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Sample records for ages insecta psocodea

  1. Changes in base composition bias of nuclear and mitochondrial genes in lice (Insecta: Psocodea).

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Johnson, Kevin P

    2013-12-01

    While it is well known that changes in the general processes of molecular evolution have occurred on a variety of timescales, the mechanisms underlying these changes are less well understood. Parasitic lice ("Phthiraptera") and their close relatives (infraorder Nanopsocetae of the insect order Psocodea) are a group of insects well known for their unusual features of molecular evolution. We examined changes in base composition across parasitic lice and bark lice. We identified substantial differences in percent GC content between the clade comprising parasitic lice plus closely related bark lice (=Nanopsocetae) versus all other bark lice. These changes occurred for both nuclear and mitochondrial protein coding and ribosomal RNA genes, often in the same direction. To evaluate whether correlations in base composition change also occurred within lineages, we used phylogenetically controlled comparisons, and in this case few significant correlations were identified. Examining more constrained sites (first/second codon positions and rRNA) revealed that, in comparison to the other bark lice, the GC content of parasitic lice and close relatives tended towards 50 % either up from less than 50 % GC or down from greater than 50 % GC. In contrast, less constrained sites (third codon positions) in both nuclear and mitochondrial genes showed less of a consistent change of base composition in parasitic lice and very close relatives. We conclude that relaxed selection on this group of insects is a potential explanation of the change in base composition for both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, which could lead to nucleotide frequencies closer to random expectation (i.e., 50 % GC) in the absence of any mutation bias. Evidence suggests this relaxed selection arose once in the non-parasitic common ancestor of Phthiraptera + Nanopsocetae and is not directly related to the evolution of the parasitism in lice.

  2. Fossil Liposcelididae and the lice ages (Insecta: Psocodea)

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S

    2005-01-01

    Fossilized, winged adults belonging to the psocopteran family Liposcelididae are reported in amber from the mid-Cretaceous (ca 100 Myr) of Myanmar (described as Cretoscelis burmitica, gen. et sp. n.) and the Miocene (ca 20 Myr) of the Dominican Republic (Belaphopsocus dominicus sp. n.). Cretoscelis is an extinct sister group to all other Liposcelididae and the family is the free-living sister group to the true lice (order Phthiraptera, all of which are ectoparasites of birds and mammals). A phylogenetic hypothesis of relationships among genera of Liposcelididae, including fossils, reveals perfect correspondence between the chronology of fossils and cladistic rank of taxa. Lice and Liposcelididae minimally diverged 100 Myr, perhaps even in the earliest Cretaceous 145 Myr or earlier, in which case the hosts of lice would have been early mammals, early birds and possibly other feathered theropod dinosaurs, as well as haired pterosaurs. PMID:16537135

  3. Descriptions and records of Cladiopsocidae and Dolabellopsocidae (Insecta: Psocodea: 'Psocoptera') from Valle del Cauca and National Natural Park Gorgona, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Martínez, Nadia R; González-Obando, Ranulfo; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2014-11-28

    The results of a survey on the species diversity of the families Cladiopsocidae and Dolabellopsocidae (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocomorpha: Epipsocetae) in Valle del Cauca and in the National Natural Park (NNP) Gorgona, Colombia, are presented. The specimens studied were collected in the context of two scientific projects, in which 12 species in the two families were identified, five in Cladiopsocidae and seven in Dolabellopsocidae. In the first family, Cladiopsocus presented a new record in the country and four new species; in the latter, two genera were identified, Dolabellopsocus, with three new species and two new records, and Isthmopsocus, with two new species. This study presents the description of the nine new species from Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, the new records for Colombia and identification keys to the neotropical species of both families.

  4. First and southernmost records of Hirsutella (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and Pandora (Zygomycota: Entomophthorales) species infecting Dermaptera and Psocodea.

    PubMed

    Toledo, A V; Humber, R A; Lastra, C C López

    2008-02-01

    We present the first and southernmost records of the fungi Hirsutella strigosa Petch, H. citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales), and Pandora nouryi (Remaudière & Hennebert) Humber (Zygomycota: Entomophthorales) infecting Doru lineare (Eschscholtz) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae), Ectopsocus californicus (Banks) (Psocodea: Ectopsocidae), and Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae), respectively. This is the first report of naturally occurring pathogenic fungi infecting Psocoptera, and it is also the first report of P. nouryi from any host outside of the Aphididae. The three fungal species were morphologically described from their host insects and from microscopic preparations. Attempts to obtain pure fungal isolates were unsuccessful but slides and photographs of these fungi were preserved and deposited in mycological collections as herbarium material.

  5. Disjunct Occurrence of Trichadenotecnum s.str. in Southeastern Brazil (Psocodea: "Psocoptera": Psocidae), with Description of a New Species.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, K; Souza-Silva, M; Ferreira, R L

    2017-04-01

    A new barklouse species belonging to the Trichadenotecnum s.str. clade (Psocodea: "Psocoptera": Psocidae) was described from southeastern Brazil (Minas Gerais state). This locality is highly isolated (about 3400 km) from the closest known distributional range of this clade. It also represents the southernmost distributional record of Trichadenotecnum s.str. Phylogenetic placement of the species and biogeography of Neotropical Trichadenotecnum were briefly discussed. Trichadenotecnum punctipenne New, 1972 described from Brazil was synonymized with Trichadenotecnum pardus Badonnel, 1955.

  6. Seven new species of Loneura Navás (Insecta: Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Ptiloneuridae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Julián Alexander Mendivil; Aldrete, Alfonso Neri García; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2017-02-06

    Seven species of Loneura from natural areas of Valle del Cauca, Colombia, are described and illustrated. The female of L. andina is described for the first time. Two additional species, known only from the National Natural Park Gorgona (Cauca), are also recorded in Valle del Cauca. The new species are assigned to the infrageneric groups known in the genus. An identification key to males of Loneura is included.

