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Sample records for ages 4-5 years

  1. Stereopsis results at 4.5 years of age in the infant aphakia treatment study.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, E Eugenie; Stout, Ann U; Lynn, Michael J; Yen, Kimberly G; Kruger, Stacey J; Lambert, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether stereopsis of infants treated for monocular cataracts varies with the type of optical correction used. Randomized prospective clinical trial. The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study randomized 114 patients with unilateral cataracts at age 1-7 months to either primary intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens correction. At 4.5 years of age a masked examiner assessed stereopsis on these patients using 3 different tests: (1) Frisby; (2) Randot Preschool; and (3) Titmus Fly. Twenty-eight patients (25%) had a positive response to at least 1 of the stereopsis tests. There was no statistically significant difference in stereopsis between the 2 treatment groups: Frisby (contact lens, 6 [11%]; IOL, 7 [13%]; P = .99), Randot (contact lens, 3 [6%]; IOL, 1 [2%]; P = .62), or Titmus (contact lens, 8 [15%]; IOL, 13 [23%]; P = .34). The median age at surgery for patients with stereopsis was younger than for those without stereopsis (1.2 vs 2.4 months; P = .002). The median visual acuity for patients with stereopsis was better than for those without stereopsis (20/40 vs 20/252; P = .0003). The type of optical correction did not influence stereopsis outcomes. However, 2 other factors did: age at surgery and visual acuity in the treated eye at age 4.5 years. Early surgery for unilateral congenital cataract and the presence of visual acuity better than or equal to 20/40 appear to be more important than the type of initial optical correction used for the development of stereopsis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stereopsis Results at 4.5 Years of Age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Stout, Ann U.; Lynn, Michael J.; Yen, Kimberly G.; Kruger, Stacey J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether stereopsis of infants treated for monocular cataracts varies with the type of optical correction used. Design Randomized prospective clinical trial Methods The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study randomized 114 patients with unilateral cataracts at age 1 to 7 months to either primary intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens correction. At 4.5 years of age a masked examiner assessed stereopsis on these patients using three different tests: 1) Frisby; 2) Randot Preschool; and 3) Titmus fly. Results Twenty-eight patients (25%) had a positive response to at least one of the stereopsis tests. There was no statistically significant difference in stereopsis between the two treatment groups. Frisby (contact lens, 6 (11%); IOL, 7 (13%); p=0.99), Randot (contact lens, 3 (6%); IOL, 1 (2%); p=0.62) or Titmus: (contact lens, 8 (15%); IOL, 13 (23%); p=0.34). The median age at surgery for patients with stereopsis was younger than for those without stereopsis (1.2 versus 2.4 months; p=0.002). The median visual acuity for patients with stereopsis was better than for those without stereopsis (20/40 vs. 20/252; p=0.0003). Conclusion The type of optical correction did not influence stereopsis outcomes. However, two other factors did: age at surgery and visual acuity in the treated eye at age 4.5 years. Early surgery for unilateral congenital cataract and the presence of visual acuity better than or equal to 20/40 appear to be more important than the type of initial optical correction used for the development of stereopsis. PMID:25261241

  3. Whole-population vision screening in children aged 4-5 years to detect amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Solebo, Ameenat Lola; Cumberland, Phillippa M; Rahi, Jugnoo S

    2015-06-06

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects at least 2% of most populations and can lead to permanently reduced vision if not detected and treated within a specific period in childhood. Whole-population screening of children younger than 5 years is applied in many countries. The substantial diversity in existing programmes reflects their heterogeneous implementation in the absence of the complete evidence base that is now a pre-requisite for instituting screening. The functional importance of amblyopia at an individual level is unclear as data are scarce, but in view of the high prevalence the population-level effect might be notable. Screening of all children aged 4-5 years (eg, at school entry) confers most benefit and addresses inequity in access to timely treatment. Screening at younger ages is associated with increased risk of false-positive results, and at older ages with poor outcomes for children with moderate to severe amblyopia. We suggest that the real-life adverse effects of amblyopia should be characterised and screening and diagnosis should be standardised. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Baseline Characteristics of the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Population: Predicting Recognition Acuity at 4.5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Lynn, Michael J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To identify patient baseline characteristics that predict recognition acuity at 4.5 years of age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, a study of patients with monocular infantile cataracts. Methods. We analyzed baseline characteristics of the 114 infants enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study to determine which were most predictive of visual outcome at 4.5 years of age. All infants underwent cataract surgery between 1 and 7 months of age. Monocular acuity was assessed at 4.5 years of age by a traveling examiner using the Amblyopia Treatment Study HOTV protocol. Results. Age at cataract surgery was weakly associated with visual acuity (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.19, P = 0.041) with median visual acuity better among the younger patients (28–48 days: 0.50 logMAR, 49–210 days: 1.10 logMAR, P = 0.046). Patients from families with private insurance had significantly better median visual acuity (0.60 vs. 1.40 logMAR, P = 0.0004). No other baseline characteristic revealed a significant bivariate relationship with visual acuity. A multiple linear regression relating visual acuity to all baseline characteristics demonstrated that only the availability of private insurance was statistically significant, accounting for 12% of the variance. Conclusions. This analysis concurs with previous studies that early surgery is important for good visual outcomes in patients with unilateral infantile cataracts. The fact that only one baseline variable (private insurance) contributed to the multivariate analysis, accounting for 12% of the variance, suggests that predicting visual outcome for these patients is complicated at best, and cannot be estimated from baseline characteristics alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00212134.) PMID:25503455

  5. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire Designed to Assess Diet in Children Aged 4-5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Vioque, Jesus; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manuela; Gonzalez-Palacios, Sandra; Rebagliato, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran; Murcia, Mario; Iñiguez, Carmen; Granado, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Background The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is the most efficient and cost-effective method to investigate the relationship between usual diet and disease in epidemiologic studies. Although FFQs have been validated in many adult populations worldwide, the number of valid FFQ in preschool children is very scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a semi-quantitative FFQ designed for children aged 4 to 5 years. Materials and methods In this study, we have included 169 children aged 4–5 years from the INMA project in Valencia, a population-based prospective cohort study of mothers and children in Spain. The 105-items FFQ was administered twice to the parents or care-givers of children over a 9-month period. Reproducibility was explored by comparing intake of nutrients by the FFQs, while validity was examined by comparing the nutrient values from the FFQs with the average nutrient values of three 24 hour dietary recall (24hDR) taken in the period, and also, with the concentration in blood specimens for several vitamins (carotenoids, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C and α-tocopherol). Pearson correlation coefficients and de-attenuated correlation coefficients were calculated and we also evaluated misclassification by quintile distribution. Results All correlation coefficients for reproducibility for nutrients and major food groups were statistically significant; the average correlation coefficients for daily intake were 0.43 for food groups and 0.41 for nutrients. The average correlation coefficients for validity for daily intakes against 24hDR was r = 0.30, and the average for de-attenuated correlation coefficients was r = 0.44. When evaluating validity against the blood concentration of vitamins, statistically significant correlations were observed for vitamin C (0.35), lycopene (0.31), β-Cryptoxantin (0.40), and vitamin E (0.29); the average of correlation coefficients was r = 0.21. Conclusion Despite some low to

  6. Comparison of contact lens and intraocular lens correction of monocular aphakia during infancy: a randomized clinical trial of HOTV optotype acuity at age 4.5 years and clinical findings at age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Scott R; Lynn, Michael J; Hartmann, E Eugenie; DuBois, Lindreth; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn; Freedman, Sharon F; Plager, David A; Buckley, Edward G; Wilson, M Edward

    2014-06-01

    The efficacy and safety of primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation during early infancy is unknown. To compare the visual outcomes of patients optically corrected with contact lenses vs IOLs following unilateral cataract surgery during early infancy. The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study is a randomized clinical trial with 5 years of follow-up that involved 114 infants with unilateral congenital cataracts at 12 sites. A traveling examiner assessed visual acuity at age 4.5 years. Cataract surgery with or without primary IOL implantation. Contact lenses were used to correct aphakia in patients who did not receive IOLs. Treatment was determined through random assignment. HOTV optotype visual acuity at 4.5 years of age. The median logMAR visual acuity was not significantly different between the treated eyes in the 2 treatment groups (both, 0.90 [20/159]; P = .54). About 50% of treated eyes in both groups had visual acuity less than or equal to 20/200. Significantly more patients in the IOL group had at least 1 adverse event after cataract surgery (contact lens, 56%; IOL, 81%; P = .02). The most common adverse events in the IOL group were lens reproliferation into the visual axis, pupillary membranes, and corectopia. Glaucoma/glaucoma suspect occurred in 35% of treated eyes in the contact lens group vs 28% of eyes in the IOL group (P = .55). Since the initial cataract surgery, significantly more patients in the IOL group have had at least 1 additional intraocular surgery (contact lens, 21%; IOL, 72%; P < .001). There was no significant difference between the median visual acuity of operated eyes in children who underwent primary IOL implantation and those left aphakic. However, there were significantly more adverse events and additional intraoperative procedures in the IOL group. When operating on an infant younger than 7 months of age with a unilateral cataract, we recommend leaving the eye aphakic and focusing the eye with a contact lens. Primary IOL

  7. Impact of visual acuity on developing literacy at age 4-5 years: a cohort-nested cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Alison; Fairley, Lesley; Chambers, Bette; Wright, John; Sheldon, Trevor A

    2016-02-16

    To estimate the prevalence of poor vision in children aged 4-5 years and determine the impact of visual acuity on literacy. Cross-sectional study linking clinical, epidemiological and education data. Schools located in the city of Bradford, UK. Prevalence was determined for 11,186 children participating in the Bradford school vision screening programme. Data linkage was undertaken for 5836 Born in Bradford (BiB) birth cohort study children participating both in the Bradford vision screening programme and the BiB Starting Schools Programme. 2025 children had complete data and were included in the multivariable analyses. Visual acuity was measured using a logMAR Crowded Test (higher scores=poorer visual acuity). Literacy measured by Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised (WRMT-R) subtest: letter identification (standardised). The mean (SD) presenting visual acuity was 0.14 (0.09) logMAR (range 0.0-1.0). 9% of children had a presenting visual acuity worse than 0.2logMAR (failed vision screening), 4% worse than 0.3logMAR (poor visual acuity) and 2% worse than 0.4logMAR (visually impaired). Unadjusted analysis showed that the literacy score was associated with presenting visual acuity, reducing by 2.4 points for every 1 line (0.10logMAR) reduction in vision (95% CI -3.0 to -1.9). The association of presenting visual acuity with the literacy score remained significant after adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic factors reducing by 1.7 points (95% CI -2.2 to -1.1) for every 1 line reduction in vision. Prevalence of decreased visual acuity was high compared with other population-based studies. Decreased visual acuity at school entry is associated with reduced literacy. This may have important implications for the children's future educational, health and social outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Effects of prenatal micronutrient and early food supplementation on metabolic status of the offspring at 4.5 years of age. The MINIMat randomized trial in rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Lindström, Emma; Raqib, Rubhana; El Arifeen, Shams; Basu, Samar; Brismar, Kerstin; Selling, Katarina; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fetal nutritional insults may alter the later metabolic phenotype. We hypothesized that early timing of prenatal food supplementation and multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) would favourably influence childhood metabolic phenotype. Methods: Pregnant women recruited 1 January to 31 December 2002 in Matlab, Bangladesh, were randomized into supplementation with capsules of either 30 mg of iron and 400 μg of folic acid, 60 mg of iron and 400 μg of folic acid, or MMS containing a daily allowance of 15 micronutrients, and randomized to food supplementation (608 kcal) either with early invitation (9 weeks’ gestation) or usual invitation (at 20 weeks). Their children (n = 1667) were followed up at 4.5 years with assessment of biomarkers of lipid and glucose metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress. Results: Children in the group with early timing of food supplementation had lower cholesterol (difference -0.079 mmol/l, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.156; -0.003), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (difference -0.068 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.126; -0.011) and ApoB levels (difference -0.017 g/l, 95% CL -0.033; -0.001). MMS supplementation resulted in lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (difference -0.028 mmol/l, 95% CL -0.053; -0.002), lower glucose (difference -0.099 mmol/l, 95% CL -0.179; -0.019) and lower insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (difference on log scale -0.141 µg/l, 95% CL -0.254; -0.028) than 60 mg iron and 400 μg folic acid. There were no effects on markers of inflammation or oxidative stress. Conclusions: Findings suggest that in a population where malnutrition is prevalent, nutrition interventions during pregnancy may modify the metabolic phenotype in the young child that could have consequences for later chronic disease risks. PMID:27694568

  9. Early problematic eating behaviours are associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake and less dietary variety at 4-5 years of age. A prospective analysis of three European birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A; Jones, L; de Lauzon-Guillain, B; Emmett, P; Moreira, P; Charles, M A; Lopes, C

    2015-09-14

    Problematic eating behaviours during early childhood could be mediators of poor dietary habits. This study aims to prospectively relate early eating behaviours with fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake and a healthy diet variety score of children aged between 4 and 5 years. Eating behaviours were assessed in three European birth cohorts (Generation XXI from Portugal, ALSPAC from the UK and EDEN from France) at 4-6, 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age, based on the child's feeding difficulties, mother's perception of child's poor eating (eating small quantities at each meal, not eating enough or needing to be stimulated to eat), food refusal and difficulties in the establishment of daily food routines. Daily servings of F&V (>1 v. ≤1 serving/d, except in Generation XXI: >3 v. ≤3) and the Healthy Plate Variety Score (categorised by the median score of each sample) were calculated using FFQ. Associations were tested by logistic regressions adjusted for maternal age, education, smoking during pregnancy, any breast-feeding and the child's z-score BMI at 4-5 years of age. Children with more feeding difficulties, poor eating, food refusal/neophobia and difficulties in establishing a daily routine at 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age had in general lower F&V intake at 4-5 years of age. The association with vegetables was slightly stronger than with fruits. These early feeding problems were also inversely associated with the variety score at 4-5 years of age, particularly when eating behaviours were reported after 12-15 months of age. A better understanding of these early feeding difficulties may help define strategies to increase the dietary quality in children.

  10. Resting Energy Expenditure and Systolic Blood Pressure Relationships in Women Across 4.5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Neeraj; Hunter, Gary R.; Fisher, Gordon; Brock, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have reported a strong association between blood pressure (BP) and resting energy expenditure (REE). However, it is not known if this relationship persists over time. Therefore, we examined the temporal relationship between REE and systolic BP. Additionally, we examined the impact of sympathetic tone and anthropometric variables on this relationship. All testing was performed on healthy, overweight African American and European American women aged 25 – 45 years over 4.5 years in the UAB General Clinical Research Center. Repeated measures mixed-models revealed REE as a significant determinant of systolic BP (β=0.0155, P<0.0001), independent of catecholamines, leg fat, visceral fat, fat free mass, fat mass, height, RSMI, and resting heart rate. Observations that REE is predictive of systolic BP across 4.5 years support previous findings that REE may potentially mediate resting BP, independent of anthropometric variables and a marker for sympathetic tone. PMID:24548382

  11. Early Number and Arithmetic Performance of Ecuadorian 4-5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bojorque, Gina; Torbeyns, Joke; Moscoso, Jheni; Van Nijlen, Daniël; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at (a) constructing a reliable and valid test to assess Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; (b) providing empirical data on Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; and (c) confronting these children's actual performances with the performances expected by national experts in this domain. We…

  12. Snoring, sleep disturbance, and behaviour in 4-5 year olds.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, N J; Pitson, D J; Stradling, J R

    1993-01-01

    Parents of 996 children aged 4-5 years identified consecutively from the Oxford health visitor register were asked to complete a questionnaire about breathing disorders during sleep. A total of 782 (78.5%) was returned. Ninety five (12.1%) children were reported to snore on most nights. Habitual snoring was significantly associated with daytime sleepiness, restless sleep, and hyperactivity. The questionnaire responses were used to select two subgroups, one at high risk of a sleep and breathing disorder and a control group. These children (132 in total) were monitored at home with overnight video recording and oximetry, and had formal behavioural assessment using the Conners scale. Seven (7/66) children from the high risk group and none from the control group had obvious sleep disturbance consequent on snoring and upper airway obstruction. Thus our estimate of the prevalence of sleep and breathing disorders in this age group is 7/996 or 0.7%. The high risk group had significantly higher nocturnal movement, oxygen saturation dip rates, and overnight pulse rates than the controls. Maternal but not paternal smoking was associated with the high risk group. Parents and teachers thought those in the high risk group were more hyperactive and inattentive than the controls, but only their parents thought them more aggressive. Significant sleep and breathing disorders occur in about 0.7% of 4-5 year olds. Children whose parents report snoring and sleep disturbance have objective evidence of sleep disruption and show more behaviour problems than controls. PMID:8280201

  13. Beyond height and weight: a programme of school nurse assessed skinfold measurements from white British and South Asian origin children aged 4-5 years within the Born in Bradford cohort study.

    PubMed

    West, Jane; Santorelli, Gillian; Lennon, Laura; O'Connell, Kathy; Corkett, John; Wright, John; Brierley, Shirley; Whincup, Peter; Cameron, Noel; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2015-11-26

    To describe the feasibility, reliability and additional information gained from collecting additional body fatness measures (beyond height and weight) from UK reception year children. Prospective cohort study. Bradford, UK. 2458 reception year children participating in the Born in Bradford (BiB) cohort study. The feasibility and reliability of subscapular and triceps skinfold measurements and differences in adiposity between ethnic groups. Of those children who were matched to their school, 91% had a subscapular skinfold measurement and 92% had a triceps skinfold measurement recorded. Reliability was generally over 90% for all measurers and both measurements. Pakistani children were slightly taller but weighed less and had lower triceps skinfold thickness (mean difference -1.8 mm, 95% CI -2.1 to -1.4 mm) but higher subscapular (mean difference 0.1 mm, 95% CI -0.1 to 0.4 mm) than white British children. We have shown that it is feasible for school nurses to collect skinfold measurements in a similar way to the height and weight measurements collected from reception year children for the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP), and that these measurements are reliable. It is important for healthcare practice to acknowledge ethnic-specific risk and these additional measurements can provide important information to examine population-level risk in populations with large proportions of South Asian children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Ensemble Perception of Size in 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-01-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the "gist" of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use…

  15. Ensemble Perception of Size in 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-01-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the "gist" of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use…

  16. Effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program for 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants were…

  17. Outcome after stroke thrombolysis in patients >80 years treated within 3 hours vs >3-4.5 hours.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Niaz; Lees, Kennedy R; Ringleb, Peter A; Bladin, Christopher; Collas, David; Toni, Danilo; Ford, Gary A

    2017-10-10

    To determine outcomes and risks of IV thrombolysis (IVT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) >80 years of age within 3 hours compared to >3 to 4.5 hours recorded in the Safe Implementation of Treatment in Stroke (SITS) International Stroke Thrombolysis Registry. A total of 14,240 (year 2003-2015) patients >80 years of age with AIS were treated with IVT ≤4.5 hours of stroke onset (3,558 in >3-4.5 hours). Of these, 8,658 (2,157 in >3-4.5 hours) were treated otherwise according to the European Summary of Product Characteristics (EU SmPC) criteria for alteplase. Outcomes were 3-month functional independence (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2), mortality, and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH)/SITS. Results were compared between the groups treated in >3 to 4.5 and ≤3 hours. Median age was 84 years; 61% were female in both groups. Median NIH Stroke Scale score was 12 vs 14 in the >3- to 4.5- and ≤3-hour group, respectively. Three-month functional independence was 34% vs 35% (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-0.89, p < 0.001); mortality was 31% vs 32% (aOR 1.10, 95% CI 0.97-1.25, p = 0.13); and SICH/SITS was 2.7% vs 1.6% (aOR 1.72, 95% CI 1.25-2.35, p = 0.001). In EU SmPC-compliant patients, 3-month functional independence was 36 vs 37% (aOR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.92, p = 0.002), mortality was 29% vs 29.6% (aOR 1.10, 95% CI 0.95-1.28, p = 0.20), and SICH/SITS was 2.7% vs 1.6% (aOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.12-2.34, p = 0.01). In this observational study, unselected patients >80 years of age treated with IVT after 3 hours vs earlier had a slightly higher rate of SICH and similar unadjusted functional outcome but poorer adjusted outcome. The absolute difference between the treatment groups is small, and elderly patients should not be denied IVT in the later time window solely because of age without other contraindications. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. The National Treatment Outcome Research Study (NTORS): 4-5 year follow-up results.

    PubMed

    Gossop, Michael; Marsden, John; Stewart, Duncan; Kidd, Tara

    2003-03-01

    The National Treatment Outcome Research Study (NTORS) is the first prospective national study of treatment outcome among drug misusers in the United Kingdom. NTORS investigates outcomes for drug misusers treated in existing services in residential and community settings. The study used a longitudinal, prospective cohort design. Data were collected by structured interviews at intake to treatment, 1 year, 2 years and at 4-5 years. The sample comprised 418 patients from 54 agencies and four treatment modalities. Measures were taken of illicit drug use, injecting and sharing injecting equipment, alcohol use, psychological health and crime. Rates of abstinence from illicit drugs increased after treatment among patients from both residential and community (methadone) programmes. Reductions were found for frequency of use of heroin, non-prescribed methadone, benzodiazepines, injecting and sharing of injecting equipment. For most variables, reductions were evident at 1 year with outcomes remaining at about the 1 year level or with further reductions. Crack cocaine and alcohol outcomes at 4-5 years were not significantly different from intake. Substantial reductions across a range of problem behaviours were found 4-5 years after patients were admitted to national treatment programmes delivered under day-to-day conditions. The less satisfactory outcomes for heavy drinking and use of crack cocaine suggest the need for services to be modified to tackle these problems more effectively. Despite differences between the United Kingdom and the United States in patient populations and in treatment programmes, there are many similarities between the two countries in outcomes from large-scale, multi-site studies.

  19. Age-associated repression of type 1 inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor impairs muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bora; Lee, Seung-Min; Bahn, Young Jae; Lee, Kwang-Pyo; Kang, Moonkyung; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Woo, Sun-Hee; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Eunhee; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass and power decrease with age, leading to impairment of mobility and metabolism in the elderly. Ca2+ signaling is crucial for myoblast differentiation as well as muscle contraction through activation of transcription factors and Ca2+-dependent kinases and phosphatases. Ca2+ channels, such as dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), two-pore channel (TPC) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (ITPR), function to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis in myoblasts. Here, we observed a significant decrease in expression of type 1 IP3 receptor (ITPR1), but not types 2 and 3, in aged mice skeletal muscle and isolated myoblasts, compared with those of young mice. ITPR1 knockdown using shRNA-expressing viruses in C2C12 myoblasts and tibialis anterior muscle of mice inhibited myotube formation and muscle regeneration after injury, respectively, a typical phenotype of aged muscle. This aging phenotype was associated with repression of muscle-specific genes and activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. ERK inhibition by U0126 not only induced recovery of myotube formation in old myoblasts but also facilitated muscle regeneration after injury in aged muscle. The conserved decline in ITPR1 expression in aged human skeletal muscle suggests utility as a potential therapeutic target for sarcopenia, which can be treated using ERK inhibition strategies. PMID:27658230

  20. Treatment of 4-5 year old patients with cleft lip and cleft palate in Tawanchai center.

    PubMed

    Pradubwong, Suteera; Volrathongchai, Kanittha; Chowchuen, Bowornsilp

    2013-09-01

    The occurrence of Cleft Lip/Palate condition in Thailand reaches a rate of 2.49% of child births, with estimates of 800 new cases per year in the Northeastern region. The healthcare process emphasizes interdisciplinary teamwork at each stage of the planning of treatment and services with the primary goal of achieving patient satisfaction and ability to live normally in society. The first 5 years are particularly important, with a focus on quality of care and ability to adapt to the environment before entering school. To study the treatment of patients with cleft lip and palate in Tawanchai center in the 4-5 year age range. A retrospective study of the clinical records was led, concerning the 123 cleft lip and cleft palate patients aged 4-5 years under treatment in Tawanchai center, Srinagarind Hospital. Data was collected during three months from October to December 2011, using the admission records of the interdisciplinary team. Percentages and mean values were calculated from these data. 120 of the 123 patients were operated, giving a ratio of 97.56%. 108 cases were under government universal health coverage regime, corresponding to 87.80% of cases. 74 cases (60.16%) presented both cleft lip and palate condition, and an average of 5-night stay in hospital per person. Medical services by the interdisciplinary team were provided as follows: (1) of 30 patients with cleft lip aged 3-4 months, 30 (100%) received pre and post-surgery care counseling, 29 (96.67%) received surgery; (2) of 19 patients with cleft palate aged 10-18 months, 17 (89.47%) received treatment information, pre and postsurgery counseling and were operated according to the protocols; (3) of 74 patients with cleft lip and palate, 53 (71.62%) received counseling for pre and post-surgery care for lip repair at the age of 3-4 months, 52 (70.27%) were operated following the protocols, while at the age of 10-18 months 63 patients (85.14%) received treatment information, pre and postsurgery care counseling

  1. Rules for pluralization in African American English: Evidence from 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trent-Brown, Sonja A.

    2005-09-01

    This study investigated the African American English (AAE) forms produced by 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children when pluralizing words ending in final consonant clusters. Participants were 105 child and 45 adult speakers of AAE. Speakers provided verbal responses to pictures of cartoon-like creatures with nonsense word names. Responses were recorded and presented to experienced listeners for language set and singular versus plural judgments. An acoustical analysis was conducted for comparison to the perceptual findings. Results suggest that although [s] inflection is nonobligatory in AAE, there are many instances in which it does occur. Variation in plural forms across final consonant clusters is discussed as well as other markers for pluralization in the absence of the [s] morpheme.

  2. Behavioral Profiles in 4-5 Year-Old Children: Normal and Pathological Variants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Jan-Olov; Bergman, Lars R.; Earls, Felton; Rydelius, Per-Anders

    2004-01-01

    Normal and psychopathological patterns of behavior symptoms in preschool children were described by a classification approach using cluster analysis. The behavior of 406 children, average age 4 years 9 months, from the general population was evaluated at home visits. Seven clusters were identified based on empirically defined dimensions:…

  3. Histology of a Marfan aorta 4.5 years after personalized external aortic root support.

    PubMed

    Pepper, John; Goddard, Martin; Mohiaddin, Raad; Treasure, Tom

    2015-09-01

    In 2008, a 26-year old man had personalized external aortic root support (PEARS) with a macroporous mesh. He was the 16th of 46 patients to have this operation. He had a typical Marfan habitus. His mother died of this disease as did his brother, with an aortic dissection. The patient himself died suddenly 4.5 years after his PEARS operation. At autopsy, there was no blood in the pericardium. The coronary orifices and proximal arteries were normal. His bicuspid aortic valve was minimally regurgitant as it was prior to operation and remained throughout follow-up. Macroscopically the implanted mesh was embedded in the adventitia and not separable from the aortic wall. Microscopically it was fully incorporated with collagen fibres as has been seen in our animal studies. The unsupported aortic arch showed some focal fragmentation of elastic fibres and a mild increase in mucopolysaccharides consistent with Marfan syndrome. These appearances were not present in the supported aortic root, which had the histological appearance of a normal aorta. He was the first patient to die with an implant. The histological appearances suggest the possibility that the incorporated support of the aortic root allowed recovery of the microstructure of the media.

  4. Histology of a Marfan aorta 4.5 years after personalized external aortic root support

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, John; Goddard, Martin; Mohiaddin, Raad; Treasure, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, a 26-year old man had personalized external aortic root support (PEARS) with a macroporous mesh. He was the 16th of 46 patients to have this operation. He had a typical Marfan habitus. His mother died of this disease as did his brother, with an aortic dissection. The patient himself died suddenly 4.5 years after his PEARS operation. At autopsy, there was no blood in the pericardium. The coronary orifices and proximal arteries were normal. His bicuspid aortic valve was minimally regurgitant as it was prior to operation and remained throughout follow-up. Macroscopically the implanted mesh was embedded in the adventitia and not separable from the aortic wall. Microscopically it was fully incorporated with collagen fibres as has been seen in our animal studies. The unsupported aortic arch showed some focal fragmentation of elastic fibres and a mild increase in mucopolysaccharides consistent with Marfan syndrome. These appearances were not present in the supported aortic root, which had the histological appearance of a normal aorta. He was the first patient to die with an implant. The histological appearances suggest the possibility that the incorporated support of the aortic root allowed recovery of the microstructure of the media. PMID:25406424

  5. Food neophobia and mealtime food consumption in 4-5 year old children.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Lucy; Carnell, Susan; Wardle, Jane

    2006-07-06

    Previous research has documented a negative association between maternal report of child food neophobia and reported frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, and meat. This study aimed to establish whether neophobia is associated with lower intake of these food types in naturalistic mealtime situations. One hundred and nine parents of 4-5 year olds completed questionnaires which included a six-item version of the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS). The children took part in a series of 3 test lunch meals at weekly intervals at school at which they were presented with: chicken, cheese, bread, cheese crackers, chocolate biscuits, grapes and tomatoes or carrot sticks. Food items served to each child were weighed before and after the meal to assess total intake of items in four categories: Fruit and vegetables, Protein foods, Starchy foods and Snack foods. Pearson Product Moment Correlations and independent t tests were performed to examine associations between scores on the CFNS and consumption during lunches. Neophobia was associated with lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, protein foods and total calories, but there was no association with intake of starch or snack foods. These results support previous research that has suggested that neophobia impacts differentially on consumption of different food types. Specifically it appears that children who score highly on the CFNS eat less fruit, vegetables and protein foods than their less neophobic peers. Attempts to increase intake of fruit, vegetables and protein might usefully incorporate strategies known to reduce the neophobic response.

  6. Ensemble perception of size in 4-5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Sweeny, Timothy D; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-07-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the 'gist' of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use ensemble coding to perceive the average size of a group of objects. Children viewed a pair of trees, with each containing a group of differently sized oranges. We found that, in order to determine which tree had the larger oranges overall, children integrated the sizes of multiple oranges into ensemble representations. This pooling occurred rapidly, and it occurred despite conflicting information from numerosity, continuous extent, density, and contrast. An ideal observer analysis showed that although children's integration mechanisms are sensitive, they are not yet as efficient as adults'. Overall, our results provide a new insight into the way children see and understand the environment, and they illustrate the fundamental nature of ensemble coding in visual perception.

  7. Searching for Organics Preserved in 4.5 Billion Year Old Salt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.; Bodnar, R.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of early solar system fluids took a dramatic turn a decade ago with the discovery of fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals in the matrix of two freshly fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans and Zag. Both meteorites are regolith breccias, and contain xenolithic halite (and minor admixed sylvite -- KCl, crystals in their regolith lithologies. The halites are purple to dark blue, due to the presence of color centers (electrons in anion vacancies) which slowly accumulated as 40K (in sylvite) decayed over billions of years. The halites were dated by K-Ar, Rb-Sr and I-Xe systematics to be 4.5 billion years old. The "blue" halites were a fantastic discovery for the following reasons: (1) Halite+sylvite can be dated (K is in sylvite and will substitute for Na in halite, Rb substitutes in halite for Na, and I substitutes for Cl). (2) The blue color is lost if the halite dissolves on Earth and reprecipitates (because the newly-formed halite has no color centers), so the color serves as a "freshness" or pristinity indicator. (3) Halite frequently contains aqueous fluid inclusions. (4) Halite contains no structural oxygen, carbon or hydrogen, making them ideal materials to measure these isotopic systems in any fluid inclusions. (5) It is possible to directly measure fluid inclusion formation temperatures, and thus directly measure the temperature of the mineralizing aqueous fluid. In addition to these two ordinary chondrites halite grains have been reliably reported in several ureilites, an additional ordinary chondrite (Jilin), and in the carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison), although these reports were unfortunately not taken seriously. We have lately found additional fluid inclusions in carbonates in several additional carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritic aqueous fluid inclusions are apparently relatively widespread in meteorites, though very small and thus difficult to analyze.

  8. Brain reserve and cognitive reserve protect against cognitive decline over 4.5 years in MS

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Maria A.; Leavitt, Victoria M.; Dackovic, Jelena; Mesaros, Sarlota; Drulovic, Jelena; DeLuca, John; Filippi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Based on the theories of brain reserve and cognitive reserve, we investigated whether larger maximal lifetime brain growth (MLBG) and/or greater lifetime intellectual enrichment protect against cognitive decline over time. Methods: Forty patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) underwent baseline and 4.5-year follow-up evaluations of cognitive efficiency (Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task) and memory (Selective Reminding Test, Spatial Recall Test). Baseline and follow-up MRIs quantified disease progression: percentage brain volume change (cerebral atrophy), percentage change in T2 lesion volume. MLBG (brain reserve) was estimated with intracranial volume; intellectual enrichment (cognitive reserve) was estimated with vocabulary. We performed repeated-measures analyses of covariance to investigate whether larger MLBG and/or greater intellectual enrichment moderate/attenuate cognitive decline over time, controlling for disease progression. Results: Patients with MS declined in cognitive efficiency and memory (p < 0.001). MLBG moderated decline in cognitive efficiency (p = 0.031, ηp2 = 0.122), with larger MLBG protecting against decline. MLBG did not moderate memory decline (p = 0.234, ηp2 = 0.039). Intellectual enrichment moderated decline in cognitive efficiency (p = 0.031, ηp2 = 0.126) and memory (p = 0.037, ηp2 = 0.115), with greater intellectual enrichment protecting against decline. MS disease progression was more negatively associated with change in cognitive efficiency and memory among patients with lower vs higher MLBG and intellectual enrichment. Conclusion: We provide longitudinal support for theories of brain reserve and cognitive reserve in MS. Larger MLBG protects against decline in cognitive efficiency, and greater intellectual enrichment protects against decline in cognitive efficiency and memory. Consideration of these protective factors should improve prediction of future cognitive decline in patients with

  9. Iapetus: 4.5 Billion Years of Contamination by Phoebe Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    1997-07-01

    accreted there. Since the distribution of Iapetus' dark material depends on the flux of Phoebe dust over 4.5 billion years, it is not surprising that the distribution does not precisely match predictions which consider only the present dynamical configurations of the two satellites.

  10. Effect of aging on thyroidal and pituitary T4-5'-deiodinase activity in female rats.

    PubMed

    Correa da Costa, V M; Rosenthal, D

    1996-01-01

    Some alterations in hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis occur during aging. In this study we evaluated the changes induced by aging in pituitary and thyroid iodothyronine-deiodinase (DI) activities, and in serum T4, T3 and TSH. Groups of 6-18 female Dutch-Miranda rats aged 3-5 months (young adults) were studied in parallel with similar groups of old (10-12 months) and senescent (24-30 months) animals. DI activities were determined in the microsomal fraction of pooled pituitary or thyroid glands (6 glands per pool), using T4 as substrate and DTT as cofactor; the T3 formed was measured by specific radioimmunoassay. Serum T3, T4 and TSH were measured by specific radioimmunoassays. Serum T4 was significantly decreased in both groups of aged rats, but serum TSH was unaffected. Serum T3 was just slightly decreased in the senescent rats. Total pituitary DI activity was significantly decreased in the aged rats (10-12 and 24-30 months). Both type I and type II DI activities were affected, although the decrease in type I DI only became significant in the senescent rats. In contrast, to its effect in the pituitary, aging does not decrease, even slightly, the DI activity in the thyroid gland. The thyroid DI activity may contribute to the unaltered serum T3 levels found in aged rats in the present study.

  11. Winning Ways To Learn, Ages 3, 4 & 5: 600 Great Ideas for Children. Goddard Parenting Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisels, Samuel J.; Marsden, Dorothea B.; Stetson, Charlotte

    Noting that parents have the opportunity to help their young children build a strong foundation for learning, this book shows parents of 3- to 5-year-olds how to make learning and discovery fun while developing attributes such as competence and curiosity. The book contains 600 creative and low-cost activities, based on the work sampling system,…

  12. Japanese Language and Culture; 9-Year Program Guide to Implementation, Grades 4-5-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This implementation guide is intended to support the Grade 4 to Grade 6 portion of the Japanese Language and Culture Nine-year Program (the program of studies). It was developed primarily for teachers, yet it includes information that may be useful for administrators and other stakeholders in their efforts to plan for and implement the new Chinese…

  13. Calcium supplementation and the risks of atherosclerotic vascular disease in older women: results of a 5-year RCT and a 4.5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Joshua R; Calver, Janine; Zhu, Kun; Flicker, Leon; Prince, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that calcium supplementation, a key intervention for preventing osteoporotic fracture in older women, may increase the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease. To evaluate the risk further, an examination of complete verified atherosclerotic vascular hospitalization and mortality data from a 5-year randomized, controlled trial (RCT) of calcium carbonate and 4.5 years of posttrial follow-up was undertaken. This study used data from a published 5-year randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial [Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome Study (CAIFOS)]. The participants were 1460 women aged 75.1 ± 2.7 years at baseline (1998) recruited from the general population and randomized to receive 1200 mg of calcium carbonate daily or an identical placebo. All hospital admission and deaths during the 5-year study and the 4.5-year follow-up were derived from the Western Australian Data Linkage Service (WADLS). Hazard ratios (HRs) for the combined endpoint of atherosclerotic vascular mortality or first hospitalization were calculated using prespecified intention-to-treat and per-protocol models. The intervention group that received calcium supplementation did not have a higher risk of death or first-time hospitalization from atherosclerotic vascular disease in either the 5-year RCT [multivariate-adjusted HR = 0.938, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.690-1.275] or during the 9.5 years of observational study (multivariate-adjusted HR = 0.919, 95% CI 0.737-1.146). Further analysis suggested that calcium supplementation may reduce the risk of hospitalization and mortality in patients with preexisting atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This trial provides compelling evidence that calcium supplementation of 1200 mg daily does not significantly increase the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease in elderly women.

  14. The role of executive functions in the pragmatic skills of children age 4-5.

    PubMed

    Blain-Brière, Bénédicte; Bouchard, Caroline; Bigras, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Several studies suggest that pragmatic skills (PS) (i.e., social communication) deficits may be linked to executive dysfunction (i.e., cognitive processes required for the regulation of new and complex behaviors) in patients with frontal brain injuries. If impairment of executive functions (EF) causes PS deficits in otherwise healthy adults, could this mean that EF are necessary for the normal functioning of PS, even more so than cognitive maturation? If so, children with highly developed EF should exhibit higher levels of PS. This study aimed to examine the link between EF and PS among normally developing children. A secondary goal was to compare this relationship to that between intellectual quotient (IQ) and PS in order to determine which predictor explained the most variance. Participants were 70 French-speaking preschool children (3;10-5;7 years old). The PS coding system, an observational tool developed for this study, was used to codify the children's PS during a semi-structured conversation with a research assistant. Five types of EF processes were evaluated: self-control, inhibition, flexibility, working memory and planning. IQ was estimated by tallying the scores on a receptive vocabulary test and a visuoconstructive abilities test. The results of the test of differences between correlation coefficients suggest that EF contributed significantly more than IQ to the PS exhibited by preschoolers during conversation. More specifically, higher inhibition skills were correlated with a decrease in talkativeness and assertiveness. EF also appeared to foster quality of speech by promoting the ability to produce fluid utterances, free of unnecessary repetition or hesitation. Moreover, children with a high working memory capacity were more likely to formulate contingent answers and produce utterances that could be clearly understood by the interlocutor. Overall, these findings help us better understand how EF may assist children in everyday social interactions.

  15. Performance tests of 4-5 year old lithium sulphur dioxide batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, C. R.; Williams, R. L.

    1983-09-01

    Tests of a new acoustic system in the spring of 1982, using radio frequency transmission of the data, required the Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity (NORDA) to reconsider the use of lithium battery technology. A request was made to the Navy Safety Office, Naval Sea Systems Command Code 06H, for permission to utilize lithium batteries in the R&D project and for permission to use existing lithium sulphur dioxide cells, which had been purchased in previous years. The safety office tentatively approved the intended useage but subject to a performance test and evaluation of a representative sample of the existing cells. In response to the NAVSEA direction, 32 cells were randomly chosen and subjected to forming and discharge tests. The cells, as a group, performed beyond expectations and provided energy in excess of the manufacturer's original specifications for these cells. All tests were performed without safety problems or any incidents. Similar cells from the same lot were subsequently used at sea in the R&D project and performed equally as well as those tested in the laboratory. This report documents the testing procedures used to evaluate 4 to 5 year old Li/SO2 cells and the test results achieved.

  16. The Role of Feature Type and Causal Status in 4-5-Year-Old Children's Biological Categorizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Benjamin; Cordier, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of the causal status of features and feature type in biological categorizations by young children. Study 1 showed that 5-year-olds are more strongly influenced by causal features than effect features; 4-year-olds exhibit no such tendency. There therefore appears to be a conceptual change between the ages of…

  17. Conversion from cyclosporine to everolimus at 4.5 months posttransplant: 3-year results from the randomized ZEUS study.

    PubMed

    Budde, K; Lehner, F; Sommerer, C; Arns, W; Reinke, P; Eisenberger, U; Wüthrich, R P; Scheidl, S; May, C; Paulus, E-M; Mühlfeld, A; Wolters, H H; Pressmar, K; Stahl, R; Witzke, O

    2012-06-01

    The long-term effect of conversion from calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy to an mTOR inhibitor requires clarification. Following completion of the 12-month, open-label, multicenter ZEUS study, in which 300 kidney transplant recipients were randomized to continue cyclosporine (CsA) or convert to everolimus at 4.5 months posttransplant, outcomes were assessed at month 36 (n = 284; 94.7%). CNI therapy was reintroduced in 28.4% of everolimus patients by month 36. The primary efficacy endpoint, estimated glomerular filtration rate (Nankivell, ANCOVA) was significantly higher with everolimus versus the CsA group at month 24 (7.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , 95%CI 4.3, 11.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ; p < 0.001) and month 36 (7.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , 95%CI 3.6, 11.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ; p < 0.001). The incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection from randomization to month 36 was 13.0% in the everolimus arm and 4.8% in the CsA arm (p = 0.015). Patient and graft survival, as well as incidences of malignancy, severe infections and hospitalization, were similar between groups. Kidney transplant patients who are converted from CsA to everolimus at month 4.5 and who remain on everolimus thereafter may achieve a significant improvement in renal function that is maintained to 3 years. There was a significantly higher rate of rejection in the everolimus arm but this did not exert a deleterious effect by 3 years posttransplant.

  18. Dietary Intake of Trans Fatty Acids in Children Aged 4-5 in Spain: The INMA Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Alexander; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manuela; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Santa Marina, Loreto; Irazabal, Amaia; Romaguera, Dora; Guxens, Mònica; Julvez, Jordi; Llop, Sabrina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Vioque, Jesus

    2016-10-10

    Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in children aged 4-5 (n = 1793). TFA intake was estimated using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, and multiple linear regression was used to explore associated factors. The mean daily intakes of total, industrial and natural TFA were 1.36, 0.60, and 0.71 g/day, respectively. Ten percent of the children obtained >1% of their energy intake from TFA. The main sources of industrial TFA were fast food, white bread and processed baked goods. Milk, red and processed meat and processed baked goods were the main sources of natural TFA. Having parents from countries other than Spain was significantly associated with higher natural TFA (in mg/day) intake (β 45.5) and television viewing was significantly associated with higher industrial TFA intake (β 18.3). Higher fruits and vegetables intake was significantly associated with lower intakes of all TFAs, whereas higher sweetened beverages intake was significantly associated with lower total and natural TFA intake. Thus, total and industrial TFA intake was associated with less healthy food patterns and lifestyles in Spanish preschool children.

  19. Allergy to tea tree oil: retrospective review of 41 cases with positive patch tests over 4.5 years.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Tim; Nixon, Rosemary; Tam, Mei; Tate, Bruce

    2007-05-01

    Tea tree oil use is increasing, with considerable interest in it being a 'natural' antimicrobial. It is found in many commercially available skin and hair care products in Australia. We retrospectively reviewed our patch test data at the Skin and Cancer Foundation Victoria over a 4.5-year period and identified 41 cases of positive reactions to oxidized tea tree oil of 2320 people patch-tested, giving a prevalence of 1.8%. The tea tree oil reaction was deemed relevant to the presenting dermatitis in 17 of 41 (41%) patients. Of those with positive reactions, 27 of 41 (66%) recalled prior use of tea tree oil and eight of 41 (20%) specified prior application of neat (100%) tea tree oil. Tea tree oil allergic contact dermatitis is under-reported in the literature but is sufficiently common in Australia to warrant inclusion of tea tree oil, at a concentration of 10% in petrolatum, in standard patch-test series. Given tea tree oil from freshly opened tea tree oil products elicits no or weak reactions, oxidized tea tree oil should be used for patch testing.

  20. The treatment of 4-5 year-old patients with cleft lip and cleft palate in Tawanchai Center: follow-up.

    PubMed

    Pradubwong, Suteera; Pongpagatip, Sumalee; Prathanee, Benjamas; Thanawirattananit, Panida; Ratanaanekchai, Teeraporn; Chowchuen, Bowornsilp

    2012-11-01

    The highest incidence of cleft lip and cleft palate in Thailand occurs in the Northeast Region. Tawanchai Center was set up 10 years ago to be a specialized medical care center where an interdisciplinary team provides care for cleft lip and cleft palate patients. There has never previously been a study about 4-5 year old patients treated and followed-up by the multidisciplinary team. To study the 4-5 year old patient's with cleft lip and cleft palate who received treatment and follow-up in Tawanchai Center, Srinagarind Hospital. This retrospective study was conducted using data from every 4-5 years old cleft lip and cleft palate patients' medical record of the patients who had the continuous multidisciplinary treatment care at Tawanchai Center, Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Dentistry, Khon Kaen University. The 123 case samples were collected during the 3 months of April-June 2012. The research instrument was a form for general data record and follow-up data record and then the data were analyzed by statistic and percentage. From the 123 cases of the 4-5 years old patients with cleft lip and cleft palate who received treatment at Tawanchai Center Srinagarind Hospital, it was found that 120 cases or 97.56 percent had an operation, 20 cases (16.26 percent) were found where patients came from Khon Kaen Province, 10 cases of each male and female. For this treatment, the majority (108 cases) used government insurance cards. The patients with cleft lip and cleft palate were most common and found to be 74 cases consisted of 44 male and 30 female. The diagnosis and follow-up of cleft lip and cleft palate patients were classified into 18 age ranges, with a total of 2,269 follow-up visits. The most common follow-up was for the 2-3 year old patients, which consisted of 410 times or 18.07 percent which consisted of 220 male and 190 female. Regarding the age range of the patients for the first diagnosis, the highest amount was 38 cases or 30.89 percent

  1. Fiber-reinforced composite fixed dental prostheses in the anterior area: a 4.5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Frese, Cornelia; Schiller, Petra; Staehle, Hans Joerg; Wolff, Diana

    2014-08-01

    Currently, fiber-reinforced fixed dental prostheses (FRC FDPs) are a reliable treatment option for the restoration of single missing teeth in the anterior area. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the survival of direct and semidirect fabricated FRC FDPs in the anterior area and to rate the quality of the outcome. Twenty-four participants (12 men, 12 women) were included in the investigation. The prostheses were made of preimpregnated, unidirectional fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) (everStick, GC) by using a direct (n=18) or semidirect (n=6) technique. Eleven FRC FDPs had been placed in the maxilla and 13 had been placed in the mandible. Follow-up intervals were recorded, and the prostheses were classified as success (successful), survival (unfavorable event but still in vivo), or failure (lost). Quality was rated according to the modified United States Public Health Services (USPHS) or Ryge criteria. The FRC FDPs evaluated in this study showed an overall survival rate (success) of 72.6% and a functional survival rate (success + survival) of 85.6% (median follow-up 54 months). According to the USPHS/Ryge criteria, most of the restorations displayed excellent or good quality. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method. The FRC FDPs evaluated in this study showed promising survival rates and good quality after a median follow-up period of 4.5 years (quartile range 3.5 to 6.3 years), thus indicating that FRC FDPs are reliable treatment options for the restoration of single missing teeth in the anterior area. The use of preimpregnated FRC materials with higher fiber content might improve the clinical fabrication of FRC FDPs but does not influence their long-term clinical survival. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Demographic characterization and spatial cluster analysis of human Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- infections in Portugal: A 10year study.

    PubMed

    Seixas, R; Nunes, T; Machado, J; Tavares, L; Owen, S P; Bernardo, F; Oliveira, M

    2017-06-30

    Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- is presently considered one of the major serovars responsible for human salmonellosis worldwide. Due to its recent emergence, studies assessing the demographic characterization and spatial epidemiology of salmonellosis 1,4,[5],12:i:- at local- or country-level are lacking. In this study, a analysis was conducted over a 10year period, from 2000 to the first quarter of 2011 at the Portuguese National Laboratory in Portugal mainland, with a total of 215 Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- serotyped isolates obtained from human infections by a passive surveillance system. Data regarding source, year and month of sampling, gender, age, district and municipality of the patients were registered. Descriptive statistical analysis and a spatial scan statistic combined with a geographic information system were employed to characterize the epidemiology and identify spatial clusters. Results showed that most districts have reports of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:-, with a higher number of cases at the Portuguese coastland, including districts like Porto (n=60, 27.9%), Lisboa (n=29, 13.5%) and Aveiro (n=28, 13.0%). An increased incidence was observed in the period from 2004 to 2011 and most infections occurred during May and October. Spatial analysis revealed 4 clusters of higher than expected infection rates. Three were located in the north of Portugal, including two at the coastland (Cluster 1 [RR=3.58, p≤0.001] and 4 [RR=10.42 p≤0.230]), and one at the countryside (Cluster 3 [RR=17.76, p≤0.001]). A larger cluster was detected involving the center and south of Portugal (Cluster 2 [RR=4.85, p≤0.001]). The present study was elaborated with data provided by a passive surveillance system, which may originate an underestimation of disease burden. However, this is the first report describing the incidence and the distribution of areas with higher risk of infection in Portugal, revealing that Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- displayed a significant geographic clustering

  3. [Types of responses in 4-5-year-old children in conservation, classification, and theory of mind tasks].

    PubMed

    Sáiz Manzanares, María Consuelo; Carbonero-Martín, Miguel Ángel; Flores Lucas, Valle

    2010-11-01

    This study analyzes the type of responses that children between 4 and 5 years of age give to different tasks: conservation, classification and tasks of the theory of mind (ToM). Types of responses were observed with the Observation of Cognitive and Meta-cognitive Skills Inventory, which identifies: attention, receptive and expressive language, planning processes, and meta-cognitive processes. Significant differences were found according to the variable age in: (a) the use of attentional strategies in performance of ToM tasks, (b) the use of receptive and expressive language in the performance of all tasks, (c) the use of planning processes in the performance of conservation tasks; and (d) the use of meta-cognitive processes to solve ToM tasks.

  4. 3-Hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone: a key odorant of the typical aroma of oxidative aged Port wine.

    PubMed

    Silva Ferreira, A C; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Bertrand, Alain

    2003-07-16

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on organic extracts from Port wines barrel-aged over 40 years revealed 5 odor-active compounds corresponding to descriptors used to qualify the characteristic old wine aroma. One of the compounds, described as "nutty" and "spicy-like", and present in at least 9 dilutions above the others, was perceived as particularly important. The compound responsible for this flavor was identified as 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon). The levels ranged from 5 to 958 microg/L for wines between 1 and 60 years old. It was also observed that during oxidative aging the concentration of this compound increased with time according to a linear trend (r > 0.95). Although the presence of 2-ketobutyric acid was verified, the constant rate of formation of sotolon with aging and its high correlation with sugar derivates (HMF, furfural) suggests other mechanisms, different from those reported for other wines. The flavor threshold of sotolon was evaluated in Port wine at 19 microg/L. Sensorial tests provided valuable information concerning sotolon impact on Port wine aroma. Samples supplemented with this substance were consistently ranked as older. In view of these results it can be expected that sotolon plays a pre-eminent role in the characteristic old Port wine aroma.

  5. Dynamic stabilization for L4-5 spondylolisthesis: comparison with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with more than 2 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Chang, Peng-Yuan; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chang, Hsuan-Kan; Fay, Li-Yu; Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Cheng, Henrich; Huang, Wen-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In the past decade, dynamic stabilization has been an emerging option of surgical treatment for lumbar spondylosis. However, the application of this dynamic construct for mild spondylolisthesis and its clinical outcomes remain uncertain. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of Dynesys dynamic stabilization (DDS) with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) for the management of single-level spondylolisthesis at L4-5. METHODS This study retrospectively reviewed 91 consecutive patients with Meyerding Grade I spondylolisthesis at L4-5 who were managed with surgery. Patients were divided into 2 groups: DDS and MI-TLIF. The DDS group was composed of patients who underwent standard laminectomy and the DDS system. The MI-TLIF group was composed of patients who underwent MI-TLIF. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by visual analog scale for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores at each time point of evaluation. Evaluations included radiographs and CT scans for every patient for 2 years after surgery. RESULTS A total of 86 patients with L4-5 spondylolisthesis completed the follow-up of more than 2 years and were included in the analysis (follow-up rate of 94.5%). There were 64 patients in the DDS group and 22 patients in the MI-TLIF group, and the overall mean follow-up was 32.7 months. Between the 2 groups, there were no differences in demographic data (e.g., age, sex, and body mass index) or preoperative clinical evaluations (e.g., visual analog scale back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores). The mean estimated blood loss of the MI-TLIF group was lower, whereas the operation time was longer compared with the DDS group (both p < 0.001). For both groups, clinical outcomes were significantly improved at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after surgery compared with preoperative clinical status. Moreover, there were no differences between the 2

  6. "Land of Volcanoes" workshop: a first step in Earth Sciences for "L'Alzina" Public School primary students (4-5 years old)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés, Jordi; Geyer, Adelina; Díaz, Mabel

    2017-04-01

    "Land of Volcanoes" is a scientific outreach workshop devised by Adelina Geyer, researcher of the Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera, ICTJA-CSIC. The workshop proposes an approximation to the world of volcanology through the explanation of different concepts related to these geological phenomena: its origin and its characteristics, magma eruptions and their associated hazards, etc. Over the last years, Geyer has developed the workshop in the context of different outreach activities for an audience formed, not only but mainly, by secondary school students. At the beginning of 2016, as a result of different informal contacts between ICTJA-CSIC Communication Unit and Mabel Díaz, teacher of the "L'Alzina" public school (Molins de Rei), arose the idea of developing Geyer's workshop in front of 26 students aged 4-5 years old, primary students. Díaz explains that it is "in the age ranged between 0 and 6 years when observation and hands-on activities are important elements of the learning process", although she adds that " primary students are usually not seen as potential audiences of this type of outreach activities and workshops". Díaz says that "Science is simple: it is about observing, asking questions and finding answers, the same that children, even the smallest, do constantly." Adelina Geyer accepted the challenge of conducting the "Land of Volcanoes" workshop in front of 4-5 year old children, although it was necessary to adapt its format and content to the new audience. Meanwhile, students prepared the session following the same process used in the project work system employed at the school and that started from two questions: "What do we know about volcanoes? What we want to know about them?" On June 3rd 2016, Adelina Geyer conducted "Land of Volcanoes" workshop at l'Alzina public school in front of a classroom of 4-5 years old students. The activity was divided in two parts with a total duration of 45 minutes: 1) Brief introductory talk: this part

  7. Father-Child Interaction: Associations with Self-Control and Aggression among 4.5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meece, Darrell; Robinson, Cheryl Malone

    2014-01-01

    Examined correlates of positive father caregiving and harsh control among 721 (350 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of NICHD Study of Early Child Care data and 7050 (3450 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data. Findings from both samples suggest that, for both boys and…

  8. Father-Child Interaction: Associations with Self-Control and Aggression among 4.5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meece, Darrell; Robinson, Cheryl Malone

    2014-01-01

    Examined correlates of positive father caregiving and harsh control among 721 (350 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of NICHD Study of Early Child Care data and 7050 (3450 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data. Findings from both samples suggest that, for both boys and…

  9. [Latent coeliac disease in a 4.5-year-old girl with type 1 diabetes mellitus--case report].

    PubMed

    Szaflarska-Popławska, Anna

    2006-02-01

    Four and half year-old girl with type I diabetes mellitus and latent coeliac disease was presented. The typical serological screening at type I diabetes mellitus onset was negative. Three years later serological screening was performed again because of recurrent diarrhoea. At the time serum IgA antiendomysial antibody was positive. The intestinal biopsy showed subtotal villous atrophy with intraepithelial lymphocyte infiltration and elongated crypts. It seems that diabetic children should be periodically checked by screening tests for coeliac disease.

  10. ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND INTAKE COMPARISONS IN CHILEAN CHILDREN 4-5 YEARS ATTENDING DAY-CARE CENTRES.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Gabriela; Vásquez, Fabián; Rodríguez, Maria P; Andrade, Ana M; Anziani, Maria A; Vio, Fernando; Coward, Williams

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: el método del agua doblemente marcada (ADM) tiene una precisión del 1% y en un mismo sujeto es de 5-8%, dependiendo de la edad y el entorno del sujeto. La evaluación de la ingesta energética es propensa a errores (> 15-20%), dependiendo del método utilizado. Objetivo: cuantificar los errores metodológicos del ADM en niños de 4-5 años que podrían afectar la comparación con la ingesta de energía. Métodos: el gasto de energía (GTE, por ADM), se evaluó durante 14 días en 18 preescolares, asistentes a guarderías infantiles. La ingesta energética se determinó mediante un método combinado: pesaje de alimentos durante los días de la semana y registro después de salir del centro (17 horas en adelante), además de un recordatorio de 24 horas, durante un día del fin de semana. Resultados: el promedio individual del gasto energético total fue 1373 ± 177 kcal y la ingesta de energía (1409 ± 161 kcal). La diferencia global entre la ingesta y el gasto fue 42,9 kcal/día. El error de medición del GET explicó una variación del 2,4%, entre ambas mediciones, y el espacio de dilución de isótopos fue 1030 ± 0.010, confirmando el valor utilizado en los estudios de adultos. Conclusiones: los datos de GET fueron similares a otros estudios realizados en niños en edad preescolar. La pequeña diferencia encontrada entre la ingesta y el gasto energético se puede atribuir a la metodología de la ingesta de energía aplicada, la dieta homogénea en los centros de atención, durante los días de la semana, y el bajo error metodológico del ADM.

