efficient CW laser operation was demonstrated at room temperature, producing an output power of 14.1 W at 1084.4 nm with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 48%; while operating around 1045 nm, the laser could generate an output power as high as 23.0 W, with optical-to-optical and slope efficiencies amounting, respectively, to 57% and 70% with respect to incident pump power. The polarized absorption and emission cross sections are also presented. The impressive results demonstrated reveal the great potential of these mixed oxyborates in developing new promising Yb-ion laser crystals.

  1. Doping dependence of upper critical field and hall resistivity in LaFeAsO1-xFx (x=0, 0.025, 0.5, 0.07, 0.11 and 0.14)

    SciTech Connect

    Kohima, Yoshimitsu; Baily, S A; Civale, L; Riggs, S C; Balakirev, F F; Jaime, M; Kamihara, Y; Atake, T; Hirano, M; Hosono, H

    2008-01-01

    The electrical resistivity ({rho}{sub xx}) and Hall resistivity ({rho}{sub xy}) have been measured over wide composition range using 60 T pulsed magnets. While the superconducting phase diagram (T{sub c}, x) displays the classic dome-shaped structure, we find that the upper critical field (H{sub c2}) increases monotonically with decreasing fluorine concentration (x), with the largest H{sub c2} {>=} 75 T for x = 0.05. {rho}{sub xx} and {rho}{sub xy} data provide evidence for the multiband electronic structure for all x {<=} 0.14 in LaFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x}, and demonstrate the quantum phase transition near x {approx} 0.05. Both the multiband structure and quantum phase transition play crucial roles in the large H{sub c2}.

  2. Superconducting properties in heavily overdoped Ba(Fe0.86Co0.14)2As2 single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jeehoon; Haberkorn, N.; Gofryk, K.; Graf, M. J.; Ronning, F.; Sefat, A. S.; Movshovich, R.; Civale, L.

    2014-10-05

    Here, we report the intrinsic superconducting parameters in a heavily overdoped Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 (x=0.14) single crystal and their influence in the resulting vortex dynamics. We also find a bulk superconducting critical temperature of 9.8 K, magnetic penetration depth λab (0)=660 ± 50 nm, coherence length ζab (0)=6.4 ± 0.2 nm, and the upper critical field anisotropy γTTc approximate to 3.7. The vortex phase diagram, in comparison with the optimally doped compound, presents a narrow collective creep regime. Furthermore, the intrinsic pinning energy plays an important role in the resulting vortex dynamics as compared with similar pinning landscape and comparable intrinsic thermal fluctuations.

  3. Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillations reveal a reconstructed Fermi surface near optimal doping in a thin film of the cuprate superconductor Pr1.86Ce0.14CuO4 ±δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breznay, Nicholas P.; Hayes, Ian M.; Ramshaw, B. J.; McDonald, Ross D.; Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Ikeda, Ai; Irie, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Hideki; Analytis, James G.

    2016-09-01

    We study magnetotransport properties of the electron-doped superconductor Pr2 -xCexCuO4 ±δ with x =0.14 in magnetic fields up to 92 T, and observe Shubnikov-de Haas magnetic quantum oscillations. The oscillations display a single frequency F =255 ±10 T, indicating a small Fermi pocket that is ˜1 % of the two-dimensional Brillouin zone and consistent with a Fermi surface reconstructed from the large holelike cylinder predicted for these layered materials. Despite the low nominal doping, all electronic properties including the effective mass and Hall effect are consistent with overdoped compounds. Our study demonstrates that the exceptional chemical control afforded by high quality thin films will enable Fermi surface studies deep into the overdoped cuprate phase diagram.

  4. Carcinoma of the uterine cervix stage IB and early stage II. Prognostic value of the histological tumor regression after initial brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Calais, G.; Le Floch, O.; Chauvet, B.; Reynaud-Bougnoux, A.; Bougnoux, P. )

    1989-12-01

    In our center limited centro pelvic invasive carcinomas of the uterine cervix (less than 4 cm) are treated with brachytherapy and surgery. With these therapeutic modalities no residual carcinoma was observed for 80% of the patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate our results with this treatment, and to evaluate the prognostic value of the pathological status of the cervix. From 1976 to 1987 we have treated 115 patients with these modalities. Staging system used was the FIGO classification modified for Stage II (divided in early Stage II and late Stage II). Patients were Stage IB (70 cases) and early Stage II (45 cases); 60 Gy were delivered with utero vaginal brachytherapy before any treatment. Six weeks later a radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Twenty-one patients with positive nodes received a pelvic radiotherapy (45 to 55 Gy). Local control rate was 97% (100% for Stage IB and 93% for early Stage II). Uncorrected 10-year actuarial survival rate was 96% for Stage IB and 80% for early Stage II patients. No treatment failure was observed for Stage IB patients. Ninety-two patients (80%) had no residual carcinoma in the cervix (group 1) and 23 patients (20%) had a residual tumor (group 2). The sterilization rate of the cervix was 87% for Stage IB tumors versus 69% for early Stage II, and was 82% for N- patients versus 68% for N+ patients. Ten year actuarial survival rate was 92% for group 1 and 78% for group 2 (p = 0, 1). Grade 3 complications rate was 6%. We conclude that brachytherapy + surgery is a safe treatment for limited centro pelvic carcinomas of the uterine cervix (especially Stage IB) and that pathological status of the cervix after brachytherapy is not a prognostic factor.

  5. BCL2 and keratin 5 define the uterine-cervix-isthmus junction, a transition between endocervical and tubal-like epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hoogduin, Klaas J; Hopman, Anton N H; Ramaekers, Frans C S; McCluggage, W Glenn; Smedts, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A clearcut definition of the transition from the cervix to the lower uterine segment is lacking. We therefore evaluated the location of the anatomic border between the cervix and the uterine corpus. Using both morphometry and immunohistochemisty, we examined the epithelial and stromal cell types in this transition zone. In 26 patients, longitudinal sections from the cervix uteri up to the fundus uteri were paraffin embedded and immunohistochemically stained for BCL2, keratin 5, Ki-67, CD10, and CD34. Examination of the slides resulted in the identification of a junctional zone in the cranial portion of the cervix, which is characterized by a usually abrupt morphologic and immunohistochemical transition from an endocervical-type mucinous epithelium to a ciliated tubal-like epithelium and a slow transition in stromal marker expression patterns. This epithelial transition was characterized by its intense keratin 5 and BCL2 staining with accompanying Ki-67 expression in the tubal-like epithelium, whereas the endocervical epithelium was largely negative for these markers. CD10 expression was usually quite intense directly around endocervical invaginations, but the remaining stroma was negative. Toward the endometrial cavity, expression increased and endometrial stroma displayed full thickness expression for CD10. CD34 showed a reverse pattern to CD10, with moderate expression in the endocervical stroma, which disappeared in the endometrial stoma. The immunohistochemical identification of this transition may allow a more objective determination of the extension of endometrial carcinoma into the cervix in cases that are morphologically problematic. Furthermore, as ciliated tubal-like epithelium is invariably found cranial to the uterine-cervix-isthmus junction, a diagnosis of tubal metaplasia should not be made in this region and tubal-like epithelium is not indicative of a metaplastic process.

  6. Synthesis of hierarchical macro-/mesoporous solid-solution photocatalysts by a polymerization-carbonization-oxidation route: the case of Ce(0.49)Zr(0.37)Bi(0.14)O(1.93).

    PubMed

    Xi, Guangcheng; Ye, Jinhua

    2010-08-02

    A hierarchical macro-/mesoporous Ce(0.49)Zr(0.37)Bi(0.14)O(1.93) solid-solution network has been synthesized on a large scale by means of a simple and general polymerization-carbonization-oxidation synthetic route. The as-prepared product has been characterized by SEM, XRD, TEM, BET surface area measurement, UV/Vis diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and photoelectrochemistry measurements. The photocatalytic activity of the product has been demonstrated through the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. Structural characterization has indicated that the hierarchical macro-/mesoporous solid-solution network not only contains numerous macropores, but also possesses an interior mesoporous structure. The mesopore size and BET surface area of the network have been measured as 2-25 nm and 140.5 m(2) g(-1), respectively. The hierarchical macro-/mesoporous solid-solution network with open and accessible pores was found to be well-preserved after calcination at 800 degrees C, indicating especially high thermal stability. Due to its high specific surface area, the synergistic effect of the coupling of macropores and mesopores, and its high crystallinity, the Ce(0.49)Zr(0.37)Bi(0.14)O(1.93) solid-solution material shows a strong structure-induced enhancement of visible-light harvest and exhibits significantly improved visible-light photocatalytic activity in the photodegradation of methyl orange compared with those of its other forms, such as mesoporous hollow spheres and bulk particles.

  7. The influence of multiple human papillomavirus types on the risk of genotype-concordant incident infections of the anus and cervix: the Hawaii HPV cohort study.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Marc T; McDuffie, Katharine; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Wilkens, Lynne R; Zhu, Xuemei; Thompson, Pamela J; Killeen, Jeffrey; Kamemoto, Lori; Shvetsov, Yurii B

    2011-02-01

    The influence of multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) types on detection of concordant incident HPV infections of the cervix or anus following infection at the other anatomic site was examined in a cohort of 897 women. Multiple HPV infections at the anus were not significantly associated with subsequent acquisition of a concordant cervical infection, whereas prior coinfections in the cervix increased risk of a new cervical HPV infection. Incident anal HPV infections following concordant cervical HPV infections increased significantly among women with preexisting cervical or anal coinfections. Potential synergy in acquisition of cervical and anal HPV infections has implications for prophylactic vaccine effectiveness.

  8. [An ultrastructural study of the cervix epitelium infected with the human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 before and after treatment with contrasting thermo-laser therapy].

    PubMed

    Manykin, A A; Ezhov, V V; Belov, S V; Danileĭko, Iu K; Saliuk, V A; Dymkovets, V P; Gushchina, E A; Lisitsyn, F V

    2014-01-01

    The results of the ultrastructural study of the epithelium of the patient cervix infected by the human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 before and after treatment by contrasting thermo-laser therapy (CTLT) are presented. It was shown in this work that 1.5 and 6 months after treatment HPV DNA was not detected in the biopsy and the smear of the cervix using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the ultrathin sections, the structure of the epithelial cells from the biopsy after treatment corresponded to norm. There was effective elimination of HPV types 16 and 18 as Induces by CTLT method.

  9. Clinical Tumor Dimensions May Be Useful to Prevent Geographic Miss in Conventional Radiotherapy of Uterine Cervix Cancer-A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Study

    SciTech Connect

    Justino, Pitagoras Baskara; Baroni, Ronaldo; Blasbalg, Roberto; Andrade Carvalho, Heloisa de

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the risk of geographic miss associated with the classic four-field 'box' irradiation technique and to define the variables that predict this risk. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 80 patients with uterine cervix cancer seen between 2001 and 2006. Median age was 55 years (23-82 years), and 72 (90%) presented with squamous cell carcinoma. Most patients (68.7%) presented with locally advanced disease (IIb or more). Magnetic resonance imaging findings from before treatment were compared with findings from simulation of the conventional four-field 'box' technique done with rectal contrast. Study variables included tumor volume; involvement of vagina, parametrium, bladder, or rectum; posterior displacement of the anterior rectal wall; and tumor anteroposterior diameter (APD). Margins were considered adequate when the target volume (primary tumor extension, whole uterine body, and parametrium) was included within the field limits and were at least 1 cm in width. Results: Field limits were inadequate in 45 (56%) patients: 29 (36%) patients at the anterior and 28 (35%) at the posterior border of the lateral fields. Of these, 12 patients had both anterior and posterior miss, and this risk was observed in all stages of the disease (p = 0.076). Posterior displacement of the anterior rectal wall beyond S2-S3 was significantly correlated with the risk of geographic miss (p = 0.043). Larger tumors (APD 6 cm or above and volume above 50 cm{sup 3}) were also significantly correlated with this risk (p = 0.004 and p = 0.046, respectively). Conclusions: Posterior displacement of the anterior rectal wall, tumor APD, and volume can be used as guidance in evaluating the risk of geographic miss.

  10. Comparison of human papillomavirus DNA tests, liquid-based cytology and conventional cytology for the early detection of cervix uteri cancer.

    PubMed

    Girianelli, Vania R; Thuler, Luiz Claudio S; Szklo, Moyses; Donato, Alexandre; Zardo, Lucilia M G; Lozana, José A; Almeida Neto, Olimpio F; Carvalho, Aurenice C L; Matos, Jorge H; Figueiredo, Valeska

    2006-12-01

    To compare the performance of human papillomavirus DNA tests (samples collected by a healthcare professional and self-collected) and liquid-based cytology with conventional cytology in the detection of cervix uteri cancer and its precursor lesions. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1777 women living in poor communities in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Eligibility criteria included ages 25-59 years and not having had a Papanicolau test within at least 3 years prior to the study. Cytology (conventional or liquid-based) and human papillomavirus DNA (collected by a healthcare professional or self-collected) tests were performed using samples collected in a single visit. Women with abnormalities in at least one test and a systematic sample of 70 women with negative test results were referred to a colposcopic examination. Test readings were double-masked, and the outcome of interest was high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse. The pathology report was used as the gold standard. The prevalence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse was 2.0%. Human papillomavirus DNA test collected by a health professional alone or combined with conventional cytology had the highest sensitivity (91.4 and 97.1%, respectively). The highest specificity was found for conventional cytology (91.6%) and for a human papillomavirus DNA test collected by a healthcare professional (90.2%). On the basis of only test performance, the use of human papillomavirus DNA tests, alone or combined with cytology, would seem to be recommended. Its population-wide implementation, however, is conditional on a cost-effectiveness analysis.

  11. [Maturation of the cervix uteri using prostaglandin F2 alpha before induction of labor in pathologic pregnancies].

    PubMed

    Maria, B; Fayette, E; Stampf, F; Gandon, C; Gantrel, J; Barrat, J

    1983-01-01

    It is possible to induce labour in pathological pregnancies after artificial ripening of the cervix. The present study concerns 70 patients (45 primipara, 25 multipara). The main pathologies are hypertension of pregnancy and pregnancies past dates. Prostaglandin F2 alpha has been used with a Tylose gel containing 5 mg of PGF2 alpha introduced by the extra-amniotic route. The cervical change was noted using Bishop's score. The mean increase of the cervical score was 0.8 with the first PGF2 alpha gel. The total mean increase was 1.2. Two cases of hyperstimulation of the uterus were observed and they led to Caesarean section. Prostaglandin gel induced labour in 56% of the patients. The mean time between the introduction of the gel and the delivery was 14 h for primipara and 10 h for multipara. Other patients were induced with oxytocin on the following day. Epidural analgesia was widely used in this study (in 64% of cases). The mean duration of labour was 6 h 10 for primipara and 4 h 30 for multipara. 30% of the patients needed Caesarean section but there was a marked difference between primipara (36%) and multipara (4%). After a review of the literature the authors conclude that it is useful to ripen the cervix prostaglandin but, as foreign authors do, they think that PGE2 should be more efficient.

  12. Implementation of image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) for patients with uterine cervix cancer: a tumor volume kinetics approach

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Lucas Castro; Stuart, Silvia Radwanski; Guimarães, Roger Guilherme Rodrigues; Ramos, Clarissa Cerchi Angotti; de Paula, Lucas Assad; de Sales, Camila Pessoa; Chen, André Tsin Chih; Blasbalg, Roberto; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate tumor shrinking kinetics in order to implement image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) for the treatment of patients with cervix cancer. Material and methods This study has prospectively evaluated tumor shrinking kinetics of thirteen patients with uterine cervix cancer treated with combined chemoradiation. Four high dose rate brachytherapy fractions were delivered during the course of pelvic external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams were acquired at diagnosis (D), first (B1), and third (B3) brachytherapy fractions. Target volumes (GTV and HR-CTV) were calculated by both the ellipsoid formula (VE) and MRI contouring (VC), which were defined by a consensus between at least two radiation oncologists and a pelvic expert radiologist. Results Most enrolled patients had squamous cell carcinoma and FIGO stage IIB disease, and initiated brachytherapy after the third week of pelvic external beam radiation. Gross tumor volume volume reduction from diagnostic MRI to B1 represented 61.9% and 75.2% of the initial volume, when measured by VE and VC, respectively. Only a modest volume reduction (15-20%) was observed from B1 to B3. Conclusions The most expressive tumor shrinking occurred in the first three weeks of oncological treatment and was in accordance with gynecological examination. These findings may help in IGBT implementation. PMID:27648083

  13. A prospective randomized trial comparing Foley catheter, oxytocin, and combination Foley catheter-oxytocin for labour induction with unfavourable cervix.

    PubMed

    El Khouly, Nabih I

    2016-12-06

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of transcervical Foley catheter with and without oxytocin versus oxytocin alone for labour induction with unfavourable cervix. This trial enrolled 108 women with singleton pregnancies presented for labour induction with unfavourable cervix. Patients were randomly assigned to receive Foley catheter alone (I), Foley catheter plus oxytocin (II) or oxytocin alone (III). Outcomes were analysed in terms of success of induction, induction delivery interval, route of delivery, dose and duration of oxytocin, and complications. Successful normal vaginal delivery was more common in group I (p = .02) compared to group III. Induction delivery time was statistically shorter in group II and group III (p < .001). Patients in group I required significantly less oxytocin dose and duration (p < .001). This led to our conclusion that induction of labour with Foley catheter without oxytocin increases success rate of normal vaginal delivery; however, it has a longer induction delivery interval with similar complications.

  14. Expression of CCR5, CXCR4 and DC-SIGN in Cervix of HIV-1 Heterosexually Infected Mexican Women

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Morales, Lydia Guadalupe; Lopez-Guillen, Paulo; Vazquez-Guillen, Jose Manuel; Palacios-Saucedo, Gerardo C; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian G; Ramirez-Pineda, Antonio; Amaya-Garcia, Patricia Irene; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Background: A number of studies have demonstrated that receptor and co-receptor expression levels which may affect viral entry, promoting cervical HIV infection. The aim was to evaluate the expression levels of CCR5, CXCR4and DC-SIGN mRNA in a sample of heterosexually HIV infected Mexican women. Methods: We enrolled twenty-six HIV heterosexual infected women attending a local infectious diseases medical unit.RNA was isolated from the cervix and gene expression analysis was performed using real-time PCR. Results: Expression rates for mRNA of CCR5 (median 1.82; range 0.003–2934) were higher than those observed for CXCR4 (0.79; 0.0061–3312) and DC-SIGN (0.33; 0.006–532) receptors (p < 0.05). A high correlation was found between the mRNA expression levels of these three receptors (rs = 0.52 to 0.85, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Levels of expression of the tested chemokine receptors in the cervix are different from each other and alsovary from woman to woman, and seem to support the suggestion that chemokine receptor expression in genital tissues may be playing a role in the HIV transmission. PMID:23115608

  15. Increased number of IL-2, IL-2 receptor and IL-10 positive cells in premalignant lesions of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Mindiola, Raimy; Caulejas, Diana; Núñez-Troconis, José; Araujo, Mary; Delgado, Mariela; Mosquera, Jesús

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown the involvement of the immune response in the progression of human uterine cervix cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of Interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) and Interleukin 10 (IL-10) in different grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias of the exocervix (CIN 1, 2 and 3), and its relationship with the serum cytokine profiles and human papilomavirus (HPV) infection status. Indirect immunofluorescence was used to study the expression of IL-2, IL-2R and IL-10 in human cervical samples from 50 patients and 9 normal controls. Serum IL-2, IL-2R and IL-10 were measured by ELISA and HPV DNA and HPV types were identified by PCR. Increased number of IL-2, IL-2R and IL-10 positive cells were observed in the cervix from patients with CIN, associated with the grades of dysplasia. A significant correlation was observed between IL-2 and IL-2R (p>0.0001), IL-2 and IL-10 (p>0.0001), as well as IL-10 and IL-2R (p>0.0001). Twenty percent of patients were HPV positive and 84% of those patients were tissue cytokine positive. These results suggest that IL-2, IL-2R and IL-10 tissue expression may play a role in the development of cervical intraepithelial dysplasias.

  16. Effect of NBS1 gene polymorphism on the risk of cervix carcinoma in a northern Indian population.

    PubMed

    Sobti, R C; Shekari, M; Kordi Tamandani, D M; Kaur, P; Suri, V; Huria, A

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common neoplastic diseases affecting women, with a worldwide incidence of almost half a million cases. A history of smoking and use of oral contraceptives have been confirmed to be risk factors for cervical cancer. Genetic susceptibility and immune response, especially impaired cellular immune response, may well be related to the development of cervical cancer. NBS1 is one of the key proteins participating in the recognition and repair of double-strand breaks that may lead to genomic instability and cancer if unrepaired. The objective of the present study was therefore to investigate NBS1 Glu185Gln gene polymorphisms and the risk of cervix cancer in a northern Indian population. We found that passive smokers having particular NBS1 genotypes (Glu/Gln, Gln/Gln or Glu/Gln + Gln/Gln)have an increased risk of developing cervix cancer (OR 5.21, p=0.000001; OR 4.60, p=0.001; OR 5.10, p=0.0000009, respectively).The risk was increased 2.4-fold in oral contraceptive users with a Glu/Gln genotype. We conclude that the risk of cervical cancer is increased in passive smokers and in users of oral contraceptives with certain NBS1 genotypes.

  17. CINtec PLUS immunocytochemistry as a tool for the cytologic diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Ravarino, Alberto; Nemolato, Sonia; Macciocu, Elena; Fraschini, Matteo; Senes, Giancarlo; Faa, Gavino; Negri, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Cytologic findings of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri are often difficult to evaluate. We studied the usefulness of CINtec PLUS p16/Ki-67 double stain (mtm laboratories, Heidelberg, Germany) for the diagnosis of glandular lesions. The study included 47 abnormal results on liquid-based cytologic tests with a subsequent histologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ or with early invasion, and 16 samples with negative results on follow-up. All samples were stained with CINtec PLUS p16/Ki-67 double stain. Of the neoplastic samples, 7 were excluded because of insufficient residual cellularity or loss of neoplastic cells. Of the samples that were adequate, 92.5% were stained with CINtec PLUS, whereas 7.5% were judged inconclusive. All inconclusive cases were at least 3 years old. Of the 16 negative samples, 15 (93.8%) stained negative and only 1 (6.2%) showed several positive clusters of cells. Our study shows that CINtec PLUS is a robust and useful tool for the diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.

  18. A novel method to quantify and compare anatomical shape: application in cervix cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seungjong; Jaffray, David; Cho, Young-Bin

    2014-06-01

    Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) had been proposed to restore dosimetric deficiencies during treatment delivery. In this paper, we developed a technique of Geometric reLocation for analyzing anatomical OBjects' Evolution (GLOBE) for a numerical model of tumor evolution under radiation therapy and characterized geometric changes of the target using GLOBE. A total of 174 clinical target volumes (CTVs) obtained from 32 cervical cancer patients were analyzed. GLOBE consists of three main steps; step (1) deforming a 3D surface object to a sphere by parametric active contour (PAC), step (2) sampling a deformed PAC on 642 nodes of icosahedron geodesic dome for reference frame, and step (3) unfolding 3D data to 2D plane for convenient visualization and analysis. The performance was evaluated with respect to (1) convergence of deformation (iteration number and computation time) and (2) accuracy of deformation (residual deformation). Based on deformation vectors from planning CTV to weekly CTVs, target specific (TS) margins were calculated on each sampled node of GLOBE and the systematic (Σ) and random (σ) variations of the vectors were calculated. Population based anisotropic (PBA) margins were generated using van Herk's margin recipe. GLOBE successfully modeled 152 CTVs from 28 patients. Fast convergence was observed for most cases (137/152) with the iteration number of 65 ± 74 (average ± STD) and the computation time of 13.7 ± 18.6 min. Residual deformation of PAC was 0.9 ± 0.7 mm and more than 97% was less than 3 mm. Margin analysis showed random nature of TS-margin. As a consequence, PBA-margins perform similarly to ISO-margins. For example, PBA-margins for 90% patients' coverage with 95% dose level is close to 13 mm ISO-margins in the aspect of target coverage and OAR sparing. GLOBE demonstrates a systematic analysis of tumor motion and deformation of patients with cervix cancer during radiation therapy and numerical modeling of PBA-margin on 642 locations of CTV

  19. Bladder–Rectum Spacer Balloon in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy in Cervix Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Bhavana; Patel, Firuza D.; Chakraborty, Santam; Sharma, Suresh C.; Kapoor, Rakesh; Aprem, Abi Santhosh

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To compare bladder and rectum doses with the use of a bladder–rectum spacer balloon (BRSB) versus standard gauze packing in the same patient receiving 2 high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy fractions. Methods and Materials: This was a randomized study to compare the reduction in bladder and rectum doses with the use of a BRSB compared with standard gauze packing in patients with carcinoma of the cervix being treated with high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy. The patients were randomized between 2 arms. In arm A, vaginal packing was done with standard gauze packing in the first application, and BRSB was used in the second application. Arm B was the reverse of arm A. The International Commission for Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) point doses and doses to 0.1-cm{sup 3}, 1-cm{sup 3}, 2-cm{sup 3}, 5-cm{sup 3}, and 10-cm{sup 3} volumes of bladder and rectum were compared. The patients were also subjectively assessed for the ease of application and the time taken for application. Statistical analysis was done using the paired t test. Results: A total of 43 patients were enrolled; however, 3 patients had to be excluded because the BRSB could not be inserted owing to unfavorable local anatomy. Thus 40 patients (80 plans) were evaluated. The application was difficult in 3 patients with BRSB, and in 2 patients with BRSB the application time was prolonged. There was no significant difference in bladder doses to 0.1 cm{sup 3}, 1 cm{sup 3}, 2 cm{sup 3}, 5 cm{sup 3}, and 10 cm{sup 3} and ICRU bladder point. Statistically significant dose reductions to 0.1-cm{sup 3}, 1-cm{sup 3}, and 2-cm{sup 3} volumes for rectum were observed with the BRSB. No significant differences in 5-cm{sup 3} and 10-cm{sup 3} volumes and ICRU rectum point were observed. Conclusion: A statistically significant dose reduction was observed for small high-dose volumes in rectum with the BRSB. The doses to bladder were comparable for BRSB and gauze packing. Transparent balloons of

  20. Consensus Guidelines for Delineation of Clinical Target Volume for Intensity-Modulated Pelvic Radiotherapy for the Definitive Treatment of Cervix Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Karen; Portelance, Lorraine; Creutzberg, Carien; Juergenliemk-Schulz, Ina M.; Mundt, Arno; Mell, Loren K.; Mayr, Nina; Viswanathan, Akila; Jhingran, Anuja; Erickson, Beth; De Los Santos, Jennifer; Gaffney, David; Yashar, Catheryn; Beriwal, Sushil; Wolfson, Aaron

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: Accurate target definition is vitally important for definitive treatment of cervix cancer with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), yet a definition of clinical target volume (CTV) remains variable within the literature. The aim of this study was to develop a consensus CTV definition in preparation for a Phase 2 clinical trial being planned by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Methods and Materials: A guidelines consensus working group meeting was convened in June 2008 for the purposes of developing target definition guidelines for IMRT for the intact cervix. A draft document of recommendations for CTV definition was created and used to aid in contouring a clinical case. The clinical case was then analyzed for consistency and clarity of target delineation using an expectation maximization algorithm for simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE), with kappa statistics as a measure of agreement between participants. Results: Nineteen experts in gynecological radiation oncology generated contours on axial magnetic resonance images of the pelvis. Substantial STAPLE agreement sensitivity and specificity values were seen for gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation (0.84 and 0.96, respectively) with a kappa statistic of 0.68 (p < 0.0001). Agreement for delineation of cervix, uterus, vagina, and parametria was moderate. Conclusions: This report provides guidelines for CTV definition in the definitive cervix cancer setting for the purposes of IMRT, building on previously published guidelines for IMRT in the postoperative setting.

  1. Phase Evolution and Magnetic Properties of TbCu7-TYPE (Sm, Pr)Co7-xHfxMy (x = 0-0.5; y = 0-0.14) Ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, H. W.; Huang, S. T.; Chen, I. W.; Chang, C. W.; Chang, W. C.

    The effects of Hf substitution and C content on the magnetic properties, phase evolution, and microstructure of melt spun (Sm, Pr)Co7-xHfxCy (x = 0-0.5; y = 0-0.14) ribbons have been studied. A proper Hf substitution is helpful not only in stabilizing 1:7 phase but also in enhancing its magnetic anisotropy field. As a result, magnetic properties of Br = 6.4 kG, iHc = 7.3 kOe and (BH)max = 8.7 MGOe for SmCo6.9Hf0.1 ribbons are obtained. Besides, a small amount of C addition in the ribbons could slightly modify phase constitution and effectively refine their microstructure to strengthen the exchange coupling effect between magnetic grains. Furthermore, a slight Pr substitution for Sm may further increase the magnetization and the magnetic properties of the ribbons. The optimal magnetic properties of Br = 7.1 kG, iHc = 8.5 kOe and (BH)max = 11.2 MGOe could be achieved for the directly quenched Sm0.8Pr0.2Co6.9Hf0.1C0.12 ribbons.

  2. Comparative study on passivation of GaAs{sub 0.86}P{sub 0.14}/Al{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}As near-surface quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Suparna; Singh, S. D.; Porwal, S.; D'Souza, S. W.; Barman, S. R.; Oak, S. M.

    2010-11-15

    The authors report a comparative study on ex situ passivation of a near-surface GaAs{sub 0.86}P{sub 0.14}/Al{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}As quantum well using various sulfide solutions and nitrogen plasma treatments. The built-in surface electric field is changed via band bending by applying various surface passivation conditions. The band bending is measured using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Reduction in surface electric field in the range of 10-35 kV/cm is observed depending on different passivation conditions. The photoreflectance spectra show enhancement in intensity and blueshift of {approx}3 meV accompanied by significant reduction in the broadening parameter of the observed e{sub 1}-lh{sub 1} transitions. Among all the methods studied here, passivation by Na{sub 2}S{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O is found to be most effective as it removes the native oxide layer completely leading to almost flat band condition.

  3. Modeling the magnetic isotherms of (La0.56Ce0.14)Sr0.30MnO3 by a mean-field scaling method and estimation of magnetic entropy change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahyaoui, S.; Khalfaoui, M.; Kallel, S.; Kallel, N.; Amaral, J. S.; Ben Lamine, A.

    2015-11-01

    We report a study on the magnetic properties of the (La0.56Ce0.14)Sr0.30MnO3 perovskite, by a mean-field method. By scaling of the experimental magnetization data, the mean-field exchange parameter λ and the BS function of the equation of state BS [ (H +Hexch) / T ] are directly determined, as well as the order of the phase transition. The spin quantum number of the manganite has been also determined. The mean-field scaling has been used to estimate magnetic entropy change (- ΔSM) within the thermodynamics of the model and without using the usual numerical integration of a Maxwell relation. The maxima of the positive absolute value of (- ΔSM) upon variation of the applied magnetic field at 1 and 5 T are about 1.68 and 5.04 J kg-1 K-1, respectively. Satisfactory agreement between the mean-field model and experimental behavior has been found.

  4. Effect of nonparabolicity of the electron and light-hole energy spectrum on the optical properties of heterostructures with deep AlSb/InAs{sub 0.86}Sb{sub 0.14}/AlSb quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlov, N. V. Zegrya, G. G.

    2015-05-15

    The optical characteristics of heterostructures with deep quantum wells are studied using the AlSb/InAs{sub 0.86}Sb{sub 0.14}/AlSb structure within the framework of the four-band Kane model with regard to the nonparabolicity of the carrier energy spectrum. It is demonstrated that consideration of the nonparabolicity increases the number of size-quantization levels in the conduction band. At a quantum-well width of 100 Å, the investigated heterostructure contains three size-quantization levels within the parabolic model and six levels within the Kane model. This is due to the fact that the effective mass of high-energy electrons is found to be larger than the mass of electrons at the bottom of the conduction band by a factor of four. It is shown that account for the nonparabolicity only slightly affects the overlap integral for the s and p states, but significantly increases the density of states in the conduction band, which causes considerable growth in the radiation-absorption coefficient.

  5. Effects of genistein on oestrogen and progesterone receptor, proliferative marker Ki-67 and carbonic anhydrase localisation in the uterus and cervix of gilts after insemination.