  7. Validation of the 16S rDNA and COI DNA barcoding technique for rapid molecular identification of stored product psocids (Insecta: Psocodea: Liposcelididae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qianqian; Zhao, Shuo; Kucerová, Zuzana; Stejskal, Václav; Opit, George; Qin, Meng; Cao, Yang; Li, Fujun; Li, Zhihong

    2013-02-01

    Psocids are serious storage pests, and their control is hampered by the fact that different species respond differently to insecticides used for the control of stored-product insect pests. Additionally, psocids of genus Liposcelis that are commonly associated with stored-products are difficult to identify using morphological characteristics. The goal of this study was to validate molecular identification of stored-product psocids of genus Liposcelis based on 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase I (COI) DNA barcoding. Unidentified liposcelids (Liposcelis DK) imported from Denmark to China were compared with 14 population samples of seven common species (L. bostrychophila, L. brunnea, L. corrodens, L. decolor, L. entomophila, L. mendax, and L. paeta). The explored species (DK) liposcelids shared >98% sequence similarity for both the 16S rDNA and COI genes with the reference L. corrodens samples (98.32 and 98.94% for 16S rDNA and COI, respectively). A neighbor-joining tree revealed that the explored DK sample and the reference L. corrodens samples belong to the same clade. These molecular results were verified by morphological identification of DK specimens, facilitated by SEM microphotography. The DNA barcoding method and the neighbor-joining phylogenetic analyses indicated that both the 16S rDNA and COI genes were suitable for Liposcelis species identification. DNA barcoding has great potential for use in fast and accurate liposcelid identification.

  8. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  9. The Effect of Age on a Visual Learning Task in the American Cockroach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sheena; Strausfeld, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal modifications that accompany normal aging occur in brain neuropils and might share commonalties across phyla including the most successful group, the Insecta. This study addresses the kinds of neuronal modifications associated with loss of memory that occur in the hemimetabolous insect "Periplaneta americana." Among insects that display…

  10. The Effect of Age on a Visual Learning Task in the American Cockroach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sheena; Strausfeld, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal modifications that accompany normal aging occur in brain neuropils and might share commonalties across phyla including the most successful group, the Insecta. This study addresses the kinds of neuronal modifications associated with loss of memory that occur in the hemimetabolous insect "Periplaneta americana." Among insects that display…

  11. The mitochondrial genome of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenosvesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Carapelli, Antonio; Vannini, Laura; Nardi, Francesco; Boore,Jeffrey L.; Beani, Laura; Dallai, Romano; Frati, Francesco

    2005-12-01

    In this study, the nearly complete sequence (14,519 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenos vesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera) is described. All protein coding genes (PCGs) are in the arrangement known to be ancestral for insects, but three tRNA genes (trnA, trnS(gcu), and trnL(uag)) have transposed to derived positions and there are three tandem copies of trnH, each of which is potentially functional. All of these rearrangements except for that of trnL(uag) is within the short span between nad3 and nad4 and there are numerous blocks of unassignable sequence in this region, perhaps as remnants of larger scale predisposing rearrangements. X. vesparum mtDNA nucleotide composition is strongly biased toward As and Ts, as is typical for insect mtDNAs. There is also significant strand skew in the distribution of these nucleotides, with the J-strand being richer in A than T and in C than G, and the N-strand showing an opposite skew for complementary pairs of nucleotides. The hypothetical secondary structure of the 16S rRNA has also been reconstructed, obtaining a structural model similar to that of other insects.

  12. Brochosomes protect leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) from sticky exudates.

    PubMed

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-10-06

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates--filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under a colony of live A. alneti. One hundred and fifty-two droplets became stuck to the bared wings and only three to the intact wings. Inspection of the wings with a scanning electron microscope confirmed that the droplets that had hit the intact wings had rolled or bounced off the brochosomal coats. This is the first experimental study that tested a biological function of the brochosomal coats of leafhopper integuments. We argue that the production of brochosomes in leafhoppers and production of epidermal wax blooms in other sap-sucking hemipterans are alternative solutions, both serving to protect these insects from entrapment by their exudates.

  13. Brochosomes protect leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) from sticky exudates

    PubMed Central

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates—filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under a colony of live A. alneti. One hundred and fifty-two droplets became stuck to the bared wings and only three to the intact wings. Inspection of the wings with a scanning electron microscope confirmed that the droplets that had hit the intact wings had rolled or bounced off the brochosomal coats. This is the first experimental study that tested a biological function of the brochosomal coats of leafhopper integuments. We argue that the production of brochosomes in leafhoppers and production of epidermal wax blooms in other sap-sucking hemipterans are alternative solutions, both serving to protect these insects from entrapment by their exudates. PMID:23904586

  14. A new genus of Saucrosmylinae (Insecta, Neuroptera) from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Zhang, Haichun; Wang, Bo; Fang, Yan; Zheng, Daran; Zhang, Qi; Jarzembowski, Edmund A

    2013-11-14

    A new genus and new species of Saucrosmylinae (Insecta, Neuroptera) is described as Huiyingosmylus bellus gen. et sp. nov., based on a well-preserved forewing from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. Huiyingosmylus gen. nov. is characterized by the large size of forewing, relatively wide R1 space with several rows of cells, anteriorly bent Rs, dense crossveins over the entire wing and undulate outer margin. A key to the genera of Saucrosymylinae is provided.

  15. Checklist of the New Zealand Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera): an update based on the 2004 to 2013 literature.

    PubMed

    Larivière, Marie-Claude; Larochelle, André

    2014-01-23

    An updated checklist of the New Zealand Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) is provided as a supplement to the "Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera): catalogue" of Larivière and Larochelle (2004: Fauna of New Zealand 50). A total of 142 genera and 319 species belonging to 28 families are recorded for New Zealand. Changes to the 2004 catalogue are documented. The synonymy and primary type information of taxa described between 2004 and July 2013 are also given. The presence of the anthocorid Macrotrachelia nigronitens in New Zealand is confirmed.