  11. Genetic Influences in Different Aspects of Language Development: The Etiology of Language Skills in 4.5-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovas, Yulia; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Oliver, Bonamy; Dale, Philip S.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The genetic and environmental etiologies of diverse aspects of language ability and disability, including articulation, phonology, grammar, vocabulary, and verbal memory, were investigated in a U.K. sample of 787 pairs of 4.5-year-old same-sex and opposite-sex twins. Moderate genetic influence was found for all aspects of language in the normal…

  12. Caries prevalence and patterns and their relationship to social class, infant feeding and oral hygiene in 4-5-year-old children in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, A; Dini, E L; Holt, R D; Bedi, R

    2002-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between social class, infant feeding, oral hygiene, and prevalence and patterns of caries in 4-5-year-old Jordanian children. Two-stage random sampling procedure was used to select children enrolled in kindergartens in Amman, Jordan. Clinical examinations were carried out by one examiner. Mothers completed questionnaires relating to social class, infant feeding and the oral hygiene habits of the children. Sixty-seven per cent of the children had caries; 30% had the more extensive pattern involving molars and incisors. When the significant variables were taken into account, age, social class, sleeping with the mother, use of comforter and confectionery at bed/night time were shown to be independent risk factors for caries experience. Bottle-feeding at nap/bed/night time was associated with caries in incisors and caries in incisors and/or canines. Never being breast-fed, being breast-fed for more than 18 months, being breast-fed at nap/bed/night time showed a negative association with caries confined to molars although this showed a positive association with the more extensive pattern of the disease. Education for mothers about appropriate breast and bottle-feeding practices should be considered in health promotion strategies.

  13. Treatment of 4-5 year old patients with cleft lip and cleft palate in Tawanchai Center: prevalence and type of associated malformations.

    PubMed

    Pradubwong, Suteera; Pongpagatip, Sumalee; Pathumwiwatana, Pornpen; Kiatchoosakun, Pakaphan; Panamonta, Manat; Chowchuen, Bowornsilp

    2014-10-01

    Patients with cleft lip/palate may have other associated malformations but the reported prevalence and type of associated malformations varied between different studies. To report the prevalence and the type of associated malformations in Northeastern Thai patients with cleft lip/palate. A retrospective study of 123 cleft lip/palate patients aged 4-5 years was carried out at the Tawanchai Cleft Center, Khon Kaen University during the periodfrom October to December 2011. Data were collected by reviewing the patients medical records. Seventeen (14%) of the 123patients had associated malformations. Four (21%) of the 19patients with cleft palate, eleven (15%) of the 74 patients with clefts lip and palate, and two (7%) of the 30 patients with cleft lip had associated malformations. The organ systems affected by associated malformations were cardiovascular system (41%), craniofacial anomaly (23%), skeletal system (12%), urogenital system (12%) and central nervous systemn (12%). Atrial septal defect and tetralogy ofFallot were most common associated cardiovascular malformation found. The high prevalence of associated malformationsfound in patients with cleft lip/palate emphasizes the needfor a thorough screening of associated malformations and congenital heart disease ofall cleft lip/palatepatients.

  14. SPL3/4/5 Integrate Developmental Aging and Photoperiodic Signals into the FT-FD Module in Arabidopsis Flowering.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Hyo-Jun; Ryu, Jae Yong; Park, Chung-Mo

    2016-12-05

    Environmental sensitivity varies across developmental phases in flowering plants. In the juvenile phase, microRNA156 (miR156)-mediated repression of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER-BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors renders Arabidopsis plants incompetent to floral inductive signals, including long-day (LD) photoperiod. During the vegetative phase transition, which accompanies a reduction of miR156 and a concomitant elevation of its targets, plants acquire reproductive competence such that LD signals promote flowering. However, it remains largely unknown how developmental signals are associated with photoperiodic flowering. Here, we show that SPL3, SPL4, and SPL5 (SPL3/4/5) potentiate the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-FD module in photoperiodic flowering. SPL3/4/5 function as transcriptional activators through the interaction with FD, a basic leucine zipper transcription factor which plays a critical role in photoperiodic flowering. SPL3/4/5 can directly bind to the promoters of APETALA1, LEAFY, and FRUITFULL, thus mediating their activation by the FT-FD complex. Our findings demonstrate that SPL3/4/5 act synergistically with the FT-FD module to induce flowering under LDs, providing a long-sought molecular knob that links developmental aging and photoperiodic flowering.

  15. Measuring the impact of an API-first mentality with ScienceBase after 4.5 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristol, S.; Tekell, S.

    2016-12-01

    ScienceBase is a research infrastructure developed and operated by the U.S. Geological Survey with users and uses across a number of other agency and organization partners. Over four years ago, we released an Application Programming Interface (API) as the foundation of the system and took on the mindset that our progress would be measured by the uptake of the API by others beyond ourselves in developing interesting applications. We now measure success more by someone finding ScienceBase, organizing their data and information, developing an innovative API-driven application and then serendipitous discovery through a science meeting. Because of the way we built the RESTful API, we can characterize what parts of the system are employed. Analysis of usage data helps us take the supposition out of what works and guides design and funding decisions. This analytics-based process facilitates regular adjustments to our thinking and allows us to test design decisions as hypotheses rather than untestable aspirations.

  16. Arthroscopic release of shoulder contracture secondary to obstetric brachial plexus palsy: retrospective study of 18 children with an average follow-up of 4.5 years.

    PubMed

    Breton, A; Mainard, L; De Gaspéri, M; Barbary, S; Maurice, E; Dautel, G

    2012-10-01

    Children affected by obstetric brachial plexus palsy have an internal rotation contracture of the shoulder and a deformed glenohumeral joint. In 2003, Pearl proposed doing an arthroscopic release of the shoulder to restore external rotation and allow the glenohumeral joint to remodel. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the active and passive shoulder external rotation range of motion and glenohumeral joint remodelling in children treated with arthroscopic-directed release. Between 2004 and 2010, 18 children with passive external rotation under 10° were treated with shoulder arthroscopy to release the anterior capsule and ligaments and perform a subscapularis tenotomy; no tendon transfer was performed. The average age was 4 years, 2 months. Nine children had an injury at C5C6, four had an injury at C5C6C7 and five had a complete injury. The average follow-up was 4.5 years. The clinical evaluation consisted of active and passive external rotation (ER) with elbow at the side, active internal rotation, and the modified Mallet score. One child who required an external rotation osteotomy of the proximal humerus was excluded from the clinical outcomes. An MRI was performed on both shoulders to assess glenoid retroversion, glenoid type, degree of posterior subluxation (measured by the percentage of humeral head anterior to the middle glenoid fossa) and humeral head hypoplasia. At the latest follow-up, passive ER was 58° on average and active ER was 42°. Eleven children had regained more than 30° of active ER. The average internal rotation had decreased after the release. The MRI assessment showed that the glenohumeral joint had remodelled in 66% of cases; the glenoid type had improved, the glenoid retroversion had diminished and the humeral head was recentred. Humeral head hypoplasia was found in 28% of cases. Arthroscopic release of the shoulder results in more external rotation and allows for glenohumeral joint remodelling. Tendon transfer is not always

  17. Effects 4.5 years after an interactive GP educational seminar on antibiotic therapy for respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ferrat, E; Le Breton, J; Guéry, E; Adeline, F; Audureau, E; Montagne, O; Roudot-Thoraval, F; Attali, C; Le Corvoisier, P; Renard, V

    2016-04-01

    The few studies assessing long-term effects of educational interventions on antibiotic prescription have produced conflicting results. Our aim was to assess the effects after 4.5 years of an interactive educational seminar designed for GPs and focused on antibiotic therapy in respiratory tract infections (RTIs). The seminar was expected to decrease antibiotic prescriptions for any diagnosis. We conducted a randomized controlled parallel-group trial in a Paris suburb (France), with GPs as the randomization unit and prescriptions as the analysis unit. The intervention occurred in September 2004 and the final assessment in March 2009. Among 203 randomized GPs, 168 completed the study, 70 in the intervention group and 98 in the control group. Intervention GPs were randomized to attending only a 2-day interactive educational seminar on evidence-based guidelines about managing RTIs or also 1 day of problem-solving training. The primary outcome was the percentage of change in the proportion of prescriptions containing an antibiotic for any diagnosis in 2009 versus 2004. An intention-to-treat sensitivity analysis was performed using multiple imputation. After 4.5 years, absolute changes in the primary outcome measure were -1.1% (95% confidence interval: -2.2 to 0.0) in the intervention group and +1.4% (0.3-2.6) in the control group, yielding an adjusted between-group difference of -2.2% (-2.7 to -1.7; P < 0.001). Both intervention modalities had significant effects, and multiple imputation produced similar results. A single, standardized and interactive educational seminar targeting GPs significantly decreased antibiotic use for RTIs after 4.5 years. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. [Selective biopsy of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer: without axillary recurrences after a mean follow-up of 4.5 years].

    PubMed

    Bañuelos Andrío, Luis; Rodríguez Caravaca, Gil; Argüelles Pintos, Miguel; Mitjavilla Casanova, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the rate of axillary recurrences (AR) in patients with early breast cancer who had not undergone an axillary node dissection (ALND) because of a negative sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The study includes 173 patients operated on for breast cancer and selective node biopsy. In 32 patients the SLNB was positive and undergone subsequent ALND. We followed up 141 patients with negative SLNB without LDN, with a median follow up of 55 months (range 74-36). The detection rate of SLN was of 99.42%. After a median follow-up of 4.5 years, there were no axillary recurrences. Two patients developed local recurrence, other two patients developed distant metastases and four patients developed a metachronous tumor. Four patients died, none of them because of breast cancer. The results obtained support the SLNB as an accurate technique in the axillary stratification of patients with breast cancer, offering in the cases of negative SLNB a safe axillary control after 4.5 year follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  19. Prebiotics and age, but not probiotics affect the transformation of 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) by fecal microbiota - An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Adriana; Czyżowska, Agata; Huben, Krzysztof; Sójka, Michał; Kuberski, Sławomir; Otlewska, Anna; Śliżewska, Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are carcinogens which are formed in meat cooked using high-temperature methods. The human gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota plays a crucial role in maintaining health in humans of different ages, and especially in the elderly. However, the GI microbiota, whose metabolism and composition changes with age, may also be responsible for the activation of mutagenic substances reaching the colon with diet. Probiotics and prebiotics are promising in terms of reducing the destructive effects of HAAs. The aim of the study was to determine if fecal microbiota derived from the feces of 27 volunteers: infants (up to 18 months), adults (aged 23-39 years), the sub-elderly (aged 64-65 years), and the elderly (aged 76-87 years), and the presence of probiotics or prebiotics, affected the transformation of IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) to 7-OH-IQ (2-amino-3,6-dihydro-3-methyl-7H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline-7-one). The compounds were identified using LC-MS(n), NMR, and FTIR. Their genotoxicity was compared in the comet assay. Individual strains capable of IQ transformation were also identified. 7-OH-IQ was detected in six persons (two children and four elderly individuals). The degree of IQ conversion ranged from 26% (4-month-old girl) to 94% (81-year-old woman) of the initial quantity. Four Enterococcus isolates: two Enterococcus faecium and two Enterococcus faecalis strains, as well as one Clostridium difficile strain (LOCK 1030, from the culture collection) converted IQ to 7-OH-IQ. The genotoxicity of samples containing 7-OH-IQ was even three times higher (P < 0.05) than those with IQ and was correlated with the degree of IQ conversion and 7-OH-IQ concentration.

  20. Effect of reinforcing particle type on morphology and age-hardening behavior of Al–4.5 wt.% Cu based nanocomposites synthesized through mechanical milling

    SciTech Connect

    Mostaed, A.; Saghafian, H.; Mostaed, E.; Shokuhfar, A.; Rezaie, H.R.

    2013-02-15

    The effects of reinforcing particle type (SiC and TiC) on morphology and precipitation hardening behavior of Al–4.5%Cu based nanocomposites synthesized via mechanical milling were investigated in the current work. In order to study the microstructure and morphology of mechanically milled powder, X-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy were utilized. Results revealed that at the early stages of mechanical milling, when reinforcing particles are polycrystal, the alloying process is enhanced more in the case of using the TiC particles as reinforcement. But, at the final stages of mechanical milling, when reinforcing particles are single crystal, the alloying process is enhanced more in the case of using the SiC ones. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that Al–4.5 wt.%Cu based nanocomposite powders were synthesized and confirmed that the mutual diffusion of aluminum and copper occurs through the interfacial plane of (200). The hardness results showed that not only does introducing 4 vol.% of reinforcing particles (SiC or TiC) considerably decrease the porosity of the bulk composite samples, but also it approximately doubles the hardness of Al–4.5 wt.%Cu alloy (53.4 HB). Finally, apart from TEM and scanning electron microscopy observation which are localized, a decline in hardness in the TiC and SiC contained samples, respectively, after 1.5 and 2 h aging time at 473 K proves the fact that the size of SiC particles is smaller than the size of the TiC ones. - Highlights: ► HRTEM results show mutual diffusion of Al and Cu occurs through the (200) planes. ► TiC particles enhance alloying process more than the SiC ones at the early stages of MM. ► SiC particles enhance alloying process more than the TiC ones at the final stages of MM.

  1. The modified Ross operation using a Dacron prosthetic vascular jacket does prevent pulmonary autograft dilatation at 4.5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Al Rashidi, Faleh; Bhat, Misha; Höglund, Peter; Meurling, Carl; Roijer, Anders; Koul, Bansi

    2010-04-01

    Following the Ross operation, pulmonary autografts tend to dilate over time. This study researches the fate of the pulmonary autograft - at 4.5 years following the modified Ross operation - with special reference to the impact of the modification on (a) pulmonary autograft dilatation, (b) the neo-aortic root geometry, (c) neo-aortic valve function and (d) the coronary artery reserve. A total of 26 patients who underwent the Ross operation were included in this study; of these, 13 consecutive patients underwent a modified Ross operation in which the free-standing autograft root was supported externally by a Dacron vascular prosthetic jacket (DVPJ). These patients were compared to a cohort of 13 matched patients who were operated on using the conventional Ross technique; all patients were followed up prospectively by echocardiography studies. The patients who underwent the modified Ross operation were also subjected to bicycle ergometry. At the 47-month median follow-up, there was no significant increase in the size of the entire neo-aortic root in the patients who underwent the modified Ross operation; in addition, the geometry of the neo-aortic root was also preserved and the left ventricular function had improved significantly, whilst the aortic valve function and excursion remained satisfactory. All patients, with one exception, in the modified Ross operation group exhibited normal exercise capacity. By contrast, there were significant differences in diameters of the aortic root - between the two surgical techniques in favour of the modified Ross technique - following a median follow-up of 23 months in the patients subjected to the conventional Ross operation. Provision of external support to the entire pulmonary autograft with a DVPJ prevents its dilatation following free-standing pulmonary autograft Ross operation when evaluated at the 4.5-year follow-up. The function and the geometry of the neo-aortic root are not affected negatively by this modification and

  2. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age: effect on total hospital admissions.

    PubMed

    Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine S; Andersen, Andreas; Balé, Carlito; Schaltz-Buchholzer, Frederik; Do, Vu An; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Whittle, Hilton; Garly, May-Lill

    2014-06-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non-measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Using hospital admission data from the national pediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, we compared admission rates between enrollment and the 9-month vaccination in Cox models, providing admission hazard rate ratios (HRRs) for measles vaccine versus no measles vaccine. All analyses were conducted stratified by sex and reception of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS). Before enrollment the 2 groups had similar admission rates. Following enrollment, the measles vaccine group had an admission HRR of 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], .52-.95), with a ratio of 0.53 (95% CI, .32-.86) for girls and 0.86 (95% CI, .58-1.26) for boys. For children who had not received NVAS, the admission HRR was 0.53 (95% CI, .34-.84), with an effect of 0.30 (95% CI, .13-.70) for girls and 0.73 (95% CI, .42-1.28) for boys (P = .08, interaction test). The reduction in admissions was separately significant for measles infection (admission HRR, 0 [95% CI, 0-.24]) and respiratory infections (admission HRR, 0.37 [95% CI, .16-.89]). Early measles vaccine may have major benefits for infant morbidity patterns and healthcare costs. Clinical trials registration NCT00168558.

  3. The impact of breast cancer on living an everyday life 4.5-5 years post-diagnosis - a qualitative prospective study of 39 women.

    PubMed

    Salander, Pär; Lilliehorn, Sara; Hamberg, Katarina; Kero, Anneli

    2011-04-01

    The survival of women with breast cancer has improved. There are many studies available describing different aspects of how the illness and its treatment affect the women. Usually these studies are cross-sectional and focus on assessments of a sample of women at a single point in time during post-treatment. These studies are important but of limited value if we are interested in understanding more about breast cancer in a life context. The present study is a contribution. A consecutive sample of 39 women was followed up by means of repeated thematic interviews about how they lived their lives, from the end of radiation therapy to a point four years later, i.e. 4.5-5 years post diagnosis. Four different groups of women emerged. Largely, the first group evaluated the cancer initiated transformation of their lives in a positive way. The breast cancer helped them depart from a career treadmill or to positive interpersonal experiences. In the second group the cancer and its treatment seemed to pass without marked traces. The cancer made a difference for the third group, but both in positive and negative ways. A different life perspective or improved relationships were weighted against troublesome side effects from treatment. Finally, in the fourth group a bodily decline due to side effects and other health problems was predominant and this obstructed their chances of living a good life. The narratives showed that being diseased by breast cancer has different impacts depending on how the woman lives her life - it is very much a matter of transition in a life context. The results are furthermore discussed in relation to adaptation and coping theory.

  4. Global motion perception is independent from contrast sensitivity for coherent motion direction discrimination and visual acuity in 4.5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Anstice, Nicola S.; Jacobs, Robert J.; Paudel, Nabin; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.; Wouldes, Trecia A.; Harding, Jane E.; Thompson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Global motion processing depends on a network of brain regions that includes extrastriate area V5 in the dorsal visual stream. For this reason, psychophysical measures of global motion perception have been used to provide a behavioural measure of dorsal stream function. This approach assumes that global motion is relatively independent of visual functions that arise earlier in the visual processing hierarchy such as contrast sensitivity and visual acuity. We tested this assumption by assessing the relationships between global motion perception, contrast sensitivity for coherent motion direction discrimination (henceforth referred to as contrast sensitivity) and habitual visual acuity in a large group of 4.5-year-old children (n = 117). The children were born at risk of abnormal neurodevelopment because of prenatal drug exposure or risk factors for neonatal hypoglycaemia. Motion coherence thresholds, a measure of global motion perception, were assessed using random dot kinematograms. The contrast of the stimuli was fixed at 100% and coherence was varied. Contrast sensitivity was measured using the same stimuli by fixing motion coherence at 100% and varying dot contrast. Stereoacuity was also measured. Motion coherence thresholds were not correlated with contrast sensitivity or visual acuity. However, lower (better) motion coherence thresholds were correlated with finer stereoacuity (rho=0.38, p=0.004). Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity were also correlated (rho= −0.26, p=0.004) with each other. These results indicate that global motion perception for high contrast stimuli is independent of contrast sensitivity and visual acuity and can be used to assess motion integration mechanisms in children. PMID:26318529

  5. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Antisocial/aggressive and hyperactive-inattentive measures were collected at age 8, while social adversity was assessed at age 3. Results Poor electrodermal fear conditioning from ages 3 to 8 years was associated with aggressive behavior at age 8 in both males and females. Conclusions Results indicate that the relationship between poor fear conditioning and aggression occurs early in childhood. Enhanced electrodermal fear conditioning may protect children against future aggressive/violent behavior. Abnormal amygdala functioning, as indirectly assessed by fear conditioning, may be one of the factors influencing the development of childhood aggression. PMID:19788551

  6. Pilot study of unidirectional E-glass fibre-reinforced composite resin splints: up to 4.5-year clinical follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kumbuloglu, Ovul; Saracoglu, Ahmet; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2011-12-01

    dentition ranged between 6 and 12 mm, the CAL measurements ranged between 4.9 and 10mm at baseline. The mean PPD for the splinted teeth decreased from 8.9±1.8 mm to 5.2±1.2 mm, and CAL decreased from 7.2±1.6 mm to 4.6±1 mm at the end point. Direct tooth splinting with E-glass FRC material performed successfully up to 4.5 years. Periodontal status of the splinted teeth showed decreased PPD and CAL. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 4.5 Years of Multi-wavelength Observations of MRK 421 During the ARGO-YBJ and FERMI Common Operation Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We report on the extensive multi-wavelength observations of the blazar Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) covering radio to γ-rays, during the 4.5 year period of ARGO-YBJ and Fermi common operation time, from 2008 August to 2013 February. These long-term observations, extending over an energy range of 18 orders of magnitude, provide a unique chance to study the variable emission of Mrk 421. In particular, due to the ARGO-YBJ and Fermi data, the entire energy range from 100 MeV to 10 TeV is covered without any gap. In the observation period, Mrk 421 showed both low- and high-activity states at all wavebands. The correlations among flux variations in different wavebands were analyzed. The X-ray flux is clearly correlated with the TeV γ-ray flux, while the GeV γ-rays only show a partial correlation with the TeV γ-rays. Radio and UV fluxes seem to be weakly or not correlated with the X-ray and γ-ray fluxes. Seven large flares, including five X-ray flares and two GeV γ-ray flares with variable durations (3-58 days), and one X-ray outburst phase were identified and used to investigate the variation of the spectral energy distribution with respect to a relative quiescent phase. During the outburst phase and the seven flaring episodes, the peak energy in X-rays is observed to increase from sub-keV to a few keV. The TeV γ-ray flux increases up to 0.9-7.2 times the flux of the Crab Nebula. The behavior of GeV γ-rays is found to vary depending on the flare, a feature that leads us to classify flares into three groups according to the GeV flux variation. Finally, the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model was adopted to describe the emission spectra. Two out of three groups can be satisfactorily described using injected electrons with a power-law spectral index around 2.2, as expected from relativistic diffuse shock acceleration, whereas the remaining group requires a harder injected spectrum. The underlying physical mechanisms responsible for different groups may be related to

  8. 4.5 YEARS OF MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF MRK 421 DURING THE ARGO-YBJ AND FERMI COMMON OPERATION TIME

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; Piazzoli, B. D’Ettorre; Girolamo, T. Di; Bernardini, P.; D’Amone, A.; Mitri, I. De; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; Sciascio, G. Di; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhenyong; Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2016-01-15

    We report on the extensive multi-wavelength observations of the blazar Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) covering radio to γ-rays, during the 4.5 year period of ARGO-YBJ and Fermi common operation time, from 2008 August to 2013 February. These long-term observations, extending over an energy range of 18 orders of magnitude, provide a unique chance to study the variable emission of Mrk 421. In particular, due to the ARGO-YBJ and Fermi data, the entire energy range from 100 MeV to 10 TeV is covered without any gap. In the observation period, Mrk 421 showed both low- and high-activity states at all wavebands. The correlations among flux variations in different wavebands were analyzed. The X-ray flux is clearly correlated with the TeV γ-ray flux, while the GeV γ-rays only show a partial correlation with the TeV γ-rays. Radio and UV fluxes seem to be weakly or not correlated with the X-ray and γ-ray fluxes. Seven large flares, including five X-ray flares and two GeV γ-ray flares with variable durations (3–58 days), and one X-ray outburst phase were identified and used to investigate the variation of the spectral energy distribution with respect to a relative quiescent phase. During the outburst phase and the seven flaring episodes, the peak energy in X-rays is observed to increase from sub-keV to a few keV. The TeV γ-ray flux increases up to 0.9–7.2 times the flux of the Crab Nebula. The behavior of GeV γ-rays is found to vary depending on the flare, a feature that leads us to classify flares into three groups according to the GeV flux variation. Finally, the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model was adopted to describe the emission spectra. Two out of three groups can be satisfactorily described using injected electrons with a power-law spectral index around 2.2, as expected from relativistic diffuse shock acceleration, whereas the remaining group requires a harder injected spectrum. The underlying physical mechanisms responsible for different groups may be

  9. 50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nicole D; Craik, Fergus I M

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this Introduction to the Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences special issue on "50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory" are to provide a brief overview of cognitive aging research prior to 1965 and to highlight significant developments in cognitive aging theory over the last 50 years. Historical and recent theories of cognitive aging were reviewed, with a particular focus on those not directly covered by the articles included in this special issue. Prior to 1965, cognitive aging research was predominantly descriptive, identifying what aspects of intellectual functioning are affected in older compared with younger adults. Since the mid-1960s, there has been an increasing interest in how and why specific components of cognitive domains are differentially affected in aging and a growing focus on cognitive aging neuroscience. Significant advances have taken place in our theoretical understanding of how and why certain components of cognitive functioning are or are not affected by aging. We also know much more now than we did 50 years ago about the underlying neural mechanisms of these changes. The next 50 years undoubtedly will bring new theories, as well as new tools (e.g., neuroimaging advances, neuromodulation, and technology), that will further our understanding of cognitive aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. 50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nicole D; Craik, Fergus I M

    2016-12-09

    The objectives of this Introduction to the Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences special issue on "50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory" are to provide a brief overview of cognitive aging research prior to 1965 and to highlight significant developments in cognitive aging theory over the last 50 years. Historical and recent theories of cognitive aging were reviewed, with a particular focus on those not directly covered by the articles included in this special issue. Prior to 1965, cognitive aging research was predominantly descriptive, identifying what aspects of intellectual functioning are affected in older compared with younger adults. Since the mid-1960s, there has been an increasing interest in how and why specific components of cognitive domains are differentially affected in aging and a growing focus on cognitive aging neuroscience. Significant advances have taken place in our theoretical understanding of how and why certain components of cognitive functioning are or are not affected by aging. We also know much more now than we did 50 years ago about the underlying neural mechanisms of these changes. The next 50 years undoubtedly will bring new theories, as well as new tools (e.g., neuroimaging advances, neuromodulation, and technology), that will further our understanding of cognitive aging.

  11. Psychology and Aging: The First 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zacks, Rose T.; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Haley, William E.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a review of the first 20 years of Psychology and Aging, the American Psychological Association’s first and only scholarly journal devoted to the topic of aging. The authors briefly summarize its history, its contributions to the study of aging, and its broader status as a scholarly publication. One theme highlighted in our review is the diversity of content in the journal throughout its history. Another is the strong impact that articles published in the journal have had on both basic and applied topics in aging. Efforts to encompass the breadth of topics and methodologies in aging research while retaining excellent quality remain the exciting but essential challenge for Psychology and Aging. PMID:16594786

  12. Personality Stability From Age 14 to Age 77 Years

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence for differential stability in personality trait differences, even over decades. The authors used data from a sample of the Scottish Mental Survey, 1947 to study personality stability from childhood to older age. The 6-Day Sample (N = 1,208) were rated on six personality characteristics by their teachers at around age 14. In 2012, the authors traced as many of these participants as possible and invited them to take part in a follow-up study. Those who agreed (N = 174) completed a questionnaire booklet at age 77 years, which included rating themselves and asking someone who knew them well to rate them on the same 6 characteristics on which they were rated in adolescence. Each set of 6 ratings was reduced to the same single underlying factor, denoted dependability, a trait comparable to conscientiousness. Participants’ and others’ older-age personality characteristic ratings were moderately correlated with each other, and with other measures of personality and wellbeing, but correlations suggested no significant stability of any of the 6 characteristics or their underlying factor, dependability, over the 63-year interval. However, a more complex model, controlling rater effects, indicated significant 63-year stability of 1 personality characteristic, Stability of Moods, and near-significant stability of another, Conscientiousness. Results suggest that lifelong differential stability of personality is generally quite low, but that some aspects of personality in older age may relate to personality in childhood. PMID:27929341

  13. Personality stability from age 14 to age 77 years.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mathew A; Brett, Caroline E; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J

    2016-12-01

    There is evidence for differential stability in personality trait differences, even over decades. The authors used data from a sample of the Scottish Mental Survey, 1947 to study personality stability from childhood to older age. The 6-Day Sample (N = 1,208) were rated on six personality characteristics by their teachers at around age 14. In 2012, the authors traced as many of these participants as possible and invited them to take part in a follow-up study. Those who agreed (N = 174) completed a questionnaire booklet at age 77 years, which included rating themselves and asking someone who knew them well to rate them on the same 6 characteristics on which they were rated in adolescence. Each set of 6 ratings was reduced to the same single underlying factor, denoted dependability, a trait comparable to conscientiousness. Participants' and others' older-age personality characteristic ratings were moderately correlated with each other, and with other measures of personality and wellbeing, but correlations suggested no significant stability of any of the 6 characteristics or their underlying factor, dependability, over the 63-year interval. However, a more complex model, controlling rater effects, indicated significant 63-year stability of 1 personality characteristic, Stability of Moods, and near-significant stability of another, Conscientiousness. Results suggest that lifelong differential stability of personality is generally quite low, but that some aspects of personality in older age may relate to personality in childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Time Use Differences in Activity Participation among Children 4-5 Years Old with and without the Risk of Developing Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Mong-Lin; Ziviani, Jenny; Baxter, Janeen; Haynes, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Conduct problems in childhood are associated with the way in which children engage in daily activities. Research, to date, on conduct problems in relation to time use has primarily focused on school aged children and their participation in discrete activities such as watching TV and sport. The purpose of the present study is to determine if…

  15. Preschool to School in Autism: Neuropsychiatric Problems 8 Years after Diagnosis at 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnevik Olsson, M.; Lundström, S.; Westerlund, J.; Giacobini, M. B.; Gillberg, C.; Fernell, E.

    2016-01-01

    The study presents neuropsychiatric profiles of children aged 11 with autism spectrum disorder, assessed before 4.5 years, and after interventions. The original group comprised a community sample of 208 children with ASD. Parents of 128 participated--34 with average intellectual function, 36 with borderline intellectual function and 58 with…

  16. Preschool to School in Autism: Neuropsychiatric Problems 8 Years after Diagnosis at 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnevik Olsson, M.; Lundström, S.; Westerlund, J.; Giacobini, M. B.; Gillberg, C.; Fernell, E.

    2016-01-01

    The study presents neuropsychiatric profiles of children aged 11 with autism spectrum disorder, assessed before 4.5 years, and after interventions. The original group comprised a community sample of 208 children with ASD. Parents of 128 participated--34 with average intellectual function, 36 with borderline intellectual function and 58 with…

  17. Influence of donor-recipient CYP3A4/5 genotypes, age and fluconazole on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in pediatric liver transplantation: a population approach.

    PubMed

    Guy-Viterbo, Vanessa; Baudet, Henry; Elens, Laure; Haufroid, Vincent; Lacaille, Florence; Girard, Muriel; Debray, Dominique; Chardot, Christophe; Reding, Raymond; Wallemacq, Pierre; Musuamba, Flora

    2014-06-01

    To characterize the effect of donor and recipient CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and ABCB1 genotypes as well as relevant patient characteristics on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in pediatric liver transplantation. Data from 114 pediatric liver transplant recipients were retrospectively collected during the first 3 months following transplantation. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using nonlinear mixed effects modeling, including characterization of influential covariates. A two-compartment model with first order elimination best fitted the data. Estimates of apparent volume of the central compartment, intestinal clearance, hepatic clearance and intercompartmental clearance were 79 l, 0.01 l/h, 10.9 l/h and 105 l/h, respectively. Time post-transplantation, recipient age, donor CYP3A5 and CYP3A4 genotypes and fluconazole administration significantly influenced tacrolimus apparent clearance while bodyweight influenced volume of distribution. The proposed model displayed acceptable fitting performances and enabled identification of statistically significant and clinically relevant covariates on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in the early pediatric post liver transplantation period.

  18. Stimulation Activities: Age Birth to Five Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomgarden, Dave

    This handbook provides a collection of stimulation activities that encourage a child's physical and mental growth from birth to five years of age. Emphasis is placed on making stimulation aids that are inexpensive or can be made from scrap materials. Advice is given about ways to carry out designated activities. All activities have been tried and…

  19. Results of day-case ureterorenoscopy (DC-URS) for stone disease: prospective outcomes over 4.5 years.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anngona; Oliver, Rachel; Way, Carolyn; White, Lucy; Somani, Bhaskar K

    2017-06-15

    To investigate the prospective outcomes of day-case ureterorenoscopy (DC-URS) for stone disease. With the rising prevalence of stone disease in the face of finite resources, there is increasing pressure to undertake procedures as a day case avoiding in-patient stay. There are a limited number of studies reporting on the feasibility of ureteroscopy as a day-case procedure. This study aimed to investigate the prospective outcomes and predictors precluding to DC-URS for stone disease in patients treated in our university teaching hospital. Between March 2012 and July 2016, consecutive cases of adult stone ureteroscopy performed or supervised by a single surgeon were recorded in a prospective database. Patients underwent pre-operative counselling in a specialist stone clinic and were admitted to a dedicated 'Surgical day unit' on the day of surgery. A standardised anaesthetic protocol was adhered to in all cases. Data on patient demographics, stone parameters, pre-operative assessment, operative details, length of stay, stone-free rate and complication rates were collected and analysed. A total of 544 consecutive adult ureteroscopy for stone disease were conducted over the study period with a day-case rate of 77.7%. Thirty-nine percent of failed day-case ureteroscopy were due to late completion of ureteroscopy and due to associated social circumstances of patients. The mean stone size, operating time duration and post-operative stent insertion rates for DC-URS patients were 14 mm, 46 min and 96.5%, respectively. Post-operatively, the mean stone-free rate (SFR), unplanned re-admissions and complications for DC-URS patients were 95, 4 and 4%, respectively. A higher failure of DC-URS was related to patient's age (p = 0.003), positive pre-operative urine culture (p < 0.001), elevated pre-operative serum creatinine (p < 0.001) and higher mean operating time (p < 0.02). Based on our results, a day-case ureteroscopy rate of nearly 78% can be achieved. With its

  20. Breast Cancer Before Age 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Carey K.; Johnson, Rebecca; Litton, Jennifer; Phillips, Marianne; Bleyer, Archie

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 7% of women with breast cancer are diagnosed before the age of 40 years, and this disease accounts for more than 40% of all cancer in women in this age group. Survival rates are worse when compared to those in older women, and multivariate analysis has shown younger age to be an independent predictor of adverse outcome. Inherited syndromes, specifically BRCA1 and BRCA2, must be considered when developing treatment algorithms for younger women. Chemotherapy, endocrine, and local therapies have the potential to significantly impact both the physiologic health—including future fertility, premature menopause, and bone health—and the psychological health of young women as they face a diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:19460581

  1. Over and undernutrition in the children of Australian immigrants: Assessing the influence of birthplace of primary carer and English language use at home on the nutritional status of 4-5-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Renzaho, A M N; Oldroyd, J; Burns, C; Waters, E; Riggs, E; Renzaho, C

    2009-01-01

    To document the relationship between childhood nutrition status and ethnicity (defined as the birthplace of primary carer and English language use at home) using a nationally representative sample of 4- to 5-year-old children. Cross-sectional population survey of 4 983 4- to 5-year-old children (2 537 boys and 2 446 girls) as part of Wave 1 (2004) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Overweight/obesity and thinness using the newly published body mass index cut-off points of Cole (2007). In total, 20.6% (95%CI 19.5, 21.7) of children aged 4 to 5 years were estimated to be overweight or obese, while 1.0% (95%CI 0.8, 1.3) was thin. Unadjusted analyses showed a significant relationship between childhood overweight/obesity and primary carer's country of birth (chi2=15.9, p<0.01), but the significance became minimal after adjusting for socio-economic and demographic factors. The adjusted model suggests that boys of primary carer's born in Europe (excluding UK and Ireland) were less likely to be overweight/obese than boys whose primary carers were born in Australia, but the overall effect size was negligible. No difference was found for girls. In addition, boys who mainly spoke English at home were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR=0.49; 95%CI 0.27, 0.88; p=0.017) and thin (OR=0.27; 95%CI 0.12, 0.62; p=0.002) than boys who spoke a language other than English at home. No difference was found for girls. There is a relationship between main language spoken at home and nutritional status in 4-5-year-old boys but not girls. The use of English language at home may be a protective factor for normal weight in young boys. After adjustment for socio-economic and demographics characteristics, there was a negligible relationship between overweight/obesity in children and their primary carer's country of birth.

  2. RECONSTRUCTING THE STELLAR MASS DISTRIBUTIONS OF GALAXIES USING S{sup 4}G IRAC 3.6 AND 4.5 {mu}m IMAGES. I. CORRECTING FOR CONTAMINATION BY POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, HOT DUST, AND INTERMEDIATE-AGE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Meidt, Sharon E.; Schinnerer, Eva; Bosma, Albert; Athanassoula, E.; Sheth, Kartik; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Buta, Ronald J.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Hinz, Joannah L.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Elmegreen, Debra; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Regan, Michael; Ho, Luis C.; Madore, Barry F.; Gil de Paz, Armando; and others

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of constructing accurate two-dimensional maps of the stellar mass distribution in nearby galaxies from Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m images, we report on the separation of the light from old stars from the emission contributed by contaminants. Results for a small sample of six disk galaxies (NGC 1566, NGC 2976, NGC 3031, NGC 3184, NGC 4321, and NGC 5194) with a range of morphological properties, dust content, and star formation histories are presented to demonstrate our approach. To isolate the old stellar light from contaminant emission (e.g., hot dust and the 3.3 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature) in the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands we use an independent component analysis (ICA) technique designed to separate statistically independent source distributions, maximizing the distinction in the [3.6]-[4.5] colors of the sources. The technique also removes emission from evolved red objects with a low mass-to-light ratio, such as asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars, revealing maps of the underlying old distribution of light with [3.6]-[4.5] colors consistent with the colors of K and M giants. The contaminants are studied by comparison with the non-stellar emission imaged at 8 {mu}m, which is dominated by the broad PAH feature. Using the measured 3.6 {mu}m/8 {mu}m ratio to select individual contaminants, we find that hot dust and PAHs together contribute between {approx}5% and 15% to the integrated light at 3.6 {mu}m, while light from regions dominated by intermediate-age (AGB and RSG) stars accounts for only 1%-5%. Locally, however, the contribution from either contaminant can reach much higher levels; dust contributes on average 22% to the emission in star-forming regions throughout the sample, while intermediate-age stars contribute upward of 50% in localized knots. The removal of these contaminants with ICA leaves maps of the old stellar disk that retain a high degree of

  3. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4,5 - Trichlorophenol ; CASRN 95 - 95 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  4. Ability to Delay Gratification at Age 4 Years and Risk of Overweight at Age 11 Years

    PubMed Central

    Seeyave, Desiree M.; Coleman, Sharon; Appugliese, Danielle; Corwyn, Robert F.; Bradley, Robert H.; Davidson, Natalie S.; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if limited ability to delay gratification (ATDG) at age 4 years is independently associated with an increased risk of being overweight at age 11 years and to assess confounding or moderation by child body mass index z score at 4 years, self-reported maternal expectation of child ATDG for food, and maternal weight status. Design Longitudinal prospective study. Setting Ten US sites. Participants Participants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Main Exposure Ability to delay gratification at 4 years, measured as pass or fail on a validated task. Outcome Measures Overweight at 11 years, defined as a body mass index greater than or equal to the 85th percentile based on measured weight and height. Results Of 805 children, 47% failed the ATDG task. Using multiple logistic regression, children who failed the ATDG task were more likely to be overweight at 11 years (relative risk, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.58), independent of income to needs ratio. Body mass index z score at 4 years and maternal expectation of child ATDG for food did not alter the association, but maternal weight status reduced the association significantly. Conclusions Children with limited ATDG at age 4 years were more likely to be overweight at age 11 years, but the association was at least partially explained by maternal weight status. Further understanding of the association between the child’s ATDG and maternal and child weight status may lead to more effective obesity intervention and prevention programs. PMID:19349558

  5. A description of an 'obesogenic' eating style that promotes higher energy intake and is associated with greater adiposity in 4.5year-old children: Results from the GUSTO cohort.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Velan, S Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya Thway; Fortier, Marielle Valerie; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; Forde, Ciarán G

    2017-02-14

    Recent findings confirm that faster eating rates support higher energy intakes within a meal and are associated with increased body weight and adiposity in children. The current study sought to identify the eating behaviours that underpin faster eating rates and energy intake in children, and to investigate their variations by weight status and other individual differences. Children (N=386) from the Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort took part in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4.5years of age to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min) and measures of eating microstructure: eating rate (g/min), total oral exposure (min), average bite size (g/bite), chews per gram, oral exposure per bite (s), total bites and proportion of active to total mealtime. Children's BMIs were calculated and a subset of children underwent MRI scanning to establish abdominal adiposity. Children were grouped into faster and slower eaters, and into healthy and overweight groups to compare their eating behaviours. Results demonstrate that faster eating rates were correlated with larger average bite size (r=0.55, p<0.001), fewer chews per gram (r=-0.71, p<0.001) and shorter oral exposure time per bite (r=-0.25, p<0.001), and with higher energy intakes (r=0.61, p<0.001). Children with overweight and higher adiposity had faster eating rates (p<0.01) and higher energy intakes (p<0.01), driven by larger bite sizes (p<0.05). Eating behaviours varied by sex, ethnicity and early feeding regimes, partially attributable to BMI. We propose that these behaviours describe an 'obesogenic eating style' that is characterised by faster eating rates, achieved through larger bites, reduced chewing and shorter oral exposure time. This obesogenic eating style supports acute energy intake within a meal and is more prevalent among, though not exclusive to, children with overweight

  6. Effect of maternal high dosages of folic acid supplements on neurocognitive development in children at 4-5 y of age: the prospective birth cohort Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) study.

    PubMed

    Valera-Gran, Desirée; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M; Garcia de la Hera, Manuela; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardón, Adonina; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Balluerka, Nekane; Murcia, Mario; González-Safont, Llúcia; Romaguera, Dora; Julvez, Jordi; Vioque, Jesús

    2017-09-01

    Background: The benefits of the use of folic acid supplements (FASs) during the periconception period to prevent neural tube defects and to ensure normal brain development in offspring are well known. There is concern, however, about the long-term effects of the maternal use of high dosages of FASs that exceed the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) (≥1000 μg/d) on child neurocognitive outcomes.Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the association between the use of high dosages of FASs during pregnancy and child neuropsychological development at ages 4-5 y.Design: The multicenter prospective mother-child cohort study, the Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project, was conducted in 4 regions of Spain: Asturias, Sabadell, Gipuzkoa, and Valencia. Pregnant women were recruited between 2003 and 2008. Data on 1682 mother-child pairs were included in the final analyses. The pregnant women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire that was validated to estimate typical dietary folate intake and the use of FASs at 10-13 and 28-32 wk of gestation. Neuropsychological development scores at 4-5 y of age were estimated with the use of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Multiple linear regression and meta-analysis were used to obtain combined-effect estimates.Results: During the periconception period, one-third of the women (n = 502) took FAS dosages ≥1000 μg/d. The use of FAS dosages ≥1000 μg/d in this period was negatively associated with several neuropsychological outcomes scores in children: global verbal (β = -2.49; 95% CI: -4.71, -0.27), verbal memory (β = -3.59; 95% CI: -6.95, -0.23), cognitive function of posterior cortex (β = -2.31; 95% CI: -4.45, -0.18), and cognitive function of left posterior cortex (β = -3.26; 95% CI: -5.51, -1.01).Conclusions: The use of FAS dosages exceeding the UL (≥1000 μg/d) during the periconception period was associated with lower levels of cognitive development in children aged 4-5 y. The use

  7. Suicide rates in five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years: the international landscape.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit; Bhat, Ravi; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia; DeLeo, Diego; Erlangsen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    There is paucity of studies examining suicide rates in narrow five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years. This study examined suicide rates in eight five-year age-bands between the age of 60 and 99 years because this will allow more precise comparison between the young old (60-79 years) and the oldest old (80+ years) age groups. Data on the number of suicides (International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in each of the eight five-year age-bands between the age-bands 60-64 years and 95-99 years in both gender for as many years as possible from 2000 were ascertained from three sources: colleagues with access to national data, national statisics office websites and email contact with the national statistics offices. The population size for the corresponding years and age-bands was estimated for each country using data provided by the United Nations website. In men, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the seven five-year age-bands from 60-64 years to 90-94 years age-band, and then declined slightly for the 95-99 year age-band. In women, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the six five-year age-bands from 60-64 years to 85-89 years age-bands, and then declined slightly for the 90-94 years and 95-99 years age-bands. The overall global suicide rates for each of the eight five-year age-bands are sufficiently large for them to constitute a public health concern. This is especially important given the ongoing rise in the elderly population size and the paucity of data on risk and protective factors for suicide in the five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years.

  8. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and…

  9. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and…

  10. Overweight and obesity in 4-5-year-old children in New Zealand: results from the first 4 years (2009-2012) of the B4School Check programme.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Nitin; Tuohy, Pat; Mishra, Suryaprakash; Smith, Ash; Taylor, Barry

    2015-03-01

    We describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity in four-year-old children in New Zealand, variations with ethnicity and socio-economic status, and changes over the study duration using body mass index (BMI) measurements collected as part of the B4School Check programme. Demographic and BMI data were extracted for all children measured between 2009 and 2012. Overweight and obesity rates were estimated using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) 2012 standards and the 85th (overweight) and 95th (obese) percentiles for BMI-for-age of the World Health Organization (WHO) 2006, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 and UK 1990 reference standards. A total of 168,744 BMI measurements were included in the analysis with a coverage rate of 66.5%. Mean BMI was 16.30 kg/m(2) in girls and 16.44 kg/m(2) in boys. Mean BMI z-score (WHO 2006 standards) was 0.601 in girls and 0.785 in boys. Using WHO 2006 standards, 16.9% of girls and 19.6% of boys were overweight and 13.8% of girls and 18.7% of boys were obese. Using IOTF standards, 18.3% of girls and 16.2% of boys were overweight and 5.7% of girls and 4.7% of boys were found obese. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in Pacific and Maori children and those living in more socio-economically deprived areas than other children. No definite time-trends were observed over the study duration. The study reaffirms the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in pre-school children in New Zealand, and demonstrates the variations in prevalence when using different reference standards. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. Study of collective flows of protons and $ \\pi^{{-}}_{}$ π - -mesons in p+C, Ta and He+Li, C collisions at momenta of 4.2, 4.5 and 10 AGeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Chkhaidze, L.; Chlachidze, G.; Djobava, T.; Galoyan, A.; Kharkhelauri, L.; Togoo, R.; Uzhinsky, V.

    2016-11-01

    Collective flows of protons and $\\pi^{-}$ -mesons are studied at the momenta of 4.2, 4.5 and 10AGeV/c for p+C, Ta and He+Li, C interactions. The data were obtained from the streamer chamber (SKM-200-GIBS) and from the Propane Bubble Chamber (PBC-500) systems utilized at JINR. A method of Danielewicz and Odyniec has been employed in determining a directed transverse flow of particles. The values of the transverse flow parameter and the strength of the anisotropic emission were defined for each interacting nuclear pair. It is found that the directed flows of protons and pions decrease with increasing the energy and the mass numbers of colliding nucleus pairs. The $ \\pi^{{-}}_{}$ -meson and proton flows exhibit opposite directions in all studied interactions, and the flows of protons are directed in the reaction plane. Lastly, the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamical Model (UrQMD) coupled with the Statistical Multi-fragmentation Model (SMM), satisfactorily describes the obtained experimental results.

  12. Study of collective flows of protons and $$ \\pi^{{-}}_{}$$ π - -mesons in p+C, Ta and He+Li, C collisions at momenta of 4.2, 4.5 and 10 AGeV/c

    DOE PAGES

    Chkhaidze, L.; Chlachidze, G.; Djobava, T.; ...

    2016-11-01

    Collective flows of protons andmore » $$\\pi^{-}$$ -mesons are studied at the momenta of 4.2, 4.5 and 10AGeV/c for p+C, Ta and He+Li, C interactions. The data were obtained from the streamer chamber (SKM-200-GIBS) and from the Propane Bubble Chamber (PBC-500) systems utilized at JINR. A method of Danielewicz and Odyniec has been employed in determining a directed transverse flow of particles. The values of the transverse flow parameter and the strength of the anisotropic emission were defined for each interacting nuclear pair. It is found that the directed flows of protons and pions decrease with increasing the energy and the mass numbers of colliding nucleus pairs. The $$ \\pi^{{-}}_{}$$ -meson and proton flows exhibit opposite directions in all studied interactions, and the flows of protons are directed in the reaction plane. Lastly, the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamical Model (UrQMD) coupled with the Statistical Multi-fragmentation Model (SMM), satisfactorily describes the obtained experimental results.« less

  13. Study of collective flows of protons and π^{{-}}_{} -mesons in p+C, Ta and He+Li, C collisions at momenta of 4.2, 4.5 and 10 AGeV/c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chkhaidze, L.; Chlachidze, G.; Djobava, T.; Galoyan, A.; Kharkhelauri, L.; Togoo, R.; Uzhinsky, V.

    2016-11-01

    Collective flows of protons and π- -mesons are studied at the momenta of 4.2, 4.5 and 10AGeV/ c for p+C, Ta and He+Li, C interactions. The data were obtained from the streamer chamber (SKM-200-GIBS) and from the Propane Bubble Chamber (PBC-500) systems utilized at JINR. A method of Danielewicz and Odyniec has been employed in determining a directed transverse flow of particles. The values of the transverse flow parameter and the strength of the anisotropic emission were defined for each interacting nuclear pair. It is found that the directed flows of protons and pions decrease with increasing the energy and the mass numbers of colliding nucleus pairs. The π^{{-}}_{} -meson and proton flows exhibit opposite directions in all studied interactions, and the flows of protons are directed in the reaction plane. The Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamical Model (UrQMD) coupled with the Statistical Multi-fragmentation Model (SMM), satisfactorily describes the obtained experimental results.

  14. Pathways Linking Perceived Athletic Competence and Parental Support at Age 9 Years to Girls' Physical Activity at Age 11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Downs, Danielle Symons; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    Girls' perceived athletic competence and parental support of physical activity across the ages of 9 to 11 years were examined as predictors of girls' physical activity at age 11 years. Participants were 174 girls and their mothers and fathers who completed questionnaires when the girls were ages 9 and 11 years. Two alternative temporal pathways…

  15. Teenagers (15-17 years of age)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teenagers (15-17 years) Mental Health Specific Conditions Learning Disorder Data & Statistics Research Legacy Program Intervention Support Fidelity Monitoring FAQ Resources Partner Stories Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia & Tools Links to Other Websites Get Email Updates ...

  16. Breastfeeding protects against current asthma up to 6 years of age.

    PubMed

    Silvers, Karen M; Frampton, Chris M; Wickens, Kristin; Pattemore, Philip K; Ingham, Tristram; Fishwick, David; Crane, Julian; Town, G Ian; Epton, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the effects of breastfeeding on wheezing and current asthma in children 2 to 6 years of age. Infants (n=1105) were enrolled in a prospective birth cohort in New Zealand. Detailed information about infant feeding was collected using questionnaires administered at birth and at 3, 6, and 15 months. From this, durations of exclusive and any breastfeeding were calculated. Information about wheezing and current asthma was collected at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. Logistic regression was used to model associations between breastfeeding and outcomes with and without adjustment for confounders. After adjustment for confounders, each month of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with significant reductions in current asthma from 2 to 6 years (all, P<.03). Current asthma at 2, 3, and 4 years was also reduced by each month of any breastfeeding (all, P<.005). In atopic children, exclusive breastfeeding for ≥ 3 months reduced current asthma at ages 4, 5, and 6 by 62%, 55%, and 59%, respectively. Breastfeeding, particularly exclusive breastfeeding, protects against current asthma up to 6 years. Although exclusive breastfeeding reduced risk of current asthma in all children to age 6, the degree of protection beyond 3 years was more pronounced in atopic children. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles: Boys, 2 to 20 Years

    MedlinePlus

    2 to 20 years: Boys NAME Stature-for-age and Weight-for-age percentiles RECORD # Mother’s Stature Date Age in cm 160 62 S 155 60 T 150 ... 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 BMI* AGE (YEARS) cm 95 190 90 185 75 180 ...

  18. Correlation between clinical parameters characterising peri-implant and periodontal health: A practice-based research in Spain in a series of patients with implants installed 4-5 years ago

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Piriz, Roberto; Giménez, Maria J.; Bowen, Antonio; Carroquino, Rafael; Aguilar, Lorenzo; Corral, Ignacio; del Val, Cora; González, Inmaculada; Ilzarbe, Luis M.; Maestre, Juan R.; Padullés, Esteban; Torres-Lear, Francisco; Granizo, Juan J.; San-Román, Fide; Hernández, Sofía; Prieto, José

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore periimplant health (and relation with periodontal status) 4-5 years after implant insertion. Study Design: A practice-based dental research network multicentre study was performed in 11 Spanish centres. The first patient/month with implant insertion in 2004 was considered. Per patient four teeth (one per quadrant) showing the highest bone loss in the 2004 panoramic X-ray were selected for periodontal status assessment. Bone losses in implants were calculated as the differences between 2004 and 2009 bone levels in radiographs. Results: A total of 117 patients were included. Of the 408 teeth considered, 73 (17.9%) were lost in 2009 (losing risk: >50% for bone losses ≥7mm). A total of 295 implants were reviewed. Eight of 117 (6.8%) patients had lost implants (13 of 295 implants installed; 4.4%). Implant loss rate (quadrant status) was 1.4% (edentulous), 3.6% (preserved teeth), and 11.1% (lost teeth) (p=0.037). The percentage of implant loss significantly (p<0.001) increased when the medial/distal bone loss was ≥3 mm. The highest (p≤0.001) pocket depths were found in teeth with ≥5mm and implants with ≥3mm bone losses, with similar mean values (≥4mm), associated with higher rates of plaque index and bleeding by probing. Conclusions: The significant bi-directional relation between plaque and bone loss, and between each of these two parameters/signs and pocket depths or bleeding (both in teeth and implants, and between them) together with the higher percentage of implants lost when the bone loss of the associated teeth was ≥3 mm suggest that the patient’s periodontal status is a critical issue in predicting implant health/lesion. Key words:Implants, periimplantitis, periodontitis, oral health, practice-based research PMID:22549681

  19. Faster eating rates are associated with higher energy intakes during an Ad libitum meal, higher BMI and greater adiposity among 4.5 year old children – Results from the GUSTO cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R.; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Velan, S. Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya Thway; Fortier, Marielle Valerie; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P.; Meaney, Michael J.; Broekman, Birit F.P.; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M.; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; Forde, Ciarán Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Faster eating rates are associated with increased energy intake, but less is known about the relationship between children’s eating rate, food intake and adiposity. We examined whether children who eat faster consume more energy and whether this is associated with higher weight status and adiposity. We hypothesized that eating rate mediates the relationship between child weight and ad libitum energy intake. Children (N=386) from the Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4.5 years to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating-behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min). Body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric indices of adiposity were measured. A subset of children underwent MRI scanning (n=153) to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity. Children above/below the median eating rate were categorised as slower and faster eaters, and compared across body composition measures. There was a strong positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake (r=0.61, p<0.001) and a positive linear relationship between eating rate and children’s BMI status. Faster eaters consumed 75% more calories than slower eating children (Δ131 kcal, 95%CI [107.6, 154.4], p<0.001), and had higher whole-body (p<0.05) and subcutaneous abdominal adiposity (Δ118.3 cc; 95%CI [24.0, 212.7], p=0.014). Mediation analysis showed that eating rate mediates the link between child weight and energy intake during a meal (b=13.59, 95% CI [7.48, 21.83]). Children who ate faster had higher energy intake, and this was associated with increased BMIz and adiposity. PMID:28462734

  20. Language Performance and Reading Ability at 8 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morice, Rodney; Slaghuis, Walter

    1985-01-01

    Reports results from a detailed syntactic analysis of spoken language samples collected from poor and good readers at eight years of age. Results showed an undeniably strong association between reduced language comprehension and reading impairment at age eight, an association that appeared to strengthen by age nine. (SED)

  1. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  2. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  3. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  4. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government...

  5. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Related regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.5 Related regulations. The...

  6. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Related regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.5 Related regulations. The...

  7. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Related regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.5 Related regulations. The...

  8. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Related regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.5 Related regulations. The...

  9. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Related regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.5 Related regulations. The...