    PubMed

    Norrby, Mattias; Madej, Andrzej; Ekstedt, Elisabeth; Holm, Lena

    2013-04-01

    Soya products are routinely fed to domestic animals as an important source of protein. The aim of this work was to study how the phytooestrogen genistein, supplemented at a feed relevant level, affects the morphology and distribution of reproductive hormone receptors, proliferative activities and carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the uterus and cervix of gilts. Eleven gilts were fed a soya-free diet. Six were given genistein (1 mg/kg bw) twice daily for eight days starting three days before expected oestrus. Five gilts were used as controls. All gilts were inseminated (AI) one day after signs of standing oestrus and euthanized three days after AI. Samples from the uterus and cervix were processed for morphometric evaluation, immunohistochemical localisation of oestrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR), proliferative marker Ki-67 and histochemical localisation of CA. Nuclear staining for ERβ was detected in surface epithelial, glandular and some stromal cells in the uterus and in the cervix surface epithelial cells. ERα and PR were observed in surface epithelium, subepithelial stromal cells and smooth muscle cells of uterus and cervix, and glandular cells of the uterus. Ki-67 positive cells were recorded in uterine and cervical surface epithelium and subepithelial stromal layer. CA was mainly confined to glandular cells of the uterus. Immunohistochemical results were evaluated using semi-quantitative image analysis. Statistic comparison between groups revealed no differences. However, intra-treatment evaluation and correlations indicate that the supplementation of genistein modulates the expression pattern of all receptors and Ki-67, which may induce cellular activities in both the uterus and cervix of early pregnant gilts.

  6. In vivo measurements of uterine cavities in 795 women of fertile age.

    PubMed

    Kurz, K H; Tadesse, E; Haspels, A A

    1984-06-01

    The uterine sound length, the functional length of the cervix including the zone of internal cervical os and the fundus transversal were determined in 795 fertile women in vivo using a measuring device, the Cavimeter. The functional cavity length was calculated by subtracting the functional length of the cervix from the uterine sound length. With growing parity, the uterine length and width increase, but with advance in age, the uterine cavity changes are not so distinct. The wide ranges found by the investigation demonstrate the individuality of the uterine cavity and the desire to measure it prior to fitting an IUD. The use of adapted IUDs according to the size of the uterine cavity leads to a remarkable reduction of side effects, particularly expulsion, bleeding and cramps caused mainly by dimensional incompatibility. Therefore prefit uterine cavity measurement can lead to better efficacy of IUDs, increased rates of acceptance and higher continuation rates.

  7. High-dose-rate intracavitary irradiation in the treatment of carcinoma of the uterine cervix: early experience with 84 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Akine, Y.; Arimoto, H.; Ogino, T.; Kajiura, Y.; Tsukiyama, I.; Egawa, S.; Yamada, T.; Tanemura, K.; Tsunematsu, R.; Ohmi, K.

    1988-05-01

    Eighty-four patients with previously untreated invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix were treated by high-dose-rate intracavitary irradiation using a remotely controlled afterloading system (Ralstron) with or without external irradiation at the National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, between 1977 and 1981. Survival rates and local control rates were comparable to those for 372 patients treated by low-dose-rate intracavitary irradiation with or without external irradiation from 1972 to 1981 at the hospital. The incidence of major complications was 5.1 and 2.4% for the patients treated by low-dose-rate intracavitary irradiation and by high-dose-rate irradiation, respectively. The results are comparable to those reported by other institutions. We have abandoned the conventional low-dose-rate intracavitary irradiation with the impression that the high-dose-rate remotely controlled afterloading system is a good alternative to the conventional one.

  8. [Histometric study of 55 cases of carcinoma in situ and microinvasive carcinoma of the cervix. Histogenetic deductions].

    PubMed

    Brémond, A; Dargent, D; Lesbros, F

    1976-01-01

    The authors present the results of a quantitative study of carcinoma-in-situ and occult invasive cancers of the cervix. 40 separate carcinomata in-situ were measured and the limits of their topography precisely defined with reference to the external os on the one hand and the "last gland" on the other. It is known that this gland is situated at the site of the original junction between the cylindrical and pavement epithelia. It confirms that carcinoma-in-situ always (with few exceptions) develops upwards from the area of the original junction between the cylindrical and pavement epithelia, and its topography is higher than that of dysplasia especially when the two types of lesion are associated.

  9. Phase I-II clinical trial of Californium-252. Treatment of stage IB carcinoma of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Y; VanNagell, J R; Yoneda, J; Donaldson, E; Gallion, H; Rowley, K; Kryscio, R; Beach, J L

    1987-04-15

    Intracavitary Californium-252 combined with whole-pelvis photon radiotherapy was tested as the sole form of treatment for 22 patients with Stage IB carcinoma of the cervix. Californium-252 (Cf) is a fast neutron-emitting radioisotope currently being tested in trials of neutron brachytherapy (NT). The outcomes of the treated group of patients were traced for local tumor control, survival, patterns of failure, and complications. The Cf intracavitary therapy combined with whole-pelvis photon radiotherapy resulted in 95% 2-year and 91% 5-year actuarial survival. There were 9% Grade II-III complications by the Stockholm scale and 4% local failures. These results were obtained in an early clinical trial with a group of largely poor-risk patients with tumors of mean diameter of 4.3 cm.

  10. Radiation alone in the treatment of cancer of the uterine cervix: Analysis of pelvic failure and dose response relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, R.Y.; Trotti, A.; Wu, C.J.; Soong, S.J.; Salter, M.M. )

    1989-11-01

    This retrospective analysis involves 569 patients with invasive cancer of the uterine cervix treated with irradiation alone between 1969 and 1980. Treatment consisted of external and intracavitary irradiation and treatment policy remained consistent throughout the study interval. In early stage disease (FIGO IA, IB, and IIA), pelvic failure was 4.6%, 11.2%, and 8.2%, respectively. In late stage disease (FIGO IIB, III, and IVA), pelvic failure was 30.1%, 52.3%, and 69.2%, respectively. Further analysis revealed that total dose at point A is well correlated with pelvic control. An aggressive treatment is crucial in late stage disease in determining the probability of pelvic tumor control and survival. Methods of dose prescription, dose-response relationships, treatment philosophy and its therapeutic implications are discussed.

  11. Phase I-II clinical trial of Californium-252. Treatment of stage IB carcinoma of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Y.; VanNagell, J.R.; Yoneda, J.; Donaldson, E.; Gallion, H.; Rowley, K.; Kryscio, R.; Beach, J.L.

    1987-04-15

    Intracavitary Californium-252 combined with whole-pelvis photon radiotherapy was tested as the sole form of treatment for 22 patients with Stage IB carcinoma of the cervix. Californium-252 (Cf) is a fast neutron-emitting radioisotope currently being tested in trials of neutron brachytherapy (NT). The outcomes of the treated group of patients were traced for local tumor control, survival, patterns of failure, and complications. The Cf intracavitary therapy combined with whole-pelvis photon radiotherapy resulted in 95% 2-year and 91% 5-year actuarial survival. There were 9% Grade II-III complications by the Stockholm scale and 4% local failures. These results were obtained in an early clinical trial with a group of largely poor-risk patients with tumors of mean diameter of 4.3 cm.

  12. Comparative evaluation of two dose optimization methods for image-guided, highly-conformal, tandem and ovoids cervix brachytherapy planning.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiyun; Menon, Geetha; Sloboda, Ron

    2013-04-07

    Although the Manchester system is still extensively used to prescribe dose in brachytherapy (BT) for locally advanced cervix cancer, many radiation oncology centers are transitioning to 3D image-guided BT, owing to the excellent anatomy definition offered by modern imaging modalities. As automatic dose optimization is highly desirable for 3D image-based BT, this study comparatively evaluates the performance of two optimization methods used in BT treatment planning--Nelder-Mead simplex (NMS) and simulated annealing (SA)--for a cervix BT computer simulation model incorporating a Manchester-style applicator. Eight model cases were constructed based on anatomical structure data (for high risk-clinical target volume (HR-CTV), bladder, rectum and sigmoid) obtained from measurements on fused MR-CT images for BT patients. D90 and V100 for HR-CTV, D2cc for organs at risk (OARs), dose to point A, conformation index and the sum of dwell times within the tandem and ovoids were calculated for optimized treatment plans designed to treat the HR-CTV in a highly conformal manner. Compared to the NMS algorithm, SA was found to be superior as it could perform optimization starting from a range of initial dwell times, while the performance of NMS was strongly dependent on their initial choice. SA-optimized plans also exhibited lower D2cc to OARs, especially the bladder and sigmoid, and reduced tandem dwell times. For cases with smaller HR-CTV having good separation from adjoining OARs, multiple SA-optimized solutions were found which differed markedly from each other and were associated with different choices for initial dwell times. Finally and importantly, the SA method yielded plans with lower dwell time variability compared with the NMS method.

  13. Comparative evaluation of two dose optimization methods for image-guided, highly-conformal, tandem and ovoids cervix brachytherapy planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jiyun; Menon, Geetha; Sloboda, Ron

    2013-04-01

    Although the Manchester system is still extensively used to prescribe dose in brachytherapy (BT) for locally advanced cervix cancer, many radiation oncology centers are transitioning to 3D image-guided BT, owing to the excellent anatomy definition offered by modern imaging modalities. As automatic dose optimization is highly desirable for 3D image-based BT, this study comparatively evaluates the performance of two optimization methods used in BT treatment planning—Nelder-Mead simplex (NMS) and simulated annealing (SA)—for a cervix BT computer simulation model incorporating a Manchester-style applicator. Eight model cases were constructed based on anatomical structure data (for high risk-clinical target volume (HR-CTV), bladder, rectum and sigmoid) obtained from measurements on fused MR-CT images for BT patients. D90 and V100 for HR-CTV, D2cc for organs at risk (OARs), dose to point A, conformation index and the sum of dwell times within the tandem and ovoids were calculated for optimized treatment plans designed to treat the HR-CTV in a highly conformal manner. Compared to the NMS algorithm, SA was found to be superior as it could perform optimization starting from a range of initial dwell times, while the performance of NMS was strongly dependent on their initial choice. SA-optimized plans also exhibited lower D2cc to OARs, especially the bladder and sigmoid, and reduced tandem dwell times. For cases with smaller HR-CTV having good separation from adjoining OARs, multiple SA-optimized solutions were found which differed markedly from each other and were associated with different choices for initial dwell times. Finally and importantly, the SA method yielded plans with lower dwell time variability compared with the NMS method.

  14. Prognostic Utility of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen in Carcinoma of the Cervix: Association With Pre- and Posttreatment FDG-PET

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Jeffrey R.; Dehdashti, Farrokh; Siegel, Barry A.; Zighelboim, Israel; Grigsby, Perry W.; Schwarz, Julie K.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC Ag) is a serum biomarker for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix. We investigated the prognostic significance of SCC Ag levels before and at the completion of chemoradiotherapy and compared these levels with the results of pre- and posttreatment positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Methods and Materials: The records of 63 women who underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy for SCC of the cervix were reviewed. SCC Ag levels were obtained before and at the completion of radiotherapy. Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of their pretreatment SCC Ag level (>30 ng/mL vs. {<=}30 ng/mL). Pre- and posttreatment FDG-PET/CT characteristics and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed according to SCC Ag groups. Results: Median follow-up was 12 months. Women with SCC Ag >30 ng/mL at diagnosis had more advanced lymph node disease on pretreatment FDG-PET/CT than those with SCC Ag {<=}30 ng/mL (p = .002). Women whose SCC Ag normalized at the completion of chemoradiotherapy were more likely to have a complete metabolic response on their 3-month posttreatment FDG-PET/CT than those whose SCC Ag did not normalize (p = .006). The 2-year PFS was 73% for patients with a SCC Ag level {<=}30 ng/mL at diagnosis compared with 0% for those with a SCC Ag level >30 ng/mL at diagnosis (p < .0001). The 2-year PFS was 62% for patients whose SCC Ag normalized at the completion of chemoradiotherapy compared with 0% for those whose SCC Ag did not normalize (p = .0004). Conclusion: Elevated SCC Ag at diagnosis and failure of the SCC Ag to normalize at the completion of treatment are associated with incomplete metabolic response and decreased PFS.

  15. HPV Genotypes Predict Survival Benefits From Concurrent Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chun-Chieh; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Huang, Yi-Ting; Chao, Angel; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Hong, Ji-Hong

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To study the prognostic value of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in patients with advanced cervical cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Between August 1993 and May 2000, 327 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage III/IVA or stage IIB with positive lymph nodes) were eligible for this study. HPV genotypes were determined using the Easychip Registered-Sign HPV genechip. Outcomes were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: We detected 22 HPV genotypes in 323 (98.8%) patients. The leading 4 types were HPV16, 58, 18, and 33. The 5-year overall and disease-specific survival estimates for the entire cohort were 41.9% and 51.4%, respectively. CCRT improved the 5-year disease-specific survival by an absolute 9.8%, but this was not statistically significant (P=.089). There was a significant improvement in disease-specific survival in the CCRT group for HPV18-positive (60.9% vs 30.4%, P=.019) and HPV58-positive (69.3% vs 48.9%, P=.026) patients compared with the RT alone group. In contrast, the differences in survival with CCRT compared with RT alone in the HPV16-positive and HPV-33 positive subgroups were not statistically significant (P=.86 and P=.53, respectively). An improved disease-specific survival was observed for CCRT treated patients infected with both HPV16 and HPV18, but these differenced also were not statistically significant. Conclusions: The HPV genotype may be a useful predictive factor for the effect of CCRT in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Verifying these results in prospective trials could have an impact on tailoring future treatment based on HPV genotype.

  16. Evaluation of time-dose and fractionation for sup 252 Cf neutrons in preoperative bulky/barrel-cervix carcinoma radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Y.; Wierzbicki, J. )

    1990-12-01

    Time-dose fractionation factors (TDF) were calculated for 252Cf (Cf) neutron therapy versus 137Cs for intracavitary use in the preoperative treatment of bulky/barrel-shaped Stage IB cervix cancers. The endpoint assessed was gross and microscopic tumor eradication from the hysterectomy specimen. We reviewed the data obtained in clinical trials between 1976-1987 at the University of Kentucky Medical Center. Preoperative photon therapy was approximately 45 Gy of whole pelvis irradiation in 5 weeks for both 137Cs and Cf treated patients. 137Cs implant was done after pelvic irradiation x1 to a mean dose of 2104 +/- 36 cGy at point A at a dose rate of 50.5 cGy/h. There were 37.5% positive specimens. Using Cf intracavitary implants, dose varied from 109 to 459 neutron cGy in 1-2 sessions. Specimens were more frequently cleared of tumor (up to 100% at appropriate dose) and showed a dose-response relationship, both by nominal dose and by TDF adjusted analysis of dose, dose-rate, number of sessions, and overall time. Limited understanding of relative biological effectiveness, schedule, effect of implants, and dose rate all made it difficult to use TDF to study neutron effects. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) was estimated and showed that for Cf, RBE was a complex function of treatment variables. In the pilot clinical studies, a value of 6.0 had been assumed. The present findings of RBE for tumor destruction are larger than those assumed. Cf was effective for cervix tumor therapy and produced control without significant side effects due to the brachytherapy method used. The TDF model was of limited value in the present analysis and more information is still needed for RBE, dose-rate, and fractionation effects for Cf neutrons to develop a more sophisticated and relevant model.

  17. Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Cervix Cancer: High-Tech External Beam Therapy Versus High-Tech Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Georg, Dietmar Kirisits, Christian; Hillbrand, Martin; Dimopoulos, Johannes; Poetter, Richard

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: Many studies comparing external-beam therapy (EBT) and brachytherapy (BT) are biased because advanced EBT is compared with conventional BT. This study compares high-tech EBT against high-tech BT. Methods and Materials: Nine patients were selected with locally advanced cervix cancer, representing typical clinical situations according to initial tumor extension and response after EBT. Patients were treated either with intracavitary, combined interstitial/intracavitary, or complex interstitial BT. Gross tumor volume, high-risk clinical target volume (CTV), intermediate-risk CTV, bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were delineated. Magnetic resonance-guided BT planning was manually optimized with respect to organ dose limits. Margins (3 and 5 mm) were added to BT CTVs to construct planning target volumes (PTVs) for EBT. Inversely planned EBT with photons (IMRT) and protons (IMPT) was challenged to deliver the highest possible doses to PTVs while respecting D{sub 1cc} and D{sub 2cc} limits from BT, assuming the same fractionation (4 x 7 Gy). The D90 for target structures and normal tissue volumes receiving fractionated doses between 3 and 7 Gy were compared. Results: High-risk CTV doses depended on the clinical situation and radiation quality. If IMRT was limited to D{sub 2cc} and D{sub 1cc} from BT, the D90 for high-risk PTV and intermediate-risk PTV was mostly lower. Volumes receiving 60 Gy (in equivalent dose in 20 Gy fractions) were approximately twice as large for IMRT compared with BT. For IMPT, this volume ratio was lower. Planning target volume doses of IMPT plans with 3-mm margins were comparable to those with BT. Gross tumor volume doses were mostly lower for both IMRT and IMPT. Conclusion: For benchmarking high-tech EBT, high-tech BT techniques have to be used. For cervix cancer boost treatments, both IMRT and IMPT seem to be inferior to advanced BT.

  18. Cervical vertebral bone age in girls.

    PubMed

    Mito, Toshinori; Sato, Koshi; Mitani, Hideo

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish cervical vertebral bone age as a new index for objectively evaluating skeletal maturation on cephalometric radiographs. Using cephalometric radiographs of 176 girls (ages 7.0-14.9 years), we measured cervical vertebral bodies and determined a regression formula to obtain cervical vertebral bone age. Next, using cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs of another 66 girls (ages 8.0-13.9 years), we determined the correlation between cervical vertebral bone age and bone age using the Tanner-Whitehouse 2 method. The following results were obtained: (1) a regression formula was determined to obtain cervical vertebral bone age based on ratios of measurements in the third and fourth cervical vertebral bodies; (2) the correlation coefficient for the relationship between cervical vertebral bone age and bone age (0.869) was significantly (P <.05) higher than that for the relationship between cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age (0.705); and (3) the difference (absolute value) between the cervical vertebral bone age and bone age (0.75 years) was significantly (P <.001) smaller than that between cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age (1.17 years). These results suggest that cervical vertebral bone age reflects skeletal maturity because it approximates bone age, which is considered to be the most reliable method for evaluating skeletal maturation. Using cervical vertebral bone age, it might be possible to evaluate maturity in a detailed and objective manner on cephalometric radiographs.

  19. Positive correlation between patency and mRNA levels for cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E synthase in the uterine cervix of bitches with pyometra

    PubMed Central

    TAMADA, Hiromichi; ADACHI, Nahoko; KAWATE, Noritoshi; INABA, Toshio; HATOYA, Shingo; SAWADA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Factors involved in patency of uterine cervices in the bitch with pyometra remain to be clarified. This study examined relationship between patency and mRNA levels for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2 and prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) in the uterine cervix of bitches with pyometra. Cervical patency was measured by inserting the stainless steel rods with different diameter into cervical canals. Levels of mRNA expression were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The cervical patency was positively correlated with mRNA levels for COX-2 and PGES, but not those for iNOS and COX-1. The results suggest that gene expression of COX-2 and PGES may be involved in the regulation of patency in the uterine cervix of bitches with pyometra. PMID:26596635

  20. Positive correlation between patency and mRNA levels for cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E synthase in the uterine cervix of bitches with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Tamada, Hiromichi; Adachi, Nahoko; Kawate, Noritoshi; Inaba, Toshio; Hatoya, Shingo; Sawada, Tsutomu

    2016-03-01

    Factors involved in patency of uterine cervices in the bitch with pyometra remain to be clarified. This study examined relationship between patency and mRNA levels for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2 and prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) in the uterine cervix of bitches with pyometra. Cervical patency was measured by inserting the stainless steel rods with different diameter into cervical canals. Levels of mRNA expression were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The cervical patency was positively correlated with mRNA levels for COX-2 and PGES, but not those for iNOS and COX-1. The results suggest that gene expression of COX-2 and PGES may be involved in the regulation of patency in the uterine cervix of bitches with pyometra.

  1. [Report of a case of congenital vesico-uterine fistula with vaginal atresia associated with an exterior uterine cervix and agenesis of the right kidney].

    PubMed

    Daskalov, I; Sahpazov, M

    1982-01-01

    In a 27-year-old patient with cyclic hematuria a complex congenital malformation was diagnosed: the atresia of the upper third of the vagina and the external uterine cervix, a vesico-uterine fistula, and agenesis of the right kidney. The patient was treated surgically in two phases: first, the vesico-uterine fistula was closed abdominally and then, vaginally, the cervix was lowered down to its normal anatomic site and the external cervical orifice was opened. The postoperative course was normal and the patient was discharged from hospital 20 days after surgery. After 2 months the findings of the follow-up examination were normal, and so were the menstrual cycle and urination.

  2. Concanavalin A--horse radish peroxidase (Con A-HRP) labelling technique in detection and prognosis of cancer of uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Sen, U

    1989-01-01

    The lectin binding capacity of the exfoliated epithelial cells of the uterine cervix was investigated with a modified concanavalin A - horse radish peroxidase labelling procedure. The normal healthy females exhibited a distinct rise in the percentage of labelled cells in comparison to those bearing squamous cell carcinoma. In the treated group, the responsive patients again exhibited a higher labelling percentage than the non-responsive patients - showing that the method is of both diagnostic and prognostic significance.

  3. Gestational age

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  4. Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  5. Challenging the in-vivo assessment of biomechanical properties of the uterine cervix: A critical analysis of ultrasound based quasi-static procedures.

    PubMed

    Maurer, M M; Badir, S; Pensalfini, M; Bajka, M; Abitabile, P; Zimmermann, R; Mazza, E

    2015-06-25

    Measuring the stiffness of the uterine cervix might be useful in the prediction of preterm delivery, a still unsolved health issue of global dimensions. Recently, a number of clinical studies have addressed this topic, proposing quantitative methods for the assessment of the mechanical properties of the cervix. Quasi-static elastography, maximum compressibility using ultrasound and aspiration tests have been applied for this purpose. The results obtained with the different methods seem to provide contradictory information about the physiologic development of cervical stiffness during pregnancy. Simulations and experiments were performed in order to rationalize the findings obtained with ultrasound based, quasi-static procedures. The experimental and computational results clearly illustrate that standardization of quasi-static elastography leads to repeatable strain values, but for different loading forces. Since force cannot be controlled, this current approach does not allow the distinction between a globally soft and stiff cervix. It is further shown that introducing a reference elastomer into the elastography measurement might overcome the problem of force standardization, but a careful mechanical analysis is required to obtain reliable stiffness values for cervical tissue. In contrast, the maximum compressibility procedure leads to a repeatable, semi-quantitative assessment of cervical consistency, due to the nonlinear nature of the mechanical behavior of cervical tissue. The evolution of cervical stiffness in pregnancy obtained with this procedure is in line with data from aspiration tests.

  6. Echography of the cervix and uterus during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle in bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata).

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Uddhav K; Metkari, Siddnath M; Manjaramkar, Dhyananjay D; Sachdeva, Geetanjali; Katkam, Rajendra; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H; Mahajan, Abhishek; Thakur, Meenakshi H; Kholkute, Sanjiv D

    2014-01-01

    We undertook the present study to investigate the echographic characteristics of the uterus and cervix of female bonnet monkeys ( Macaca radiata ) during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle. The cervix was tortuous in shape and measured 2.74 ± 0.30 cm (mean ± SD) in width by 3.10 ± 0.32 cm in length. The cervical lumen contained 2 or 3 colliculi, which projected from the cervical canal. The echogenicity of cervix varied during proliferative and secretory phases. The uterus was pyriform in shape (2.46 ± 0.28 cm × 1.45 ± 0.19 cm) and consisted of serosa, myometrium, and endometrium. The endometrium generated a triple-line pattern; the outer and central lines were hyperechogenic, whereas the inner line was hypoechogenic. The endometrium was significantly thicker during the secretory phase (0.69 ± 0.12 cm) than during the proliferative phase (0.43 ± 0.15 cm). Knowledge of the echogenic changes in the female reproductive organs of bonnet monkeys during a regular menstrual cycle may facilitate understanding of other physiologic and pathophysiologic changes.

  7. Prevalence of Adverse Effects Post-Brachytherapy on Women with Uterine Cervix Cancer in Durango, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Higmar; Yanez, Elvia

    2010-12-07

    This work aimed at determining the local prevalence of adverse effects on women with CaCu that recieved LDR brachytherapy treatment at CECAN. The data was extracted from the patient's and medical physics' departement records. Non Gaussian statistics was used due to dose distribution characteristics. A total of 103 patients were studied with average age of 55{+-}13 years and Ia-IV FIGO clinical clasification. The observed prevalence is higher than that reported by other studies. It was observed that patients with proctitis were prescribed a slightly higher dose than those without adverse effects (90% confidence). Patients with proctitis also presented higher age (95% confidence) when compared with the mean of the studied population. The inverse applies to the group with other adverse effects, its average age is lower than the mean (90% confidence).

  8. [Nutrition, aging, old age].

    PubMed

    Iván, L

    1998-12-06

    In humans there is evidence that the restriction of total caloric intake appears to be more important than the restriction of any particular macronutrient. Today the mechanism of the effect of caloric restriction is unknown. With advancing age and the occurrence of concomitant illness there is an increased risk of developing nutritional deficiencies. Altered nutritional status is associated with the pathogenesis of a number of common diseases of the elderly, thus it would appear that nutritional modulation and manipulation represents one possible approach to successful aging and a healthy longevity. The conceptual framework of the paper suggests the need of a newer light of the aging processes namely by a holistic human-gero-ecological model and a personality oriented geriatry. There are accentuated the role of the nutrients and vitamins, the food intake and drug-nutrients interactions and the meanings of the differences between the normal and pathological aging.

  9. Evidence that relaxin's effects on growth and softening of the cervix are not mediated through prostaglandins in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, O D; Jungheim, E S; Masferrer, J L; Cramer, J M

    1998-03-01

    Relaxin plays a major role in promoting the growth and softening of the cervix that occurs during the second half of pregnancy in the rat. There is limited evidence that prostaglandins play a role in cervical softening in mammalian species. Accordingly, this study was conducted to determine if prostaglandins mediate relaxin's effects on the rat cervix. To attain that objective, indomethacin was used to inhibit cyclooxygenase, the key enzyme in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. Twenty-six nonpregnant female rats were ovariectomized when they were 78 days old (day 1 of treatment). At ovariectomy (O), each rat was fitted with silicon tubing implants containing progesterone (P) and estrogen (E) in doses that provided blood levels similar to those during late pregnancy in rats. Rats were randomly assigned to three treatment groups. Group OPE controls (n = 8 rats) received 2 ml indomethacin vehicle (0.5% methyl cellulose, 0.025 Tween 80 in water) via gavage at 0900 h on days 8 and 9 and 0.5 ml relaxin vehicle (0.9% NaCl) s.c. at 6-h intervals from 1200 h on day 8 through 0600 h on day 10. Group OPER (n = 9 rats) was treated as group OPE except that 20 microg highly purified porcine relaxin was administered. Group OPERI (n = 9 rats) was treated as group OPER except that indomethacin was administered at a dose (20 mg/kg BW) that reduced cervical PGE2 levels by more than 90%. Between 0800 h and 1000 h on day 10, the cervices were removed, trimmed of fat, weighed, and placed in ice-cold Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer, pH 7.5. Cervical extensibility (degree of softening) was determined within 4 h of tissue collection. Both the mean cervical wet weight and the mean cervical extensibility in the relaxin-treated group OPER rats were markedly greater (P < 0.01) than in the group OPE controls. Treatment with indomethacin did not diminish relaxin's effects on either cervical wet weight or cervical extensibility. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that

  10. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy vs. radiotherapy alone in locally advanced cervix cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Datta, Niloy Ranjan; Stutz, Emanuel; Liu, Michael; Rogers, Susanne; Klingbiel, Dirk; Siebenhüner, Alexander; Singh, Shalini; Bodis, Stephan

    2017-02-07

    The efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CTRT) in locally advanced cervix cancer (LACC, stages IIB-IVA) is contentious. This is due to the variable extent of therapeutic benefit reported in different randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses that usually include all stages of cervix cancer. A systematic review and meta-analysis was therefore conducted to evaluate the efficacy of concurrent CTRT over radiotherapy (RT) alone, predominantly in LACC for the key endpoints; complete response (CR), long-term loco-regional control (LRC), overall survival (OS), grade III/IV acute and late toxicities. Six databases namely - PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Cochrane library were explored and supplemented by hand-searching. Only prospective randomized trials conducted in LACC between concurrent CTRT and RT alone with no surgical interventions were included. Fourteen English language articles from 1788 citations were shortlisted for the final analysis. Of the 2445 patients evaluated (CTRT: n=1217; RT: n=1228), 95.7% had LACC and 96% had a squamous cell histology. Eight studies used cisplatin alone, 4 had cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy (CT) while 2 used mitomycin-C, either alone or in combination. CTRT improved the CR (+10.2%, p=0.027), LRC (+8.4%, p<0.001) and OS (+7.5%, p<0.001) over RT alone. However a 10.4% higher incidence of grade III/IV acute toxicities (p<0.001) was also evident with CTRT. Late toxicities in both groups were equivalent. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression did not reveal any significant advantage in outcomes between the 3 CTRT regimens. Thus, although concurrent CTRT provides conclusive therapeutic benefit over RT alone in LACC, the choice of CT agents should be based on their cost-effectiveness and the anticipated expenses for the management of any associated acute toxicities. This assumes importance particularly in resource-constrained low-middle-income countries with the highest burden of LACC, where

  11. [Possibilities of cytologic and histologic methods of diagnosing flat condyloma of the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Andreev, A I

    1990-02-01

    A comprehensive study in 165 women has employed cytologic, colposcopic and histologic evaluation. Flat cervical condylomas were identified in 27 women (mean age, 29 years). Over 50% of these condylomas coexisted with dysplasia of various severity and 2 condylomas with squamous cell carcinoma in situ. The most reliable diagnostic techniques for flat condylomas are cytologic and histologic tests of selectively excised tissue samples.

  12. Evaluating the Feasibility of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Shear Wave Elasticity Imaging of the Uterine Cervix With an Intracavity Array: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Feltovich, Helen; Homyk, Andrew D.; Carlson, Lindsey C.; Hall, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The uterine cervix softens, shortens, and dilates throughout pregnancy in response to progressive disorganization of its layered collagen microstructure. This process is an essential part of normal pregnancy, but premature changes are associated with preterm birth. Clinically, there are no reliable noninvasive methods to objectively measure cervical softening or assess cervical microstructure. The goal of these preliminary studies was to evaluate the feasibility of using an intracavity ultrasound array to generate acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) excitations in the uterine cervix through simulation, and to optimize the acoustic radiation force (ARF) excitation for shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) of the tissue stiffness. The cervix is a unique soft tissue target for SWEI because it has significantly greater acoustic attenuation (α = 1.3 to 2.0 dB·cm−1·MHz−1) than other soft tissues, and the pathology being studied tends to lead to an increase in tissue compliance, with healthy cervix being relatively stiff compared with other soft tissues (E ≈ 25 kPa). Additionally, the cervix can only be accessed in vivo using a transvaginal or catheter-based array, which places additional constraints on the excitation focal characteristics that can be used during SWEI. Finite element method (FEM) models of SWEI show that larger-aperture, catheter-based arrays can utilize excitation frequencies up to 7 MHz to generate adequate focal gain up to focal depths 10 to 15 mm deep, with higher frequencies suffering from excessive amounts of near-field acoustic attenuation. Using full-aperture excitations can yield ~40% increases in ARFI-induced displacements, but also restricts the depth of field of the excitation to ~0.5 mm, compared with 2 to 6 mm, which limits the range that can be used for shear wave characterization of the tissue. The center-frequency content of the shear wave particle velocity profiles ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 kHz, depending on the focal

  13. Prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomavirus infection of the cervix in Spain: the CLEOPATRE study.