  16. Absence asymmetry: the evolution of monorchid beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Will, Kipling W; Liebherr, James K; Maddison, David R; Galián, José

    2005-04-01

    Asymmetrical monorchy, or the complete absence of one testis coupled with the presence of its bilateral counterpart, is reported for 174 species of the carabid beetle tribes Abacetini, Harpalini, and Platynini (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) based on a survey of over 820 species from throughout the family. This condition was not found in examined individuals of any other carabid beetle tribes, or of other adephagan beetle families. One monorchid taxon within Platynini exhibits symmetrical vasa deferentia at the beginning of the pupal stadium, suggesting that developmental arrest of the underdeveloped vas deferens takes place in pupation. The point at which development of the testis is interrupted is unknown. Complete absence of one organ of a bilateral pair--absence asymmetry--is rarely found in any animal clade and among insects is otherwise only known for testes in the minute-sized beetles of the family Ptiliidae, ovaries in Scarabaeinae dung beetles, and ovaries of some aphids. Based on current phylogenetic hypotheses for Carabidae, testis loss has occurred independently at least three times, and up to five origins are possible, given the variation within Abacetini. Clear phylogenetic evidence for multiple independent origins suggests an adaptive or functional cause for this asymmetry. A previously posited taxon-specific hypothesis wherein herbivory in the tribe Harpalini led to testis loss is rejected. Optimal visceral packing of the beetle abdomen is suggested as a general explanation. Specifically, based on the function of various organ systems, we hypothesize that interaction of internal organs and pressure to optimize organ size and space usage in each system led to the multiple origins and maintenance of the monorchid condition. Testes are the only redundant and symmetrically paired structures not thought to be developmentally linked to other symmetrical structures in the abdomen. Among all possible organs, they are the most likely--although the observed

  17. Structural variation of the ribosomal gene cluster within the class Insecta

    SciTech Connect

    Mukha, D.V.; Sidorenko, A.P.; Lazebnaya, I.V.

    1995-09-01

    General estimation of ribosomal DNA variation within the class Insecta is presented. It is shown that, using blot-hybridization, one can detect differences in the structure of the ribosomal gene cluster not only between genera within an order, but also between species within a genera, including sibling species. Structure of the ribosomal gene cluster of the Coccinellidae family (ladybirds) is analyzed. It is shown that cloned highly conservative regions of ribosomal DNA of Tetrahymena pyriformis can be used as probes for analyzing ribosomal genes in insects. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Genomic and transcriptomic resources for assassin flies including the complete genome sequence of Proctacanthus coquilletti (Insecta: Diptera: Asilidae) and 16 representative transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Dikow, Rebecca B; Frandsen, Paul B; Turcatel, Mauren; Dikow, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    A high-quality draft genome for Proctacanthus coquilletti (Insecta: Diptera: Asilidae) is presented along with transcriptomes for 16 Diptera species from five families: Asilidae, Apioceridae, Bombyliidae, Mydidae, and Tabanidae. Genome sequencing reveals that P. coquilletti has a genome size of approximately 210 Mbp and remarkably low heterozygosity (0.47%) and few repeats (15%). These characteristics helped produce a highly contiguous (N50 = 862 kbp) assembly, particularly given that only a single 2 × 250 bp PCR-free Illumina library was sequenced. A phylogenomic hypothesis is presented based on thousands of putative orthologs across the 16 transcriptomes. Phylogenetic relationships support the sister group relationship of Apioceridae + Mydidae to Asilidae. A time-calibrated phylogeny is also presented, with seven fossil calibration points, which suggests an older age of the split among Apioceridae, Asilidae, and Mydidae (158 mya) and Apioceridae and Mydidae (135 mya) than proposed in the AToL FlyTree project. Future studies will be able to take advantage of the resources presented here in order to produce large scale phylogenomic and evolutionary studies of assassin fly phylogeny, life histories, or venom. The bioinformatics tools and workflow presented here will be useful to others wishing to generate de novo genomic resources in species-rich taxa without a closely-related reference genome.

  19. Genomic and transcriptomic resources for assassin flies including the complete genome sequence of Proctacanthus coquilletti (Insecta: Diptera: Asilidae) and 16 representative transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Frandsen, Paul B.; Turcatel, Mauren

    2017-01-01

    A high-quality draft genome for Proctacanthus coquilletti (Insecta: Diptera: Asilidae) is presented along with transcriptomes for 16 Diptera species from five families: Asilidae, Apioceridae, Bombyliidae, Mydidae, and Tabanidae. Genome sequencing reveals that P. coquilletti has a genome size of approximately 210 Mbp and remarkably low heterozygosity (0.47%) and few repeats (15%). These characteristics helped produce a highly contiguous (N50 = 862 kbp) assembly, particularly given that only a single 2 × 250 bp PCR-free Illumina library was sequenced. A phylogenomic hypothesis is presented based on thousands of putative orthologs across the 16 transcriptomes. Phylogenetic relationships support the sister group relationship of Apioceridae + Mydidae to Asilidae. A time-calibrated phylogeny is also presented, with seven fossil calibration points, which suggests an older age of the split among Apioceridae, Asilidae, and Mydidae (158 mya) and Apioceridae and Mydidae (135 mya) than proposed in the AToL FlyTree project. Future studies will be able to take advantage of the resources presented here in order to produce large scale phylogenomic and evolutionary studies of assassin fly phylogeny, life histories, or venom. The bioinformatics tools and workflow presented here will be useful to others wishing to generate de novo genomic resources in species-rich taxa without a closely-related reference genome. PMID:28168115

  20. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  1. A replacement name for Dayus Gerken, 2001 (Crustacea, Peracarida, Cumacea), preoccupied by Dayus Mahmood, 1967 (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Bo; Gerken, Sarah; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    A replacement name is proposed for genus Dayus Gerken, 2001 (Crustacea: Peracarida: Cumacea), preoccupied by Dayus Mahmood, 1967 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The following changes are proposed: Jennidayus new replacement name = Dayus Gerken, 2001 (nec Mahmood 1967); Jennidayus pharocheradus (Gerken, 2001), comb. n. = Dayus pharocheradus Gerken, 2001; Jennidayus acanthus (Gerken, 2001), comb. n. = Dayus acanthus Gerken, 2001; Jennidayus makrokolosus (Gerken, 2001), comb. n. = Dayus makrokolosus Gerken, 2001.

  2. Cofoundress relatedness and group productivity in colonies of social Dunatothrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) on Australian Acacia

    PubMed Central

    Bono, Jeremy M.; Crespi, Bernard J.