  10. Assessment of Intima-Media Thickness in Healthy Children Aged 1 to 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Baroncini, Liz Andréa Villela; Sylvestre, Lucimary de Castro; Filho, Roberto Pecoits

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been shown to be increased in children and adolescents with traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease, compared with those of healthy children. Objective To assess the influence of sex, age and body mass index (BMI) on the CIMT in healthy children and adolescents aged 1 to 15 years. Methods A total of 280 healthy children and adolescents (males, n=175; mean age, 7.49±3.57 years; mean BMI, 17.94±4.1 kg/m2) were screened for CIMT assessment. They were divided into 3 groups according to age: GI, 1 to 5 years [n=93 (33.2%); males, 57; mean BMI, 16±3 kg/m2]; GII, 6 to 10 years [n=127 (45.4%); males, 78; mean BMI, 17.9±3.7 kg/m2], and GIII, 11 to 15 years [n=60 (21.4%); males, 40; mean BMI, 20.9±4.5 kg/m2]. Results There was no significant difference in CIMT values between male and female children and adolescents (0.43±0.06 mm vs. 0.42±0.05 mm, respectively; p=0.243). CIMT correlated with BMI neither in the total population nor in the 3 age groups according to Pearson correlation coefficient. Subjects aged 11 to 15 years had the highest CIMT values (GI vs. GII, p=0.615; GI vs. GIII, p=0.02; GII vs. GIII, p=0.004). Conclusions CIMT is constant in healthy children younger than 10 years, regardless of sex or BMI. CIMT increases after the age of 10 years. PMID:26959401

  11. Beverage Consumption Patterns at Age 13 to 17 Years Are Associated with Weight, Height, and Body Mass Index at Age 17 Years.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Teresa A; Van Buren, John M; Warren, John J; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Levy, Steven M

    2017-05-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been associated with obesity in children and adults; however, associations between beverage patterns and obesity are not understood. Our aim was to describe beverage patterns during adolescence and associations between adolescent beverage patterns and anthropometric measures at age 17 years. We conducted a cross-sectional analyses of longitudinally collected data. Data from participants in the longitudinal Iowa Fluoride Study having at least one beverage questionnaire completed between ages 13.0 and 14.0 years, having a second questionnaire completed between 16.0 and 17.0 years, and attending clinic examination for weight and height measurements at age 17 years (n=369) were included. Beverages were collapsed into four categories (ie, 100% juice, milk, water and other sugar-free beverages, and SSBs) for the purpose of clustering. Five beverage clusters were identified from standardized age 13 to 17 years mean daily beverage intakes and named by the authors for the dominant beverage: juice, milk, water/sugar-free beverages, neutral, and SSB. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)) at age 17 years were analyzed. We used Ward's method for clustering of beverage variables, one-way analysis of variance and χ(2) tests for bivariable associations, and γ-regression for associations of weight or BMI (outcomes) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Linear regression was used for associations of height (outcome) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Participants with family incomes <$60,000 trended shorter (1.5±0.8 cm; P=0.070) and were heavier (2.0±0.7 BMI units; P=0.002) than participants with family incomes ≥$60,000/year. Adjusted mean weight, height, and BMI estimates differed by beverage cluster membership. For example, on average, male and female members of the neutral cluster were 4.5 cm (P=0.010) and 4.2 cm (P=0.034) shorter, respectively, than members of the milk cluster. For

  12. In retrospect: Forty years of linking orbits to ice ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslin, Mark

    2016-12-01

    In 1976, it was demonstrated that tiny wobbles in Earth's orbit led to the great ice-age cycles of the past few million years. This finding had wide implications for climate science and the details remain hotly debated today.

  13. Peptide regulation of aging: 35-year research experience.

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Anisimov, V N

    2009-07-01

    The authors sum up the results of many-year studies of mechanisms of aging and efficiency of peptide bioregulators in the prevention of age-specific diseases. Data on the effects of peptides, evaluated by the up-to-date methods, are presented. A molecular model of complementary interactions between short peptides and gene promotor sites, underlying the initiation of protein synthesis, is proposed. Prospects of peptide bioregulators in prevention of early aging are discussed.

  14. Ten-year survival of cemented total knee replacement in patients aged less than 55 years.

    PubMed

    Keenan, A C M; Wood, A M; Arthur, C A; Jenkins, P J; Brenkel, I J; Walmsley, P J

    2012-07-01

    We report the ten-year survival of a cemented total knee replacement (TKR) in patients aged < 55 years at the time of surgery, and compare the functional outcome with that of patients aged > 55 years. The data were collected prospectively and analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival statistics, with revision for any reason, or death, as the endpoint. A total of 203 patients aged < 55 years were identified. Four had moved out of the area and were excluded, leaving a total of 221 TKRs in 199 patients for analysis (101 men and 98 women, mean age 50.6 years (28 to 55)); 171 patients had osteoarthritis and 28 had inflammatory arthritis. Four patients required revision and four died. The ten-year survival using revision as the endpoint was 98.2% (95% confidence interval 94.6 to 99.4). Based on the Oxford knee scores at five and ten years, the rate of dissatisfaction was 18% and 21%, respectively. This was no worse in the patients aged < 55 years than in patients aged > 55 years. These results demonstrate that the cemented PFC Sigma knee has an excellent survival rate in patients aged < 55 ten years post-operatively, with clinical outcomes similar to those of an older group. We conclude that TKR should not be withheld from patients on the basis of age.

  15. Longitudinal changes in body composition associated with healthy ageing: men, aged 20-96 years.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Andrew S; Janssen, Ian; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2012-04-01

    Obesity and sarcopenia are health problems associated with ageing. The present study modelled the longitudinal changes in body composition of healthy men, aged from 20 to 96 years, and evaluated the fidelity of BMI to identify age-dependent changes in fat mass and fat-free mass. The data from 7265 men with multiple body composition determinations (total observations 38,328) were used to model the age-related changes in body mass, fat mass, fat-free mass, BMI and percentage of body fat. Changes in fat mass and fat-free mass were used to evaluate the fidelity of BMI and to detect body composition changes with ageing. Linear mixed regression models showed that all trajectories of body composition with healthy ageing were quadratic. Fat mass, BMI and percentage of body fat increased from age 20 years and levelled off at approximately 80 years. Fat-free mass increased slightly from age 20 to 47 years and then declined at a non-linear rate with ageing. Levels of aerobic exercise had a positive influence on fat mass and a slight negative effect on fat-free mass. BMI and percentage of body fat were sensitive in detecting the increase in fat mass that occurred with healthy ageing, but failed to identify the loss of fat-free mass that started at age 47 years.

  16. Children of Two to Three Years of Age in France: Early Childhood Settings and Age Divisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnier, Pascale; Rayna, Sylvie; Brougère, Gilles; Rupin, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    In a French early childhood care and education system that is strongly divided by age and institution, the current research studies the collective life of children at the pivotal age of two to three years of age in four different early childhood settings: (1) a group of "grands" (nursery) in a "crèche" (daycare centre), (2) a…

  17. Age differences in health care spending, fiscal year 1975.

    PubMed

    Mueller, M S; Gibson, R M

    1976-06-01

    This report of health care spending in fiscal year 1975 reveals that of the $103.2 billion spent by the Nation for personal health care, 15 percent was spent for those under age 19, 56 percent for persons aged 19-64, and 29 percent for those aged 65 or older. The average health care bill for the oldest group was $1,360; it was $472 for the intermediate age group and $212 for the young. Third-party payments met 71 percent of the aged group's health care expense and 66 percent of the health expenditures of persons under age 65. Public funds paid for one-fourth of the health expenses of the young, nearly one-third of the health bills of those aged 19-64, and two-thirds of those of the aged. Medicare alone paid 72 percent of the hospital expense for the aged and 54 percent of their doctor bills. The average direct payment by the consumer amounted to $390 for those aged 65 and older and $128 for persons under age 65.

  18. Value of mammography screening in women under age 50 years

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, D.M.; Hasselblad, V.; McGivney, W.; Hendee, W.

    1988-03-11

    Two quantitative methods, Confidence Profiles and CAN*TROL, are used to analyze evidence and estimate the health and economic consequences of adding annual mammography to annual breast physical examinations in asymptomatic women aged 40 to 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer. Such women have about a 128 in 10,000 chance of having breast cancer in the next ten years and about an 82 in 10,000 chance of dying of such a cancer. Adding annual mammograms to annual breast physical examinations each year during that age decade would reduce the probability of death to about 60 in 10,000, a reduction of about 26%. Screening would increase the expected lifetime of a woman destined to get breast cancer between ages 40 and 49 years by about 3.5 years. Ten years of screening with mammography in that age decade carries a risk of radiation-induced cancer of about one in 25,000 and a risk of a surgery recommendation for a lesion that is not cancer of about one in ten. If 25% of the women in this age group in the United States were screened every year, breast cancer mortality in the year 2000 would be decreased by about 373 deaths. In 1984 dollars, the cost of screening, workups, and continuing care in the year 2000 would be about $408 million. Treatment costs would be decreased by about $6 million, leaving a net increase in costs in the year of 2000 of approximately $402 million (1984 dollars).

  19. Sports engagement and age at first myocardial infarction in men under 55 years of age.

    PubMed

    Janggen, Christoph; Gräni, Christoph; Brunner, Jonas; Trachsel, Lukas D; Windecker, Stephan; Eser, Prisca; Räber, Lorenz; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity in childhood are associated with clustering of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) as predisposition for atherosclerosis. We assessed the association between sports engagement and age at first myocardial infarction (MI) in a cohort of men under 55 years of age. The Bern percutaneous coronary intervention Registry (NCT 02241291) was analyzed from March 2009 until January 2012. Male patients with first MI, age 18 to 54 years and body mass index ≤25kg/m2 were included. Patients were stratified into two groups based on their starting age with organized sports ≥1 h/week outside school (EARLY: <18, CONTROL: ≥18 years or never). We assessed age at time of first MI, CVRF, and volume of sports training. Of 4,394 consecutive patients, 123 fulfilled the inclusion criteria (EARLY n = 81, CONTROL n = 42). Age at the time of first MI was 3 years younger in the EARLY compared to the CONTROL group (46.8±6.0 vs. 49.8±4.6 years, p = 0.006). Total lifetime training hours, and average yearly training hours, both, before and after age 18, were significantly greater in the EARLY group. Years of training <18 years were weakly inversely correlated with age at first MI (r2 = 0.075, p = 0.002). The proportion of sports-related MI was not different between EARLY and CONTROL (13.6% vs. 11.9%). Patients in the EARLY group had fewer CVRF (2 vs. 3; p = 0.001). Prevalence of smoking was equally high in both groups (63.0% and 64.3%). In our patients aged 54 and younger, the first MI occurred 3 years earlier in those who started regular sports activity before age 18, despite a more active lifestyle and favorable CVRF profile.

  20. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto de; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age.

  1. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  2. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2009-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Results demonstrated that in both boys and girls: (1) fear conditioning increased across age, particularly from ages 5 to 6 years, (2) the three components of skin conductance fear conditioning that reflect different degrees of automatic and controlled cognitive processes exhibited different developmental profiles, and (3) individual differences in arousal, orienting, and the unconditioned response were associated with individual differences in conditioning, with the influence of orienting increasing at later ages. This first longitudinal study of the development of skin conductance fear conditioning in children both demonstrates that children as young as age 3 years evidence fear conditioning in a difficult acquisition paradigm, and that different sub-components of skin conductance conditioning have different developmental trajectories. PMID:20121876

  3. Nine-year aging behavior of the ceramic flatpack resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Beetley, D.E.

    1990-03-06

    GE has developed a multichannel, high precision aging{asterisk} measurement facility capable of high volume testing of resonators. Features of the facility considered unique for production aging systems test include: (1) Loran-C/disciplined time-frequency (DTF) oscillator frequency standard, (2) direct current power bus design, (3) measurement and switching techniques, and (4) high volume automatic precision resonator aging. Computer-controlled data acquisition is used for unattended operation. Facility requirements included frequency measurement with sufficient precision to allow 20- year extrapolation of resonator frequency shift using 30 data points. The frequency reference is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Long-term extrapolation required selection of a model which would most accurately reflect the major processes involved in aging. In order to verify the accuracy of model extrapolation, a group of resonators has been maintained in test for more than nine years. 9 refs., 16 figs.

  4. Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Spence, John C; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines were created in response to an urgent call from public health, health care, child care, and fitness practitioners for healthy active living guidance for the early years. The guideline development process was informed by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and the evidence assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between physical activity and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from an extensive on-line consultation process with input from over 900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guideline recommendations state that for healthy growth and development, infants (aged <1 year) should be physically active several times daily - particularly through interactive floor-based play. Toddlers (aged 1-2 years) and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity at any intensity spread throughout the day, including a variety of activities in different environments, activities that develop movement skills, and progression toward at least 60 min of energetic play by 5 years of age. More daily physical activity provides greater benefits.

  5. 500,000-year temperature record challenges ice age theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, K. Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Just outside the searing heat of Death Valley lies Devils Hole (fig. 1), a fault-created cave that harbors two remnants of the Earth's great ice ages. The endangered desert pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) has long made its home in the cave. A 500,000-year record of the planet's climate that challenges a widely accepted theory explaining the ice ages also has been preserved in Devils Hole.

  6. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... management of the United States or any of its agencies, if such vessel is manned wholly by members of...

  7. 28 CFR 4.5 - Character endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Character endorsements. 4.5 Section 4.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PROCEDURE GOVERNING APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF... reputation in his community or in his circle of business or social acquaintances. Each letter or other...

  8. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  9. Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children under 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Luna, R; Alter-Molchadsky, N; Cardenas-Cardos, R; Martínez-Guerra, G

    1996-05-01

    This is a retrospective study of 55 children under the age of 2 years diagnosed with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). They were classified according to age and organ function and dysfunction following Lahey's criteria. The studied population was divided into four groups by age of diagnosis (0-6, 7-12, 13-18, and 19-24 months). Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in outcome between age groups, although the population under 6 months had a 81.3% fatality rate. The presence of organ dysfunction was a major cause of death in all age groups, being statistically significant in outcome (P > 0.005) compared with patients without organ dysfunction. The presence of thrombocytopenia and/or respiratory dysfunction was also highly associated with a fatal outcome. In the surviving population, no second malignancies have been reported. The late secondary effects of therapy include endocrine, orofacial, and osseous pathologies.

  10. [35-year experience in research of peptide regulation of aging].

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Anisimov, V N

    2009-01-01

    The results of 35-year-long studies on mechanisms of aging and on efficacy of peptide bioregulators in prevention of age-related pathology are presented in this review paper. The data have been obtained with most advanced methods in collaboration with research laboratories of Russia, USA, UK, Germany, Italy, Spain, France. The molecular model of complementary interrelation of short peptides with promoter site of genes which is a background of protein biosynthesis initiation has been suggested. The prospects of clinical use of peptide bioregulators for prevention of premature aging of the active population in Russia are discussed.

  11. Ebstein's anomaly in adult patients over 50 years of age.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Shigeaki; Yoshitake, Kiyonobu; Matsuo, Atsutoshi; Tayama, Kei-Ichiro; Hida, Satoru; Mito, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Ebstein's anomaly (EA) is a rare congenital heart disease of the tricuspid valve, and less than 5% of patients with EA survive beyond the age of 50. We report two unoperated cases of EA in adult patients aged over 50 years. Two patients, a 70-year-old Japanese woman and a 59-year-old Chinese woman, were referred to us for tachyarrhythmias. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated apical displacement (>8 mm/m(2) body surface area) of the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve from the atrioventricular ring with tricuspid regurgitation in both patients. The former suddenly expired 20 months later after suffering from repetitive supraventricular tachyarrhythmias and/or heart failure, and the latter is alive with minimal signs of heart failure 12 months after the diagnosis of EA. Although the natural history of EA is extremely variable, these two patients are exceptional in that they tolerated EA well for over 50 years without any surgical intervention.

  12. Cardiac surgery in patients age 80 years or older.

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, W H; Stewart, J R; Frist, W H; Hammon, J W; Bender, H W

    1990-01-01

    Between February 1978 and August 1989, forty patients aged 80 years or older underwent cardiac surgery at this institution. Patient age varied from 80 to 87 years (mean, 82.4 years). Operative indications were angina pectoris or congestive heart failure. Twenty-eight patients underwent coronary artery bypass (CAB) alone and 12 underwent valve replacement(s) with or without CAB. The operative mortality rate was 10%. Postoperative hospitalization averaged 14 days. There were three late cardiac deaths at 13, 36, and 48 months after operation and one late noncardiac death. Thirty-two survivors have been followed from 1 to 86 months (mean, 20 months). All experienced sustained improvement in functional status and minimal late morbidity. All survivors remained in NYHA class 1 or 2. Cardiac surgical procedures in patients older than 80 years can be performed with increased but acceptable mortality and morbidity rates. Most patients achieve sustained symptomatic improvement and excellent long-term survival. PMID:2357139

  13. Marine radiocarbon reservoir age simulations for the past 50000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butzin, Martin; Köhler, Peter; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    We present simulations of marine radiocarbon reservoir ages using the ocean general circulation model LSG-HAMOCC2s, and evaluate the results with Marine13 raw data records. Our model considers various climatic background states. Radiocarbon cycle boundary conditions are atmospheric Δ14C values according to IntCal13, a recent atmospheric CO2 reconstruction, and spatially variable concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon derived from marine carbon cycle simulations. Our model reasonably agrees with glacial marine Δ14C records but indicates reservoir ages varying with time, different to the invariant reservoir age corrections applied to the observations and to Marine13. Modelled global-mean reservoir ages are in the range 400-800 years compared to the invariant Marine13 value of 405 years. Self-consistent simulations involving the Cariaco Basin record (which is the most continuous marine record contributing to IntCal13 for periods prior to about 30 kyears) amplify the temporal reservoir age variability with global-mean values of about 350-850 years, and improve the agreement with Δ14C observations in some areas.

  14. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along ("hindsight bias"). Here, we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the life span. One hundred ninety-four participants aged 3 to 95 years completed 3 tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age…

  15. [Constrictive pericarditis in children under 2 years of age].

    PubMed

    Silva, Lia; Anjos, Rui; Martins, Fernando Maymone; Telo, Margarida

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of constrictive pericarditis, in children under 2 years of age, of non-tuberculosis aetiology, diagnosed from June 97 to May 98 are reported. This entity is rare in paediatrics and it may progress to severe condition. Surgical treatment has a low risk and is generally associated with good prognosis. Aetiology, clinic presentation, differential diagnosis with restrictive cardiomyopathy and treatment are discussed.

  16. [Rheumatic cardiopathy in children younger than 6 years of age].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Antona, C; Calderón-Colmenero, J; Attié, F; Zabal, C; Buendía-Hernández, A; Díaz-Medina, L H; Bialkowski, J; García Arenal, F

    1991-01-01

    Most of the published papers on Rheumatic Fever (RF) have not included the younger population. We selected 211 cases of children with RF younger than 6 years of age from 9,471 clinical files from 1944 to 1982. These were followed retrospectively to identify the presence of rheumatic activity, subsequent attacks and penicillin profilaxis. From de 211 cases, 209 had carditis; 57% of them were girls and 43% boys. There were no previous infections of the upper respiratory tract in 36% of the patients. The number of cases with RF increased abruptly after 3 years of age and continued increasing until 5 years of age when 70.5% of the population had there first clinically recognized attack. Lesions were present in the mitral valve in 80% of the cases, in the aortic valve in 12%, in the tricuspid in 5% and in the pulmonary valve in 3%. The death rate during the first attack was 20% being refractory heart failure the main cause of death. Thirteen cases suffered rheumatic pneumonia, 9 of whom died (69.2%). 1) The incidence of acute rheumatic fever in children under 6 years of age has decreased with time. 2) The death rate as well as the valvular damage decreased with the parents cooperation with the treatment. 3) The changes in the clinical picture and the severity of valve sequelea may be due to penicillin profilaxis and the better understanding of the disease.

  17. Mammographic screening in asymptomatic women aged 40 years and older

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-05

    Currently, age-specific recommendations for screening mammograms in asymptomatic women that have been developed by professional, voluntary, and governmental organizations differ. While there is strong epidemiologic evidence that mammographic screening in asymptomatic women aged 50 years or older reduces breast cancer mortality, the evidence for mortality reduction is not as clear for women aged 40 to 49 years. However, as described in this report, findings of further mortality and survival follow-up of subjects in earlier studies, as well as observations from more recent studies, suggest reductions in mortality and better survival in younger women as well. While mammography is currently the most effective method for detecting early breast cancers, some breast cancers may develop during the intervals between screening mammograms. The costs of mammographic screening also require consideration in the process of making national screening recommendations.

  18. Prophylactic HPV vaccination for women over 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    Adams, M; Jasani, B; Fiander, A

    2009-05-26

    Cervical screening has resulted in a major reduction in the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in the UK and other developed countries. Nevertheless approximately 2700 women present with cervical cancer in the UK each year with mortality in excess of 1000 cases. Prophylactic HPV vaccination against HPV 16 and 18 has been shown to be highly effective in preventing HPV related malignancy in clinical trials. Newly introduced HPV vaccination programmes in the UK and elsewhere are ultimately likely to result in a further significant reduction in the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. These vaccination programmes will be most effective in early adolescence when prevalence of HPV infection is low. Consequently, vaccination programmes in the UK have been initially targeted at 12 to 13-year olds. In Australia favourable estimates of cost effectiveness have supported funding of a 'catch-up' programme to 26 years. In the UK the catch up programme has for the present been restricted to 18 years for cost effectiveness reasons. In addition the value of HPV vaccination beyond 26 years has not yet been fully clarified. Nevertheless women up to 45 years of age have been shown to exhibit strong immune responses to the bivalent HPV vaccine which might be expected to reduce the risk of HPV re-infection and address the second peak of HPV related malignancy in later life, evident over 45 years of age. Early data from randomised trials testing the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in women over 25 years has suggested high vaccine efficacy comparable to younger women. This paper will explore the evidence supporting HPV vaccination in HPV naïve and HPV exposed sexually active women up to 26 years and beyond this age group.

  19. Injuries in Female Dancers Aged 8 to 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Nili; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Masharawi, Youssef; Zeev, Aviva; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Context Most studies of injured dancers have been carried out on professional adult dancers; data on young, nonprofessional injured dancers are sparse. Objective To identify the types of injuries sustained by recreational dancers and to examine their association with age, joint range of motion, body structure, age at menarche, presence of anatomic anomalies, and physical burden (ie, practice hours en pointe). Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting The Israel Performing Arts Medicine Center, Tel Aviv. Patients or Other Participants A total of 569 injured female dancers, aged 8 to 16 years. Main Outcome Measure(s) Dependent variables were 61 types of current injuries that were later classified into 4 major categories: knee injuries, foot and ankle tendinopathy, back injuries, and other injuries. Independent variables were age, joint range of motion, body size and shape, age at menarche, anatomic anomalies, and dance discipline (eg, hours of practice per week en pointe). Results At least 1 previous injury had been sustained by 42.4% of the dancers. The most common injuries involved the knee (40.4%), followed by other injuries (23.4%). The relative frequency of back injuries and tendinopathy decreased with age, whereas knee injuries increased. Types of injuries were significantly associated with ankle plantar flexion, hip external rotation, hip abduction, and knee flexion. Multinomial regression analysis revealed only 3 predictive variables (with other as baseline), all for back injury: scoliosis, age, and hip external rotation. Conclusions Joint range of motion and scoliosis may signal the potential for future injury. Young dancers (less than 10 years of age) should not be exposed to overload (especially of the back) or extensive stretching exercises. PMID:23672333

  20. Injuries in female dancers aged 8 to 16 years.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Nili; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Masharawi, Youssef; Zeev, Aviva; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Most studies of injured dancers have been carried out on professional adult dancers; data on young, nonprofessional injured dancers are sparse. To identify the types of injuries sustained by recreational dancers and to examine their association with age, joint range of motion, body structure, age at menarche, presence of anatomic anomalies, and physical burden (i.e., practice hours en pointe). Descriptive epidemiology study. The Israel Performing Arts Medicine Center, Tel Aviv. A total of 569 injured female dancers, aged 8 to 16 years. Dependent variables were 61 types of current injuries that were later classified into 4 major categories: knee injuries, foot and ankle tendinopathy, back injuries, and other injuries. Independent variables were age, joint range of motion, body size and shape, age at menarche, anatomic anomalies, and dance discipline (e.g., hours of practice per week en pointe). At least 1 previous injury had been sustained by 42.4% of the dancers. The most common injuries involved the knee (40.4%), followed by other injuries (23.4%). The relative frequency of back injuries and tendinopathy decreased with age, whereas knee injuries increased. Types of injuries were significantly associated with ankle plantar flexion, hip external rotation, hip abduction, and knee flexion. Multinomial regression analysis revealed only 3 predictive variables (with other as baseline), all for back injury: scoliosis, age, and hip external rotation. Joint range of motion and scoliosis may signal the potential for future injury. Young dancers (less than 10 years of age) should not be exposed to overload (especially of the back) or extensive stretching exercises.

  1. Immunogenicity and safety of a pentavalent acellular pertussis combined vaccine including diphtheria, tetanus, inactivated poliovirus and conjugated Haemophilus Influenzae type b polysaccharide for primary vaccination at 2, 3, 4 or 3, 4, 5 months of age in infants in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong Cheng; Li, Feng Xiang; Li, Yan Ping; Hou, Qi Ming; Li, Chang Gui; Li, Ya Nan; Chen, Fu Sheng; Hu, Xue Zhong; Su, Wen Bin; Zhang, Shu Min; Fang, Han Hua; Ye, Qiang; Zeng, Tian De; Liu, Tao Xuan; Li, Xiu Bi; Huang, Yun Neng; Deng, Man Ling; Zhang, Yan Ping; Ortiz, Esteban

    2011-02-24

    The aim was to demonstrate the immunogenicity and safety of a DTaP-IPV//PRP-T combined vaccine (Pentaxim(®)) compared to individual vaccines in infants in the People's Republic of China. Infants (N=792) were randomly assigned to receive DTaP-IPV//PRP-T at 2, 3 and 4 months of age (Group A) or 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group B), or DTaP (Wuhan Institute of Biological Products), PRP-T (Act-Hib(®)) and IPV (Imovax(®) Polio) at 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group C). Antibody titers were measured pre- and 1 month after the third vaccination; non-inferiority analyses were performed for seroprotection/seroconversion (SP/SC) rates. Safety was assessed 1 month after the primary series. SP/SC rates for the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine were high and non-inferior to the controls. Reactogenicity was low for each group and no hypotonic hyporesponsive episode or seizure was reported. In conclusion, the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine was highly immunogenic, non-inferior to the commercially available control vaccines and had a good safety profile for both primary administration schedules.

  2. Examining Relative Age Effects in Fundamental Skill Proficiency in British Children Aged 6-11 Years.

    PubMed

    Birch, Samantha; Cummings, Laura; Oxford, Samuel W; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Birch, S, Cummings, L, Oxford, SW, and Duncan, MJ. Examining relative age effects in fundamental skill proficiency in British children aged 6-11 years. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2809-2815, 2016-The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that there is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for sports selection in age-grouped sports and that in such circumstances, relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. Few studies have examined this issue in nonselective groups of children, and none have examined whether there is evidence of any RAE in skill performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were differences in fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency within children placed in age groups according to the school year. Six FMS (sprint, side gallop, balance, jump, catch, and throw) were assessed in 539 school children (258 boys and 281 girls) aged 6-11 years (mean age ± SD = 7.7 ± 1.7 years). We examined differences in these FMS between gender groups and children born in different quarters of the year after controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). For balance, chronological age was significant as a covariate (p = 0.0001) with increases in age associated with increases in balance. Boys had significantly higher sprint mastery compared with girls (p = 0.012), and increased BMI was associated with poorer sprint mastery (p = 0.001). Boys had higher catching mastery than girls (p = 0.003), and children born in Q1 had significantly greater catching mastery than those born in Q2 (p = 0.015), Q3 (p = 0.019), and Q4 (p = 0.01). Results for throwing mastery also indicated higher mastery in boys compared with girls (p = 0.013) and that children born in Q1 had higher throwing proficiency than those born in Q4 (p = 0.038). These results are important if coaches are basing sport selection on measures of skilled performance, particularly in object-control skills. Categorizing children

  3. Psychomotor development in Argentinean children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Lejarraga, Horacio; Pascucci, María Cecilia; Krupitzky, Sara; Kelmansky, Diana; Bianco, Ana; Martínez, Elena; Tibaldi, Fabián; Cameron, Noel

    2002-01-01

    In Argentina, there is no information on ages of attainment of developmental milestones and very few data about environmental factors that influence them. A national survey on the psychomotor development of children under 6 years of age was carried out with the help of 129 paediatricians. Logistic regression was applied to a final sample of 3573 healthy, normal children in order to estimate selected centiles (25th, 50th, 75th and 90th), together with their respective confidence intervals, of the ages of attainment of 78 developmental items belonging to the following areas: personal-social (18 items), fine motor (19), language (18) and gross motor (23). The 50th centile obtained for each of the 43 comparable items was compared with those obtained in previously standardised tests: DDST, Denver II, Bayley and Chilean scales. Neither significant nor systematic differences were found between our results and those described in the tests used for comparison. Multiple logistic regressions showed that social class, maternal education and sex (female) were associated with earlier attainment of some selected developmental items, achieved at ages later than 1 year. Selected items achieved before the first year of life were not affected by any of the independent environmental variables studied. The information is useful in helping paediatricians in their daily practice for surveillance of development, as baseline information for epidemiological studies on development in our country and for cross-cultural analysis.

  4. Body build classification for ordinary schoolgirls (aged 7-18 years) and volleyball girls (aged 13-16 years).

    PubMed

    Kaarma, Helje; Stamm, Raini; Kasmel, Jaan; Koskel, Slide

    2005-03-01

    The article describes two Estonian anthropometric cross-sectional studies of 1549 ordinary schoolgirls (aged 7-18) and 46 girls, who regularly practised volleyball (aged 13-16). Data are presented on 22 basic anthropometric measurements and 6 body composition characteristics (body mass index, mean skinfold, body density, relative mass of fat by Siri, absolute mass and relative mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue). All anthropometric variables were classified into five height-weight SD classes. Schoolgirls were divided into six age groups (7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-14, 15-16, 17-18). Volleyballers were observed as one group as their age in SD classes did not differ significantly. The classification consisted of five categories: three height-weight concordant categories: I--small (small height, small weight), II--medium (medium height, medium weight), III large--(big height, big weight) and two height/weight discordant categories: IV--so-called pyknomorphs, V--so-called leptomorphs. To assess the differences between classes the Scheffé-test was used (alpha = 0.05). It proved likewise possible to comparatively systematize length, breadth and depth measurements, circumferences and body composition characteristics in all six age groups (7-18 years) of ordinary schoolgirls and in 13-16-year-old volleyballers as in their case the average age did not differ significantly between the classes.

  5. Satiety responsiveness in toddlerhood predicts energy intake and weight status at four years of age.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Nambiar, Smita; Magarey, Anthea M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal-report of child eating behaviour at two years predicted self-regulation of energy intake and weight status at four years. Using an 'eating in the absence of hunger' paradigm, children's energy intake (kJ) from a semi-standardized lunch meal and a standardized selection of snacks were measured. Participants were 37 mother-child dyads (16 boys, Median child age=4.4years, Inter-quartile range=3.7-4.5years) recruited from an existing longitudinal study (NOURISH randomised controlled trial). All participants were tested in their own home. Details of maternal characteristics, child eating behaviours (at age two years) reported by mothers on a validated questionnaire, and measured child height and weight (at age 3.5-4years) were sourced from existing NOURISH trial data. Correlation and partial correlation analyses were used to examine longitudinal relationships. Satiety responsiveness and Slowness in eating were inversely associated with energy intake of the lunch meal (partial r=-.40, p=.023, and partial r=-.40, p=.023) and the former was also negatively associated with BMI-for-age Z score (partial r=-.42, p=.015). Food responsiveness and Enjoyment of food were not related to energy intake or BMI Z score. None of the eating behaviours were significantly associated with energy intake of the snacks (i.e., eating in the absence of hunger). The small and predominantly 'healthy weight' sample of children may have limited the ability to detect some hypothesized effects. Nevertheless, the study provides evidence for the predictive validity of two eating behaviours and future research with a larger and more diverse sample should be able to better evaluate the predictive validity of other children's early eating behaviour styles.

  6. [Spinal meningioma surgery after 75 years of age].

    PubMed

    Sacko, O; Rabarijaona, M; Loiseau, H

    2008-08-01

    Spinal meningioma surgery is usually not difficult and is commonly associated with good outcome. However, advanced age and severe neurological deficit have been considered to be predictors of poor surgical outcome. Therefore, we attempted to assess the surgical outcome of spinal meningiomas in the elderly and to analyze the role of outcome predictors. From 1990 to 2006, 32 patients 76 years or older with spinal meningiomas were operated on in our Neurosurgery Departments. All patients had MRI. Neurological status was assessed using the Solero score. Neurological evaluations were conducted three months and one year after surgery. The mean follow-up was 36 months. A multiple logistic regression was applied to establish the relationship between the risk factors and outcome. The median age was 79.3 years. The mean duration of symptoms until surgery was 12.7 months. One patient was rated Solero grade I, 11 grade II, 17 grade III and three patients were rated grade IV. Radical tumor removal was performed in 30 patients (94%). All meningiomas were benign. There was no recurrence, morbidity was 9%, and 1-year mortality was 0%. One year after surgery, all patients had improved, 56 % had recovered completely. Among 20 patients with severe paraparesis or paraplegia, 30 % had recovered completely. There was no statistical correlation between outcome and various risk factors: age, gender, ASA, tumor size, quality of tumor removal, and location. Only preoperative Solero score and duration of symptoms before surgery were statistically significant. Surgery is the only treatment of symptomatic spinal meningioma. Advanced age did not seem to contraindicate surgery, even in those with severe preoperative neurological deficits, because quality of life can be improved in the vast majority of cases. There was a correlation between duration and severity of deficit and outcome.

  7. [Blood donation after reaching 65 years of age].

    PubMed

    Janetzko, K; Böcher, R; Klotz, K F; Kirchner, H; Klüter, H

    1996-01-01

    European regulations for blood donation recommend a maximum donor age of 65 years. On the other hand, the percentage of the population in this age group is rapidly increasing in Western countries, and in autologous blood donation programs this limitation has already been abandoned. In a prospective study we examined blood donation in elderly donors (18 male and 5 female; mean age 65 years, range 64-69) in comparison to a younger control group (15/9; 58, 55-63). All donors were regular blood donors and had donated for at least 3 years. We investigated the exercise capacity before and after donation of 450 ml whole blood by examination of the physical working capacity (PWC) at heart rates of 110/min and 130/min through treadmill exercise testing and determined the blood viscosity. Additionally, whole-blood count, hemoglobin, plasma-ferritin levels and total iron binding capacity were measured immediately after donation and on days 7, 28 and 49. We found a decrease in whole-blood viscosity and a moderate increase in PWC at heart rates of 110/min and 130/min after donation in both groups. Red cell count and values of hemoglobin and ferritin were significantly lower in both groups after donation and returned to pre-donation values by day 49 in the younger control group. We detected no deterioration in exercise capacity after whole-blood donation in elderly blood donors over 65 years when compared with a younger control group. We suggest that blood donation in otherwise healthy persons aged over 65 years should be accepted.

  8. Growth of children with Down's syndrome: birth to age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Cronk, C E

    1978-04-01

    A sample of 90 children with Down's syndrome were measured for recumbent length and weight from birth to age 36 months at the Children's Hospital Medical Center in Boston. At birth, means for both length and weight were reduced by about 0.5 SDs from the control group means. By 36 months, mean recumbent length was greater than 2 SDs below that for the control group, while the mean for weight was reduced by about 1.5 SDs from the control group mean. Growth velocity for both length and weight was most deficient within the first two years of life. About 30% of the sample demonstrated excess weight for length relations by 36 months. Children with moderate or severe heart disease were significantly smaller than those without or with mild cardiac problems at all times after birth. Measurements of a subsample of children at 4, 5, and 6 years of age suggested that growth velocity after 3 years of age may be within the range of normal. Assessment of growth of the child with Down's syndrome may be carried out with reference to charts plotting tenth to 90th percentiles based on these data.

  9. Intelligence quotient scores at the age of 6 years in children anaesthetised before the age of 5 years.

    PubMed

    de Heer, I J; Tiemeier, H; Hoeks, S E; Weber, F

    2017-01-01

    We analysed the association of independent variables with non-verbal cognition at 6 years in children with complete data (3441 from a cohort of 9901), of whom 415 were anaesthetised before the age of 5 years. Using multivariable regression, cognition was reduced by a mean (95% CI) score for children: anaesthetised before the age of 5 years, 2.1 (0.7-3.5), p = 0.004; born prematurely, 9.8 (4.1-15.4), p = 0.001; whose mothers smoked while pregnant, 2.3 (0.8-3.8), p = 0.004; whose mothers had lower IQ scores, 0.3 (0.2-0.3) for each unit reduction in maternal IQ, p < 0.0001. The association of child IQ with exposure to anaesthetic drugs was sensitive to missing data. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

  11. 25 Years after age-1: Genes, Interventions and the Revolution in Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    This communication will briefly review more than 30 years of research on aging using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (“The Worm”) as carried out in the labs of Tom Johnson. We will highlight research directions initiated in the 1980’s, which were exciting for those of us trying to turn over a new leaf in aging research. In this narrative, I will discuss primarily the science that I and my lab have been involved with for the last 30 years. This area has been fascinating to those studying the sociology of science as modern aging research has moved to replace the simplistic, poorly controlled and outright fictitious approaches seen in much of the previous aging research. PMID:23466302

  12. Pregnancies in Women Aged 45 Years and Older - a 10-Year Retrospective Analysis in Berlin.

    PubMed

    Rendtorff, Rosa; Hinkson, Larry; Kiver, Verena; Dröge, Lisa Antonia; Henrich, Wolfgang

    2017-03-01

    Introduction Improved fertility treatment options and a change in the socio-cultural concept of family planning, especially in industrialized regions, has led to an increasing number of births by women of advanced maternal age, which is associated with a higher rate of complications. The aim of this study was to analyze pregnancy outcomes in women aged ≥ 45 years in an inner-city German hospital and to compare these results to those of a younger cohort. Materials and Methods Over a 10-year period from January 2004 to May 2015, the pregnancy outcomes of all 186 women aged ≥ 45 years who delivered in our hospital were compared in a 1 : 1 ratio to those of a cohort of 29-year old women. Results The rates of assisted reproduction (34 vs. 3 %), multiple pregnancies (16 vs. 5 %) and cesarean section (59 vs. 29 %) were significantly increased in the study group. There was an increased risk of preterm delivery (28 vs. 11 %), preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and premature rupture of membranes in the advanced maternal age group. Conclusion Advanced maternal age leads to higher rates of fetal and maternal complications. These findings should be taken into account when planning assisted reproduction and obstetrical care in women with advanced maternal age.

  13. Yield of mammography in selected patients age < or = 30 years.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, P A; Moore, E M; Carrillo, R; Goepfert, C J

    2001-03-15

    An outcomes analysis study was performed to quantify the benefit of directed diagnostic imaging of selected very young women (defined as < or = 30 years of age) in our population. Summary results are presented. Women's Imaging Services were queried for studies performed between April 1, 1997 and December 31, 1998 on women < or = 30 years of age. The authors' referral pathway mandates breast examination by a general surgeon or by the head of Women's Imaging before mammography in all such patients. Studies were excluded if there were reviews of scans performed at other sites. The resulting 142 mammograms were evaluated. Ninety percent of the 142 studies were within normal limits. Only 11 mammograms indicated any required action (7.8%), and only 5 of these merited biopsy. All biopsies revealed benign disease. No carcinomas were detected by biopsy or on clinical follow-up in this cohort of women. These values are congruent with the scarce literature on mammography in this population. The yield of mammography in the age < or = 30 years population is low. Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.

  14. Mammography in asymptomatic women aged 40-49 years

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Flávio Xavier; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess findings of mammography of and interventions resulting from breast cancer screening in women aged 40-49 years with no increased risk (typical risk) of breast cancer. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated women aged 40-49 years who underwent mammography screening in a mastology reference center in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between January 2010 and October 2011. Women with breast-related complaints, positive findings in the physical examination, or high risk of breast cancer were excluded. RESULTS The 1,000 mammograms performed were classified into the following Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories BI-RADS 0, 232; BI-RADS 1, 294; BI-RADS 2, 294; BI-RADS 3, 16; BI-RADS 4A, 2; BI-RADS 5, 1. There was one case of grade II invasive ductal carcinoma and various interventions, including 469 ultrasound scans, 53 referrals to mastologists, 11 cytological examinations, and 8 biopsies. CONCLUSIONS Mammography screening in women aged 40-49 years with typical risk of breast cancer led to the performance of other interventions. However, it also resulted in increased costs without demonstrable efficacy in decreasing mortality. PMID:26039396

  15. Associations between education and brain structure at age 73 years, adjusted for age 11 IQ.

    PubMed

    Cox, Simon R; Dickie, David Alexander; Ritchie, Stuart J; Karama, Sherif; Pattie, Alison; Royle, Natalie A; Corley, Janie; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark E; Evans, Alan C; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-10-25

    To investigate how associations between education and brain structure in older age were affected by adjusting for IQ measured at age 11. We analyzed years of full-time education and measures from an MRI brain scan at age 73 in 617 community-dwelling adults born in 1936. In addition to average and vertex-wise cortical thickness, we measured total brain atrophy and white matter tract fractional anisotropy. Associations between brain structure and education were tested, covarying for sex and vascular health; a second model also covaried for age 11 IQ. The significant relationship between education and average cortical thickness (β = 0.124, p = 0.004) was reduced by 23% when age 11 IQ was included (β = 0.096, p = 0.041). Initial associations between longer education and greater vertex-wise cortical thickness were significant in bilateral temporal, medial-frontal, parietal, sensory, and motor cortices. Accounting for childhood intelligence reduced the number of significant vertices by >90%; only bilateral anterior temporal associations remained. Neither education nor age 11 IQ was significantly associated with total brain atrophy or tract-averaged fractional anisotropy. The association between years of education and brain structure ≈60 years later was restricted to cortical thickness in this sample; however, the previously reported associations between longer education and a thicker cortex are likely to be overestimates in terms of both magnitude and distribution. This finding has implications for understanding, and possibly ameliorating, life-course brain health. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Associations between education and brain structure at age 73 years, adjusted for age 11 IQ

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, David Alexander; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Karama, Sherif; Pattie, Alison; Royle, Natalie A.; Corley, Janie; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Starr, John M.; Bastin, Mark E.; Evans, Alan C.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate how associations between education and brain structure in older age were affected by adjusting for IQ measured at age 11. Methods: We analyzed years of full-time education and measures from an MRI brain scan at age 73 in 617 community-dwelling adults born in 1936. In addition to average and vertex-wise cortical thickness, we measured total brain atrophy and white matter tract fractional anisotropy. Associations between brain structure and education were tested, covarying for sex and vascular health; a second model also covaried for age 11 IQ. Results: The significant relationship between education and average cortical thickness (β = 0.124, p = 0.004) was reduced by 23% when age 11 IQ was included (β = 0.096, p = 0.041). Initial associations between longer education and greater vertex-wise cortical thickness were significant in bilateral temporal, medial-frontal, parietal, sensory, and motor cortices. Accounting for childhood intelligence reduced the number of significant vertices by >90%; only bilateral anterior temporal associations remained. Neither education nor age 11 IQ was significantly associated with total brain atrophy or tract-averaged fractional anisotropy. Conclusions: The association between years of education and brain structure ≈60 years later was restricted to cortical thickness in this sample; however, the previously reported associations between longer education and a thicker cortex are likely to be overestimates in terms of both magnitude and distribution. This finding has implications for understanding, and possibly ameliorating, life-course brain health. PMID:27664981

  17. Typhoid intestinal perforation under 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ekenze, Sebastian O; Ikefuna, Anthony N

    2008-03-01

    Typhoid intestinal perforation is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries. The peculiar features in children <5 years old need to be recognised in order to improve outcome. To determine the characteristic pattern and outcome of typhoid intestinal perforation in children under 5 years of age in south-east Nigeria. Comparative analysis of 83 children with typhoid intestinal perforation between January 2001 and December 2006 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. There were 22 (26.5%) children <5 years of age and 61 (73.5%) >5 years. In the younger children, the predominant presentation was fever, vomiting and abdominal tenderness, and in the older children it was fever, abdominal pain and distension. Features of peritonitis were present in only 54.5% aged <5 years compared with 90.2% of the older children (p<0.001). The average number of perforations in the under-5s was 2.1 (range 1-4) and >1.3 (range 1-3) in the older children (p<0.01). The types of operative procedure (simple closure and segmental bowel resection) were similar in both groups. Post-operative complications were not significantly different in the two groups and included surgical wound infection, prolonged ileus, pulmonary infection, wound dehiscence, re-perforation, intra-abdominal abscess and incisional hernia. There were nine (40.9%) deaths in the <5s and 12 (19.7%) in the >5s (p<0.05). Typhoid intestinal perforation in children <5 is associated with atypical presentation and high mortality. A high index of suspicion will ensure earlier presentation and might improve outcome.

  18. [Suicide attempts of 48 children aged 6-12 years].

    PubMed

    Berthod, C; Giraud, C; Gansel, Y; Fourneret, P; Desombre, H

    2013-12-01

    Research is limited on suicide attempts in children under 13 years of age. The objective of this study was to provide an in-depth description of this population. The present study is both retrospective and descriptive. Data were collected retrospectively from a file containing the causes for hospitalization of each child admitted into the Department of Child Psychiatry at the hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant (hospices civils de Lyon). We included all patients under 13 years of age who were hospitalized for a suicide attempt between 2008 and 2011. The methods used to collect the medical records consisted in using a form made up of four major parts: suicide attempts, social environment, medical history, and therapy. The 26 girls and 22 boys included had a mean age of 11.52 years. The boys were younger than the girls (P=0.047) and their parents were usually separated (P=0.034). The boys used more violent means to commit suicide in comparison to the girls (P=0.048). On average, children using violent means were younger (P=0.013). Boys underwent more psychotherapy (P=0.027) and were prescribed more psychotropic medication in comparison to girls (P=0.051). Adjustment disorders (37.5%) and depression (27%) were the two main diagnoses for hospitalization. They were hospitalized on average (±standard deviation) 9.6 days (±10 days). Psychotherapy was organized when leaving the hospital (98%) with legal measures (8.3%), change of residence (12.5%), and prescription of psychotropic drugs (37.5%). None had physical complications. In children under 13 years of age, attempted suicide was more frequent in girls than boys. However, the sample included 18 girls and nine boys who were 12 years old (sex ratio of 12-year-olds, 0.5). There were more boys (16 boys/eight girls) in the children under 12 (sex ratio of 8- to 11-year-olds, 1.6). Children under 11 used more violent means (P=0.01). The literature also reports that more violent means lead to a greater risk of death by suicide

  19. Predictive value of subclinical autistic traits at age 14-15 months for behavioural and cognitive problems at age 3-5 years.

    PubMed

    Möricke, Esmé; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Beuker, Karin T; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2010-08-01

    It is unclear whether subclinical autistic traits at very young age are transient or stable, and have clinical relevance. This study investigated the relationship between early subclinical autistic traits and the occurrence of later developmental and behavioural problems as well as problems in cognitive and language functioning. Parents of infants aged 14-15 months from the general population completed the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire (ESAT). Three groups of children with high, moderate, and low ESAT-scores (total n = 103) were selected. Follow-up assessments included the CBCL 1(1/2)-5 at age 3 years, and the SCQ, the ADI-R, the ADOS-G, an on-verbal intelligence test, and language tests for comprehension and production at age 4-5 years. None of the children met criteria for autism spectrum disorder at follow-up. Children with high ESAT-scores at 14-15 months showed significantly more internalizing and externalizing problems at age 3 years and scored significantly lower on language tests at age 4-5 years than children with moderate or low ESAT-scores. Further, significantly more children with high ESAT-scores (14/26, 53.8%) than with moderate and low ESAT-scores (5/36, 13.9% and 1/41, 2.4%, respectively) were in the high-risk/clinical range on one or more outcome domains (autistic symptoms, behavioural problems, cognitive and language abilities). Subclinical autistic traits at 14-15 months predict later behavioural problems and delays in cognitive and language functioning rather than later ASD-diagnoses. The theoretical implications of the findings lie in the pivotal role of early social and communication skills for the development of self-regulation of emotions and impulses. The practical implications bear on the early recognition of children at risk for behavioural problems and for language and cognitive problems.

  20. Pregnancy outcomes among mothers aged 15 years or less.

    PubMed

    Traisrisilp, Kuntharee; Jaiprom, Jedsada; Luewan, Suchaya; Tongsong, Theera

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine pregnancy outcomes among early adolescent women (aged ≤ 15 years) compared with those in late adolescence (16-19 years) and adults aged 20-30 years. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on singleton pregnancies with maternal age ≤15 years (early adolescent), 16-19 years (late adolescent), and 20-30 years (adult). The primary outcomes for comparison were the rates of preterm birth, low birthweight, growth restriction and cesarean section. A total of 33 777 pregnancies, 298 early adolescent, 4456 late adolescent, and 29 023 adults, were enrolled. Most baseline characteristics were comparable but rates of pregnancy complicated by medical diseases were significantly higher in the adults, especially diabetes mellitus and chronic hypertension. When compared to the adult group, the early adolescent group had significantly higher rates of preterm birth (31.9% vs 14.5%, P < 0.001), growth restriction (11.7% vs 7.1%, P = 0.002), low birthweight (28.9% vs 14.7%, P < 0.001), while maternal morbidity, such as pre-eclampsia and placenta previa, was similar. Likewise, most of the main outcomes in early adolescents were also significantly higher than those in late adolescents, but with lesser degrees. Interestingly, the primary cesarean rate was significantly lower in early adolescent women (6.7% vs 12.3%, P = 0.005). Early adolescent pregnancy was associated with higher risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes, in particular preterm birth and growth restriction, though most maternal morbidity was comparable with that in the control groups. Cesarean rate was significantly lower in early adolescent mothers. This information should be provided to women and their families. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Management of skull fractures in children less than 1 year of age.

    PubMed

    Addioui, Anissa; Saint-Vil, Dickens; Crevier, Louis; Beaudin, Marianne

    2016-07-01

    Management of skull fracture (SF) in pediatric patients varies from observation in the emergency department (ED) to floor admission. Since 2010, a protocol for admitting children with SF specifically to the trauma service was implemented at our institution. The purpose of our study was to review the management of children with SF younger than 1 year of age. Retrospective chart review of all patients between 0 and 1year of age seen in our ED for a SF was done from 2010 to 2013. A total of 180 patients with a mean age of 4.5months (1day-12months) were identified. Of these, 131 patients (73%) were admitted. Mean length of stay was 1.6days. Admitted patients had more depressed (21 vs. 8%) and diastatic (43 vs. 14%) fractures. Fifty-seven children had intracranial hemorrhages (32%) but only 8 patients required non-emergent surgery for depressed fractures. Admission to the trauma service increased from none to 76% with phone follow-ups increasing from 12% to 91%. Instituting a protocol allowed a safer management of patients with SF. Moreover, we argue that asymptomatic infants with isolated SF can be safely discharged home after brief observation in the ED. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Colorectal cancer outcomes in patients aged over 85 years.

    PubMed

    Ng, O; Watts, E; Bull, C A; Morris, R; Acheson, A; Banerjea, A

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of colorectal cancer is increasing in the elderly. We examined the treatment and outcomes in our institution of patients aged over 85 years with proven colorectal adenocarcinoma. One hundred and five patients were identified and stratified by treatment received: curative surgery (CS), other treatments (OT) or best supportive care (BSC). Data on demographics, staging, treatment and survival was collected and analysed. Forty two patients received CS, 36 OT and 27 BSC. While the treated groups (CS and OT) were similar in terms of age (p=0.35) and staging (p=0.16), BSC patients were significantly older and had higher stage disease (p<0.01). Survival was significantly poorer among BSC patients, at a mean of 9.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.7-14.7) versus 41.6 months (95% CI 32.5-50.7) and OT 27.3 months (95% CI 20.4-34.1) for the CS and OT groups (p<0.001). There was no significant survival difference between CS and OT groups within 2 years of treatment (p=0.12). Thereafter, OT patients had a very similar 5-year survival to that of the BSC group, at 13% versus 43% in CS patients (p<0.001). These data suggest that, up to 2 years following treatment, the risks of resectional surgery for colorectal cancer may neutralise any benefit. However, those that survive beyond this period show improvements. The challenge of improving patient selection is most acute in the growing ageing population, and highlights the current focus on presenting all treatment options to 'a reasonable patient'.

  3. Breast cancer in women under 40 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kocic, B; Filipovic, S; Vrbic, V; Pejcic, I

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that breast cancer in young women is characterized by a relatively unfavorable prognosis and unusual pathological features. The aim of this study was to investigate clinicopathological and biological characteristics in young patients with breast cancer. The study enrolled 1029 consecutive female breast cancer patients who were admitted to the Clinical Centre Nis between July 2002 and December 2008. 91 (8.8%) patients were under and 938 (91.2%) were over 40 years. The mean age was 35.9 years for those under 40 years and 58.3 for those older than 40 years. In both patient groups, left breast was most commonly involved; the most common primary tumor site was the upper lateral quadrant; the most common histological type was ductal carcinoma; histological and nuclear grade 2 was most common. In the younger group of patients, the proportion of patients with T3 and T4 disease was higher (13.0 vs. 9.3% and 16.5 vs. 12.0%), the number of patients with histological and nuclear grade 3 disease was higher (27.5 vs. 24.7% and 37.4 vs. 33.2%), the proportion of patients with 4-9 and >10 positive lymph nodes was higher (22.6 vs. 18.3% and 7.1 vs. 4.0%), and the percentage of family history of breast cancer was higher (5.5 vs. 3.1%), without statistically significant differences between the two age groups. Patients in the younger age group exhibited higher estrogen (ER)/progesterone (PR) receptor negativity (32.6 vs. 24.4%) (p<0.05). Although uncommon, breast cancer in young women is worth special attention. The underlying causes of the disease must be investigated in large population- based studies in the future.

  4. [Nissen fundoplication in children under 1 year of age: is age important?

    PubMed

    Romo, M I; López-Fernández, S; Núñez, V; Amesty, M V; Triana, P; Domínguez, E; De La Torre, C A; Barrena, S; López-Santamaría, M; Martínez, L

    2016-10-10

    Nissen fundoplication (NF) is a procedure with technical difficulties and variable functional prognosis the lower the patient's age is. Our objective is to analyze the peculiarities of this procedure when performed in children under 1 year. Retrospective study of the NF in our center from 1999 to 2014. We review the differences between children under 1 year of age and the leftover of the series: history, indications, surgical approach and postoperative outcomes. A total of 233 patients (57.1% male) were operated at a median age of 2.3years (1 month-17.31years), of which 82 (35.2%) were younger than 1 year. It Open surgery was performed in 118 patients (86.6% of children under 1 year and 31.1% over 1 year, p <0.05) and laparoscopic in 115. The median follow-up was 3.92 ± 3.24 years. Patients under 1 year had a higher number of comorbidities (91.5% vs 81.5%), respiratory symptoms (76.8% vs 49.7%) and postoperative complications (20.7% vs 9.9% OR = 2.4), with statistically significant differences (p <0.05). There were not differences in the Nissen's failure rate (15.9% vs 8.6%) or the need of reoperation (15.9% vs 7.9%). Patients under 1 year operated by NF form a group with particular indications and comorbidities. Although the outcomes among these patients are favourable, surgical complications are more frequent than in older children.

  5. Implicit Weight Bias in Children Age 9 to 11 Years.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Payne, Keith; Perrin, Andrew J; Panter, Abigail T; Howard, Janna B; Bardone-Cone, Anna; Bulik, Cynthia M; Steiner, Michael J; Perrin, Eliana M

    2017-07-01

    Assess implicit weight bias in children 9 to 11 years old. Implicit weight bias was measured in children ages 9 to 11 (N = 114) by using the Affect Misattribution Procedure. Participants were shown a test image of a child for 350 milliseconds followed by a meaningless fractal (200 milliseconds), and then they were asked to rate the fractal image as "good" or "bad." We used 9 image pairs matched on age, race, sex, and activity but differing by weight of the child. Implicit bias was the difference between positive ratings for fractals preceded by an image of a healthy-weight child and positive ratings for fractals preceded by an image of an overweight child. On average, 64% of abstract fractals shown after pictures of healthy-weight children were rated as "good," compared with 59% of those shown after pictures of overweight children, reflecting an overall implicit bias rate of 5.4% against overweight children (P < .001). Healthy-weight participants showed greater implicit bias than over- and underweight participants (7.9%, 1.4%, and 0.3% respectively; P = .049). Implicit bias toward overweight individuals is evident in children aged 9 to 11 years with a magnitude of implicit bias (5.4%) similar to that in studies of implicit racial bias among adults. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Results of UAE in women under 40 years of age.

    PubMed

    McLucas, Bruce; Voorhees, William D

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the success rate of uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata for women under 40 years of age. This observational study of fibroid treatment in women under 40 years of age at the time of procedure was conducted at a private practice located in Los Angeles, CA. One hundred and four patients participated in the study. The study involved a pre- and post- UAE survey of symptoms evaluated on a scale of mild, moderate, or severe. The post UAE assessment also involved an indication of whether the patients would recommend UAE. Patients were surveyed concerning subsequent pelvic surgery and pregnancy. Comparison of pre- and post- survey data resulted in an overall success rate of 90.4% based on relief of symptoms. Patients reported no late onset failures. Several patients underwent full-term pregnancies. 6.7 % of patients underwent abdominal myomectomy following UAE. No patient underwent hysterectomy. No significant difference exists in the success rate of UAE for women under 40 and the entire cohort of women undergoing UAE. UAE is a suitable form of treatment for women in this age group.

  7. 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4,5 - Tetrachlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 94 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  8. Immunoglobulin patterns in humans over 95 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Radl, J; Sepers, J M; Skvaril, F; Morell, A; Hijmans, W

    1975-01-01

    Immunoglobulin patterns were investigated in seventy-three volunteers older than 95 years. An idiopathic paraproteinaemia was found in 19% of the cases. A restriction of heterogeneity and an imbalance in the kappa/lambda ratio of the immunoglobulins was seen in a number of other sera. Determinations of immunoglobulin levels in sera of individuals without paraproteinaemia showed an increase in IgA and IgG. The quantitations of the IgG subclasses demonstrated that an increase in the IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses is responsible for the elevated level of the IgG. The variation in the immunoglobulin levels increased significantly with age of IgM and for the three major IgG subclasses. No abnormalities were found in the urine or in the mixed saliva. These results indicate that selective changes in the extent of the antibody-immunoglobulin repertoire characterize the immunoglobulin pattern of ageing man. PMID:1212818

  9. Developing movement efficiency between 7 and 9 years of age.

    PubMed

    Bosga-Stork, Ida Maria; Bosga, Jurjen; Meulenbroek R, G J

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the movement efficiency of typically developing children between 7 and 9 years of age by scrutinizing their movement amplitudes and frequencies as they settled into a loop-writing task in which both parameters were prescribed. It was hypothesized that during the first three grades at primary school children would show increasing efficiency in exploiting the inverse relationship between movement amplitude and frequency when adjusting their movement errors. Whereas a clear developmental trend showed increasing efficiency with respect to the way in which the primary school children met the amplitude constraints, a more variable pattern was found for the age-dependent adjustments to the frequency requirements. At the level of parameter-error corrections from one cycle to the next, a marginal developmental trend was observed. Results are discussed in terms of contrasting effects between educational targets and movement-efficiency principles.