    PubMed

    Castellsagué, Xavier; Iftner, Thomas; Roura, Esther; Vidart, José Antonio; Kjaer, Susanne K; Bosch, F Xavier; Muñoz, Nubia; Palacios, Santiago; San Martin Rodriguez, Maria; Serradell, Laurence; Torcel-Pagnon, Laurence; Cortes, Javier

    2012-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cervical HPV infection and HPV type-specific distribution among women attending cervical cancer screening in Spain during 2007 and 2008. Women aged 18-65 years were recruited according to an age-stratified sampling method. Liquid-based cervical samples were collected and analyzed for cytology, HPV detection, and genotyping. HPV genotyping was determined using the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra Reverse Hybridization Line Probe Assay. Prevalence estimates were age-standardized using 2001 Spanish census data. The present study included 3,261 women. Age-standardized HC2-based HPV prevalence was 14.3% (95% CI, 13.1-15.5) among women aged 18-65 years, and 28.8% (26.6-31.1) among women aged 18-25 years. High-risk HPV types were detected in 12.2% (95% CI, 11.1-13.4) of HPV-tested women, representing 84.0% of HPV-positive samples. Multiple infections were present in 4.1% (95% CI, 3.4-4.8) of HPV-tested women (25.0% of HPV-positive samples). The most common high-risk HPV-types among HPV-tested women were 16 (2.9%), 52 (1.8%), 51 (1.6%), 31 (1.3%), and 66 (1.2%). HPV-type 16 was present in 16.9% of HPV-positive samples. One or more of the HPV vaccine types 6/11/16/18 were detected in 3.8% of HPV-tested women (22.1% of HPV-positive samples). Though not a true population-based survey, this study provides valuable baseline data for future assessment of the impact of current HPV vaccination programs in Spain. The high prevalence of HPV infection among young women may reflect recent changes in sexual behavior.

  14. Revised terminology for cervical histopathology and its implications for management of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Alan G; Chelmow, David; Darragh, Teresa M; Lawson, Herschel; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2012-12-01

    In March 2012, the College of American Pathologists and American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, in collaboration with 35 stakeholder organizations, convened a consensus conference called the Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST) Project. The recommendations of this project include using a uniform, two-tiered terminology to describe the histology of human papillomavirus-associated squamous disease across all anogenital tract tissues: vulva, vagina, cervix, penis, perianus, and anus. The recommended terminology is "low-grade" or "high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL)." This terminology is familiar to clinicians, because it parallels the terminology of the Bethesda System cytologic reports. Biopsy results using SIL terminology may be further qualified using "intraepithelial neoplasia" (IN) terminology in parentheses. Laboratory p16 tissue immunostaining is recommended to better classify histopathology lesions that morphologically would earlier have been diagnosed as IN 2. p16 is also recommended for differentiating between high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and benign mimics. The LAST Project recommendations potentially affect the application of current guidelines for managing cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions. The authors offer interim guidance for managing cervical lesions diagnosed using this new terminology with special attention paid to managing young women with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions on biopsy. Clinicians should be aware of the LAST Project recommendations, which include important changes from prior terminology.

  15. [Therapeutic interruption of pregnancy in the second trimester after preparation of the cervix with prostaglandins F2 alpha].

    PubMed

    Maria, B; Stampf, F; Barrat, J

    1983-01-01

    The use of prostaglandins is one of the best techniques for second trimester abortion. The authors present 40 patients aborted by a new two stage technique: First: ripening of the cervix a tylose gel containing 5 or 10 mg PGF2 alpha every 12 hours during 3 days. Then, if abortion is not obtained, previously published techniques are used: intra-amniotic injection (40 mg PGF2 alpha) or intra-cervical infusion (2 mg/hour). The mean duration of these abortions is 52 hours using 29 mg of PGF2 alpha. 22 patients aborted during ripening (mean = 27 hours), 12 patients needed an intracervical infusion (mean = 88 hours) and 6, an intra-amniotic injection (mean = 72 hours). It seems that abortion is easier when pregnancy is earlier, under 20 weeks of gestation. Few side effects were observed: only three cases of fever with a single case of endometritis. Failure of this technique occurred in five patients (4 aborted outside the time allowed for, and one needed instrumental extraction). With this technique, the mean duration is longer than those previously described in the literature but the efficiency is over 90%.

  16. Differential role of gene hypermethylation in adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas and cervical intraepithelial lesions of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Luquin, Idoia; Guarch, Rosa; Ojer, Amaya; Pérez-Janices, Noemí; Martín-Sánchez, Esperanza; Maria-Ruiz, Sergio; Monreal-Santesteban, Iñaki; Blanco-Fernandez, Laura; Pernaut-Leza, Eduardo; Escors, David; Guerrero-Setas, David

    2015-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. The hypermethylation of P16, TSLC-1 and TSP-1 genes was analyzed in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) and adenocarcinomas (ADC) of the uterine cervix (total 181 lesions). Additionally human papillomavirus (HPV) type, EPB41L3, RASSF1 and RASSF2 hypermethylation were tested in ADC and the results were compared with those obtained previously by our group in SCC. P16, TSLC-1 and TSP-1 hypermethylation was more frequent in SCCs than in CINs. These percentages and the corresponding ones for EPB41L3, RASSF1 and RASSF2 genes were also higher in SCCs than in ADCs, except for P16. The presence of HPV in ADCs was lower than reported previously in SCC and CIN. Patients with RASSF1A hypermethylation showed significantly longer disease-free survival (P = 0.015) and overall survival periods (P = 0.009) in ADC patients. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the EPB41L3 and RASSF2 hypermethylation in ADCs. These results suggest that the involvement of DNA hypermethylation in cervical cancer varies depending on the histological type, which might contribute to explaining the different prognosis of patients with these types of tumors.

  17. ADP-ribose polymer - a novel and general biomarker of human cancers of head & neck, breast, and cervix

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Poly-ADP-ribosylation, a reversible post-translational modification of primarily chromosomal proteins, is involved in various cellular and molecular processes including carcinogenesis. ADP-ribose polymer or poly-ADP-ribose adducts are enzymatically added onto or stripped off the target chromosomal proteins during this metabolic process. Due to this, the chromatin superstructure is reversibly altered, which significantly influences the pattern of gene expression. We hypothesize that a decrease in the concentration of total poly-ADP-ribose adducts of peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) proteins strongly correlates with the incidence of human cancer. Results Using a novel immunoprobe assay, we show a statistically significant (P ≤ 0.001) reduction (~ 42 to 49%) in the level of poly-ADP-ribose adducts of PBL proteins of patients with advanced cancers of head & neck (H & N) region (comprising fourteen distinct cancers at different sites), breast and cervix in comparison to healthy controls. Conclusions These findings imply potential utility of the poly-ADP-ribose adducts of PBL proteins as a novel and general biomarker of human cancers with potentials of significant clinical and epidemiological applications. PMID:21034502

  18. Clinical outcomes of advanced-stage glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a need for reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nara; Kim, Ji-Ye; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical features and patient outcomes for advanced-stage glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The study was restricted to cases in which the glassy cell features constituted at least 95% of the biopsied specimen. During the study period, 675 patients were diagnosed with primary cervical carcinoma. Five (0.7%) of the 675 patients had cervical glassy cell carcinoma; of these, three were premenopausal, and two were postmenopausal. Abnormal vaginal bleeding was the most frequent presenting symptom. Glassy cell carcinoma presented as a fungating, exophytic, or infiltrative mass. The greatest tumor dimension ranged from 3 to 9 cm. All patients had parametrial extension. Four patients had stage IIB tumors, and one had a stage IIIB tumor. All patients received concurrent chemoradiation therapy. The patient with a stage IIIB tumor died of hypovolemic shock caused by upper gastrointestinal bleeding during radiation therapy. Three patients with stage IIB tumors survived for more than 8 years without tumor recurrence or metastasis. One of these three patients died of pelvic recurrence 10 years after the initial diagnosis. Cervical glassy cell carcinoma has traditionally been considered an aggressive, highly malignant tumor with poor prognosis, but our data suggest that patient survival is not significantly decreased compared with other histological types of cervical carcinoma. It will be necessary to analyze patient outcomes using a larger number of cervical glassy cell carcinoma cases to confirm our findings. PMID:27793022

  19. Identification of pelvic lymph nodes with chlorophyllin after injection into the uterine cervix: an experimental and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Tan, Y; Wang, X; Xie, J

    2001-06-01

    We investigated the value of staining retroperitoneal lymph nodes with chlorophyllin in normal dogs and in women with malignant uterine tumors undergoing lymphadenectomy. In dogs, after 0.3% chlorophyllin (sodium copper chlorophyllin) was injected into the canine uterus, the concentration of dye in the bloodstream was measured with a spectrophotometer and sections of stained retroperitoneal lymph nodes were examined using light and electron microscopy. The highest blood levels were detected at 4 hrs and nearly all of the chlorophyllin was gone from the bloodstream by 18 hrs but was retained in nodal macrophages for at least 4 days. No morphological changes were found in the excised lymph nodes. Twenty-four patients with cervical carcinoma and 20 patients with endometrial carcinoma undergoing radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy were divided into a lymphatic coloration group (23 patients) and a non-coloration (control) group (21 patients). In the lymphatic coloration group (0.3% chlorophyllin) was injected into the cervix 5 days before elective lymphadenectomy. There were no complications attributed to injection of the chlorophyllin. The number of dissected lymph nodes in the coloration group were greater than the control group (p<0.01) and the time of operation was shorter (p<0.01). These results suggest that chlorophyllin is safe and facilitates identification of retroperitoneal lymph nodes, allows more complete nodal excision and shortens the time of operation in patients undergoing radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy.

  20. Tungsten Oxide Nanoplates; the Novelty in Targeting Metalloproteinase-7 Gene in Both Cervix and Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Abdelrahman M; Elnouby, Mohamed; El-Deeb, Nehal M; Hafez, Elsayed E

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we synthesized tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoplates, both crystallographic phases and the morphology of the samples were determined by powder x-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The obtained data clarified that, the all prepared WO3·H2O samples were composed of large quantity of nanoplates. The cytotoxicity patterns of nanoplates were checked on both normal and cancer mammalian cell lines. Both nanoplates cytotoxicity did not exceed the 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) on the all normal tested cells even by using concentrations up to 1 mg/ml. In addition, orthorhombic tungsten oxide nanoplate was more potent against both Caco2 and Hela cells by showing inhibition percentages in cellular viability 64.749 and 72.27, respectively, and with cancer selectivity index reached 3.2 and 2.6 on both colon and cervix cancer, respectively. The anticancer effects of nanoplates were translated to alteration in both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes expressions. Tungsten oxide nanoplates down regulated the expression of B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7) genes. In addition, orthorhombic tungsten oxide nanoplates showed more potentiation in IL2 and IL8 induction (40.43 pg/ml) and upregulation of TNF-α gene expression but with lower folds than Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction.

  1. Adenoid basal hyperplasia of the uterine cervix: a lesion of reserve cell type, distinct from adenoid basal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kerdraon, Olivier; Cornélius, Aurélie; Farine, Marie-Odile; Boulanger, Loïc; Wacrenier, Agnès

    2012-12-01

    Adenoid basal hyperplasia is an underrecognized cervical lesion, resembling adenoid basal carcinoma, except the absence of deep invasion into the stroma. We report a series of 10 cases, all extending less than 1 mm from the basement membrane. Our results support the hypothesis that adenoid basal hyperplasia arises from reserve cells of the cervix. Lesions were found close to the squamocolumnar junction, in continuity with the nearby subcolumnar reserve cells. They shared the same morphology and immunoprofile using a panel of 4 antibodies (keratin 5/6, keratin 14, keratin 7 and p63) designed to differentiate reserve cells from mature squamous cells and endocervical columnar cells. We detected no human papillomavirus infection by in situ hybridization targeting high-risk human papillomavirus, which was concordant with the absence of immunohistochemical p16 expression. We demonstrated human papillomavirus infection in 4 (80%) of 5 adenoid basal carcinoma, which is in the same range as previous studies (88%). Thus, adenoid basal hyperplasia should be distinguished from adenoid basal carcinoma because they imply different risk of human papillomavirus infection and of subsequent association with high-grade invasive carcinoma. In our series, the most reliable morphological parameters to differentiate adenoid basal hyperplasia from adenoid basal carcinoma were the depth of the lesion and the size of the lesion nests. Furthermore, squamous differentiation was rare in adenoid basal hyperplasia and constant in adenoid basal carcinoma. Finally, any mitotic activity and/or an increase of Ki67 labeling index should raise the hypothesis of adenoid basal carcinoma.

  2. Delivery of double singleton pregnancies in a woman with a double uterus, double cervix, and complete septate vagina.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Jie; Tseng, Jen-Yu; Chen, Chih-Yao; Li, Hsin-Yang

    2015-12-01

    Uterine anomalies involving a double uterus, double cervix, also known as didelphys uterus, and complete septate vagina are rarely seen and have an associated fertility problem. However, artificial reproductive technology with embryo transfers can help solve this fertility challenge. Conception in the uterus in just one side is commonly seen for embryos, which are always transferred through the usually used (dilated) vagina. We here present a patient with the above uterine anomaly who conceived with the aid of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer to both uterine cavities under general anesthesia, which resulted in successful double singleton pregnancies with one fetus in each uterus. With intensive prenatal care, the pregnancy course for each fetus was rather uneventful. Although both fetuses were in cephalic presentation, cesarean section was performed at the 39(th) week of gestation with good outcomes in order to preclude anticipated difficulties if the baby had been delivered through the rarely dilated vagina. However, order of birth between the two fetuses was a crucial decision during the operation.

  3. A retrospective study of the effects of pelvic irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix on gastrointestinal function

    SciTech Connect

    Yeoh, E.; Ahmad, A.; Horowitz, M.; Russo, A.; Muecke, T.; Chatterton, B. ); Robb, T. )

    1993-03-20

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of disordered gastrointestinal function following therapeutic irradiation. Gastrointestinal function was evaluated in 30 randomly selected patients who had received pelvic irradiation for treatment of carcinoma of the cervix between 1 and 6 years previously. Each patient underwent evaluations of (a) gastrointestinal symptoms (b) absorption of bile acid, vitamin B12, lactose and fat (c) gastrointestinal transit: gastric emptying, small intestinal transit and whole gut transit and (d) intestinal permeability. Results were compared with those obtained in 18 normal volunteers. Stool frequency was above the control range in five patients and had increased (p < 0.001) since radiotherapy treatment. Bile acid (p<0.001) vitamin B12(p<0.01) and lactose (p<0.01) absorption were less in the patients when compared with the control subjects. Bile acid adsorption was below the control range in 14 of the 30 patients. Dietary calcium intake was lower (p<0.05) in those patients with lactose malabsorption. Gastric emptying (p<0.01) and small intestinal transit (p<0.01) were more rapid in the patients. Both small intestinal (r=-0.39, p<0.05) and whole gut (r=-0.45) transit were inversely related to stool frequency. Either bowel frequency, bile acid adsorption, vitamin B12 absorption was outside the control range in 19 of the 30 patients. Abnormal gastrointestinal function is essentially an inevitable long-term sequel of pelvic irradiation. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen in the monitoring of radiotherapy treatment response in carcinoma of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Ngan, H.Y.; Chan, S.Y.; Wong, L.C.; Choy, D.T.; Ma, H.K. )

    1990-05-01

    In this study, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) was detected in 96 of 157 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and the percentage of patients with raised SCC levels increased with the stage of disease (P less than 0.01). The use of serial SCC assays and cervical biopsy histology during the course of radiotherapy to predict tumor response to irradiation was assessed. In patients who were given external irradiation before intracavitary radium, a high SCC level or the presence of viable tumor cells in the biopsy was found to be of no predictive value. However, at completion of radiotherapy, i.e., after intracavitary radium application, patients with persistently high SCC levels had a significantly higher incidence of residual tumor than patients whose SCC levels returned to normal (P less than 0.01). In 60% of patients with a persistently high SCC level, viable tumor was found in the cervical biopsy at the end of radiotherapy. On the other hand, only 5.4% of patients whose SCC level returned to normal had residual tumor.

  5. Precancerous Cervix in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Women Thirty Years Old and above in Northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Izudi, Jonathan; Adrawa, Norbert; Amongin, Dinah

    2016-01-01

    Background. Little is known about precancerous cervical lesion (PCCL), the precursor of cervical cancer among Human Immunodeficiency (HIV) infected women in a postconflict setting of Northern Uganda. Objective. To establish factors associated with PCCL among HIV infected women above thirty years of age in a postconflict setting of Northern Uganda. Method. This retrospective cohort study used electronic data from 995 HIV-positive women that attended cervical cancer screening during June 2014 and December 2015. Data on social, sexual, obstetric, and gynecological factors was analyzed at 95% confidence level. Multivariate analysis determined factors independently associated with positive PCCL. Probability value less than 5% was considered significant. Results. Prevalence of PCCL was 3.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0-4.3). A positive PCCL was significantly associated with absence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) during clinic visits (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 0.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.09-0.64; P = 0.004) and first pregnancy before the age of 20 years (aOR = 3.09; 95% CI: 1.21-7.89; P = 0.018). Conclusion. The prevalence of PCCL was low in the postconflict setting of Northern Uganda. HIV-positive women presenting with STDs and those with first pregnancy before the age of 20 years were at increased risk of PCCL.

  6. Precancerous Cervix in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Women Thirty Years Old and above in Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Adrawa, Norbert; Amongin, Dinah

    2016-01-01

    Background. Little is known about precancerous cervical lesion (PCCL), the precursor of cervical cancer among Human Immunodeficiency (HIV) infected women in a postconflict setting of Northern Uganda. Objective. To establish factors associated with PCCL among HIV infected women above thirty years of age in a postconflict setting of Northern Uganda. Method. This retrospective cohort study used electronic data from 995 HIV-positive women that attended cervical cancer screening during June 2014 and December 2015. Data on social, sexual, obstetric, and gynecological factors was analyzed at 95% confidence level. Multivariate analysis determined factors independently associated with positive PCCL. Probability value less than 5% was considered significant. Results. Prevalence of PCCL was 3.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0–4.3). A positive PCCL was significantly associated with absence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) during clinic visits (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 0.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.09–0.64; P = 0.004) and first pregnancy before the age of 20 years (aOR = 3.09; 95% CI: 1.21–7.89; P = 0.018). Conclusion. The prevalence of PCCL was low in the postconflict setting of Northern Uganda. HIV-positive women presenting with STDs and those with first pregnancy before the age of 20 years were at increased risk of PCCL. PMID:27478441

  7. The effect of the intracervical administration of FSH or LH on the levels of hyaluronan, COX2, and COX2 mRNA in the cervix of the nonpregnant ewe.

    PubMed

    Leethongdee, Sukanya; Khalid, Muhammad; Scaramuzzi, Rex J

    2016-12-01

    During the periovulatory period, the cervix relaxes in response to changes in circulating concentrations of reproductive hormones. The present study investigated the role of gonadotrophins in cervical function by examining the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and COX2 mRNA and the concentration of hyaluronan (HA) in the cervix, after intracervical treatment with either FSH or LH. Eighteen ewes were assigned to four groups. They were then treated with commercial intravaginal progestagen sponges and eCG to synchronize their estrous cycles. Intracervical treatments were given 24 hours after removal of the sponges as follows: group 1: FSH, 2 mg; group 2: LH, 2 mg; group 3: vehicle; and group 4: control. Cervices were collected 54 hours after sponge removal and then divided into three regions. The expression of COX2 and COX2 mRNA was determined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization and those of HA by ELISA. The levels of expression of COX2, COX2 mRNA, and HA were compared in six tissue layers (luminal epithelium, subepithelial stroma, circular, longitudinal and transverse muscle, and serosa) and in three cervical regions (vaginal, mid, and uterine). The results showed that both FSH and LH significantly increased the levels the COX2 mRNA and COX2 in the cervix, but the effects of the gonadotrophins were selective. The effects of both FSH and LH were most evident at the vaginal end of the cervix and least at the uterine end of the cervix. Furthermore, their effects were confined to the stroma and smooth muscle layers of the cervix in the case of FSH and to smooth muscle only in the case of LH. Neither FSH nor LH affected the concentration of HA in the cervix although FSH but not LH reduced the concentration of HA in cervical mucus. These findings suggest that the gonadotrophins regulate the expression of COX2 in the cervix and that they may have a role facilitating relaxation of the cervix during estrus in the ewe.

  8. A Report of Two Cases of Age-Related Changes in Cervical Morphology in Postmenopausal Women with Vaginal Adenosis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents two cases of women who had extensive vaginal adenosis from prenatal DES exposure, extending almost halfway down the vaginal canal. Both women were followed for decades with annual exams and Pap smears until after menopause. Clinical examination in both cases initially showed an absent pars vaginalis of the cervix, vaginal adenosis, and shallowness of the fornices. Several decades of annual exams showed these stigmata of DES exposure gradually disappear as the upper vagina progressively contracted. After menopause the upper vagina in both cases transformed into what appeared to be a normal cervix with all adenosis involuted into a normal endocervical canal. A timeline was created to show the morphological changes that were observed over time. This timeline illustrates how severe vaginal stenosis above the level of the squamocolumnar junction developed in middle age and was followed in the postmenopause by fusion of the upper vaginal walls in the midline resulting in the appearance of a normal, but prolapsed, cervix. PMID:28316850

  9. Inverse Planning Approach for 3-D MRI-Based Pulse-Dose Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy in Cervix Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chajon, Enrique; Dumas, Isabelle; Touleimat, Mahmoud B.Sc.; Magne, Nicolas; Coulot, Jeremy; Verstraet, Rodolfe; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Haie-Meder, Christine

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) software for the optimization of dose distribution in patients with cervix carcinoma treated with MRI-based pulsed-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients treated with a technique using a customized vaginal mold were selected. Dose-volume parameters obtained using the IPSA method were compared with the classic manual optimization method (MOM). Target volumes and organs at risk were delineated according to the Gynecological Brachytherapy Group/European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology recommendations. Because the pulsed dose rate program was based on clinical experience with low dose rate, dwell time values were required to be as homogeneous as possible. To achieve this goal, different modifications of the IPSA program were applied. Results: The first dose distribution calculated by the IPSA algorithm proposed a heterogeneous distribution of dwell time positions. The mean D90, D100, and V100 calculated with both methods did not differ significantly when the constraints were applied. For the bladder, doses calculated at the ICRU reference point derived from the MOM differed significantly from the doses calculated by the IPSA method (mean, 58.4 vs. 55 Gy respectively; p = 0.0001). For the rectum, the doses calculated at the ICRU reference point were also significantly lower with the IPSA method. Conclusions: The inverse planning method provided fast and automatic solutions for the optimization of dose distribution. However, the straightforward use of IPSA generated significant heterogeneity in dwell time values. Caution is therefore recommended in the use of inverse optimization tools with clinical relevance study of new dosimetric rules.

  10. Early changes in flow cytometric DNA profiles induced by californium-252 neutron brachytherapy in squamocellular carcinomas of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Tacev, T; Zaloudík, J; Janáková, L; Vagunda, V

    1998-01-01

    Ninety-five squamocellular carcinomas of the uterine cervix, clinical Stages II and III, were treated by either four schedules combining 252-californium neutron-gamma-radiotherapy with different proportions of a neutron component (9, 6 and 3 Gy) or gamma-irradiation alone. Flow cytometric DNA profiles were obtainable in 72 cases before treatment and 56 cases were monitored for DNA content by flow cytometry (FCM) in weekly intervals by analysis of sequential microbiopsies for one month during and after radiotherapy. DNA aneuploidy was reduced from 40% (25/63) to 19% (9/47) one week within therapy in neutron-treated groups, but not after initial gamma-radiotherapy alone. Extinction of DNA aneuploid subpopulations occurred after neutron therapy in all remaining aneuploid tumors (9/9) during further monitoring, but only in 40% (2/5) of tumors after sole gamma-irradiation. In contrast, proliferation index by more than 50% was more often achieved in groups with a higher gamma-radiation component than after neutrons only. When all therapy-induced DNA flow cytometric events are taken together for evaluation of the effects of various radiotherapy schedules, it appears that the regimen with the maximal neutron dose may not be optimal for all tumors. It is hypothesized that the differences in the early flow cytometric DNA profiles may select the DNA aneuploid squamous cell uterine cervical carcinomas as candidates for combined neutron-brachytherapy, while highly proliferating DNA near-diploid tumors may profit more from treatment with a higher gamma-radiotherapy component. However, these early DNA flow cytometric findings need to be correlated with clinical course of the disease to validate this hypothesis, a process which will be completed at the end of the expected five-year clinical outcome in 2000.

  11. Early and late radiotherapeutic morbidity in 442 consecutive patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, D.; Bentzen, S.M.; Overgaard, J.

    1994-07-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early and late radiotherapeutic morbidity after combined external and intracavitary radiotherapy to the uterine cervix. Early morbidity was most frequently seen in the rectosigmoideum (61%) and urinary bladder (27%). Medication for early morbidity was required 68% and hospitalization in 10% of the patients. The frequencies of each late morbidity grade did not differ in relation to FIGO State while the actuarial estimates increased significantly with increasing stage. This reflects the poor prognosis in the more advanced stages, where few patients survived to develop late morbidity, and also points to the importance of latency in reporting late radiotherapeutic morbidity. In Stage IVA patients, the ratios between the actuarial estimate and the frequency of late severe rectosigmoid and urinary bladder morbidity were as high as 2.5 and 3, respectively. The highest 5-year risk ({+-} 1 SE of the estimate) of late severe morbidity were found for the rectosignoideum (28% {+-} 3), small intestine (13% {+-} 2) and urinary bladder (10% {+-} 2). Rectosigmoid and urinary bladder complications constituted the most important part of the combined organ morbidity. Almost half of the patients developing late moderate rectosigmoid and one-third of those developing late moderate bladder complications, did so within one year after radiotherapy. Almost all complications were developed within 3 to 4 years after radiotherapy. The probability of surviving without recurrence and/or severe combined rectosigmoid and urinary bladder morbidity was low (23% {+-} 2). Actuarial estimates rather than frequencies should be reported to avoid underestimation of the risk of late radiotherapeutic morbidity in long-term survivors. 29 refs., 5 figs. 7 tabs.

  12. A Pilot Study of Catheter-Based Ultrasound Hyperthermia with HDR Brachytherapy for Treatment of Locally Advanced Cancer of the Prostate and Cervix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Chris J.; Wootton, Jeff; Prakash, Punit; Salgaonkar, Vasant; Juang, Titania; Scott, Serena; Chen, Xin; Cunha, Adam; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I. C.

    2011-09-01

    Interstitial and endocavity ultrasound devices have been developed specifically for applying hyperthermia within temporary HDR brachytherapy implants during radiation therapy. Catheter-based ultrasound applicators are capable of 3D spatial control of heating in both angle and length of the devices, with enhanced radial penetration of heating compared to other hyperthermia technologies. A pilot study of the combination of catheter based ultrasound with HDR brachytherapy for locally advanced prostate and cervical cancer has been initiated, and preliminary results of the performance and heating distributions are reported herein. The treatment delivery platform consists of a 32 channel RF amplifier and a 48 channel thermocouple monitoring system. Controlling software can monitor and regulate frequency and power to each transducer section as required during the procedure. Interstitial applicators consist of multiple transducer sections of 2-4 cm length×180 deg and 3-4 cm×360 deg. heating patterns to be inserted in specific placed 13g implant catheters. The endocavity device, designed to be inserted within a 6 mm OD plastic tandem catheter within the cervix, consists of 2-3 transducers x dual 180 or 360 deg sectors. 3D temperature based treatment planning and optimization is dovetailed to the HDR optimization based planning to best configure and position the applicators within the catheters, and to determine optimal base power levels to each transducer section. To date we have treated eight cervix implants and four prostate implants. 100% of treatments achieved a goal of >60 min duration, with therapeutic temperatures achieved in all cases. Thermal dosimetry within the hyperthermia target volume (HTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) are reported. Catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia with HDR appears feasible with therapeutic temperature coverage of the target volume within the prostate or cervix while sparing surrounding more sensitive regions.

  13. Myeloid Sarcoma of the Uterine Cervix as Presentation of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia after Treatment with Low-Dose Radioiodine for Thyroid Cancer: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Weingertner, Anne Sophie; Wilt, Marc; Atallah, Ihab; Fohrer, Cécile; Mauvieux, Laurent; Rodier, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    The development of acute myeloid leukaemia after low-dose radioiodine therapy and its presentation as a myeloid sarcoma of the uterine cervix are both rare events. We report a case of acute myeloid leukaemia revealed by a myeloid sarcoma of the uterine cervix in a 48-year-old woman, 17 months after receiving a total dose of 100 mCi 131I for papillary thyroid cancer. A strict hematological follow-up of patients treated with any dose of 131I is recommended to accurately detect any hematological complications which might have been underestimated. Unusual presentations, such as chloroma of the uterine cervix, may reveal myeloid malignancy and should be kept in mind. PMID:20844570

  14. Early Detection of Bone Metastasis in Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Cervix by 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Damian, Andres; Lago, Graciela; Rossi, Susana; Alonso, Omar; Engler, Henry

    2017-03-01

    The neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare malignancy that has a poor prognosis due to early lymphatic and hematogenous spread. We herein report a case of a 27- year-old woman who was referred for initial staging of a neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma with previous unremarkable structural imaging. Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT revealed focal uptake at the primary tumor and in a solitary pelvic bone lesion suggestive of metastases that was further confirmed by CT-guided biopsy. Somatostatin receptor PET/CT may be a useful image modality for early detection of metastases to guide treatment in these patients.

  15. Enhancing fraction measured using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI predicts disease-free survival in patients with carcinoma of the cervix

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, S B; Buckley, D L; O'Connor, J P; Davidson, S E; Carrington, B M; Jones, A P; West, C M L

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is a need for simple imaging parameters capable of predicting therapeutic outcome. Methods: This retrospective study analysed 50 patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix who underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI before receiving potentially curative radiotherapy. The proportion of enhancing pixels (EF) in the whole-tumour volume post-contrast agent injection was calculated and assessed in relation to disease-free survival (DFS). Results: Tumours with high EF had a significantly poorer probability of DFS than those with low EF (P=0.011). Interpretation: EF is a simple imaging biomarker that should be studied further in a multi-centre setting. PMID:19920831

  16. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  17. External Beam Boost for Cancer of the Cervix Uteri When Intracavitary Therapy Cannot Be Performed

    SciTech Connect

    Barraclough, Lisa Helen Swindell, Ric; Livsey, Jacqueline E.; Hunter, Robin D.; Davidson, Susan E.

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the outcome of patients treated with radical radiotherapy for cervical cancer who received an external beam boost, in place of intracavitary brachytherapy (ICT), after irradiation to the whole pelvis. Methods and Materials: Case notes were reviewed for all patients treated in this way in a single center between 1996 and 2004. Patient and tumor details, the reasons why ICT was not possible, and treatment outcome were documented. Results: Forty-four patients were identified. The mean age was 56.4 years (range, 26-88 years). Clinical International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics or radiologic stage for Stages I, II, III, and IV, respectively, was 16%, 48%, 27%, and 7%. A total radiation dose of 54-70 Gy was given (75% received {>=}60 Gy). Reasons for ICT not being performed were technical limitations in 73%, comorbidity or isolation limitations in 23%, and patient choice in 4%. The median follow-up was 2.3 years. Recurrent disease was seen in 48%, with a median time to recurrence of 2.3 years. Central recurrence was seen in 16 of the 21 patients with recurrent disease. The 5-year overall survival rate was 49.3%. The 3-year cancer-specific survival rate by stage was 100%, 70%, and 42% for Stages I, II, and III, respectively. Late Grades 1 and 2 bowel, bladder, and vaginal toxicity were seen in 41%. Late Grade 3 toxicity was seen in 2%. Conclusion: An external beam boost is a reasonable option after external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis when it is not possible to perform ICT.

  18. Routine clinical estimation of rectal, rectosigmoidal, and bladder doses from intracavitary brachytherapy in the treatment of carcinoma of the cervix. [X ray; /sup 137/Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, D.E.; Stryker, J.A.; Velkley, D.E.; Chung, C.K.

    1981-05-01

    An evaluation of rectal, rectosigmoidal, and bladder doses from intracavitary brachytherapy in carcinoma of the cervix has been initiated on a routine basis in an effort to obtain the optimum radiotherapeutic dose. Contrast radiography on a radiotherapy simulator is used to image the rectum and bladder, and dose rates are determined at predesignated reference points with the aid of computer calculated dose distributions. Forty-three patients have been reviewed in order to ascertain the correlation between radiation injury and dose at reference points in the rectum and bladder. In a related study involving 77 patients, the doses at points A and B and the prescription in mghr were analyzed in relation to radiation injury. There was no apparent association between the incidence of radiation injury in either the mghr prescription or the doses at points A or B. Computer calculations were supplemented with in vivo and in vitro thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements. We conclude that routine contrast radiography of the rectum and the bladder with dose calculations at selected reference points provides important information for optimizing radiotherapy in carcinoma of the cervix without a significant increase in treatment planning effort or patient discomfort.