    2015-01-01

    Facultative joint colony founding by social insects provides opportunities to analyze the roles of genetic and ecological factors in the evolution of cooperation. Although cooperative nesting is observed in range of social insect taxa, the most detailed studies of this behavior have been conducted with Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps). Here, we show that foundress associations in the haplodiploid social thrips Dunatothrips aneurae (Insecta: Thysanoptera) are most often comprised of close relatives (sisters), though groups with unrelated foundresses are also found. Associations among relatives appear to be facilitated by limited female dispersal, which results in viscous population structure. In addition, we found that per capita productivity declined with increasing group size, sex ratios were female-biased, and some female offspring apparently remained in their natal domicile for some time following eclosion. D. aneurae thus exhibits a suite of similarities with eusocial Hymenoptera, providing evidence for the convergent evolution of associated social and life-history traits in Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera. PMID:26279604

  3. Novel Primers From Informative Nuclear Loci for Louse Molecular Phylogenetics (Insecta: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Andrew D; Allen, Julie M; Johnson, Kevin P

    2014-11-01

    While parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) have historically been an important model taxon for understanding host-parasite coevolution, very few molecular markers have been developed for phylogenetic analysis. The current markers are insufficient to resolve many of the deeper nodes in this group; therefore, sequences from additional genetic loci are necessary. Here, we design primers targeting several nuclear protein coding genes based on a complete genome and transcriptome of Pediculus humanus L. plus transcriptomes and modest coverage genomic data from five genera of avian feather lice. These primers were tested on 32 genera of avian feather lice (Ischnocera), including multiple species within some genera. All of the new primer combinations produced sequences for the majority of the genera and had similar or higher divergences than the most widely used nuclear protein-coding gene in lice, EF-1α. These results indicate that these new loci will be useful in resolving phylogenetic relationships among parasitic lice.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genomes of four cockroaches (Insecta: Blattodea) and phylogenetic analyses within cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xue-Fang; Zhang, Le-Ping; Yu, Dan-Na; Storey, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jia-Yong

    2016-07-15

    Three complete mitochondrial genomes of Blaberidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Gromphadorhina portentosa, Panchlora nivea, Blaptica dubia) and one complete mt genome of Blattidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Shelfordella lateralis) were sequenced to further understand the characteristics of cockroach mitogenomes and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship of Blattodea. The gene order and orientation of these four cockroach genomes were similar to known cockroach mt genomes, and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region. The mt genomes of Blattodea exhibited a characteristics of a high A+T composition (70.7%-74.3%) and dominant usage of the TAA stop codon. The AT content of the whole mt genome, PCGs and total tRNAs in G. portentosa was the lowest in known cockroaches. The presence of a 71-bp intergenic spacer region between trnQ and trnM was a unique feature in B. dubia, but absent in other cockroaches, which can be explained by the duplication/random loss model. Based on the nucleotide and amino acid datasets of the 13 PCGs genes, neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and bayesian inference (BI) analyses were used to rebuild the phylogenetic relationship of cockroaches. All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Isoptera as the sister cluster to Cryptocercidae of Blattodea. Ectobiidae and Blaberidae (Blaberoidea) formed a sister clade to Blattidae. Corydiidae is a sister clade of all the remaining cockroach species with a high value in NJ and MP analyses of nucleotide and amino acid datasets, and ML and BI analyses of the amino acid dataset.

  5. Assembly and annotation of full mitochondrial genomes for the corn rootworm species, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and D. barberi (Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), using Next Generation Sequence data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Complete mitochondrial genomes for two corn rootworm species, Diabrotica v. virgifera (16,747 bp) and D. barberi (16,632; Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), were assembled from Illumina HiSeq2000 read data. Annotation indicated that the order and orientation of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), and...

  6. Treatment of black-tailed prairie dog burrows with deltamethrin to control fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) and plague.

    PubMed

    Seery, David B; Biggins, Dean E; Montenieri, John A; Enscore, Russell E; Tanda, Dale T; Gage, Kenneth L

    2003-09-01

    Burrows within black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado, were dusted with deltamethrin insecticide to reduce flea (Insecta: Siphonaptera) abundance. Flea populations were monitored pre- and posttreatment by combing prairie dogs and collecting fleas from burrows. A single application of deltamethrin significantly reduced populations of the plague vector Oropsylla hirsuta, and other flea species on prairie dogs and in prairie dog burrows for at least 84 d. A plague epizootic on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge caused high mortality of prairie dogs on some untreated colonies, but did not appear to affect nearby colonies dusted with deltamethrin.

  7. Fossil Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) as Paleothermometers in the African Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggermont, H.; Heiri, O.; Russell, J.; Vuille, M.; Audenaert, L.; Klaassen, G.; Verschuren, D.

    2008-12-01

    Reconstruction of Africa's temperature history from natural climate archives such as lake sediments is essential to amend the current scarcity of information on natural tropical climate and ecosystem variability. Chironomids are well-established paleothermometers in north-temperate/boreal regions, but their potential in tropical lakes has never before been assessed. We surveyed sub-fossil chironomid assemblages in surface sediments from 65 lakes and permanent pools in southwestern Uganda and central/southern Kenya, spanning elevations between 489 and 4575 m asl. Using various subsets of lakes and corresponding Surface-Water Temperatures (SWTemp) and Mean Annual Air Temperatures (MATemp), we developed a series of inference models for quantitative paleotemperature reconstruction. Models using both low-, mid- and high-elevation sites suffer to some extent from the small number of samples between 2500 and 3500 m asl, and from the presence of ecologically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable taxa. Models confined to mountain sites produce poorer error statistics, but are less prone to the biogeographical and taxonomic complexities associated with long climatic gradients. Overall, error statistics compare favourably with those of inference models developed for temperate regions, indicating that fossil assemblages of African Chironomidae can be valuable indicators of past temperature change. We subsequently used these models to evaluate whether high-elevation lakes in the Rwenzori Mountains (>3000 m asl) have been impacted by climate warming in recent centuries by comparing temperatures inferred from chironomid assemblages in modern sediments with those derived from chironomid assemblages in sediments deposited within or briefly after the Little Ice Age (1270-1850 AD). Depending on the model used, between 44 and 63% of the 16 lakes studied indicate significantly warmer temperatures in recent times (corresponding with an average MATemp rise of 0.88 ° C, and