  10. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along (hindsight bias). Here we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the lifespan. 194 participants aged 3 to 95 years completed three tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age groups demonstrated hindsight bias on all three tasks; however, preschoolers and the elderly exhibited more bias than older children and younger adults. Multinomial processing tree analyses of these data revealed that preschoolers’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them substituting the correct answer for their original answer in their recall (a qualitative error). Conversely, older adults’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them forgetting their original answer and recalling an answer closer to, but not equal to, the correct answer (a quantitative error). We discuss these findings in relation to mechanisms of memory, perspective-taking, theory of mind, and executive function. PMID:21299327

  11. Intellectual Disability in a Birth Cohort: Prevalence, Etiology, and Determinants at the Age of 4 Years

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Simone M.; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Matijasevich, Alícia; dos Santos, Iná S.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Félix, Têmis M.; Riegel, Mariluce; Maluf, Sharbel W.; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID), characterized by impairments in intellectual function and adaptive behavior, affects 1-3% of the population. Many studies investigated its etiology, but few are cohort studies in middle-income countries. Aims To estimate prevalence, etiology, and factors related to ID among children prospectively followed since birth in a Southern Brazilian city (Pelotas). Methods In 2004, maternity hospitals were visited daily and births were identified. Live-born infants (n = 4,231) whose family lived in the urban area have been followed for several years. At the age of 2 and 4 years, performances in development and intelligence tests were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory and Wechsler Intelligence Scale, respectively. Children considered as having developmental delay were invited to attend a genetic evaluation. Results At 4 years of age, the prevalence of ID was 4.5%, and the etiology was classified into 5 groups: environmental (44.4%), genetic (20.5%), idiopathic (12.6%), neonatal sequelae (13.2%), other diseases (9.3%). Most children presented impairment in two or more areas of adaptive behavior. There was no difference in prenatal care attendance or maternal schooling among the groups. Conclusion For about 40% of children, ID was attributed to nonbiological factors, suggesting that the rate may be reduced with appropriate interventions early in life. PMID:27595410

  12. Prostate Brachytherapy in Men {>=}75 Years of Age

    SciTech Connect

    Merrick, Gregory S. Wallner, Kent E.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Brammer, Sarah G.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Adamovich, Edward

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) in prostate cancer patients aged {>=}75 years undergoing brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and August 2004, 145 consecutive patients aged {>=}75 years underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy. Median follow-up was 5.8 years. Biochemical progression-free survival was defined by a prostate-specific antigen level {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Patients with metastatic prostate cancer or hormone-refractory disease without obvious metastases who died of any cause were classified as dead of prostate cancer. All other deaths were attributed to the immediate cause of death. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Nine-year CSS, bPFS, and OS rates for the entire cohort were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 64.5%, respectively. None of the evaluated parameters predicted for CSS, whereas bPFS was most closely predicted by percentage positive biopsies. Overall survival and non-cancer deaths were best predicted by tobacco status. Thirty-seven patients have died, with 83.8% of the deaths due to cardiovascular disease (22 patients) or second malignancies (9 patients). To date, only 1 patient (0.7%) has died of metastatic prostate cancer. Conclusions: After brachytherapy, high rates of CSS and bPFS are noted in elderly prostate cancer patients. Overall, approximately 65% of patients are alive at 9 years, with survival most closely related to tobacco status. We believe our results support an aggressive locoregional approach in appropriately selected elderly patients.

  13. Summary of aging effects on 25-year old nylon parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Tadios, E.L.

    1988-01-01

    Structural evaluations were conducted on several parachute systems to determine the effects of aging on parachute materials. Most of the parachutes were 25 years old. Five 64 ft parachutes were evaluated along with one 4 ft guide surface parachute and three 16.5 ft ribbon parachutes. The parachute systems used in the study were all fabricated from nylon materials. Results were obtained for several material properties such as tensile strength, air permeability and melting point. Military specifications were used as zero-time data base due to lack of raw material data. The results indicate that over a period of about 25 years, parachute nylon materials do not degrade to unacceptable levels. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. [Lumbar discal hernia after 65 years of age].

    PubMed

    Brunon, J; Duthel, R; Ollier, J; Riffat, G

    1984-01-01

    The authors make a retrospective study of a series of 200 patients who had been surgically treated, within a period of 26 months, for a lumbar discal pathology. Twenty of these (20%) were over 65 years old. A similar study was carried out in a rheumatological unit over a period of three years, and has included 266 patients, 21 of whom (7,8%) were older than 65. The comparison of both these series permits us to make some considerations concerning the frequency of this pathology after the age of 65, its clinical presentation and its treatment, which, as for the younger adult, must be surgical when the correct treatment fails and when a complication appears.

  15. Prader-Willi Syndrome after age 15 years.

    PubMed Central

    Laurance, B M; Brito, A; Wilkinson, J

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-four patients, all of them over 15 years, with the Prader-Willi syndrome are described. Obesity, often extreme, associated with an insatiable appetite, was their principal handicap and this was made worse by educational subnormality and hypogonadism. Three of the them developed diabetes. Each attended a special school or an adult training centre. Although most of them were of short stature and had scoliosis, 2 were tall but they even more severely mentally retarded than is usually the case. Nine other patients died aged between 3 and 23 years. The most common cause of death was cor pulmonale. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7212756

  16. Pharmacotherapy for hypertension in adults aged 18 to 59 years.

    PubMed

    Musini, Vijaya M; Gueyffier, Francois; Puil, Lorri; Salzwedel, Douglas M; Wright, James M

    2017-08-16

    Hypertension is an important risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events including stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure and renal failure. The main goal of treatment is to reduce these events. Systematic reviews have shown proven benefit of antihypertensive drug therapy in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality but most of the evidence is in people 60 years of age and older. We wanted to know what the effects of therapy are in people 18 to 59 years of age. To quantify antihypertensive drug effects on all-cause mortality in adults aged 18 to 59 years with mild to moderate primary hypertension. To quantify effects on cardiovascular mortality plus morbidity (including cerebrovascular and coronary heart disease mortality plus morbidity), withdrawal due adverse events and estimate magnitude of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) lowering at one year. The Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomized controlled trials up to January 2017: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We contacted authors of relevant papers regarding further published and unpublished work. Randomized trials of at least one year' duration comparing antihypertensive pharmacotherapy with a placebo or no treatment in adults aged 18 to 59 years with mild to moderate primary hypertension defined as SBP 140 mmHg or greater or DBP 90 mmHg or greater at baseline, or both. The outcomes assessed were all-cause mortality, total cardiovascular (CVS) mortality plus morbidity, withdrawals due to adverse events, and decrease in SBP and DBP. For dichotomous outcomes, we used risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and a fixed-effect model to combine outcomes across trials. For continuous outcomes

  17. Demirjian's system for estimating dental age among Northwestern Turkish children aged 4-16 years.

    PubMed

    Ercalikyalcinkaya, S; Dumlu, A; Bekiroglu, N; Kizilyel, G; Kargul, B

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the timing of individual tooth formation stages in a group of northwestern Turkish children and to evaluate the suitability of Demirjian's method. dental ages (DAs) were assessed from 1,678 digital panoramic radiographs of healthy children (aged 4-16 years; 743 females and 935 males). Seven mandibular teeth were evaluated according to the Demirjian's eight-grade dental maturity scale by one examiner. Dental age was compared to chronologic age (CA) using a paired t-test. Intra- and inter-observer agreements were assessed with 250 OPGs. The mean difference between DA and CA was statistically significant among genders (p = 0.004), and it was 0.50 +/-1.90 years in girls and 0.77+/-1.86 years in boys. The mean DA was significantly higher (p<0.0001) than the mean CA in the entire studied group; therefore, dental development was considerably accelerated. The Intra- and Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for the assessment of DA were 0.964 and 0.961, respectively, which is considered "substantial agreement". Results show that the mean DAs of the studied group of Turkish children are significantly higher than the CAs. Overestimation is notable at the beginning of puberty.

  18. Parent and Child Personality Traits and Children's Externalizing Problem Behavior from Age 4 to 9 Years: A Cohort-Sequential Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinzie, P.; Onghena, P.; Hellinckx, W.

    2005-01-01

    Cohort-sequential latent growth modeling was used to analyze longitudinal data for children's externalizing behavior from four overlapping age cohorts (4, 5, 6, and 7 years at first assessment) measured at three annual time points. The data included mother and father ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist and the Five-Factor Personality Inventory…

  19. Parent and Child Personality Traits and Children's Externalizing Problem Behavior from Age 4 to 9 Years: A Cohort-Sequential Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinzie, P.; Onghena, P.; Hellinckx, W.

    2005-01-01

    Cohort-sequential latent growth modeling was used to analyze longitudinal data for children's externalizing behavior from four overlapping age cohorts (4, 5, 6, and 7 years at first assessment) measured at three annual time points. The data included mother and father ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist and the Five-Factor Personality Inventory…

  20. Primary headache disorders in children under 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ramdas, S; Prasad, M; Abu-Arafeh, I

    2013-02-01

    Research on headache disorders in young children is limited. This study aims to determine causes and clinical presentations of headache in young children attending a specialist clinic. All children attending the headache clinic over 9-year period were included. Data were collected prospectively on demography and clinical presentations of headache at every attendance. The diagnosis of headache disorders was based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II (2004). Of the 921 children (491 male) who attended the clinic, 73 children (8%) were under 7 years of age at presentation; 34 children had migraine, 11 had tension-type headache (4 chronic), 4 had mixed types of headache and 16 children had unclassified headaches. Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, light intolerance and noise intolerance were common during migraine attacks and forehead was the most common site of maximal pain. Migraine is the most common headache disorder in young children attending a specialist clinic. Headache presentation is often atypical and in 20% of young children headache disorders are unclassified. Chronic tension-type headache, often considered a disease of adolescents and adults, is shown to present in early age.

  1. Cancer Prevention Among Adults Aged 45–64 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ory, Marcia G.; Anderson, Lynda A.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Pulczinski, Jairus C.; Eugene, Nola; Satariano, William A.

    2015-01-01

    As part of setting the stage for this supplement to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, a life-course perspective is presented to assist in understanding the importance of cancer prevention for adults in midlife, a period roughly spanning 20 years between ages 45 and 64 years. Drawing on disciplinary perspectives from the social sciences and public health, several life-course themes are delineated in this article: how specific life transitions present unique opportunities for interventions to inform policy and practice that can improve population health outcomes; how interventions can be focused on those at particular life stages or on the entire life course; and how the onset and progression of chronic conditions such as cancer are dependent on a complex interplay of critical and sensitive periods, and trajectory and accumulation processes. A translational research framework is applied to help promote the movement of applied public health interventions for cancer prevention into practice. Also explored are differences that can affect people at midlife relative to other age cohorts. Specifically, cancer-related risks and care networks are examined, with examples of public health strategies that can be applied to cancer prevention and control. As a conclusion, select methodologic issues and next steps for advancing research and practice are identified. PMID:24512925

  2. Tacrolimus ointment: utilization patterns in children under age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Housman, Tamara Salam; Norton, Amy B; Feldman, Steven R; Fleischer, Alan B; Simpson, Eric L; Hanifin, Jon M; Antaya, Richard J

    2004-07-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common eczematous skin condition; as many as 10-17 percent of all children are affected, and 35-60 percent of affected patients manifest symptoms manifest during the first year of life. Treatment principles for AD in young children involve conservative measures such as avoidance of hot water and environmental irritants, combined with liberal use of emollients after bathing. Low potency topical corticosteroids (TCS) are the current standard of therapy for AD in young children, reserving mid- and high-potency TCS for severe disease. However, complications of long-term use of TCS include skin atrophy, stria formation, telangiectasia, hypopigmentation, secondary infections, steroid acne, allergic contact dermatitis, and miliaria. The pediatric population is also at increased risk for systemic absorption because of their high ratio of skin surface to body mass. Systemic absorption may result in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression and ultimately growth retardation. Although most topical and systemic corticosteroids are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in children less than 2 years of age, conservative treatment often fails in this age group and frequently patients are treated with TCS, antibiotics, and antihistamines.

  3. Wellness among US adolescents ages 12-17 years.

    PubMed

    Preskitt, J K; Menear, K S; Goldfarb, S S; Menachemi, N

    2015-11-01

    Wellness is a multidimensional construct related to an individual's physical, emotional, intellectual and social well-being. We present estimates of wellness among US adolescents aged 12-17 years and explore how demographic characteristics are associated with wellness. All respondents aged 12 to 17 years (n = 34,601) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health were included in the sample. Survey items were coded to operationalize an overall wellness score, comprised of four subdimensions (physical, intellectual, emotional and social). The mean adjusted overall wellness score was 30.2 (out of 40). Mean raw subdimensions scores were: social = 3.14 (out of 4), emotional = 4.79 (out of 6), intellectual = 4.80 (out of 8) and physical = 6.57 (out of 8). Older adolescents, those with special health needs, those in lower income families and those whose mother or father report fair-poor mental health status had lower wellness scores. US adolescents have wellness scores towards the upper or higher end of our scale. Several adolescent and family characteristics were associated with either lower overall wellness and/or lower wellness on multiple subdimensions. Assessing wellness during critical developmental periods of adolescence is a first step towards promoting behaviours that support increased wellness into adulthood. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Lower limb function and 10-year survival in population aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Arnau, Anna; Espaulella, Joan; Méndez, Teresa; Serrarols, Marta; Canudas, Judit; Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Montserrat

    2016-02-01

    Scientific societies recommend assessing lower limb function in usual clinical practice. The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) is one of the most validated tools to assess this, but its capacity to predict long-term mortality in very old population attending primary care has not been studied. To assess the ability of the SPPB to predict 10-year survival in individuals aged 75 and over. Prospective cohort study with a 10-year follow-up. A representative sample of people aged 75 years or older without severe dependence (Barthel Index > 20) treated at a Spanish primary care centre (n = 315). Baseline evaluation included geriatric assessment with most well-known death predictors. The three SPPB subtasks (standing balance, walking speed and chair stand tests) were administered. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models were calculated for all-cause mortality. Mean age was 81.9 years (60.6% female). Ten-year survival of elders with SPPB score <7 and ≥7 was 0.23 and 0.37 (P < 0.001), respectively. This difference remained statistically significant in the Cox model adjusted by age, gender, number of drugs prescribed, cognitive status, body mass index and visual sharpness (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.37; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.86). Also, walking speed and chair stand subtasks were both individual-independent predictors of 10-year survival. Our findings indicate that SPPB is an independent predictor of long-term survival. The chair stand subtask could be a predictor as useful as the full performance battery, becoming a good alternative for primary care where the burden of performing all three subtasks could be excessive. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use among children aged 1 to 12 years.

    PubMed

    Macy, Michelle L; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Resnicow, Ken; Freed, Gary L

    2014-02-01

    Observed racial disparities in child safety seat use have not accounted for socioeconomic factors. We hypothesized that racial differences in age-appropriate restraint use would be modified by socioeconomic status and child passenger safety information sources. A 2-site, cross-sectional tablet-based survey of parents seeking emergency care for their 1- to 12-year-old child was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Parents provided self-report of child passenger safety practices, demographic characteristics, and information sources. Direct observation of restraint use was conducted in a subset of children at emergency department discharge. Age-appropriate restraint use was defined by Michigan law. Of the 744 eligible parents, 669 agreed to participate and 601 provided complete responses to key variables. White parents reported higher use of car seats for 1- to 3-year-olds and booster seats for 4- to 7-year-olds compared with nonwhite parents. Regardless of race, <30% of 8- to 12-year-old children who were ≤4 feet, 9 inches tall used a booster seat. White parents had higher adjusted odds (3.86, 95% confidence interval 2.27-6.57) of reporting age-appropriate restraint use compared with nonwhite parents, controlling for education, income, information sources, and site. There was substantial agreement (82.6%, κ = 0.74) between parent report of their child's usual restraint and the observed restraint at emergency department discharge. Efforts should be directed at eliminating racial disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use for children <8 years. Booster seat use, seat belt use, and rear seating represent opportunities to improve child passenger safety practices among older children.

  6. Disparities in Age-Appropriate Child Passenger Restraint Use Among Children Aged 1 to 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Resnicow, Ken; Freed, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Observed racial disparities in child safety seat use have not accounted for socioeconomic factors. We hypothesized that racial differences in age-appropriate restraint use would be modified by socioeconomic status and child passenger safety information sources. METHODS: A 2-site, cross-sectional tablet-based survey of parents seeking emergency care for their 1- to 12-year-old child was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Parents provided self-report of child passenger safety practices, demographic characteristics, and information sources. Direct observation of restraint use was conducted in a subset of children at emergency department discharge. Age-appropriate restraint use was defined by Michigan law. RESULTS: Of the 744 eligible parents, 669 agreed to participate and 601 provided complete responses to key variables. White parents reported higher use of car seats for 1- to 3-year-olds and booster seats for 4- to 7-year-olds compared with nonwhite parents. Regardless of race, <30% of 8- to 12-year-old children who were ≤4 feet, 9 inches tall used a booster seat. White parents had higher adjusted odds (3.86, 95% confidence interval 2.27–6.57) of reporting age-appropriate restraint use compared with nonwhite parents, controlling for education, income, information sources, and site. There was substantial agreement (82.6%, κ = 0.74) between parent report of their child’s usual restraint and the observed restraint at emergency department discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts should be directed at eliminating racial disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use for children <8 years. Booster seat use, seat belt use, and rear seating represent opportunities to improve child passenger safety practices among older children. PMID:24420814

  7. 2(2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid (2,4,5-TP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 ( 2,4,5 - Trichlorophenoxy ) propionic acid ( 2,4,5 - TP ) ; CASRN 93 - 72 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Hea

  8. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4,5 - Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid ( 2,4,5 - T ) ; CASRN 93 - 76 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard

  9. Carotid artery surgery in patients over 70 years of age.

    PubMed

    Benhamou, A C; Kieffer, E; Tricot, J F; Maraval, M; Lethoai, H; Benhamou, M; Boespflug, O; Natali, J

    1981-01-01

    Between 1965 and 1979, 934 patients underwent 1,057 operations for extracranial carotid stenosis at this institute, and over a recent 30-month period 463 patients underwent 511 operations of this type. This number is equal to the total of operations performed during the years 1965-1976. The increase in the frequency of carotid artery surgery has been more marked in patients of over 70 years. The percentage of elderly patients has increased from 17.5% to 27% in the recent period. In the latter group of 511 operations, results were good in 93.17% of cases, while there was a mortality rate of 1.95% (1% of which were directly related to the surgery), in 1.95% the neurologic condition deteriorated and in 3.13% there was no change. In the first period the mortality rate for patients over 70 years of age was 7.69%. In the second it was 3.27% (1.63% of which were due to non-neurologic causes), 4.09% deteriorated, in 2.18% there was no change and good results were obtained in 90.46%.

  10. Summary of aging effects on 25-year old nylon parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Tadios, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    The results of structural evaluations on several parachute systems were examined to determine if any trends could be found that would indicate significant aging in the materials. All of the parachutes were more than 20 years old. Five 64 ft diameter parachutes were evaluated along with three 16.5 ft diameter ribbon parachutes and one 4 ft diameter guide surface parachute. Another group included six 48 ft diameter ribbon parachutes, two 4 ft diameter guide surface parachutes, and two 16.5 ft diameter extraction ribbon parachutes. The parachute systems used in the study were all fabricated from nylon materials. Data were obtained for several material properties such as tensile strength, air permeability and melting point. Military specifications were used as zero-time data base due to lack of raw material data. Generally speaking, after 25 years the material properties of the 64 ft parachutes were within specifications. The same generalization cannot be made for the 48 ft parachutes which were about 23 years old. The explanation for their differences may lie in their respective histories. 10 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Anna; Chevalier, Aran John; Clarke, Elizabeth; Wall, John; Coxon, Kristy; Brown, Julie; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior" (Chevalier et al., 2016) [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75-94 years (median 80 years, 52% male) living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS) data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control.

  12. Manual control age and sex differences in 4 to 11 year old children.

    PubMed

    Flatters, Ian; Hill, Liam J B; Williams, Justin H G; Barber, Sally E; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled 'manual control', whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4-5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10-11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills.

  13. Milk Consumption after Age 9 Years Does Not Predict Age at Menarche123

    PubMed Central

    Carwile, Jenny L; Willett, Walter C; Wang, Molin; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Frazier, A Lindsay; Michels, Karin B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regular milk consumption during childhood and adolescence is recommended for bone health. However, milk consumption increases circulating insulin-like growth factor I concentrations, and may also accelerate puberty. Objective: We prospectively investigated the association between milk consumption and age at menarche in the Growing Up Today Study. Methods: Study participants were 5583 US girls who were premenarcheal and ages 9–14 y in 1996. Girls were followed through 2001, at which time 97% of noncensored participants had reported menarche. Frequency of milk and meat consumption was calculated with the use of annual youth/adolescent food frequency questionnaires from 1996–1998. Intake of related nutrients was also measured. Age at menarche was self-reported annually through 2001. Results: During follow-up, 5227 girls attained menarche over 10,555 accrued person-years. In models adjusted for dietary and sociodemographic predictors of menarche, frequency of milk consumption did not predict age at onset of menarche (for >3 glasses of milk/d vs. 1.1–4 glasses/wk, HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.04). After additional adjustment for body size, premenarcheal girls consuming >3 glasses of milk daily were 13% less likely (95% CI: −3%, −23%; P-trend: <0.01) to attain menarche in the next month relative to those consuming 1.1–4 glasses/wk. Neither total meat nor red meat consumption was associated with age at menarche. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that regular consumption of milk in girls aged ≥9 y is unlikely to substantially affect age at onset of menarche. Studies assessing associations between diet in early childhood and pubertal timing may be more illuminating. PMID:26136590

  14. Milk Consumption after Age 9 Years Does Not Predict Age at Menarche.

    PubMed

    Carwile, Jenny L; Willett, Walter C; Wang, Molin; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Frazier, A Lindsay; Michels, Karin B

    2015-08-01

    Regular milk consumption during childhood and adolescence is recommended for bone health. However, milk consumption increases circulating insulin-like growth factor I concentrations, and may also accelerate puberty. We prospectively investigated the association between milk consumption and age at menarche in the Growing Up Today Study. Study participants were 5583 US girls who were premenarcheal and ages 9-14 y in 1996. Girls were followed through 2001, at which time 97% of noncensored participants had reported menarche. Frequency of milk and meat consumption was calculated with the use of annual youth/adolescent food frequency questionnaires from 1996-1998. Intake of related nutrients was also measured. Age at menarche was self-reported annually through 2001. During follow-up, 5227 girls attained menarche over 10,555 accrued person-years. In models adjusted for dietary and sociodemographic predictors of menarche, frequency of milk consumption did not predict age at onset of menarche (for >3 glasses of milk/d vs. 1.1-4 glasses/wk, HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.04). After additional adjustment for body size, premenarcheal girls consuming >3 glasses of milk daily were 13% less likely (95% CI: -3%, -23%; P-trend: <0.01) to attain menarche in the next month relative to those consuming 1.1-4 glasses/wk. Neither total meat nor red meat consumption was associated with age at menarche. Our findings suggest that regular consumption of milk in girls aged ≥9 y is unlikely to substantially affect age at onset of menarche. Studies assessing associations between diet in early childhood and pubertal timing may be more illuminating. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Healthcare costs associated with language difficulties up to 9 years of age: Australian population-based study.

    PubMed

    Sciberras, Emma; Westrupp, Elizabeth M; Wake, Melissa; Nicholson, Jan M; Lucas, Nina; Mensah, Fiona; Gold, Lisa; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to quantify the non-hospital healthcare costs associated with language difficulties within two nationally representative samples of children. Data were from three biennial waves (2004-2008) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (B cohort: 0-5 years; K cohort: 4-9 years). Language difficulties were defined as scores ≤ 1.25 SD below the mean on measures of parent-reported communication (0-3 years) and directly assessed vocabulary (4-9 years). Participant data were linked to administrative data on non-hospital healthcare attendances and prescription medications from the universal Australian Medicare subsidized healthcare scheme. It was found that healthcare costs over each 2-year age band were higher for children with than without language difficulties at 0-1, 2-3, and 4-5 years, notably 36% higher (mean difference = $AU206, 95% CI = $90, $321) at 4-5 years (B cohort). The slightly higher 2-year healthcare costs for children with language difficulties at 6-7 and 8-9 years were not statistically different from those without language difficulties. Modelled to the corresponding Australian child population, 2-year government costs ranged from $AU1.2-$AU12.1 million (depending on age examined). Six-year healthcare costs increased with the persistence of language difficulties in the K cohort, with total Medicare costs increasing by $192 (95% CI = $74, $311; p = .002) for each additional wave of language difficulties. Language difficulties (whether transient or persistent) were associated with substantial excess population healthcare costs in childhood, which are in addition to the known broader costs incurred through the education system. It is unclear whether healthcare costs were specifically due to the assessment and/or treatment of language difficulties, as opposed to conditions that may be co-morbid with or may cause language difficulties.

  16. Severe eczema in infancy can predict asthma development. A prospective study to the age of 10 years.

    PubMed

    Ekbäck, Marie; Tedner, Michaela; Devenney, Irene; Oldaeus, Göran; Norrman, Gunilla; Strömberg, Leif; Fälth-Magnusson, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Children with atopic eczema in infancy often develop allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma, but the term "atopic march" has been questioned as the relations between atopic disorders seem more complicated than one condition progressing into another. In this prospective multicenter study we followed children with eczema from infancy to the age of 10 years focusing on sensitization to allergens, severity of eczema and development of allergic airway symptoms at 4.5 and 10 years of age. On inclusion, 123 children were examined. Hanifin-Rajka criteria and SCORAD index were used to describe the eczema. Episodes of wheezing were registered, skin prick tests and IgE tests were conducted and questionnaires were filled out. Procedures were repeated at 4.5 and 10 years of age with additional examinations for ARC and asthma. 94 out of 123 completed the entire study. High SCORAD points on inclusion were correlated with the risk of developing ARC, (B = 9.86, P = 0.01) and asthma, (B = 10.17, P = 0.01). For infants with eczema and wheezing at the first visit, the OR for developing asthma was 4.05(P = 0.01). ARC at 4.5 years of age resulted in an OR of 11.28(P = 0.00) for asthma development at 10 years. This study indicates that infant eczema with high SCORAD points is associated with an increased risk of asthma at 10 years of age. Children with eczema and wheezing episodes during infancy are more likely to develop asthma than are infants with eczema alone. Eczema in infancy combined with early onset of ARC seems to indicate a more severe allergic disease, which often leads to asthma development. The progression from eczema in infancy to ARC at an early age and asthma later in childhood shown in this study supports the relevance of the term "atopic march", at least in more severe allergic disease.

  17. Naturalistic rapid deceleration data: Drivers aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Anna; Chevalier, Aran John; Clarke, Elizabeth; Coxon, Kristy; Brown, Julie; Rogers, Kris; Boufous, Soufiane; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research manuscript "Predictors of older drivers' involvement in rapid deceleration events", which investigates potential predictors of older drivers' involvement in rapid deceleration events including measures of vision, cognitive function and driving confidence (A. Chevalier et al., 2016) [1]. In naturalistic driving studies such as this, when sample size is not large enough to allow crashes to be used to investigate driver safety, rapid deceleration events may be used as a surrogate safety measure. Naturalistic driving data were collected for up to 52 weeks from 182 volunteer drivers aged 75-94 years (median 80 years, 52% male) living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Accelerometer data were recorded 32 times per second and Global Positioning System (GPS) data each second. To measure rapid deceleration behavior, rapid deceleration events (RDEs) were defined as having at least one data point at or above the deceleration threshold of 750 milli-g (7.35 m/s(2)). All events were constrained to a maximum 5 s duration. The dataset provided with this article contains 473 events, with a row per RDE. This article also contains information about data processing, treatment and quality control. The methods and data presented here may assist with planning and analysis of future studies into rapid deceleration behaviour using in-vehicle monitoring.

  18. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins.

    PubMed

    Steves, Claire J; Mehta, Mitul M; Jackson, Stephen H D; Spector, Tim D

    2016-01-01

    Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant twin analyses, where within

  19. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Steves, Claire J.; Mehta, Mitul M.; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Spector, Tim D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. Objectives We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. Methods A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. Results A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant

  20. Age related changes in auditory processes in children aged 6 to 10 years.

    PubMed

    Yathiraj, Asha; Vanaja, C S

    2015-08-01

    The study evaluated age related changes in auditory processing (separation/auditory closure, binaural auditory integration abilities, temporal processing abilities) and higher order cognitive function (auditory memory & sequencing abilities) in children. Additionally, the study aimed to assess the effect of gender on the auditory processes/higher cognitive function as well as ear effect for the monaural tests that were administered. The cross-sectional experimental study evaluated 280 typically developing children aged 6 to 10 years, divided into five age groups. They were evaluated on auditory processes/higher order cognitive functions reported to be frequently affected in children with auditory processing disorders (Speech-in-Noise Test in Indian-English, Dichotic consonant-vowel test, Duration pattern test, & Revised Auditory Memory and Sequencing Test in Indian-English). ANOVA and MANOVA revealed no significant gender effect in all four tests. However, a significant age effect was seen, with the rate at which maturation occurred, varying across the tests. Thus, the findings indicate that different auditory processes have different rates of development. This reflects that the areas responsible for different auditory processes/higher cognitive function do not develop at the same pace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between age and elite marathon race time in world single age records from 5 to 93 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aims of the study were (i) to investigate the relationship between elite marathon race times and age in 1-year intervals by using the world single age records in marathon running from 5 to 93 years and (ii) to evaluate the sex difference in elite marathon running performance with advancing age. Methods World single age records in marathon running in 1-year intervals for women and men were analysed regarding changes across age for both men and women using linear and non-linear regression analyses for each age for women and men. Results The relationship between elite marathon race time and age was non-linear (i.e. polynomial regression 4th degree) for women and men. The curve was U-shaped where performance improved from 5 to ~20 years. From 5 years to ~15 years, boys and girls performed very similar. Between ~20 and ~35 years, performance was quite linear, but started to decrease at the age of ~35 years in a curvilinear manner with increasing age in both women and men. The sex difference increased non-linearly (i.e. polynomial regression 7th degree) from 5 to ~20 years, remained unchanged at ~20 min from ~20 to ~50 years and increased thereafter. The sex difference was lowest (7.5%, 10.5 min) at the age of 49 years. Conclusion Elite marathon race times improved from 5 to ~20 years, remained linear between ~20 and ~35 years, and started to increase at the age of ~35 years in a curvilinear manner with increasing age in both women and men. The sex difference in elite marathon race time increased non-linearly and was lowest at the age of ~49 years. PMID:25120915

  2. Towards Validation of SMAP: SMAPEX-4 & -5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ye, Nan; Walker, Jeffrey; Wu, Xiaoling; Jackson, Thomas; Renzullo, Luigi; Merlin, Olivier; Rudiger, Christoph; Entekhabi, Dara; DeJeu, Richard; Kim, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The L-band (1 - 2 GHz) microwave remote sensing has been widely acknowledged as the most promising method to monitor regional to global soil moisture. Consequently, the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite applied this technique to provide global soil moisture every 2 to 3 days. To verify the performance of SMAP, the fourth and fifth campaign of SMAP Experiments (SMAPEx-4 -5) were carried out at the beginning of the SMAP operational phase in the Murrumbidgee River catchment, southeast Australia. The airborne radar and radiometer observations together with ground sampling on soil moisture, vegetation water content, and surface roughness were collected in coincidence with SMAP overpasses. The SMAPEx-4 and -5 data sets will benefit to SMAP post-launch calibration andvalidation under Australian land surface conditions.

  3. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  4. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  5. Assessment of handgrip strength in preschool children aged 3 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Delgado, G; Cadenas-Sanchez, C; Mora-Gonzalez, J; Martinez-Tellez, B; Chillón, P; Löf, M; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R

    2015-11-01

    We investigated whether there is an optimal grip span for determining the maximum handgrip strength in preschool children and if it is influenced by gender, age, or hand size. A total of 292 preschool children (3-5 years; 59.2% boys) carried out the handgrip strength test with different grip spans (4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.0 cm). The hand size was also measured. We also determined the reliability of the optimal grip span in another group of children (n = 56, 57% boys) who did the test twice, with a 3-hour difference between tests. The results showed that 4.0 cm is the optimal grip span to determine the maximum handgrip strength in preschool children. This result applied to both genders, all age groups, and hand sizes. Paired t-tests showed no significant differences between test and retest. These findings may guide clinicians and researchers in selecting the optimal grip span when measuring handgrip strength in preschool children.Level IV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Hippocampal Neuron Number Is Unchanged 1 Year After Fractionated Whole-Brain Irradiation at Middle Age

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Lei Molina, Doris P.; Robbins, Michael E.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether hippocampal neurons are lost 12 months after middle-aged rats received a fractionated course of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) that is expected to be biologically equivalent to the regimens used clinically in the treatment of brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Twelve-month-old Fischer 344 X Brown Norway male rats were divided into WBI and control (CON) groups (n = 6 per group). Anesthetized WBI rats received 45 Gy of {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays delivered as 9 5-Gy fractions twice per week for 4.5 weeks. Control rats were anesthetized but not irradiated. Twelve months after WBI completion, all rats were anesthetized and perfused with paraformaldehyde, and hippocampal sections were immunostained with the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. Using unbiased stereology, total neuron number and the volume of the neuronal and neuropil layers were determined in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 subregions of hippocampus. Results: No differences in tissue integrity or neuron distribution were observed between the WBI and CON groups. Moreover, quantitative analysis demonstrated that neither total neuron number nor the volume of neuronal or neuropil layers differed between the two groups for any subregion. Conclusions: Impairment on a hippocampal-dependent learning and memory test occurs 1 year after fractionated WBI at middle age. The same WBI regimen, however, does not lead to a loss of neurons or a reduction in the volume of hippocampus.

  7. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems, little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6,…

  8. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems, little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6,…

  9. Intussusception in Children Aged Less than Five years.

    PubMed

    Mehendale, Sanjay; Kumar, C P Girish; Venkatasubramanian, S; Prasanna, T

    2016-10-01

    To enumerate the cases of intussusception in Chennai during 2012-2013, describe the clinical profile, outcomes of case management and highlight the importance of systematically collecting this data in lieu of rotavirus vaccine introduction in India. Medical records of pediatric intussusception cases admitted in eight large hospitals in Chennai from July 2012 through June 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic and clinical data including diagnostic and treatment practices were obtained. Cases were categorized based on the diagnostic certainty criteria stipulated by the Brighton collaboration on intussusception. During the one year of study period, 205 cases of intussusception were diagnosed in 8 hospitals in Chennai city of India. The median age at presentation was 9 mo (Inter Quartile Range, IQR 6-14) with a male to female ratio of 1.8:1. The commonest site of intussusception was ileocolic (80.4 %). Most of the cases (59.8 %) were managed non-surgically. Direct surgical intervention was carried out in 26.5 % cases whereas in 11.8% of cases, surgery was required after failure of non-surgical measures. Median duration of hospital stay was 3 d (IQR 1-5). This study documents the case burden of intussusception among children in Chennai in a calendar year. Data on receipt of rotavirus vaccine was not available. The authors recommend collection of rotavirus vaccine data among all cases of intussusception in the country, and do retrospective analysis in other parts of the country and prospective surveillance in pediatric / immunization clinics to assess impact of rotavirus vaccine on intussusception rates in the post rotavirus vaccine introduction scenario.

  10. An 11-year review of levetiracetam ingestions in children less than 6 years of age.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J C; Albertson, T E; Walsh, M J

    2014-11-01

    Levetiracetam is a new anticonvulsant, which works to block high-voltage-activated Ca(++) channels in children, for partial-onset seizures. Reports of clinical experience with pediatric ingestions are minimal. The purpose of this study was to characterize the toxicity of accidental levetiracetam exposures in children less than 6 years of age. This was an 11-year retrospective observational case series of pediatric (< 6 years old) levetiracetam ingestions reported to a Poison Control System from 2002 to 2013. Case narratives were individually reviewed to collect desired information on exposure and clinical course. Inclusion criteria were levetiracetam as a single ingested medication, age less than 6 years, treatment in a health care facility, and followed to a known outcome. Eighty-two cases met inclusion criteria with 55% female patients and overall median age of 2.0 years (range: 1-60 months). The levetiracetam dose ingested was reported in 69 (84.1%) cases, with exact dose (median dose, 45.0 mg/kg; range, 10.5-1429 mg/kg) reported in 33 cases (40.2%). Of these, twenty-nine cases (88%) involved the oral solution formulation and 28 cases (85%) had unintentional therapeutic error as the cause of the exposure. No dose-response relationship was demonstrated; however, the odds of a levetiracetam-naive patient, (median dose, 26.9 mg/kg; N = 15) with an unintentional exposure, developing drowsiness or ataxia was 6 times that of a patient who was not naïve to levetiracetam (median dose, 70.1 mg/kg; N = 20) (Odds ratio [OR], 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-35.91).Of the 82 cases, 17 (20.7%) developed untoward clinical effects of drowsiness and/or ataxia. Eighty patients (97.6%) were treated and discharged from the emergency department, and two patients (2.4%) were admitted. The two patients admitted included a two-month old who was accidentally given a dose 10 times that of her usual dose and a 3-year old who was lethargic on arrival to the hospital after

  11. Alcohol use in women 65 years of age and older.

    PubMed

    Sedlak, C A; Doheny, M O; Estok, P J; Zeller, R A

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depression, codependency, self-coherence, and alcohol use and health outcomes in women 65 years of age and older. The framework is Erikson's ego-development theory. A convenience sample of 238 women was obtained from women attending flu shot clinics. This cross-sectional field study used survey methodology. Measures included the Beck Depression Inventory, Codependency Assessment Tool, Self-Coherence Survey Form C, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Use Questionnaire, Self-Rated Health Tool, Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale, Functional Ability Scale, Illness Prevention Screening Behaviors Checklist, and Sociodemographic Data. Results indicate a low consumption and little variation in use of alcohol. There were no significant associations between alcohol consumption and the dependent variables. Depression was significantly related to all the health outcomes; codependency was significantly related to all health outcomes except perceived quality of life; and self-coherence was significantly related to all health outcomes except illness prevention behavior. These findings have important implications for those providing care for older women.

  12. [Empathy in children aged 10 to 12 years].

    PubMed

    Garaigordobil, Maite; García de Galdeano, Patricia

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of this research were: 1) to determine whether there were differences in empathy according to gender; 2) to analyze the relationships between empathy and social behaviour, self-concept, emotional stability, social interaction strategies, capacity to analyze emotions, intelligence, and creativity; and 3) to identify predicting variables of empathy. The sample consisted of 139 participants aged 10 to 12 years. ANOVA results showed gender differences in empathy, with significantly higher scores in females. Pearson coefficients suggest that participants with high empathy showed many positive social behaviours (prosocial, assertive, consideration, self-control, leadership), few negative social behaviors (passive, aggressive, antisocial, withdrawal) and many assertive strategies of social interaction; that they were named as prosocial classmates; and that they had high self-concept, high capacity to analyze negative emotions, high emotional stability and many behaviors and traits of creative personality. Multiple regression analyses permitted identification of the following predicting variables of empathy: high level of prosocial behaviour, low level of aggressive behaviour and high self-concept.

  13. [Pneumococcal meningitis in children under 15 years of age in Misiones (Argentina). Sixteen year's epidemiological surveillance].

    PubMed

    Grenón, Sandra L; Salvi Grabulosa, Marcelo C; Regueira, Mabel M; Fossati, María S; von Specht, Martha H

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of pneumococcal meningitis surveillance conducted at the Provincial Pediatric Hospital of Posadas, Misiones (Argentina), before the conjugate vaccine was introduced into the national vaccination schedule. Between January 1994 and December 2009, 167 cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis were diagnosed in children aged 1 month to 15 years. The attack rate/100,000 children ranged from 19.2 (1997) to 4.3 (2009), with a mean of 10.6 and a tendency to decrease (y=-0.689x+16.52). The number of cases per 100,000 children decreased from 146.6 to 34.8 and particularly involved the group of children aged 1 to 11 months (94/167, 56%). Thirty point seven percent (30.7%) (46/150) of the isolates were resistant to penicillin whereas 16.7% (25/150) were non-susceptible to cefotaxime. β-lactam resistance increased as from 1997 and began to decline in 2005. Nineteen serotypes were detected; type 14 was predominant and accounted for 32% (40/125). Eighty four point eight percent (84.8%) of the isolates were circumscribed to nine serotypes: 14, 5, 1, 7F, 18C, 6B, 9N, 9V and 4. Theoretical coverage for patients aged <2 years and >2 years was 84.1% (74/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 10-valent vaccine and 89.8 % (79/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 13-valent vaccine respectively. Penicillin resistance was restricted to 8 serotypes (14, 6B, 6A, 9V, 4, 23B, 19A1) and nonsusceptibility to cefotaxime was circumscribed to 3 serotypes (14, 9V and 1). This study will allow to evaluate the impact of the implementation of conjugate vaccines on our area.

  14. The stability of sleep patterns in children 3 to 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Farmer, Victoria L; Taylor, Barry J

    2015-03-01

    To determine the reliability and stability of sleep (duration and quality) over time in young children using repeated accelerometer estimates of sleep. One hundred ninety-four children wore Actical accelerometers for 5-day periods (24-hour monitoring) at 3, 4, 5, 5.5, 6.5, and 7 years of age. Sleep variables of interest (duration, onset, offset, latency, efficiency, and wake after sleep onset) were estimated using the Sadeh algorithm within a commercial data reduction program (ActiLife). Children were divided into various groups according to sleep stability, and demographic and behavioral differences were compared across groups by ANOVA. All measures of sleep quantity and quality required 4-7 days of accelerometry to obtain acceptable reliability estimates, except morning wake time (2-4 days), and sleep latency (11-21 days). Average year-to-year correlations were only moderate for most measures (r = 0.41-0.51), but considerably higher than those observed for sleep latency, efficiency, and wake after onset (r = 0.15-0.24). Only 29 children were classified as sleep-stable over the 4 years. These children were less likely to be from ethnic minority groups (P = .017) and had higher levels of day-time physical activity (P = .032). Sleep patterns in children are not particularly stable, showing considerable variation both within a week and across the years. Few children exhibit stable sleep patterns over time, yet characterization of these children might provide further information regarding how sleep benefits health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A 13-year review of lisinopril ingestions in children less than 6 years of age.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J C; Alsop, J A

    2013-11-01

    Lisinopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor used for treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, and acute myocardial infarction. Reports of clinical experience with pediatric ingestions are minimal. A 13-year retrospective study of lisinopril ingestions in children reported to the California Poison Control System was analyzed and case notes were reviewed. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained and cases were blinded. Inclusion criteria were lisinopril as a single ingestant, age less than 6 years, treatment in a health care facility, case followed to a known outcome. Inclusion criteria were met in 296 cases. Demographics include 51% of male patients and the mean age was 1.97 years (range: 9 months-5 years). Of the 296 patients, 8 patients (2.7%) developed hypotension (ranges: 55-74 mm Hg systolic and 22-48 mm Hg diastolic). The lowest blood pressure of 55/22 mm Hg was recorded in a 22-month old male who ingested an estimated 120-mg lisinopril (13.3 mg/kg). The lowest dose of lisinopril causing hypotension was with an estimated dose of approximately 50 mg or 3.9 mg/kg in a 2-year old. Two hundred and eighty-two patients (95.3%) were treated and released from the emergency department and 14 patients (4.7%) were admitted. The dose ingested was reported in 189 cases and an exact-dose of lisinopril was reported in 61 patients (20.6%); mean amount ingested was 3.0 mg/kg, median amount ingested was 2.1 mg/kg (range: 0.1-10.9 mg/kg, N = 38); and mean total dose was 33.4 mg, median total dose was 20 mg (range: 2.5-160 mg, N = 61). None of the patients with exact-dose lisinopril ingestions developed hypotension, received intravenous fluids, or were admitted. The lowest estimated dose of lisinopril to cause hypotension was 50 mg or 3.9 mg/kg. Although continued evaluation of pediatric lisinopril ingestions is essential to determine more specific thresholds of toxicity, the lack of effect on blood pressure in children with exact-dose ingestions

  16. Facial and oral injuries in Brazilian children aged 5-17 years: 5-year review.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, A L; Melo, T R

    2008-06-01

    This was to assess causes of maxillofacial trauma using a retrospective study in Paraiba, Brazil. Records of 256 patients with maxillofacial injuries aged 5-17 years treated between January 2002 to May 2006 were analyzed according to sex, age, cause of injury, frequency of dentoalveolar trauma, intraoral soft tissue injury, frequency and site of facial fracture. Chi-square and Fisher's Exact Tests were used at a significance level of 5%; odds ratio (OR) with confidence intervals to 95% were calculated (IC95%). Facial injuries were most frequent in males (78.1%) and in 13-17 year olds (60.9%); they tended to be more frequent during weekends (48%). Commonest causes were falls (37.9%) and traffic accidents (21.1%). Nasal fractures were most common (51.3%), followed by the zygomatic-orbital complex (25.4%); dentoalveolar injuries were present in 25.8% of cases. There was a positive association between facial fracture and dentoalveolar trauma, alveolar and tooth fracture, avulsion and intraoral soft tissue injury. Accidental falls were found to be the leading cause of maxillofacial fractures, affecting males 3 times more than females.

  17. Microstructural examination of irradiated V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti.

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D. S.

    1998-05-04

    Microstructural examination results are reported for two heats of V-(4-5%) Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in the EBR-II X530 experiment to 4.5 dpa at {approximately}400 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment at 950-1125 C. There was no evidence for a significant density of large (diameter >10 nm) dislocation loops or network dislocations. Analytical investigations successfully demonstrated that the precipitates were enriched in titanium, depleted in vanadium and contained no nitrogen. These results are discussed in terms of future alloy development options.

  18. Thermophysical and mechanical properties of V-(4-5)%Cr-(4-5)%Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1998-03-01

    Solid solution V-Cr-Ti alloys exhibit a good combination of high thermal conductivity, adequate tensile strength, and low thermal expansion. The key thermophysical and mechanical properties for V-(4-5)%Cr-(4-5)%Ti alloys are summarized in this report. Some of these data are available in the ITER Materials Properties Handbook (IMPH), whereas other data have been collected from recent studies. The IMPH is updated regularly, and should be used as the reference point for design calculations whenever possible.

  19. Microstructural examination of V-(4-5%) Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in X530

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.; Chung, H.M.

    1997-08-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for two heats of V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in the X530 experiment to {approximately}400{degrees}C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment at 950-1125{degrees}C. There was no evidence for a significant density of large (diameter >10 nm) dislocation loops or network dislocations.

  20. Tensile properties of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Nowicki, L.; Busch, D.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-04-01

    The current focus of the U.S program of research on V-base alloys is on V-(4-5)Cr(4-5)Ti that contains 500-1000 wppm Si. in this paper, we present experimental results on baseline tensile properties of two laboratory-scale heats of this alloy and of a 500-kg production heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (heat 832665) that were measured at 23-700 C. Both the production- and laboratory scale heats of the reference alloy V-4Cr-4Ti exhibited excellent tensile properties at temperatures up to {approx}650{degrees}C.

  1. Searching for the birthplaces of open clusters with ages of several billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharova, I. A.; Shevtsova, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of finding the birthplaces of open clusters (OC) with ages of several billion years. The proposed method is based on the comparison of the results of the chemical evolution modeling of the Galactic disk with the parameters of the cluster. Five OCs older than 7 Gyr are known: NGC6791, BH176, Collinder 261, Berkeley 17, and Berkeley 39. The oxygen and iron abundances in NGC6791 and the oxygen abundance in BH176 are twice the solar level, the heavy-element abundances in other clusters are close to the corresponding solar values. According to chemical evolution models, at the time of the formation of the objects considered the regions where the oxygen and iron abundances reached the corresponding levels extended out to 5 kpc from the Galactic center.At present time theOCs considered are located several kpc from the Galactic center. Some of these clusters are located extremely high, about 1 kpc above the disk midplane, i.e., they have been subject to some mechanism that has carried them into orbits uncharacteristic of this type of objects. It follows from a comparison with the results of chemical evolution that younger clusters with ages of 4-5 Gyr, e.g., NGC1193,M67, and others, may have formed in a broad range of Galactocentric distances. Their large heights above the disk midplane is sufficient to suggest that these clusters have moved away from their likely birthplaces. Clusters are carried far away from the Galactic disk until the present time: about 40 clusters with ages from 0 to 2 Gyr are observed at heights ranging from 300 to 750 pc.

  2. Iron-deficiency anemia in infancy and poorer cognitive inhibitory control at age 10 years

    PubMed Central

    ALGARÍN, CECILIA; NELSON, CHARLES A; PEIRANO, PATRICIO; WESTERLUND, ALISSA; REYES, SUSSANNE; LOZOFF, BETSY

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to assess the effects of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy on executive functioning at age 10 years, specifically inhibitory control on the Go/No-Go task. We predicted that children who had IDA in infancy would show poorer inhibitory control. Method We assessed cognitive inhibitory control in 132 Chilean children (mean [SD] age 10y 0mo [1mo]): 69 children had IDA in infancy (45 males, 24 females) and 63 comparison children who did not have IDA (26 males, 37 females). Participants performed the Go/No-Go task with event-related potentials. Group differences in behavioral (accuracy, reaction time) and electrophysiological outcomes (N2 and P300 components) were analyzed using repeated-measures analyses of variance. N2 and P300 are interpreted to reflect attention and resource allocation respectively. Results Relative to comparison participants, children who had IDA in infancy showed slower reaction time (mean [SE], 528.7ms [14.2] vs 485.0ms [15.0], 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference between groups 0.9–86.5); lower accuracy (95.4% [0.5] vs 96.9% [0.6], 95% CI −3.0 to −0.1); longer latency to N2 peak (378.9ms [4.9] vs 356.9ms [5.0], 95% CI 7.5–36.6); and smaller P300 amplitude (4.5μV [0.8] vs 7.6μV [0.9], 95% CI–5.5 to −0.5). Interpretation IDA in infancy was associated with slower reaction times and poorer inhibitory control 8 to 9 years after iron therapy. These findings are consistent with the long-lasting effects of early IDA on myelination and/or prefrontal–striatal circuits where dopamine is the major neurotransmitter. PMID:23464736

  3. Associations of prenatal and childhood antibiotic use with child body mass index at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Melissa N; Pollak, Jonathan; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Hirsch, Annemarie G; Glass, Thomas A; Schwartz, Brian S

    2017-02-01

    Early-life antibiotic exposure, whether through prenatal or childhood antibiotic use, may contribute to increased child body mass. Associations of prenatal and childhood antibiotic use with body mass index z-score (BMIz) were evaluated at age 3 years. Electronic health records were utilized from 8,793 mothers and singleton children delivered at Geisinger Clinic in Pennsylvania between 2006 and 2012. Antibiotic orders were ascertained for mothers during pregnancy and for children through their age-3 BMI measurement. Linear mixed-effects regression models evaluated associations of prenatal and childhood antibiotic use with child BMIz. Prenatal antibiotic orders were not associated with child BMIz. Children in the three largest categories of lifetime antibiotic orders had higher BMIz compared with children with no orders; associations persisted when controlling for prenatal antibiotics (β [95% confidence interval]) (4-5 child orders: 0.090 [0.011 to 0.170]; 6 to 8: 0.113 [0.029 to 0.197]; ≥9: 0.175 [0.088 to 0.263]; trend P value <0.001). Two or more first-year orders were also associated with BMIz (1: 0.021 [-0.038 to 0.081]; 2: 0.088 [0.017 to 0.160]; ≥3: 0.104 [0.038 to 0.170]; trend P value < 0.001). Associations of early-life and lifetime childhood antibiotic use with increased child BMI highlight antibiotic exposure as a modifiable factor for reducing population-level excess weight. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  4. The World Assembly on Aging--Three Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusberg, Charlotte

    1985-01-01

    Examines the world response to population aging. Discusses national, regional, and international activities, such as conferences, campaigns to promote an active aging, employment projects, and community alternatives to institutional care. Policy responses are considered, involving employment, income, health, housing, family, consumerism,…

  5. Primiparity at very advanced maternal age (≥ 45 years).

    PubMed

    Glasser, Saralee; Segev-Zahav, Aliza; Fortinsky, Paige; Gedal-Beer, Debby; Schiff, Eyal; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2011-06-30

    This study describes maternal and birth outcomes of primiparae aged ≥ 45. High rates of pregnancy complications and poor birth outcomes were found, stressing that the personal risks and ramifications to the health system should be taken into account in establishing obstetric health policy regarding primiparity at advanced maternal age.

  6. Sex- and age- specific relations between economic development, economic inequality and homicide rates in people aged 0-24 years: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Butchart, Alexander; Engström, Karin

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test whether relations between economic development, economic inequality, and child and youth homicide rates are sex- and age-specific, and whether a country's wealth modifies the impact of economic inequality on homicide rates. METHODS: Outcome variables were homicide rates around 1994 in males and females in the age ranges 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and 20-24 years from 61 countries. Predictor variables were per capita gross domestic product (GDP), GINI coefficient, percentage change in per capita gross national product (GNP) and female economic activity as a percentage of male economic activity. Relations were analysed by ordinary least squares regression. FINDINGS: All predictors explained significant variances in homicide rates in those aged 15-24. Associations were stronger for males than females and weak for children aged 0-9. Models that included female economic inequality and percentage change in GNP increased the effect in children aged 0-9 and the explained variance in females aged 20-24. For children aged 0-4, country clustering by income increased the explained variance for both sexes. For males aged 15-24, the association with economic inequality was strong in countries with low incomes and weak in those with high incomes. CONCLUSION: Relations between economic factors and child and youth homicide rates varied with age and sex. Interventions to target economic factors would have the strongest impact on rates of homicide in young adults and late adolescent males. In societies with high economic inequality, redistributing wealth without increasing per capita GDP would reduce homicide rates less than redistributions linked with overall economic development. PMID:12471400

  7. Antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age.

    PubMed

    Farley, Rebecca; Spurling, Geoffrey K P; Eriksson, Lars; Del Mar, Chris B

    2014-10-09

    Bronchiolitis is a serious, potentially life-threatening respiratory illness commonly affecting babies. It is often caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Antibiotics are not recommended for bronchiolitis unless there is concern about complications such as secondary bacterial pneumonia or respiratory failure. Nevertheless, they are often used. To evaluate the effectiveness of antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age compared to placebo or other interventions. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2014, Issue 6), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infection Group's Specialised Register, and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, MEDLINE (1966 to June 2014), EMBASE (1990 to June 2014) and Current Contents (2001 to June 2014). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing antibiotics to placebo in children under two years diagnosed with bronchiolitis, using clinical criteria (including respiratory distress preceded by coryzal symptoms with or without fever). Primary clinical outcomes included time to resolution of signs or symptoms (pulmonary markers included respiratory distress, wheeze, crepitations, oxygen saturation and fever). Secondary outcomes included hospital admissions, length of hospital stay, readmissions, complications or adverse events and radiological findings. Two review authors independently analysed the search results. We included seven studies with a total of 824 participants. The results of these seven included studies were often heterogeneous, which generally precluded meta-analysis, except for deaths, length of supplemental oxygen use and length of hospital admission.In this update, we included two new studies (281 participants), both comparing azithromycin with placebo. They found no significant difference for length of hospital stay, duration of oxygen requirement and readmission. These results were similar to an older study (52 participants) that demonstrated

  8. Inspection Time and Cognitive Abilities in Twins Aged 7 to 17 Years: Age-Related Changes, Heritability and Genetic Covariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Caroline J.; Isaacs, Elizabeth B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Rogers, Mary; Lanigan, Julie; Singhal, Atul; Lucas, Alan; Gringras, Paul; Denton, Jane; Deary, Ian J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the age-related differences in inspection time and multiple cognitive domains in a group of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 7 to 17 years. Data from 111 twin pairs and 19 singleton siblings were included. We found clear age-related trends towards more efficient visual information processing in older participants. There…

  9. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  10. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  11. Risk factors for eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age: A 6-year longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Evans, Elizabeth H; Adamson, Ashley J; Basterfield, Laura; Le Couteur, Ann; Reilly, Jessica K; Reilly, John J; Parkinson, Kathryn N

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders pose risks to health and wellbeing in young adolescents, but prospective studies of risk factors are scarce and this has impeded prevention efforts. This longitudinal study aimed to examine risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in a population-based birth cohort of young adolescents at 12 years. Participants from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n = 516; 262 girls and 254 boys) completed self-report questionnaire measures of eating disorder symptoms and putative risk factors at age 7 years, 9 years and 12 years, including dietary restraint, depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index (BMI) was also measured at each age. Within-time correlates of eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were greater body dissatisfaction for both sexes and, for girls only, higher depressive symptoms. For both sexes, higher eating disorder symptoms at 9 years old significantly predicted higher eating disorder symptoms at 12 years old. Dietary restraint at 7 years old predicted boys' eating disorder symptoms at age 12, but not girls'. Factors that did not predict eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were BMI (any age), girls' dietary restraint at 7 years and body dissatisfaction at 7 and 9 years of age for both sexes. In this population-based study, different patterns of predictors and correlates of eating disorder symptoms were found for girls and boys. Body dissatisfaction, a purported risk factor for eating disorder symptoms in young adolescents, developed concurrently with eating disorder symptoms rather than preceding them. However, restraint at age 7 and eating disorder symptoms at age 9 years did predict 12-year eating disorder symptoms. Overall, our findings suggest that efforts to prevent disordered eating might beneficially focus on preadolescent populations.