  19. A three-dimensional, extended field of view ultrasound method for estimating large strain mechanical properties of the cervix during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    House, Michael; Feltovich, Helen; Hall, Timothy J; Stack, Trevor; Patel, Atur; Socrate, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Cervical shortening and cervical insufficiency contribute to a significant number of preterm births. However, the deformation mechanisms that control how the cervix changes its shape from long and closed to short and dilated are not clear. Investigation of the biomechanical problem is limited by 1) lack of thorough characterization of the three-dimensional anatomical changes associated with cervical deformation and 2) difficulty measuring cervical tissue properties in vivo. The objective of the present study was to explore the feasibility of using three-dimensional ultrasound and fundal pressure to obtain anatomically accurate numerical models of large-strain cervical deformation during pregnancy and enable non-invasive assessment of cervical tissue compliance. Healthy subjects (n=6) and one subject with acute cervical insufficiency in the midtrimester were studied. Extended field of view ultrasound images were obtained of the entire uterus and cervix. These images aided construction of anatomically accurate numerical models. Cervical loading was achieved with fundal pressure, which was quantified with a vaginal pressure catheter. In one subject, the anatomical response to fundal pressure was matched by a model-based simulation of the deformation response, thereby deriving the corresponding cervical mechanical properties and showing the feasibility of non-invasive assessment of compliance. The results of this pilot study demonstrate the feasibility of a biomechanical modeling framework for estimating cervical mechanical properties in vivo. An improved understanding of cervical biomechanical function will clarify the pathophysiology of cervical shortening. PMID:22655487

  20. Metastatic adenocarcinoma of the cervix presenting as a choroidal mass: A case report and review of literature of cervical metastases to the eye.

    PubMed

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Asnani, Haresh T; Mehta, Vinod C; Mehta, Siddharth V; Pathak, Rima S

    2015-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among females in India. Cervical cancer usually spreads by local extension and through the lymphatic drainage to the lymph nodes. Hematogenous spread, the mechanism responsible for distant metastases, is rarely seen in cervical malignancies. In this communication, we report a case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with unilateral decrease in vision of 3 months duration. She was found to have a serous retinal detachment with underlying diffuse, subretinal yellowish-cream colored infiltrates in the right eye, suspicious of choroidal metastases. Systemic evaluation showed disseminated systemic metastases arising from a primary adenocarcinoma of the cervix. In this communication, we review all the documented cases of metastases to the eye and adnexa arising from cervical cancer and their clinical characteristics. Unilateral choroidal metastasis arising from an adenocarcinoma of the cervix is extremely rare with only one previous documented case. Although uncommon, choroidal metastasis may be the presenting feature of primary cervical malignancy. Furthermore, cervical malignancy must be ruled out in women who present with orbital or choroidal metastases arising from unknown primary.

  1. Efficacy and Patterns of Failure for Locally Advanced Cancer of the Cervix Treated With Celebrex (Celecoxib) and Chemoradiotherapy in RTOG 0128

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, David K. Winter, Kathryn; Dicker, Adam P.; Miller, Brigitte; Eifel, Patricia J.; Ryu, Janice; Avizonis, Vilija; Fromm, Mitch; Small, William; Greven, Kathryn

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy and patterns of initial failure for oral celecoxib, intravenous cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil and concurrent pelvic radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced cancer of the cervix. Methods and Materials: Patients were treated with concurrent 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin chemotherapy and pelvic radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Celecoxib was prescribed at a dose of 400 mg twice daily for 1 year beginning on the first day of radiotherapy. The overall and disease-free survival rates were determined. Results: A total of 84 patients were accrued, of whom 78 were eligible. The estimated 2-year disease-free survival and overall survival rate was 69% and 83%, respectively. Of the 78 patients, 24 had treatment failure: 3 with persistent local disease, 9 local only, 2 regional, 4 distant, 1 regional and distant, 1 local and distant, and 2 with local, regional, and distant disease, and 1 had died of cervical cancer without a reported site of first failure and 1 without evidence of disease. Conclusion: At 2 years, the estimated disease-free survival and overall survival rate for patients with advanced cervical cancer who underwent a combination of chemoradiotherapy and celecoxib treatment was 69% and 83%, respectively. Recurrent disease developed in 24 patients, and, of those patients, 18 had a component of locoregional failure as a site of first failure. Thus, locoregional control continues to be problematic after chemoradiotherapy as delivered in our study. The identification of more active biologically targeted therapies is warranted for the treatment of advanced cancer of the cervix.

  2. The Effect of Education on the Early Diagnosis of Breast and Cervix Cancer on the Women's Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Participating in Screening Programs.

    PubMed

    Kocaöz, Semra; Özçelik, Hanife; Talas, Melek Serpil; Akkaya, Fulya; Özkul, Fatma; Kurtuluş, Ayla; Ünlü, Fahriye

    2017-03-11

    The objective of this paper was to define the effect of education on the early diagnosis of breast and cervix cancer on the women's attitudes and behaviors regarding participating in Cancer Early Diagnosis, Screening and Training Centers-CEDSTC screening programs. This semi-experimental study was completed with 342 women. The data were collected with forms "Champion's Health Belief Model Scale Breast Cancer-HBMSBC" and "Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and the Pap Smear Test-HBMSCCPST." When the women's health beliefs before and after 6 months of the education about the early diagnosis of breast and cervical cancers are considered, it is seen that the HBMSBC subscales health motivation, breast self-examination (BSE), and evasion to mammography (MMG) decreased and BSE self-efficacy and MMG benefit attitudes increased and HBMSCCPST subscales pap smear benefit attitudes increased and evasion to pap smear attitude decreased (p < 0.05). Six months after the education, 28.4% of the women had undergone MMG, 69.9% had performed BSE, and 33.6% had undergone a pap smear test. Education regarding early diagnosis of breast and cervix cancer was found to have positive effects on the health behaviors of the women related to BSE, MMG, and pap smear tests. The women require professional education program for increasing their attitudes and behaviors for CEDSTC screening programs. We suggest regularly providing education to increase participation in early screening programs.

  3. Intra-patient semi-automated segmentation of the cervix-uterus in CT-images for adaptive radiotherapy of cervical cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luiza Bondar, M.; Hoogeman, Mischa; Schillemans, Wilco; Heijmen, Ben

    2013-08-01

    For online adaptive radiotherapy of cervical cancer, fast and accurate image segmentation is required to facilitate daily treatment adaptation. Our aim was twofold: (1) to test and compare three intra-patient automated segmentation methods for the cervix-uterus structure in CT-images and (2) to improve the segmentation accuracy by including prior knowledge on the daily bladder volume or on the daily coordinates of implanted fiducial markers. The tested methods were: shape deformation (SD) and atlas-based segmentation (ABAS) using two non-rigid registration methods: demons and a hierarchical algorithm. Tests on 102 CT-scans of 13 patients demonstrated that the segmentation accuracy significantly increased by including the bladder volume predicted with a simple 1D model based on a manually defined bladder top. Moreover, manually identified implanted fiducial markers significantly improved the accuracy of the SD method. For patients with large cervix-uterus volume regression, the use of CT-data acquired toward the end of the treatment was required to improve segmentation accuracy. Including prior knowledge, the segmentation results of SD (Dice similarity coefficient 85 ± 6%, error margin 2.2 ± 2.3 mm, average time around 1 min) and of ABAS using hierarchical non-rigid registration (Dice 82 ± 10%, error margin 3.1 ± 2.3 mm, average time around 30 s) support their use for image guided online adaptive radiotherapy of cervical cancer.

  4. A multicentre comparison of the dosimetric impact of inter- and intra-fractional anatomical variations in fractionated cervix cancer brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nesvacil, Nicole; Tanderup, Kari; Hellebust, Taran P.; De Leeuw, Astrid; Lang, Stefan; Mohamed, Sandy; Jamema, Swamidas V.; Anderson, Clare; Pötter, Richard; Kirisits, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose To compare the dosimetric impact of organ and target variations relative to the applicator for intracavitary brachytherapy by a multicentre analysis with different application techniques and fractionation schemes. Material and methods DVH data from 363 image/contour sets (120 patients, 6 institutions) were included for 1–6 fractions per patient, with imaging intervals ranging from several hours to ∼20 days. Variations between images acquired within one (intra-application) or between consecutive applicator insertions (inter-application) were evaluated. Dose plans based on a reference MR or CT image series were superimposed onto subsequent image sets and D2cm3 for the bladder, rectum and sigmoid and D90 for HR CTV were recorded. Results For the whole sample, the systematic dosimetric variations for all organs at risk, i.e. mean variations of D2cm3, were found to be minor (<5%), while random variations, i.e. standard deviations were found to be high due to large variations in individual cases. The D2cm3 variations (mean ± 1SD) were 0.6 ± 19.5%, 4.1 ± 21.7% and 1.6 ± 26.8%, for the bladder, rectum and sigmoid. For HR CTV, the variations of D90 were found to be −1.1 ± 13.1% for the whole sample. Grouping of the results by intra- and inter-application variations showed that random uncertainties for bladder and sigmoid were 3–7% larger when re-implanting the applicator for individual fractions. No statistically significant differences between the two groups were detected in dosimetric variations for the HR CTV. Using 20% uncertainty of physical dose for OAR and 10% for HR CTV, the effects on total treatment dose for a 4 fraction HDR schedule at clinically relevant dose levels were found to be 4–8 Gy EQD2 for OAR and 3 Gy EQD2 for HR CTV. Conclusions Substantial variations occur in fractionated cervix cancer BT with higher impact close to clinical threshold levels. The treatment approach has to balance uncertainties for

  5. Comparative analysis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in head and neck cancer and carcinoma cervix during concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bagri, Puneet Kumar; Kapoor, Akhil; Kalwar, Ashok; Singhal, Mukesh Kumar; Singh, Daleep; Narayan, Satya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cisplatin is widely used as radio sensitizer in head and neck cancer (HNC) and carcinoma cervix (CaCx). This study aims to see comparative nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in HNC and in CaCx without obstructive uropathy treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Materials and Methods: Fifty patients of HNC and 50 patients of CaCx stage II/III without obstructive uropathy were included in this study. Cisplatin 50 mg intravenous weekly was given before EBRT with adequate hydration and premedication in both groups. Before chemotherapy; blood urea, serum creatinine, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were measured. GFR was measured using 99mTc diethylene triamine pentacaetic acid (DTPA) renogram study. Results: At the end of 4th week, blood urea level 41-45 mg% was in 40 and 4% in HNC and CaCx, respectively (P = 0.018). At the end of 3rd and 4th week, blood urea level >45 mg% was 10 and 6% in HNC cases, respectively. At the end of 4th week, serum creatinine level 1.1-1.5 mg% was 50 and 8% in HNC and CaCx, respectively (P = 0.047). Serum creatinine level >1.5 mg% was 6, 8, and 22% in HNC at the end of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th week, respectively. GFR <80 ml/min at the end of 4th week was 14% in HNC and only 2% in CaCx. GFR <100ml/min was significant at the end of 4th week (P = 0.04). Univariate analysis showed significant relation between reduced oral fluid intake and reduced GFR (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In HNC, during concurrent chemoradiation, as the 3rd-4th week is reached, oral mucosal reactions increase and affect oral intake which further add to the cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. In CaCx without obstructive uropathy, renal function impairment is less severe as oral intake of water and liquid is not much impaired. PMID:25422808

  6. Enhanced efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in selected cases of surgically resected neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Sixia; Song, Liang; Yang, Fan; Tang, Chendian; Yang, Shaoyan; He, Ji; Pan, Xiaoling

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study is to identify the prognostic factors of overall survival and examine the effects of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy on the overall survival in neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix (NECUC) patients. Forty-eight surgically treated patients were retrospectively recruited and clinicopathologic characteristics and treatments were reviewed. Kaplan–Meier product-limit method and Cox proportional-hazards regression were utilized for univariate and multivariate analyses. The median follow-up time was 20.6 months and the median overall survival was 30.7 months. The estimated 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 57.5% and 31.3%, respectively. Forty patients had ≤ stage IIA disease and 8 had >IIA disease. Univariate analysis identified the clinical stage ≤ IIA (P = 0.042), tumor size ≤ 4 cm (P = 0.005), negative lymph nodes metastasis (P < 0.001), depth of stromal invasion ≤ 1/2 (P = 0.001), negative parametrial involvement (P = 0.004), and weak staining of synaptophysin (P = 0.037), and chromogranin (P = 0.011) as the prognostic factors for an improved overall survival, while chemotherapy and radiotherapy were not prognostic factors in the whole cohort. However, surgery combined with chemotherapy and radiotherapy produced a survival advantage over surgery alone in patients with large tumors (P = 0.006). The combination of surgery and chemotherapy (with or without radiotherapy) did not show any significant difference in overall survival for small tumors (P = 0.816), compared with no chemotherapy (with or without radiotherapy). In addition, radiotherapy for tumors with squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma components achieved a better survival (P = 0.01), and there was a tendency of an unfavorable survival for radiotherapy in homogeneous carcinoma (P = 0.099). Tumor size was an independent prognostic factor in the multivariate analysis (HR: 12.724, 95% CI

  7. Dosimetric study for cervix carcinoma treatment using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compensation based on 3D intracavitary brachytherapy technique

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Gang; Wang, Pei; Lang, Jinyi; Tian, Yin; Luo, Yangkun; Fan, Zixuan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compensation based on 3D high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) boost technique (ICBT + IMRT) has been used in our hospital for advanced cervix carcinoma patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric results of the four different boost techniques (the conventional 2D HDR intracavitary brachytherapy [CICBT], 3D optimized HDR intracavitary brachytherapy [OICBT], and IMRT-alone with the applicator in situ). Material and methods For 30 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma, after the completion of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for whole pelvic irradiation 45 Gy/25 fractions, five fractions of ICBT + IMRT boost with 6 Gy/fractions for high risk clinical target volume (HRCTV), and 5 Gy/fractions for intermediate risk clinical target volume (IRCTV) were applied. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired using an in situ CT/MRI-compatible applicator. The gross tumor volume (GTV), the high/intermediate-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV/IRCTV), bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were contoured by CT scans. Results For ICBT + IMRT plan, values of D90, D100 of HRCTV, D90, D100, and V100 of IRCTV significantly increased (p < 0.05) in comparison to OICBT and CICBT. The D2cc values for bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were significantly lower than that of CICBT and IMRT alone. In all patients, the mean rectum V60 Gy values generated from ICBT + IMRT and OICBT techniques were very similar but for bladder and sigmoid, the V60 Gy values generated from ICBT + IMRT were higher than that of OICBT. For the ICBT + IMRT plan, the standard deviations (SD) of D90 and D2cc were found to be lower than other three treatment plans. Conclusions The ICBT + IMRT technique not only provides good target coverage but also maintains low doses (D2cc) to the OAR. ICBT + IMRT is an optional technique to boost parametrial region or tumor of large size and irregular shape

  8. Variations of mitotic index in normal and dysplastic squamous epithelium of the uterine cervix as a function of endometrial maturation.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Oluwole; Yi, Xiaofang; Liang, Sharon X; Ma, Yanling; Zheng, Wenxin

    2007-09-01

    that hormonal status, as reflected in endometrial maturation, can significantly affect the mitotic index of dysplastic squamous epithelium of the uterine cervix. Our findings confirm that the pathologic grading of dysplasia, especially in equivocal cases such as in metaplastic squamous epithelium, should not be solely dependent on the finding mitoses in the cervical squamous epithelium. The full composite of histopathologic features should form the basis for this determination.

  9. Combinatorial effects of genistein and sex-steroids on the level of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), adenylate cyclase (AC) and cAMP in the cervix of ovariectomised rats.

    PubMed

    Salleh, Naguib; Ismail, Nurain; Muniandy, Sekaran; Korla, Praveen Kumar; Giribabu, Nelli

    2015-12-01

    The combinatorial effects of genistein and estrogen (E) or estrogen plus progesterone (E+P) on CFTR, AC and cAMP levels in cervix were investigated. Ovariectomised adult female rats received 50 or 100mg/kg/day genistein with E or E followed by E+P [E+(E+P)] for seven consecutive days. Cervixes were harvested and analyzed for CFTR mRNA levels by Real-time PCR. Distribution of AC and CFTR proteins in endocervix were observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of cAMP were measured by enzyme-immunoassay. Molecular docking predicted interaction between genistein and AC. Our results indicate that levels of CFTR, AC and cAMP in cervix of rats receiving genistein plus E were higher than E-only treatment (p<0.05) while genistein plus [E+(E+P)] were higher than E+(E+P)-only treatment (p<0.05). In conclusions, increased levels of CFTR, AC and cAMP in cervix of E and E+(E+P)-treated rats by genistein could affect the cervical secretory function which could influence the female reproductive processes.

  10. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  11. The effect of the intracervical application of follicle-stimulating hormone or luteinizing hormone on the pattern of expression of gonadotrophin receptors in the cervix of non-pregnant ewes.

    PubMed

    Leethongdee, S; Khalid, M; Scaramuzzi, R J

    2014-08-01

    During the periovulatory period, the cervix relaxes in response to changes in circulating concentrations of reproductive hormones. The present study investigated the role of gonadotrophins in cervical function by examining the expression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and their mRNAs following intracervical treatment with either FSH or LH. Eighteen ewes were assigned to four groups, and they were then treated with progestagen sponges and PMSG to synchronize their oestrous cycles. Intracervical treatments were given 24 h after sponge removal as follows: Group 1: FSH 2 mg; Group 2: LH 2 mg; Group 3: Vehicle and Group 4: Control. Cervices were collected 54 h after sponge removal and then divided into three regions. The expression of FSHR and LHR was determined by immunohistochemistry and FSHR mRNA and LH mRNA by in situ hybridization. The expression of LHR, FSHR and their respective mRNAs was compared in six tissue layers (luminal epithelium, subepithelial stroma, circular, longitudinal and transverse muscle and serosa) and in three cervical regions (vaginal, mid and uterine). The results showed that FSH increased transcription of the FSHR gene and the levels of its receptor, but only in subepithelial stroma of the cervix. FSH also increased the levels of LHR in the cervix, but only in the muscle layers. LH had no effect on the levels of FSHR despite the fact that it did increase the level of transcription of the FSHR gene and LH also increased the levels of its own receptor in the cervix, but only in the muscle layers, and this action was independent of increased levels of transcription of the LHR gene. These findings suggest multiple levels of regulation of cervical LH and FSH receptors and that the gonadotrophins may have a role in relaxation of the cervix during oestrus by regulating their own receptors.

  12. Polyps of the Cervix

    MedlinePlus

    ... Interest (Quiz) Breast Cancer (Video) Overview of the Female Reproductive System (News) Study: Plenty of IV Fluids May Make Childbirth Safer, Easier (News) Zejula Approved for Certain Female Cancers Additional Content Medical News Polyps of the ...

  13. SU-E-T-393: Evaluation of Large Field IMRT Versus RapidArc Planning for Carcinoma Cervix with Para-Aotic Node Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S Kothanda; Girigesh, Y; MISHRA, M; Lalit, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to evaluate and compare Large field IMRT and RapidArc planning for Carcinoma Cervix and Para-aotic node irradiation. Methods: In this study, ten patients of Cervix with para-aotic node have been selected with PTV length 35+2cm. All plans were generated in Eclipse TPS V10.0 with Dynamic IMRT and RapidArc technique using 6MV photon energy. In IMRT planning, 7 fields were chosen to get optimal plan and in RapidArc, double Full arc clockwise and counter clockwise were used for planning. All the plans were generated with single isocenter and calculated using AAA dose algorithm. For all the cases the prescribed dose to PTV was same and the plan acceptance criteria is; 95% of the PTV volume should receive 100% prescribed dose. The tolerance doses for the OAR’s is also taken in to account. The evaluation criteria used for analysis are; 1) Homogeneity Index, 2) Conformity Index, 3) Mean Dose to OAR’s, 4)Total monitor units delivered. Results: DVH analysis were performed for both IMRT and RapidArc planning. In both the plans, 95% of PTV volume receives prescribed dose and maximum dose are less than 107%. The conformity index are same in both the techniques. The mean Homogeneity index are 1.036 and 1.053 for IMRT and RapidArc plan. The mean (mean + SD) dose of bladder and rectum in IMRT is 44.2+1.55, 42.05+2.52 and RapidArc is 46.66+1.6, 44.2+2.75 respectively. There is no significant difference found in Right Femoral head, Left Femoral head and Kidney doses. It is found that total MU’s are more in IMRT compared with RapidArc planning. Conclusion: In the case of cervix with Para-arotic node single isocenter irradiation, IMRT planning in large-field is better compared to RapidArc planning in terms of Homogeneity Index and mean dose of Bladder and Rectum.

  14. The expression of ERα, OTR, cPLA(2), COX-2, and PPARγ in the cervix of the ewe during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Falchi, L; Scaramuzzi, R J

    2013-01-01

    The ovine cervix relaxes at estrus allowing easier entry of spermatozoa into the uterus. The mechanism responsible for this relaxation is not fully elucidated and we hypothesized that cervical relaxation at estrus is induced by ovarian and pituitary hormones stimulating the local production of prostaglandin E(2) via a biosynthetic pathway involving a number of mediators including oxytocin, phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The aim of this study was to investigate the cervical expression of estradiol receptor alpha (ERα), oxytocin receptor (OTR), cPLA(2), COX-2, and PPARγ at three stages of the estrous cycle (the luteal phase and two times during the follicular phase, just before and just after the LH surge). An experiment was conducted during the breeding season, in 25 ewes to test this hypothesis. Samples of cervical tissue were collected from groups of ewes at three stages of the estrous cycle: the luteal (N = 8), "pre-LH surge" (N = 8), and "post-LH surge" (N = 9) stages. Cervical tissue from uterine, mid, and vaginal regions of the cervix were analyzed by Western immunoblot analysis for ERα, OTR, cPLA(2,) COX-2, and PPARγ. The results showed that the levels of all five proteins were lowest during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle in all regions of the cervix. The levels of all except cPLA(2), increased significantly during the "pre-LH surge" stage. The levels of cPLA(2) and ERα increased in the "post-LH surge" stage and those for OTR and PPARγ were unchanged and those for COX-2 were lower. These data show that the cervical levels of all five of the intermediates in the synthesis of prostaglandin E(2) that were examined in this study were higher in the "pre-" and "post-LH surge" stages compared with the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and these findings are consistent with our hypothesis.

  15. SU-E-T-493: Influence of Filtered and Flatting Filter Free Photon Beam of 10 Megavolts Energy On Rapid Arc Radiotherapy Planning for Cervix Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Girigesh, Y; Kumar, L; Raman, K; Mishra, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Aim of this study is to determine the dosimetric influence of Filtered and Flatting Filter Free Photon Beam of 10 MV energy on RA planning for Ca. Cervix. Methods: CT data sets of eleven patients reported with carcinoma cervix were used for RA planning for 10MV -FFB and 10MV-FFFB. RA plans were generated using two full arcs.All RA plans were generated to deliver a dose of 50.4Gy in 28 fractions for PTV and ALARA for OAR’s. All plans were analysed for PTV Coverage, conformity Index, homogeneity index, dose to OAR’s, integral dose to normal tissue and total monitor units were studied. Results: DVH was used to evaluate RA plans for both 10MV-FFB and 10MV-FFFB photon beam. Planning results show a comparable PTV coverage for both energies. Results shows volume of PTV receiving prescription dose were 95.10+ 0.09% and 95.09 +0.11%, and volume of PTV receiving a dose of 107% is 0.45+0.96% and 5.25+8.9%, homogeneity index (HI) were 1.051+0.007 and 1.066+0.008, Conformity Index(CI) were 1.003+0.019 and 1.012+0.013, Mean Integral dose were 2.65+0.34 and 2.60+0.33(*10−5Gy.cm3) for 10MV-FFB and 10MV-FFFB respectively. 10MV-FB shows statistically significant (p<0.05) improvement in mean doses to bladder, rectum, bowel and mean total number of MU’s and also shows remarkable decrease in mean total no. of MU’s by 43.7% in comparison to 10MV-FFFB. There is statistically significant (p<0.05) difference found in CI and HI for 10MV-FB in comparison to 10MV -FFF beam. 10MV-FFFB shows statistically significant (p<0.05) for mean NTID and delivers 1.65 % less NTID in comparison to 10 MV- FB. Conclusion: 10MV-FB is superior to 10MV-FFFB for rapid arc planning in case of Cervix carcinomas, it offers better target coverage and OAR’s sparing, comparable mean Integral dose to normal tissues and 10 MV- FB also produced highly conformal and homogeneous dose distribution in comparison to 10MV-FFFB.

  16. Age Limits.

    PubMed

    Antfolk, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Whereas women of all ages prefer slightly older sexual partners, men-regardless of their age-have a preference for women in their 20s. Earlier research has suggested that this difference between the sexes' age preferences is resolved according to women's preferences. This research has not, however, sufficiently considered that the age range of considered partners might change over the life span. Here we investigated the age limits (youngest and oldest) of considered and actual sex partners in a population-based sample of 2,655 adults (aged 18-50 years). Over the investigated age span, women reported a narrower age range than men and women tended to prefer slightly older men. We also show that men's age range widens as they get older: While they continue to consider sex with young women, men also consider sex with women their own age or older. Contrary to earlier suggestions, men's sexual activity thus reflects also their own age range, although their potential interest in younger women is not likely converted into sexual activity. Compared to homosexual men, bisexual and heterosexual men were more unlikely to convert young preferences into actual behavior, supporting female-choice theory.

  17. Mosaic aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lary C.; Herndon, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although all multicellular organisms undergo structural and functional deterioration with age, senescence is not a uniform process. Rather, each organism experiences a constellation of changes that reflect the heterogeneous effects of age on molecules, cells, organs and systems, an idiosyncratic pattern that we refer to as mosaic aging. Varying genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors (local and extrinsic) contribute to the aging phenotype in a given individual, and these agents influence the type and rate of functional decline, as well as the likelihood of developing age-associated afflictions such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Identifying key factors that drive aging, clarifying their activities in different systems, and in particular understanding how they interact will enhance our comprehension of the aging process, and could yield insights into the permissive role that senescence plays in the emergence of acute and chronic diseases of the elderly. PMID:20110150

  18. New horizons in design for autonomous ageing.

    PubMed

    van der Cammen, Tischa J M; Albayrak, Armagan; Voûte, Ena; Molenbroek, Johan F M

    2016-11-05

    The world is ageing rapidly. Between 2000 and 2050, the number of people aged ≥65 will double as a proportion of the global population, from 7% to 16%, respectively. By 2050, for the first time in human history, there will be more older people than children (aged 0-14 years) in the population. More distinctive is the tremendous increase in the oldest old aged ≥85. This challenges society to adapt, in order to maximise the health and functional capacity of older people as well as their social participation and security.Ageing is a multidimensional process of change in the physical, mental and social domain, leading to functional decline.Design thinking has embraced ageing as a topic where it can add to public health interventions. Applications of design and technology can contribute to 'autonomous ageing', for example, independent living and life style support, and can compensate for functional deficits associated with ageing. The focus is on supporting and reinforcing the reduced physical, mental, social and functional capacities of older people by applying groundbreaking, innovative design inclusive engineering methods, always starting with a human-centered integrated approach.Examples of design for geriatric giants include design for falls prevention, dementia care and integrated care.The establishment of collaborative networks between clinicians and designers, academia and industry is required to advance design for autonomous ageing.

  19. Behavioral and Emotional Problems Reported by Parents of Children Ages 6 to 16 in 31 Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dumenci, Levent; Almqvist, Fredrik; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chen, Wei; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Fombonne, Eric; Fonseca, Antonio; Frigerio, Alessandra; Grietens, Hans; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael; Larsson, Bo; Leung, Patrick; Liu, Xianchen; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Weintraub, Sheila; Weisz, John; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Yang, Hao-Jan; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This study compared parents' ratings of behavioral and emotional problems on the "Child Behavior Checklist" (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) for general population samples of children ages 6 to 16 from 31 societies (N = 55,508). Effect sizes for society ranged from 0.03 to 0.14. Effect sizes for gender were less than or…

  20. Implementation of a high-dose-rate brachytherapy program for carcinoma of the cervix in Senegal: a pragmatic model for the developing world.

    PubMed

    Einck, John P; Hudson, Alana; Shulman, Adam C; Yashar, Catheryn M; Dieng, Mamadou M; Diagne, Magatte; Gueye, Latifatou; Gningue, Fama; Gaye, Pape M; Fisher, Brandon J; Mundt, Arno J; Brown, Derek W

    2014-07-01

    West Africa has one of the highest incidence rates of carcinoma of the cervix in the world. The vast majority of women do not have access to screening or disease treatment, leading to presentation at advanced stages and to high mortality rates. Compounding this problem is the lack of radiation treatment facilities in Senegal and many other parts of the African continent. Senegal, a country of 13 million people, had a single (60)Co teletherapy unit before our involvement and no brachytherapy capabilities. Radiating Hope, a nonprofit organization whose mission is to provide radiation therapy equipment to countries in the developing world, provided a high-dose-rate afterloading unit to the cancer center for curative cervical cancer treatment. Here we describe the implementation of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in Senegal requiring a nonstandard fractionation schedule and a novel treatment planning approach as a possible blueprint to providing this technology to other developing countries.

  1. Effectiveness of extra-ovular injection of prostaglandin E2 in tylose gel to ripen the cervix prior to elective induction of labor at term.

    PubMed

    Thiery, M; Defoort, P; Benijts, G; Van Eyck, J; Hennay, T; Van Kets, H; Martens, C

    1977-08-01

    Ripening of the unfavorable cervix (Bishop score less than or equal to 4) was obtained in 92 clinically normal gravidae at term (68 nulliparae and 24 parous women), not in labor and with intact membranes, by injecting one or two doses (250 to 500 mug each) of prostaglandin (PG)E2 suspended in a viscous gel (5% Tylose) into the extra-ovular space. On average 7 to 8 hours after the injection the mean increase of the cervical score was 3.7 and 4.1 in the nulliparous and parous women, respectively. Complications associated with placement of the catheter were few. The method is simple, well tolerated and no untoward maternal or perinatal effects could be directly attributed to it. However, suitable criteria for predicting both the effect of the procedure and the optimal PG dose to be administered are still needed.

  2. Radiosurgical treatment of uterine cervix carcinoma at the 1st Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University of Turin, (in the period 1972-1978).

    PubMed

    Bocci, A; Sismondi, P; Sinistrero, G; Fessia, L; Zola, P; Giardina, G; Saluzzo, F; Mano, M P; Dalmassso, A

    1981-01-01

    The Authors report the results of a planned prospective study on Radiosurgical treatment of carcinoma of the cervix at stage Ia, Ib, and IIa. The protocol adopted is based on preoperative Curietherapy performed by Ir192 on a after loading technique device, hysterectomy according the Wertheim-Meigs' technique with systematic lymphadenectomy for the internal and external iliacs and obturator stations, Telecobalt therapy in cases with hystological evidence of lymphatic spread. The Authors discuss the results after three and five years in term of survival according to stage and type of treatment, the anatomosurgical examination and the histologic findings of the lymph nodes. At the end, they analysed the complications according to the stage and the kind of treatment, studying only recovered patients and performing the analysis after three years, in order to allow all complications to appear.

  3. Proteomic analysis reveals tanshinone IIA enhances apoptosis of advanced cervix carcinoma CaSki cells through mitochondria intrinsic and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Huang, Chun-Hsun; Rau, Kun-Ming

    2013-12-01

    Cervix cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide, whereas paclitaxel, the first line chemotherapeutic drug used to treat cervical cancer, shows low chemosensitivity on the advanced cervical cancer cell line. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) exhibited strong growth inhibitory effect on CaSki cells (IC50 = 5.51 μM) through promoting caspase cascades with concomitant upregulating the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK signaling. Comprehensive proteomics revealed the global protein changes and the network analysis implied that Tan IIA treatment would activate ER stress pathways that finally lead to apoptotic cell death. Moreover, ER stress inhibitor could alleviate Tan IIA caused cell growth inhibition and ameliorate C/EBP-homologous protein as well as apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 mediated cell death. The therapeutic interventions targeting the mitochondrial-related apoptosis and ER stress responses might be promising strategies to conquer paclitaxel resistance.

  4. Implementation of a High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Program for Carcinoma of the Cervix in Senegal: A Pragmatic Model for the Developing World

    SciTech Connect

    Einck, John P.; Hudson, Alana; Shulman, Adam C.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Dieng, Mamadou M.; Diagne, Magatte; Gueye, Latifatou; Gningue, Fama; Gaye, Pape M.; Fisher, Brandon J.; Mundt, Arno J.; Brown, Derek W.