  8. Pupal development and pigmentation process of a polka-dotted fruit fly, Drosophila guttifera (Insecta, Diptera).

    PubMed

    Fukutomi, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Agata, Kiyokazu; Funayama, Noriko; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki

    2017-06-01

    Various organisms have color patterns on their body surfaces, and these color patterns are thought to contribute to physiological regulation, communication with conspecifics, and signaling with the environment. An adult fly of Drosophila guttifera (Insecta: Diptera: Drosophilidae) has melanin pigmentation patterns on its body and wings. Though D. guttifera has been used for research into color pattern formation, how its pupal development proceeds and when the pigmentation starts have not been well studied. In this study, we defined the pupal stages of D. guttifera and measured the pigment content of wing spots from the pupal period to the period after eclosion. Using a transgenic line which carries eGFP connected with an enhancer of yellow, a gene necessary for melanin synthesis, we analyzed the timing at which the yellow enhancer starts to drive eGFP. We also analyzed the distribution of Yellow-producing cells, as indicated by the expression of eGFP during pupal and young adult periods. The results suggested that Yellow-producing cells were removed from wings within 3 h after eclosion, and wing pigmentation continued without epithelial cells. Furthermore, the results of vein cutting experiments showed that the transport of melanin precursors through veins was necessary for wing pigmentation. These results showed the importance of melanin precursors transported through veins and of extracellular factors which were secreted from epithelial cells and left in the cuticle.

  9. Research on possible medical use of silk produced by caddisfly larvae of Hydropsyche angustipennis (Trichoptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Tszydel, M; Zabłotni, A; Wojciechowska, D; Michalak, M; Krucińska, I; Szustakiewicz, K; Maj, M; Jaruszewska, A; Strzelecki, J

    2015-05-01

    Silk products are used in medicine as biomaterials, and are particularly promising as scaffolds in tissue engineering. To date only silkworm and spider silk medical potential has been evaluated, whereas the possible application of the material spun by caddisflies in wet environment has not been examined. Biomedical application of every natural material requires biocompatibility testing and evaluation of unique microbiological and mechanical properties. This article focuses on silk fibers formed in caddisflies cocoons of Hydropsyche angustipennis (Insecta, Trichoptera) larvae. Preliminary biological evaluation shows that trichopteran silk is not cytotoxic to human cells. Caddisfly silk itself does not possess antiseptic properties and thus sterilization is indispensable for its application in medicine. Among tested methods of sterilization and disinfection only thermal methods (tyndallization and autoclaving) enabled complete eradication of bacteria and gave fully sterile material. Caddisfly silk appeared to be resistant to high temperature. Fully sterile fibers can be stored without a loss of breaking force and tensile strength. Our work shows that trichopteran silk has a significant potential to be used as a biomaterial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Brochosomal coats turn leafhopper (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) integument to superhydrophobic state.

    PubMed

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-02-07

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with brochosomes, hollow proteinaceous spheres of usually 200-700 nm in diameter, with honeycombed walls. The coats have been previously suggested to act as a water-repellent and anti-adhesive protective barrier against the insect's own exudates. We estimated their wettability through contact angle (CA) measurements of water, diiodomethane, ethylene glycol and ethanol on detached wings of the leafhoppers Alnetoidia alneti, Athysanus argentarius and Cicadella viridis. Intact brochosome-coated integuments were repellent to all test liquids, except ethanol, and exhibited superhydrophobicity, with the average water CAs of 165-172°, and the apparent surface free energy (SFE) estimates not exceeding 0.74 mN m(-1). By contrast, the integuments from which brochosomes were removed with a peeling technique using fluid polyvinylsiloxane displayed water CAs of only 103-129° and SFEs above 20 mN m(-1). Observations of water-sprayed wings in a cryo-scanning electron microscope confirmed that brochosomal coats prevented water from contacting the integument. Their superhydrophobic properties appear to result from fractal roughness, which dramatically reduces the area of contact with high-surface-tension liquids, including, presumably, leafhopper exudates.

  11. Brochosomal coats turn leafhopper (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) integument to superhydrophobic state

    PubMed Central

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with brochosomes, hollow proteinaceous spheres of usually 200–700 nm in diameter, with honeycombed walls. The coats have been previously suggested to act as a water-repellent and anti-adhesive protective barrier against the insect's own exudates. We estimated their wettability through contact angle (CA) measurements of water, diiodomethane, ethylene glycol and ethanol on detached wings of the leafhoppers Alnetoidia alneti, Athysanus argentarius and Cicadella viridis. Intact brochosome-coated integuments were repellent to all test liquids, except ethanol, and exhibited superhydrophobicity, with the average water CAs of 165–172°, and the apparent surface free energy (SFE) estimates not exceeding 0.74 mN m−1. By contrast, the integuments from which brochosomes were removed with a peeling technique using fluid polyvinylsiloxane displayed water CAs of only 103–129° and SFEs above 20 mN m−1. Observations of water-sprayed wings in a cryo-scanning electron microscope confirmed that brochosomal coats prevented water from contacting the integument. Their superhydrophobic properties appear to result from fractal roughness, which dramatically reduces the area of contact with high-surface-tension liquids, including, presumably, leafhopper exudates. PMID:23235705

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of the true water bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): evidence from mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Jimeng; Li, Ming; Dong, Pengzhi; Cui, Ying; Xie, Qiang; Bu, Wenjun

    2009-01-01

    Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea) + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea))). PMID:19523246

  13. Terrestrial arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. II. Sawflies (Insecta: Hymenoptera: "Symphyta")

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David R.; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the second in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and Berlese-Tullgren extraction of leaf litter. New information We provide collection records for 47 species of "Symphyta" (Insecta: Hymenoptera), 30 of which are new state records for Arkansas: (Argidae) Sterictiphora serotina; (Cimbicidae) Abia americana; (Diprionidae) Monoctenus fulvus; (Orussidae) Orussus terminalis; (Pamphiliidae) Onycholyda luteicornis, Pamphilius ocreatus, P. persicum, P. rileyi; (Pergidae) Acordulecera dorsalis, A. mellina, A. pellucida; (Tenthredinidae) Caliroa quercuscoccineae, Empria coryli, Hoplocampa marlatti, Macrophya cassandra, Monophadnoides conspiculatus, Monophadnus bakeri, Nematus abbotii, Neopareophora litura, Pachynematus corniger, Paracharactus rudis, Periclista marginicollis, Pristiphora banski, P. chlorea, Strongylogaster impressata, S. remota, Taxonus epicera, Thrinax albidopictus, T. multicinctus, Zaschizonyx montana; (Xiphydriidae) Xiphydria tibialis. PMID:27222635

  14. Comparative cophylogenetics of Australian phabine pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) and their feather lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweet, Andrew D.; Chesser, R. Terry; Johnson, Kevin P.