  12. Dental age estimation on Bosnian-Herzegovinian children aged 6-14 years: evaluation of Chaillet's international maturity standards.

    PubMed

    Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Janković, Stipan; Mihanović, Frane; Nakaš, Enita; Prohić, Samir; Galić, Elizabeta; Brkić, Hrvoje

    2013-01-01

    Dental age estimation in children plays an important role in forensic dentistry. The most commonly used method for age estimation was developed by Demirjian in 1973 on a French-Canadian sample. It generally overestimates dental age in many populations. International maturity standards were formed to obtain a predicted age with more confidence when ethnic origin was not available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of Chaillet's international scores in the dental age assessment on Bosnian Herzegovinian (BH) children. Orthopantomograms of 1772 children, 980 girls and 792 boys aged 6.04-14.90 years, were assessed using Chaillet's international maturity tables and curves. The dental ages for both genders were compared to the chronological ages through a paired t-test. Mean overestimation using Chaillet's international maturity standards were 0.09 ± 0.83 for girls and 0.28 ± 0.90 for boys. The absolute accuracy of residuals between the dental and chronological age were 0.65 ± 0.52 years for girls (Median: 0.52 years) and 0.73 ± 0.60 years for boys (Median: 0.57 years). The Polynomial compound formula was recommended to predict dental age with more accuracy for results of international maturity standards on BH children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Microstructural examination of irradiated V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.; Rice, P.M.; Zinkle, S.J.; Chung, H.M.

    1998-03-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for two heats of V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in the EBR-II X530 experiment to {approximately}4 dpa at {approximately}400 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to b affected by preirradiation heat treatment at 950--1125 C. There was no evidence for a significant density of large (diameter >10 nm) dislocation loops or network dislocations. Analytical investigators successfully demonstrated that the precipitates were enriched in titanium, depleted in vanadium and contained no nitrogen.

  14. 702AZ aging waste ventilation facility year 2000 test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelman, W.D.

    1998-07-22

    This test procedure was developed to determine if the 702AZ Tank Ventilation Facility system is Year 2000 Compliant. The procedure provides detailed instructions for performing the operations necessary and documenting the results. This verification procedure will document that the 702AZ Facility Systems are year 2000 compliant and will correctly meet the criteria established in this procedure.

  15. National survey on edentulism and its geographic distribution, among Mexicans 18 years of age and older (with emphasis in WHO age groups).

    PubMed

    Medina-Solís, C E; Pérez-Núñez, R; Maupomé, G; Avila-Burgos, L; Pontigo-Loyola, A P; Patiño-Marín, N; Villalobos-Rodelo, J J

    2008-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of edentulism in adults aged 18 years and older in Mexico and to describe its distribution in 20 of the 32 States in Mexico, highlighting the experience in the WHO age groups. A secondary analysis of the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2002-2003 (representative at the state level and part of the Word Health Survey) was undertaken. The sample design was probabilistic, stratified and through conglomerates. Data on dental conditions were available only for 20 of the 32 states of Mexico, leading to a total of 24 159 households (N = 54 638 654). The percentage of edentulism was determined as the proportion of subjects that self-reported complete loss of teeth. Data were analyzed using the SVY module for complex surveys in STATA 8.2. The mean age was 41.3 +/- 17.0 years (range 18-99). An estimated 6.3% (N = 3 437 816) of the population > or =18 years was edentulous. Lowest prevalences were observed in the states of Tlaxcala, Puebla and the Estado de Mexico with 3.4%, 3.8% and 4.5%, respectively. Highest prevalences were observed in San Luis Potosí, Colima, and Michoacán with 10.3%, 10.2% and 10.1%, respectively. Following the WHO age groups, the prevalence ranged from 2.4% in the 35-44 group through 25.5% in the 65-74 group. No obvious association between socio-economic and socio-demographic indicators at the state level and prevalence of edentulism was found. The prevalence of complete tooth loss observed in the present study varied greatly across states, although no straightforward association was found with socio-economic and socio-demographic indicators at the state level. This study could serve as a baseline to enable future evaluations of the oral status of Mexican adults and elders, following WHO age groups.

  16. Postural sway in normal subjects aged 20-70 years.

    PubMed

    Røgind, H; Lykkegaard, J J; Bliddal, H; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    2003-05-01

    So far, no population-based reference material of postural sway has been presented in the literature. This study evaluated postural control by measuring posturographic parameters, with the aim of establishing useful standards with regard to gender, age, body weight, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and articular hypermobility. This was performed in an age-stratified random sample of 195 subjects from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, of whom, 133 agreed to participate. Measurement of postural sway was performed the Balance Master Pro(R). Outcome parameters were average angular velocity, target sway area, per cent maximum stability and per cent ankle strategy. Using SAS Proc Mixed, backward stepwise elimination was performed and 95% prediction intervals were obtained. Sway increased with increasing difficulty of the test (P<0.001) and with increasing age (P<0.001). No differences were found between the sexes. Ankle-strategy did not change with age, but decreased with increasing body weight, and increased in subjects reporting a consumption of modest amounts of alcohol (P<0.001), or with the finding of increased hypermobility (P = 0.006). The present material may be used as a reference in further studies of postural control.

  17. Acne and its management beyond the age of 35 years.

    PubMed

    Marks, Ronnie

    2004-01-01

    Although acne is not usually considered to be a disorder that affects the elderly, the disorder occurs sufficiently often in mature individuals to be noteworthy. The variety known as 'persisting acne' is, as its name suggests, ordinary acne that continues into adult life. 'Chin acne' is a curious type that occurs premenstrually in mature women, while 'sporadic acne' describes the sudden development of significant acne in later life for no apparent reason. When acne develops in an individual outside the usual susceptible age group precipitating causes such as exposure to comedogenic substances or drugs must be excluded. Similarly, endocrine causes such as androgen-secreting tumors and the administration of anabolic steroids need to be considered. All inflammatory processes are decreased in the elderly and this may be one reason for the persistence and intransigence of acne lesions in older age groups. The principles of treatment of acne in the elderly do not differ from those in other age groups, although the emphasis during counseling needs to focus on explanation and reassurance rather than prognosis. Topical retinoids and benzoyl peroxide easily irritate elderly skin, so azelaic acid and even sulfur preparations are preferable. Low-dose systemic isotretinoin is reported to be helpful to patients in this age group and is certainly worth a trial.

  18. Incidence of type 1 diabetes among Polish children ages 0-14 years from 1989-2012.

    PubMed

    Chobot, Agata; Polanska, Joanna; Deja, Grazyna; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemyslawa

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Poland is intermediate relative to the rest of the world. T1DM prevalence in the region of Silesia approximates national estimates for all of Poland. This epidemiologic study aimed to analyze the changes in incidence rates of T1DM among children ages 0-14 years from 1989 to 2012 in this region. Data collection methods for the registry followed EURODIAB criteria. To estimate overall population size, data from the Central and regional Statistical Office in Katowice were used. T1DM incidence rates/100,000 children ages 0-14 years/annum and their 95 % CI were calculated for all children and in age subgroups (0-4, 5-9, 10-14 years). For comparative analysis incidence rates were age and sex standardized to the population of Poland in 2005. For statistical analyses open source R Bioconductor software was used. During this 24-year period, 2,215 new cases (1,146 boys) were diagnosed. The standardized incidence rate rose about 7 % annually. The mean standardized incidence rates estimated in four 6-year time periods (1989-1994, 1995-2000, 2001-2006, 2007-2012) separately showed significant increases from 5.80/100,000/year (1989-1994) through 10.44/100,000/year (1995-2000) and 15.05/100,000/year (2001-2006) to 18.94/100,000/year (2007-2012). From 1989 to 2012, the greatest relative rise in annual incidence (/100,000/year) was among the very young: 2.58-14.00 (0-4 years); 4.96-19.43 (5-9 years); 8.84-22.15 (10-14 years). The highest average annual increment of the incidence rate was in the middle age subgroup (5-9 years). No significant sex difference was observed. The overall incidence rate increased 3.8 times, suggesting an epidemic of pediatric T1DM in Silesia, Poland. These temporal changes confirm that Poland currently has one of the highest incidence rates of pediatric T1DM in Europe.

  19. The loop, age 7 with five significant years of observation.

    PubMed

    Lippes, J; Ogra, S S

    1968-01-01

    In a 5 year study of 32,137 women months of loop "D", the major reasons for discontinuance of its use have been bleeding and/or pain, and expulsions. The longer a patient wears a loop, the less likely is expulsion, bleeding and/or pain. There is no evidence that the loop is responsible for causing any cancers. Acceptance rates are over 40% at the author's Planned Parenthood clinic. After 5 years, over 56% of patients continued using loop "D". In terms of effectiveness, pregnancy rates averaged less than 1% a year. Experience with loop "C" has not been as good as with loop "D".

  20. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy Subjects Aged 3 to 93 Years.

    PubMed

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Kinematics is recommended for the quantitative assessment of upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in healthy subjects. Three hundred and seventy healthy subjects, aged 3-93 years, participated in the study. They performed two unidirectional and two geometrical tasks ten consecutive times with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-six kinematic indices were computed for the four tasks. For the four tasks, nineteen of the computed kinematic indices showed an age effect. Seventeen indices (the accuracy, speed and smoothness indices and the reproducibility of the accuracy, speed and smoothness) improved in young subjects aged 3-30 years, showed stabilization in adults aged 30-60 years and declined in elderly subjects aged 60-93 years. Additionally, for both geometrical tasks, the speed index exhibited a decrease throughout life. Finally, a principal component analysis provided the relations between the kinematic indices, tasks and subjects' age. This study is the first to assess age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in subjects aged 3-93 years.

  1. Clinical phenotype and allergen sensitization in the first 2 years as predictors of atopic disorders at ageyears.

    PubMed

    Quah, Phaik Ling; Loo, Evelyn Xiu Ling; Lee, Gabriella Nadine Li Yuan; Kuo, I-Chun; Gerez, Irvin; Llanora, Genevieve Villablanca; Chan, Yiong Huak; Aw, Marion; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Lee, Bee Wah

    2015-01-01

    From a birth cohort of at-risk Asian infants, we prospectively investigated the role of early onset allergen sensitization and clinical phenotypes as risk factors for atopic disorders at the age of 5 years. The study recruited 253 families with a history of allergic disease in a first degree relative from an antenatal clinic in Singapore. The children were followed prospectively to assess clinical outcomes and skin prick test was performed at 2 and 5 years of age. Allergen sensitization (food and/or house dust mites) alone at 2 years of age was not associated with increased risk of wheeze and eczema at 5 years. However, the clinical phenotype (eczema and wheeze) with or without the presence of concomitant allergen sensitization at 2 years increased this risk. For eczema, eczema alone at year 2 increased the risk of eczema at year 5 (adjOR = 7.1; 95 % CI: 1.8-27.8) and this was further increased by the presence of allergen sensitization (adjOR = 25.4; 95 % CI: 4.7-138.5) and the concomitant presence of both wheeze and allergen sensitization (adjOR = 64.9; 95 % CI: 4.7-900.0). For wheeze, wheeze alone at 2 years (adjOR = 4.5; 95 % CI: 1.4 -14.8), and wheeze with concomitant allergen sensitization and eczema (adjOR = 13.9; 95 % CI: 1.2-168.5) increased the risk of wheeze at 5 years. The exception was rhinitis, where allergen sensitization alone at 2 years (adjOR = 5.6; 95 % CI: 1.1-29.2) increased the risk of rhinitis at 5 years. Early onset of eczema at 2 years also increased the risk of rhinitis (adjOR = 6.8; 95 % CI: 2.0-23.1). In this Asian birth cohort, the clinical phenotype (eczema and wheeze) with or without concomitant allergen sensitization in the first 2 years of life were strong predictors of atopic disorders at 5 years.

  2. Young Teens (12-14 years of age)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teenagers (15-17 years) Mental Health Specific Conditions Learning Disorder Data & Statistics Research Legacy Program Intervention Support Fidelity Monitoring FAQ Resources Partner Stories Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia & Tools Links to Other Websites Get Email Updates ...

  3. Impact of age on transcatheter aortic valve implantation outcomes: a comparison of patients aged ≤ 80 years versus patients > 80 years

    PubMed Central

    van der Kley, Frank; van Rosendael, Philippe J; Katsanos, Spyridon; Kamperidis, Vasileios; Marsan, Nina A; Karalis, Ioannis; de Weger, Arend; Palmen, Meindert; Bax, Jeroen J; Schalij, Martin J; Delgado, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the procedural outcomes and the long-term survival of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and compare study results of patients ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years old. Methods A total of 240 patients treated with TAVI were divided into two groups according to age ≤ 80 years (n = 105; 43.8%) and > 80 years (n = 135; 56.2%). The baseline characteristics and the procedural outcomes were compared between these two groups of patients. Results With the exception of peripheral artery disease and hypercholesterolemia, which were more frequently observed in the older age group, baseline characteristics were comparable between groups. Complication rates did not differ significantly between patients ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years. There were no differences in 30-day mortality rates between patients aged ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years old (9.5% vs. 7.4%, respectively; P = 0.557). After a median follow-up of 28 months (interquartile range: 16–42 months), 50 (47.6%) patients aged ≤ 80 years died compared to 57 (42%) deaths in the group of patients > 80 years old (P = 0.404). Conclusion The results of the present single center study showed that age did not significantly impact the outcomes of TAVI. PMID:26918010

  4. Prenatal exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and obesity at 9 years of age in the CHAMACOS study cohort.

    PubMed

    Warner, Marcella; Wesselink, Amelia; Harley, Kim G; Bradman, Asa; Kogut, Katherine; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-06-01

    In-utero exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds, including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE), has been hypothesized to increase the risk of obesity later in life. We examined the associations of maternal serum concentrations of DDT and DDE during pregnancy with body mass index, obesity, waist circumference, and percentage of body fat in 9-year-old children (n = 261) in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) Study, a longitudinal birth cohort study in the Salinas Valley, California (2000-2010). We found associations between prenatal exposure to DDT and DDE and several measures of obesity at 9 years of age in boys but not in girls. For example, among boys, 10-fold increases in prenatal DDT and DDE concentrations were associated with increased odds of becoming overweight or obese (for o,p'-DDT, adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 6.3; for p,p'-DDT, adjusted OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0, 4.5; and for p,p'-DDE, adjusted OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 0.94, 4.13). The odds ratios for girls were nonsignificant. Results were similar for body mass index z score, waist circumference z score, and odds of increased waist circumference but were less consistent for percentage of body fat. The difference by sex persisted after considering pubertal status. These results provide support for the chemical obesogen hypothesis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The fate of cognition in very old age: six-year longitudinal findings in the Berlin Aging Study (BASE).

    PubMed

    Singer, Tania; Verhaeghen, Paul; Ghisletta, Paolo; Lindenberger, Ulman; Baltes, Paul B

    2003-06-01

    The authors report full-information longitudinal age gradients in 4 intellectual abilities on the basis of 6-year longitudinal changes in 132 individuals (mean age at T1 = 78.27, age range = 70-100) from the Berlin Aging Study. Relative to the cross-sectional parent sample (N = 516, mean age at T1 = 84.92 years), this sample was positively selected because of differential mortality and experimental attrition. Perceptual speed, memory, and fluency declined with age. In contrast, knowledge remained stable up to age 90, with evidence for decline thereafter. Age gradients were more negative in old old (n = 66, mean age at T1 = 83.04) than in old (n = 66, mean age at T1 = 73.77) participants. Rates of decline did not differ reliably between men and women or between participants with high versus low life-history status. They conclude that intellectual development after age 70 varies by distance to death, age, and intellectual ability domain.

  6. Educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25-94 years: Nationally representative sex- and age-specific statistics.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kondo, Naoki

    2017-04-01

    Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25-94 years. Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women) in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Among men aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%-70.6%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%-21.9%). High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%-56.8% in men aged 25-34 years). Among men aged 75-94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%-52.3%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%-7.4%). Compared with older age groups, such as 65-94 years, younger age groups, such as 25-54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Donor Age on Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty Outcome: Evaluation of Donors Aged 17-55 Years.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Friederike; Enders, Philip; Zachewicz, Jonas; Heindl, Ludwig M; Stanzel, Tisha P; Cursiefen, Claus; Bachmann, Björn O

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether the impression held by Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) surgeons that young donors are less suitable for DMEK is reflected in 1-year postoperative results. Retrospective, comparative, interventional case series. Records of 1084 consecutive DMEKs were reviewed and matched with corresponding donor tissue data. Young donors (aged ≤55 years; subgroups: 10-40, 41-55) were compared with old donors (>55 years; subgroups: 56-65, >65). Outcome measures in DMEK recipients included best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), endothelial cell density (ECD), central corneal thickness (CCT) at 6 and 12 months, and rebubbling rate. Out of 529 included DMEKs, 94 (17.8%) were performed with young donor lamellae (mean donor age 49.31 ± 6.35 years; range: 17-55 years) and 435 (82.2%) with older donor tissue (mean age 70.68 ± 7.77 years; range: 56-90 years). Postoperative BSCVA, ECD, and CCT results were comparable in both groups at 6 and 12 months without statistically significant differences. Overall rebubbling rate in the young donor group was 42.6% and in the old donors was 53.3% (P = .058). Complication rates also did not differ significantly. Younger donor age seems not to affect the clinical outcome of DMEK surgery negatively within the first postoperative year, suggesting donor corneas with donor age down to 17 years as safe donor tissue for DMEK surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Otitis Media and Language Development at 1 Year of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ina F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen 1-year-olds without otitis media were compared to 12 babies who were otitis positive. No significant differences were detected on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development or the Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development (SICD) Receptive scale. However, the otitis-positive group exhibited lower SICD Expressive scores than the…

  9. Otitis Media and Language Development at 1 Year of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ina F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen 1-year-olds without otitis media were compared to 12 babies who were otitis positive. No significant differences were detected on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development or the Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development (SICD) Receptive scale. However, the otitis-positive group exhibited lower SICD Expressive scores than the…

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of anaemia among children aged between 6 months and 14 years in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ngesa, Oscar; Mwambi, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Anaemia is one of the significant public health problems among children in the world. Understanding risk factors of anaemia provides more insight to the nature and types of policies that can be put up to fight anaemia. We estimated the prevalence and risk factors of anaemia in a population-based, cross-sectional survey. Blood samples from 11,711 children aged between 6 months and 14 years were collected using a single-use, spring-loaded, sterile lancet to make a finger prick. Anaemia was measured based on haemoglobin concentration level. The generalized linear model framework was used to analyse the data, in which the response variable was either a child was anemic or not anemic. The overall prevalence of anaemia among the children in Kenya was estimated to be 28.8%. Across each band of age within which the definition of anaemia remained constant (0–4, 5–11, and 12–14 years old), the prevalence of anaemia declined with each year of age. [corrected]. The risk of anaemia was significantly higher in male than female children. Mothers with secondary and above education had a protective effect on the risk of anaemia on their children. Malaria diagnosis status of a child was positively associated with risk anaemia. Controlling co-morbidity of malaria and improving maternal knowledge are potential options for reducing the burden of anaemia.

  11. PCB exposure and cochlear function at age 6 years.

    PubMed

    Palkovičová Murínová, Ľubica; Moleti, Arturo; Sisto, Renata; Wimmerová, Soňa; Jusko, Todd A; Tihányi, Juraj; Jurečková, Dana; Kováč, Ján; Koštiaková, Vladimíra; Drobná, Beata; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2016-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have documented adverse associations between exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and otological outcomes. Previously, we documented decreased distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) levels in children exposed to PCBs, up to the age of 45 months, amongst a cohort of children in eastern Slovakia. The objective of the present study is to evaluate cochlear dysfunction at 72 months of age in 214 children from this same cohort and to compare the otoacoustic test sensitivity to that of pure tone audiometry (PTA). The association between DPOAE, PTA, and PCBs was estimated by means of multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) and linear regression models. ROC curves were computed to estimate the DPOAE-test power in children. The DPOAE level at 72 months was related to PCB-153 serum levels. The DPOAE Input/Output function test at mid-frequency (2kHz) has shown instead nonmonotonic dependence on PCB exposure, for the left ears of children, over the whole growth curve. No significant association was found between PTA hearing levels and PCB-153 concentration. High diagnostic power of the DPOAE-test was found in children, similar to that found by the same authors in adults. In conclusions the DPOAE-PCB correlation obtained at 72 months is similar to that at 45 months suggesting a permanent and stable ototoxic effect of the PCB exposure. The lack of statistical significance of the PCB-PTA correlation suggests that DPOAEs are sensitive biomarkers of cochlear damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Predictors and Characteristics of Successful Aging among Men: A 48-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult…

  13. Predictors and Characteristics of Successful Aging among Men: A 48-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult…

  14. Prevalence of dental caries in 5 - 6 years and 12 - 13 years age group of school children of Kathmandu valley.

    PubMed

    Subedi, B; Shakya, P; Kc, U; Jnawali, M; Paudyal, B D; Acharya, A; Koirala, S; Singh, A

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common conditions affecting the general health of children. The present study was carried out among school children of Kathmandu valley to determine the prevalence of dental caries in two age groups. The study was conducted from December 2007 to May 2008. The age of the school children of the study was divided into two group: 5 - 6 years and 12 - 13 years. A stratified cluster sampling with proportional allocation was used while grouping the subjects. The dental status examination was done with the help of trained dentists. Decayed, missed and filled teeth index and decayed, missed and filled surfaces index (dmft for primary dentition and DMFT for permanent dentition) were used as the standard tools for the determination of prevalence. A total of 638 students (325 of age group 12 - 13 years and 313 of age group 5 - 6 years) from 30 different schools of the Kathmandu valley were included in the study. The caries status was found higher in the age group of 5 - 6 years than in the 12 - 13 years and it was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.001). The dmfs and caries percentage of the age group 5 - 6 years and the DMFS and caries percent of the 12 - 13 years was found to be 3.79, 69 % and 1.6, 53.23 % respectively. The dmft/dmfs value was found to be significant according to the districts in the 5 - 6 years age group whereas the DMFS was found statistically significant among the sexes of the 12 - 13 years age group. The caries percentage was found to be above the recommended level of the World Health Organization. However, the DMFS and DMFT values were within the WHO level.

  15. Renal transplantation in children less than 5 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Rizzoni, G; Malekzadeh, M H; Pennisi, A J; Ettenger, R B; Uittenbogaart, C H; Fine, R N

    1980-01-01

    19 young children (less than 5 years old) have received 31 renal transplants from 4 live relatives and 27 cadaver donors. The 2-year allograft survival rate for the patients receiving their 1st allograft from the 4 live donors was 75 +/- 22% while for the patients receiving their 1st allograft from 15 cadaver donors was 26 +/- 11%. 10 children are currently surviving with functioning allographs (7 cadavers and 3 live relatives); 4 have died and 5 are undergoing dialysis after the loss of at least one allograft. Despite the poor allograft survival rate the fact that 7 children are surviving with cadaver allografts indicates that the lack of a living related donor should not prevent transplants in young children. PMID:7002060

  16. Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

    Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

  17. Brief report: Pregnant by age 15 years and substance use initiation among US adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-10-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12, 13-14, and age 15 years) for alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana, controlling for race/ethnicity and metropolitan location. Of girls pregnant by age 15 years (3% of the sample, weighted n = 243), 16% had smoked marijuana by age 10 years and over 20% had smoked cigarettes and initiated alcohol use by age 10 years. In the multivariable analysis, marijuana use by age 14 years and/or cigarette smoking by age 12 years clearly distinguished girls who became pregnant by age 15 years and is perhaps due to a common underlying risk factor. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Space or physics? Children use physical reasoning to solve the trap problem from 2.5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Seed, Amanda M; Call, Josep

    2014-07-01

    By 3 years of age, children can solve tasks involving physical principles such as locating a ball that rolled down a ramp behind an occluder by the position of a partially visible solid wall (Berthier, DeBlois, Poirer, Novak, & Clifton, 2000; Hood, Carey, & Prasada, 2000). However, the extent to which children use physical information (the properties of the wall) remains unclear because spatial information would suffice (the location of the wall in relation to the ball). We confronted 2- to 6-year-old children with a ball resting on a shelf inside a clear plastic-fronted box. To retrieve the ball, children had to roll it away from a trap or barrier using their fingers. Crucially, a single object acted as a barrier or supporting surface in different conditions, thus requiring a flexible response. Preschoolers solved the task and the critical transfers from 2.5 years of age (Study 1). Interestingly, 2.5-year-olds required to use a tool to displace the ball performed significantly worse than those who could use their fingers (Study 2). In contrast, 2.5- to 4.5-year-olds failed a covered trap box that provided only 2-dimensional predictive cues without any visible physical information, and even 6.5-year-olds performed significantly worse on the covered task compared to the uncovered one (Studies 3 and 4). Our results suggest that children from around 2.5 years of age integrate spatial and physical information when solving problems like the trap box task, rather than simply exploit spatial relationships between features.

  19. A Decade of Reminders: Changing Age Consciousness between Fifty and Sixty Years Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Examined commonalities of aging consciousness among 72 professional men and women between 50 and 60 years old. Found frequency and intensity of aging messages increased in the fifties, fostering a quickened sense of aging during this decade. Identified four categories of age reminders characteristic in the fifties: body, generational, contextual,…

  20. Dating, Sex, and Substance Use Predict Increases in Adolescents' Subjective Age across Two Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Albrecht, Arne K.; Jansson, S. Mikael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the nature of the relationship between adolescents' subjective age (how old they feel) and chronological age, and explored whether dating, sex, and substance use predicted increases in adolescents' subjective age across a two-year period. The participants were 570 adolescents who were interviewed when they were first ages 12-19…

  1. Age and Sex Differences in Motor Performance of 3 Through 6 Year Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Arlene M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Children from three to six years of age were tested to determine the relationship of age and sex to motor performance. Tests involved balancing, scrambling, catching, speed running, long jumping, and ball throwing. Although significant age and sex differences were found, it appeared that age generally was more closely related to performance than…

  2. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  3. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  4. Progression of myopia and high myopia in the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity study: findings at 4 to 6 years of age.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Graham E; Dobson, Velma; Davitt, Bradley V; Wallace, David K; Hardy, Robert J; Tung, Betty; Lai, Dejian; Good, William V

    2013-04-01

    To report the prevalence of myopia and high myopia in children <6 years of age born preterm with birth weights <1251 g who developed high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity and who participated in the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity trial. Surviving children from the cohort of 401 participants who had developed high-risk prethreshold ROP in one or both eyes underwent cycloplegic retinoscopy at 6 and 9 months corrected age and yearly between 2 and 6 years postnatal age. Eyes were randomized to receive treatment at high-risk prethreshold ROP or conventional management with treatment only if threshold ROP developed. Myopia (spherical equivalent ≥0.25 D) or high myopia (≥5.00 D) in eyes at 4-, 5-, and 6-year examinations was reported. At ages 4, 5, and 6 years, there was no difference in the percentage of eyes with myopia (range, 64.8%-69.9%) and eyes with high myopia (range, 35.3%-39.4%) between earlier treated and conventionally managed eyes. Approximately two-thirds of eyes with high-risk prethreshold ROP during the neonatal period are likely to be myopic into the preschool and early school years. In addition, the increase in the proportion of eyes with high myopia that had been observed in both earlier-treated and conventionally managed eyes between ages 6 months and 3 years does not continue between ages 3 and 6 years. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  6. Sugar-containing beverage intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Felix, Janine F; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2015-09-17

    Consumption of sugar-containing beverages (SCBs) in adults has been associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Although the effect of SCB on body weight in children is well established, little is known about the cardiometabolic effects in young children. We studied the associations of SCB intake at the age of 1 year with cardiometabolic health at age 6 years. This study was performed among 2,045 Dutch children from a population based prospective birth cohort. SCB intake was assessed with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at the age of 13 months and sex-specific tertiles were created. Children visited the research center at the age of 6 years. We created a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score including: body fat percentage, blood pressure, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Age-and sex-specific standard deviation (SD) scores were created for all outcomes. Multivariable linear regression was performed with adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables of mother and child. In the total population, we observed an association between higher SCB intake at 13 months of age and a higher cardiometabolic risk factor score at the age of 6 years (0.13SD (95 % CI 0.01; 0.25), highest vs. lowest tertile) After stratification by sex, we found that boys in the highest tertile of SCB intake had a higher cardiometabolic risk factor score (0.18 SD (95 % CI 0.01; 0.34)), as compared to boys in the lowest tertile of SCB intake. There was no significant association in girls. We did not find associations of SCB intake with the individual cardiometabolic risk factors in the total population, or in the stratified analyses. Higher SCB intake at 1 year of age was associated with a higher cardiometabolic risk factor score at age 6 years in boys, but not in girls. Further research on sex-specific effects of SCBs is needed.

  7. The formative years: medical ethics comes of age.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alastair V

    2015-01-01

    When the Journal of Medical Ethics first appeared in April 1975, the prospects of success seemed uncertain. There were no scholars specialising in the field, the readership could not be guaranteed, and the medical profession itself seemed, at the very least, ambivalent about a subject thought by many to be the province of doctors alone, to be acquired through an apprenticeship model, and certainly not taught or examined in any formal sense. However, change was afoot, fresh scandals created an awareness that outside help was needed to think through the new challenges facing the profession, and the success of the medical groups revealed a clear way forward through multidisciplinary and critically reflective discussion of the host of emerging ethical and legal issues. In this article the formative years of the journal are recaptured, with a claim that the core principles on which it was founded must endure if it is to continue to 'do good medical ethics' over the next 40 years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Association of breastfeeding with maternal control of infant feeding at age 1 year.

    PubMed

    Taveras, Elsie M; Scanlon, Kelley S; Birch, Leann; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Gillman, Matthew W

    2004-11-01

    Previous studies have found that breastfeeding may protect infants against future overweight. One proposed mechanism is that breastfeeding, compared with bottle-feeding, may promote maternal feeding styles that are less controlling and more responsive to infant cues of hunger and satiety, thereby allowing infants greater self-regulation of energy intake. The objective of this study was to examine whether preponderance of breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life and breastfeeding duration are associated with less maternal restrictive behavior and less pressure to eat. We studied 1160 mother-infant pairs in Project Viva, an ongoing prospective cohort study of pregnant mothers and their children. The main outcome measures were mothers' reports of restricting their children's food intake and of pressuring their children to eat more food, as measured by a modified Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) at 1 year postpartum. Restriction was defined by strongly agreeing or agreeing with the following question from the modified CFQ: "I have to be careful not to feed my child too much." We derived a continuous pressure to eat score from 5 questions of the modified CFQ. We used multiple logistic regression to examine the association between preponderance of breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life, breastfeeding duration, and mothers' restriction of children's access to food. We used multiple linear regression, both before and after adjusting for several groups of confounders, to predict the effects of breastfeeding on the mothers' scores for pressuring their children to eat. The mean (SD) age of the women was 32.4 (4.8) years; 24% of the women were nonwhite, and 32% were primigravidas. At 6 months postpartum, 24% of the mothers were exclusively breastfeeding, 25% were mixed feeding, 41% had weaned, and 10% had fed their infants formula only. The mean (SD) duration of breastfeeding was 6.3 (4.5) months. Thirteen percent of the mothers strongly agreed or agreed with the

  9. Differential aging of cerebral white matter in middle-aged and older adults: A seven-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrew R; Völkle, Manuel C; Raz, Naftali

    2016-01-15

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effect models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age=65.4, SD=9.0years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential Aging of Cerebral White Matter in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Seven-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrew R.; Völkle, Manuel C.; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the last-in-first-out hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effects models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age = 65.4, SD = 9.0 years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the last-in-first-out hypothesis of brain aging. PMID:26481675

  11. Disposition and elimination of two sequential doses of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Gallenberg, L.A.; Vodicnik, M.J.

    1987-05-01

    It has been suggested based on fecal elimination data that a second dose of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (6-CB) is eliminated more rapidly from male rats than a first dose of 6-CB due to a differential accumulation of the two 6-CB doses within individual adipocytes. This phenomenon was further examined and extended to assess tissue levels of the compound in male rats which received either 0.6 mg/kg unlabeled or /sup 14/C-6-CB iv (dose 1). Fourteen days later, those animals which had received unlabeled 6-CB were administered 0.6 mg/kg /sup 14/C-6-CB. One-half of those rats which had received /sup 14/C-6-CB as dose 1 were administered unlabeled 6-CB after 14 days, and the remainder did not receive a second dose. The fecal excretion of radiolabeled 6-CB from rats treated only with /sup 14/C-6-CB was 5.3% of the total dose from days 14 through 28 post-treatment. Those rats receiving /sup 14/C-6-CB followed by unlabeled 6-CB excreted 4.4% of the total radiolabeled dose. Animals treated with /sup 14/C-6-CB as the second dose excreted 9% of their total radiolabeled dose within 14 days of treatment and those receiving only /sup 14/C-6-CB excreted 11% over the same time interval. Urinary elimination of radioactivity was negligible in all treatment groups. The pattern of distribution of /sup 14/C-6-CB in tissues was similar among all treatment groups. These data suggest that a second dose of 6-CB is not distributed differently from the first in growing male rats.

  12. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3... CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed... balance shall be paid to the parent having custody of the Indian under 21 years of age. All other taxes...

  13. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3... CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed... balance shall be paid to the parent having custody of the Indian under 21 years of age. All other taxes...

  14. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3... CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed... balance shall be paid to the parent having custody of the Indian under 21 years of age. All other taxes...

  15. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3... CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed... balance shall be paid to the parent having custody of the Indian under 21 years of age. All other taxes...

  16. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3... CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed... balance shall be paid to the parent having custody of the Indian under 21 years of age. All other taxes...

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for adult paternity among adolescent females ages 14 through 16 years.

    PubMed

    Castrucci, Brian C; Clark, Jamie; Lewis, Kayan; Samsel, Rachel; Mirchandani, Gita

    2010-11-01

    To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14-16 years having children fathered by males age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females aged 14-16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence of and adjusted odds of paternal age of 20 years or older were identified by paternal and maternal factors. The Results section Having both parents born outside of the U.S. was associated with a 5.29 (95% CI: 4.82, 5.80) times increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older as compared to having both parents born in the U.S. Parental place of birth was associated with greater odds of paternal age of 20 years or older in urban areas compared to rural or border areas. Compared to those with average or high educational attainment relative to age, low educational attainment relative to age was associated with an increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older. This association was present whether maternal or paternal educational attainment was low relative to age. Messages are needed to help adolescent females avoid pregnancy with adult males. In addressing this specific prevention challenge, it is important to consider maternal/paternal place of birth and its association with adolescent births with adult males.

  18. Age- and sex-related growth patterns of the craniofacial complex in European children aged 3-6 years.

    PubMed

    Tutkuviene, Janina; Cattaneo, Cristina; Obertová, Zuzana; Ratnayake, Melanie; Poppa, Pasquale; Barkus, Arunas; Khalaj-Hedayati, Kerstin; Schroeder, Inge; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie

    2016-11-01

    Craniofacial growth changes in young children are not yet completely understood. Up-to-date references for craniofacial measurements are crucial for clinical assessment of orthodontic anomalies, craniofacial abnormalities and subsequent planning of interventions. To provide normal reference data and to identify growth patterns for craniofacial dimensions of European boys and girls aged 3-6 years. Using standard anthropometric methodology, body weight, body height and 23 craniofacial measurements were acquired for a cross-sectional sample of 681 healthy children (362 boys and 319 girls) aged 3-6 years from Germany, Italy and Lithuania. Descriptive statistics, correlation coefficients, percentage annual changes and percentage growth rates were used to analyse the dataset. Between the ages of 3-6 years, craniofacial measurements showed age- and sex-related patterns independent from patterns observed for body weight and body height. Sex-related differences were observed in the majority of craniofacial measurements. In both sexes, face heights and face depths showed the strongest correlation with age. Growth patterns differed by craniofacial measurement and can be summarised into eight distinct age- and sex-related patterns. This study provided reference data and identified sex- and age-related growth patterns of the craniofacial complex of young European children, which may be used for detailed assessment of normal growth in paediatrics, maxillofacial reconstructive surgery and possibly for forensic age assessment.

  19. Susceptibility of rats to mammary gland carcinogenesis by the food-derived carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) varies with age and is associated with the induction of differential gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shan, Liang; Yu, Minshu; Schut, Herman A J; Snyderwine, Elizabeth G

    2004-07-01

    2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a heterocyclic amine found in cooked meat, induces mammary gland cancer when administered to adolescent female rats (43-day-old). In contrast, mature virgin rats (150-day-old) were resistant to mammary carcinogenesis by PhIP. To explore the possible mechanisms for the age-related differences in susceptibility, PhIP-DNA adduct levels, mutations, and gene expression were examined in glands from 43-day and 150-day-old PhIP-treated rats. In rats of different ages, PhIP-DNA adduct levels detected by the (32)P-post-labeling assay and mutant frequency measured in the lacI reporter gene of Big Blue rats were not statistically different. PhIP-DNA adduct levels, adduct removal, and mutation burden did not appear to account for the variation in carcinogen susceptibility with age. However, cDNA microarray analysis indicated that PhIP treatment differentially altered the profile of gene expression in glands from 43-day-old and 150-day-old rats. In 150-day-old rats, PhIP enhanced the expression of genes associated with differentiation (eg, beta-casein, kappa-casein, whey acidic protein) and induced morphological differentiation. In contrast, in 43-day-old rats, PhIP inhibited the expression of differentiation genes and enhanced cellular proliferation. From 3 hours to 6 weeks after PhIP dosing, the number of clones showing altered expression declined more than 50% in 150-day-old rats but increased fourfold in 43-day-old rats (29 clones versus 194, respectively) suggesting that PhIP induced a cascade of gene expression alterations only in susceptible rats. Genes showing altered expression specifically in 43-day-old rats included the Ras superfamily genes and genes associated with protein synthesis/degradation (lysosomal proteins, heat shock proteins, and proteasomes). The microarray data support the notion that the mechanism of age-dependent susceptibility to mammary gland cancer is largely associated with differential

  20. Long-term restrictions in participation in stroke survivors under and over 70 years of age.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Joris A; van Mierlo, Maria L; Post, Marcel W M; Achterberg, Wilco P; Kappelle, L Jaap; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2017-01-05

    This study aims to (1) assess differences in participation restrictions between stroke survivors aged under and over 70 years and (2) identify predictors associated with favorable and unfavorable long-term participation in both age groups. Prospective cohort study in which 326 patients were assessed at stroke onset, two months and one year after stroke. The Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation (USER-Participation) was used to measure participation restrictions one year after stroke. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed including demographic factors, stroke-related factors, emotional functioning and comorbidity as possible predictors. Stroke survivors aged over 70 years perceived more participation restrictions in comparison to stroke survivors aged under 70 years one year after stroke. Independently significant predictors for unfavorable participation outcomes were advancing age, more severe stroke and anxiety symptoms in patients aged over 70 years, and female gender, more severe stroke, impaired cognition and depression symptoms in patients aged under 70 years. Lower age was the only independent predictor associated with favorable participation after one year in stroke survivors aged over 70 years. This study emphasizes the need to pay more attention to participation restrictions in elderly stroke survivors. Implications for rehabilitation More attention in the rehabilitation process should be paid to restrictions in participation of stroke survivors aged older than 70 years, taking into account the different participation needs and predictors of older stroke survivors. Early screening on the presence of anxiety symptoms could potentially prevent long-term restrictions in participation in stroke survivors aged over 70-year old. Stroke survivors experience considerable restrictions in physical activity and mobility after one year, highlighting the need for the development of community-based exercise

  1. A developmental increase in allostatic load from ages 3 to 11 years is associated with increased schizotypal personality at age 23 years.

    PubMed

    Peskin, Melissa; Raine, Adrian; Gao, Yu; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2011-11-01

    Although allostatic load has been investigated in mood and anxiety disorders, no prior study has investigated developmental change in allostatic load as a precursor to schizotypal personality. This study employed a multilevel developmental framework to examine whether the development of increased allostatic load, as indicated by impaired sympathetic nervous system habituation from ages 3 to 11 years, predisposes to schizotypal personality at age 23 years. Electrodermal activity to six aversive tones was recorded in 995 subjects at age 3 years and again at 11 years. Habituation slopes at both ages were used to create groups who showed a developmental increase in habituation (decreased allostatic load), and those who showed a developmental decrease in habituation (increased allostatic load). Children who showed a developmental increase in allostatic load from ages 3 to 11 years had higher levels of schizotypal personality at 23 years. A breakdown of total schizotypy scores demonstrated specificity of findings to cognitive-perceptual features of schizotypy. Findings are the first to document a developmental abnormality in allostasis in relation to adult schizotypal personality. The relative failure to develop normal habituation to repeated stressors throughout childhood is hypothesized to result in an accumulation of allostatic load and consequently increased positive symptom schizotypy in adulthood.

  2. Update on herpes zoster vaccine: licensure for persons aged 50 through 59 years.

    PubMed

    2011-11-11

    Herpes zoster vaccine (Zostavax, Merck & Co., Inc.) was licensed and recommended in 2006 for prevention of herpes zoster among adults aged 60 years and older. In March 2011, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of Zostavax in adults aged 50 through 59 years. In June 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) declined to recommend the vaccine for adults aged 50 through 59 years and reaffirmed its current recommendation that herpes zoster vaccine be routinely recommended for adults aged 60 years and older.

  3. Effects of age on genetic influence on bone loss over 17 years in women: the Healthy Ageing Twin Study (HATS).

    PubMed

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hammond, Christopher J; Hart, Deborah J; Spector, Timothy D

    2012-10-01

    The rate of bone loss varies across the aging period via multiple complex mechanisms. Therefore, the role of genetic factors on bone loss may also change similarly. In this study, we investigated the effect of age on the genetic component of bone loss in a large twin-based longitudinal study. During 17 years of follow-up in TwinsUK and Healthy Ageing Twin Study (HATS), 15,491 hip and lumbar spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were performed in 7056 twins. Out of these subjects, 2716 female twins aged >35 years with at least two scans separated for >4 years (mean follow-up 9.7 years) were included in this analysis. We used a mixed-effects random-coefficients regression model to predict hip and spine bone mineral density (BMD) values for exact ages of 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, and 80 years, with adjustment for baseline age, weight, height, and duration of hormone replacement therapy. We then estimated heritability of the changes in BMD measures between these age ranges. Heritability estimates for cross-sectional hip and spine BMD were high (ranging between 69% and 88%) at different ages. Heritability of change of BMD was lower and more variable, generally ranging from 0% to 40% for hip and 0% to 70% for spine; between age 40 and 45 years genetic factors explained 39.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%-53%) of variance of BMD loss for total hip, 46.4% (95% CI, 32%-58%) for femoral neck, and 69.5% (95% CI, 59%-77%) for lumbar spine. These estimates decreased with increasing age, and there appeared to be no heritability of BMD changes after the age of 65 years. There was some evidence at the spine for shared genetic effects between cross-sectional and longitudinal BMD. Whereas genetic factors appear to have an important role in bone loss in early postmenopausal women, nongenetic mechanisms become more important determinants of bone loss with advanced age. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  4. 45 CFR 4.5 - Effect of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 4.5 Effect of regulations. The regulations in this part are intended solely to identify Department officials who are authorized to accept service of...

  5. 45 CFR 4.5 - Effect of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 4.5 Effect of regulations. The regulations in this part are intended solely to identify Department officials who...

  6. 45 CFR 4.5 - Effect of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 4.5 Effect of regulations. The regulations in this part are intended solely to identify Department officials who are authorized to accept service of process....

  7. Hearing impairment: a population study of age at diagnosis, severity, and language outcomes at 7–8 years

    PubMed Central

    Wake, M; Poulakis, Z; Hughes, E; Carey-Sargeant, C; Rickards, F

    2005-01-01

    Background: Better language outcomes are reported for preschool children with hearing impairment (HI) diagnosed very early, irrespective of severity. However, population studies of older children are required to substantiate longer term benefits of early detection. Aims: To study impact of age of diagnosis and severity of HI in a population cohort of 7–8 year old children. Methods: Eighty eight 7–8 year old children born in Victoria, who were (a) fitted with hearing aids for congenital HI by 4.5 years and (b) did not have intellectual or major physical disability were studied. Main outcome measures were Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). Predictors were pure tone average (0.5, 1, 2 kHz) in better ear at diagnosis and age at diagnosis. Marginal (adjusted) means were estimated with general linear models. Results: Response rate was 67% (n = 89; 53 boys). Mean age at diagnosis was 21.6 months (SD 14.4); 21% had mild, 34% moderate, 21% severe, and 24% profound HI; mean non-verbal IQ was 104.6 (SD 16.7). Mean total CELF score was 76.7 (SD 21.4) and mean PPVT score 78.1 (SD 18.1). Age of diagnosis, adjusted for severity and IQ, did not contribute to language scores. In contrast, adjusted mean CELF and PPVT language scores fell sequentially with increasing severity of HI. Conclusions: More severe HI, but not later diagnosis, was strongly related to poorer language outcomes at 7–8 years. Further systematic study is needed to understand why children with hearing impairment have good or poor outcomes. PMID:15723906

  8. Validity of demirjian and nolla methods for dental age estimation for Northeastern Turkish children aged 5–16 years old

    PubMed Central

    Nur, Bilge; Kusgoz, Adem; Bayram, Mehmet; Nur, Metin; Kayipmaz, Saadettin; Yildirim, Sina

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the applicability of Demirjian and Nolla methods for northeastern Turkish population. Material and Method: A retrospective study was performed on panoramic radiographs of 673 subjects aged 5–15.9 years. The mean dental age (DA) according to the Demirjian and Nolla methods were compared to the mean chronological age (CA). Results: The mean CA of the study sample was 10.37±2.90 and 10.03±2.81 years for females and males, respectively. Using the Demirjian method, the mean estimated DA was 11.26±3.02 years for females and 10.87±2.96 years for males. For Nolla method, the mean estimated DA was 9.80±3.41 and 9.53±3.14 years for females and males, respectively. The mean differences between the CA and DA according to the Demirjian and Nolla methods were 0.86 and -0.54 years for total study sample. Conclusion: Nolla method was found to be a more accurate method for estimating DA in northeastern Turkish population. Key words:Dental age, demirjian method, nolla method, chronological age. PMID:22549686

  9. Comparative clinicopathological and outcome analysis of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged below 60 years and above 60 years

    PubMed Central

    AL-Qahtani, Khalid Hussain; Tunio, Mutahir A; Asiri, Mushabbab Al; Bayoumi, Yasser; Balbaid, Ali; Aljohani, Naji J; Fatani, Hanadi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged above 60 years. Materials and methods Comparative analysis was performed in 252 patients aged 46–60 years (Group A) and 118 patients aged above 60 years (Group B), who had thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine-131, and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression therapy between July 2000 and December 2012. Different clinicopathological features, treatment, complications, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were compared. Results Mean age of patients in Group A was 51.9 years (range: 46–60), and mean age of those in Group B was 68.6 years (range: 62–97). Group B patients had higher positive lymph nodes (43.2%), P=0.011. The frequency of extrathyroidal extension, multifocality, and lymphovascular space invasion was seen more in Group B than in Group A. Postsurgical complications (permanent hypoparathyroidism, bleeding, and wound infections) were also seen more in Group B (P=0.043, P=0.011, and P=0.021, respectively). Group B patients experienced more locoregional recurrences (11.0%, P=0.025); similarly, more distant metastases were observed in Group B (15.3%, P=0.003). The 10-year disease-free survival rates were 87.6% in Group A and 70.8% in Group B (P<0.0001). Conclusion Differentiated thyroid cancer in patients aged above 60 years are more aggressive biologically and associated with a worse prognosis, and the morbidity is significantly high as compared to patients aged below 60 years. PMID:27621604

  10. Agreement between grating acuity at age 1 year and Snellen acuity at age 5.5 years in the preterm child. Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group.

    PubMed

    Dobson, V; Quinn, G E; Siatkowski, R M; Baker, J D; Hardy, R J; Reynolds, J D; Trese, M T; Tung, B

    1999-02-01

    To examine the relation between grating acuity at age 1 year and Snellen acuity and grating acuity at 5.5 years, in preterm children with birth weights less than 1251 g. Subjects were participants in the multicenter study of Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity. The Teller acuity card (TAC; Vistech Consultants, Dayton, OH) procedure was used to measure monocular grating acuity in children at ages 1 and 5.5 years. Early-treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) charts were used to measure the childrens' monocular recognition (Snellen) acuity at age 5.5 years. Data are presented for 575 eyes with measurable TAC grating acuity at 1 year and 111 eyes that had no measurable acuity at 1 year. Among eyes with normal acuity at 1 year, 86.8% showed normal Snellen acuity, and 94.3% showed normal grating acuity at 5.5 years. Among eyes that were blind (i.e., had no measurable TAC grating acuity) at 1 year, 96.8% showed no quantifiable Snellen acuity, and 89.2% showed no quantifiable grating acuity at 5.5 years. Only 2.4% of eyes had acuity in the range between normal and blind at 1 year (i.e., measurable grating acuity <1.6 cyc/deg); thus, the predictive value of acuity scores in this range could not be determined. Correlation analysis indicated that the relative position within the normal range of an eye's grating acuity score at 1 year was not predictive of the relative position within the normal range of that eye's acuity score at 5.5 years. Among a large population of low-birth-weight infants, eyes with normal grating acuity at age 1 year generally showed normal Snellen and grating acuity at age 5.5 years, and eyes that had no quantifiable acuity at 1 year remained blind at 5.5 years. Relative position of an eye's acuity score within the normal range was not predictive of the relative position of that eye's later acuity score.

  11. Measuring Years of Inactivity, Years in Retirement, Time to Retirement, and Age at Retirement Within the Markov Model

    PubMed Central

    SKOOG, GARY R.; CIECKA, JAMES E.

    2010-01-01

    Retirement-related concepts are treated as random variables within Markov process models that capture multiple labor force entries and exits. The expected number of years spent outside of the labor force, expected years in retirement, and expected age at retirement are computed—all of which are of immense policy interest but have been heretofore reported with less precisely measured proxies. Expected age at retirement varies directly with a person’s age; but even younger people can expect to retire at ages substantially older than those commonly associated with retirement, such as age 60, 62, or 65. Between 1970 and 2003, men allocated most of their increase in life expectancy to increased time in retirement, but women allocated most of their increased life expectancy to labor force activity. Although people can exit and reenter the labor force at older ages, most 65-year-old men who are active in the labor force will not reenter after they eventually exit. At age 65, the probability that those who are inactive will reenter the labor force at some future time is .38 for men and .27 for women. Life expectancy at exact ages is decomposed into the sum of the expected time spent active and inactive in the labor force, and also as the sum of the expected time to labor force separation and time in retirement. PMID:20879680

  12. The accuracy of 15 - 25 years age estimation using panoramic radiograph with thevissen method in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayati, D. S.; Suryonegoro, H.; Makes, B. N.

    2017-08-01

    Age estimation is important for individual identification. Root development of third molars occurs at age 15-25 years. This study was conducted to determine the accuracy of age estimation using the Thevissen method in Indonesia. The Thevissen method was applied to 100 panoramic radiographs of both male and female subjects. Reliability was tested by the Dahlberg formula and Cohen’s Kappa test, and the significance measurement was tested by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon test. The deviation of estimated age was then calculated. The deviation of age estimation was ±3.050 years and ±2.067 for male and female subjects, respectively. The deviation of age estimation of female subjects was less than male subject. Age estimation with the Thevissen method is preferred for age 15-22 years.

  13. Assessment of Working Memory Components at 6 Years of Age as Predictors of Reading Achievements a Year Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-01-01

    The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6 years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97…

  14. Mammography Prevalence within 2 Two Years (Age 40+) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    For mammography, a woman 40 years of age or older must have reported having at least one mammography in her life. Furthermore, she should have had the most recent one within the last two years by the time of interview.

  15. Risk of progression to hypertension in nonhypertensive Japanese workers aged 20-64 years.

    PubMed

    Kurioka, Sumiko; Horie, Seichi; Inoue, Akiomi; Mafune, Kosuke; Tsuda, Yuki; Otsuji, Yutaka

    2014-02-01

    Prehypertension is a known risk factor for hypertension in individuals aged less than 20 or more than 35 years, but no large studies have investigated this risk in individuals aged 20-34 years. This study investigated progression to hypertension in nonhypertensive individuals aged 20-34 years and compared this group with individuals aged 35-64 years. A total of 12,639 nonhypertensive individuals aged 20-64 years were followed from 1999 to 2008. Hazard ratios for progression to hypertension were calculated for men and women according to three blood pressure (BP) categories (optimal BP: <120/80 mmHg; normal BP: 120-129/80-84 mmHg; high-normal BP: 130-139/85-89 mmHg) and three age groups (20-34, 35-49 and 50-64 years). Progression to hypertension occurred in 4617 individuals (36.5%). The risk of progression to hypertension increased significantly with increasing baseline BP category in men and women in all age groups. The association between baseline BP and progression to hypertension was stronger in the group aged 20-34 years than in the older age groups, especially in men. The results of this study confirm that normal or high-normal BP increases the risk of progression to hypertension in individuals aged 20-34 years. In men, the association between baseline BP and progression to hypertension is stronger in this age group than in older age groups. Health providers should be aware that normal or high-normal BP is a risk factor for progression to hypertension even in individuals aged 20-34 years.

  16. Vision screening in children: Is 7-9 years of age a threshold for visual impairment?

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Yusuf Haydar; Tekin, Murat; Uludag, Aysegul; Arikan, Sedat; Sahin, Erkan Melih

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of decreased visual acuity, strabismus, and spectacle wear in children aged 5 to 13 years. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in primary education schools. A total of 1938 participants, including 940 females (48.5%) and 998 males (51.5%) with a mean age 8.96 ± 2.31 (5-13 years old), were screened. The comparisons were performed with gender, age, and age groups. The children attended to vision screening were assigned to three age groups as 5-6 years, 7-9 years, and 10-13 years. Results: The prevalence of the parameters was detected as decreased visual acuity 12.4%, strabismus 2.2%, and spectacle wear 6.9%. The prevalence of decreased visual acuity was significantly higher in girls and in children aged 7-9 years old (p = 0.013, p < 0.001). The prevalence of spectacle wear was significantly higher in girls and in children aged 7-9 years old (p = 0.019, p < 0.001). There was a visual acuity decrease in 33 of 106 (31.1%) children despite wearing own spectacle. There was no significant difference among three age groups for strabismus. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of decreased visual acuity, as well as the higher frequency of spectacle wear in children at ages of 7-9 years old may point out a threshold for visual impairment. PMID:27882020

  17. Perinatal outcomes in women over 40 years of age compared to those of other gestations

    PubMed Central

    Canhaço, Evandro Eduardo; Bergamo, Angela Mendes; Lippi, Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To clarify if older pregnant women were more likely to have adverse perinatal outcomes when compared to women at an ideal age to have a child. Methods The groups were divided according to age groups: under 20 years, ≥20 to <40 years, and ≥40 years. Results During the period from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2008, there were 76 births from patients younger than 20 years and 91 births from patients aged 40 years or over. To form a third group with intermediate age, the data of 92 patients aged 20 to 40 years were obtained, totaling 259 patients. Patients aged 40 or older had a statistically greater number of cesarean sections and less use of forceps or normal deliveries (p<0.001). The use of spinal anesthesia was statistically higher among those aged 40 years or more (p<0.001). The frequency of male newborns was statistically higher in older patients, a group with statistically fewer first pregnancies (p<0.001). The frequency of premature newborns was statistically higher in patients aged 40 years or more (p=0.004). Conclusion It is crucial to give priority to aged women, so that prenatal care will be appropriate, minimizing maternal complications and improving perinatal outcomes in this unique group. PMID:25993070

  18. Perinatal outcomes in women over 40 years of age compared to those of other gestations.

    PubMed

    Canhaço, Evandro Eduardo; Bergamo, Angela Mendes; Lippi, Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2015-01-01

    To clarify if older pregnant women were more likely to have adverse perinatal outcomes when compared to women at an ideal age to have a child. The groups were divided according to age groups: under 20 years, ≥20 to <40 years, and ≥40 years. During the period from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2008, there were 76 births from patients younger than 20 years and 91 births from patients aged 40 years or over. To form a third group with intermediate age, the data of 92 patients aged 20 to 40 years were obtained, totaling 259 patients. Patients aged 40 or older had a statistically greater number of cesarean sections and less use of forceps or normal deliveries (p<0.001). The use of spinal anesthesia was statistically higher among those aged 40 years or more (p<0.001). The frequency of male newborns was statistically higher in older patients, a group with statistically fewer first pregnancies (p<0.001). The frequency of premature newborns was statistically higher in patients aged 40 years or more (p=0.004). It is crucial to give priority to aged women, so that prenatal care will be appropriate, minimizing maternal complications and improving perinatal outcomes in this unique group.

  19. Age structure of a southern pine stand following 72 years of uneven-aged silviculture

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg

    2012-01-01

    Work on uneven-aged silviculture in southern pine stands on the Crossett Experimental Forest (CEF) began in the 1930s, when a number of 16.2-ha compartments were placed into a series of demonstration projects and studies (Reynolds 1980). Two of these compartments, the Good and Poor Farm Forestry Forties, have been maintained continuously in this silvicultural regime...