    2014-07-01

    West Africa has one of the highest incidence rates of carcinoma of the cervix in the world. The vast majority of women do not have access to screening or disease treatment, leading to presentation at advanced stages and to high mortality rates. Compounding this problem is the lack of radiation treatment facilities in Senegal and many other parts of the African continent. Senegal, a country of 13 million people, had a single {sup 60}Co teletherapy unit before our involvement and no brachytherapy capabilities. Radiating Hope, a nonprofit organization whose mission is to provide radiation therapy equipment to countries in the developing world, provided a high-dose-rate afterloading unit to the cancer center for curative cervical cancer treatment. Here we describe the implementation of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in Senegal requiring a nonstandard fractionation schedule and a novel treatment planning approach as a possible blueprint to providing this technology to other developing countries.

  5. Inappropriate Intra-cervical Injection of Radiotracer for Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping in a Uterine Cervix Cancer Patient: Importance of Lymphoscintigraphy and Blue Dye Injection.

    PubMed

    Kadkhodayan, Sima; Farahabadi, Elham Hosseini; Yousefi, Zohreh; Hasanzadeh, Malihe; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report a case of sentinel lymph node mapping in a uterine cervix cancer patient, referring to the nuclear medicine department of our institute. Lymphoscintigraphy images showed inappropriate intra-cervical injection of radiotracer. Blue dye technique was applied for sentinel lymph node mapping, using intra-cervical injection of methylene blue. Two blue/cold sentinel lymph nodes, with no pathological involvement, were intra-operatively identified, and the patient was spared pelvic lymph node dissection. The present case underscores the importance of lymphoscintigraphy imaging in sentinel lymph node mapping and demonstrates the added value of blue dye injection in selected patients. It is suggested that pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy imaging be considered as an integral part of sentinel lymph node mapping in surgical oncology. Detailed results of lymphoscintigraphy images should be provided for surgeons prior to surgery, and in case the sentinel lymph nodes are not visualized, use of blue dye for sentinel node mapping should be encouraged.

  6. Evaluation of a Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay to Measure HIV-Specific Mucosal CD8+ T Cell Responses in the Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Chege, Duncan; Chai, Yijie; Huibner, Sanja; McKinnon, Lyle; Wachihi, Charles; Kimani, Makubo; Jaoko, Walter; Kimani, Joshua; Ball, T. Blake; Plummer, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    Several candidate HIV vaccines aim to induce virus-specific cellular immunity particularly in the genital tract, typically the initial site of HIV acquisition. However, standardized and sensitive methods for evaluating HIV-specific immune responses at the genital level are lacking. Therefore we evaluated real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) as a potential platform to measure these responses. β-Actin and GAPDH were identified as the most stable housekeeping reference genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and cervical mononuclear cells (CMCs) respectively and were used for normalizing transcript mRNA expression. HIV-specific cellular T cell immune responses to a pool of optimized CD8+ HIV epitopes (HIV epitope pool) and Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) superantigen control were assayed in HIV infected PBMC by qPCR, with parallel assessment of cytokine protein production. Peak HIV-specific mRNA expression of IFNγ, IL-2 and TNFα occurred after 3, 5 and 12 hours respectively. PBMCs were titrated to cervical appropriate cell numbers to determine minimum required assay input cell numbers; qPCR retained sensitivity with input of at least 2.5×104 PBMCs. This optimized qPCR assay was then used to assess HIV-specific cellular T cell responses in cytobrush-derived cervical T cells from HIV positive individuals. SEB induced IFNγ mRNA transcription was detected in CMCs and correlated positively with IFNγ protein production. However, qPCR was unable to detect HIV-induced cytokine mRNA production in the cervix of HIV-infected women despite robust detection of gene induction in PBMCs. In conclusion, although qPCR can be used to measure ex vivo cellular immune responses to HIV in blood, HIV-specific responses in the cervix may fall below the threshold of qPCR detection. Nonetheless, this platform may have a potential role in measuring mitogen-induced immune responses in the genital tract. PMID:20949096

  7. Losses of expression of the antigens A, Lea and Lex and over-expression of Ley in carcinomas and HG-SIL of the uterine cervix

    PubMed Central

    Moro-Rodríguez, Ernesto; Álvarez-Fernández, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    Background The glycosylation of a great number of molecules, glyco-protein or glycolipids, has been of interest for decades. Objective To compare the expressive patterns of the isoantigenic determinants of histo-blood groups ABH and Lewis in squamous and simple epithelium and in precursors and cancers of the cervix. Methods A total of 36 lesions and neoplasms (10 LG-SIL, 16 HG-SIL and 10 invasive carcinomas) have been studied with immunohistochemical techniques, using monoclonal antibodies (MoAb BG1 to BG8) for precursor chains, blood-group ABH and Lewis group Lea, Leb, Lex, and Ley, and four types of lectins. In addition, we have studied the expression of p53 protein and PCNA, establishing the rate of proliferation of each lesion. Using PCR techniques, we have also detected part of the intron of the E6 gene of HPV-16. Results In the invasive cervical carcinomas, we observed a loss of expression of the Lex antigen (p < 0.01). With regard to the progression of the different lesions studied, we found alterations in the patterns of expression of the antigens of the ABH and Lewis blood groups. There was a tendency towards a loss of expression and heterogeneous patterns in the more advanced lesions, as well as over-expression of the Ley antigens. With PCNA, we established a proliferative rate which tended to be greater in relation to the progression of the cervix neoplasms. Conclusion These results indicate that there is a relation between the losses of histo-blood groups and the progression of the squamous intraepithelial lesions. PMID:18786253

  8. Multivariate Analysis of Para-Aortic Lymph Node Recurrence After Definitive Radiotherapy for Stage IB-IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Uterine Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, E.-Y.; Wang, C.-J.; Chen, H.-C.; Fang, F.-M.; Huang, Y.-J.; Wang, C.-Y.; Hsu, H.-C.

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the pretreatment risk factors of para-aortic lymph node (PALN) recurrence after primary radiotherapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between May 1992 and January 2006, the data from 758 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix were retrospectively analyzed. No patient had undergone PALN radiotherapy as their initial treatment. PALN recurrence was diagnosed by computed tomography. PALN relapse-free status was determined clinically or radiographically. We analyzed the actuarial rates of PALN recurrence using Kaplan-Meier curves. Multivariate analyses were performed with Cox regression models. Results: Of the 758 patients, 38 (5%) and 42 (6%) had isolated and nonisolated PALN recurrences after a median follow-up of 50 months (range, 2-159 months), respectively. The 3-year and 5-year overall survival rate after PALN recurrence was 35% and 28%, respectively. A squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) level >40 ng/mL (p <0.001), advanced parametrial involvement (score 4-6; p = 0.002), and the presence of pelvic lymphadenopathy (p = 0.007) were independent factors associated with PALN relapse on multivariate analysis. The 5-year PALN recurrence rate in patients with a SCC-Ag level >40 ng/mL, SCC-Ag level of 20-40 ng/mL, parametrial score of 4-6, pelvic lymphadenopathy, and no risk factors was 57%, 22%, 34%, 37%, and 9%, respectively. Conclusions: Patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix and a high SCC-Ag level, pelvic lymphadenopathy, or advanced PM involvement were predisposed to PALN recurrence after definitive radiotherapy. More intensive follow-up schedules are suggested for early detection and salvage in high-risk patients.

  9. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-01-01

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  10. Population aging.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of population aging in China, the most densely populated country in the world. Statistics indicate that by the end of 1998, 83.75 million out of the 1.248 billion Chinese people will be over 65 years old. According to the UN standards, China will soon become an aging society. The aging population poses several challenges to the country with the greatest challenge being the increasing social responsibility to care for the aged. With the undeveloped legislative framework to protect the interests of the aged and the serious drawbacks in the pension system to cater only to the income part and not the service part of the aged, China is not yet ready for the advent of aging. Violation of the rights of senior citizens is still very rampant despite enactment of the law on Protection of the Rights of the Elderly in 1996. Moreover, China is not economically ready to become an aging society. China faces this challenge by adopting a three-pronged approach to solve the problem namely: family support, establishment of nursing homes, and creating a social security framework that addresses the needs of the society suited to the Chinese condition. It is believed that with the growing economy of the country and the rising income of its people, a comprehensive social security net will be created to take care of the aged.

  11. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-04-04

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  12. Patterns of brachytherapy practice for patients with carcinoma of the cervix (1996-1999): A Patterns of Care Study

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Beth . E-mail: berickson@radonc.mcw.edu; Eifel, Patricia; Moughan, Jennifer; Rownd, Jason M.S.; Iarocci, Thomas; Owen, Jean

    2005-11-15

    Purpose/Objective: To analyze the details of brachytherapy practice in patients treated for carcinoma of the cervix in the United States between 1996 and 1999. Methods and Materials: Radiation facilities were selected from a stratified random sample. Patients were randomly selected from lists of eligible patients treated at each facility. A total of 442 patients' records were reviewed in 59 facilities to obtain data about patients' characteristics, evaluation, tumor extent, and treatment. National estimates were made using weights that reflected the relative contribution of each institution and of each patient within the sampled institutions. From our survey we estimate that 16,375 patients were treated in the United States during this study period. Unless otherwise specified, brachytherapy practice was based on the 408 patients who had their brachytherapy or all their treatment at the surveyed facility. Results: A total of 91.5% of patients underwent brachytherapy at the initial treating institution; 8.5% were referred to a second site for brachytherapy. Forty-two percent of U.S. facilities referred at least some patients to a second facility for brachytherapy. Of U.S. facilities that treated {<=}2 eligible patients per year, 61% referred all of their patients to a second facility for brachytherapy or treated with external RT alone; none of the U.S. facilities with larger experience (>2 eligible patients per year) referred all their patients to a second facility for brachytherapy treatment, but 28% referred some patients to an outside facility for brachytherapy. Overall, 94% of patients who completed treatment with curative intent received brachytherapy. Of these patients who had brachytherapy, 77.8%, 13.3%, and 0.9%, respectively, were treated with low-dose-rate (LDR), high-dose-rate (HDR), or a combination of HDR and LDR brachytherapy; 7.9% had interstitial brachytherapy (5.7% LDR and 1.9% HDR, 0.3% mixed). In facilities that treated >2 patients per year, 15

  13. Ageing doctors.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Steven; Milligan, Eleanor

    2017-03-01

    Doctors are neither more nor less susceptible than the general population to the effects of ageing. The relevance of deterioration with age depends on the nature of the work undertaken. Reduced muscle strength and visual and auditory deterioration can compromise clinical ability. Accumulation of chronic disease further reduces capacity. Cognitive decline is of particular importance, as good medical care requires considerable cognitive function. Patient safety is paramount, yet older doctors are an important part of the medical workforce and their value should be recognised. Changes in patient case mix, work place support systems and individual adjustments can assist safe practice. Deterioration in health should be acknowledged and requires proactive management. Current methods of ensuring competence are inadequate for supporting ageing doctors. A new initiative is recommended comprising collaboration between regulators, colleges and employing institutions to support the ageing doctor in providing safe and effective practice.

  14. [Neuronal ageing].

    PubMed

    Piechota, Małgorzata; Sunderland, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Ageing leads to irreversible alterations in the nervous system, which to various extent impair its functions such as capacity to learn and memory. In old neurons and brain, similarly to what may take place in other cells, there is increased oxidative stress, disturbed energetic homeostasis and metabolism, accumulation of damage in proteins and nucleic acids. Characteristic of old neurons are alterations in plasticity, synaptic transmission, sensitivity to neurotrophic factors and cytoskeletal changes. Some markers of senescence, whose one of them is SA-beta-galactosidase were used to show the process of neuronal ageing both in vitro, and in vivo. Some research suggest that, despite the fact that neurons are postmitotic cells, it is cell cycle proteins which play a certain role in their biology, e.g. differentiation. However, their role in neuronal ageing is not known or explained. Ageing is the serious factor of development of neurodegenerative diseases among others Alzheimer disease.

  15. Immunological Aging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunosenescence is associated with an increased incidence and severity of infections with common pathogens, neoplastic disease and autoimmunity. In general, aging is associated with a decline in function at the cellular level, rather than cell loss, although thymic atrophy and ...

  16. Age matters.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, James Edgar; Marinelli, Michela

    2009-03-01

    The age of an experimental animal can be a critical variable, yet age matters are often overlooked within neuroscience. Many studies make use of young animals, without considering possible differences between immature and mature subjects. This is especially problematic when attempting to model traits or diseases that do not emerge until adulthood. In this commentary we discuss the reasons for this apparent bias in age of experimental animals, and illustrate the problem with a systematic review of published articles on long-term potentiation. Additionally, we review the developmental stages of a rat and discuss the difficulty of using the weight of an animal as a predictor of its age. Finally, we provide original data from our laboratory and review published data to emphasize that development is an ongoing process that does not end with puberty. Developmental changes can be quantitative in nature, involving gradual changes, rapid switches, or inverted U-shaped curves. Changes can also be qualitative. Thus, phenomena that appear to be unitary may be governed by different mechanisms at different ages. We conclude that selection of the age of the animals may be critically important in the design and interpretation of neurobiological studies.

  17. Understanding aging.

    PubMed

    Strehler, B L

    2000-01-01

    Enormous advances in our understanding of human aging have occurred during the last 50 yr. From the late 19th to the mid-20th centuries only four comprehensive and important sources of information were available: 1. August Weismann's book entitled Essays on Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems (the first of these essays dealt with The Duration of Life; 1). Weissmann states (p. 10) "In the first place in regulating the length of life, the advantage to the species, and not to the individual, is alone of any importance. This must be obvious to any one who has once thoroughly thought out the process of natural selection_". 2. A highly systematized second early source of information on aging was the collection of essays edited by Cowdry and published in 1938. This 900+ page volume contains 34 chapters and was appropriately called Problems of Aging. 3. At about the same time Raymond Pearl published his book on aging (2). Pearl believed that aging was the indirect result of cell specialization and that only the germ line was resistant to aging. Unfortunately Pearl died in the late 1930s and is largely remembered now for having been the founding editor of Quarterly Review of Biology while he was at the Johns Hopkins University, this author's alma mater. 4. Alexis Carrel wrote a monumental scientific and philosophical book, Man, the Unknown (3). Carrel believed that he had demonstrated that vertebrate cells could be kept in culture and live indefinitely, a conclusion challenged by others (more on this later).

  18. Age Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-10-01

    The ages of rocks from the lunar highlands vary widely, even for a single rock sample. This makes it difficult to quantitatively test ideas for early lunar differentiation and formation of the crust. Lars Borg and Amy Gaffney (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), and Charles Shearer (University of New Mexico) have devised a set of guidelines to apply to geochronological data that leads to a relative ranking of the reliability of the age determined for a sample. Applying their guidelines to existing data for lunar highland rocks shows an upper limit on rock ages between 4340 and 4370 million years. This is essentially the same as the so-called model ages of the formation of KREEP (a chemical component enriched in potassium, rare earth elements, and phosphorous) and of the formation of the deep source regions that melted to produce mare basalts. The numerous ages close to 4370 million years suggests a complicated and protracted cooling of the primordial lunar magma ocean or a widespread vigorous period of magmatic activity in the Moon.

  19. WE-G-BRD-07: Automated MR Image Standardization and Auto-Contouring Strategy for MRI-Based Adaptive Brachytherapy for Cervix Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Saleh, H Al; Erickson, B; Paulson, E

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: MRI-based adaptive brachytherapy (ABT) is an emerging treatment modality for patients with gynecological tumors. However, MR image intensity non-uniformities (IINU) can vary from fraction to fraction, complicating image interpretation and auto-contouring accuracy. We demonstrate here an automated MR image standardization and auto-contouring strategy for MRI-based ABT of cervix cancer. Methods: MR image standardization consisted of: 1) IINU correction using the MNI N3 algorithm, 2) noise filtering using anisotropic diffusion, and 3) signal intensity normalization using the volumetric median. This post-processing chain was implemented as a series of custom Matlab and Java extensions in MIM (v6.4.5, MIM Software) and was applied to 3D T2 SPACE images of six patients undergoing MRI-based ABT at 3T. Coefficients of variation (CV=σ/µ) were calculated for both original and standardized images and compared using Mann-Whitney tests. Patient-specific cumulative MR atlases of bladder, rectum, and sigmoid contours were constructed throughout ABT, using original and standardized MR images from all previous ABT fractions. Auto-contouring was performed in MIM two ways: 1) best-match of one atlas image to the daily MR image, 2) multi-match of all previous fraction atlas images to the daily MR image. Dice’s Similarity Coefficients (DSCs) were calculated for auto-generated contours relative to reference contours for both original and standardized MR images and compared using Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Significant improvements in CV were detected following MR image standardization (p=0.0043), demonstrating an improvement in MR image uniformity. DSCs consistently increased for auto-contoured bladder, rectum, and sigmoid following MR image standardization, with the highest DSCs detected when the combination of MR image standardization and multi-match cumulative atlas-based auto-contouring was utilized. Conclusion: MR image standardization significantly improves MR image

  20. Association of P16-RBSP3 inactivation with phosphorylated RB1 overexpression in basal-parabasal layers of normal cervix unchanged during CACX development.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Chandraditya; Roychowdhury, Anirban; Samadder, Sudip; Roy, Anup; Mandal, Ranajit Kumar; Basu, Partha; Roychoudhury, Susanta; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2016-10-01

    To understand the molecular mechanism of RB1 phosphorylation in basal-parabasal layers of normal cervix and during cervical cancer (CACX) development, we analyzed the alterations (expression/methylation/deletion/mutation) of RB1/phosphorylated RB1 (p-RB1) (ser807/811 and ser567) and two RB1 phosphorylation inhibitors, P16 and RBSP3, in disease-free normal cervical epithelium (n = 9), adjacent normal cervical epithelium of tumors (n = 70), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN; n = 28), CACX (n = 102) samples and two CACX cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed high/medium expression of RB1/p-RB1 (ser807/811 and ser567) and low expression of P16 and RBSP3 in proliferating basal-parabasal layers of majority of normal cervical epitheliums, irrespective of HPV16 infection. Interestingly, 35-52% samples showed high/medium expression of P16 in basal-parabasal layers of normal and had significant association with deleterious non-synonimous SNPs of P16. Methylation of P16 and RBSP3 in basal-parabasal layers of normal cervix (32 and 62%, respectively) showed concordance with their respective expressions in basal-parabasal layers. The methylation frequency of P16 and RBSP3 in basal-parabasal layers of normal did not change significantly in CIN and CACX. The deletion frequency of P16 and RB1 increased significantly with CACX progression. While, deletion of RBSP3 was high in CIN and comparable during CACX progression. P16 showed scattered and infrequent mutation in CACX. The alteration of P16 and RBSP3 was synergistic and showed association with overexpression of p-RB1 in tumors and associated with poor prognosis of patients. Thus, our data suggest that overexpression of p-RB1 in basal-parabasal layers of normal cervical epithelium was due to methylation/low functional-linked non-synonimous SNPs of P16 and RBSP3. This pattern was maintained during cervical carcinogenesis by additional deletion/mutation.

  1. Treatment planning study of the 3D dosimetric differences between Co-60 and Ir-192 sources in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for cervix cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, Orla; Muscat, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether Co-60 is equivalent to Ir-192 for HDR cervical brachytherapy, through 3D-DVH dose comparisons in standard and optimised plans. Previous studies have only considered 2D dosimetry, point dose comparisons or identical loading. Typical treatment times and economics are considered. Material and methods Plans were produced for eight cervix patients using Co-60 and Ir-192 sources, CT imaging and IU/two-channel-ring applicator (Eckert Ziegler BEBIG). The comparison was made under two conditions: (A) identical dwell positions and loading, prescribed to Point A and (B) optimised source dwells, prescribed to HR-CTV. This provided a direct comparison of inherent differences and residual differences under typical clinical plan optimisation. The DVH (target and OAR), ICRU reference points and isodose distributions were compared. Typical treatment times and source replacement costs were compared. Results Small differences (p < 0.01) in 3D dosimetry exist when using Co-60 compared to Ir-192, prescribed to Point A with identical loading patterns, particularly 3.3% increase in rectum D2cc. No significant difference was observed in this parameter when prescribing to the HR-CTV using dwell-time optimisation. There was no statistically significant difference in D90 between the two isotopes. Co-60 plans delivered consistently higher V150% (mean +4.4%, p = 0.03) and V400% (mean +11.6%, p < 0.01) compared to Ir-192 in optimised plans. Differences in physical source properties were overwhelmed by geometric effects. Conclusions Co-60 may be used as an effective alternative to Ir-192 for HDR cervix brachytherapy, producing similar plans of equivalent D90, but with logistical benefits. There is a small dose increase along the extension of the source axis when using Co-60 compared to Ir-192, leading to small rectal dose increases for identical loading patterns. This can be eliminated by planning optimisation techniques. Such optimisation may also be associated with

  2. Prognostic Value of Pretreatment Carcinoembryonic Antigen After Definitive Radiotherapy With or Without Concurrent Chemotherapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Eng-Yen; Hsu, Hsuan-Chih; Sun, Li-Min; Chanchien, Chan-Chao; Lin, Hao; Chen, Hui-Chun; Tseng, Chih-Wen; Ou, Yu-Che; Chang, Hung-Yao; Fang, Fu-Min; Huang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Chang-Yu; Lu, Hsien-Ming; Tsai, Ching-Chou; and others

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate whether pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels have a prognostic role in patients after definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study of 550 patients was performed. The SCC antigen (SCC-Ag) and CEA levels were regarded as elevated when they were {>=}2 and {>=}5 ng/mL, respectively. A total of 208 patients underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the distant metastasis (DM), local failure (LF), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. The hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was evaluated for the risk of a poor prognosis. Results: Compared with the patients with normal CEA/SCC-Ag levels, CEA levels {>=}10 ng/mL but without elevated SCC-Ag levels was an independent factor for LF (HR, 51.81; 95% CI, 11.51-233.23; p < .001), DM (HR, 6.04; 95% CI, 1.58-23.01; p = .008), DFS (HR, 10.17; 95% CI, 3.18-32.56; p < .001), and OS (HR, 5.75; 95% CI, 1.82-18.18; p = .003) after RT alone. However, no significant role for CEA was noted in patients with SCC-Ag levels {>=}2 ng/mL. In patients undergoing CCRT, a CEA level {>=}10 ng/mL was an independent factor for LF (HR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.01-6.21; p = .047), DM (HR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.56-7.46; p = .002), DFS (HR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.39-5.36; p = .003), and OS (HR, 3.93; 95% CI 1.99-7.75; p < .001). A SCC-Ag level of {>=}40 ng/mL was another prognostic factor for DM, DFS, and OS in patients undergoing not only CCRT, but also RT alone. The 5-year OS rate for CCRT patients with CEA <10 ng/mL and {>=}10 ng/mL was 75.3% and 35.8%, respectively (p < .001). CCRT was an independent factor for better OS (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.50-0.97; p = .034). Conclusion: Pretreatment CEA levels in patients with SCC of the uterine cervix provide complementary information for predicting LF, DM

  3. Usefulness of p16ink4a, ProEX C, and Ki-67 for the diagnosis of glandular dysplasia and adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Negri, Giovanni; Bellisano, Giulia; Carico, Elisabetta; Faa, Gavino; Kasal, Armin; Antoniazzi, Sonia; Egarter-Vigl, Eduard; Piccin, Andrea; Dalla Palma, Paolo; Vittadello, Fabio

    2011-07-01

    Although the diagnostic criteria of in-situ and invasive adenocarcinomas of the cervix uteri are well established, the differentiation from benign mimics may be difficult and the morphologic features of the precursors of endocervical adenocarcinoma are still debated. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of p16ink4a (p16), ProEX C, and Ki-67 for the diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma and its precursors. Immunohistochemistry with p16, ProEX C, and Ki-67 was performed in 82 glandular lesions including 15 invasive adenocarcinomas, 29 adenocarcinomas in situ (AIS), 22 non-neoplastic samples, and 16 cases of glandular dysplasia (GD), which showed significant nuclear abnormalities but did not meet the diagnostic criteria for AIS. The immunohistochemical expression pattern was scored according to the percentage of the stained cells (0, 1+, 2+, and 3+ when 0% to 5%, 6% to 25%, 26% to 50%, and more than 50% of the cells were stained, respectively) and was evaluated for each antibody. p16 was at least focally expressed (1+ or more) in 14 of 15 invasive adenocarcinomas, in all AIS and in 7 negative samples. ProEX C and Ki-67 both scored 1+ or more in all adenocarcinomas and AIS and in 8 and 6 negative samples, respectively. Of the GD 15, 14, and 15 expressed p16, ProEX C, and Ki-67, respectively. The score differences between neoplastic and non-neoplastic samples were highly significant for each marker (P<0.001); however, the score distribution by marker differed significantly only in GD (P=0.006) in which, compared with the other markers, p16 showed more often a 3+ pattern. Our study shows that p16, Ki-67, and ProEX C may be helpful for the diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri and may also improve the diagnostic accuracy of endocervical GD. In particularly problematic cases, the combination of p16 and a proliferation marker can provide additional help for the interpretation of these lesions.

  4. It's Not How Old You Are, It's How You Are Old. State Discourse on Successful Ageing in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, Mark

    2016-01-01

    According to Asher and Nandy, the global population of seniors will increase to 1.41 million in 2030 and is predicted to further grow to 2 billion by 2050. This will cause a fundamental change in the world's ageing structure, with the number of seniors equal to the child population (0-14 years). Today, seniors are being encouraged to be part of…

  5. Gay aging.

    PubMed

    Haber, David

    2009-01-01

    The oldest of the baby boomers (boomers) were age 63 in 2009 and on the verge of retirement. This cohort has had a history of making societal changes throughout its life cycle, and it is unlikely that retirement, as we know it, will remain unscathed. This article highlights two events-the Stonewall Inn riots and two prominent professional associations removing homosexuality from their list of personality disorders-and how they occurred early enough in the gay boomers life cycle to change their attitudes, behaviors, and lifestyles. This article introduces the reader to a broad array of facts, research findings, and issues that inform the topic of gay aging. A summary of the discrimination and legal concerns affecting the gay community are also highlighted. Two influential community programs are identified: Services and Advocacy for Gay Elders (SAGE) and the American Society on Aging's LGBT Aging Issues Network (LAIN). Gerontological educators need to be sensitive to the needs, desires, and resources of the coming cohort of gay boomers, who are more likely to advocate for responsive services, organizations, and policies than the current cohort of gay older adults.

  6. Aging Secret

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The canny world of advertising has caught on to the free radical theory of aging, marketing a whole array of antioxidants for preventing anything from wrinkles to dry hair to reducing the risk of heart disease--promising to help slow the hands of time. Working with genetically engineered mice--to produce a natural antioxidant enzyme called…

  7. Dose equivalence for high-dose-rate to low-dose-rate intracavitary irradiation in the treatment of cancer of the uterine cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Akine, Y.; Tokita, N.; Ogino, T.; Kajiura, Y.; Tsukiyama, I.; Egawa, S. )

    1990-12-01

    By comparing the incidence of major radiation injury, we estimated doses clinically equivalent for high-dose-rate (HDR) to conventional low-dose-rate (LDR) intracavitary irradiation in patients with Stages IIb and IIIb cancer of the uterine cervix. We reviewed a total of 300 patients who were treated with external beam therapy to the pelvis (50 Gy in 5 weeks) followed either by low-dose-rate (253 patients) or high-dose-rate (47 patients) intracavitary treatment. The high-dose-rate intracavitary treatment was given 5 Gy per session to point A, 4 fractions in 2 weeks, with a total dose of 20 Gy. The low-dose-rate treatment was given with one or two application(s) delivering 11-52 Gy to the point A. The local control rates were similar in both groups. The incidence of major radiation injury requiring surgical intervention were 5.1% (13/253) and 4.3% (2/47) for low-dose-rate and high-dose-rate groups, respectively. The 4.3% incidence corresponded to 29.8 Gy with low-dose-rate irradiation, thus, it was concluded that the clinically equivalent dose for high-dose-rate irradiation was approximately 2/3 (20/29.8) of the dose used in low-dose-rate therapy.

  8. Development and clinical applications of digitized fluorescence endoscopic imaging system for the detection of early neoplasms in the oral cavity and uterine-cervix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Tay, Sun K.; Soo, K. C.; Olivo, Malini

    2002-05-01

    A digitized fluorescence endoscopic imaging (DFEI) system combined with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (5-ALA) induced protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) was developed for the detection of neoplasms in the oral cavity and uterine-cervix. The system has the capability of producing both the digital and video fluorescence images in real time, and also quantifying the fluorescence images. The results show that using the DFEI system associated with the fluorescence image quantification method, both high sensitivity and specificity can be achieved during the head and neck, and obstetric and gynaecology clinical trials. The red fluorescence intensity distribution in the lesion area can also be obtained after digital image processing to better understand the situation of PPIX accumulation in the tissues. Furthermore, applying the intensity ratio IR/IB at red and blue wavelength regions of the tissue targeted, where IR includes the intensity of PPIX fluorescence and red tissue autofluorescence, and IB is the intensity of diffusely back-scattered excitation blue light, different histopathological grades of lesions can be classified by the DEFI system, suggesting a significant potential of the noninvasive optical biopsy for the early cancer detection.

  9. Increased activity of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in purified cell suspensions and single cells from the uterine cervix in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, S. K.; Benedetto, C.; Flatman, A.; Hammond, R. H.; Micheletti, L.; Riley, C.; Riley, P. A.; Spargo, D. J.; Zonca, M.; Slater, T. F.

    1992-01-01

    The activities of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase have been measured in squamous epithelial cells of the uterine cervix from normal patients and cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). A biochemical cycling method, which uses only simple equipment and is suited to routine use and to automation, was applied to cells separated by gradient centrifugation. In addition, cells were examined cytochemically, and the intensity of staining in the cytoplasm of single whole cells was measured using computerised microcytospectrophotometry. Twenty per cent of cells in samples from normal patients (n=61) showed staining intensities above an extinction of 0.15 at 540 nm, compared to 71% of cases of CIN 1 (n=14), 91% of cases of CIN 2 (n=11) and 67% of cases of CIN 3 (n=15). The cytochemical data do not allow definitive distinctions to be made between different grades of CIN whereas the biochemical assay applied to cell lysates shows convincing differences between normal samples and cases of CIN. There are no false negatives for CIN 3 (n=14) and CIN 2 (n=10) and 11% false negatives for CIN 1 (n=9) and 14% of false positives for normal cases (n=21). The results of this preliminary study with reference to automation are discussed [corrected]. Images Figure 1 PMID:1637668

  10. Concomitant chemobrachyradiotherapy with ifosfamide and cisplatin followed by consolidation chemotherapy in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: Results of a phase II study

    SciTech Connect

    Vrdoljak, Eduard . E-mail: eduard.vrdoljak@st.hinet.hr; Prskalo, Tomislav; Omrcen, Tomislav; Situm, Kristina; Boraska, Tihana; Frleta Ilic, Nives; Jankovic, Stjepan; Hamm, Wolfgang

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of ifosfamide and cisplatin administered concomitantly with low-dose-rate brachytherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced squamous cell cervical carcinoma (LASCC). Methods and materials: Forty-four patients with biopsy-proven LASCC were enrolled. FIGO Stages IB2 bulky to IVA were entered into this study. Patients were assigned to receive external radiotherapy (50 Gy in 25 fractions); then ifosfamide 2 g/m{sup 2} plus cisplatin 75 mg/m{sup 2} was applied during two low-dose-rate brachytherapy applications, and 4 cycles of consolidation chemotherapy with the same drug combination were given after completion of radiotherapy. The planned dose to point A was 85 Gy. Results: All patients received both courses of concomitant chemobrachytherapy and at least 1 cycle of consolidation chemotherapy. The average duration of radiation was 45.1 days. The clinical complete response rate was 100%. Grade 3 and 4 leukopenia occurred in 25% and 11% of the cycles, respectively. After a median follow-up of 34 months (range, 20-54 months), the recurrence-free and the overall survival rates were 84% and 91%, respectively. Major delayed local complications occurred in 7 cases (16%). Conclusions: These results indicate that concomitant chemobrachyradiotherapy with ifosfamide and cisplatin is a feasible combination for patients with LASCC of the cervix uteri. A randomized trial is planned.