    2017-01-01

    Host–parasite coevolutionary histories can differ among multiple groups of parasites associated with the same group of hosts. For example, parasitic wing and body lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) of New World pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) differ in their cophylogenetic patterns, with body lice exhibiting higher phylogenetic congruence with their hosts than wing lice. In this study, we focus on the wing and body lice of Australian phabine pigeons and doves to determine whether the patterns in New World pigeons and doves are consistent with those of pigeons and doves from other regions. Using molecular sequence data for most phabine species and their lice, we estimated phylogenetic trees for all three groups (pigeons and doves, wing lice and body lice), and compared the phabine (host) tree with both parasite trees using multiple cophylogenetic methods. We found a pattern opposite to that found for New World pigeons and doves, with Australian wing lice showing congruence with their hosts, and body lice exhibiting a lack of congruence. There are no documented records of hippoboscid flies associated with Australian phabines, thus these lice may lack the opportunity to disperse among host species by attaching to hippoboscid flies (phoresis), which could explain these patterns. However, additional sampling for flies is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Large differences in body size among phabine pigeons and doves may also help to explain the congruence of the wing lice with their hosts. It may be more difficult for wing lice than body lice to switch among hosts that vary more dramatically in size. The results from this study highlight how host–parasite coevolutionary histories can vary by region, and how local factors can shape the relationship.

  15. Comparative cophylogenetics of Australian phabine pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) and their feather lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Andrew D; Chesser, R Terry; Johnson, Kevin P

    2017-02-10

    Host-parasite coevolutionary histories can differ among multiple groups of parasites associated with the same group of hosts. For example, parasitic wing and body lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) of New World pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) differ in their cophylogenetic patterns, with body lice exhibiting higher phylogenetic congruence with their hosts than wing lice. In this study, we focus on the wing and body lice of Australian phabine pigeons and doves to determine whether the patterns in New World pigeons and doves are consistent with those of pigeons and doves from other regions. Using molecular sequence data for most phabine species and their lice, we estimated phylogenetic trees for all three groups (pigeons and doves, wing lice and body lice), and compared the phabine (host) tree with both parasite trees using multiple cophylogenetic methods. We found a pattern opposite to that found for New World pigeons and doves, with Australian wing lice showing congruence with their hosts, and body lice exhibiting a lack of congruence. There are no documented records of hippoboscid flies associated with Australian phabines, thus these lice may lack the opportunity to disperse among host species by attaching to hippoboscid flies (phoresis), which could explain these patterns. However, additional sampling for flies is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Large differences in body size among phabine pigeons and doves may also help to explain the congruence of the wing lice with their hosts. It may be more difficult for wing lice than body lice to switch among hosts that vary more dramatically in size. The results from this study highlight how host-parasite coevolutionary histories can vary by region, and how local factors can shape the relationship.

  16. Mitochondrial genome deletions and minicircles are common in lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The gene composition, gene order and structure of the mitochondrial genome are remarkably stable across bilaterian animals. Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) are a major exception to this genomic stability in that the canonical single chromosome with 37 genes found in almost all other bilaterians has been lost in multiple lineages in favour of multiple, minicircular chromosomes with less than 37 genes on each chromosome. Results Minicircular mt genomes are found in six of the ten louse species examined to date and three types of minicircles were identified: heteroplasmic minicircles which coexist with full sized mt genomes (type 1); multigene chromosomes with short, simple control regions, we infer that the genome consists of several such chromosomes (type 2); and multiple, single to three gene chromosomes with large, complex control regions (type 3). Mapping minicircle types onto a phylogenetic tree of lice fails to show a pattern of their occurrence consistent with an evolutionary series of minicircle types. Analysis of the nuclear-encoded, mitochondrially-targetted genes inferred from the body louse, Pediculus, suggests that the loss of mitochondrial single-stranded binding protein (mtSSB) may be responsible for the presence of minicircles in at least species with the most derived type 3 minicircles (Pediculus, Damalinia). Conclusions Minicircular mt genomes are common in lice and appear to have arisen multiple times within the group. Life history adaptive explanations which attribute minicircular mt genomes in lice to the adoption of blood-feeding in the Anoplura are not supported by this expanded data set as minicircles are found in multiple non-blood feeding louse groups but are not found in the blood-feeding genus Heterodoxus. In contrast, a mechanist explanation based on the loss of mtSSB suggests that minicircles may be selectively favoured due to the incapacity of the mt replisome to synthesize long replicative products without mtSSB and thus the

  17. Mitochondrial genome deletions and minicircles are common in lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Cameron, Stephen L; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Whiting, Michael F; Johnson, Kevin P