  20. Age-Specific Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Refractive Error in Children Aged 3-10 Years in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingyan; Qu, Xiaomei; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Xu, Xun; Zhu, Jianfeng; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Lin, Senlin; Lu, Lina; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Ling; Shi, Huijing; Tan, Hui; You, Xiaofang; Yuan, Hong; Sun, Sifei; Wang, Mingjin; He, Xiangui; Zou, Haidong; Congdon, Nathan

    2016-11-01

    We assessed changes in age-specific prevalence of refractive error at the time of starting school, by comparing preschool and school age cohorts in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional study was done in Jiading District, Shanghai during November and December 2013. We randomly selected 7 kindergartens and 7 primary schools, with probability proportionate to size. Chinese children (n = 8398) aged 3 to 10 years were enumerated, and 8267 (98.4%) were included. Children underwent distance visual acuity assessment and refraction measurement by cycloplegic autorefraction and subjective refraction. The prevalence of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), presenting visual acuity, and best-corrected visual acuity in the better eye of ≤20/40 was 19.8%, 15.5%, and 1.7%, respectively. Among those with UCVA ≤ 20/40, 93.2% could achieve visual acuity of ≥20/32 with refraction. Only 28.7% (n = 465) of children with UCVA in the better eye of ≤20/40 wore glasses. Prevalence of myopia (spherical equivalent ≤-0.5 diopters [D] in at least one eye) increased from 1.78% in 3-year-olds to 52.2% in 10-year-olds, while prevalence of hyperopia (spherical equivalent ≥+2.0 D) decreased from 17.8% among 3-year-olds to 2.6% by 10 years of age. After adjusting for age, attending elite "high-level" school was statistically associated with greater myopia prevalence. The prevalence of myopia was lower or comparable to that reported in other populations from age 3 to 5 years, but increased dramatically after 6 years, consistent with a strong environmental role of schooling on myopia development.

  1. Outcome of very preterm small for gestational age infants: the first nine years of life.

    PubMed

    Kok, J H; den Ouden, A L; Verloove-Vanhorick, S P; Brand, R

    1998-02-01

    To determine the influence of intrauterine growth retardation of preterm infants on mortality and cognitive development. A nationwide study cohort of very preterm and/or small for gestational age infants (< 32 weeks and/or < 1500 g) born alive in 1983 in the Netherlands. Assessment on neuromotor and cognitive development at five years, and a parental questionnaire on school performance at nine years. Cognitive outcome is defined as handicap for mental and speech-language development, and need for special education. 134 small for gestational age infants (< 10th centile) and 410 appropriate for gestational age infants (between 25th and 75th centile) of all infants between 25 and 32 weeks of gestational age were identified; infants with congenital malformations and not of caucasian race were excluded. Neonatal mortality, in-hospital and five years mortality; Cognitive outcome at five years; School performance at nine years. The mortality risk for small for gestational age compared with appropriate for gestational age infants was significantly higher, after adjustment for gestational age, sex, multiple pregnancy and mode of delivery (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.26-5.26). Small for gestational age infants showed more often gross motor and minor neurological dysfunction, but less cerebral palsy than appropriate for gestational age infants. Cognitive outcome at five years in small for gestational age infants was significantly worse than appropriate for gestational age infants stratified for mode of delivery OR 2.44 (95% CI 1.05-5.55). At nine years of age significantly more small for gestational age infants (16.4%) needed special education than appropriate for gestational age infants (11.9%). Intrauterine growth retardation increases the risk of mortality and of cognitive disorders.

  2. Importance of age for 3-year continuous behavioral obesity treatment success and dropout rate.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Pernilla; Svensson, Viktoria; Kowalski, Jan; Nyberg, Gisela; Ekblom, Orjan; Marcus, Claude

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether first year weight loss, age, and socioeconomic background correlate with the success rate of continuous long-term behavioral obesity treatment. In a 3-year longitudinal study, obese children (n = 684) were divided into three groups based on age at the start of treatment, age 6-9 years, 10-13 years, and 14-16 years. The mean BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) decline was age-dependent (p = 0.001), independently of adjustment for missing data: -1.8 BMI-SDS units in the youngest, -1.3 in the middle age group, and -0.5 in the oldest age group. SES and parental BMI status did not affect the results. 30% of the adolescents remained in treatment at year 3. There was only a weak correlation between BMI-SDS change after 1 and 3 years: r = 0.51 (p < 0.001). Among children with no BMI-SDS reduction during year 1 (n = 46), 40% had a clinically significantly reduced BMI-SDS after year 3. Behavioral treatment should be initiated at an early age to increase the chance for good results. Childhood obesity treatment should be continued for at least 3 years, regardless of the initial change in BMI-SDS. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  3. Family Structure and the Timing of Transitions from 70 to 103 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Colleen L.; Troll, Lillian

    1996-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional analysis of 250 white individuals, 70-103 years of age, this article questions whether a vertical family structure is found with increasing age. Findings indicate, among other things, that at least until age 90 the proportion of individuals with a vertical family structure with four generations never exceeds the numbers of…

  4. Height gain after two-years-of-age is associated with better cognitive capacity, measured with Raven's coloured matrices at 15-years-of-age in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Teivaanmäki, Tiina; Bun Cheung, Yin; Pulakka, Anna; Virkkala, Jussi; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per

    2017-04-01

    Stunting is a measure of chronic undernutrition, and it affects approximately 160 million children worldwide. Cognitive development of stunted children is compromised, but evidence about the association between height gain in late childhood and adolescent cognitive capacity is scarce. We aimed to determine the association between height gains at different ages, including late childhood, and cognitive capacity at 15-years-of-age. We conducted a prospective cohort study in a rural African setting in Southern Malawi. The study cohort was enrolled between June 1995 and August 1996. It originally comprised mothers of 813 fetuses, and the number of children born live was 767. These children were followed up until the age of 15 years. The anthropometrics were measured at one and 24-months-of-age and 15-years-of-age, and cognitive capacity of participants was assessed at 15-years-of-age with Raven's Coloured Matrices score, mathematic test score, median reaction time (RT) (milliseconds) and RT lapses. The associations between growth and the outcome measures were assessed with linear regression. Raven's Coloured Matrices score was predicted by height gain between 24 months and 15-years-of-age (coefficient 0.85, P = 0.03) and (coefficient 0.69, P = 0.06), but not by earlier growth, when possible confounders were included in the model. The association weakened when school education was further added in the model (coefficient = 0.69, P = 0,060). In conclusion, in rural Malawi, better growth in late childhood is likely to lead to better cognitive capacity in adolescence, partly through more school education. In light of these results, growth promotion should not only be limited to early childhood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Ten-year echo/doppler determination of the benefits of aerobic exercise after the age of 65 years.

    PubMed

    Muster, Alexander J; Kim, Hyunggun; Kane, Bonnie; McPherson, David D

    2010-01-01

    As the human lifespan becomes progressively extended, potential health-related effects of intense aerobic exercise after age 65 need evaluation. This study evaluates the cardiovascular (CV), pulmonary, and metabolic effects of competitive distance running on age-related deterioration in men between 69 (+/-3) and 77 (+/-2) years (mean +/- SD). Twelve elderly competitive distance runners (ER) underwent oxygen consumption and echo/Doppler treadmill stress testing (Balke protocol) for up to 10 years. Twelve age-matched sedentary controls (SC) with no history of CV disease were similarly tested and the results compared for the initial three series of the study. CV data clearly separated the ER from SC. At entry, resting and maximal heart rate, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, peak oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), and E/A ratio of mitral inflow were better in the ER (P < 0.05 vs. SC). With aging, ER had a less deterioration of multiple health parameters. Exceptions were VO(2max) and left ventricular diastolic function (E/A, AFF, IVRT) that decreased (P < 0.05, Year 10 vs. Year 1). Health advantages of high-level aerobic exercise were demonstrated in the ER when compared to SC. Importantly, data collected in ER over 10 years confirm the benefit of intensive exercise for slowing several negative effects of aging. However, the normative drop of exercise capacity in the seventh and eighth decades reduces the potential athleticism plays in prevention of CV events.

  6. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age or...

  7. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age or...

  8. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age or...

  9. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age or...

  10. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age or...

  11. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  12. How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Nancy Mathea

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was…

  13. How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Nancy Mathea

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was…

  14. Rumination, Age, and Years of Experience: A Predictive Study of Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffy, Moriel S.

    2016-01-01

    This study used a non-experimental design to examine whether job satisfaction, rumination, age and years of experience predict burnout among human service workers serving high-risk populations. The study also used a stepwise regression to assess whether job satisfaction, rumination, age, or years of experience predict burnout equally. Burnout was…

  15. The Assessment of Metacognition in Children Aged 4-16 Years: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gascoine, Louise; Higgins, Steve; Wall, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a systematic review of methods that have been used to measure or assess metacognition in children aged 4-16 years over a 20-year period (1992-2012). It includes an overview of the types of tool and methods used linked with the ages of the participants targeted and how metacognition and associated concepts are…

  16. [A clinical follow-up study of premature thelarche in infants under two years of age].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Min; Liang, Li; Fang, Yan-Lan; Fu, Jun-Fen; Dong, Guan-Ping; Wang, Chun-Lin

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the clinical status and natural course of premature thelarche (PT) in infants under 2 years of age and to analyze the predictive factors for regression of thelarche. The clinical and laboratory data of 863 infants under 2 years of age, who visited the department of endocrinology in our hospital due to PT between October 2009 and September 2010, were analyzed. A a longitudinal follow-up study was performed. Of the infants under 2 years of age with isolated PT, 89.3% showed a regression before the age of 3 years (mean 17±5.6 months), 10.7% had recurrent or persistent thelarche, with no regression after the age of 3 years, and some even developed into central precocious puberty. The independent predictive factors for regression of thelarche were Tanner stage at the first visit and whether baseline estradiol level had increased. PT in infants under 2 years of age is not rare in the clinical setting, and it usually runs a self-limited course, subsiding before the age of 3 years. However, regular follow-ups should be performed for infants aged over 2 years with persistent thelarche.

  17. The Assessment of Metacognition in Children Aged 4-16 Years: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gascoine, Louise; Higgins, Steve; Wall, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a systematic review of methods that have been used to measure or assess metacognition in children aged 4-16 years over a 20-year period (1992-2012). It includes an overview of the types of tool and methods used linked with the ages of the participants targeted and how metacognition and associated concepts are…

  18. Radiocarbon ages and age models for the past 30,000 years in Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Kaufman, D.S.; Dean, W.E.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Radiocarbon analyses of pollen, ostracodes, and total organic carbon (TOC) provide a reliable chronology for the sediments deposited in Bear Lake over the past 30,000 years. The differences in apparent age between TOC, pollen, and carbonate fractions are consistent and in accord with the origins of these fractions. Comparisons among different fractions indicate that pollen sample ages are the most reliable, at least for the past 15,000 years. The post-glacial radiocarbon data also agree with ages independently estimated from aspartic acid racemization in ostracodes. Ages in the red, siliclastic unit, inferred to be of last glacial age, appear to be several thousand years too old, probably because of a high proportion of reworked, refractory organic carbon in the pollen samples. Age-depth models for five piston cores and the Bear Lake drill core (BL00-1) were constructed by using two methods: quadratic equations and smooth cubic-splinefits. The two types of age models differ only in detail for individual cores, and each approach has its own advantages. Specific lithological horizons were dated in several cores and correlated among them, producing robust average ages for these horizons. The age of the correlated horizons in the red, siliclastic unit can be estimated from the age model for BL00-1, which is controlled by ages above and below the red, siliclastic unit. These ages were then transferred to the correlative horizons in the shorter piston cores, providing control for the sections of the age models in those cores in the red, siliclastic unit. These age models are the backbone for reconstructions of past environmental conditions in Bear Lake. In general, sedimentation rates in Bear Lake have been quite uniform, mostly between 0.3 and 0.8 mm yr-1 in the Holocene, and close to 0.5 mm yr-1 for the longer sedimentary record in the drill core from the deepest part of the lake. Copyright ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  19. The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density in the middle years of life (ages 20-60 years old)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, J.; Land, S.; Buysse, D. J.; Kupfer, D. J.; Monk, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density were assessed in a group of 100 subjects aged 20 to 60 years. We propose a new statistical strategy (mixed-model using fixed-knot regression splines) to analyze quantitative EEG measures. The effect of gender varied according to frequency, but no interactions emerged between age and gender, suggesting that the aging process does not differentially influence men and women. Women had higher power density than men in delta, theta, low alpha, and high spindle frequency range. The effect of age varied according to frequency and across the night. The decrease in power with age was not restricted to slow-wave activity, but also included theta and sigma activity. With increasing age, the attenuation over the night in power density between 1.25 and 8.00 Hz diminished, and the rise in power between 12.25 and 14.00 Hz across the night decreased. Increasing age was associated with higher power in the beta range. These results suggest that increasing age may be related to an attenuation of homeostatic sleep pressure and to an increase in cortical activation during sleep.

  20. The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density in the middle years of life (ages 20-60 years old)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, J.; Land, S.; Buysse, D. J.; Kupfer, D. J.; Monk, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density were assessed in a group of 100 subjects aged 20 to 60 years. We propose a new statistical strategy (mixed-model using fixed-knot regression splines) to analyze quantitative EEG measures. The effect of gender varied according to frequency, but no interactions emerged between age and gender, suggesting that the aging process does not differentially influence men and women. Women had higher power density than men in delta, theta, low alpha, and high spindle frequency range. The effect of age varied according to frequency and across the night. The decrease in power with age was not restricted to slow-wave activity, but also included theta and sigma activity. With increasing age, the attenuation over the night in power density between 1.25 and 8.00 Hz diminished, and the rise in power between 12.25 and 14.00 Hz across the night decreased. Increasing age was associated with higher power in the beta range. These results suggest that increasing age may be related to an attenuation of homeostatic sleep pressure and to an increase in cortical activation during sleep.

  1. [Association between early age at menarche and blood pressure in Chinese girls aged 7 to 17 years].

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhi-yong; Ma, Jun; Wang, Hai-jun; Fu, Lian-guo; Dong, Bin; Yang, Yi-de

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the association between early age at menarche and blood pressure in Chinese girls aged 7 to 17 years. A total of 76 869 girls aged 7 to 17 years old were selected from the national physical fitness and health research in 2010, and probit analyses were used to calculate the average age of menarche for each province. Girls whose age were lower than the P 10 of age at menarche were judged as early age at menarche, and matched with two selected participant without menarche based on the age and the same urban or rural areas. High blood pressure was defined as whose systolic pressure and/or diastolic pressure was higher than P 95 of systolic pressure or diastolic pressure at the same age group. The difference of the rate of high blood pressure in girls with and without menarche by Chi-square test, and multilevel model was used to analyze the relationship between early age at menarche and blood pressure. In 76 869 girls, the values of height and BMI were separately (152.2 ± 10.4) cm and (18.7 ± 3.1) kg/m(2), while the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure were (103.4 ± 11.0) mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) and (65.0 ± 9.1) mm Hg respectively. In 47 942 girls (62.4%) had occurred menstruation while 28 927 girls (37.6%) without menstruation. The girls began to report menstruation at the age of 9, and 81.5% (7123/8736) girls had already reported menstruation at the age of 13. The rate of high blood pressure in menstruation group from 11 to 13 years were separately 6.71% (100/1490), 5.99% (265/4423) and 5.38% (383/7123), which was significant higher than 3.78% (265/7005), 3.33% (144/4328) and 4.09% (66/1613) in the same age group of non-menstruation (the values of Chi-square were separately 25.62, 32.36, 4.46, and all P values < 0.05) . The mean age of early age at menarche was 9 to 11 years old, and the rate of high blood pressure, high systolic pressure, and high diastolic pressure at 11 years group was separately 6.08% (49/806), 4.84% (39/806) and 3

  2. Association of Bullying Behavior at 8 Years of Age and Use of Specialized Services for Psychiatric Disorders by 29 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Sourander, Andre; Gyllenberg, David; Brunstein Klomek, Anat; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Ilola, Anna-Marja; Kumpulainen, Kirsti

    2016-02-01

    Bullying and being exposed to bullying among children is prevalent, especially among children with psychiatric symptoms, and constitutes a major concern worldwide. Whether childhood bullying or exposure to bullying in the absence of childhood psychiatric symptoms is associated with psychiatric outcomes in adulthood remains unclear. To study the associations between bullying behavior at 8 years of age and adult psychiatric outcomes by 29 years of age. Nationwide birth cohort study of 5034 Finnish children with complete information about childhood bullying behavior was followed up from 8 to 29 years of age. Follow-up was completed on December 31, 2009, and data were analyzed from January 15, 2013, to February 15, 2015. Information about bullying, exposure to bullying, and psychiatric symptoms were obtained from parents, teachers, and child self-reports when children were 8 years of age. Use of specialized services for psychiatric disorders from 16 to 29 years of age was obtained from a nationwide hospital register, including outpatient and inpatient treatment. Among the 5034 study participants, 4540 (90.2%) did not engage in bullying behavior; of these, 520 (11.5%) had received a psychiatric diagnosis at follow-up; 33 of 166 (19.9%) who engaged in frequent bullying, 58 of 251 (23.1%) frequently exposed to bullying, and 24 of 77 (31.2%) who both frequently engaged in and were frequently exposed to bullying had received psychiatric diagnoses at follow-up. When analyses were adjusted by sex, family factors, and child psychiatric symptoms at 8 years of age, we found independent associations of treatment of any psychiatric disorder with frequent exposure to bullying (hazard ratio [HR], 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.5) and being a bully and exposed to bullying (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.4). Exposure to bullying was specifically associated with depression (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9). Bullying was associated with psychiatric outcomes only in the presence of psychiatric problems at 8 years

  3. [Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: High incidence in people over 80 years of age].

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Josep Maria; Altimiras, Jacint; Alonso, Francisco; Roura, Pere; Alfonso, Sebastián; Bajo, Lorena

    2017-07-19

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus is usually observed in adults over 60 years of age. The highest incidence of cases is between 70 and 80 years-old, and it could be under-diagnosed in over 80 year-olds. A description is presented on the overall incidence and age group incidence, the delay in the diagnosis, and main outcomes. A descriptive study was performed on patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, in the population of Osona County during the years 2010-2015. The annual incidence rate was 4.43 per 100,000 inhabitants. The incidence increased with age; from 8.09 per 100,000 in the 60 to 69 years age group, to 23.61 per 100,000 in the 70-79 years age group of, and to 37.02 per 100,000 in the 80-89 years age. The delay in the diagnosis was 15.01 ± 10.35 months. All the patients improved after surgery, but only 73.3% of the patients maintained the improvement after one year. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus is an age related disease and probably underdiagnosed in the elderly. An early diagnosis and a clinical suspicion are essential in patients over 80 years old. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Causes of failure after total knee arthroplasty in osteoarthritis patients 55 years of age or younger.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Tae; Lee, Song; Ko, Dong Oh; Seo, Bong Soo; Jung, Woo Shik; Chang, Byung Kwon

    2014-03-01

    To identify the modes of failure after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients >55 years of age and to compare with those >55 years of age in patients who underwent revision TKA. We retrospectively reviewed 256 revision TKAs among patients who underwent TKA for knee osteoarthritis between January 1992 and December 2012. The causes of TKA failure were analyzed and compared between the groups. Thirty-one revision TKAs were performed in patients ≤55 years of age at the time of primary TKA, whereas 225 cases were in those >55 years of age at primary TKA. In the ≤55 years of age group, the most common cause of TKA failure was polyethylene wear (45%) followed by infection (26%) and loosening (17%). The interval from primary TKA to revision was 8.6 years (range, 1 to 17 years). There were relatively lower infection rate and higher loosening rate in patients ≤55 years of age, but the difference was not statistically significant. The main causes of failure after TKA in patients ≤55 years of age were polyethylene wear, infection and loosening, and there was no significant difference in the modes of failure after TKA between the two groups.

  5. Regional differences in incidence and clinical presentation of type 1 diabetes in children aged under 15 years in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Stipančić, Gordana; La Grasta Sabolić, Lavinia; Požgaj Šepec, Marija; Radica, Ana; Skrabić, Veselin; Severinski, Srećko; Kujundžić Tiljak, Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine regional differences in the incidence, incidence trends, and clinical presentation of type 1 diabetes in children under the age of 15 years in Croatia in a 9-year period (1995-2003). Methods We included the patients who had been diagnosed with the disease and had started the insulin treatment before they were 15 years old. Regional differences between eastern, central, and southern Croatia were observed. The gross incidence was expressed by the number of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients in 100 000 children of the same age and sex per year, ie, for the 0-14 age group, and for the 0-4, 5-9, and 10-14 subgroups. Results The highest incidence was observed in southern Croatia (10.91 per 100 000/y) and the lowest in central Croatia (8.64 per 100 000/y), and in eastern Croatia the incidence was 8.93 per 100 000/y. All three regions showed a growing incidence trend, which was significant only in eastern and southern Croatia. There was 35.9% of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis in eastern Croatia, 41.7% in central Croatia, and 31.3% in southern Croatia. Conclusion Croatian regions show differences in the incidence, incidence trends, and disease presentation of type 1 diabetes. A further follow-up is needed to establish whether the regional differences are a consequence of the population dynamics in the observed period or they will continue to exist, pointing to differences in environmental risk factors. PMID:22522992

  6. Dental age estimation: the role of probability estimates at the 10 year threshold.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Victoria S; McDonald, Fraser; Neil, Monica; Roberts, Graham

    2014-08-01

    The use of probability at the 18 year threshold has simplified the reporting of dental age estimates for emerging adults. The availability of simple to use widely available software has enabled the development of the probability threshold for individual teeth in growing children. Tooth development stage data from a previous study at the 10 year threshold were reused to estimate the probability of developing teeth being above or below the 10 year thresh-hold using the NORMDIST Function in Microsoft Excel. The probabilities within an individual subject are averaged to give a single probability that a subject is above or below 10 years old. To test the validity of this approach dental panoramic radiographs of 50 female and 50 male children within 2 years of the chronological age were assessed with the chronological age masked. Once the whole validation set of 100 radiographs had been assessed the masking was removed and the chronological age and dental age compared. The dental age was compared with chronological age to determine whether the dental age correctly or incorrectly identified a validation subject as above or below the 10 year threshold. The probability estimates correctly identified children as above or below on 94% of occasions. Only 2% of the validation group with a chronological age of less than 10 years were assigned to the over 10 year group. This study indicates the very high accuracy of assignment at the 10 year threshold. Further work at other legally important age thresholds is needed to explore the value of this approach to the technique of age estimation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Preterm small-for-gestational age children: predictive role of gestational age for mental development at the age of 2 years.

    PubMed

    Nögel, Stephanie Christine; Deiters, Ludger; Stemmler, Mark; Rascher, Wolfgang; Trollmann, Regina

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the cognitive development of very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm SGA children and preterm AGA children at the age of 2 years. The hypothesis was that SGA children are at an additional risk for deficits in cognitive function. Additionally, the impact of neonatal risk factors and the parents' profession on the early cognitive development was analysed. Cognitive function of 107 preterm infants with a gestational age of 24-35 weeks was assessed with the Mental Bayley Scales of Infant Development at the age of 2 years (mean±SEM). The results of SGA (n=38) and AGA (n=69) children were compared as well as neonatal risk factors and parental education. There was a linear regression between the Mental Bayley Scales result and gestational age for preterm infants with a gestational age of 24-32 weeks. SGA and AGA children did not differ significantly in their cognitive function at the age of 2 years. A strong association was found between the parents' profession and cognitive development. Among the neonatal risk factors, bronchopulmonary dysplasia was a strong predictor of mental development. Cognitive development of two-year-old preterm children with a gestational age of 24-32 weeks was mainly related to their gestational age. Being born preterm and small for gestational age was not additionally associated with cognitive deficits at the age of 2 years. The parents' profession had a significant impact on the cognitive development. The role of the parents' profession on the early development of preterm infants should be elucidated in further studies. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Duration of sleep at 3 years of age is associated with fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age: the Southampton Women’s Survey

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Janis; Hill, Catherine; Harvey, Nicholas C.; Crozier, Sarah; Robinson, Sian; Godfrey, Keith; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Many studies have shown that shorter sleep duration in childhood is associated with higher body mass index and proposed that it is due to an effect of sleep on adiposity. There is little evidence about the association of sleep with fat-free mass. This study examined the association between child’s sleep duration at age 3 years and fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age in a prospective cohort study of 302boys and 285 girls. Study participants were taking part in the Southampton Women’s Survey, a longitudinal study of mothers and children from preconception onwards. Total sleep duration at age 3 years was derived from parental report of night sleep and nap duration. Body composition was assessed by DXA at 4 years. Mean total sleep duration was 11.5 hours. In linear regression analyses, adjusted for potentially confounding factors (maternal educational attainment, pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking during pregnancy, child’s gestational age at birth, age at DXA, sex, age last breastfed, dietary quality at 3 years, TV watching and hours actively on the move and parental social class) shorter sleep in hours was associated with higher BMI (kg/m2) (β=-0.2340, 95% CI -0.373, -0.096), a greater fat mass index (kg) (β=-0.1182 (-0.218, -0.018)) and a greater fat-free mass index (kg) (β=-0.100 (-0.185, -0.015)). Previous research suggested that the association between shorter sleep and higher body mass index is due to an effect on adiposity. Our findings are novel suggesting that the relationship between sleep and BMI is also determined by an effect on muscle. PMID:26909889

  9. Performance of the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool Among Women Aged 75 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Li, Vicky W.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Davis, Roger B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; McCarthy, Ellen P.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Ngo, Long H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT, “Gail model”) is commonly used for breast cancer prediction; however, it has not been validated for women age 75 years and older. Methods: We used Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) data beginning in 2004 and Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) data beginning in 2005 to compare BCRAT’s performance among women age 75 years and older with that in women age 55 to 74 years in predicting five-year breast cancer incidence. BCRAT risk factors include: age, race/ethnicity, age at menarche, age at first birth, family history, history of benign breast biopsy, and atypia. We examined BCRAT’s calibration by age by comparing expected/observed (E/O) ratios of breast cancer incidence. We examined discrimination by computing c-statistics for the model by age. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Seventy-three thousand seventy-two NHS and 97 081 WHI women participated. NHS participants were more likely to be non-Hispanic white (96.2% vs 84.7% in WHI, P < .001) and were less likely to develop breast cancer (1.8% vs 2.0%, P = .02). E/O ratios by age in NHS were 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.23, age 57–74 years) and 1.31 (95% CI = 1.18 to 1.45, age ≥ 75 years, P = .02), and in WHI 1.03 (95% CI = 0.97 to 1.09, age 55–74 years) and 1.10 (95% CI = 1.00 to 1.21, age ≥ 75 years, P = .21). E/O ratio 95% confidence intervals crossed one among women age 75 years and older when samples were limited to women who underwent mammography and were without significant illness. C-statistics ranged between 0.56 and 0.58 in both cohorts regardless of age. Conclusions: BCRAT accurately predicted breast cancer for women age 75 years and older who underwent mammography and were without significant illness but had modest discrimination. Models that consider individual competing risks of non–breast cancer death may improve breast cancer risk prediction for older women. PMID:26625899

  10. Prenatal Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposures and Neurodevelopment in U.S. Children through 5 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Yolton, Kimberly; Rauch, Stephen A.; Webster, Glenys M.; Hornung, Richard; Sjödin, Andreas; Dietrich, Kim N.; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent chemicals that have been widely used as flame retardants in furniture, carpet padding, car seats, and other consumer products during the past three decades. Objective: We examined whether in utero exposure to PBDEs is associated with child cognitive function and behavior in a U.S. study sample. Methods: In a prospective birth cohort, we measured maternal serum concentrations of BDE-47 and other PBDE congeners in 309 women at 16 weeks of gestation during 2003–2006 and followed their children in Cincinnati, Ohio. We measured cognitive and motor abilities using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II at ages 1, 2, and 3 years; intelligence using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III at age 5 years; and children’s behaviors using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 annually at ages 2–5 years. We used linear mixed models or generalized estimating equations with adjustment for potential confounders to estimate associations between these outcomes and log10-transformed PBDE concentrations. Results: The geometric mean of BDE-47 in maternal serum (20.1 ng/g lipid) was comparable with U.S. adult national reference values. Prenatal BDE-47 was not significantly associated with Bayley Mental or Psychomotor Development Indices at 1–3 years, but a 10-fold increase in prenatal BDE-47 was associated with a 4.5-point decrease (95% CI: –8.8, –0.1) in Full-Scale IQ and a 3.3-point increase (95% CI: 0.3, 6.3) in the hyperactivity score at age 5 years. Conclusions: Prenatal exposure to PBDEs was associated with lower IQ and higher hyperactivity scores in children. Citation: Chen A, Yolton K, Rauch SA, Webster GM, Hornung R, Sjödin A, Dietrich KN, Lanphear BP. 2014. Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures and neurodevelopment in U.S. children through 5 years of age: the HOME study. Environ Health Perspect 122:856–862; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307562 PMID

  11. Foetal growth restriction is associated with poor reading and spelling skills at eight years to 10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Lea; Korkalainen, Noora; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Olsén, Päivi; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Yliherva, Anneli

    2017-08-01

    Foetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with communication problems, which might lead to poor literacy skills. The reading and spelling skills of eight- to 10-year-old FGR children born at 24-40 gestational weeks were compared with those of their gestational age-matched, appropriately grown (AGA) peers. A prospectively collected cohort of 37 FGR and 31 AGA children was recruited prenatally at a Finnish tertiary care centre during 1998-2001. The children's reading and spelling skills were assessed using standardised tests for Finnish-speaking second and third graders. Significantly more children performed below the 10th percentile normal values for reading and spelling skills in the FGR group than in the AGA group. At nine years of age, the FGR children had significantly poorer performance in word reading skills and reading fluency, reading accuracy and reading comprehension than the AGA controls. No between-group differences were detected at eight years of age. FGR is associated with poor performance in reading and spelling skills. A third of the FGR children performed below the 10th percentile normal values at nine years of age. These results indicate a need to continuously evaluate linguistic and literacy skills as FGR children age to ensure optimal support. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years: Influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, J B; Magnusson, S P; Slinde, F; Svantesson, U; Hulthén, L; Aagaard, P

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P < 0.001); however, this gender difference was progressively reduced with increasing age, because men showed an ∼50% faster rate of decline in SSC power than women (P < 0.001). Velocity at peak power (VPpeak) was greater in men than in women (P < 0.001) but declined at a greater rate in men than in women (P = 0.002). Vertical ground reaction force at peak power (FPpeak) was higher in men than in women in younger adults only (P < 0.001) and the age-related decline was steeper in men than in women (P < 0.001). Men demonstrated a steeper rate of decline in Ppeak than women with progressive aging. This novel finding emerged as a result of greater age-related losses in men for both force and velocity. Consequently, maximal SSC power production was observed to converge between genders when approaching old age.

  13. Safety and efficacy of carotid artery stenting in persons aged 80 years and above.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, George S; Prabhu, Santosh T; Tebow, Aimee; Snowden, Georgianne M

    2009-01-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) remains a controversial procedure in spite of an emerging abundance of trial data showing both safety and efficacy. CAS is under significant scrutiny by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as it relates to persons aged 80 years and above. We report 1-year follow up both clinically and with ultrasonography in a small cohort of patients with an average age of 85 years.

  14. General paediatric surgery for patients aged under 5 years: a 5-year experience at a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Kwok, C-S; Gordon, A C

    2016-09-01

    Introduction The gradual shift of general paediatric surgery (GPS) provision from district general hospitals (DGH) to specialised units is well recognised in the UK. The consequences of centralisation include a reduction in exposure to GPS for current surgical trainees. The GPS practice of a DGH is examined here. Methods All operations performed on children aged under 5 years over a 5-year period were identified using the local electronic operation database. Electronic hospital records and clinic letters were accessed to collect data on demographics, operations performed and outcome measures. Results 472 GPS operations were performed on children between the age of 22 days and 5 years between 2009 and 2014, of which 43 were on an emergency basis and 105 were performed on patients aged less than 1 year. Three patients were admitted following day case surgery. Six patients were readmitted within 30 days. Complication rates for all procedures and the four most common procedures were similar to those found in published literature. Conclusions GPS for patients aged less than 5 years is comparatively safe in the DGH setting. The training opportunities available at DGHs are invaluable to surgical trainees and vital for sustaining the future provision of GPS by such hospitals.

  15. General paediatric surgery for patients aged under 5 years: a 5-year experience at a district general hospital

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, AC

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The gradual shift of general paediatric surgery (GPS) provision from district general hospitals (DGH) to specialised units is well recognised in the UK. The consequences of centralisation include a reduction in exposure to GPS for current surgical trainees. The GPS practice of a DGH is examined here. Methods All operations performed on children aged under 5 years over a 5-year period were identified using the local electronic operation database. Electronic hospital records and clinic letters were accessed to collect data on demographics, operations performed and outcome measures. Results 472 GPS operations were performed on children between the age of 22 days and 5 years between 2009 and 2014, of which 43 were on an emergency basis and 105 were performed on patients aged less than 1 year. Three patients were admitted following day case surgery. Six patients were readmitted within 30 days. Complication rates for all procedures and the four most common procedures were similar to those found in published literature. Conclusions GPS for patients aged less than 5 years is comparatively safe in the DGH setting. The training opportunities available at DGHs are invaluable to surgical trainees and vital for sustaining the future provision of GPS by such hospitals. PMID:27269243

  16. Value of Tree Measurements Made at Age 5 Years for Predicting the Height and Diameter Growth at Age 25 Years in Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Treesearch

    Allan E. Tiarks; Calvin E. Meier; V. Clark Baldwin; James D. Haywood

    1998-01-01

    Early growth measurements Of pine plantations are often used to predict the productivity of the stand later in the rotation when assessing the effect Of management on productivity. A loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) study established at 35 locations (2 to 3 plots/location) was used to test the relationship between height measurements at age 5 years...

  17. Physical performance characteristics of high-level female soccer players 12-21 years of age.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, J D; Rupf, R; Brown, T D; Marques, M C

    2011-10-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring player development and within talent identification programs in soccer, yet limited performance data are available for female soccer players across a wide age range. The aim of this study was to describe the physical performance characteristics of female soccer players ranging in age from 12 to 21 years. High-level female soccer players (n=414) were evaluated on linear sprinting (36.6 m with 9.1 m splits), countermovement jump (CMJ), and two agility tests. Separate one-way ANOVAs were used to compare performance characteristics between (1) each year of chronological age and (2) three age groups: 12-13 years, n=78, 14-17 years, n=223, and 18-21 years, n=113. Mean linear sprint speed over 9.1 m was similar across all chronological ages, however sprint speed over the final 9.1 m, CMJ height and agility scores improved until approximately 15-16 years. Outcomes from the group data indicated better performance on all tests for the 14-17-year-old group compared with the 12-13-year-old group. Additionally, sprint speed on the second and fourth 9.1 m splits and 36.6 m sprint speed as well as performance on the Illinois agility test was better in the 18-21-year-old group compared with the 14-17-year-old group. The findings from this study indicate that marked improvements of high intensity short duration work occur up until 15-16 years. Smaller gains in performance were observed beyond 16 years of age as evidenced by better performance on 36.6 m sprint speed, several sprint splits and the Illinois agility test in the college aged players (i.e., 18-21-year-old group). © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Functional outcomes at age 7 years of moderate preterm and full term children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Tanis, Jozien C; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bos, Arend F

    2015-03-01

    To compare functional outcomes of 7-year-old (school-age) children born small for gestational age (SGA; ie, a birth weight z score ≤ -1 SD), with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) peers, born moderately preterm or full term. Data were collected as part of the Longitudinal Preterm Outcome Project study, a community-based, prospective cohort study of 336 AGA and 42 SGA born children (median gestational age 35 weeks, range 31-41). Of the SGA children, 32 were moderately preterm, 10 were full term; of the AGA, these numbers were 216 and 120, respectively. At 6.9 years, we assessed intelligence, verbal memory, attention, visuomotor integration, and motor skills and we collected the parent-reported executive functioning. We compared the outcomes of the SGA children with those of their AGA peers. The performance of SGA children was similar to that of their AGA peers, except for attention control which was abnormal more often in SGA children (OR 3.99, 95% CI 1.32-12.12). The IQ of SGA children was 3 points lower, but this difference failed to reach significance. At school age, children born SGA have a greater risk of abnormal test scores on attention control than children born AGA, independent of gestational age. Their motor and many other cognitive functions are similar. The impact of these outcomes seems limited. Nevertheless, the consequences for school performance deserve attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rotavirus gastroenteritis among children under five years of age in Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Díez-Domingo, Javier; Martín, Itziar Oyagüez; Sanz, Alfredo Ballester; López, Antonio Gónzalez; Martínez, Carmen Casaní; Boronat, Carmen Peidró; Del Barrio, M Jesús Muñoz; García, Dolores Gallego; Pons, Manuel Martínez; Crespo, Vicente Antón; Esteve, Pilar Albors; Arfella, Inmaculada Latorre; Monrabal, Ignacio Sorribes; Baveira, Luis Blesa; López, Mercedes García

    2006-05-01

    The population-based incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age in Valencia, Spain, over a 1-year period (December 1, 2003, to November 30, 2004) was determined.A total of 553 episodes of gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age (mean age, 22.8 +/- 14.5 months) were recorded (annual incidence of 138 per 1,000). A positive enzyme-linked immunoadsorbant assay result for rotavirus antigen was obtained in 15% of the samples. The incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis was 15 per 1,000 children <5 years of age, being the highest incidence in children age (31 per 1,000). Eighty percent of rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred during the winter months (January-March). Genotype G1 was detected in 86% of the samples and G4 in the other 14%.

  20. Herpes zoster vaccination among adults aged 60 years and older, in the U.S., 2008.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng-jun; Euler, Gary L; Harpaz, Rafael

    2011-02-01

    Shingles (herpes zoster [HZ]) is a localized, generally painful and debilitating disease that occurs most frequently among older adults. It is caused by reactivation of varicella-zoster virus. HZ causes substantial morbidity, especially among older adults. The vaccine to prevent HZ was approved by Food and Drug Administration and recommended by the Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices for people aged ≥60 years in 2006 (these recommendations were published in 2008). To examine HZ vaccination among people aged ≥60 years in the U.S. in 2008. Data from the 2008 National Health Interview Survey among people aged ≥60 years were analyzed in 2010. Multivariable logistic regression and predictive marginal analyses were conducted to identify factors independently associated with HZ vaccination. Potential missed opportunities also were assessed. By 2008, only 6.7% (95% CI=5.9%, 7.6%) of adults aged ≥60 years reported having had HZ vaccination. The level of HZ vaccination coverage was lower (4.7%) among people aged 60-64 years compared to people aged 65-74 years (7.4%); 75-84 years (7.6%); and ≥85 years (8.2%). Coverage was statistically higher for non-Hispanic whites (7.6%) compared with non-Hispanic blacks (2.5%) and Hispanics (2.1%). Among people aged ≥60 years who reported never receiving HZ vaccination, 95.1% reported at least one missed opportunity to be vaccinated. People more likely to report ever having been vaccinated were older, female, non-Hispanic white, married, more educated, and reporting received influenza vaccination in the past year. By 2008, HZ vaccination coverage was 6.7%. The coverage level was low among all groups, but it was lowest among minority groups. Increased efforts are needed to remove barriers and to enable HZ vaccination among all adults aged ≥60 years. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Safety and efficacy of vismodegib in patients aged ≥65 years with advanced basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anne Lynn S.; Lewis, Karl D.; Arron, Sarah T.; Migden, Michael R.; Solomon, James A.; Yoo, Simon; Day, Bann-Mo; McKenna, Edward F.; Sekulic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Because many patients with unresectable basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are aged ≥65 years, this study explores the efficacy and safety of vismodegib in these patients with locally advanced (la) or metastatic (m) basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the ERIVANCE BCC trial and the expanded access study (EAS).We compared patients aged ≥65 years to patients aged <65 years taking vismodegib 150 mg/day, using descriptive statistics for response and safety. Patients aged ≥65 years (laBCC/mBCC) were enrolled in ERIVANCE BCC (33/14) and EAS (27/26). Investigator-assessed best overall response rate in patients ≥65 and <65 years was 46.7%/35.7% and 72.7%/52.6% (laBCC/mBCC), respectively, in ERIVANCE BCC and 45.8%/33.3% and 46.9%/28.6%, respectively, in EAS. These differences were not clinically meaningful. Safety was similar in both groups, although those aged ≥65 years had a higher percentage of grade 3-5 adverse events than those aged <65 years. Vismodegib demonstrated similar clinical activity and adverse events regardless of age. PMID:27764798

  2. Safety and efficacy of vismodegib in patients aged ≥65 years with advanced basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anne Lynn S; Lewis, Karl D; Arron, Sarah T; Migden, Michael R; Solomon, James A; Yoo, Simon; Day, Bann-Mo; McKenna, Edward F; Sekulic, Aleksandar

    2016-11-15

    Because many patients with unresectable basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are aged ≥65 years, this study explores the efficacy and safety of vismodegib in these patients with locally advanced (la) or metastatic (m) basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the ERIVANCE BCC trial and the expanded access study (EAS).We compared patients aged ≥65 years to patients aged <65 years taking vismodegib 150 mg/day, using descriptive statistics for response and safety. Patients aged ≥65 years (laBCC/mBCC) were enrolled in ERIVANCE BCC (33/14) and EAS (27/26). Investigator-assessed best overall response rate in patients ≥65 and <65 years was 46.7%/35.7% and 72.7%/52.6% (laBCC/mBCC), respectively, in ERIVANCE BCC and 45.8%/33.3% and 46.9%/28.6%, respectively, in EAS. These differences were not clinically meaningful. Safety was similar in both groups, although those aged ≥65 years had a higher percentage of grade 3-5 adverse events than those aged <65 years. Vismodegib demonstrated similar clinical activity and adverse events regardless of age.

  3. Changes in body posture of women and men over 60 years of age.

    PubMed

    Drzał-Grabiec, Justyna; Rykała, Justyna; Podgórska, Justyna; Snela, Sławomir

    2012-01-01

    With age, the body posture undergoes involutional changes. It is not possible to determine accurately the beginning of these changes. They begin between 40 and 50 years of age, and their slow progress increases after 60 years of age. The aim of this study was to assess the body posture of women and men over 60 years of age. Seventy people over 60 years old (35 women and 35 men) participated in the study. The control group consisted of 70 people (35 women and 35 men) between the age of 20 and 25. To evaluate the body posture non-invasive photogrammetric method based on the Moiré phenomenon has been used. The study was performed according to generally accepted principles. Body posture of women and men over 60 years of age differs significantly in most of the parameters from body posture of women and men in the control group. These differences are confirmed when divided into groups based on gender. Comparing the parameters that characterize the posture of women and men over 60 years of age, a significant difference is only for parameter KLL, and body posture of men is characterized by the higher angle of lumbar lordosis (p = 0.0022). 1. There are significant changes in body posture of women and men over 60 years of age both in the frontal and sagittal plane. 2. Men over 60 years of age have a significantly greater angle of lumbar lordosis. 3. The results of these studies should be used for the construction of a plan of exercises for the elderly taking into account all the changes that occur with age.

  4. The Interaction of Age and Type 2 Diabetes on Executive Function and Memory in Persons Aged 35 Years or Older

    PubMed Central

    van Eersel, Marlise E. A.; Joosten, Hanneke; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Izaks, Gerbrand J.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally assumed that type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cognitive dysfunction in old age. As type 2 diabetes is frequently diagnosed before the age of 50, diabetes-related cognitive dysfunction may also occur before the age of 50. Therefore, we investigated the association of type 2 diabetes with cognitive function in people aged 35–82 years. In a cross-sectional study comprising 4,135 participants of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular ENd-stage Disease study (52% men; mean age (SD), 55 (12) years) diabetes was defined according to the criteria of the American Diabetes Association. Executive function was measured with the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT; worst score, 0 points; best score, 175 points), and memory was measured with the Visual Association Test (VAT; worst score, 0 points; best score, 12 points). The association of diabetes with cognitive function was investigated with multiple linear or, if appropriate, logistic regression analysis adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors and APOE ε4 carriership. Type 2 diabetes was ascertained in 264 individuals (6%). Persons with diabetes had lower RFFT scores than persons without diabetes: mean (SD), 51 (19) vs. 70 (26) points (p<0.001). The difference in RFFT score was largest at age 35–44 years (mean difference 32 points; 95% CI, 15 to 49; p<0.001) and gradually decreased with increasing age. The association of diabetes with RFFT score was not modified by APOE ε4 carriership. Similar results were found for VAT score as outcome measure although these results were only borderline statistically significant (p≤0.10). In conclusion, type 2 diabetes was associated with cognitive dysfunction, especially in young adults. This was independent of other cardiovascular risk factors and APOE ε4 carriership. PMID:24367577

  5. Lost productive life years caused by chronic conditions in Australians aged 45-64 years, 2010-2030.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Deborah J; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Cunich, Michelle; Tanton, Robert; Kelly, Simon; Passey, Megan E; Veerman, Lennert J

    2015-09-21

    To estimate (1) productive life years (PLYs) lost because of chronic conditions in Australians aged 45-64 years from 2010 to 2030, and (2) the impact of this loss on gross domestic product (GDP) over the same period. A microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD2030, was used to project lost PLYs caused by chronic conditions from 2010 to 2030. The base population consisted of respondents aged 45-64 years to the Australian Bureau of Statistics Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers 2003 and 2009. The national impact of lost PLYs was assessed with Treasury's GDP equation. Lost PLYs due to chronic disease at 2010, 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030 (ie, whole life years lost because of chronic disease); the national impact of lost PLYs at the same time points (GDP loss caused by PLYs); the effects of population growth, labour force trends and chronic disease trends on lost PLYs and GDP at each time point. Using Health&WealthMOD2030, we estimated a loss of 347,000 PLYs in 2010; this was projected to increase to 459,000 in 2030 (32.28% increase over 20 years). The leading chronic conditions associated with premature exits from the labour force were back problems, arthritis and mental and behavioural problems. The percentage increase in the number of PLYs lost by those aged 45-64 years was greater than that of population growth for this age group (32.28% v 27.80%). The strongest driver of the increase in lost PLYs was population growth (accounting for 89.18% of the increase), followed by chronic condition trends (8.28%). Our study estimates an increase of 112 000 lost PLYs caused by chronic illness in older workers in Australia between 2010 and 2030, with the most rapid growth projected to occur in men aged 55-59 years and in women aged 60-64 years. The national impact of this lost labour force participation on GDP was estimated to be $37.79 billion in 2010, increasing to $63.73 billion in 2030.

  6. Nutritional transition in children under five years and women of reproductive age: a 15-years trend analysis in Peru.

    PubMed

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A; Poterico, Julio A

    2014-01-01

    Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15-49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5 y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15-19 y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5 y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (↓43%) than in rural children (↓24%). BMI in women aged 15-19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19 y. Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions--undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia--considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru.

  7. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (↓43%) than in rural children (↓24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies

  8. Sex differences in cognition are stable over a 10-year period in adulthood and old age.

    PubMed

    de Frias, Cindy M; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Herlitz, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in declarative memory and visuospatial ability are robust in cross-sectional studies. The present longitudinal study examined whether sex differences in cognition were present over a 10-year period, and whether age modified the magnitude of sex differences. Tests assessing episodic and semantic memory, and visuospatial ability were administered to 625 nondemented adults (initially aged 35-80 years), participating in the population-based Betula study at two follow-up occasions. There was stability of sex differences across five age groups and over a 10-year period. Women performed at a higher level than men on episodic recall, face and verbal recognition, and semantic fluency, whereas men performed better than women on a task-assessing, visuospatial ability. Sex differences in cognitive functions are stable over a 10-year period and from 35 to 90 years of age.

  9. Risk of diabetic retinopathy at first screen in children at 12 and 13 years of age.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, P H; Stratton, I M; Bachmann, M O; Jones, C; Leese, G P

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the relationships between age at diagnosis of diabetes, age at diabetic eye screening and severity of diabetic retinopathy at first and subsequent screenings in children aged 12 or 13 years. Data were extracted from four English screening programmes and from the Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish programmes on all children with diabetes invited for their first and subsequent screening episodes from the age of 12 years. Retinopathy levels at first and subsequent screens, time from diagnosis of diabetes to first screening and age at diagnosis in years were calculated. Data were available for 2125 children with diabetes screened for the first time at age 12 or 13 years. In those diagnosed with diabetes at 2 years of age or less, the proportion with retinopathy in one or both eyes was 20% and 11%, respectively, decreasing to 8% and 2% in those diagnosed between 2 and 12 years (P < 0.0001). Only three children (aged 8, 10 and 11 years at diagnosis of diabetes) had images graded with referable retinopathy and, of these, two had non-referable diabetic retinopathy at all subsequent screenings. Of 1703 children with subsequent images, 25 were graded with referable diabetic retinopathy over a mean follow-up of 3.1 years, an incidence rate of 4.7 (95% confidence interval, 3.1-7.0) per 1000 per year. In this large cohort of children, the low prevalence and incidence rates of referable diabetic retinopathy suggest that screening earlier than age 12 is not necessary. © 2016 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  10. Dietary associations of fathers and their children between the ages of 20 months and 5 years.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Adam D; Cameron, Adrian J; Crawford, David; Hesketh, Kylie D; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-08-01

    To examine associations between dietary intakes of fathers and their children at child age 20 months, 3·5 years and 5 years, and to determine if fathers' intake predicts change in children's intake between 20 months and 3·5 and 5 years of age. The diets of fathers and their first-born children participating in the longitudinal Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program were assessed using FFQ and three 24 h recalls, respectively. Sixty-two pre-existing first-time parent groups were selected from fourteen local government areas within a 60 km radius of Deakin University Burwood, Victoria, Australia. Fathers and their first-born children at 20 months (n 317), 3·5 years (n 214) and 5 years of age (n 208). Positive associations were found between fathers' and children's intakes of fruit and sweet snacks at 20 months (P=0·001) and 5 years of age (P=0·012). Fathers' intake at child age 20 months was associated with change in children's intake for fruit, sweet snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages between child age 20 months and 3·5 years, and for sweet snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages between child age 20 months and 5 years (all P<0·05). After adjustment for maternal intake, fathers' intake of sweet snacks remained a predictor of change in children's sweet snack intake between 20 months and 3·5 years of age (P=0·03). Associations between the dietary intakes of fathers and their children commence at a young age and continue through early childhood. Fathers should be included in future interventions aimed at improving children's diets.

  11. Bringing the Montessori Three-Year Multi-Age Group to the Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes the benefits of including the ninth grade within the 3-year multi-age group setting within a Montessori farm school. Notes how seventh, eighth, and ninth grades work together in one family cluster, allowing 15-year-olds to avoid the pecking order of the high school freshman year while developing personal leadership, confidence, and a…

  12. Successful Aging in a 70-Year-Old Man with Down Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Gu, Hong; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Kittler, Phyllis; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Schupf, Nicole; Scotto, Luigi; Tycko, Benjamin; Urv, Tiina K.; Ye, Lingling; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a case study of a 70-year-old man with Down syndrome ("Mr. C.") who they followed for 16 years and who does not exhibit declines in cognitive or functional capacities indicative of dementia, despite having well-documented, complete trisomy 21. The authors describe the age-associated changes that occurred over 16 years as well…

  13. Successful Aging in a 70-Year-Old Man with Down Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Gu, Hong; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Kittler, Phyllis; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Schupf, Nicole; Scotto, Luigi; Tycko, Benjamin; Urv, Tiina K.; Ye, Lingling; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a case study of a 70-year-old man with Down syndrome ("Mr. C.") who they followed for 16 years and who does not exhibit declines in cognitive or functional capacities indicative of dementia, despite having well-documented, complete trisomy 21. The authors describe the age-associated changes that occurred over 16 years as well…

  14. Risk factors identified for owner-reported feline obesity at around one year of age: Dry diet and indoor lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Elizabeth; Browne, William; Casey, Rachel; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Murray, Jane

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is considered the second most common health problem in pet cats in developed countries. Previous studies investigating risk factors for feline obesity have been cross-sectional, where reverse causality cannot be ruled out. This study is the first to use prospective data from a large scale longitudinal study of pet cats ('Bristol Cats') to identify early-life risk factors for feline overweight/obesity at around one year of age. Data analysed were collected via three owner-completed questionnaires (for cats aged 2-4 months, 6.5-7 months and 12.5-13 months) completed between May 2010 and August 2013. Owner-reported body condition scores (BCS) of cats at age 12.5-13 months, using the 5-point system, were categorised into a dichotomous variable: overweight/obese (BCS 4-5) and not overweight (BCS 1-3) and used as the dependent variable. Cat breed, neuter status, outdoor access, type of diet, frequency of wet and dry food fed and frequency of treats fed were analysed as potential risk factors. Of the 966 cats for which data were available, 7.0% were reported by their owners to be overweight/obese at 12.5-13 months of age. Descriptive data on type of diet fed at different cat ages suggest that a dry diet is the most popular choice for UK domestic cats. Significant potential explanatory variables from univariable logistic regression models were included in multivariable logistic regression models built using stepwise forward-selection. To account for potential hierarchical clustering of data due to multi-cat households these were extended to two-level random intercept models. Models were compared using Wald test p- values. Clustering had no impact on the analysis. The final multivariable logistic regression model identified two risk factors that were independently associated with an increased risk of feline obesity developing at 12.5-13 months of age: restricted or no outdoor access and feeding dry food as the only or major (>50%) type of food in the diet at age 12

  15. Analysis of oxybutynin treatment for hyperhidrosis in patients aged over 40 years

    PubMed Central

    Wolosker, Nelson; Krutman, Mariana; Teivelis, Marcelo Passos; de Paula, Rafael Pessanha; Kauffman, Paulo; de Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Puech-Leão, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Our aim was to analyze the effectiveness of oxybutynin for hyperhidrosis treatment in patients over 40 years. Methods: Eighty-seven patients aged over 40 years were divided into two groups. One group consisted of 48 (55.2%) patients aged between 40 and 49 years, and another was composed of 39 (44.8%) patients aged over 50 years (50 to 74 years). A comparative analysis of Quality of Life and level of hyperhidrosis between the groups was carried out 6 weeks after a protocol treatment with oxybutynin. A validated clinical questionnaire was used for evaluation. Results: In the younger age group, 75% of patients referred a “partial” or “great” improvement in level of hyperhidrosis after treatment. This number was particularly impressive in patients over 50 years, in which 87.2% of the cases demonstrated similar levels of improvement. Over 77% of patients in both groups demonstrated improvement in Quality of Life. Excellent outcomes were observed in older patients, in which 87.1% of patients presented “slightly better” (41%) or “much better” (46.1%) improvement. Conclusion: Patients aged over 40 years with hyperhidrosis presented excellent results after oxybutynin treatment. These outcomes were particularly impressive in the age group over 50 years, in which most patients had significant improvement in Quality of Life and in level of hyperhidrosis. PMID:24728245

  16. Effectiveness of acellular pertussis vaccination during childhood (<7 years of age) for preventing pertussis in household contacts 1-9 years old in Catalonia and Navarra (Spain).

    PubMed

    Plans, P; Toledo, D; Sala, M R; Camps, N; Villanova, M; Rodríguez, R; Alvarez, J; Solano, R; García-Cenoz, M; Barrabeig, I; Godoy, P; Minguell, S

    2016-12-01

    Pertussis vaccination with 4-5 doses of acellular vaccines is recommended in Spain to all children at 2 months to 6 years of age. The effectiveness of the acellular pertussis vaccination was assessed in this study by comparing the incidence of secondary pertussis in vaccinated (4-5 doses) and unvaccinated or partially vaccinated (0-3 doses) household contacts 1-9 years old of confirmed cases of pertussis in Spain in 2012-13. Eighty-five percent of contacts had been vaccinated with 4-5 doses of acellular pertussis vaccines. During the 2-year study period, 64 cases of secondary pertussis were detected among 405 household contacts 1-9 years old: 47 among vaccinated and 17 among unvaccinated or partially vaccinated contacts. The effectiveness for preventing secondary pertussis, calculated as 1 minus the relative risk (RR) of secondary pertussis in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated/partially vaccinated contacts, was 50 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 19-69 %, p < 0.01] when household contacts were vaccinated using DTaP, Tdap, hexavalent or heptavalent vaccines, and it was 51.3 % (95 % CI: 21-70 %, p < 0.01) when they were vaccinated using DTaP or TdaP vaccines. The effectiveness adjusted for age, sex, pertussis chemotherapy and type of household contact was 58.6 % (95 % CI: 17-79 %, p < 0.05) when contacts were vaccinated using available acellular vaccines, and it was 59.6 % (95 % CI: 18-80 %, p < 0.01) when they were vaccinated using DTaP vaccines. Acellular pertussis vaccination during childhood was effective for preventing secondary pertussis in household contacts 1-9 years old of pertussis cases in Catalonia and Navarra, Spain.

  17. Long-term predictors of loneliness in old age: results of a 20-year national study.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Lena; Andersson, Lars; Lennartsson, Carin

    2016-11-01

    The understanding of social phenomena is enhanced if individuals can be studied over longer periods. Regarding loneliness in old age, there is a general lack of longitudinal research. The aim of this study was to examine whether there is an association between loneliness in old age and social engagement 20 years earlier, as stated by life course theory and the convoy model. Data from the nationally representative Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (2002 and 2011 data collection waves) and the Swedish Level of Living Survey (1981 and 1991 data collection waves) were used. The sample included 823 individuals with an average age of 62.2 years at baseline and 82.4 years at follow-up. Each form of social engagement in old age was significantly associated with the same form of social engagement 20 years earlier. Close forms of social engagement were associated with loneliness in old age; as were more distant forms of social engagement, but only when they were considered solely in old age. Patterns of social engagement in old age were established at least 20 years earlier and close forms of social engagement are long-term predictors of loneliness, although current social engagement tended to be more influential on loneliness. The study underlines the importance of interventions targeted at close relationships that can provide social support in old age.