  11. Understanding the transcriptional regulation of cervix cancer using microarray gene expression data and promoter sequence analysis of a curated gene set.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Prashant; Mangal, Manu; Agarwal, Subhash Mohan

    2014-02-10

    Cervical cancer, the malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and the top-most cancer in India. Several factors are responsible for causing cervical cancer, which alter the expression of oncogenic genes resulting in up or down-regulation of gene expression and inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes/gene products. Gene expression is regulated by interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and specific regulatory elements in the promoter regions of target genes. Thus, it is important to decipher and analyze TFs that bind to regulatory regions of diseased genes and regulate their expression. In the present study, computational methods involving the combination of gene expression data from microarray experiments and promoter sequence analysis of a curated gene set involved in the cervical cancer causation have been utilized for identifying potential regulatory elements. Consensus predictions of two approaches led to the identification of twelve TFs that might be crucial to the regulation of cervical cancer progression. Subsequently, TF enrichment and oncomine expression analysis suggested that the transcription factor family E2F played an important role for the regulation of genes involve in cervical carcinogenesis. Our results suggest that E2F possesses diagnostic/prognostic value and can act as a potential drug target in cervical cancer.

  12. Correlation of the histologic appearance of intraepithelial neoplasia of the cervix with human papillomavirus types. Emphasis on low grade lesions including so-called flat condyloma.

    PubMed

    Willett, G D; Kurman, R J; Reid, R; Greenberg, M; Jenson, A B; Lorincz, A T

    1989-01-01

    Cervical condylomas and intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were correlated with human papillomavirus (HPV) types and analyzed for the presence of abnormal mitotic figures. Colposcopically directed cervical biopsies were divided in half and processed for routine microscopy and Southern blot hybridization. Of 83 specimens from 71 patients, 70 (84%) contained HPV-DNA sequences. The HPV distribution was as follows: HPV 16 in 6/25 flat condylomas (FC), 2/8 CIN I, 8/18 CIN II, 12/14 CIN III; HPV 18 in 1/25 FC; HPV 31 in 3/25 FC, 3/18 CIN II, and 1/14 CIN III; HPV 6/11 in 12/18 exophytic condylomas (EC), 5/25 FC, 2/8 CIN I, and 3/18 CIN II. Uncharacterized HPVs were identified in 4/18 EC, 5/25 FC, 2/8 CIN I, and 1/18 CIN II. A similar heterogeneous distribution of HPV types was found in flat condylomas and CIN I. A more homogeneous distribution was noted in the exophytic condylomas and high grade CIN lesions, with HPV 6/11 found in the former and predominantly HPV 16 in the latter. Abnormal mitotic figures were predominantly seen in the high grade CIN lesions. Based on our findings, we would recommend that the term flat condyloma be abandoned and that low grade flat lesions of the cervix be graded according to CIN criteria.

  13. SU-E-P-58: Dosimetric Study of Conventional Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and Knowledge-Based Radiation Therapy for Postoperation of Cervix Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C; Yin, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric difference of the target volume and organs at risk(OARs) between conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy(C-IMRT) and knowledge-based radiation therapy (KBRT) plans for cervix cancer. Methods: 39 patients with cervical cancer after surgery were randomly selected, 20 patient plans were used to create the model, the other 19 cases used for comparative evaluation. All plans were designed in Eclipse system. The prescription dose was 30.6Gy, 17 fractions, OARs dose satisfied to the clinical requirement. A paired t test was used to evaluate the differences of dose-volume histograms (DVH). Results: Comparaed to C-IMRT plan, the KBRT plan target can achieve the similar target dose coverage, D98,D95,D2,HI and CI had no difference (P≥0.05). The dose of rectum, bladder and femoral heads had no significant differences(P≥0.05). The time was used to design treatment plan was significant reduced. Conclusion: This study shows that postoperative radiotherapy of cervical KBRT plans can achieve the similar target and OARs dose, but the shorter designing time.

  14. X-ray single-crystal and Raman study of (Na0.86Mg0.14)(Mg0.57Ti0.43)Si2O6, a new pyroxene synthesized at 7 GPa and 1700 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirotkina, Ekaterina A.; Bobrov, Andrey V.; Spivak, Anna V.; Bindi, Luca; Pushcharovsky, Dmitry Yu.

    2016-11-01

    A new pyroxene with formula (Na0.86Mg0.14)(Mg0.57Ti0.43)Si2O6, synthesized in a high-pressure toroidal `anvil-with-hole' apparatus at P = 7 GPa and T = 1700 °C, was characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The compound was found to be monoclinic ( R1 = 2.56 %), space group C2/ c, with lattice parameters a = 9.687(2), b = 8.814(1), c = 5.290(1) Å, β = 107.853(2)°, V = 430.08(1) Å3. The coexistence of Mg and Ti4+ at the M1 site does not induce strong modifications either to the M1 site or to the adjacent M2 site. The Raman spectrum of synthetic Na-Ti-pyroxene was obtained for the first time and compared with that of Mg2Si2O6 (with very low concentrations of Na and Ti). The structural characterization of the Na-Ti-Mg-pyroxene is important, because the study of its thermodynamic constants provides new constraints on thermobarometry of the upper mantle assemblages.

  15. Cervix carcinoma and incidental finding of medullary thyroid carcinoma by 18F-FDG PET/CT--clinical case.

    PubMed

    Chaushev, Borislav; Bochev, Pavel; Klisarova, Anelia; Yordanov, Kaloyan; Encheva, Elitsa; Dancheva, Jivka; Yordanova, Cvetelina; Hristozov, Kiril; Krasnaliev, Ivan; Radev, Radoslav; Nenkov, Rumen

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are encountered in clinical practice during the diagnostic procedures or patients' follow-up due to other diseases quite far from the thyroid gland with prevalence 4-50% in general population, depending on age, diagnostic method and race. The prevalence of thyroid nodules increases with age and their clarification should be done for their adequate treatment. An 18F-FDG PET/CT was done with a PET/CT scanner (Philips Gemini TF), consisting of dedicated lutetium orthosilicate full ring PET scanner and 16 slice CT. The PET/CT scan of the whole-body revealed on the CT portion a hypodense nodular lesion in the left lobe of the thyroid gland with increased uptake of 18F-FDG on the PET with SUVmax 10.3 and demonstrated a complete response to the induction therapy of the main oncological disease of the patient--squamous cell carcinoma. This clinical case demonstrates that whole-body 18F-FDG-PET/CT has an increasingly important role in the early evaluation of thyroid cancer as a second independent malignant localization. Focal thyroid lesion with high risk of thyroid malignancy was incidentally found on 18F-FDG PET/CT.

  16. Knowledge, attitude and practice about cancer of the uterine cervix among women living in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer of women in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Nevertheless, the level of women’s awareness about cervical cancer is unknown. Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) are important elements for designing and monitoring screening programs. The study purpose was to estimate KAP on cervical cancer and to identify associated factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kinshasa, DRC, including 524 women aged 16–78 years (median age 28; interquartile range 22–35). The women were interviewed at home by trained field workers using a standardized questionnaire. The women’s score on knowledge, attitude and practice were dichotomized as sufficient or insufficient. We used binary and multiple logistic regression to assess associations between obtaining sufficient scores and a series of socio-demographic factors: age, residence, marital status, education, occupation, religion, and parity. Results The women’s score on knowledge was not significantly correlated with their score on practice (Spearman’s rho = 0.08; P > 0.05). Obtaining a sufficient score on knowledge was positively associated with higher education (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 7.65; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 3.31-17.66) and formal employment (adjusted OR 3.35; 95% CI 1.85-6.09); it was negatively associated with being single (adjusted OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.24-0.81) and living in the eastern, western and northern zone of Kinshasa compared to the city centre. The attitude score was associated with place of residence (adjusted OR for east Kinshasa: 0.49; 95% CI 0.27-0.86 and for south Kinshasa: 0.48; 95% CI 0.27-0.85) and with religion (adjusted OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.35-0.86 for women with a religion other than Catholicism or Protestantism compared to Catholics). Regarding practice, there were negative associations between a sufficient score on practice and being single (adjusted OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.13-0.41) and living in the eastern

  17. Can the coverage of screening for cancer of the cervix be improved using the Electoral Register? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cook, G A; Wald, N J

    1985-09-30

    We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility using the Electoral Register to carry out a cervical cancer screening programme on a Health District basis. A random sample of 500 names and addresses were drawn from a computerised list of the Electoral Register from three Electoral Wards in Oxford. A pilot study showed that the Electoral Register could be used successfully in this way and that the proportion of women aged 35-64 years who had a cervical smear examination as a result of the screening initiative was increased by a quarter, from 64% to 79%. The numbers of women involved at each step of the screening process were determined, and these may provide a useful guide to others considering implementing similar schemes.

  18. Phase III trial comparing two low dose rates in brachytherapy of cervix carcinoma: Report at two years

    SciTech Connect

    Lambin, P.; Gerbaulet, A.; Kramer, A.; Haie-Meder, C.; Malaise, E.P.; Chassagne, D. ); Scalliet, P. )

    1993-02-15

    This Phase III randomized trial examined the effect of two low dose rates (0.73 or 0.38 Gy[center dot]h[sup [minus]1]) on the local control, survival, relapse-free survival, complications, and secondary effects in the treatment of cervical cancers. A total of 204 Stage Ib or II cervical carcinoma patients were included between January 1985 and September 1988. Treatment consisted of uterovaginal [sup 137]Cs irradiation followed by surgery. The two groups were similar for age, tumor stage and medical or surgical history. Their brachytherapy parameters were also similar (60 Gy pear dimensions, dose to critical organs, total kerma, etc....). There were no differences in the short-term effects or therapeutic outcome. However, overall complications and side effects observed after 6 months were significantly more frequent (p < 0.01) in the higher dose rate group. 40 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Age Relationship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    12 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a group of impact craters in Aonia Planum, Mars. Remarkably, two of the craters are approximately equal in size, however, they clearly differ in age. The left (west) crater has a well-defined rim and its ejecta blanket overlies part of the less pronounced crater to its immediate east. The one with the ejecta blanket is younger. Other circular depressions in this bouldery scene are also old, eroded impact craters.

    Location near: 59.5oS, 78.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  20. p16INK4a immunostaining in cytological and histological specimens from the uterine cervix: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tsoumpou, I; Arbyn, M; Kyrgiou, M; Wentzensen, N; Koliopoulos, G; Martin-Hirsch, P; Paraskevaidis, E

    2009-01-01

    Background P16INK4a is a biomarker for transforming HPV infections that could act as an adjunct to current cytological and histological assessment of cervical smears and biopsies, allowing the identification of those women with ambiguous results that require referral to colposcopy and potentially treatment. Material and Methods We conducted a systematic review of all studies that evaluated the use of p16INK4a in cytological or histological specimens from the uterine cervix. We also estimated the mean proportion of samples that were positive for p16INK4a in cytology and histology, stratified by the grade of the lesion. Results Sixty-one studies were included. The proportion of cervical smears overexpressing p16INK4a increased with the severity of cytological abnormality. Among normal smears, only 12% (95% CI: 7–17%) were positive for the biomarker compared to 45% of ASCUS and LSIL (95% CI: 35–54% and 37– 57% respectively) and 89% of HSIL smears (95% CI: 84–95%). Similarly, in histology only 2% of normal biopsies (95% CI: 0.4– 30%) and 38% of CIN1 (95% CI: 23– 53%) showed diffuse staining for p16INK4a compared to 68% of CIN2 (95% CI: 44– 92%) and 82% of CIN3 (95% CI: 72– 92%). Conclusion Although there is good evidence that p16INK4a immunostaining correlates with the severity of cytological/histological abnormalities, the reproducibility is limited due to insufficiently standardized interpretation of the immunostaining. Therefore, a consensus needs to be reached regarding the evaluation of p16INK4a staining and the biomarker needs to be evaluated in various clinical settings addressing specific clinical questions. PMID:19261387

  1. Cell-cycle and suppressor proteins expression in uterine cervix in HIV/HPV co-infection: comparative study by tissue micro-array (TMA)

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Alcina F; Pires, Andréa Rodrigues Cordovil; de Souza, Simone R; Nuovo, Gerard J; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Tristão, Aparecida; Russomano, Fabio B; Velasque, Luciane; e Silva, José R Lapa; Pirmez, Claude

    2008-01-01

    Background The oncoproteins of human papillomavirus (HPVs) directly effect cell-cycle control. We hypothesize that regulatory and cell cycle protein expression might be additionally modified in the cervix of HIV/HPV co-infected women. Methods We analyzed the expression of Rb, p27, VEGF and Elf-1 transcriptor factor by immunohistochemistry in 163 paraffin-embeded cervical samples using Tissue Micro-Array (TMA) and correlated this to HIV-1 and HPV infection. Results HIV/HPV co-infection was associated with a significant increase in expression (p < 0.001) of VEGF and p27 in both low and high grade CIN when compared to the cervices of women infected by HPV alone. Decreased Rb expression was evident with increased CIN grade in the cervices of women infected with HPV alone (p = 0.003 average of cells/mm2 in CIN I: 17.9, CIN II/III: 4.8, and tumor 3.9). Rb expression increased 3-fold for both low and high grade CIN with HPV/HIV-1 co-infection compared to HPV infection alone but did not reach statistical significance. There was a significant increase in Elf-1 expression in HPV+/HIV- women with CIN II/III and tumor (average of cells/mm2 in CIN I: 63.8; CIN II/III: 115.7 and tumor: 112.0, p = 0.005), in comparison to controls. Conclusion Co-infection of HPV and HIV leads to significant increase in the VEGF and p27 expression when compared to HPV+/HIV-negative infection that could facilitate viral persistence and invasive tumor development. PMID:18840277

  2. [Dose-dependent effect of locally administered sulprostone gel on serum luteal and placental hormones in cervix priming in the 1st trimester].

    PubMed

    Rath, W; Pitzel, L; Hilgers, R; Kuhn, W

    1989-01-01

    In a prospective, randomised study 30 primigravidae were treated with 25 micrograms, 50 mu, or 100 micrograms sulprostone gel in order to soften the cervix prior to first trimester termination of pregnancy. 10 multigravidae received only the gel vehicle tylose. For objective demonstration of the priming effect, the force required for dilatation of the cervical canal was measured in Newton by a special tonometer before prostaglandin (PG) application and before operation. Serum progesterone, 17-beta-estradiol and hP1 levels were determined radioimmunologically prior to PG application and at two-hours intervals until curettage. A sonographic examination for determing the vitality of the pregnancy was performed before PG administration and immediately before the surgical intervention. There were no significant differences in the primig effect between the 50 micrograms and 100 micrograms sulprostone-treated group; the application of 25 micrograms sulprostone was significantly less effective. After 100 micrograms sulprostone gel abortion occurred in 2 patients, 6 women showed a marked decrease in hPl concentrations, progesterone levels were found to be reduced to 31.6-78.7% and 17-beta-estradiol to 10-40% of the initial values before PG application. We found a close time correlation between the occurrence of contraction-induced lower abdominal pain and the fall in hormone concentrations. No abortions occurred in any of the patients treated with 50 micrograms sulprostone gel; in 9 women without clinical symptoms no significant changes of the hormone concentrations were observed. In contrast to the previously published literature our results indicate that effective cervical ripening can be achieved by this method without disturbance of the feto-placental unit and the trophoblast respectively.

  3. Desmoplastic stromal response as defined by positive α-smooth muscle actin staining is predictive of invasion in adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Sara M; Watanabe, Tawny; Osann, Kathryn; Monk, Bradley J; Lin, Fritz; Rutgers, Joanne K L

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the immunohistochemical profiles of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and early invasive adenocarcinoma (AC) to identify biomarkers that enhance the accurate diagnosis of early invasive glandular lesions of the cervix. The University of California, Irvine, and Long Beach Memorial tumor registries were used to identify 20 women with AIS or early AC treated between 1990 and 2008. An immunohistochemical study was performed, and the primary endpoint measured was the correlation between biomarker expression and invasive disease as diagnosed on hematoxylin and eosin examination. The biomarkers studied included α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), estrogen receptor, carcinoembryonic antigen, Ki67, p16, cyclooxygenase-2, and cluster of differentiation 1a. Stains were described on the basis of (1) positive or negative staining; (2) intensity; (3) percentage of positive cells; and (4) pattern of staining. Statistical analysis was performed using SYSTAT v. 11.0. Fisher exact test, Mann-Whitney nonparametric test, κ statistic, and intraclass correlation coefficient were used to evaluate results and interpreter agreement. A statistically significant increase in the staining of the periglandular stroma for α-SMA was seen in AC as compared with AIS. The intensity was 2.2 versus 1.2 (P=0.04) and the percent of positive-staining cells was 44% versus 18% (P=0.05) in AC and AIS, respectively. The presence of a desmoplastic stromal response as identified by the increased periglandular staining for α-SMA is useful in identifying invasive glandular lesions of the endocervix. Further studies are necessary to establish biologically relevant cut-off values for α-SMA staining.

  4. HPV16 CpG methyl-haplotypes are associated with cervix precancer and cancer in the Guanacaste natural history study

    PubMed Central

    Frimer, Marina; Sun, Chang; McAndrew, Thomas; Smith, Benjamin; Harari, Ariana; Chen, Zigui; Mirabello, Lisa; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Goldberg, Gary L.; Rodriguez, Ana C.; Schiffman, Mark; Burk, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate HPV16 CpG methylation and methyl-haplotypes and their association with cervix precancer and cancer utilizing massively parallel single molecule next-generation sequencing (NGS). Methods A nested case-control study of HPV16 positive women was performed in a prospective cohort from Guanacaste, Costa Rica designed to study the natural history of HPV and cervical neoplasia. Controls encompassed 31 women with transient infections; there were 44 cases, including 31 women with CIN3 and 13 with cervical cancer. DNA samples from exfoliated cervical cells were treated with bisulfite and four regions (E6, E2, L2 and L1) were amplified with barcoded primers and tested by NGS. CpG methylation was quantified using a bioinformatics pipeline. Results Median methylation levels were significantly different between the CIN3+ cases versus controls in the E2, L2, and L1 regions. Methyl-haplotypes, specifically in 5 CpG sites included in the targeted L2 region, with the pattern “−−+−+” had the highest Area Under the Curve value (AUC = 88.40%) observed for CIN3 vs. controls. The most significant CpG site, L2 4277, determined by bisulfite NGS had an AUC = 78.62%. Conclusions This study demonstrates that NGS of bisulfite treated HPV DNA is a useful and efficient technique to survey methylation patterns in HPV16. This procedure provides quantitative information on both individual CpG sites and methyl-haplotypes that identify women with elevated present or subsequent risk for HPV16 CIN3 and cancer. PMID:26001326

  5. Comparison of a 3-D multi-group SN particle transport code with Monte Carlo for intracavitary brachytherapy of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Kent A; Wareing, Todd A; Failla, Gregory; Horton, John L; Eifel, Patricia J; Mourtada, Firas

    2009-12-03

    A patient dose distribution was calculated by a 3D multi-group S N particle transport code for intracavitary brachytherapy of the cervix uteri and compared to previously published Monte Carlo results. A Cs-137 LDR intracavitary brachytherapy CT data set was chosen from our clinical database. MCNPX version 2.5.c, was used to calculate the dose distribution. A 3D multi-group S N particle transport code, Attila version 6.1.1 was used to simulate the same patient. Each patient applicator was built in SolidWorks, a mechanical design package, and then assembled with a coordinate transformation and rotation for the patient. The SolidWorks exported applicator geometry was imported into Attila for calculation. Dose matrices were overlaid on the patient CT data set. Dose volume histograms and point doses were compared. The MCNPX calculation required 14.8 hours, whereas the Attila calculation required 22.2 minutes on a 1.8 GHz AMD Opteron CPU. Agreement between Attila and MCNPX dose calculations at the ICRU 38 points was within +/- 3%. Calculated doses to the 2 cc and 5 cc volumes of highest dose differed by not more than +/- 1.1% between the two codes. Dose and DVH overlays agreed well qualitatively. Attila can calculate dose accurately and efficiently for this Cs-137 CT-based patient geometry. Our data showed that a three-group cross-section set is adequate for Cs-137 computations. Future work is aimed at implementing an optimized version of Attila for radiotherapy calculations.

  6. Six fractions per week of external beam radiotherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix: A phase I/II study

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sang Min; Huh, Seung Jae . E-mail: sjhuh@smc.samsung.co.kr; Park, Won; Lee, Jeung Eun; Park, Young Je; Nam, Hee Rim; Lim, Do Hoon; Ahn, Yong Chan

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the treatment results of external beam radiotherapy administered in six fractions per week and high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From July 2000 to July 2003, 43 patients were enrolled in this study. The patients received 45 Gy from a 10-MV photon beam using four-field box or anterior-posterior beams. Parametrial regions and the pelvic side walls were boosted with up to 50.4 Gy using a midline block. The daily fraction dose was 1.8 Gy administered in six-weekly fractions, from Monday to Saturday. HDR brachytherapy was also delivered at doses of 24 Gy to point A in six fractions twice a week. The median follow-up time was 37 months (range, 9-60 months). Results: The median overall treatment time was 51 days for all patients (range, 44-62 days). Thirty-four patients (79.1%) achieved complete remission and 8 (18.6%) achieved partial remission after radiotherapy. Locoregional recurrence occurred in 5 patients (11.6%), and a distant metastasis was encountered in 6 patients (13.9%). The 3-year overall survival, locoregional, and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 74.7%, 87.8%, and 84.7%, respectively. Grade 2 and 3 late rectal complications were encountered in 3 (6.5%) and 1 (2.2%), respectively. There were no Grade 3 late bladder complications. Conclusions: Six fractions per week of external beam radiotherapy and HDR brachytherapy is an effective treatment for patients with a carcinoma of the uterine cervix and can be used as a possible alternative to concomitant chemoradiotherapy in elderly patients or in patients with co-morbidity.

  7. On-line estimations of delivered radiation doses in three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy treatments of carcinoma uterine cervix patients in linear accelerator

    PubMed Central

    Putha, Suman Kumar; Saxena, P. U.; Banerjee, S.; Srinivas, Challapalli; Vadhiraja, B. M.; Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Joan, Mary; Pai, K. Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of radiation fluence through patient's body has a correlation to the planned target dose. A method to estimate the delivered dose to target volumes was standardized using a beam level 0.6 cc ionization chamber (IC) positioned at electronic portal imaging device (EPID) plane from the measured transit signal (St) in patients with cancer of uterine cervix treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). The IC with buildup cap was mounted on linear accelerator EPID frame with fixed source to chamber distance of 146.3 cm, using a locally fabricated mount. Sts were obtained for different water phantom thicknesses and radiation field sizes which were then used to generate a calibration table against calculated midplane doses at isocenter (Diso,TPS), derived from the treatment planning system. A code was developed using MATLAB software which was used to estimate the in vivo dose at isocenter (Diso,Transit) from the measured Sts. A locally fabricated pelvic phantom validated the estimations of Diso,Transit before implementing this method on actual patients. On-line dose estimations were made (3 times during treatment for each patient) in 24 patients. The Diso,Transit agreement with Diso,TPS in phantom was within 1.7% and the mean percentage deviation with standard deviation is −1.37% ±2.03% (n = 72) observed in patients. Estimated in vivo dose at isocenter with this method provides a good agreement with planned ones which can be implemented as part of quality assurance in pelvic sites treated with simple techniques, for example, 3DCRT where there is a need for documentation of planned dose delivery. PMID:28144114

  8. Treatment Outcome of Medium-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: Comparison With Low-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneyasu, Yuko; Kita, Midori; Okawa, Tomohiko; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Kohno, Mari; Sonoda, Tatsuo; Hirabayashi, Hisae; Nagata, Yasushi; Mitsuhashi, Norio

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of medium-dose-rate (MDR) and low-dose-rate (LDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) for uterine cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We evaluated 419 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who were treated by radical radiotherapy with curative intent at Tokyo Women's Medical University from 1969 to 1999. LDR was used from 1969 to 1986, and MDR has been used since July 1987. When compared with LDR, fraction dose was decreased and fraction size was increased (1 or 2 fractions) for MDR to make the total dose of MDR equal to that of LDR. In general, the patients received a total dose of 60 to 70 Gy at Point A with external beam radiotherapy combined with brachytherapy according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage. In the LDR group, 32 patients had Stage I disease, 81 had Stage II, 182 had Stage III, and 29 had Stage IVA; in the MDR group, 9 patients had Stage I disease, 19 had Stage II, 55 had Stage III, and 12 had Stage IVA. Results: The 5-year overall survival rates for Stages I, II, III, and IVA in the LDR group were 78%, 72%, 55%, and 34%, respectively. In the MDR group, the 5-year overall survival rates were 100%, 68%, 52%, and 42%, respectively. No significant statistical differences were seen between the two groups. The actuarial rates of late complications Grade 2 or greater at 5 years for the rectum, bladder, and small intestine in the LDR group were 11.1%, 5.8%, and 2.0%, respectively. The rates for the MDR group were 11.7%, 4.2%, and 2.6%, respectively, all of which were without statistical differences. Conclusion: These data suggest that MDR ICBT is effective, useful, and equally as good as LDR ICBT in daytime (about 5 hours) treatments of patients with cervical cancer.

  9. The local treatment modalities in FIGO stage I-II small-cell carcinoma of the cervix are determined by disease stage and lymph node status.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Juan; Yang, Hong-Yi; Wu, San-Gang; He, Zhen-Yu; Lin, Huan-Xin; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Qun; Guo, Zhan-Wen

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal local treatment modalities for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I-II small-cell carcinoma of the cervix (SCCC), including cancer-directed surgery (CDS) and/or radiotherapy (RT). The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database was used to identify SCCC patients from 1988 to 2012, and analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression proportional hazard methods to determine factors significant for cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall (OS). A total of 208 patients of SCCC were enrolled. The median follow-up time was 31 months. Fifty-eight (27.9%) patients were treated with primary CDS, 88 (42.3%) patients underwent CDS combined with RT, and 62 (29.8%) patients were treated with primary RT. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that local treatment modalities were independent prognostic factors for CSS and OS. Patients who had undergone CDS had better CSS and OS, compared with patients who had been treated with combined CDS and RT or RT alone. The 5-year CSS and OS of entire group was 49.8% and 46.4%, respectively. The 5-year CSS in the groups of patients receiving CDS, CDS combined with RT, and RT alone were 67.9%, 49.7%, and 32.6%, respectively (P < 0.001). The 5-year OS in patients treated with CDS, CDS combined with RT, and RT alone were 64.9%, 46.2%, and 28.8% (P < 0.001). Primary surgery was associated with improved CSS and OS for FIGO stage I and lymph node negative disease. Primary surgery is the most effective local treatment for FIGO stage I-II SCCC, as adjuvant RT or radical RT does not improve survival compared to radical surgery, especially in patients with FIGO stage I and lymph node negative disease.

  10. Concurrent radiation, mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil in poor prognosis carcinoma of cervix: preliminary results of a Phase I-II study

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.; Dembo, A.; Beale, F.; Bean, H.; Bush, R.; Herman, J.; Pringle, J.; Rawlings, G.; Sturgeon, J.; Fine, S.

    1984-09-01

    Between July 1981 and June 1983, 27 patients with advanced primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of cervix and 8 with recurrent disease were treated using a pilot regimen of combination chemotherapy (CT): Mitomycin C (MIT), 5 Fluorouracil (5 FU), and radiation therapy (RT). CT and RT doses on this Phase I-II Study were escalated to the current regimen. A split course of RT was used, either pelvic RT alone or the same pelvic RT plus para-aortic RT. CT was given by continuous IV infusion days 1 through 4 of each half-course of RT. This was followed by one application of intrauterine /sup 137/Cs when possible. Three of the 8 patients with recurrence in the pelvis or para-aortic nodes had a complete response (CR) to CT-RT and are alive without disease at 19, 19 and 22 months after treatment, respectively. Twenty of the 27 (74%) primary patients had a CR. With a median duration of follow-up of 6 months 4/20 have relapsed, 1 in RT field, 2 at distant sites, and 1 in both. The acute toxicity of this regimen was tolerable: 2/35 developed transient leukopenia with one febrile episode, 9/35 developed transient thrombocytopenia without bleeding. Symptomatic sigmoid strictures developed in two patients, one requiring surgical intervention. Typically, near complete regression of tumor is noted on completion of the external RT, reproducing the dramatic responses that have been observed in SCC of the anal canal, esophagus and head and neck, with this CT-RT regimen.

  11. Dose Effect Relationship for Late Side Effects of the Rectum and Urinary Bladder in Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Adaptive Cervix Cancer Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Georg, Petra; Poetter, Richard; Georg, Dietmar; Lang, Stefan; Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A.; Sturdza, Alina E.; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Doerr, Wolfgang

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To establish dose-response relationships for late side effects of the rectum and bladder in cervix cancer patients after magnetic resonance image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT). Methods and Materials: A cohort of 141 patients was treated with 45 to 50.4 Gy with or without cisplatin plus 4 fractions of 7 Gy IGABT. Doses for the most exposed 2, 1, and 0.1-cm{sup 3} (D{sub 2cc}, D{sub 1cc}, D{sub 0.1cc}) volumes of the rectum and bladder were converted into the equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2), using a linear quadratic model ({alpha}/{beta} = 3 Gy). Late side effects were prospectively assessed (using late effects in normal tissues subjective, objective, management and analytic [LENT SOMA]) scales. Dose-response relationships were determined by logit analyses. Results: Eleven patients developed rectal side effects, and 23 patients had urinary side effects. A significant dose effect was found for all rectal dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters for patients with side effect grades of 1 to 4 but was only significant for D{sub 2cc} and D{sub 1cc} for grades {>=}2. The ED10 values for D{sub 2cc} were 73 Gy for grades 1 to 4 and 78 Gy for grades 2 to 4 rectal morbidity. For bladder side effects, a significant dose effect was shown for all DVH parameters for complication grades {>=}2; the respective ED10 was 101 Gy. Conclusions: Well-defined dose-response curves could be established for D{sub 2cc} in the rectum and the urinary bladder.

  12. Direct reconstruction and associated uncertainties of 192Ir source dwell positions in ring applicators using gafchromic film in the treatment planning of HDR brachytherapy cervix patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awunor, O. A.; Dixon, B.; Walker, C.

    2013-05-01

    This paper details a practical method for the direct reconstruction of high dose rate 192Ir source dwell positions in ring applicators using gafchromic film in the treatment planning of brachytherapy cervix patients. It also details the uncertainties associated with such a process. Eight Nucletron interstitial ring applicators—Ø26 mm (×4), Ø30 mm (×3) and Ø34 mm (×1), and one 60 mm intrauterine tube were used in this study. RTQA2 and XRQA2 gafchromic films were irradiated at pre-programmed dwell positions with three successive 192Ir sources and used to derive the coordinates of the source dwell positions. The source was observed to deviate significantly from its expected position by up to 6.1 mm in all ring sizes. Significant inter applicator differences of up to 2.6 mm were observed between a subset of ring applicators. Also, the measured data were observed to differ significantly from commercially available source path models provided by Nucletron with differences of up to 3.7 mm across all ring applicator sizes. The total expanded uncertainty (k = 2) averaged over all measured dwell positions in the rings was observed to be 1.1 ± 0.1 mm (Ø26 mm and Ø30 mm rings) and 1.0 ± 0.3 mm (Ø34 mm ring) respectively, and when transferred to the treatment planning system, equated to maximum %dose changes of 1.9%, 13.2% and 1.5% at regions representative of the parametrium, lateral fornix and organs at risk respectively.

  13. Effect of High-Dose-Rate {sup 192}Ir Source Activity on Late Rectal Bleeding After Intracavitary Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervix Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Osamu Yoshioka, Yasuo; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Morimoto, Masahiro; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Kawaguchi, Yoshifumi; Konishi, Koji; Nakamura, Satoaki; Shiomi, Hiroya; Inoue, Takehiro

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: This retrospective study analyzed the effect of the activity of high-dose-rate (HDR) {sup 192}Ir source on late rectal bleeding after HDR intracavitary radiotherapy (ICRT) in patients with uterine cervix cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred thirty-two patients who underwent HDR-ICRT and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) were analyzed. The rectal point dose in ICRT was calculated by inserting a lead wire into the rectal lumen and summed with the whole-pelvic EBRT dose. The rectal biologic effective dose (BED) was calculated. The relationship between averaged source activity or the BED and late rectal bleeding were analyzed. Results: Three-year actuarial rectal bleeding probabilities were 46% ({>=}100 Gy{sub 3}) and 18% ({<=} 100 Gy{sub 3}), respectively (p < 0.005). When patients were divided into four groups according to rectal BED ({>=} or {<=}100 Gy{sub 3}) and source activity ({>=} or {<=}2.4 cGy.m{sup 2}.h{sup -1}), the group with both a high BED and high activity showed significantly greater probability (58% at 3 years; p < 0.005). It was noted that the probability of the group with BED of 100 Gy{sub 3} or greater was high, but that was not the case with 2.4 cGy.m{sup 2}.h{sup -1} or less. Conclusion: This is the first clinical report concerning the source activity effect of HDR {sup 192}Ir on late rectal bleeding in patients undergoing HDR-ICRT. This suggests that when source activity is higher than 2.4 cGy.m{sup 2}.h{sup -1}, ICRT should be performed with more caution not to exceed 100 Gy{sub 3} in total.