    2011-08-04

    The gene composition, gene order and structure of the mitochondrial genome are remarkably stable across bilaterian animals. Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) are a major exception to this genomic stability in that the canonical single chromosome with 37 genes found in almost all other bilaterians has been lost in multiple lineages in favour of multiple, minicircular chromosomes with less than 37 genes on each chromosome. Minicircular mt genomes are found in six of the ten louse species examined to date and three types of minicircles were identified: heteroplasmic minicircles which coexist with full sized mt genomes (type 1); multigene chromosomes with short, simple control regions, we infer that the genome consists of several such chromosomes (type 2); and multiple, single to three gene chromosomes with large, complex control regions (type 3). Mapping minicircle types onto a phylogenetic tree of lice fails to show a pattern of their occurrence consistent with an evolutionary series of minicircle types. Analysis of the nuclear-encoded, mitochondrially-targetted genes inferred from the body louse, Pediculus, suggests that the loss of mitochondrial single-stranded binding protein (mtSSB) may be responsible for the presence of minicircles in at least species with the most derived type 3 minicircles (Pediculus, Damalinia). Minicircular mt genomes are common in lice and appear to have arisen multiple times within the group. Life history adaptive explanations which attribute minicircular mt genomes in lice to the adoption of blood-feeding in the Anoplura are not supported by this expanded data set as minicircles are found in multiple non-blood feeding louse groups but are not found in the blood-feeding genus Heterodoxus. In contrast, a mechanist explanation based on the loss of mtSSB suggests that minicircles may be selectively favoured due to the incapacity of the mt replisome to synthesize long replicative products without mtSSB and thus the loss of this gene lead to the

  18. A checklist of sucking lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura) associated with Mexican wild mammals, including geographical records and a host-parasite list.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Montes, Sokani; Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; León-Paniagua, Livia; Rivas, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    A checklist of 44 species of sucking lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura) recorded in Mexico, belonging to nine genera in six families is given, together with a list of the 63 species of Mexican wild mammal hosts with which they are associated. Summaries of the known geographical records and host relationships for each louse species are presented for each Mexican state. Data were compiled from published and original records, including three new locality records from the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero.

  19. Type specimens of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) collected from North Korea and adjacent regions deposited at Insect Collections of Chungnam National University (CNU) in Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sunghoon; Kim, Junggon; Oh, Sumin; Heiss, Ernst

    2015-07-06

    A list of type specimens of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) collected from North Korea (mostly by the late Dr. Michail Josifov, Sofia, Bulgaria) acquired earlier by E. Heiss, now donated to and deposited in the insect collections of Chungnam National University (CNU), Deajeon, Korea, is presented. A total of 31 holotypes and 694 paratypes of 41 species and 1 subspecies in 6 families and 9 subfamilies are presented: Miridae (Deraeocorinae, Mirinae, Orthotylinae, Phylinae), Tingidae (Tinginae), Piesmatidae (Piesmatinae), Berytidae (Metacanthinae), Cymidae (Cyminae), Pentatomidae (Asopinae).

  20. Neurogenesis in the developing visual system of the branchiopod crustacean Triops longicaudatus (LeConte, 1846): corresponding patterns of compound-eye formation in Crustacea and Insecta?

    PubMed

    Harzsch, S; Walossek, D

    2001-01-01

    In the discussion on arthropod phylogeny, the structural evolution of compound eyes and optic ganglia in Crustacea and Insecta is an important topic. On the one hand, many morphological features as well as developmental aspects of the visual system in Insecta and Crustacea correspond in so much detail that eye design in these two groups is likely to have a common euarthropodan ancestor. On the other hand, however, some authors advocate a convergent evolution of the crustacean and insect visual system founding their arguments on differences in the arrangement of the visual neuropils and the fibre connections between Malacostraca and Entomostraca (the "entomostracan enigma"). Therefore, information about cellular aspects of visual system formation in entomostracan Crustacea is likely to enliven this debate, but is not yet available. To fill this gap, we examined the proliferation of neuronal stem cells in the developing visual system of the tadpole shrimp Triops longicaudatus (LeConte, 1846) (Entomostraca, Branchiopoda, Phyllopoda, Calmanostraca, Notostraca) by in vivo incorporation of the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine and subsequent immunohistochemical detection. Our results indicate that in the developing visual system of T. longicaudatus, three band-shaped zones containing neuronal stem cells are present corresponding to the proliferation zones found in Malacostraca. We therefore conclude that the ontogenetic mechanisms of visual-system formation are evolutionarily conserved (homologous) in Branchiopoda, Malacostraca, and Insecta.

  1. Phylogenetic position of Phthiraptera (Insecta: Paraneoptera) and elevated rate of evolution in mitochondrial 12S and 16S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Johnson, Kevin P

    2003-10-01

    Phthiraptera (chewing and sucking lice) and Psocoptera (booklice and barklice) are closely related to each other and compose the monophyletic taxon Psocodea. However, there are two hypotheses regarding their phylogenetic relationship: (1) monophyletic Psocoptera is the sister group of Phthiraptera or (2) Psocoptera is paraphyletic, and Liposcelididae of Psocoptera is the sister group of Phthiraptera. Each hypothesis is supported morphologically and/or embryologically, and this problem has not yet been resolved. In the present study, the phylogenetic position of Phthiraptera was examined using mitochondrial 12S and 16S rDNA sequences, with three methods of phylogenetic analysis. Results of all analyses strongly supported the close relationship between Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae. Results of the present analyses also provided some insight into the elevated rate of evolution in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Phthiraptera. An elevated substitution rate of mtDNA appears to originate in the common ancestor of Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae, and directly corresponds to an increased G+C content. Therefore, the elevated substitution rate of mtDNA in Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae appears to be directional. A high diversity of 12S rDNA secondary structure was also observed in wide range of Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae, but these structures seem to have evolved independently in different clades.

  2. The soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma (Insecta, Hemiptera, Rhopalidae): First Asian record, with a review of bionomics

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jing-Fu; Hsieh, Yi-Xuan; Rédei, Dávid

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma (Herrich-Schäffer, 1847) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhopalidae: Serinethinae), a species native in tropical and subtropical regions of the New World and accidentally introduced to Hawaii, is reported for the first time from Asia (Taiwan). This record represents the first occurrence of the species in Asia. Stable populations composed of hundreds of specimens were found in seven localities of Kaohsiung City and one locality in Tainan City, and a single specimen was observed in Chiayi County. Aggregating adults and larvae fed in large numbers on the sapindacean plants Cardiospermum halicacabum L. and Koelreuteria elegans (Seem.) A. C. Smith ssp. formosana (Hayata) F. G. Meyer. Diagnostic characters of adults and larvae of Jadera haematoloma are discussed. A review of its bionomics and a bibliography are provided. Initial observations on the populations in southern Taiwan are presented. The species is potentially invasive, and further extension of its range is anticipated in Southeast Asia. PMID:23794880