  18. Television Viewing in Infancy and Child Cognition at 3 Years of Age in a US Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Marie Evans; Rich, Michael; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Oken, Emily; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the extent to which infant television viewing is associated with language and visual motor skills at 3 years of age. Measures We studied 872 children who were participants in Project Viva, a prospective cohort. The design used was a longitudinal survey, and the setting was a multisite group practice in Massachusetts. At 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years, mothers reported the number of hours their children watched television in a 24-hour period, from which we derived a weighted average of daily television viewing. We used multivariable regression analyses to predict the independent associations of television viewing between birth and 2 years with Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III and Wide-Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities scores at 3 years of age. Results Mean daily television viewing in infancy (birth to 2 years) was 1.2 (SD: 0.9) hours, less than has been found in other studies of this age group. Mean Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III score at age 3 was 104.8 (SD: 14.2); mean standardized total Wide-Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities score at age 3 was 102.6 (SD: 11.2). After adjusting for maternal age, income, education, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III score, marital status, and parity, and child's age, gender, birth weight for gestational age, breastfeeding duration, race/ethnicity, primary language, and average daily sleep duration, we found that each additional hour of television viewing in infancy was not associated with Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III or total standardized Wide-Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities scores at age 3. Conclusion Television viewing in infancy does not seem to be associated with language or visual motor skills at 3 years of age. PMID:19254972

  19. Breast cancer in women under age 40 years: treatment by total mastectomy and reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Jeffery E; Chu, Carrie; McCullough, Meghan; Anderson, Erica; Losken, Albert; Carlson, Grant W

    2011-05-01

    Breast cancer in women under 40 years of age is rare, accounting for approximately 5% of cases. The disease tends to be more aggressive in younger women. Younger age has been shown to be an independent predictive of breast reconstruction after total mastectomy. Treatment by total mastectomy and reconstruction is examined in relation to patient age. A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients treated by total mastectomy and reconstruction between 2005 and 2009 was performed by querying a prospective database. A total of 671 patients underwent total mastectomy and reconstruction; of them, 106 (16%) aged <40 and 565 (84%) aged ≥40 years. Compared with older patients, the age <40 group was more likely to present with advanced breast cancer (P < 0.001), receive radiation (P = 0.006), undergo contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (P < 0.001) and bilateral reconstruction (P = 0.005), and undergo delayed reconstruction (P = 0.02). Transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap reconstruction was more common in the age ≥40 years (P = 0.03). Bilateral reconstruction was most commonly performed with tissue expansion regardless of patient age. Breast reconstruction in women less than 40 years of age is influenced by advanced tumor stage and the necessity for adjuvant radiation therapy as well as an increased use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy.

  20. 43 CFR 1610.4-5 - Formulation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Formulation of alternatives. 1610.4-5 Section 1610.4-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING...

  1. 41 CFR 60-4.5 - Hometown plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Hometown plans. 60-4.5...-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.5 Hometown plans. (a) A contractor participating, either individually or through an association, in an approved Hometown Plan (including...

  2. 18 CFR 4.5 - Time for filing protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time for filing protest. 4.5 Section 4.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... to such reports. If no protest is filed within the time allowed, the Commission will issue such...

  3. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section... Selections: Generally § 2650.4-5 National forest lands. Every conveyance which includes lands within the boundaries of a national forest shall, as to such lands, contain reservations that: (a) Until December 18...

  4. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section 2650.4-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Alaska Native...

  5. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section 2650.4-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Alaska Native...

  6. 43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section 2650.4-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Alaska Native...

  7. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice by publication. 4.5... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the... where the USPTO's Web site is unavailable for publication will the USPTO publish the Notice of...

  8. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notice by publication. 4.5... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the... where the USPTO's Web site is unavailable for publication will the USPTO publish the Notice of...

  9. 37 CFR 4.5 - Notice by publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notice by publication. 4.5... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.5 Notice by publication. If the copy of the... where the USPTO's Web site is unavailable for publication will the USPTO publish the Notice of...

  10. 12 CFR 4.5 - District and field offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false District and field offices. 4.5 Section 4.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS, AVAILABILITY AND RELEASE OF INFORMATION, CONTRACTING OUTREACH PROGRAM, POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS FOR...

  11. 41 CFR 60-4.5 - Hometown plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Hometown plans. 60-4.5...-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.5 Hometown plans. (a) A contractor participating, either individually or through an association, in an approved Hometown Plan (including...

  12. Elimination of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl by the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, following single exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Tjeerdema, R.S.; Jacobs, R.S.

    1987-06-01

    Understanding the fate of a single PCB isomer in a resident species may aid in assessing the risk to the marine community. Therefore, the elimination of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP) by the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, following a single exposure, was investigated. The purple sea urchin was chosen because of its economic importance and ability to proliferate in certain polluted conditions. Single exposure may best mimic the effects of intermittent oceanic incineration or disposal, and 2,4,5,2',4',5'-HCBP was chosen due to its presence in common PCB mixtures and high chlorine content, thus strong lipophilicity.

  13. Preschool Gender-Typed Play Behavior at Age 3.5 Years Predicts Physical Aggression at Age 13 Years.

    PubMed

    Kung, Karson T F; Li, Gu; Golding, Jean; Hines, Melissa

    2017-06-23

    Gender differences in play behavior and physical aggression have been consistently reported. Theoretical perspectives concerning evolutionary, social, and social-cognitive mechanisms suggest that male-typical play behavior during childhood increases subsequent physical aggression. The evidence supporting these connections is limited, however. The present study investigated the association between gender-typed play behavior in early childhood and physical aggression in early adolescence using a sample drawn from a longitudinal, population study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Based on gender-typed play behavior as measured by the Pre-School Activities Inventory at age 3.5 years, samples of masculine (64 boys, 60 girls), feminine (80 boys, 66 girls), and randomly selected control children (55 boys, 67 girls) were recruited at age 13 years and administered the Reinisch Aggression Inventory. After controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, maternal characteristics, and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity and conduct problems at age 3.5, significant group differences in physical aggression at age 13 were found among children classified as masculine, control, and feminine at age 3.5. Masculine children exhibited significantly more physical aggression than control children or feminine children, and control children exhibited significantly more physical aggression than feminine children. The association between gender-typed play behavior and physical aggression was not moderated by sex. These results suggest that the degree of childhood gender-typed play behavior independently predicts the degree of physical aggression at adolescence in boys and in girls.

  14. Thirty years of the United Nations and global ageing: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Hal; Lucas, Nina; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2013-10-01

    Over the past three decades, the United Nations (UN) has slowly devoted increasing attention to global ageing. Concern for individually based welfare or health-care programs for older people in developed countries has progressed to also consider the contributions of older people and implications of ageing for socioeconomic advancement in developing countries, including those in Asia Oceania. These shifts are evident in the International Plans of Action on Ageing from Vienna in 1982 to Madrid in 2002; recent 10-year reviews of the Madrid Plan; and current advocacy for inclusion of ageing in the influential UN Millennium Plan post-2015. Australia has demonstrated progressive policies and contributed to ageing developments by the UN, International Federation on Ageing the World Health Organization and the International Association of Gerontology. Key ideas driving further action are the importance of valuing people at all ages, addressing inequalities over the life-course and implementing human rights approaches to ageing.

  15. [Physiological changes in balance control of adults aged 20 to 60 years assessed with Equitest].

    PubMed

    Ionescu, E; Dubreuil, C; Ferber-Viart C, C

    2005-11-01

    The sense of balance depends on many factors including age. A considerable amount of time is spent in medical clinics attempting to identify potential balance problems and retrain individuals with posture and balance limitations. Since the past decades the development of computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) provided the clinicians a tool to objectively assess balance disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate physiological changes in balance control of adults aged from 20 to 60 years. 108 healthy adults volunteers were involved in the study. The Equitest CDP was used to record equilibrium pattern in four age groups: "a" 20-30 years old, "b" 3040 years old, "c" 40-50 years old and "d" 50-60 years old. Equilibrium patterns worsen progressively with age in the studied age groups, especially vestibular pattern, whereas visual dependence increases. Ours results show that: 1- presbyvestibulia takes place progressively with age. 2- between 20 and 60 years old, normative data should be established by decade age steps. 3- From a preventive point of view raises the question if this evolution is uneluctable or could be counteracted by physical training or adapted treatment.

  16. Relative improvements in endurance performance with age: evidence from 25 years of Hawaii Ironman racing.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Rüst, Christoph A; Stapley, Paul J; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-06-01

    Despite of the growth of ultra-endurance sports events (of duration >6 h) over the previous few decades, the age-related declines in ultra-endurance performance have drawn little attention. The aim of the study was to analyse the changes in participation and performance trends of older (>40 years of age) triathletes between 1986 and 2010 at the Hawaii Ironman triathlon consisting of 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42 km running. Swimming, cycling, running and total times of the best male and female triathletes between 18 and 69 years of age who competed in the Hawaii Ironman triathlon were analysed. The relative participation of master triathletes increased during the 1986-2010 period, while the participation of triathletes younger than 40 years of age decreased. Linear regression showed that males older than 44 years and females older than 40 years significantly improved their performances in the three disciplines and in the total time taken to complete the race. Gender differences in total time performance significantly decreased in the same time period for all age groups between the 40-44 and 55-59 years ones. The reasons for these relative improvements of Ironman athlete performances in older age groups remain, however, unknown. Further studies investigating training regimes, competition experience or sociodemographic factors are needed to gain better insights into the phenomenon of increasing participation and improvement of ultra-endurance performance with advancing age.

  17. [Establish Assessment Model of 18 Years of Age in Chinese Han Population by Mandibular Third Molar].

    PubMed

    Fan, Fei; Dai, Xin-hua; Wang, Liang; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Kui; Deng, Zhen-hua

    2016-02-01

    To explore the value of estimating chronologic age based on the grades of mandibular third molar development. To evaluate whether mandibular third molar could be used as an indicator for estimating the age under or over 18 years. The mineralization status of mandibular third molar of 1 845 individuals aged 10 - 30 was graded and marked based on Demirjian's classification of grades reformed by Orhan. Gender difference was examined by t-test. A cubic regression model was established to analyze the correlation between third molar and chronologic age. Each grade of age cumulative distribution diagram and ROC curve was respectively performed to evaluate the relationship between third molar and the age of 18. Using Bayes discriminant analysis, an equation was established for estimating the age of 18. The inner-rater reliability was 0.903. Statistical analysis showed a moderate correlation between age and grade. Significant differences of both genders were found only in grade D and H (P < 0.05). Males at the grades from 1 to D and females at the grades from 1 to C were under 18 years old, and both males and females at grade H were over 18 years old. The area under the ROC curve was 0.797 (P < 0.05). Third molar development shows a high correlation with age, and combined with other indicators, it can be used to estimate the age of 18.

  18. Lutein intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-09-28

    Lutein is a carotenoid with strong antioxidant properties. Previous studies in adults suggest a beneficial role of lutein on cardiometabolic health. However, it is unknown whether this relation also exists in children; therefore, we aimed to assess the relation between lutein intake at 13 months of age and cardiometabolic outcomes at the age of 6 years. We included 2044 Dutch children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. Diet was measured at 13 months of age with an FFQ. Lutein intake was standardised for energy and β-carotene intake. Blood pressure, anthropometrics, serum lipids and insulin were measured at the age of 6 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to measure total and regional fat and lean mass. A continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score was created, including the components body fat percentage, blood pressure, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and TAG. Age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores were created for all outcomes. Multivariable linear regression was performed, including socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Median (energy-standardised) lutein intake was 1317 mcg/d (95% range 87, 6069 mcg/d). There were no consistent associations between lutein intake at 13 months and anthropometrics and body composition measures at 6 years of age. In addition, lutein intake was not associated with a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score, nor was it associated with any of the individual components of the cardiometabolic risk factor score. Results from this large population-based prospective cohort study do not support the hypothesis that lutein intake early in life has a beneficial role for later cardiometabolic health.

  19. Child development at 5 years of age predicted mathematics ability and schooling outcomes in Malawian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Mihir; Teivaanmaki, Tiina; Maleta, Kenneth; Duan, Xiaolian; Ashorn, Per; Cheung, Yin Bun

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between child development at 5 years of age and mathematics ability and schooling outcomes at 12 years of age in Malawian children. A prospective cohort study looking at 609 rural Malawian children. Outcome measures were percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions, highest school grade completed and number of times repeating school grades at 12 years of age. A child development summary score obtained at 5 years of age was the main exposure variable. Regression analyses were used to estimate the association and adjust for confounders. Sensitivity analysis was performed by handling losses to follow-up with multiple imputation (MI) method. The summary score was positively associated with percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions (p = 0.057; p = 0.031 MI) and with highest school grade completed (p = 0.096; p = 0.070 MI), and negatively associated with number of times repeating school grades (p = 0.834; p = 0.339 MI). Fine motor score at 5 years was independently associated with the mathematic score (p = 0.032; p = 0.011 MI). The association between child development and mathematics ability did not depend on school attendance. Child development at 5 years of age showed signs of positive association with mathematics ability and possibly with highest school grade completed at 12 years of age. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  20. Concurrent and Predictive Validity of Parent Reports of Child Language at Ages 2 and 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Thomas F.; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Rockette, Howard E.; Dale, Philip S.; Colborn, D. Kathleen; Paradise, Jack L.

    2005-01-01

    The MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI; Dale, 1996; Fenson et al., 1994), parent reports about language skills, are being used increasingly in studies of theoretical and public health importance. This study (N = 113) correlated scores on the CDI at ages 2 and 3 years with scores at age 3 years on tests of cognition and receptive language and measures from parent–child conversation. Associations indicated reasonable concurrent and predictive validity. The findings suggest that satisfactory vocabulary scores at age 2 are likely to predict normal language skills at age 3, although some children with limited skills at age 3 will have had satisfactory scores at age 2. Many children with poor vocabulary scores at 2 will have normal skills at 3. PMID:16026501

  1. Hospitalizations of adults ≥60 years of age with venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Hussain R; Reyes, Nimia; Zhang, Qing C; Okoroh, Ekwutosi M; Siddiqi, Azfar-E-Alam; Tsai, James

    2014-03-01

    We assessed the rates, trends, and factors associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) diagnosis among hospitalizations of adults ≥60 years of age during the period 2001 to 2010. Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey were used for this study. During the period 2001 to 2010, the estimated annual number of hospitalizations in which a VTE diagnosis was recorded, among adults ≥ 60 years of age, ranged from approximately 2 70 000 in 2001 to 4 23 000 in 2010. The rate of such hospitalizations per 1 00 000 US population ≥60 years of age ranged from 581 in 2001 to 739 in 2010. During the period 2001 to 2004, there was a significant increasing trend in the rate of hospitalizations with VTE among women ≥60 years of age. The factors positively associated with an increased risk of VTE diagnosis were female sex, summer and autumn seasons (compared with spring), venous catheterization, cancer, and greater length of hospital stay.

  2. Rising suicide among adults aged 40-64 years: the role of job and financial circumstances.

    PubMed

    Hempstead, Katherine A; Phillips, Julie A

    2015-05-01

    Suicide rates among middle-aged men and women in the U.S. have been increasing since 1999, with a sharp escalation since 2007. To examine whether suicides with circumstances related to economic crises increased disproportionately among the middle-aged between 2005 and 2010. This study used the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) in 2014 to explore trends and patterns in circumstance and method among adults aged 40-64 years. Suicide circumstances varied considerably by age, with those related to job, financial, and legal problems most common among individuals aged 40-64 years. Between 2005 and 2010, the proportion of suicides where these circumstances were present increased among this age group, from 32.9% to 37.5% of completed suicides (p<0.05). Further, suffocation is a method more likely to be used in suicides related to job, economic, or legal factors, and its use increased disproportionately among the middle-aged. The number of suicides using suffocation increased 59.5% among those aged 40-64 years between 2005 and 2010, compared with 18.0% for those aged 15-39 years and 27.2% for those aged >65 years (p<0.05). The growth in the importance of external circumstances and increased use of suffocation jointly pose a challenge for prevention efforts designed for middle-aged adults. Suffocation is a suicide method that is highly lethal, requires relatively little planning, and is readily available. Efforts that target employers and workplaces as important stakeholders in the prevention of suicide and link the unemployed to mental health resources are warranted. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Avoidable mortality measured by years of potential life lost (YPLL) aged 5 before 65 years in Kyrgyzstan, 1989-2003.

    PubMed

    Bozgunchievz, Maratbek; Ito, Katsuki

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable willingness in the entire medical society of Kyrgyzstan, which was directly involved in the reform process, to obtain reliable information about changes in population health that have occurred in the last decade, as well as about changes in mortality, which is the basic component of population health. The objective of this paper is to introduce the Year of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) in Kyrgyzstan caused by avoidable mortality in the population between 5 and 65 years of age during 1989-2003, and to provide a basis for setting the priorities for the reducing YPLL in the coming years. YPLL was calculated using data from the annual mortality tables according to causes of deaths and age for 1989, 1996, 1999 and 2003. YPLL is defined as the summation of the difference between 65 years of age and the age at death from the age of 5 and before 65. In 2003, the total number of YPLL due to avoidable mortality among those who died was 216,860, which represents a decline of 5.0% in comparison with 228,266 in 1989. During the study years, the largest proportion of YPLL in the population between 5 and 65 years of age resulted from injury and poisoning. In 2003, this proportion represented 41.5% of the total amount of YPLL due to all the causes studied here, followed by infections and parasitic diseases (12.0%), circulatory disturbance of the brain (11.5%), chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis (11.4%), diseases of the respiratory system (9.2%), and malignant neoplasm of the upper airways and digestive tract (4.6%). The decline in avoidable mortality caused by injury and poisoning, infections disease, malignant neoplasm of the female breast and uterus has to be priority-driven direction for developing Health Policy in the coming years in Kyrgyzstan. Attention also has to be given to reducing of avoidable mortality caused by malignant neoplasm of the female breast by implementing screening programs.

  4. High incidence and persistence of airborne allergen sensitization up to age 19 years.

    PubMed

    Rönmark, E; Warm, K; Bjerg, A; Backman, H; Hedman, L; Lundbäck, B

    2017-05-01

    Longitudinal population-based studies about the natural history of allergic sensitization are rare. The aim was to study incidence and persistence of airborne allergen sensitization up to young adulthood and risk factors for early and late onset of sensitization. All children aged 7-8 years in two municipalities in Northern Sweden were invited to a parental questionnaire and skin prick tests (SPTs) to ten airborne allergens, and 2148 (88%) participated. The protocol was repeated at age 11-12 and 19 years, and 1516 participated in all three examinations. Prevalence of any positive SPT increased from 20.6% at age 7-8 years to 30.6% at 11-12 years, and 42.1% at 19 years. Animals were the primary sensitizers at age 7-8 years, 16.3%, followed by pollen, 12.4%. Mite and mold sensitization was low. Mean annual incidence of any positive SPT varied between 2.8 and 3.4/100 per year, decreased by age for animal, and was stable for pollen. Sensitization before age 7-8 years was independently associated with family history of allergy, OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.6-2.8), urban living, OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-2.9), and male sex, OR 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.7), and negatively associated with birth order, OR 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-1.0), and furry animals at home, OR 0.7 (95% CI 0.7-0.9). Incidence after age 11-12 years was associated only with family history of allergy. Multisensitization at age 19 years was significantly associated with early age at sensitization. Remission of sensitization was uncommon. The increasing prevalence of allergic sensitization by age was explained by high incidence and persistence. After age 11-12 years, the factors urban living, number of siblings, and male sex lost their importance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Color Vision Deficiencies in Youths 12-17 Years of Age United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaby, David; Roberts, Jean

    The prevalence of color vision deficiencies among youths 12 to 17 years of age in the United States was evaluated during a 1966-1970 survey of 6,768 youths selected as representative of noninstitutionalized adolescents with respect to age, sex, race, geographic region, income, population size of place of residence, and rate of population change in…

  6. Development of Tactical Deception from 4 to 8 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rachelle M.; LaFreniere, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred eighteen children, divided into three age groups (4-, 6-, and 8-year-olds) participated in a competitive game designed to explore advances in children's deceptive abilities. Success in the game required children to inhibit useful information or provide misinformation in their communication with an adult opponent. Age trends were…

  7. How Special Education Preschool Graduates Finish: Status at 19 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Dale, Philip S.; Mills, Paulette E.; Cole, Kevin N.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the academic and special education status of 129 graduates of special education preschools at 19 years of age. Participants had been randomly assigned to either direct instruction or mediated learning preschool classrooms. At age 19, their achievement was approximately one standard deviation below average. Consistent with…

  8. Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

  9. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  10. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  11. Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

  12. Spatiotemporal and plantar pressure patterns of 1000 healthy individuals aged 3-101 years.

    PubMed

    McKay, Marnee J; Baldwin, Jennifer N; Ferreira, Paulo; Simic, Milena; Vanicek, Natalie; Wojciechowski, Elizabeth; Mudge, Anita; Burns, Joshua

    2017-07-18

    The purpose of this study was to establish normative reference values for spatiotemporal and plantar pressure parameters, and to investigate the influence of demographic, anthropometric and physical characteristics. In 1000 healthy males and females aged 3-101 years, spatiotemporal and plantar pressure data were collected barefoot with the Zeno™ walkway and Emed(®) platform. Correlograms were developed to visualise the relationships between widely reported spatiotemporal and pressure variables with demographic (age, gender), anthropometric (height, mass, waist circumference) and physical characteristics (ankle strength, ankle range of motion, vibration perception) in children aged 3-9 years, adolescents aged 10-19 years, adults aged 20-59 years and older adults aged over 60 years. A comprehensive catalogue of 31 spatiotemporal and pressure variables were generated from 1000 healthy individuals. The key findings were that gait velocity was stable during adolescence and adulthood, while children and older adults walked at a comparable slower speed. Peak pressures increased during childhood to older adulthood. Children demonstrated highest peak pressures beneath the rearfoot whilst adolescents, adults and older adults demonstrated highest pressures at the forefoot. Main factors influencing spatiotemporal and pressure parameters were: increased age, height, body mass and waist circumference, as well as ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion strength. This study has established whole of life normative reference values of widely used spatiotemporal and plantar pressure parameters, and revealed changes to be expected across the lifespan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Oseltamivir Pharmacokinetics, Dosing, and Resistance Among Children Aged <2 Years With Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Kimberlin, David W.; Acosta, Edward P.; Prichard, Mark N.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Ampofo, Krow; Lang, David; Ashouri, Negar; Vanchiere, John A.; Abzug, Mark J.; Abughali, Nazha; Caserta, Mary T.; Englund, Janet A.; Sood, Sunil K.; Spigarelli, Michael G.; Bradley, John S.; Lew, Judy; Michaels, Marian G.; Wan, Wen; Cloud, Gretchen; Jester, Penelope; Lakeman, Fred D.; Whitley, Richard J.; Giles, Dusty; Cotton, Bari; Judy, Sharon; Cowie, Margaret; Francis, Jeanne; Evans, Candice; O'Donnell, Nan; Shiraishi, Ofelia Vargas; Latiolais, Lisa; Aymami, Valeri; Dole, Ken; Gaultier, Julie; Lofthus, Gerry; Kinnunen, Diane; Lacombe, Kirsten; Stellato, Nancy; Denlinger, Julie; Hingtgen, Sara; Mason, Christina; Jeffrey, Noreen

    2013-01-01

    Background. Children <2 years of age are at high risk of influenza-related mortality and morbidity. However, the appropriate dose of oseltamivir for children <2 years of age is unknown. Methods. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group evaluated oseltamivir in infants aged <2 years in an age–de-escalation, adaptive design with a targeted systemic exposure. Results. From 2006 to 2010, 87 subjects enrolled. An oseltamivir dose of 3.0 mg/kg produced drug exposures within the target range in subjects 0–8 months of age, although there was a greater degree of variability in infants <3 months of age. In subjects 9–11 months of age, a dose of 3.5 mg/kg produced drug exposures within the target range. Six of 10 subjects aged 12–23 months receiving the Food and Drug Administration–approved unit dose for this age group (ie, 30 mg) had oseltamivir carboxylate exposures below the target range. Virus from 3 subjects developed oseltamivir resistance during antiviral treatment. Conclusions. The appropriate twice-daily oral oseltamivir dose for infants ≤8 months of age is 3.0 mg/kg, while the dose for infants 9–11 months old is 3.5 mg/kg. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00391768. PMID:23230059

  14. Stuttering, temperament, and anxiety: data from a community cohort ages 2-4 years.

    PubMed

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether and when temperament differences, including precursors of anxiety, emerge before onset and during stuttering development. The authors prospectively studied temperament characteristics of a community cohort of children who stutter (N = 183) and children in the control group (N = 1,261). No significant differences were found at ages 2, 3, or 4 years between children who stutter and control children for approach or at ages 3 or 4 years for easy/difficult temperament. Both of these measures are precursors of anxiety. Significant differences were found for reactivity and persistence at age 3 years. Children who stutter were less reactive to environmental stimuli and had a reduced ability to attend to a task until completion. There was no evidence of this difference for persistence at age 4 years. Reactivity was not measured at age 4 years. On the basis of parents' responses to the Short Temperament Scale, preschoolers who stutter did not have innately different temperaments from control children on those temperament traits measured from ages 2 to 4 years. They showed no signs of temperament precursors of anxiety before stuttering onset or shortly after. Results suggest, at most, that temperament is influenced somehow during the period after stuttering onset but with a waning developmental influence subsequently.

  15. Cervical cancer screening among women aged 18-30 years - United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-01-04

    Screening women for cervical cancer can save lives. However, among young women, cervical cancer is relatively rare, and too-frequent screening can lead to high costs and adverse events associated with overtreatment. Before 2012, cervical cancer screening guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) differed on age to start and how often to get screened for cervical cancer. In 2012, however, all three organizations recommended that 1) screening by Papanicolau (Pap) test should not be used for women aged <21 years, regardless of initiation of sexual activity, and 2) a screening interval of 3 years should be maintained for women aged 21-30 years. ACS and ACOG explicitly recommend against yearly screening. To assess trends in Pap testing before the new guidelines were introduced, CDC analyzed 2000-2010 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged 18-30 years. CDC found that, among women aged 18-21 years, the percentage reporting never having been screened increased from 26.3% in 2000 to 47.5% in 2010, and the proportion reporting having had a Pap test in the past 12 months decreased from 65.0% to 41.5%. Among those aged 22-30 years, the proportion reporting having had a Pap test within the preceding 12 months decreased from 78.1% to 67.0%. These findings showed that Pap testing practices for young women have been moving toward the latest guidelines. However, the data also showed a concerning trend: among women aged 22-30 years, who should be screened every 3 years, the proportion who reported never having had a Pap test increased from 6.6% to 9.0%. More effort is needed to promote acceptance of the latest evidence-based recommendations so that all women receive the maximal benefits of cervical cancer screening.

  16. Evaluation of immune responses to an oral typhoid vaccine, Ty21a, in children from 2 to 5 years of age in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Taufiqur R; Choudhury, Feroza K; Khanam, Farhana; Saha, Amit; Sayeed, Md Abu; Salma, Umme; Lundgren, Anna; Sack, David A; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Qadri, Firdausi

    2014-02-19

    Young children are very susceptible to typhoid fever, emphasizing the need for vaccination in under five age groups. The parenteral Vi polysaccharide vaccine is not immunogenic in children under 2 years and the oral Ty21a vaccine (Vivotif) available in capsular formulation is only recommended for those over 5 years. We studied immune responses to a liquid formulation of Ty21a in children 2-5 years of age. Since children in developing countries are in general hypo responsive to oral vaccines, the study was designed to determine if anti-helminthic treatment prior to vaccination, improves responses. In a pilot study in 20 children aged 4-5 years, the immune responses in plasma and in antibody in lymphocyte secretions (ALS) to the enteric coated capsule formulation of Ty21a was found to be comparable to a liquid formulation (P>0.05). Based on this, children (n=252) aged ≥ 2-<3 years and ≥3-<5 years were randomized to receive a liquid formulation of Ty21a with and without previous anti-helminthic treatment. The vaccine was well tolerated with only a few mild adverse events recorded in <1% of the children. De-worming did not improve immune responses and both age groups developed 32-71% IgA, IgG, and IgM responses in plasma and 63-86% IgA responses in ALS and stool specimens to a membrane preparation (MP) of Ty21a. An early MP specific proliferative T cell response was also seen. We recommend that safety and efficacy studies with a liquid formulation of the vaccine are carried out in children under five, including those less than two years of age to determine if Ty21a is protective in these age groups and applicable as a public health tool for controlling typhoid fever in high prevalence areas of typhoid fever including Bangladesh. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sonographic measurement of uterus and ovaries in premenarcheal healthy girls between 6 and 13 years old: correlation with age and pubertal status.

    PubMed

    Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam; Ghasemi, Fariba; Hallaji, Farideh; Ghasemi, Abbas; Ghasemi, Mehdi

    2011-02-01

    To provide normal references of sonographic uterine and ovarian size in premenarcheal healthy girls aged 6-13 years in different stages of puberty. Two hundred forty girls were enrolled into the study (mean age ± SD, 9.5 ± 1.7 years [range, 6-13.5 years]). Pubertal status was classified according to Tanner staging. All subjects underwent pelvic sonographic examination for the measurement of uterine volume, body and cervical length, anteroposterior diameter of fundus, body, and cervix, ovarian volume, and both right and left prominent follicular diameter. A gradual increase with age was observed in all uterine and ovarian measurements. Both uterine and ovarian parameters were significantly correlated to age, height and weight, and stages of puberty. Uterine volume was <3.5 cm(3) in 98% of prepubertal girls, and in stage 2 it was significantly more than in stage 1 (3 ± 3.2 versus 1.7 ± 1.7, respectively) (p < 0.001). Uterine body length was also significantly greater in stage 2 than stage 1 (17.5 ± 4.5 versus 14.6 ± 3.3, respectively) (p < 0.001). The reference values for uterus and ovaries were determined in healthy girls. There is a progressive increase in size of internal female genitalia in relation to age, height, weight, and puberty. Uterine volume and body length presented the best correlation with age and stage of puberty. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Predicting curriculum and test performance at age 11 years from pupil background, baseline skills and phonological awareness at age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Savage, Robert; Carless, Sue; Ferraro, Vittoria

    2007-07-01

    Phonological awareness tests are amongst the best predictors of literacy and predict outcomes of Key Stage 1 assessment of the National Curriculum in England at age 7. However, it is unknown whether their ability to predict National Curricular outcomes extends to Key Stage 2 assessments given at age 11, or also whether the predictive power of such tests is independent of letter-knowledge. We explored the unique predictive validity of phonological awareness and early literacy measures, and other pupil background measures taken at age 5 in the prediction of English, Maths, and Science performance at age 11. Three hundred and eighty-two children from 21 primary schools in one Local Educational Authority were assessed at age 5 and followed to age 11 (Key Stage 2 assessment). Teaching assistants (TAs) administered phonological awareness tasks and early literacy measures. Baseline and Key Stage 2 performance measures were collected by teachers. Phonological awareness was a significant unique predictor of all nine outcome measures after baseline assessment and pupil background measures were first controlled in regression analyses, and continued to be a significant predictor of reading, maths, and science performance, and teacher assessments after early literacy skill and letter-knowledge was controlled. Gender predicted performance in writing, the English test, and English teacher assessment, with girls outperforming boys. Phonological awareness is a unique predictor of general curricular attainment independent of pupil background, early reading ability and letter-knowledge. Practically, screening of phonological awareness and basic reading skills by school staff in year 1 significantly enhances the capacity of schools to predict curricular outcomes in year 6.

  19. Processes Linking Weight Status and Self-Concept Among Girls From Ages 5 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between girls’ weight status and self-concept and examined peer teasing and parent criticism as potential mediators of this relationship. Data were collected for 182 girls and their parents when the girls were 5 and 7 years old. At each age, girls’ body mass index, self-concept, peer weight-related teasing (child report), and parents’ criticism of girls’ weight status (spouse report) were assessed. At ages 5 and 7, girls who were more overweight reported lower self-concept. Peer teasing and parent criticism mediated the relationship between weight status and self-concept at age 7, but not at age 5. In addition, the duration and timing of parent criticism across ages 5 and 7 mediated the association between girls’ weight status at age 5 and perceived peer acceptance at age 7. PMID:12220051

  20. Cardiac Mortality Among 200 000 Five-Year Survivors of Cancer Diagnosed at 15 to 39 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Katherine E.; Reulen, Raoul C.; Winter, David L.; Bright, Chloe J.; Fidler, Miranda M.; Frobisher, Clare; Guha, Joyeeta; Wong, Kwok F.; Kelly, Julie; Edgar, Angela B.; McCabe, Martin G.; Whelan, Jeremy; Cutter, David J.; Darby, Sarah C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Survivors of teenage and young adult cancer are acknowledged as understudied. Little is known about their long-term adverse health risks, particularly of cardiac disease that is increased in other cancer populations where cardiotoxic treatments have been used. Methods: The Teenage and Young Adult Cancer Survivor Study cohort comprises 200 945 5-year survivors of cancer diagnosed at 15 to 39 years of age in England and Wales from 1971 to 2006, and followed to 2014. Standardized mortality ratios, absolute excess risks, and cumulative risks were calculated. Results: Two thousand sixteen survivors died of cardiac disease. For all cancers combined, the standardized mortality ratios for all cardiac diseases combined was greatest for individuals diagnosed at 15 to 19 years of age (4.2; 95% confidence interval, 3.4–5.2) decreasing to 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.1–1.3) for individuals aged 35 to 39 years (2P for trend <0.0001). Similar patterns were observed for both standardized mortality ratios and absolute excess risks for ischemic heart disease, valvular heart disease, and cardiomyopathy. Survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma, acute myeloid leukaemia, genitourinary cancers other than bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, lung cancer, leukaemia other than acute myeloid, central nervous system tumour, cervical cancer, and breast cancer experienced 3.8, 2.7, 2.0, 1.7, 1.7, 1.6, 1.4, 1.3 and 1.2 times the number of cardiac deaths expected from the general population, respectively. Among survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma aged over 60 years, almost 30% of the total excess number of deaths observed were due to heart disease. Conclusions: This study of over 200 000 cancer survivors shows that age at cancer diagnosis was critical in determining subsequent cardiac mortality risk. For the first time, risk estimates of cardiac death after each cancer diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39 years have been derived from a large population-based cohort with prolonged

  1. Developmental Continuity of Oppositional Defiant Disorder Subdimensions at Ages 8, 10, and 13 Years and Their Distinct Psychiatric Outcomes at Age 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Yvonne M.; Stringaris, Argyris; Maughan, Barbara; Barker, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the developmental continuity, interrelationships, and predictive associations of the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) subdimensions of irritable, headstrong, and hurtful. Method Data were collected from 6,328 mother–child pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (United Kingdom). Results Developmental continuity for each subdimension was strong and interrelationships indicated that headstrong was associated mainly with irritable, whereas irritable did not cross associate with other ODD subdimensions; and hurtful was associated with lower levels of headstrong. With regard to associations at age 16 years, irritable at age 13 years was associated with depression, whereas headstrong at 13 was associated with delinquency and callous attitude; at age 13, hurtful failed to associate with any of the 3 age 16 outcomes. Conclusions The results suggest that the ODD headstrong and irritable subdimensions are developmentally distinct, with small cross-over (i.e., headstrong to irritable), and are associated with unique outcomes. Hurtful does not appear to be associated with future maladjustment in children. PMID:23972698

  2. Vital signs: births to teens aged 15-17 years--United States, 1991-2012.

    PubMed

    Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Romero, Lisa; Spitz, Alison; Gavin, Lorrie; Barfield, Wanda

    2014-04-11

    Teens who give birth at age 15-17 years are at increased risk for adverse medical and social outcomes of teen pregnancy. To examine trends in the rate and proportion of births to teens aged 15-19 years that were to teens aged 15-17 years, CDC analyzed 1991-2012 National Vital Statistics System data. National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) data from 2006-2010 were used to examine sexual experience, contraceptive use, and receipt of prevention opportunities among female teens aged 15-17 years. During 1991-2012, the rate of births per 1,000 teens declined from 17.9 to 5.4 for teens aged 15 years, 36.9 to 12.9 for those aged 16 years, and 60.6 to 23.7 for those aged 17 years. In 2012, the birth rate per 1,000 teens aged 15-17 years was higher for Hispanics (25.5), non-Hispanic blacks (21.9), and American Indians/Alaska Natives (17.0) compared with non-Hispanic whites (8.4) and Asians/Pacific Islanders (4.1). The rate also varied by state, ranging from 6.2 per 1,000 teens aged 15-17 years in New Hampshire to 29.0 in the District of Columbia. In 2012, there were 86,423 births to teens aged 15-17 years, accounting for 28% of all births to teens aged 15-19 years. This percentage declined from 36% in 1991 to 28% in 2012 (p<0.001). NSFG data for 2006-2010 indicate that although 91% of female teens aged 15-17 years received formal sex education on birth control or how to say no to sex, 24% had not spoken with parents about either topic; among sexually experienced female teens, 83% reported no formal sex education before first sex. Among currently sexually active female teens (those who had sex within 3 months of the survey) aged 15-17 years, 58% used clinical birth control services in the past 12 months, and 92% used contraception at last sex; however, only 1% used the most effective reversible contraceptive methods. Births to teens aged 15-17 years have declined but still account for approximately one quarter of births to teens aged 15-19 years. These data highlight

  3. Effects of aging in Masters swimmers: 40-year review and suggestions for optimal health benefits.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Robert T; Rahe, Richard H

    2010-04-07

    The Masters Swimming Program is over 40 years old and has achieved international status, with thousands of participants competing in five-year age categories between 18 and 99. Early studies of Masters swimmers by age groups found an increase in times for most events of about 1% per year, and later studies showed a significant correlation with the age-associated decline in maximal oxygen uptake. As larger sample sizes have become available, the age-related decline in performance among national champion Masters swimmers, both men and women, and for both short and longer swims, has been shown to be linear at about 0.6% per year up to age 70. Beyond age 70, the age-related decline accelerates exponentially for both men and women, with considerably more variability than in younger age groups. Several factors may be related to the accelerated performance decline beyond the of age 70, including accelerated physiological aging, chronic physical disabilities, acute illnesses requiring relatively lengthy recovery, effects of multiple medications, and social issues such as transportation problems, all of which can lead to increasing difficulty in maintaining a regular workout schedule. Masters Swimming is a "user-friendly" aerobic sport, imposing little excess strain, and thus is particularly suitable for the elderly. Masters coaches are gaining increasing experience with the over-70 age groups, tailoring workouts to accommodate their need for longer warm-up periods, longer rest periods between swimming sets, less overall distance, less emphasis on "breath control", and more time between workouts. With these accommodations, the motivation of elderly Masters swimmers to compete remains strong, and their ranks should continue to increase.

  4. Chiropractic treatment of patients younger than 18 years of age: Frequency, patterns and chiropractors’ beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Durant, Claire L; Verhoef, Marja J; Conway, Phil J; Sauve, Reg S

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore how and when chiropractors are involved in the care of patients younger than 18 years of age, and to examine chiropractors’ beliefs about treating paediatric patients. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 140 chiropractors practising in Alberta. Data were collected by means of a mailed questionnaire, which elicited practice information and chiropractors’ beliefs, and included closed-and open-ended questions related to six vignettes of paediatric health problems. RESULTS: Fifty-seven per cent of chiropractors responded to the questionnaire. All chiropractors indicated that they treat patients younger than 18 years of age. Nine per cent of respondents do not treat patients younger than age two years, and 4% do not treat patients from ages six to 11 years. On average, 13% of chiropractors’ total patient load over the month preceding the completion of the questionnaires consisted of patients younger than the age of 18 years. With increasing age, patients are more likely to present with musculoskeletal problems (23% of patients younger than age two years, 84% of those aged 14 to 17 years). Chiropractors reported that they provided musculoskeletal treatment regardless of the cause of the problem. A high percentage of chiropractors refer to physicians and reported that they would like to provide concomitant care with physicians. CONCLUSION: The present study has shown that chiropractors do treat children and that their opinions about this practice vary by specific condition. In addition, substantial percentages of chiropractors indicated that they would like to work with physicians in treating patients with nonmusculoskeletal conditions. PMID:20107550

  5. Outcome of assisted reproductive technology in women aged 40 years and older.

    PubMed

    Aflatoonian, Abbas; Eftekhar, Maryam; Mohammadian, Farnaz; Yousefnejad, Fariba

    2011-01-01

    Human fertility has been declined all over the world. Advanced women's age is one of the most important factors in determining the success of reproduction and ageing has negative impact on ART outcome and advanced female age decreases the chance of live birth rates achieved using ART, especially after 40 years of age. To evaluate ART outcomes regarding to pregnancy, abortion, cycle cancellation and live birth rates in women 40 years and older. A retrospective study was performed on three hundred-thirteen women undergoing ART cycles in the Madar Hospital in Yazd. Women with age ≥ 40 years who indicated for ART enrolled the study regardless of the infertility type or etiology. In this study, we used data from IVF or ICSI cycles using fresh embryo transfer. Follow up was performed in regard to pregnancy, abortion, cycle cancellation and live birth rates. The mean age of women was 41.87±1.97 years. Chemical pregnancy rate was 8.6% (27/313) per cycle. Clinical pregnancy rate was 3.8% (12/313) per cycle. Spontaneous abortion was observed in 63% (17/27) of patients with positive pregnancy test. The overall cancellation rate was 23.3% per oocytes retrieval. The overall live birth rate per cycle for all women who initiated an ART cycle at age ≥40 years was 3.2% (10/313) that eight of those women were under 42 years old. Based on our results, we suggest that women with age 42 years and above should be advised to use other options, including oocyte donation or adoption.

  6. Colorectal cancer in patients under 50 years of age: A retrospective analysis of two institutions' experience

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Elizabeth A; Feingold, Daniel L; Forde, Kenneth A; Arnell, Tracey; Jang, Joon Ho; Whelan, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients under 50 years of age across two institutions. METHODS: Records of patients under age 50 years of age who had CRC surgery over a 16 year period were assessed at two institutions. The following documents where reviewed: admission notes, operative notes, and discharge summaries. The main study variables included: age, presenting symptoms, family history, tumor location, operation, stage/differentiation of disease, and post operative complications. Stage of disease was classified according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system: tumor depth; node status; and metastases. RESULTS: CRC was found in 180 patients under age 50 years (87 females, 93 males; mean age 41.4 ± 6.2 years). Young patients accounted for 11.2% of cases during a 6 year period for which the full data set was available. Eight percent had a 1st degree and 12% a 2nd degree family CRC history. Almost all patients (94%) were symptomatic at diagnosis; common symptoms included: bleeding (59%), obstruction (9%), and abdominal/rectal pain (35%). Evaluation was often delayed and bleeding frequently attributed to hemorrhoids. Advanced stage CRC (Stage 3 or 4) was noted in 53% of patients. Most tumors were distal to the splenic flexure (77%) and 39% involved the rectum. Most patients (95%) had segmental resections; 6 patients had subtotal/total colectomy. Poorly differentiated tumors were noted in 12% and mucinous lesions in 19% of patients of which most had Stage 3 or 4 disease. Twenty-two patients (13%) developed recurrence and/or progression of disease to date. Three patients (ages 42, 42 and 49 years) went on to develop metachronous primary colon cancers within 3 to 4 years of their initial resection. CONCLUSION: CRC was common in young patients with no family history. Young patients with symptoms merit a timely evaluation to avoid presentation with late stage CRC. PMID:24039357

  7. Colorectal cancer in patients under 50 years of age: a retrospective analysis of two institutions' experience.

    PubMed

    Myers, Elizabeth A; Feingold, Daniel L; Forde, Kenneth A; Arnell, Tracey; Jang, Joon Ho; Whelan, Richard L

    2013-09-14

    To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients under 50 years of age across two institutions. Records of patients under age 50 years of age who had CRC surgery over a 16 year period were assessed at two institutions. The following documents where reviewed: admission notes, operative notes, and discharge summaries. The main study variables included: age, presenting symptoms, family history, tumor location, operation, stage/differentiation of disease, and post operative complications. Stage of disease was classified according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system: tumor depth; node status; and metastases. CRC was found in 180 patients under age 50 years (87 females, 93 males; mean age 41.4 ± 6.2 years). Young patients accounted for 11.2% of cases during a 6 year period for which the full data set was available. Eight percent had a 1(st) degree and 12% a 2(nd) degree family CRC history. Almost all patients (94%) were symptomatic at diagnosis; common symptoms included: bleeding (59%), obstruction (9%), and abdominal/rectal pain (35%). Evaluation was often delayed and bleeding frequently attributed to hemorrhoids. Advanced stage CRC (Stage 3 or 4) was noted in 53% of patients. Most tumors were distal to the splenic flexure (77%) and 39% involved the rectum. Most patients (95%) had segmental resections; 6 patients had subtotal/total colectomy. Poorly differentiated tumors were noted in 12% and mucinous lesions in 19% of patients of which most had Stage 3 or 4 disease. Twenty-two patients (13%) developed recurrence and/or progression of disease to date. Three patients (ages 42, 42 and 49 years) went on to develop metachronous primary colon cancers within 3 to 4 years of their initial resection. CRC was common in young patients with no family history. Young patients with symptoms merit a timely evaluation to avoid presentation with late stage CRC.

  8. Predictors of Independent Aging and Survival: A 16-Year Follow-Up Report in Octogenarian Men.

    PubMed

    Franzon, Kristin; Byberg, Liisa; Sjögren, Per; Zethelius, Björn; Cederholm, Tommy; Kilander, Lena

    2017-09-01

    To examine the longitudinal associations between aging with preserved functionality, i.e. independent aging and survival, and lifestyle variables, dietary pattern and cardiovascular risk factors. Cohort study. Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men, Sweden. Swedish men (n = 1,104) at a mean age of 71 (range 69.4-74.1) were investigated, 369 of whom were evaluated for independent aging 16 years later, at a mean age of 87 (range 84.8-88.9). A questionnaire was used to obtain information on lifestyle, including education, living conditions, and physical activity. Adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet was assessed according to a modified Mediterranean Diet Score derived from 7-day food records. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured. Independent aging at a mean age of 87 was defined as lack of diagnosed dementia, a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 25 or greater, not institutionalized, independence in personal activities of daily living, and ability to walk outdoors alone. Complete survival data at age 85 were obtained from the Swedish Cause of Death Register. Fifty-seven percent of the men survived to age 85, and 75% of the participants at a mean age of 87 displayed independent aging. Independent aging was associated with never smoking (vs current) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-4.60) and high (vs low) adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.14-6.80). Normal weight or overweight and waist circumference of 102 cm or less were also associated with independent aging. Similar associations were observed with survival. Lifestyle factors such as never smoking, maintaining a healthy diet, and not being obese at age 71 were associated with survival and independent aging at age 85 and older in men. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate during...

  10. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate during...

  11. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate during...

  12. Some variables affecting hardwood control with stem injections of 2,4,5-T.

    Treesearch

    John L. Arend

    1967-01-01

    The water-soluble amine salt was at least four times more effective than the oil-soluble ester. Concentration of the 2,4,5-T, spacing of the injections, and season of the year were also important; height of the spaced injections was not. The effects of these variables and of crown size and character of the branching on hardwood control with 2,4,5-T injections are...

  13. Spatial but not verbal cognitive deficits at age 3 years in persistently antisocial individuals.

    PubMed

    Raine, Adrian; Yaralian, Pauline S; Reynolds, Chandra; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have repeatedly shown verbal intelligence deficits in adolescent antisocial individuals, but it is not known whether these deficits are in place prior to kindergarten or, alternatively, whether they are acquired throughout childhood. This study assesses whether cognitive deficits occur as early as age 3 years and whether they are specific to persistently antisocial individuals. Verbal and spatial abilities were assessed at ages 3 and 11 years in 330 male and female children, while antisocial behavior was assessed at ages 8 and 17 years. Persistently antisocial individuals (N = 47) had spatial deficits in the absence of verbal deficits at age 3 years compared to comparisons (N = 133), and also spatial and verbal deficits at age 11 years. Age 3 spatial deficits were independent of social adversity, early hyperactivity, poor test motivation, poor test comprehension, and social discomfort during testing, and they were found in females as well as males. Findings suggest that early spatial deficits contribute to persistent antisocial behavior whereas verbal deficits are developmentally acquired. An early-starter model is proposed whereby early spatial impairments interfere with early bonding and attachment, reflect disrupted right hemisphere affect regulation and expression, and predispose to later persistent antisocial behavior.

  14. Participation in Aesthetic Sports and Girls’ Weight Concerns at Ages 5 and 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Earnest, Mandy B.; Birch, Leann L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The relationship between participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports and weight concerns was assessed among young girls. Method Participants were part of a larger longitudinal study and included 197 and 192 girls and their mothers when girls were 5 and 7 years, respectively. At each age, girls’ weight concerns and sport participation were assessed and girls were classified as participating in aesthetic sports (dance, gymnastics, cheerleading, baton twirling, swimming, aerobics, figure skating), non-aesthetic sports (volleyball, soccer, basketball, softball, hockey, tennis, martial arts, track) or no sports. Results Girls in the aesthetic sport group reported higher weight concerns than girls in the nonaesthetic and no sport groups at ages 5 and 7 years. In addition, girls participating in aesthetic sports at ages 5 and 7 years reported the highest weight concerns at age 7. Discussion Participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports may foster a heightened focus on weight and body shape among girls. PMID:11920993

  15. Participation in aesthetic sports and girls' weight concerns at ages 5 and 7 years.

    PubMed

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Earnest, Mandy B; Birch, Leann L

    2002-04-01

    The relationship between participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports and weight concerns was assessed among young girls. Participants were part of a larger longitudinal study and included 197 and 192 girls and their mothers when girls were 5 and 7 years, respectively. At each age, girls' weight concerns and sport participation were assessed and girls were classified as participating in aesthetic sports (dance, gymnastics, cheerleading, baton twirling, swimming, aerobics, figure skating), non-aesthetic sports (volleyball, soccer, basketball, softball, hockey, tennis, martial arts, track) or no sports. Girls in the aesthetic sport group reported higher weight concerns than girls in the nonaesthetic and no sport groups at ages 5 and 7 years. In addition, girls participating in aesthetic sports at ages 5 and 7 years reported the highest weight concerns at age 7. Participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports may foster a heightened focus on weight and body shape among girls. Copyright 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Changes of body mass components and body constitution in boys 7-17 years of age].

    PubMed

    Kornienko, I A; Tambovtseva, R V; Panasiuk, T V

    2003-01-01

    The longitudinal studies of boys aged 7-17 years were performed to trace the dynamics of growth processes, indices of endomorphism, mesomorphism and ectomorphism according to type of body build. The indices of somatotype stability, proposed by the authors, depending on the age and body build, are discussed. It is shown that the least variable are the boys of asthenoid and digestive types of body build, while those belonging to muscular and thoraco-muscular types undergo changes most frequently. At the age of 9-10 years the somatotype variability is the greatest. By the age of 15-17 years the proportion of the boys belonging to asthenoid-thoracal type is increased, that is characterized by a deceleration of skeletal muscles development and an increase in the ectomorphism index.

  17. Identifying and Characterizing Risky Play in the Age One-to-Three Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleppe, Rasmus; Melhuish, Edward; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen

    2017-01-01

    While research has investigated risk-taking in play for children from the age of four years upwards, less is known of risky play with children under four years. A small-scale observational study with children from five childcare settings with differing characteristics was undertaken to explore the occurrence and characteristics of risky play for…

  18. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  19. Pap Smear Test Prevalence within Three Years (Age 18+) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    For Pap smear test, a woman 18 years of age or older must have reported having at least one Pap smear test in her life. Furthermore, she should have had one within the last three years by the time of interview.

  20. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…

  1. Otitis Media in Early Childhood and Cognitive, Academic, and Behavior Outcomes at 12 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the association between otitis media with effusion (OME) during the first 3 years of life and cognitive, academic performance, and behavior outcomes at 12 years of age. Results indicated that OME during early childhood was not related to intellectual performance, academic achievement, behavior, and attention. Suggests that generalizations…

  2. Differences in American and Korean Evaluations of One-Year Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Tae-Seop; Giles, Howard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a one-year difference in age can influence college students' reported communicative behaviours in both the USA and South Korea. Korean students differentiated themselves far more than their American counterparts from other students one-year older or younger than themselves. The former reported that students…

  3. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  4. Otitis Media in Early Childhood and Cognitive, Academic, and Behavior Outcomes at 12 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the association between otitis media with effusion (OME) during the first 3 years of life and cognitive, academic performance, and behavior outcomes at 12 years of age. Results indicated that OME during early childhood was not related to intellectual performance, academic achievement, behavior, and attention. Suggests that generalizations…

  5. Differences in American and Korean Evaluations of One-Year Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Tae-Seop; Giles, Howard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a one-year difference in age can influence college students' reported communicative behaviours in both the USA and South Korea. Korean students differentiated themselves far more than their American counterparts from other students one-year older or younger than themselves. The former reported that students…

  6. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…

  7. Incidence trends of type 1 diabetes before and after the reunification in children up to 14 years of age in Saxony, Eastern Germany

    PubMed Central

    Manuwald, Ulf; Heinke, Peter; Salzsieder, Eckhard; Hegewald, Janice; Schoffer, Olaf; Kugler, Joachim; Kapellen, Thomas M.; Kiess, Wieland; Rothe, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence rates of type 1 diabetes in Saxony before and after the German reunification. Methods The study examined two registries: one until 1990 and one since 1999. Only patients under 15 years of age with type 1 diabetes and living in Saxony were included in the study. Standardized incidence rates were described based on direct age standardization procedures using the Standard European Population for each calendar year between the observation periods 1982–1989 and 1999–2014. Age was grouped into three classes: 0–4, 5–9 and 10–14 years of age. Incidence data were presented as age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 person-years (PY) with 95% confidence intervals [CI]. Joinpoint regression was used for trend analyses and Poisson regression was used to adjust for the effects of age and sex on the incidence. Results A total number of 2,092 incident cases of type 1 diabetes (1,109 males; 983 females) were included. The age-standardized incidence rates of type 1 diabetes per 100,000 PY was 7.9 [95%CI 6.8; 8.9] in the period from 1982–1989 and 20.1 [95%CI 14.0; 26.1] in the period from 1999–2014. The yearly increase in incidence over the entire time period (1982–2014) was 4.3% according to the average annual percent change (AAPC) method, and estimated to be 4.4% [95% CI 4.0; 4.8%] using a Poisson regression model adjusting for sex and age group. Conclusion In this study, a significantly increasing incidence of type 1 diabetes was observed after reunification. In future studies it would be interesting to follow up on the question of which environmental and lifestyle factors could be causing the increasing type 1 diabetes incidence. PMID:28880877

  8. 4,5-Diphenyl-1-methylimidazole: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastas, Paul T.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures used are provided for the synthesis of 4,5-diphenyl-methylimidazole. This experiment on the chemistry of heterocycles is ideally suited for beginning undergraduate organic chemistry students. (JN)

  9. 43 CFR 3802.4-5 - Maintenance and public safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.4-5 Maintenance and public safety. During all... otherwise identified to protect the public in accordance with applicable Federal and State laws...

  10. 43 CFR 1610.4-5 - Formulation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Resource Management Planning § 1610.4-5 Formulation of alternatives. At the direction of the Field Manager,...

  11. GBU4-5 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    GBU-4 is a recently identified protein which was identified using SEREX technologies. GBU4-5 has a DEAD-box domain (like the CAGE protein), but until 2003 had not been described as eliciting an autoantibody response.

  12. Osteosarcoma in Children 5 Years of Age or Younger at Initial Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Worch, Jennifer; Matthay, Katherine K.; Neuhaus, John; Goldsby, Robert; DuBois, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Since osteosarcoma is extremely rare in children ≤ 5 years of age, we sought to investigate if tumor characteristics, treatment strategies, and outcomes differ compared to older patients. Procedure Patients < 20 years of age with high-grade osteosarcoma reported to national SEER database from 1973–2006 were separated into two groups based on age at diagnosis: ≤ 5 years (n=49) and 6–19 years (n = 1687). Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were compared using Fisher exact tests. Overall survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods and compared using log-rank tests and Cox models. Results Patients ≤ 5 years had higher proportions of osteosarcoma arising from the upper limb compared to older patients (24.5% vs. 11.2%; p = 0.006). These very young patients had a significantly higher proportion of telangiectatic histology (10.2% vs. 2.9%; p = 0.017). Sex, metastatic status, race, or ethnicity did not differ by age. A higher proportion of very young patients was treated with amputation (55.2% vs. 27.3%; p = 0.002). Five-year overall survival was inferior for patients with localized osteosarcoma 5 years of age or younger compared to older children (51.9% vs. 67.3%; p = 0.03). After controlling for metastatic status, year of diagnosis, and tumor site, the hazard ratio for death in very young patients was 1.6 (95% confidence interval 1.02 – 2.36; p = 0.04) compared to older patients. Conclusions Tumor characteristics, treatment, and outcomes differ among children ≤ 5 years of age compared to older pediatric patients. These differences may reflect differences in tumor biology. PMID:20582978

  13. Rectal cancer in patients under the age of 50 years: the delayed diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rachel B; Rangel, Lynsey E; Osler, Turner M; Hyman, Neil H

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of rectal cancer in younger patients continues to increase. Because most of these patients do not meet criteria for routine colorectal cancer screening, diagnosis may be delayed, potentially resulting in adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients under the age of 50 years with rectal cancer have a delay in diagnosis and treatment leading to a worse overall prognosis. A case control study of patients diagnosed with rectal adenocarcinoma in an academic medical center from 1997 to 2007 under 50 years of age were matched 1:1 to randomly selected patients over the age of 50 years by sex and date of diagnosis. Time to diagnosis, time to treatment, staging of the American Joint Committee on Cancer, and 5-year overall survival were compared. The overall time to treatment from symptom onset was 217 days for patients under the age of 50 years versus 29.5 days if over 50 years of age (P < .0001). The primary delay occurred between the onset of symptoms and presentation to the initial physician. There was no difference in stage at the time of diagnosis or 5-year survival (64% vs 71%, P = .39 and P = .54, respectively). Patients with rectal cancer under the age of 50 years have symptoms for a considerable period of time before seeking medical care and are referred in less timely manner to specialists. However, the delay in diagnosis did not adversely impact stage on presentation or 5-year survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Pre-Retirement Years: Five Years in the Work Lives of Middle-Aged Men. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnes, Herbert S.; And Others

    This volume examines a number of facets of the labor market experience and behavior of middle-aged men. It is based on a unique set of longitudinal data collected by personal interviews among the same sample of men in 1966, 1967, 1969, and 1971. The data contain a complete record of the labor market activity of the men over a five-year period,…

  15. Elective shoulder arthroplasty in patients older than ninety years of age.

    PubMed

    Churchill, R Sean

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the outcome of elective shoulder arthroplasty for glenohumeral osteoarthritis or rotator cuff arthropathy in patients aged older than 90 years. The study included 7 shoulders in 6 patients with an average age of 93 years 5 months, (range, 91 years 0 months to 97 years 4 months). Average follow-up was 2.2 years, (range, 1-4 years). Preoperative range of motion, Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores, and Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) scores were obtained and compared with postoperative values at 3 and 6 months and yearly thereafter. Average forward elevation improved from 87 degrees to 137 degrees (P < .00001), and external rotation to the side improved from 0 degrees to 50 degrees (P < .0001). The SST scores improved from a preoperative average of 2.0 to 6.1 at 3 months (P < .0001), 6.9 at 6 months (P < .0001), 8.0 at 1 year (P < .00001), and 7.4 at 2 years (P < .0001). Significant improvements occurred in 6 of 8 SF-36 domains: Mental Health (P < .05), Vitality (P < .01), Role limitations due to emotional problems (P < .05), Social Function (P < .001), Role limitations due to physical health (P < .001), and Comfort (P < .00001). No patient had worse pain or function postoperatively. These data suggest that elective shoulder arthroplasty can be performed in patients 90 years of age and older, providing excellent pain relief, improved functional outcome, and enhanced general health status.