  14. Disturbance of Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, Ki-67 and C-myc expression in acute and subchronic exposure to benzo(a)pyrene in cervix.

    PubMed

    Gao, Meili; Li, Yongfei; Ji, Xiaoying; Xue, Xiaochang; Chen, Lan; Feng, Guodong; Zhang, Huqin; Wang, Huichun; Shah, Walayat; Hou, Zhanwu; Kong, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoking is an important cofactor or an independent risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is one of the most potent tobacco smoke carcinogens in tobacco smoke. BaP induced DNA damage and over expression in p53 cervical tissue of mice as demonstrated in our previous study. Here we present the findings of exposure to BaP on the expression of Bcl-2, C-myc, Ki-67, Caspase-3 and Bax genes in mouse cervix. Acute intraperitoneal administration of BaP (12.5, 25, 50, 100mg/kg body weight) to ICR female mice induced a significant increase in Bcl-2, C-myc, Ki-67 mRNA and protein level till 72h except in Bcl-2 at 24h with 12.5, 25, 50mg/kg as well as at 48h with 12.5mg/kg body weight post treatment. A significant increase was also seen in Caspase-3 and Bax mRNA and protein level with peak level at 24h and gradual decrease till 72h, however, the expression of caspase-3 increased while that of Bax decreased with increasing dose of Bap after 24h. In sub chronic intraperitoneal and oral gavage administration of BaP (2.5, 5, 10mg/kg body weight), similar significant increase was observed for all the examined genes as compared to the control and vehicle groups, however the expression of Bax decreased in a dose dependent manner. The findings of this study will help in further understanding the molecular mechanism of BaP induced carcinogenesis of cervical cancer.

  15. Association of genetic polymorphism of the DNA base excision repair gene (APE-1 Asp/148 Glu) and HPV type (16/18) with the risk of cervix cancer in north Indian population.

    PubMed

    Shekari, Mohammad; Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Tamandani, Dor Mohammad Kordi; Malekzadeh, Keyanoosh; Kaur, Pushpinder; Suri, Vanita

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common neoplastic diseases affecting women, with a combined world wide incidence of almost half a million new cases. Reduced DNA repair capacity (DRC) can render a high risk of developing many types of cancer; including cervical cancer. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may contribute the genetic instability and carcinogenesis. Smoking experience and use of oral contraceptives have been confirmed to be risk factors for cervical cancer. The purpose of the present study was, therefore to investigate APE-1 genotypes (Asp/Asp, Asp/Glu, Glu/Glu) with different histological subtypes in cases compared with controls. It has been observed that Asp/Glu with Glu/Glu genotypes that combined we observed statistically significant with protective effect for developing of cervix cancer (OR-0.51, 95% CI 0.31-0.83, p-0.006). The combined Asp/Glu with Glu/Glu genotypes who were using oral contraceptives were shown to be statistically significant with reduced risk of cervical cancer (OR-0.22 95% CI- 0.11-0.47, p-0.0002). It has been suggested that significantly correlation between HPV 16 and users of oral contraceptives in certain APE-1 genotypes with reduced risk in developing cervix cancer. In conclusion we observed statistical significant association with reduced risk of cervix cancer in APE-1 with different genotypes, though, on the other hand, in association between HPV type 18 and those having SCC, highly increased risk of cervical cancer was observed.

  16. VAGINAL PROGESTERONE VERSUS CERVICAL CERCLAGE FOR THE PREVENTION OF PRETERM BIRTH IN WOMEN WITH A SONOGRAPHIC SHORT CERVIX, SINGLETON GESTATION, AND PREVIOUS PRETERM BIRTH: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND INDIRECT COMPARISON META-ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    CONDE-AGUDELO, Agustin; ROMERO, Roberto; NICOLAIDES, Kypros; CHAIWORAPONGSA, Tinnakorn; O'BRIEN, John M.; CETINGOZ, Elcin; DA FONSECA, Eduardo; CREASY, George; SOMA-PILLAY, Priya; FUSEY, Shalini; CAM, Cetin; ALFIREVIC, Zarko; HASSAN, Sonia S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE No randomized controlled trial has directly compared vaginal progesterone and cervical cerclage for the prevention of preterm birth in women with a sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester, singleton gestation, and previous spontaneous preterm birth. We performed an indirect comparison of vaginal progesterone versus cerclage, using placebo/no cerclage as the common comparator. STUDY DESIGN Adjusted indirect meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. RESULTS Four studies evaluating vaginal progesterone versus placebo (158 patients) and five evaluating cerclage versus no cerclage (504 patients) were included. Both interventions were associated with a statistically significant reduction in the risk of preterm birth <32 weeks of gestation and composite perinatal morbidity and mortality compared with placebo/no cerclage. Adjusted indirect meta-analyses did not show statistically significant differences between vaginal progesterone and cerclage in reducing preterm birth or adverse perinatal outcomes. CONCLUSION Based on state-of-the-art methodology for indirect comparisons, either vaginal progesterone or cerclage are equally efficacious in the prevention of preterm birth in women with a sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester, singleton gestation, and previous preterm birth. The selection of the optimal treatment may depend upon adverse events, cost and patient/clinician preferences. PMID:23157855

  17. Early Clinical Outcomes and Toxicity of Intensity Modulated Versus Conventional Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Locally Advanced Cervix Carcinoma: A Prospective Randomized Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, Ajeet Kumar; Sharma, Daya Nand; Rath, Goura Kisor; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Subramani, Vellaiyan; Sharma, Seema; Manigandan, Durai; Laviraj, M.A.; Kumar, Sunesh; Thulkar, Sanjay

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and clinical outcome in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) treated with whole pelvic conventional radiation therapy (WP-CRT) versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (WP-IMRT). Methods and Materials: Between January 2010 and January 2012, 44 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO 2009) stage IIB-IIIB squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were randomized to receive 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions delivered via either WP-CRT or WP-IMRT with concurrent weekly cisplatin 40 mg/m{sup 2}. Acute toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, and late toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group system. The primary and secondary endpoints were acute gastrointestinal toxicity and disease-free survival, respectively. Results: Of 44 patients, 22 patients received WP-CRT and 22 received WP-IMRT. In the WP-CRT arm, 13 patients had stage IIB disease and 9 had stage IIIB disease; in the IMRT arm, 12 patients had stage IIB disease and 10 had stage IIIB disease. The median follow-up time in the WP-CRT arm was 21.7 months (range, 10.7-37.4 months), and in the WP-IMRT arm it was 21.6 months (range, 7.7-34.4 months). At 27 months, disease-free survival was 79.4% in the WP-CRT group versus 60% in the WP-IMRT group (P=.651), and overall survival was 76% in the WP-CRT group versus 85.7% in the WP-IMRT group (P=.645). Patients in the WP-IMRT arm experienced significantly fewer grade ≥2 acute gastrointestinal toxicities (31.8% vs 63.6%, P=.034) and grade ≥3 gastrointestinal toxicities (4.5% vs 27.3%, P=.047) than did patients receiving WP-CRT and had less chronic gastrointestinal toxicity (13.6% vs 50%, P=.011). Conclusion: WP-IMRT is associated with significantly less toxicity compared with WP-CRT and has a comparable clinical outcome. Further studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up times are warranted to justify

  18. Expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in ovarian and uterine tissue during diestrus and open cervix cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Gultiken, Nilgun; Yarim, Murat; Yarim, Gul Fatma; Gacar, Ayhan; Mason, James Ian

    2016-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the expression of 3β-hydroxystreroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in the uterus and ovary of healthy dogs and those with cystic endometrial hyperplasia and/or pyometra complex (CEH-pyometra). Eighteen female dogs were included in the study. Eleven bitches with open cervix CEH-pyometra were included in the CEH-pyometra group and seven diestrus bitches in the control group. For immunostaining a rabbit polyclonal, one raised against recombinant human type 2 (adrenal/gonadal) 3β-HSD was used. Progesterone (P4) concentrations were not statistically different between the groups. Strongly stained large interstitial cell groups in the ovarian medulla were observed particularly in CEH-pyometra group although these cells in the control group were weakly or moderately stained and existed singly or paired. The expressions of 3β-HSD in luminal epithelium (42.40 ± 22.40% vs. 18.42 ± 13.15%, P < 0.05) and glandular epithelium (32.80 ± 27.05% vs. 2.94 ± 7.79%, P < 0.01) of endometrium were significantly higher in CEH-pyometra group than those in the control group. The expression of 3β-HSD in CL was higher (29.38 ± 9.58% vs. 22.94 ± 4.97%) in CEH-pyometra group than that of control group although the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Similarly, the significant increase in the expression of 3β-HSD in ovarian interstitial cells (33.86 ± 29.44 vs. 1.13 ± 2.97, P < 0.05) was found in CEH-pyometra group compared to the control group. The study revealed that 3β-HSD expression in the endometrium of canine CEH-pyometra was significantly high.

  19. Dose Reduction Study in Vaginal Balloon Packing Filled With Contrast for HDR Brachytherapy Treatment;HDR; Uterine cervix cancer; Vaginal balloon packing; Contrast; Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Saini, Amarjit S.; Zhang, Geoffrey G.; Finkelstein, Steven E.; Biagioli, Matthew C.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Vaginal balloon packing is a means to displace organs at risk during high dose rate brachytherapy of the uterine cervix. We tested the hypothesis that contrast-filled vaginal balloon packing reduces radiation dose to organs at risk, such as the bladder and rectum, in comparison to water- or air-filled balloons. Methods and Materials: In a phantom study, semispherical vaginal packing balloons were filled with air, saline solution, and contrast agents. A high dose rate iridium-192 source was placed on the anterior surface of the balloon, and the diode detector was placed on the posterior surface. Dose ratios were taken with each material in the balloon. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, by use of the MC computer program DOSXYZnrc, were performed to study dose reduction vs. balloon size and contrast material, including commercially available iodine- and gadolinium-based contrast agents. Results: Measured dose ratios on the phantom with the balloon radius of 3.4 cm were 0.922 {+-} 0.002 for contrast/saline solution and 0.808 {+-} 0.001 for contrast/air. The corresponding ratios by MC simulations were 0.895 {+-} 0.010 and 0.781 {+-} 0.010. The iodine concentration in the contrast was 23.3% by weight. The dose reduction of contrast-filled balloon ranges from 6% to 15% compared with water-filled balloon and 11% to 26% compared with air-filled balloon, with a balloon size range between 1.4 and 3.8 cm, and iodine concentration in contrast of 24.9%. The dose reduction was proportional to the contrast agent concentration. The gadolinium-based contrast agents showed less dose reduction because of much lower concentrations in their solutions. Conclusions: The dose to the posterior wall of the bladder and the anterior wall of the rectum can be reduced if the vaginal balloon is filled with contrast agent in comparison to vaginal balloons filled with saline solution or air.

  20. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Menachem

    1989-01-01

    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  1. Oral Health and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  2. The Biology of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprott, Richard L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen articles in this special issue discuss aging theories, biomarkers of aging, aging research, disease, cancer biology, Alzheimer's disease, stress, oxidation of proteins, gene therapy, service delivery, biogerontology, and ethics and aging research. (SK)

  3. Avoiding Aging? Social Psychology's Treatment of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Anne E.; Redmond, Rebecca; von Rohr, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Population aging, in conjunction with social and cultural transformations of the life course, has profound implications for social systems--from large-scale structures to micro-level processes. However, much of sociology remains fairly quiet on issues of age and aging, including the subfield of social psychology that could illuminate the impact of…

  4. VAGINAL PROGESTERONE IN WOMEN WITH AN ASYMPTOMATIC SONOGRAPHIC SHORT CERVIX IN THE MIDTRIMESTER DECREASES PRETERM DELIVERY AND NEONATAL MORBIDITY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL PATIENT DATA

    PubMed Central

    ROMERO, Roberto; NICOLAIDES, Kypros; CONDE-AGUDELO, Agustin; TABOR, Ann; O’BRIEN, John M.; CETINGOZ, Elcin; DA FONSECA, Eduardo; CREASY, George; KLEIN, Katharina; RODE, Line; SOMA-PILLAY, Priya; FUSEY, Shalini; CAM, Cetin; ALFIREVIC, Zarko; HASSAN, Sonia S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether the use of vaginal progesterone in asymptomatic women with a sonographic short cervix in the mid-trimester reduces the risk of preterm birth and improves neonatal morbidity and mortality. STUDY DESIGN Individual patient data meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. RESULTS Five trials of high quality were included with a total of 775 women and 827 infants. Treatment with vaginal progesterone was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of preterm birth <33 weeks (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.42–0.80), <35 weeks (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55–0.88) and <28 weeks (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30–0.81), respiratory distress syndrome (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.30–0.76), composite neonatal morbidity and mortality (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.40–0.81), birth weight <1500 g (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38–0.80), admission to NICU (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59–0.94), and requirement for mechanical ventilation (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.44–0.98). There were no significant differences between the vaginal progesterone and placebo groups in the rate of adverse maternal events or congenital anomalies. CONCLUSION Vaginal progesterone administration to asymptomatic women with a sonographic short cervix reduces the risk of preterm birth and neonatal morbidity and mortality. PMID:22284156

  5. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) The Administration on Aging (AOA) is the ... themselves. Back to top Older Americans Act and Aging Network To meet the diverse needs of the ...

  6. Aging changes in sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004018.htm Aging changes in sleep To use the sharing features ... cycle is repeated several times during the night. AGING CHANGES With aging, sleep patterns tend to change. ...

  7. Exercise and age

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you ... to tie your shoes Alternative Names Age and exercise Images Benefit of regular exercise Flexibility exercise Exercise and age ...

  8. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administration on Aging Administration on Disabilities Center for Integrated Programs Center for Performance and Evaluation National Institute ... Project Aging Statistics Profile of Older Americans AGing Integrated Database (AGID) Census Data & Population Estimates Projected Future ...

  9. Sadness prediction and response: effects of age and agreeableness.

    PubMed

    Pearman, Ann; Andreoletti, Carrie; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2010-04-01

    Research has suggested that both age and personality play a role in emotional experience and regulation, but these variables have not been considered together to determine the relative contribution of each. This study simultaneously examined age and agreeableness differences in the experience of sad stimuli. Participants were 46 younger adults (age, M = 22.04 years, SD = 5.41 years) and 48 older adults (age, M = 74.23, SD = 7.82 years). Participants were asked to predict how sad stimuli (i.e., sad photos) would make them feel and were then measured on their actual reaction to the stimuli (reactivity) as well as on their emotional recovery. Agreeableness, but not age, was related to predicted levels of sadness, such that the more agreeable, the higher the predicted sadness (beta = 0.37). In contrast to expectations, prediction accuracy was not related to age or agreeableness. For emotional reactivity, agreeableness (beta = 0.16), but not age, was related to reactivity to sad stimuli (i.e., more agreeable, higher reactivity). Finally, age (beta = 0.14) was significantly related to emotional recovery such that the older adults reported lower levels of sadness at posttest than did the younger adults. Similarly, people who were more agreeable also reported better emotional recovery (beta = 0.15). These relationships were not affected by depression or pretest sadness ratings. Overall, these findings suggest distinct roles for age and agreeableness in predicting different components of the emotion regulation process. An individual with advanced age, high levels of agreeableness, or both may be well-positioned for resilience throughout the emotion regulation process.

  10. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhou; Yu, Janchun; Zhu, Aiqin; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of "microglia aging." This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging.

  11. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhou; Yu, Janchun; Zhu, Aiqin; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of “microglia aging.” This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging. PMID:26941889

  12. A prospective phase I-II trial of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib in patients with carcinoma of the cervix with biomarker assessment of the tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Fernanda G.; Chan, Philip; Doll, Corinne; Milosevic, Michael; Oza, Amit; Syed, Amy; Pintilie, Melania; Levin, Wilfred; Manchul, Lee; Fyles, Anthony . E-mail: Anthony.Fyles@rmp.uhn.on.ca

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and effectiveness of celecoxib in combination with definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in women with locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-one patients were accrued to a phase I-II trial of celecoxib 400 mg by mouth twice per day for 2 weeks before and during CRT. Tumor oxygenation (HP{sub 5}) and interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) were measured before and 2 weeks after celecoxib administration alone. The median follow-up time was 2.7 years (range, 1.1-4.4 years). Results: The most common acute G3/4 toxicities were hematologic (4/31, 12.9%) and gastrointestinal (5/31, 16.1%) largely attributed to chemotherapy. Late G3/4 toxicity was seen in 4 of 31 patients (13.7% actuarial risk at 2 yr), including fistulas in 3 patients (9.7%). Within the first year of follow-up, 25 of 31 patients (81%) achieved complete response (CR), of whom 20 remained in CR at last follow-up. After 2 weeks of celecoxib administration before CRT, the median IFP decreased slightly (median absolute, -4.6 mm Hg; p = 0.09; relative, -21%; p = 0.07), whereas HP{sub 5} did not change significantly (absolute increase, 3.6%; p = 0.51; median relative increase, 11%; p = 0.27). No significant associations were seen between changes in HP{sub 5} or IFP and response to treatment (p = 0.2, relative HP{sub 5} change and p = 0.14, relative IFP change). Conclusions: Celecoxib in combination with definitive CRT is associated with acceptable acute toxicity, but higher than expected late complications. Celecoxib is associated with a modest reduction in the angiogenic biomarker IFP, but this does not correspond with tumor response.

  13. Aging Periodontium, Aging Patient: Current Concepts.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Mark

    2015-08-01

    A functioning natural dentition is essential to maintaining overall health in the elderly patient. While age-related alterations in periodontal tissues and the immune system may make an elderly patient more susceptible to periodontal breakdown, age itself is not a major risk factor for periodontal diseases. Rather, individual age-associated factors such as systemic diseases, medications and changes in behavior, motor function and cognitive function should be considered for each elderly patient when making treatment decisions.

  14. Aging and Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Networker, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special edition of "The Networker" contains several articles focusing on aging and cerebral palsy (CP). "Aging and Cerebral Palsy: Pathways to Successful Aging" (Jenny C. Overeynder) reports on the National Invitational Colloquium on Aging and Cerebral Palsy held in April 1993. "Observations from an Observer" (Kathleen K. Barrett) describes…

  15. Reprogramming aging and progeria.

    PubMed

    Freije, José M P; López-Otín, Carlos

    2012-12-01

    The aging rate of an organism depends on the ratio of tissue degeneration to tissue repair. As a consequence, molecular alterations that tip this balance toward degeneration cause accelerated aging. Conversely, interventions can be pursued to reduce tissue degeneration or to increase tissue repair with the aim of delaying the onset of age-associated manifestations. Recent studies on the biology of stem cells in aging have revealed the influence of systemic factors on their functionality and demonstrated the feasibility of reprogramming aged and progeroid cells. These results illustrate the reversibility of some aspects of the aging process and encourage the search for new anti-aging and anti-progeria interventions.

  16. Epigenetic Control of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Sedivy, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Organismal aging and longevity are influenced by many complex interacting factors. Epigenetics has recently emerged as another possible determinant of aging. Here, we review some of the epigenetic pathways that contribute to cellular senescence and age-associated phenotypes. Strategies aimed to reverse age-linked epigenetic alterations may lead to the development of new therapeutic interventions to delay or alleviate some of the most debilitating age-associated diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 241–259. PMID:20518699

  17. Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in Great Britain, 1976-2005: age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J Q; Blakey, Karen; James, Peter W; Gomez Pozo, Basilio; Basta, Nermine O; Hale, Juliet

    2012-08-01

    Increases in the incidence of thyroid cancer have been previously reported. The purpose of the present study was to examine temporal trends in the incidence of primary thyroid cancer diagnosed in 0-49 year olds in parts of Great Britain during 1976-2005. Data on 4,337 cases of thyroid cancer were obtained from regional cancer registries. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) were calculated. Negative binomial regression was used to examine effects of age, sex, drift (linear trend), non-linear period and non-linear cohort. The best fitting negative binomial regression model included age (P < 0.001), sex (P < 0.001) and drift (P < 0.001). Non-linear period (P = 0.648) and non-linear cohort (P = 0.788) were not statistically significant. For males aged 0-14, the ASR increased from 0.2 per million persons per year in 1976-1986 to 0.6 in 1997-2005. For males aged 15-29 and 30-49 the ASRs increased from 1.9 to 3.3 and from 7.4 to 12.7, respectively. For females aged 0-14, the corresponding ASR increased from 0.3 to 0.5. For females aged 15-29 and 30-49 the ASRs increased from 6.9 to 12.4 and from 21.2 to 42.3, respectively. For all age groups, there has been a linear increase in incidence of thyroid cancer, which has led to a doubling of the number of cases diagnosed over a twenty year span. The reasons for this increase are not well understood, but it is consistent with findings from other countries.

  18. Age determination of raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grau, G.A.; Sanderson, G.C.; Rogers, J.P.

    1970-01-01

    Age criteria, based on 61 skulls and eye lenses from 103 known-age captives, are described for separating raccoons (Procyon lotor) into eight age-classes as follows: young-of-the-year, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, > 7 years. Criteria studied were eye lens nitrogen, cranial suture closure, tooth wear and incisor cementum layers. Lens nitrogen increased rapidly up to 12 months of age, but at much reduced rate thereafter. Total lens nitrogen was useful only in separating young-of-the-year from adults. The closure sequence for five cranial sutures accurately divided the total known-age sample of males into seven groups, and the adults into five groups. The tooth wear criteria divided the known-age sample into five relative age groups, but aging of individuals by this method was inaccurate. Histological sectioning of known-age teeth was the best method of observing layering in the cementum tissue. The technique of basing estimation of age on cementum ring counts, although subjective, was accurate for aging individuals through their fourth year but tended to underestimate the age of animals over 4 years old. However, suture closure or tooth wear can be used to identify males over 4 years old. In field studies, technical difficulties limit the utility of age estimation by cementum layers. Maximum root thickness of the lower canine was accurate in determining the sex of individuals from 5 months to ,at least 48 months of age.

  19. EZ_Ages: Stellar population age calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Genevieve J.

    2014-07-01

    EZ_Ages is an IDL code package that computes the mean, light-weighted stellar population age, [Fe/H], and abundance enhancements [Mg/Fe], [C/Fe], [N/Fe], and [Ca/Fe] for unresolved stellar populations. This is accomplished by comparing Lick index line strengths between the data and the stellar population models of Schiavon (2007), using a method described in Graves & Schiavon (2008). The algorithm uses the inversion of index-index model grids to determine ages and abundances, and exploits the sensitivities of the various Lick indices to measure Mg, C, N, and Ca enhancements over their solar abundances with respect to Fe.

  20. Aging of gaseous detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Va'Vra, J.

    1990-03-01

    This paper makes an overview of developments in the wire chamber aging field since the wire chamber aging workshop held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California on January 16--17, 1986. The author discusses new techniques to analyze the gas impurities and the wire aging products, wire nonaging'' in clean systems, wire aging in systems containing various impurities, various examples of problems which can prime'' surfaces prior to the occurrence of the aging, and some recent aging experience with the SSC micro-straw tubes.'' 35 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Aging in culture.

    PubMed

    Fung, Helene H

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the empirical studies that test socioemotional aging across cultures. The review focuses on comparisons between Western (mostly North Americans and Germans) and Eastern cultures (mostly Chinese) in areas including age-related personality, social relationships, and cognition. Based on the review, I argue that aging is a meaning-making process. Individuals from each cultural context internalize cultural values with age. These internalized cultural values become goals that guide adult development. When individuals from different cultures each pursue their own goals with age, cultural differences in socioemotional aging occur.

  2. Trends in Neurocognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Preface The availability of neuroimaging technology has spurred a marked increase in the human cognitive neuroscience literature, including the study of cognitive aging. Although there is a growing consensus that the aging brain retains considerable plasticity of function, currently measured primarily by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging, it is less clear how age differences in brain activity relate to cognitive performance. The field also is hampered by the complexity of the aging process itself and the large number of factors that are influenced by age. In this review, current trends and unresolved issues in the cognitive neuroscience of aging are discussed. PMID:22714020

  3. Corrected Age for Preemies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Corrected Age For Preemies Page Content Article Body If your ...

  4. [Aging and gynecologic cancer].

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Arturo A

    2005-01-01

    The interrelation between cancer and ageing in women is emphasized, on its increased incidence, in their molecular background, into the particular biological characteristics of the different tumors and the effects of ageing in the affected women.

  5. Sleep and Aging: Insomnia

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Sleep and Aging Insomnia Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint ... us | Customer Support | site map National Institute on Aging | U.S. National Library of Medicine | National Institutes of ...

  6. Aging changes in immunity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004008.htm Aging changes in immunity To use the sharing features ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. AGING CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM ...

  7. Aging and Health: Cataracts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems Glaucoma Macular Degeneration Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Cataracts Basic Facts & Information ... Are Cataracts? Cataracts are a common result of aging and occur frequently in older people. About one ...

  8. Aging According to Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Uses Erik Erikson's work to discuss how biographies treat aging. Explores how developmental theorists observe biographical representations of the life cycle and its applicability to aging. (Author/BHK)

  9. Ages and Stages: Teen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen Teen Article Body Adolescence can be a rough ...

  10. Hsps and aging.

    PubMed

    Tower, John

    2009-07-01

    Heat-shock proteins (Hsps) are increasingly being implicated in aging phenotypes and control of life span across species. They are targets of the conserved heat-shock factor and insulin/IGF1-like signaling pathways that affect life span and aging phenotypes. Hsps are expressed in tissue-specific and disease-specific patterns during aging, and their level of expression and induction by stress correlates with and, in some instances, predicts life span. In model organisms, Hsps have been shown to increase life span and ameliorate aging-associated proteotoxicity. Finally, Hsps have emerged as key components in regulating aging-related cellular phenotypes, including cell senescence, apoptosis and cancer. The Hsps, therefore, provide a metric of individual stress and aging and are potential targets for interventions in aging and aging-related diseases.

  11. Aging is not programmed

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-01-01

    Aging is not and cannot be programmed. Instead, aging is a continuation of developmental growth, driven by genetic pathways such as mTOR. Ironically, this is often misunderstood as a sort of programmed aging. In contrast, aging is a purposeless quasi-program or, figuratively, a shadow of actual programs. “The brightest flame casts the darkest shadow.” -George Martin PMID:24240128

  12. [Old age workers].

    PubMed

    Izmerov, N F

    2012-01-01

    The author demonstrates that in conditions of demographic aging an important contribution in solving the task set in "Strategy 2020" on more efficient usage of working resources could be involvement of occupational potential of old age workers, e.g. through changeable working schedules, outwork and distance work. With that, employment level at old age should consider performance level, health state and psycho-physiologic potential of the certain age group.

  13. mTOR downstream effectors, 4EBP1 and eIF4E, are overexpressed and associated with HPV status in precancerous lesions and carcinomas of the uterine cervix

    PubMed Central

    Asimomytis, Aristidis; Karanikou, Maria; Rodolakis, Alexander; Vaiopoulou, Anna; Tsetsa, Paraskevi; Creatsas, George; Stefos, Theodoros; Antsaklis, Aristidis; Patsouris, Efstratios; Rassidakis, George Z.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the expression levels of two critical mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) downstream effectors, 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) proteins, in precancerous squamous intraepithelial lesions and cancer of the uterine cervix, and their association with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection status. Uterine cervical biopsies from 73 patients were obtained, including 40 fresh-frozen samples and 42 archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens. Whole protein extracts were analyzed for the expression of 4EBP1 and eIF4E proteins using western blotting. In addition, distribution of 4EBP1 and eIF4E protein expression and 4EBP1 phosphorylation (P-4EBP1) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in archival tissues and correlated with the degree of dysplasia. The presence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types was assessed by polymerase chain reaction. Using western blot analysis, high expression levels of 4EBP1 and eIF4E were observed in all uterine cervical carcinomas, which significantly correlated with the degree of dysplasia. By immunohistochemistry, overexpression of 4EBP1 and eIF4E was detected in 20 of 21 (95%) and 17 of 21 (81%) samples, respectively, in patients with high-grade dysplasia and carcinomas, compared with 1 of 20 (5%) and 2 of 20 (10%) samples, respectively, in patients with low-grade lesions or normal histology. All 4EBP1-positive cases tested were also positive for P-4EBP1. Furthermore, overexpression of 4EBP1 and eIF4E significantly correlated with the presence of HR-HPV oncogenic types. The present study demonstrated that critical effectors of mTOR signaling, which control protein synthesis initiation, are overexpressed in cervical high-grade dysplasia and cancer, and their levels correlate with oncogenic HPV types. These findings may provide novel targets for investigational therapeutic approaches in patients with cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:27899988

  14. Functional Age and Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaie, K. Warner

    Mandatory retirement because of chronological age is coming under increasing attack and, at least in the United States, it is likely that there may soon be legislative prohibitions against forcing individuals to retire because of age. As a consequence there is renewed interest in redefining retirement criteria in terms of a functional age concept…

  15. Aging and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor's Office for Senior Citizens, Chicago, IL.

    The process of learning with respect to age is discussed. Learning may be defined as the acquisition of information or skills. Three non-cognitive factors varying with age are loss of speed, health, and motivation. Studies on learning in relation to age have not controlled for non-learning factors. Perceptual and psychomotor studies are not…

  16. Exercise and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    In this presentation on exercise and aging, the following explanations are made: the nature of physical fitness, physical fitness values, the importance of recognizing individual differences, physiological changes occurring with age through the adult years, physical fitness studies pertaining to middle-aged persons, the trainability of older…

  17. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It becomes thinner, ... to make it feel and look better. Dry Skin and Itching Click for more information Many older ...

  18. English Education and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)

  19. Age and Terrorist Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trela, James; Hewitt, Christopher

    While research has examined how age-related factors structure the probability of experiencing a particular event or suffering a particular kind of injury, one issue which has not been empirically addressed is the age structure of victimization from terrorist activity and civil strife. To explore the relationship between age and terrorist…

  20. Anatomy of ageing face.

    PubMed

    Ilankovan, V

    2014-03-01

    Ageing is a biological process that results from changes at a cellular level, particularly modification of mRNA. The face is affected by the same physiological process and results in skeletal, muscular, and cutaneous ageing; ligamentous attenuation, descent of fat, and ageing of the appendages. I describe these changes on a structural and clinical basis and summarise possible solutions for a rejuvenation surgeon.

  1. Language and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; Anagnopoulos, Cheryl

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the effects of aging on language usage focusing on three areas of exploration: (1) changes in language in relation to changes in other cognitive abilities, (2) the linguistic consequences of normal aging versus those of dementia and aphasia, and (3) age-group differences in patterns of conversational interaction. (67 references) (GLR)

  2. Effects of aging on basal fat oxidation in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Thomas P J; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K; Gonzalez, Frank; Kirwan, John P

    2008-08-01

    Basal fat oxidation decreases with age. In obesity, it is not known whether this age-related process occurs independently of changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, body composition, resting energy expenditure, basal substrate oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max) were measured in 10 older (age, 60 +/- 4 years; mean +/- SEM) and 10 younger (age, 35 +/- 4 years) body mass index-matched, obese, normal glucose-tolerant individuals. Fasting blood samples were also collected. Older subjects had slightly elevated fat mass (32.2 +/- 7.1 vs 36.5 +/- 6.7 kg, P = .16); however, waist circumference was not different between groups (104.3 +/- 10.3 vs 102.1 +/- 12.6 cm, P = .65). Basal fat oxidation was 22% lower (1.42 +/- 0.14 vs 1.17 +/- 0.22 mg/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03) in older subjects. The VO(2)max was also decreased in older individuals (44.6 +/- 7.1 vs 38.3 +/- 6.0 mL/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03); but insulin sensitivity, lipemia, and leptinemia were not different between groups (P > .05). Fat oxidation was most related to age (r = -0.61, P = .003) and VO(2)max (r = 0.52, P = .01). These data suggest that aging per se is responsible for reduced basal fat oxidation and maximal oxidative capacity in older obese individuals, independent of changes in insulin resistance, body mass, and abdominal fat. This indicates that age, in addition to obesity, is an independent risk factor for weight gain and for the metabolic complications of elevated body fat.

  3. Carcinogenesis and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, V.N.; Petrov, N.N.

    1987-01-01

    This 2-voluem set discusses the problem of inter-relation between carcinogenesis and aging, and the phenomenon of age-related increase in cancer incidence in animals and humans. Covered topics include current concepts in mechanisms of carcinogenesis and aging; data on chemical, radiation, ultraviolet-light, hormonal and viral carcinogenesis in aging; data on the role of age-related shifts in the activity of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes; binding of carcinogens with macromolecules; DNA repair; tissue proliferation; and immunity and homono-metabolic patterns in realization of initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis.

  4. Computational biology for ageing.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Daniela; Papatheodorou, Irene; Ziehm, Matthias; Thornton, Janet M

    2011-01-12

    High-throughput genomic and proteomic technologies have generated a wealth of publicly available data on ageing. Easy access to these data, and their computational analysis, is of great importance in order to pinpoint the causes and effects of ageing. Here, we provide a description of the existing databases and computational tools on ageing that are available for researchers. We also describe the computational approaches to data interpretation in the field of ageing including gene expression, comparative and pathway analyses, and highlight the challenges for future developments. We review recent biological insights gained from applying bioinformatics methods to analyse and interpret ageing data in different organisms, tissues and conditions.

  5. [Molecular physiology of aging].

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Morozov, V G; Malinin, V V

    2001-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the analysis of the peptide bioregulators role in molecular mechanisms of ageing and age-related pathology development. There has been put forward the concept of peptide regulation of ageing based on the priority data of authors long-term investigations on inhibition of involution processes in organs and tissues developed with age and restoration of specific proteins synthesis in cells under the influence of natural and synthetic peptide bioregulators. The prospects of peptide bioregulators employment in gerontological practice are being discussed in the paper with the purpose of treatment and prevention of age-associated pathology and human longevity increase.

  6. UV, stress and aging.

    PubMed

    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic-also called "photo-aging"-resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on the cell type (fibroblasts or keratinocytes, normal or immortalized) and the type of UV used (UVA or UVB).

  7. Studying aging in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-06-15

    Drosophila melanogaster represents one of the most important genetically accessible model organisms for aging research. Studies in flies have identified single gene mutations that influence lifespan and have characterized endocrine signaling interactions that control homeostasis systemically. Recent studies have focused on the effects of aging on specific tissues and physiological processes, providing a comprehensive picture of age-related tissue dysfunction and the loss of systemic homeostasis. Here we review methodological aspects of this work and highlight technical considerations when using Drosophila to study aging and age-related diseases.

  8. Social and Emotional Aging

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Susan; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    The past several decades have witnessed unidimensional decline models of aging give way to life-span developmental models that consider how specific processes and strategies facilitate adaptive aging. In part, this shift was provoked by the stark contrast between findings that clearly demonstrate decreased biological, physiological, and cognitive capacity with those suggesting that people are generally satisfied in old age and experience relatively high levels of emotional well-being. In recent years, this supposed “paradox” of aging has been reconciled through careful theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Viewing aging as adaptation sheds light on resilience, wellbeing, and emotional distress across adulthood. PMID:19575618

  9. Aging, longevity and health

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Sander, Miriam; Wewer, Ulla M.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2016-01-01

    The IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health, held on 5–7 October 2010 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was hosted by Rector Ralf Hemmingsen, University of Copenhagen and Dean Ulla Wewer, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen and was organized by Center for Healthy Aging (CEHA) under the leadership of CEHA Managing Director Lene Juel Rasmussen and Prof. Vilhelm Bohr, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, USA (associated to CEHA). The Congress was attended by approximately 125 researchers interested in and/or conducting research on aging and aging-related topics. The opening Congress Session included speeches by Ralf Hemmingsen, Ulla Wewer, and Lene Juel Rasmussen and Keynote Addresses by four world renowned aging researchers: Povl Riis (The Age Forum), Bernard Jeune (University of Southern Denmark), George Martin (University of Washington, USA) and Jan Vijg (Albert Einstein School of Medicine, USA) as well as a lecture discussing the art-science interface by Thomas Söderqvist (Director, Medical Museion, University of Copenhagen). The topics of the first six Sessions of the Congress were: Neuroscience and DNA damage, Aging and Stress, Life Course, Environmental Factors and Neuroscience, Muscle and Life Span and Life Span and Mechanisms. Two additional Sessions highlighted ongoing research in the recently established Center for Healthy Aging at the University of Copenhagen. This report highlights outcomes of recent research on aging-related topics, as described at the IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health. PMID:21820462

  10. Aging, longevity and health.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Sander, Miriam; Wewer, Ulla M; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2011-10-01

    The IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health, held on 5-7 October 2010 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was hosted by Rector Ralf Hemmingsen, University of Copenhagen and Dean Ulla Wewer, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen and was organized by Center for Healthy Aging (CEHA) under the leadership of CEHA Managing Director Lene Juel Rasmussen and Prof. Vilhelm Bohr, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, USA (associated to CEHA). The Congress was attended by approximately 125 researchers interested in and/or conducting research on aging and aging-related topics. The opening Congress Session included speeches by Ralf Hemmingsen, Ulla Wewer, and Lene Juel Rasmussen and Keynote Addresses by four world renowned aging researchers: Povl Riis (The Age Forum), Bernard Jeune (University of Southern Denmark), George Martin (University of Washington, USA) and Jan Vijg (Albert Einstein School of Medicine, USA) as well as a lecture discussing the art-science interface by Thomas Söderqvist (Director, Medical Museion, University of Copenhagen). The topics of the first six Sessions of the Congress were: Neuroscience and DNA damage, Aging and Stress, Life Course, Environmental Factors and Neuroscience, Muscle and Life Span and Life Span and Mechanisms. Two additional Sessions highlighted ongoing research in the recently established Center for Healthy Aging at the University of Copenhagen. This report highlights outcomes of recent research on aging-related topics, as described at the IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health.

  11. Ageing and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chia-Wei; Chen, Yu-Chih; Hsieh, Wan-Ling; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Kao, Chung-Lan

    2010-11-01

    Ageing, which all creatures must encounter, is a challenge to every living organism. In the human body, it is estimated that cell division and metabolism occurs exuberantly until about 25 years of age. Beyond this age, subsidiary products of metabolism and cell damage accumulate, and the phenotypes of ageing appear, causing disease formation. Among these age-related diseases, neurodegenerative diseases have drawn a lot of attention due to their irreversibility, lack of effective treatment, and accompanied social and economical burdens. In seeking to ameliorate ageing and age-related diseases, the search for anti-ageing drugs has been of much interest. Numerous studies have shown that the plant polyphenol, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), extends the lifespan of several species, prevents age-related diseases, and possesses anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. The beneficial effects of resveratrol are believed to be associated with the activation of a longevity gene, SirT1. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and cerebrovascular disease. The therapeutic potential of resveratrol, diet and the roles of stem cell therapy are discussed to provide a better understanding of the ageing mystery.

  12. Comparison of cable ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaček, Vít; Kohout, Tomáš

    2010-03-01

    Two cable types, which currently are used in nuclear power plants (NPP) and which are composed by jacket/insulation materials, i.e. PVC/PVC and PVC/PE, were exposed to accelerated ageing conditions, in order to simulate their behavior after 10 years in service. The cables were aged under two different test conditions: With relatively high accelerating ageing speed:Radiation ageing was carried out at room temperature at a dose rate of 2900 Gy/h, followed by thermal ageing at 100 °C. This accelerated ageing condition was fairly fast, but still in compliance with the standards. With moderate ageing speed:The radiation and thermal ageing was performed simultaneously (superimposed) at a dose rate of 2.7-3.7Gy/h and a temperature of 68-70 °C. Such a test condition seems to be very close to the radiation and temperature impact onto the cables in the real NPP service. Finally, mechanical properties were measured to characterize the ageing status of the cables. The purpose of this study was to compare degradation effects, derived from both ageing methods, and to demonstrate that results obtained from high values of accelerating parameters and from fast ageing simulation can be very different from reality. The observed results corroborated this assumption.

  13. The Hallmarks of Aging

    PubMed Central

    López-Otín, Carlos; Blasco, Maria A.; Partridge, Linda; Serrano, Manuel; Kroemer, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of physiological integrity, leading to impaired function and increased vulnerability to death. This deterioration is the primary risk factor for major human pathologies including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. Aging research has experienced an unprecedented advance over recent years, particularly with the discovery that the rate of aging is controlled, at least to some extent, by genetic pathways and biochemical processes conserved in evolution. This review enumerates nine tentative hallmarks that represent common denominators of aging in different organisms, with special emphasis on mammalian aging. These hallmarks are: genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient-sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication. A major challenge is to dissect the interconnectedness between the candidate hallmarks and their relative contribution to aging, with the final goal of identifying pharmaceutical targets to improve human health during aging with minimal side-effects. PMID:23746838

  14. Havana: aging in an aging city.

    PubMed

    Coyula, Miguel

    2010-10-01

    In Cuba, various factors have led to nearly zero population growth and a rapidly aging society. In a few years, the rush of baby-boomers reaching retirement will stand the population pyramid on its head, as the country's life expectancy already nears 80 years. Almost 20% of all Cubans live in Havana, demographically and structurally an aging city. Yet, the city is not prepared to offer its older inhabitants the spaces, services and housing options they require for a healthy quality of life. Studies must be undertaken to address this issue comprehensively, generating creative alternatives for wise use of limited resources to fulfill the material, social and spiritual needs of this growing population sector. KEYWORDS Aging, quality of life, social environment, urban health, housing for the elderly, Cuba.

  15. Nutritional intervention in brain aging: reducing the effects of inflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lau, Francis C; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A

    2007-01-01

    It is estimated that by the year 2050 the elderly (aged 65 or older) population will double the population of children (aged 0-14) for the first time in history. The expansion of the elderly population has already taken a toll on health care systems. In order to alleviate the health care costs and increase the quality of living in the aging population, it is crucial to explore methods that may retard or reverse the deleterious effects of aging. Inflammation and oxidative stress play important roles in brain aging. Inflammatory markers, as well as cellular and molecular oxidative damage, increase during normal brain aging. This increase is accompanied by the concomitant decline in cognitive and motor performance in the elderly population, even in the absence of neurodegenerative diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of diets rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents, such as those found in fruits and vegetables, may lower the risk of developing age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Research from our laboratory suggests that dietary supplementation with fruit or vegetable extracts can decrease the age-enhanced vulnerability to oxidative stress and inflammation. Additional research suggests that the polyphenolic compounds found in fruits such as blueberries may exert their beneficial effects through signal transduction and neuronal communication. Thus, nutritional intervention may exert therapeutic protection against age-related deficits and neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. American Federation for Aging Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Post 50 Infoaging Biology of Aging Disease Center Healthy Aging Ask the Expert Contact Us Press Info Contact ... live healthier, longer Age Better Fund LEARN about healthy aging through AFAR's expert-edited guides InfoAging What's New ...

  17. Distribution of uranium in drinking water and associated age-dependent radiation dose in India.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S K; Mohapatra, S; Chakrabarty, A; Sumesh, C G; Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

    2009-09-01

    Exposure due to natural radiation is of particular importance because it accounts for the largest contribution (nearly 85 %) to the total collective dose of the world population. An attempt has been made to present the feasibility of uranium occurrence in drinking water samples from different states of India, by laser-induced fluorimetry. The associated age-dependent radiation dose was estimated by taking the prescribed water intake values of different age groups. The concentration of uranium obtained, i.e. 0.1 +/- 0.01 to 19.6 +/- 1.8 microg l(-1), is well below the drinking water guideline value of 30 microg l(-1). The annual ingestion dose due to uranium in drinking water for various age groups is found to vary from 0.14 to 48 microSv y(-1).

  18. Explanation and Use of the Rio 2011 Colposcopy Nomenclature of the IFCPC (International Federation for Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy): Comments on the general colposcopic assessment of the uterine cervix: adequate/inadequate; squamocolumnar junction; transformation zone.

    PubMed

    Quaas, J; Reich, O; Küppers, V

    2014-12-01

    In July 2012 the IFCPC adopted a revised terminology for colposcopic examinations of the uterine cervix. In 2012, the Boards of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Kolposkopie (AGK - Austrian Society of Colposcopy), the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Kolposkopie und Zervixpathologie (AGKOL - Swiss Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology) and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Kolposkopie und Zervixpathologie (AGCPC - German Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology) accepted the validity of the 2011 IFCPC nomenclature and recommended its use in general clinical practice across German-speaking countries. The revised nomenclature was devised so that examiners can evaluate colposcopic criteria according to a specific scheme. At the start of the examination, the examiner must assess whether the colposcopy is representative or not. 1. Can the examination be classed as adequate or inadequate (reasons must be given)? 2. How would you describe the visibility of the squamocolumnar junction and categorize the transformation zone? Below we discuss some aspects of this general assessment as outlined in the nomenclature which were found to require further clarification for general practice.

  19. Synchronous high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and adenocarcinoma in situ of cervix in a young woman presenting with hyperchromatic crowded groups in the cervical cytology specimen: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Nadeem; Balazs, Louisa; Benstein, Barbara D

    2008-11-01

    We report a 29-year-old woman who underwent routine gynecologic evaluation at a community clinic and had a cervical sample drawn for liquid-based cytologic evaluation. At cytology, many hyperchromatic crowded groups (HCG) were present, but a consensus could not be established whether the abnormal cells were primarily glandular or squamous with secondary endocervical glandular involvement. An interpretation of atypical endocervical cells, favor neoplastic, was rendered and biopsy advised if clinically appropriate. At biopsy, the cervix contained synchronous squamous cell carcinoma in situ, secondarily involving endocervical glands, and neighboring adenocarcinoma in situ. Immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 and p16(INK4A) crisply and precisely stained both the lesions, clearly separating them from the adjacent uninvolved mucosa. This case re-emphasizes the challenge associated with accurate evaluation of HCG at cytology, the significance of ancillary testing for surrogate markers of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection, the need for adjunct testing for HPV-DNA in the setting of HCG at cervical cytology, and a recommendation to set up studies to evaluate the role of surrogate markers of HR-HPV infection in cytologic samples with HCG.

  20. Menopause accelerates biological aging

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Morgan E.; Lu, Ake T.; Chen, Brian H.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bandinelli, Stefania; Salfati, Elias; Manson, JoAnn E.; Quach, Austin; Kusters, Cynthia D. J.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Teschendorff, Andrew E.; Widschwendter, Martin; Ritz, Beate R.; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Horvath, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Although epigenetic processes have been linked to aging and disease in other systems, it is not yet known whether they relate to reproductive aging. Recently, we developed a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of age (known as the “epigenetic clock”), which is based on DNA methylation levels. Here we carry out an epigenetic clock analysis of blood, saliva, and buccal epithelium using data from four large studies: the Women's Health Initiative (n = 1,864); Invecchiare nel Chianti (n = 200); Parkinson's disease, Environment, and Genes (n = 256); and the United Kingdom Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (n = 790). We find that increased epigenetic age acceleration in blood is significantly associated with earlier menopause (P = 0.00091), bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0018), and a longer time since menopause (P = 0.017). Conversely, epigenetic age acceleration in buccal epithelium and saliva do not relate to age at menopause; however, a higher epigenetic age in saliva is exhibited in women who undergo bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0079), while a lower epigenetic age in buccal epithelium was found for women who underwent menopausal hormone therapy (P = 0.00078). Using genetic data, we find evidence of coheritability between age at menopause and epigenetic age acceleration in blood. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we find that two SNPs that are highly associated with age at menopause exhibit a significant association with epigenetic age acceleration. Overall, our Mendelian randomization approach and other lines of evidence suggest that menopause accelerates epigenetic aging of blood, but mechanistic studies will be needed to dissect cause-and-effect relationships further. PMID:27457926

  1. Aging and the aged in Aesopic fables.

    PubMed

    Wortley, J

    1997-01-01

    Little attempt has been made to re-assess the attitudes to aging and old age of the ancient-medieval Greek-speaking world on the basis of the literary remains (which are common to both) since Richardson (1933). There are however some collections (proverbs, sayings, "purple passages" from literature and so forth) which include material revealing attitudes which are in fact quite different from those of today and which can even be surprising. One such collection, the large number of fables which more or less conform to the genre associated with Aesop, is here analyzed to isolate the texts which have to do with aging and the attitudes they reveal. Of the surprisingly few fables which touch upon the matter, most are distinctly complimentary. In most instances the elderly are seen to increase, rather diminish, in certain powers other than physical strength. Fables are found which characterize them as being astute, intelligent, crafty, loyal and, above all, capable of giving sound advice and good leadership when the situation requires it of them. The celebrated Fable of the Tortoise and the Hare, although it was not specifically interpreted in this way in ancient times, best sums up the general attitude: that dogged persistence (the characteristic of the elderly) will ultimately prove superior to all the erratic bursts of youthful speed anytime. Hence Cicero: "Old age is more spirited than youth, and stronger!"

  2. Changes of hygroscopicity and morphology during ageing of diesel soot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tritscher, Torsten; Jurányi, Zsófia; Martin, Maria; Chirico, Roberto; Gysel, Martin; Heringa, Maarten F.; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Sierau, Berko; Prévôt, André S. H.; Weingartner, Ernest; Baltensperger, Urs

    2011-07-01

    Soot particles are an important component of atmospheric aerosol and their interaction with water is important for their climate effects. The hygroscopicity of fresh and photochemically aged soot and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from diesel passenger car emissions was studied under atmospherically relevant conditions in a smog chamber at sub-and supersaturation of water vapor. Fresh soot particles show no significant hygroscopic growth nor cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity. Ageing by condensation of SOA formed by photooxidation of the volatile organic carbon (VOC) emission leads to increased water uptake and CCN activity as well as to a compaction of the initially non-spherical soot particles when exposed to high relative humidity (RH). It is important to consider the latter effect for the interpretation of mobility based measurements. The vehicle with oxidation catalyst (EURO3) emits much fewer VOCs than the vehicle without after-treatment (EURO2). Consequently, more SOA is formed for the latter, resulting in more pronounced effects on particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity. Nevertheless, the aged soot particles did not reach the hygroscopicity of pure SOA particles formed from diesel VOC emissions, which are similarly hygroscopic (0.06 < κH - TDMA < 0.12 and 0.09 < κCCN < 0.14) as SOA from other precursor gases investigated in previous studies.

  3. Replicative Aging in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Steinkraus, K.A.; Kaeberlein, M.; Kennedy, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    Progress in aging research is now rapid, and surprisingly, studies in a single-celled eukaryote are a driving force. The genetic modulators of replicative life span in yeast are being identified, the molecular events that accompany aging are being discovered, and the extent to which longevity pathways are conserved between yeast and multicellular eukaryotes is being tested. In this review, we provide a brief retrospective view on the development of yeast as a model for aging and then turn to recent discoveries that have pushed aging research into novel directions and also linked aging in yeast to well-developed hypotheses in mammals. Although the question of what causes aging still cannot be answered definitively, that day may be rapidly approaching. PMID:18616424

  4. Age and injury severity.

    PubMed

    Brorsson, B

    1989-01-01

    This study aims at showing if and to what extent injury severity in frontal car crashes increases with the age of front seat occupants. Data on 2658 belted drivers and front seat passengers in Volvo private car series 140, 240 and 740/760, involved in frontal crashes were extracted from the Volvo Car Crash Register. The results show that the risk of injury resulting in "medical observation" does not increase systematically with age. However, the risk of fracture with any localization is more than three times higher among those aged 65-74 than in those aged 18-24, and the risk of fracture in the rib cage is nearly eleven times higher among the older than in the younger age group. It can be concluded that the incidence of specific types of injuries - as exemplified with fractures of any localization and fractures in the rib cage - increases with advancing age.

  5. Aging of clean foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weon, Byung Mook; Stewart, Peter S.

    2014-11-01

    Aging is an inevitable process in living systems. Here we show how clean foams age with time through sequential coalescence events: in particular, foam aging resembles biological aging. We measure population dynamics of bubbles in clean foams through numerical simulations with a bubble network model. We demonstrate that death rates of individual bubbles increase exponentially with time, independent on initial conditions, which is consistent with the Gompertz mortality law as usually found in biological aging. This consistency suggests that clean foams as far-from-equilibrium dissipative systems are useful to explore biological aging. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST.

  6. Estrogens and aging skin

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity. Its protective function becomes compromised and aging is associated with impaired wound healing, hair loss, pigmentary changes and skin cancer.   Skin aging can be significantly delayed by the administration of estrogen. This paper reviews estrogen effects on human skin and the mechanisms by which estrogens can alleviate the changes due to aging. The relevance of estrogen replacement, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and phytoestrogens as therapies for diminishing skin aging is highlighted. Understanding estrogen signaling in skin will provide a basis for interventions in aging pathologies. PMID:24194966

  7. The 'Age of Never'

    PubMed Central

    Paupst, James C.

    1984-01-01

    Specific clinical problems emerge in middle-aged men, not so much because of aging, but as a result of the path they have chosen to follow and their reaction to life experiences. For instance, the middle-aged executive has probably spent a lifetime working towards success. His daily existence is characterized by aggression, and his drive to conquer may make him prone to heart disease. Mild depression due to anxious self scrutiny also is common in middle age. Depression and fatigue may lead some patients to overindulge in food, alcohol and/or drugs. Others may become addicted to exercise. These patients look on pain as an ominous threat to their finely balanced daily ritual, and therefore may disregard the warning signs of injury or illness. In treating the problems of middle age, physicians should remember that most middle-aged patients have acquired some practical wisdom. PMID:21278995

  8. Hemostasis and ageing.

    PubMed

    Mari, Daniela; Ogliari, Giulia; Castaldi, Davide; Vitale, Giovanni; Bollini, Elisa Mariadele; Lio, Domenico

    2008-10-23

    On March 19, 2008 a Symposium on Pathophysiology of Ageing and Age-Related Diseases was held in Palermo, Italy. The lecture of D. Mari on Hemostasis and ageing is summarized herein. Physiological ageing is associated with increased plasma levels of many proteins of blood coagulation together with fibrinolysis impairment. This may be of great concern in view of the known association between vascular and thromboembolic diseases and ageing. On the other hand, centenarians are characterized by a state of hypercoagulability and possession of several high-risk alleles and well-known atherothrombotic risk markers but this appears to be compatible with longevity and/or health. Parameters considered risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular diseases in young people may lose their biological significance in advanced age and assume a different role.

  9. Neurodegeneration in accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Moren

    2016-11-01

    The growing proportion of elderly people represents an increasing economic burden, not least because of age-associated diseases that pose a significant cost to the health service. Finding possible interventions to age-associated disorders therefore have wide ranging implications. A number of genetically defined accelerated aging diseases have been characterized that can aid in our understanding of aging. Interestingly, all these diseases are associated with defects in the maintenance of our genome. A subset of these disorders, Cockayne syndrome, Xeroderma pigmentosum group A and ataxia-telangiectasia, show neurological involvement reminiscent of what is seen in primary human mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondria are the power plants of the cells converting energy stored in oxygen, sugar, fat, and protein into ATP, the energetic currency of our body. Emerging evidence has linked this organelle to aging and finding mitochondrial dysfunction in accelerated aging disorders thereby strengthens the mitochondrial theory of aging. This theory states that an accumulation of damage to the mitochondria may underlie the process of aging. Indeed, it appears that some accelerated aging disorders that show neurodegeneration also have mitochondrial dysfunction. The mitochondrial alterations may be secondary to defects in nuclear DNA repair. Indeed, nuclear DNA damage may lead to increased energy consumption, alterations in mitochondrial ATP production and defects in mitochondrial recycling, a term called mitophagy. These changes may be caused by activation of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1 (PARP1), an enzyme that responds to DNA damage. Upon activation PARP1 utilizes key metabolites that attenuate pathways that are normally protective for the cell. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 or reconstitution of the metabolites rescues the changes caused by PARP1 hyperactivation and in many cases reverse the phenotypes associated with accelerated aging. This implies that modulation

  10. Aging and cosmetic enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Honigman, Roberta; Castle, David J

    2006-01-01

    Obsession with a youthful appearance has become commonplace in modern society and has resulted in an upswing in cosmetic procedures trying to reverse the aging process. We selectively review the literature on aging and cosmetic surgery, with particular regard for the aging face. We pay attention to psychosocial aspects of response to such cosmetic procedures, both in terms of outcome and with respect to risk factors for a poor outcome. PMID:18044108

  11. Muscle Changes in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Siparsky, Patrick N.; Kirkendall, Donald T.; Garrett, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle physiology in the aging athlete is complex. Sarcopenia, the age-related decrease in lean muscle mass, can alter activity level and affect quality of life. This review addresses the microscopic and macroscopic changes in muscle with age, recognizes contributing factors including nutrition and changes in hormone levels, and identifies potential pharmacologic agents in clinical trial that may aid in the battle of this complex, costly, and disabling problem. Level of Evidence: Level 5. PMID:24427440

  12. The essence of aging

    PubMed Central

    Vijg, Jan; Kennedy, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that aging is a purposeful, programmed series of events is intuitively appealing based on its many conserved aspects and the demonstrated feasibility of modifying life span by manipulating single genes or pathways. Yet, the case for a non-adaptive basis of aging is strong and now all but generally accepted in the field. Here, we briefly review why the case for programmed aging is weak, with a focus on the lack of possible evolutionary beneficial effects. PMID:26389968

  13. Anorexia of Aging.

    PubMed

    Visvanathan, Renuka

    2015-08-01

    The anorexia of aging is common, leading to adverse health consequences. As populations age, the impacts from anorexia in the older population are set to increase. Only greater awareness will allow for prevention or early intervention. This article discusses the physiologic anorexia of aging, highlights contributing factors, and proposes management strategies, including screening, especially in primary care. Many neuroendocrine factors have been implicated in the pathophysiology; it is clear that further human research is necessary if there is to be a pharmacologic breakthrough. There are currently no approved pharmacologic treatment strategies to prevent or treat the anorexia of aging.

  14. Carcinogenesis and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    A suggested mechanism of carcinogenesis is presented. This scheme takes into account the effect of carcinogens at different integration levels: subcellular, tissue, and organism. Any of these levels may be age dependent. Age-associated changes in the activity of enzymes responsible for activation and inactivation of carcinogens, and variations in concentrations of lipids and proteins contributing to the transport of carcinogenic agents into cells, may play an important role in the modifying effect of age on carcinogenesis. The effects of age-associated changes in DNA repair need clarification. However, they are thought to exert a permissive influence on the age-associated rise in tumor incidence. It seems that proliferative activity of target tissues is the important modifying factor of carcinogenesis. Age-related changes of regulation at tissue and organism levels are also powerful factors in carcinogenesis modification. Age-dependent changes in the neuroendocrine system provide conditions for metabolic immunodepression and promotion of carcinogenesis. On the other hand, carcinogens per se (especially chemical and radiological) may intensify aging processes in the organism. Normalization, by drugs, of age-associated shifts requiring synthetic and energetic changes of a transformed tumor cells, and of immunological shifts, may exert both antitumor and geroprotective effects.

  15. Trinations aging symposium.

    PubMed

    Kaeberlein, Matt; Kennedy, Brian K; Liu, Xinguang; Suh, Yousin; Zhou, Zhongjun

    2011-01-01

    The "Trinations Aging Symposium" was held on the campus of Guangdong Medical College in Dongguan, China from April 28 to 30, 2011. The goal was to promote interaction, collaboration, and exchange of ideas between scientists in the field of aging research from Japan, South Korea, and China. Aging research is on the rise in Asia. This represents an important development, since Korea and Japan are the two longest-lived countries in the world, and life expectancy is increasing rapidly in China and other Asian countries. The world will see a greater percentage of people over age 65 in coming years than any period in human history. Developing therapeutic approaches to increase healthspan has the potential not only to enhance quality of life, but would also help stem the looming economic crisis associated with a high percentage of elderly. The focus of the Trinations Aging Symposium was on the basic biology of aging, and topics discussed included genome maintenance, metabolism and aging, longevity genes and interventions, and new therapies for age-related diseases. The meeting finished with a commitment for another symposium next year that will include additional Asian countries and the formation of a new scientific organization, the Asian Association for Aging Research.

  16. Disease drivers of aging

    PubMed Central

    Hodes, Richard J.; Sierra, Felipe; Austad, Steven N.; Epel, Elissa; Neigh, Gretchen N.; Erlandson, Kristine M.; Schafer, Marissa J.; LeBrasseur, Nathan K.; Wiley, Christopher; Campisi, Judith; Sehl, Mary E.; Scalia, Rosario; Eguchi, Satoru; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.; Halter, Jeffrey B.; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Ahles, Tim A.; Barzilai, Nir; Hurria, Arti; Hunt, Peter W.

    2017-01-01

    It has long been known that aging, at both the cellular and organismal levels, contributes to the development and progression of the pathology of many chronic diseases. However, much less research has examined the inverse relationship—the contribution of chronic diseases and their treatments to the progression of aging-related phenotypes. Here, we discuss the impact of three chronic diseases (cancer, HIV/AIDS, and diabetes) and their treatments on aging, putative mechanisms by which these effects are mediated, and the open questions and future research directions required to understand the relationships between these diseases and aging. PMID:27943360

  17. Aging and Neuronal Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Mark P.; Magnus, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Everyone ages, but only some will acquire a neurodegenerative disorder in the process. Disease might occur when cells fail to respond adaptively to age-related increases in oxidative, metabolic and ionic stress resulting in excessive accumulation of damaged proteins, DNA and membranes. Determinants of neuronal vulnerability might include cell size and location, metabolism of disease-specific proteins, and repertoire of signal transduction pathways and stress resistance mechanisms. Emerging evidence on protein interaction networks that monitor and respond to the normal aging process suggests that successful neural aging is possible for most, but also cautions that cures for neurodegenerative disorders are unlikely in the near future. PMID:16552414

  18. The scent of age.

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Kazumi; Yamazaki, Kunio; Curran, Maryanne; Bard, Judith; Smith, Benjamin P C; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2003-01-01

    In many species, older males are often preferred mates because they carry 'good' genes that account for their viability. How females discern a male's age is a matter of question. However, for animals that rely heavily on chemical communication there is some indication that an animal's age can be determined by its scent. To investigate whether there are changes in body odours with age, and if so their composition, mice were trained in a Y-maze to discriminate urine odours of donor mice of different ages: Adult (3-10 months old) and Aged (more than 17 months old). Trained mice could discriminate between these two age groups by odour alone. To determine the chemical basis for these discriminations, studies were performed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. These analyses demonstrated differences in the ratio of urinary volatiles with age. The most prominent differences involved significantly greater amounts of 2-phenylacetamide and significantly lower amounts of methylbutyric acids in Aged animals relative to Adult animals. Fractionating and manipulating the levels of these compounds in the urine demonstrated that the mice can distinguish age based on variation in amounts of these specific compounds in the combined urine. PMID:12803907

  19. We Are Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Kolovou, Genovefa D.; Kolovou, Vana; Mavrogeni, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Ageing and longevity is unquestioningly complex. Several thoughts and mechanisms of ageing such as pathways involved in oxidative stress, lipid and glucose metabolism, inflammation, DNA damage and repair, growth hormone axis and insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF), and environmental exposure have been proposed. Also, some theories of ageing were introduced. To date, the most promising leads for longevity are caloric restriction, particularly target of rapamycin (TOR), sirtuins, hexarelin and hormetic responses. This review is an attempt to analyze the mechanisms and theories of ageing and achieving longevity. PMID:25045704

  20. The influence of nutritional status on age misstatement for young children in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bairagi, R; Edmonston, B; Hye, A

    1991-01-01

    The influence of nutritional status on age misstatement in 1981 among 679 children aged 22-59 months in Companyganj, Bangladesh, is examined. The age limits were established to represent the most vulnerable age group; age information 22 months was unavailable. Calibrated scales were used for measurement. Weight was measured within 100 g, and height and arm circumference within .1 cm. Age error was calculated as actual age minus reported age. Weight for age (WA) and height for age (HA) were also calculated for actual and reported age. The Polish standard was used to calculate arm circumference for age (ACA). This rural area revealed findings different from those previously reported for the Matlab area. Systematic and random error was higher in Companyganj. Interviewer bias needs to be investigated as 1 possible explanation for the differences. There was a difference of 4.1 months between the best and worst interviewer. Although child's sex and mother's age were associated with age error in the Matlab study, child's sex was found to be insignificant. The Matlab study included children 0-14 years, which may explain the difference. The nutritional status of children influenced different interviewers, and literate and illiterate mothers report ages differently. The reasons given are the varying expectations of both the interviewers and the mothers of normal growth patterns by age. A malnourished child might be underestimated and a well-nourished child overestimated. The illiterate mother may be influenced by the opinions of the interviewer or not know the child's actual birth date, and then understate the age. The results are that there was age overreporting for each age group. The standard deviation of the age error reveals random error. The standard error increases with age. The systematic error and random error are significantly higher than in comparable Matlab data. In the analysis of nutritional status, mother's education, and interviewer, nutritional status was