  16. Prevalence of cataract in adult Down's syndrome patients aged 28 to 83 years

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background Age-related cataract is the major cause of blindness in humans throughout the world. The majority of previous studies of cataract in Down's syndrome (which usually results from trisomy 21) have reported that the prevalence of this ocular abnormality is higher for a given age range than in the general population. The objective of the present study was to study the prevalence of cataract in a well-defined population of adults with Down's syndrome. Methods An in-patient population of 68 adults (35 males and 33 females) with Down's syndrome, aged between 28.9 and 83.3 years, underwent ophthalmological examination for the presence of cataracts. Results Overall, the prevalence of cataract was 16.2%, with no significant difference in the prevalence between males (17.1%) and females (15.2%). In those aged between 45 and 64 years, the prevalence was 16.7%, rising in those aged between 65 and 75 years to 28.6%. Conclusion Compared with the general population, the prevalence of cataract in Down's syndrome was raised in those aged 45 to 64, but not in those aged 65 to 75 years; the latter might be a function of the relatively small number of patients in this age group. The increased prevalence of cataract found in those in the 45- to 64-year-old age group may be the result of increased levels of the copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase enzyme (CuZnSOD), in turn resulting from the location of the associated five exons of SOD1 on chromosome 21. These elevated levels of superoxide dismutase may give rise to increased levels of reactive species, including hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, which may increase the risk of cataractogenesis. It is suggested that nutritional supplementation with antioxidants may therefore help reduce the prevalence of cataract in Down's syndrome. PMID:18034878

  17. Waterborne outbreak of Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:-.

    PubMed

    Kozlica, Jennifer; Claudet, Amanda L; Solomon, Deborah; Dunn, John R; Carpenter, L Rand

    2010-11-01

    Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- is an emerging serotype, and little information regarding attribution or risk factors for infection has been documented. We investigated an outbreak of Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- infections in a rural community and identified the community's private water system as the source of infection. Five people were ill with gastroenteritis. Water testing identified Salmonella. Contamination of the unprotected spring from an environmental source was suspected.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination against herpes zoster in adults aged over 60 years in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Bilcke, Joke; Marais, Christiaan; Ogunjimi, Benson; Willem, Lander; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2012-01-11

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating all or subgroups of adults aged 60 to 85 years against herpes zoster. A deterministic compartmental static model was developed (in freeware R), in which cohorts can acquire herpes zoster according to their age in years. Surveys and database analyses were conducted to obtain as much as possible Belgian age-specific estimates for input parameters. Direct costs and Quality-Adjusted Life-Year (QALY) losses were estimated as a function of standardised Severity Of Illness (SOI) scores (i.e. as a function of the duration and severity of herpes zoster disease). Uncertainty about the average SOI score for a person with herpes zoster, the duration of protection from the vaccine, and the population that can benefit from the vaccine, exerts a major impact on the results: under assumptions least in favour of vaccination, vaccination is not cost-effective (i.e. incremental cost per QALY gained >€48,000 for all ages considered) at the expected vaccine price of €90 per dose. At the same price, but under assumptions most in favour of vaccination, vaccination is found to be cost-effective (i.e. incremental cost per QALY gained <€5500 for all ages considered). Vaccination of age cohort 60 seems more cost-effective than vaccination of any older age cohort in Belgium. If the vaccine price per dose drops to €45, HZ vaccination of adults aged 60-64 years is likely to be cost-effective in Belgium, even under assumptions least in favour of vaccination. Unlike previous studies, our analysis acknowledged major methodological and model uncertainties simultaneously and presented outcomes for 26 different target ages at which vaccination can be considered (ages 60-85). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Increasing age and tear size reduce rotator cuff repair healing rate at 1 year.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mustafa S; Cooper, Cushla; Cook, Jonathan; Cooper, David; Dakin, Stephanie G; Snelling, Sarah; Carr, Andrew J

    2017-09-07

    Background and purpose - There is a need to understand the reasons why a high proportion of rotator cuff repairs fail to heal. Using data from a large randomized clinical trial, we evaluated age and tear size as risk factors for failure of rotator cuff repair. Patients and methods - Between 2007 and 2014, 65 surgeons from 47 hospitals in the National Health Service (NHS) recruited 447 patients with atraumatic rotator cuff tendon tears to the United Kingdom Rotator Cuff Trial (UKUFF) and 256 underwent rotator cuff repair. Cuff integrity was assessed by imaging in 217 patients, at 12 months post-operation. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of age and intra-operative tear size on healing. Hand dominance, sex, and previous steroid injections were controlled for. Results - The overall healing rate was 122/217 (56%) at 12 months. Healing rate decreased with increasing tear size (small tears 66%, medium tears 68%, large tears 47%, and massive tears 27% healed). The mean age of patients with a healed repair was 61 years compared with 64 years for those with a non-healed repair. Mean age increased with larger tear sizes (small tears 59 years, medium tears 62 years, large tears 64 years, and massive tears 66 years). Increasing age was an independent factor that negatively influenced healing, even after controlling for tear size. Only massive tears were an independent predictor of non-healing, after controlling for age. Interpretation - Although increasing age and larger tear size are both risks for failure of rotator cuff repair healing, age is the dominant risk factor.

  20. Trends in induced abortion among Nordic women aged 40-44 years

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Women aged 40-44 years in 2005 ought to have been subjected to much more influence on attitudes and knowledge on contraceptive methods during their fertile period than women who were in the same age span in 1975 when the abortion laws were introduced. Material From official statistics, the rates of induced abortion and birth rates in women aged 40-44 years were collected for Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland for each five-year during the period 1975-2005. Results With the exception of Sweden all other studied Scandinavian countries have lowered their abortion rates since 1975 (p < 0.001) and reduced the proportion of induced abortions in relation to birth rate (p < 0.001). In 2005 these countries also had lower rates of induced abortion than Sweden in the age group 40-44 years (p < 0.001). Conclusion There is a significant change in rates of induced abortion in women aged 40-44 years in Finland, Norway, Denmark, and at status quo in Sweden. 40-44 years in Finland, Norway, Denmark, and at status quo in Sweden. This indicates that family planning programs works well in the Nordic countries. The differences found may be assumed to possible diverging focus on attitudes or ethical considerations. PMID:21846348

  1. Factors influencing survival in hemodialysis patients aged older than 75 years: 2.5-year outcome study.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, P; Combe, C; Laville, M; Fouque, D; Azar, R; Cano, N; Canaud, B; Roth, H; Leverve, X; Aparicio, M

    2001-05-01

    The incidence of malnutrition is widely held to be greater in the elderly, but this specific factor has not been extensively studied in elderly dialysis patients. In a 30-month follow-up prospective study, we evaluated the role of nutrition on the outcome of 290 stable hemodialysis (HD) outpatients aged older than 75 years followed up in 20 French HD centers (167 men, 123 women; age, 79.8 +/- 4.2 years; previous time on dialysis, 41 +/- 38 months). On the same day in January 1996, predialysis and postdialysis blood samples were collected according to recommended procedures for dialysis quantification. Normalized protein catabolic rate, dialysis adequacy parameters, and estimation of lean body mass (LBM; expressed as observed/expected LBM values [obs/exp LBM]) were computed from predialysis and postdialysis urea and creatinine levels. Overall survival rates were 80% and 65% after 1 and 2 years of follow-up, respectively, and were significantly less in patients with the lower quartile of obs/exp LBM. In univariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model, survival was significantly influenced by age, albumin level, prealbumin level, body mass index, and diabetes, but not by sex, Kt/V, duration of dialysis, cholesterol level, hemoglobin level, or obs/exp LBM. In multivariate analysis, no variable remained significant. Cardiovascular mortality accounted for 52.1% of the patient deaths. We conclude that in elderly HD patients, malnutrition influences overall survival despite adequate dialysis treatment.

  2. Maternal identification of dental caries lesions in their children aged 1-3 years.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, I B; Sá-Pinto, A C; Silva Marques, L; Ramos-Jorge, J; Ramos-Jorge, M L

    2017-06-01

    To analyse the maternal identification of different stages of dental caries in children aged 1-3 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 274 children and their mothers. The mothers answered a questionnaire on the occurrence of dental caries in their children and completed questions addressing their demographic/socio-economic status. The oral examination of the children was performed using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Descriptive, Chi square test and Poisson regression statistical analyses were performed. The prevalence of initial and established/severe dental caries lesions by age were: 1 year (23.2 and 24.2%), 2 years (17.9 and 55.7%) and 3 years (23.3 and 60.3%) respectively. Significant associations between clinical examinations and the mothers' reports were observed among children agedyear old who had initial stage caries lesions (p = 0.006) and in children aged 1, 2 and 3 years old who had established/severe stage caries lesions (p < 0.001). After adjustment for confounding variables it was found that mothers were more able to identify dental caries both at initial (PR 4.01, 95% CI 1.35-11.94) and established/severe stages (PR 9.14, 95% CI 2.49-33.56) in children agedyear old. In children aged 2 and 3 years, this identification was more evident in the established/severe stage (2 years, PR 2.98, 95% CI 1.42-6.26; 3 years, PR 2.75, 95% CI 1.09-6.93). Mothers of children agedyear old identified dental caries at initial and established/severe stages. Mothers of children aged 2 and 3 years identified dental caries only at established/severe stages.

  3. Prevalence and Predictors of Malnutrition among Guatemalan Children at 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Gippetti, James; Wager, Stefan; Chavez, Alejandro; Wise, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the prevalence and predictors of malnutrition among 2-year old children in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Methods Prospective cohort of 852 Guatemalan children in San Lucas Toliman, Guatemala followed from birth to age 2 from May 2008 to December 2013. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, and health data of children was collected at 2 month intervals. Results Among the 402 males and 450 females in the cohort, mean weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) declined from -0.67 ± 1.01 at 1 year to -1.07 ± 0.87 at 2 years, while mean height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) declined from -1.88 ± 1.19 at 1 year to -2.37 ± 0.99 at 2 years. Using multiple linear regression modeling, number of children <5 years old, vomiting in the past week, fever in the past week, and WAZ at 1 year were significant predictors of WAZ at 2 years. Significant predictors of HAZ at 2 years included household size, number of children <5 years old, diarrhea in the past week, WAZ at 1 year, and HAZ at 1 year. Vomiting in the past week and WAZ at 1 year were significant predictors of weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) at 2 years. Conclusions Number of children <5 years old, symptoms such as vomiting or diarrhea in the previous week, and prior nutritional status were the most significant predictors of malnutrition in this cohort. Future research may focus on the application of models to develop predictive algorithms for mobile device technology, as well as the identification of other predictors of malnutrition that are not well characterized such as the interaction of environmental exposures with protein consumption and epigenetics. PMID:27806066

  4. Increasing negativity of age stereotypes across 200 years: evidence from a database of 400 million words.

    PubMed

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G; Trentalange, Mark; Monin, Joan K; Levy, Becca R

    2015-01-01

    Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people) are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA), a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms) for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1) appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2) referred to an old person, and (3) had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level.

  5. Increasing Negativity of Age Stereotypes across 200 Years: Evidence from a Database of 400 Million Words

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G.; Trentalange, Mark; Monin, Joan K.; Levy, Becca R.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people) are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA), a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms) for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1) appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2) referred to an old person, and (3) had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level. PMID:25675438

  6. Sudden cardiac death in children and adolescents between 1 and 19 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pilmer, Caileigh M; Kirsh, Joel A; Hildebrandt, Doris; Krahn, Andrew D; Gow, Robert M

    2014-02-01

    Understanding pediatric sudden cardiac death (SCD) may inform age-specific prevention strategies. To characterize potential underlying causes of SCD in children and adolescents We performed a retrospective population-based study in Ontario, Canada, of all SCD cases in a 5-year period (2005-2009) involving persons aged 1-19 years identified from the comprehensive database of the Office of the Chief Coroner. Of 1204 coroner's cases, 351 potential SCD cases were reviewed. Of 116 cases of adjudicated SCD, there was no identifiable cause of death in 60 (52%). The majority were males (66%), and median age was 12.7 years. The incidence of SCD was greatest between 1 and 2 years (3.14 per 100,000 person-years), decreased, and then increased to 1.01 per 100,000 person-years (15-19 years). Autopsy findings were normal in 29 of 35 (83%) of children younger than 5 years and were more likely to be abnormal in those 10 years and older (odds ratio 9.0; 95% confidence interval 3.3-24.9). In 9%, the pathology findings may be of uncertain significance. Most events occurred in the home (68%). Activity level at the time of the event was associated with both age group (χ(2) = 34.9; P < .001) and autopsy findings (χ(2) = 28.9; P < .001). Events during moderate or vigorous activity were more common in those older than 10 years 16 of 66 (24%), and the majority had abnormal autopsy findings 13 of 18 (72%). Death in the very young is often caused by presumed primary arrhythmia syndromes, and death during exertion is typically seen in those with structural heart disease. These differences should inform age-specific diagnostic and prevention strategies. © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society Published by Heart Rhythm Society All rights reserved.

  7. North Atlantic circulation and reservoir age changes over the past 41,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Joseph V.; Lisiecki, Lorraine E.

    2013-07-01

    on the timing of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) changes during the last deglaciation are fundamental to understanding the climate's rapid response to insolation forcing. However, uncertainty about high-latitude North Atlantic (HLNA) radiocarbon reservoir ages has previously precluded robust age model development for this critical region. HLNA reservoir ages also serve as a proxy for AMOC strength. We present regionally averaged HLNA reservoir ages for 0 to 41 thousand years before the present (kyr BP) based on over 500 radiocarbon dates from 33 North Atlantic cores. An early deglacial increase to >1000 14C yr reservoir ages between 18.5 and 16.5 kyr BP suggests reduced AMOC before peak Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) ice-rafted debris (IRD). A rapid decrease in reservoir ages coincident with the IRD maximum at 16 kyr BP indicates strong stratification of the upper water column caused by massive freshwater release.

  8. Comparative study of millennials' (age 20-34 years) grip and lateral pinch with the norms.

    PubMed

    Fain, Elizabeth; Weatherford, Cara

    Cross-sectional research design. Clinical practice continues to use normative data for grip and pinch measurements that were established in 1985. There is no updated norms despite different hand usage patterns in today's society. Measuring and comparing grip and pinch strengths with normative data is a valid method to determine hand function. This research was implemented to compare the grip and pinch measurements obtained from healthy millennials to the established norms and to describe hand usage patterns for millennials. Grip and lateral pinch measurements were obtained from a sample of 237 healthy millennials (ages 20-34 years). Strength scores were statistically lower that older normative data in all millennial grip strengths, with the exception of the women in the age group of 30-34 years. Specifically, this statistically significant trend was observed in all male grip strengths, as well as in women in the age group of 20-24 years (bilateral grip) and 25-29 years (right grip). However, the lateral pinch data reflected was similar to the older norms with variances of 0.5-1 kg. Current data reflect statistically significant differences from the norms for all male grip measurements, as well as for women in the age group of 20-24 years (bilateral grip) and 25-29 years (right grip). No statistical significance was observed in the independent-sample t tests for the lateral pinch in men of all age groups. Statistical significance was noted for lateral pinch for female age groups for the left hand (20-24 years) and for bilateral lateral pinches (30-34 years). IV. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Eribulin Monotherapy in Patients Aged 70 Years and Older With Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Javier; Vahdat, Linda T.; Cardoso, Fatima; Twelves, Chris; Wanders, Jantien; Dutcus, Corina E.; Yang, Jay; Seegobin, Seth; O’Shaughnessy, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Following the demonstrated efficacy and safety of eribulin mesylate in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer, an exploratory analysis was performed to investigate the effect of age in these patients. Methods. Data were pooled from two single-arm phase II studies and one open-label randomized phase III study in which patients received eribulin mesylate at 1.4 mg/m2 as 2- to 5-minute intravenous infusions on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle. The effect of age on median overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate (CBR), and incidence of adverse events (AEs) was calculated for four age groups (<50 years, 50–59 years, 60–69 years, ≥70 years). Results. Overall, 827 patients were included in the analysis (<50 years, n = 253; 50–59 years, n = 289; 60–69 years, n = 206; ≥70 years, n = 79). Age had no significant impact on OS (11.8 months, 12.3 months, 11.7 months, and 12.5 months, respectively; p = .82), PFS (3.5 months, 2.9 months, 3.8 months, and 4.0 months, respectively; p = .42), ORR (12.7%, 12.5%, 6.3%, and 10.1%, respectively), or CBR (20.2%, 20.8%, 20.4%, and 21.5%, respectively). Although some AEs had higher incidence in either the youngest or the oldest subgroup, there was no overall effect of age on the incidence of AEs (including neuropathy, neutropenia, and leukopenia). Conclusion. Eribulin monotherapy in these selected older patients with good baseline performance status led to OS, PFS, ORR, CBR, and tolerability similar to those of younger patients with metastatic breast cancer. The benefits and risks of eribulin appear to be similar across age groups. PMID:24682463

  10. RCP4.5: A Pathway for Stabilization of Radiative Forcing by 2100

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page; Volke, April C.; Patel, Pralit L.; Delgado Arias, Sabrina; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Wise, Marshall A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.

    2011-07-29

    Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 is a scenario that stabilizes radiative forcing at 4.5 W m{sup -2} in the year 2100 without ever exceeding that value. Simulated with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), RCP4.5 includes long-term, global emissions of greenhouse gases, short-lived species, and land-use-land-cover in a global economic framework. RCP4.5 was updated from earlier GCAM scenarios to incorporate historical emissions and land cover information common to the RCP process and follows a cost-minimizing pathway to reach the target radiative forcing. The imperative to limit emissions in order to reach this target drives changes in the energy system, including shifts to electricity, to lower emissions energy technologies and to the deployment of carbon capture and geologic storage technology. In addition, the RCP4.5 emissions price also applies to land use emissions; as a result, forest lands expand from their present day extent. The simulated future emissions and land use were downscaled from the regional simulation to a grid to facilitate transfer to climate models. While there are many alternative pathways to achieve a radiative forcing level of 4.5 W m{sup -2}, the application of the RCP4.5 provides a common platform for climate models to explore the climate system response to stabilizing the anthropogenic components of radiative forcing.

  11. Measles immunity among pregnant women aged 15-44 years in Namibia, 2008 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Cardemil, Cristina V; Jonas, Anna; Beukes, Anita; Anderson, Raydel; Rota, Paul A; Bankamp, Bettina; Gary, Howard E; Sawadogo, Souleymane; Patel, Sadhna V; Zeko, Sikota; Muroua, Clementine; Gaeb, Esegiel; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Gerber, Sue; Goodson, James L

    2016-08-01

    Namibia experienced a large measles outbreak starting in 2009, with 38% of reported cases in adults, including women of reproductive age. Population immunity was assessed among pregnant women to determine whether immunization activities were needed in adults to achieve measles elimination in Namibia. A total of 1708 and 2040 specimens sampled from Namibian pregnant women aged 15-44 years who were included in the 2008 and 2010 National HIV Sentinel Survey, respectively, were tested for measles immunoglobulin G antibody. The proportion of women seropositive overall and by 5-year age strata was determined, and factors associated with seropositivity were analyzed by logistic regression, including age, facility type, gravidity, HIV status, and urban/rural setting. Seropositivity in 2008 versus 2010 was compared. In both analysis years, measles seropositivity was lower in 15-19-year-olds (77%) and 20-24-year-olds (85-87%) and higher in 25-44-year-olds (90-94%) (2008, p<0.001; 2010, p<0.001). Overall measles seropositivity did not differ between 2008 (87%) and 2010 (87%) (p=0.7). HIV status did not affect seropositivity. Late in a large measles outbreak, 13% of pregnant women in Namibia, and almost one in four 15-19-year-old pregnant women, remained susceptible to measles. In Namibia, immunization campaigns with measles-containing vaccine should be considered for adults. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Trends and educational disparities in functional capacity among people aged 65-84 years.

    PubMed

    Sulander, Tommi; Martelin, Tuija; Sainio, Päivi; Rahkonen, Ossi; Nissinen, Aulikki; Uutela, Antti

    2006-10-01

    This study examined 10 year trends in functional capacity by gender, age, and education among elderly Finns aged 65-84 years, focusing on difficulties in basic activities of daily living (BADL). Educational disparities and their trends in the prevalence of these difficulties were also assessed. Data were derived from nationally representative monitoring surveys conducted biennially from 1993 to 2003 by the National Public Health Institute (KTL). A total of 5740 men and 5746 women were included in the study (response rate 80%). Activities of daily living (ADL) measures were used to assess levels of functional capacity. Education was divided into two groups: low (0-8 years) and high (9+ years). Age-adjusted trends and logistic regression analyses were computed. A clear downward trend in BADL difficulties was observed in all age groups in both genders. 80-84 year olds had clearly poorer functional ability than 65-69 year olds, even when adjusted for chronic diseases. Despite the overall improvement in functional capacity in both educational groups, low educational status persistently predicted poorer functional capacity. When chronic diseases and survey period were controlled for, the educational disparities attenuated slightly but remained significant. The number of Finnish elderly with BADL difficulties has declined markedly over the past 10 years. However, persistent educational disparities continue to present a challenge to public health initiatives for reducing inequalities in health.

  13. Characteristics and prognosis of gastric cancer in patients aged ≥ 70 years

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yue-Xiang; Deng, Jing-Yu; Guo, Han-Han; Ding, Xue-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Na; Wang, Bao-Gui; Zhang, Li; Liang, Han

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the prognostic value of age for gastric cancer and identify the optimal treatment for elderly gastric cancer patients. METHODS: We enrolled 920 patients with gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy between January 2003 and December 2007 in our center. Patients were categorized into three groups: younger group (age < 50 years), middle-aged group (50-69 years), and elderly group (≥ 70 years). Clinicopathological features were compared among the three groups and potential prognostic factors were analyzed. The log-rank test was used to assess statistical differences between curves. Independent prognostic factors were identified by the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Stratified analysis was used to investigate the impact of age on survival at each stage. Cancer-specific survival was also compared among the three groups by excluding deaths due to reasons other than gastric cancer. We analyzed the potential prognostic factors for patients aged ≥ 70 years. Finally, the impact of extent of lymphadenectomy and postoperative chemotherapy on survival for each age group was evaluated. RESULTS: In the elderly group, there was a male predominance. At the same time, cancers of the upper third of the stomach, differentiated type, and less-invasive surgery were more common than in the younger or middle-aged groups. Elderly patients were more likely to have advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage and larger tumors, but less likely to have distant metastasis. Although 5-year overall survival (OS) rate specific to gastric cancer was not significantly different among the three groups, elderly patients demonstrated a significantly lower 5-year OS rate than the younger and middle-aged patients (elderly vs middle-aged vs younger patients = 22.0% vs 36.6% vs 38.0%, respectively). In the TNM-stratified analysis, the differences in OS were only observed in patients with II and III tumors. In multivariate analysis, only surgical margin status, pT4, lymph

  14. Breast cancer under 40 years of age: increasing number and worse prognosis.

    PubMed

    Dobi, Ágnes; Kelemen, Gyöngyi; Kaizer, László; Weiczner, Roland; Thurzó, László; Kahán, Zsuzsanna

    2011-06-01

    Breast cancer at a relatively young age with a poor prognosis is currently exhibiting an increasing incidence. In a retrospective cohort analysis of early breast cancer cases after surgery from our institutional patient registry, 141 patients aged ≤ 40 years constituted the younger group, with 300 randomly selected patients aged >40 years as controls. A significant and steady increase was found in the relative number of younger cases during the years 2004-2009. The histological type and grade and the lymph node status of the cancers differed significantly between the two groups, with more aggressive biological behaviour, a more advanced stage and a worse prognosis in the younger group. Half of the cancers in the younger cohort were ER-negative, while two-thirds in the control group were ER-positive. Comparatively more tumours were PR-positive and HER2-negative in the control group than in the younger group. The rates of triple-negative cases were 25% and 13% in the younger age and the control group, respectively (p = 0.026). Significantly higher mastectomy and axillary block dissection rates were observed in the younger age group, and more chemotherapy was administered than in the control group. Our findings demonstrate the significance of breast cancer in cases aged <40 years, and draw attention to the need for appropriate care in these cases.

  15. Height, weight and menarcheal age of Oslo schoolchildren during the last 60 years.

    PubMed

    Brundtland, G H; Liestøl, K; Walløe, L

    1980-01-01

    Every 5th year since 1920 the heights and weights of all Oslo schoolchildren (aged 7 to 18 years) have been measured, and the measurements processed centrally. For ages between 8 and 14 the mean height increased by about 4 cm per decade between 1920 and 1940 for both sexes. A drop of about 1.5 cm occurred during World War II, followed by a rapid catch-up. Since 1950, height has increased only moderately. A weight increase of between 1.5 kg (8 years old) and 3.5 kg (13 years old) per decade before 1940 was followed by a drop during the war equivalent to somewhat less than one decade's gain. A rapid catch-up after the war was followed by a slight decrease since 1950, especially for ages above puberty. A stable difference in the social composition of the eastern and western districts of Oslo allowed comparison of the trends for lower and higher social strata. Before the war, children from higher strata were taller than children from lower strata, but this difference has now practically disappeared. Children from the higher strata weighed more until about 1955, but later those from the lower strata weighed markedly more, especially during adolescence. The difference in menarcheal age between social strata was examined in 1928, 1952, 1970 and 1975. The time trend parallels that for weight: menarcheal age was lowest among higher strata until the 1950s, but after that the lower strata experienced the lowest menarcheal age.

  16. Risk stratification for malignant progression in Barrett's esophagus: Gender, age, duration and year of surveillance.

    PubMed

    Gatenby, Piers; Bhattacharjee, Santanu; Wall, Christine; Caygill, Christine; Watson, Anthony

    2016-12-28

    To clarify risk based upon segment length, diagnostic histological findings, patient age and year of surveillance, duration of surveillance and gender. Patients registered with the United Kingdom Barrett's Oesophagus Registry from 9 United Kingdom centers were included. The outcome measures were (1) development of all grades of dysplasia; (2) development of high-grade of dysplasia or adenocarcinoma; and (3) development of adenocarcinoma. Prevalent cases and subjects with < 1 year of follow-up were excluded. The covariates examined were segment length, previous biopsy findings, age at surveillance, duration of surveillance, year of surveillance and gender. One thousand and one hundred thirty six patients were included (total 6474 patient-years). Fifty-four patients developed adenocarcinoma (0.83% per annum), 70 developed high-grade dysplasia/adenocarcinoma (1.1% per annum) and 190 developed any grade of dysplasia (3.5% per annum). High grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma increased with age and duration of surveillance. The risk of low-grade dysplasia development was not dependent on age at surveillance. Segment length and previous biopsy findings were also significant factors for development of dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. The risk of development of low-grade dysplasia is independent of age at surveillance, but high-grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma were more commonly found at older age. Segment length and previous biopsy findings are also markers of risk. This study did not demonstrate stabilisation of the metaplastic segment with prolonged surveillance.

  17. Herpes zoster vaccine awareness among people ≥ 50 years of age and its implications on immunization.

    PubMed

    Javed, Saba; Javed, Fatima; Mays, Rana M; Tyring, Stephen K

    2012-08-15

    Herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine was recently approved for adults ≥ 50 years of age and has been shown to reduce the incidence of zoster, postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), and associated healthcare costs. However, currently HZ immunization is sub-optimal. We examined awareness of HZ and of the HZ vaccine. Information was gathered via a one-page survey given to patients ≥ 50 years of age presenting at the dermatology clinic. From the surveyed population of 1000 individuals, the HZ vaccination rate was 11.9 percent. Vaccination coverage was highest for the ≥ 70 age group (18.3%), followed by age groups 60-69 (8.9%) and 50-59 (1.4%). Individuals with female gender, older age (≥ 70 years), higher level of education (college and beyond), retired employment status, memory of chickenpox, knowledge of shingles, and history of shingles and influenza vaccination in the past year all were more likely to have heard of and have received the HZ vaccine (except female gender, education level, and awareness of shingles). Our study suggests lack of awareness to be a significant factor in non-immunization with zoster vaccine. Targeting adults in younger age groups and minorities would be beneficial towards increasing zoster vaccine awareness and thus preventing herpes zoster and its many complications.

  18. Homicide rates among persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-07-12

    Homicide disproportionately affects persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and consistently ranks in the top three leading causes of death in this age group, resulting in approximately 4,800 deaths and an estimated $9 billion in lost productivity and medical costs in 2010. To investigate trends in homicide among persons aged 10-24 years for the period 1981-2010, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System data on deaths caused by homicide of persons in this age group and examined trends by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and mechanism of injury. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that homicide rates varied substantially during the study period, with a sharp rise from 1985 to 1993 followed by a decline that has slowed since 1999. During the period 2000-2010, rates declined for all groups, although the decline was significantly slower for males compared with females and for blacks compared with Hispanics and persons of other racial/ethnic groups. By mechanism of injury, the decline for firearm homicides from 2000 to 2010 was significantly slower than for nonfirearm homicides. The homicide rate among persons aged 10-24 years in 2010 was 7.5 per 100,000, the lowest in the 30-year study period. Primary prevention strategies remain critical, particularly among groups at increased risk for homicide.

  19. Guaifenesin Pharmacokinetics Following Single-Dose Oral Administration in Children Aged 2 to 17 Years.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Gary A; Solomon, Gail; Albrecht, Helmut H; Reitberg, Donald P; Guenin, Eric

    2016-07-01

    This study characterized guaifenesin pharmacokinetics in children aged 2 to 17 years (n = 40) who received a single oral dose of guaifenesin (age-based doses of 100-400 mg) 2 hours after breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 8 hours after dosing and analyzed for guaifenesin using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods, relationships with age were assessed using linear regression, and dose proportionality was assessed on 95% confidence intervals. Based on the upper dose recommended in the monograph (for both children and adolescents), area under the curve from time zero to infinity and maximum plasma concentration both increased with age. However, when comparing the upper dose for children aged 2 to 11 years with the lower dose for adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, similar systemic exposure was observed. As expected due to increasing body size, oral clearance (CLo ) and terminal volume of distribution (Vz /F) increased with age. Due to a larger increase in Vz /F than CLo , an increase in terminal exponential half-life was also observed. Allometric scaling indicated no maturation-related changes in CLo and Vz /F. © 2016, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  20. Nurses aged over 50 years and their experiences of shift work.

    PubMed

    Clendon, Jill; Walker, Leonie

    2013-10-01

    The Late Career Nurse project examined views and characteristics of nurses working in New Zealand who were born before 1960. This paper focuses on the experiences of such nurses who undertake shift work. The mean age of registered nurses in New Zealand has been rising steadily, and 40% are now aged 50 years or over. While there is substantial literature on the phenomenon and consequences of the ageing nursing workforce, little is known of the particular experiences of nurses aged over 50 years who work shifts. An anonymous online survey was emailed to eligible nurse New Zealand Nurses Organisation members aged over 50 years in February 2012. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the 3273 responses received were undertaken. Over 45% of respondents worked shifts or flexible hours. While shift work suited many, others noted deleterious effects on family and social relationships, physical and mental health (notably sleep patterns and fatigue), and decreasing tolerance for shift work as they age. Poor scheduling practices were particularly detrimental. Worldwide, workforce ageing means strategies are required to retain older nurses in the workforce. Improved scheduling practices including increasing access to flexible and part time work hours, and development of resources on coping with shift work are recommended. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [Bolsa Família: food and nutrition insecurity of children under five years of age].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Flávia; Schmidt, Suely Teresinha; da Costa, Islandia Bezerra; Almeida, Claudia Choma Bettega; Matuda, Nívea da Silva

    2014-05-01

    This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of the population base conducted in the town of Colombo in the state of Paraná. The objectives were to identify the prevalence of food insecurity in families that are beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família Program and the factors related to this condition, and describe the nutritional status of children under five years of age. Analyses of association were performed using Fisher's exact test. The sample included 442 families, of which 168 have children under five years of age. The Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale was applied to evaluate food insecurity and the nutritional status of the 199 children evaluated was determined by the height-for-age, weight-for-age and body mass-for-age indices in accordance with the WHO reference values for 2006. The prevalence of food insecurity was 81.6%. Overweight and stunting among children coexisted. Food insecurity was found to be associated with the height-for-age index among children under two years of age. The per capita income and food deficits influenced the situation of food insecurity significantly.

  2. Infant nutrition in relation to eating behaviour and fruit and vegetable intake at age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Möller, Lisanne M; de Hoog, Marieke L A; van Eijsden, Manon; Gemke, Reinoud J B J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2013-02-14

    Infant nutrition may influence eating behaviour and food preferences in later life. The present study explores whether exclusive breast-feeding duration and age at introduction of solid foods are associated with children's eating behaviour and fruit and vegetable intake at age 5 years. Data were derived from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study, a prospective birth cohort in the Netherlands, and included 3624 children. During infancy, data on infant nutrition were collected. Child eating behaviour (satiety responsiveness, enjoyment of food, slowness in eating and food responsiveness) was assessed with the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire; and fruit and vegetable intake was calculated from a validated child FFQ. Both questionnaires were filled in by the mothers after their child turned 5 years. Exclusive breast-feeding duration was not associated with later eating behaviour, although longer exclusive breast-feeding was significantly associated with a higher vegetable intake at age 5 years. Compared with the introduction of solid foods at age 6 months, introduction before the age of 4 months was associated with less satiety responsiveness at age 5 years (β -0·09; 95 % CI -0·16, -0·02). Introducing solid foods after 6 months was associated with less enjoyment of food (β -0·07; 95 % CI -0·12, -0·01) and food responsiveness (β -0·04; 95 % CI -0·07, -0·01). Introducing solid foods before the age of 4 months was associated with a higher fruit intake compared with introduction at 6 months. These findings suggest that prolonged breast-feeding and introduction of solid foods between 4 and 6 months may lead to healthier eating behaviour and food preferences at age 5 years.

  3. Oxidative Stress Function in Women over 40 Years of Age, Considering Their Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves Mota, Maria Paula; Santos, Zirlene; Soares, Jorge; Pereira, Ana; Fonseca, Sandra; Peixoto, Francisco; Gaivão, Isabel; Oliveira, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Aging is dependent on biological processes that determine the aging of the organism at the cellular level. The Oxidative Stress Theory of Aging might explain some of the age-related changes in cell macromolecules. Moreover, exposome and lifestyle may also induce changes in cell damage induced by oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to analyze the related redox changes in lymphocyte function of healthy women over 40 years old. Three groups: younger (YG: 40–49 years), middle aged (MAG: 50–59 years), and older (OG: ≥60 years) were evaluated on anthropometric variables, blood pressure, cardiovascular fitness, lifestyle habits, perceived stress, DNA damage, malondialdehyde, catalase activity, and total antioxidant capacity. Physical activity and cardiovascular fitness were significantly higher in YG and MAG as compared to the OG. Systolic blood pressure increased significantly with group age. Frequency and total amount of alcohol intake were lower in the OG and higher in the MAG. No significant differences were observed between the three groups in oxidative stress parameters. Only alcohol consumption was associated with the higher DNA FPG-sensitive sites, and only in the YG (p < 0.05). Healthy lifestyle is critical to avoiding major ailments associated with aging. This may be inferred from the lack of significant differences in the various oxidative stress parameters measured in the healthy women over the age of 40 who took part in the study. Conscious lifestyle behaviors (decrease in alcohol and smoking habits) could have impaired the expected age-related oxidative stress increase. PMID:28360887

  4. The Association of Urbanicity with Cognitive Development at Five Years of Age in Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, Marion; Flamant, Cyril; Gascoin, Géraldine; Rouger, Valérie; Florin, Agnès; Guimard, Philippe; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of urbanicity, defined as living in an urban area, with cognitive development at five years of age in preterm children who were free of any disabilities or neurodevelopmental delays. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting French regional Loire Infant Follow-up Team (LIFT) network. Participants Included in the study were 1738 surviving infants born between March 2003 and December 2008 before 35 weeks of gestational age. At two years of age, the children were free of any disabilities and neurodevelopmental delays and were living in the Pays de la Loire region from their birth to five years of age. Main Outcome Measures The cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated with the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). The urbanicity of the residence for each child was classified into three groups: urban, quasi-rural, and rural area. Results Quantile regression approaches were used to identify a significant association between urbanicity and the GSA score at five years of age (adjusting for child and family characteristics). We found that the negative impact of urbanicity on the GSA score was more important for the lower quantile of the GSA scores. Conclusions Urbanicity was significantly associated with cognitive neurodevelopment at five years of age in preterm children born before 35 weeks of gestation. Complementary results additionally suggest that this relation could be mediated at the residence level by a high socioeconomic deprivation level. If these results are confirmed, more personalized follow-ups could be developed for preterm children. Further studies are needed to finely identify the contextual characteristics of urbanicity that underlie this association. PMID:26161862

  5. The association between personal income and aging: A population-based 13-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Yu; Chen, Chia-Yu; Tsao, Chueh-Yung; Hsu, Kuang-Hung

    Population aging is set to increase the elder dependency ratio, causing a rapid increase in healthcare expenditures and financial burden on the government. This study aims to construct an aging score from age-related diseases and to perform longitudinal analyses to examine the association between personal income and aging. A total of 86,838 subjects drawn from a community with 384,617 residents in northern Taiwan were examined. Personal income and aging-related diseases were measured from the National Health Insurance database during 1997-2010. Multiple linear regression and stratified analyses were used. Our results indicate that subjects with low personal income (defined as monthly income ≤610 USD) can have high aging scores as calculated by selected aging-related diseases. In stratified analyses, moreover, subjects with low personal income tended to have higher aging scores across different anthropometric groups. The association was particularly evident in subjects >60years old, and they were noted across multiple strata, including those of catastrophic illness as well as type of primary care setting. This study found evidence for association between low income and aging in a population with compulsory health insurance program, where accessibility barriers were low in terms of health care resources and personal socioeconomic status. The economic inequity causes difference in aging process, which deserves for future interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Velopharyngeal function from the age of three to eight years in cleft palate patients.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, J; Haapanen, M L; Paaso, M; Laitinen, J; Ranta, R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study changes of velopharyngeal function between the ages of 3 and 8 years. The subjects were 65 (30 girls and 35 boys) Finnish-speaking non-syndromic children with isolated cleft palate (CP, n = 35) and with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP, n = 30) operated primarily at the age of 1.0-2.0 years. Before the age of 8 years, 16 children required velopharyngoplasty (VPP, ad modum Hoenig). The children were followed up for speech at the age of 3, 6 and 8 years. The perceptual speech characteristics nasal air emission, hypernasality, weakness of pressure consonants and compensatory articulations were registered. Indications for a velopharyngeal flap (by VPP) were identified on the basis of perceptual speech characteristics and confirmed by instrumental examinations. The results indicated that the method and timing of primary palatoplasty and sex did not correlate with the quality of velopharyngeal function. It was good both in children treated conservatively or with VPP at the age of 8 years. The children with a flap required speech therapy significantly more often than other children. No child with VPP and only 12% of the children without VPP had simultaneous nasal air emissions and hypernasality. Compensatory articulation was completely eliminated and weakness of pressure consonants was diagnosed only in 1 child without VPP. The CP children required significantly more often a velopharyngeal flap than the UCLP children. In conclusion, the CP and UCLP children develop a similar velopharyngeal function but in a different way.

  7. Effect of influenza vaccination on hospitalizations in persons aged 50 years and older.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Roger; Ray, G Thomas; Fireman, Bruce H

    2010-10-21

    To estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in preventing hospitalizations in persons over 50 years of age. We performed a retrospective, population based study, using a "difference-in-differences" approach to determine the association between hospitalization and prior vaccination. We examined this association when influenza was not circulating and compared it to the association found when influenza was circulating. VE was estimated from the difference in the association between hospitalization and prior vaccination, inside vs. outside influenza seasons. Kaiser Permanente in Northern California. Health plan members aged 50 years and older during the September 1997 to August 2008 study period, when there were about 68,000 pneumonia hospitalizations in 10 million person-years. Vaccination was associated with lower risk of hospitalization for pneumonia and influenza, even before flu season, presumably due to unmeasured confounders. When influenza arrived the hospitalization-vaccination association strengthened, yielding an adjusted VE estimate of 12.4% (95% CI: 1.6-22.0) in persons aged 50-64, and 8.5% (95% CI: 3.3-13.5) in those aged 65 years and older. There was no significant effect on hospitalizations for ischemic heart disease (IHD), congestive heart failure (CHF), cerebrovascular disease (CVD), or trauma. Influenza vaccination has a modest but significant effect on prevention of hospitalization for pneumonia and influenza in persons 50 years of age and older. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment aged for 2 years to carps (Cyprinus carpio)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, S. Y.; Li, J. Y.; Jia, X. M.

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand the risk of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) existing in sediment for years, the accumulation of PBDEs in sediment aged for 2 years to fish was investigated. Simulated aquatic system microcosms were conducted with PBDE contaminated sediment aged for 2 years and carps were cultured in the microcosms for 20 days. PBDE concentrations in carp tissues were analyzed to estimate the bioavailability of aged PBDEs in carps. The main spiked PBDE congeners were detected in sediment even though the contaminated sediment was aged for 2 years. Similarly, the five PBDE (BDE-28, 47, 100, 153 and 154) congeners which probably were bioaccumulated by carp were detected in fish tissues, indicating that PBDEs could be bioaccumulated after aging for 2 years. The PBDEs distribution revealed that the concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in tissues of Cyprinus carpio is in this order of magnitude: gut > liver > gill > fillet. The PBDEs concentrations in fillet were as high as 67.9 ng/g dry wt, in which BDE-47 contributed almost 50% in profile.

  9. Hot executive function following moderate-to-late preterm birth: altered delay discounting at 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Hodel, Amanda S; Brumbaugh, Jane E; Morris, Alyssa R; Thomas, Kathleen M

    2016-03-01

    Interest in monitoring long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born moderate-to-late preterm (32-36 weeks gestation) is increasing. Moderate-to-late preterm birth has a negative impact on academic achievement, which may relate to differential development of executive function (EF). Prior studies reporting deficits in EF in preterm children have almost exclusively assessed EF in affectively neutral contexts in high-risk preterm children (< 32 weeks gestation). Disrupted function in motivational or emotionally charged contexts (hot EF) following preterm birth remains uninvestigated, despite evidence that preterm children show differential development of neural circuitry subserving hot EF, including reduced orbitofrontal cortex volume. The present study is the first to examine whether low-risk, healthy children born moderate-to-late preterm exhibit impairments in the development of hot EF. Preterm children at age 4.5 years were less likely to choose larger, delayed rewards across all levels of reward magnitude on a delay discounting task using tangible rewards, but performed more similarly to their full-term peers on a delay aversion task involving abstract rewards and on measures of cool EF. The relationship between gestational age at birth and selection of delayed rewards extended across the entire gestational age range of the sample (32-42 weeks), and remained significant after controlling for intelligence and processing speed. Results imply that there is not a finite cut-off point at which children are spared from potential long-term neurodevelopmental effects of PT birth. Further investigation of reward processing and hot EF in individuals with a history of PT birth is warranted given the susceptibility of prefrontal cortex development to early environmental variations.

  10. Efficacy of the Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Lal, Himal; Kovac, Martina; Chlibek, Roman; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Godeaux, Olivier; Levin, Myron J; McElhaney, Janet E; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Vesikari, Timo; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zahaf, Toufik; Ahonen, Anitta; Athan, Eugene; Barba-Gomez, Jose F; Campora, Laura; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Downey, H Jackson; Ghesquiere, Wayne; Gorfinkel, Iris; Korhonen, Tiina; Leung, Edward; McNeil, Shelly A; Oostvogels, Lidia; Rombo, Lars; Smetana, Jan; Weckx, Lily; Yeo, Wilfred; Heineman, Thomas C

    2016-09-15

    A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system was associated with a risk of herpes zoster that was 97.2% lower than that associated with placebo. A second trial was performed concurrently at the same sites and examined the safety and efficacy of HZ/su in adults 70 years of age or older (ZOE-70). This randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was conducted in 18 countries and involved adults 70 years of age or older. Participants received two doses of HZ/su or placebo (assigned in a 1:1 ratio) administered intramuscularly 2 months apart. Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia was assessed in participants from ZOE-70 and in participants pooled from ZOE-70 and ZOE-50. In ZOE-70, 13,900 participants who could be evaluated (mean age, 75.6 years) received either HZ/su (6950 participants) or placebo (6950 participants). During a mean follow-up period of 3.7 years, herpes zoster occurred in 23 HZ/su recipients and in 223 placebo recipients (0.9 vs. 9.2 per 1000 person-years). Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.2 to 93.7; P<0.001) and was similar in participants 70 to 79 years of age (90.0%) and participants 80 years of age or older (89.1%). In pooled analyses of data from participants 70 years of age or older in ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 (16,596 participants), vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 91.3% (95% CI, 86.8 to 94.5; P<0.001), and vaccine efficacy against postherpetic neuralgia was 88.8% (95% CI, 68.7 to 97.1; P<0.001). Solicited reports of injection-site and systemic reactions within 7 days after injection were more frequent among HZ/su recipients than among placebo recipients (79.0% vs. 29.5%). Serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, and deaths occurred with similar frequencies in the two study groups. In our

  11. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination among adults aged 65 years and older, U.S., 1989-2008.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng-jun; Nuorti, J Pekka

    2010-10-01

    The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) has been recommended for all people aged ≥65 years in the U.S. since 1983; consistent surveillance for vaccine coverage has been conducted since 1989. To assess PPSV23 vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥65 years in the U.S. The data were analyzed from the 1989, 1991, 1993-1995, and 1997-2008 National Health Interview Surveys in 2009. Multivariable logistic regression and predictive marginal analyses were conducted to identify factors independently associated with receiving PPSV23 in 2008. Missed opportunities for vaccination were also assessed. Among people aged ≥65 years, PPSV23 coverage increased from 14.1% in 1989 to 60.1% in 2008. On average, vaccination coverage increased by 3.5% annually during 1989-2000 compared with 1.0% during 2001-2008. In 2008, coverage was significantly higher for people aged 75-84 years (68.8%), and ≥85 years (69.0%) compared with those aged 65-74 years (52.5%). Coverage was significantly higher for non-Hispanic whites (64.3%) compared with non-Hispanic blacks (44.6%) and those with Hispanic ethnicity (36.4%). Among people aged ≥65 years who reported never receiving PPSV23, 90.6% reported at least one missed opportunity. Characteristics independently associated with increased likelihood of ever receiving PPSV23 were higher age, female, non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, not employed, higher education level, more physician visits in the past year, hospitalized within past year, having Medicare and other supplemental health insurance, and having a chronic medical condition. National PPSV23 coverage among people aged ≥65 years increased substantially until 2000, but the rate of increase was smaller after 2000 and coverage in 2008 remained well below the national Healthy People 2010 target of 90%. Increased efforts to avoid missed opportunities for pneumococcal vaccination are needed, especially among minority populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Major Changes in a Rhythmic Ball-Bouncing Task Occur at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bazile, Christophe; Siegler, Isabelle A.; Benguigui, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the development of a rhythmical skill of children aged from 5 to 12 years old. Five age groups (5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 11–12, and young adults) performed a virtual ball bouncing task (16 forty-second long test trials). Task performances, racket oscillation, ball-racket impacts as well as the ball-racket coupling were analysed. The results showed a change in both performance and behaviour at the age of 7 years old. Before this age, children exhibited restricted perceptual-motor coordination with a high frequency of racket oscillation and a poor level of performance. After the age of 7, cycle-to-cycle adaptive coordination based on visual information was progressively acquired leading to increasing performance levels with age. Overall these results revealed a rapid change in capability to perform the ball bouncing task across age with a late emergence of the required coordination and significant change in the coordination at the age of 7. PMID:24098332

  13. [Plasma vitamin D levels in native and immigrant children under the age of 6 years of different ethnic origins].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Muro, J M; Yeste Fernández, D; Marín Muñoz, A; Fernández Cancio, M; Audí Parera, L; Carrascosa Lezcano, A

    2015-05-01

    Nutritional rickets is an emergent disease in Spain, and occurs particularly in black and dark-skinned infants and children from immigrant populations. The aim of this work was to ascertain the vitamin D reserve in a population of native and immigrant children under the age of 6 years. A prospective study was conducted at a Primary Healthcare Centre in Salt (Girona). 307 children with the following origin and race distribution: Caucasian (n=85; 28%), Sub-Saharan (n=101; 32.5%); Maghrebí (n=87, 28.0%); Central-American (n=20; 6.4%) and Indo-Pakistani (n=14; 4.5%). The biochemistry blood parameters studied were: calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxivitamin D, and parathormone. A nutritional survey was used to estimate calcium and vitamin D intake and degree of sun exposure. Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) was detected in Caucasians (8%), Sub-Saharans (18%), Central-Americans (20%), Maghrebís (34.5%), and Indo-Pakistanis (64%). Of the children studied (n=9), 2.9% had serious vitamin D deficiency (< 10 ng/ml); only one child of Sub-Saharan origin met the biochemical criteria for classical rickets. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was significantly higher in children not receiving vitamin D supplements in the first year of life. Plasma vitamin D concentrations were deficient in 22.5% of children under the age of six, being more prevalent in children of Indo-Pakistani and Maghrebí origin. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Associations among height, body mass index and intelligence from age 11 to age 78 years.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mathew A; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; Starr, John M

    2016-09-29

    Intelligence is related to both height and body mass index (BMI) at various stages of life. Several studies have demonstrated longitudinal relationships between these measures, but none has established whether height and intelligence, or BMI and intelligence are linked from childhood through to older age. We assessed the relations between these measures over an interval of up to 67 years using data from the 36-Day Sample, an initially-representative sample of Scottish people born in 1936, assessed at age 11 years (N = 6,291) and again at 77-78 years (N = 722). This paper focuses on the 423 participants (6.7 % of the original sample) who provided relevant data in late adulthood. Height and intelligence were significantly positively associated in childhood (β = .23) and late adulthood (β = .21-.29). Longitudinal correlations also showed that childhood intelligence predicted late-adulthood height (β = .20), and childhood height predicted late-adulthood cognitive ability (β = .12-.14). We observed no significant relationship between BMI and intelligence either in childhood or in late adulthood, nor any longitudinal association between the two in this sample. Our results on height and intelligence are the first to demonstrate that their relationship spans almost seven decades, from childhood through to late adulthood, and they call for further investigation into the mechanisms underlying this lifelong association.

  15. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis-related years of potential life lost before age 65 years - United States, 1968-2006.

    PubMed

    2009-12-25

    Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a preventable, slowly progressive parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation and deposition of coal mine dust in the lungs. The incidence and rate of CWP progression is related to the amount of respirable coal dust to which miners were exposed during their working lifetime. Early pneumoconiosis can be asymptomatic, but advanced disease often leads to disability and premature death. To characterize the impact of premature mortality attributed to CWP in the United States, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) analyzed annual underlying cause of death data from 1968-2006, the most recent years for which complete data were available. Years of potential life lost before age 65 years (YPLL), and mean YPLL were calculated using standard methodology. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicate that during 1968-2006, a total of 22,625 YPLL were attributed to CWP (mean per decedent: 5.7). Annual YPLL attributed to CWP decreased 91.2%, from an average of 1,484 YPLL per year during 1968-1972 to 154 per year during 2002-2006. However, annual YPLL from CWP have been increasing since 2002, from 135 in that year to 169 YPLL in 2006, suggesting a need for strengthening CWP prevention measures. CDC intends to maintain surveillance of CWP deaths to determine future trends and promote safer work environments.

  16. Body mass index gain between ages 20 and 40 years and lifestyle characteristics of men at ages 40-60 years: the Adventist Health Study-2.

    PubMed

    Japas, Claudio; Knutsen, Synnøve; Dehom, Salem; Dos Santos, Hildemar; Tonstad, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Obesity increases risk of premature disease, and may be associated with unfavorable lifestyle changes that add to risk. This study analyzed the association of midlife BMI change with current lifestyle patterns among multiethnic men. Men aged 40-60 years (n=9864) retrospectively reported body weight between ages 20-40 years and current dietary, TV, physical activity and sleep practices in the Adventist Health Study II, a study of church-goers in the US and Canada. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, odds ratios for BMI gain were calculated for each lifestyle practice controlling for sociodemographic and other lifestyle factors and current BMI. Men with median or higher BMI gain (2.79 kg/m(2)) between ages 20-40 years were more likely to consume a non-vegetarian diet, and engage in excessive TV watching and little physical activity and had a shorter sleep duration compared to men with BMI gain below the median (all p<0.001). In multivariate logistic analysis current BMI was significantly associated with all lifestyle factors (all p≤0.005). BMI gain was associated with lower odds of vegetarian diet (odds ratio [OR] 0.939; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.921-0.957) and of physical activity ≥150 min/week (OR 0.979, 95% CI 0.960-0.999). These findings imply that diet and less physical activity are associated with both gained and attained BMI, while inactivity (TV watching) and short sleep duration correlated only with attained BMI. Unhealthy lifestyle may add risk to that associated with BMI. Longitudinal and intervention studies are needed to infer causal relationships. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Body mass index gain between ages 20-40 years and lifestyle characteristics of men at ages 40-60 years: The Adventist Health Study-2

    PubMed Central

    Japas, Claudio; Knutsen, Synnøve; Dehom, Salem; Dos Santos, Hildemar; Tonstad, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity increases risk of premature disease, and may be associated with unfavorable lifestyle changes that add to risk. This study analyzed the association of midlife BMI change with current lifestyle patterns among multiethnic men. Methods Men aged 40-60 years (n=9864) retrospectively reported body weight between ages 20-40 years and current dietary, TV, physical activity and sleep practices in the Adventist Health Study II, a study of church-goers in the US and Canada. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, odds ratios for BMI gain were calculated for each lifestyle practice controlling for sociodemographic and other lifestyle factors and current BMI. Results Men with median or higher BMI gain (2.79 kg/m2) between ages 20-40 years were more likely to consume a non-vegetarian diet, and engage in excessive TV watching and little physical activity and had a shorter sleep duration compared to men with BMI gain below the median (all p<0.001). In multivariate logistic analysis current BMI was significantly associated with all lifestyle factors in multivariate analyses (all p≤0.005). BMI gain was associated with lower odds of vegetarian diet (odds ratio [OR] 0.939; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.921-0.957) and of physical activity ≥150 minutes/week (OR 0.979, 95% CI 0.960-0.999). Conclusions These findings imply that diet and less physical activity are associated with both gained and attained BMI, while inactivity (TV watching) and short sleep duration correlated only with attained BMI. Unhealthy lifestyle may add risk to that associated with BMI. Longitudinal and intervention studies are needed to infer causal relationships. PMID:25434910

  18. Age-associated losses of brain volume predict longitudinal cognitive declines over 8 to 20 years.

    PubMed

    Rabbitt, Patrick; Ibrahim, Said; Lunn, Mary; Scott, Marietta; Thacker, Neil; Hutchinson, Charles; Horan, Michael; Pendleton, Neil; Jackson, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Absolute differences in global brain volume predict differences in cognitive ability among healthy older adults. However, absolute differences confound lifelong differences in brain size with amounts of age-related shrinkage. Measurements of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume were made to estimate age-related shrinkage in 93 healthy volunteers aged 63 to 86 years. Their current levels of brain shrinkage predicted their amounts of decline over the previous 8 to 20 years on repeated assessments during a longitudinal study on the Cattell "Culture Fair" Intelligence Test, on two tests of information processing speed, and marginally on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (D. Wechsler, 1981), but not on three memory tests. Loss of brain volume is an effective marker both for current cognitive status and for amounts and rates of previous age-related cognitive losses.

  19. Evolution of groundwater age in a mountain watershed over a period of thirteen years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Clark, Jordan F.; Diaz, Stephanie H.; Rademacher, Laura K.; Earman, Sam; Niel Plummer, L.

    2012-08-01

    We compile a unique 13-year record of groundwater age for 11 springs in Sagehen basin, a watershed in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium (3H) data collected in prior studies from 1997 to 2003 are re-interpreted and combined with new