  3. Muscidae (Insecta: Diptera) of Latin America and the Caribbean: geographic distribution and check-list by country.

    PubMed

    Löwenberg-Neto, Peter; De Carvalho, Claudio J B

    2013-01-01

    Here we provide a geographic database for the Muscidae (Insecta: Diptera) that are endemic to Latin America and the Caribbean and non-synanthropic. We summarize the geographic information provided by specimens from three entomological collections in Brazil (DZUP, MNRJ, and MZUEFS) as well as geographic information we compiled in the literature. The resulting 817 species were linked to their geographic records by country, state/province/department, locality, latitude and longitude, including source reference. When coordinates were not provided in specimens' labels, we used the locality information to search geographic coordinates in online gazetteers. We also separated the species by country for a country-species list. These data comprise 250 years of collections and taxonomic studies of Neotropical Muscidae and we expect that it provides a foundation and serves as guide for future studies of systematics and biogeography of the family.

  4. Redescription of Gyropus parvus (Ewing, 1924) (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Gyropidae) from tucos-tucos (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae: Ctenomys ) in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martino, N S; Romero, M D; Castro, D C

    2010-02-01

    A detailed redescription of Gyropus parvus (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Gyropidae) is given based on specimens collected from the type host, Ctenomys colburni Allen 1903 , and the type locality, Estancia Huanuluán, Provincia de Rio Negro, Argentina. We expand and provide new chaetotaxy. New scanning electron microscopy images showing microstructural details of adults and eggs of G. parvus obtained from topotype specimens are included. Sexual dimorphism was mainly shown by differences in body size and abdominal chaetotaxy, with females being 17.5% larger than males and with more setae in each cluster. Significant differences between males and females were also observed in sternal plate measurements. Features described here show homogeneity within type host population. This information contributes to our knowledge of intra- and inter-specific variability for parasite populations. Our investigation constitutes the first collection of G. parvus from the type host and locality since it was described.

  5. An annotated checklist of Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Insecta: Ceratopogonidae: Diptera) with incorporation of a vector species list from India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Emon; Mazumdar, Abhijit; Joardar, S N; Saha, Goutam K; Banerjee, Dhriti

    2016-12-01

    Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Insecta : Diptera : Ceratopogonidae) are small nematocerous biological vectors of a wide range of pathogens of veterinary and medical importance. They are distributed worldwide but prefer warm, damp, and muddy areas. Female midges require blood for egg maturation. Studies on taxonomy, proper identification keys, and distribution patterns of these flies across different geographical regions of India of these flies are limited. This article provides an updated checklist of Culicoides spp. from India collected from various scattered publications, along with their synonyms and details on their subgenera, geographical distribution, and type locality. A compiled list of different Culicoides vectors from India has also been included separately in this article, along with the type of the diseases spread.

  6. [Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park].

    PubMed

    Otavo, Samuel Eduardo; Parrado-Rosselli, Angela; Noriega, Jorge Ari

    2013-06-01

    Abstract: Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park. Insects have been recognized to be important indicators of the quality elements of ecosystems, among others, because of their rapid response to environmental variability and ease cost-effective capture. In this work we evaluated whether beetles of the Scarabaeoidea superfamily may be used as bioindicators of anthropogenic disturbance of Amazonian terra firme rain forests, in order to provide guidelines for monitoring strategies of the Amacayacu National Park. We considered three different levels of anthropogenic disturbance (i.e. low, medium, high) in 12 transects (four in each intervention level), and caught all beetle species of this superfamily. Three interception traps, two light traps, three pitfalls and four bottle fruit traps were used per transect, as well as manual catch. In total, 593 individuals belonging to 92 species, 44 genera and seven families were collected. Scarabaeidae (n = 232, 27 spp.) and Dynastidae (n = 161, 26 spp.) were the families with the highest number of individuals and species, while Aphodiidae, Cetoniidae and Geotrupidae exhibited the lowest. The most abundant species per family were Ateuchus sp. (33.2%) from Scarabaeidae, Cyclocephala verticalis (55.9%) from Dynastidae, Astaena sp. (75.8%) from Melolonthidae, Ceratocanthus amazonicus (66.7%) from Ceratocanthidae y Chaetodus asuai (96.8%) from Hybosoridae. Results showed that the number of species and individuals increased with the anthropogenic disturbance. The Margalef and Shannon indexes also revealed that the highest richness and equity occurred in the high-disturbed site, respectively. Dynastidae exhibited the highest number of exclusive species per gradient, while Scarabaeidae shared most of its species. Ten species were recorded in the three disturbance levels, 26 species in two and 56 species were exclusive to one level. The most

  7. What is the phylogenetic signal limit from mitogenomes? The reconciliation between mitochondrial and nuclear data in the Insecta class phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Efforts to solve higher-level evolutionary relationships within the class Insecta by using mitochondrial genomic data are hindered due to fast sequence evolution of several groups, most notably Hymenoptera, Strepsiptera, Phthiraptera, Hemiptera and Thysanoptera. Accelerated rates of substitution on their sequences have been shown to have negative consequences in phylogenetic inference. In this study, we tested several methodological approaches to recover phylogenetic signal from whole mitochondrial genomes. As a model, we used two classical problems in insect phylogenetics: The relationships within Paraneoptera and within Holometabola. Moreover, we assessed the mitochondrial phylogenetic signal limits in the deeper Eumetabola dataset, and we studied the contribution of individual genes. Results Long-branch attraction (LBA) artefacts were detected in all the datasets. Methods using Bayesian inference outperformed maximum likelihood approaches, and LBA was avoided in Paraneoptera and Holometabola when using protein sequences and the site-heterogeneous mixture model CAT. The better performance of this method was evidenced by resulting topologies matching generally accepted hypotheses based on nuclear and/or morphological data, and was confirmed by cross-validation and simulation analyses. Using the CAT model, the order Strepsiptera was recovered as sister to Coleoptera for the first time using mitochondrial sequences, in agreement with recent results based on large nuclear and morphological datasets. Also the Hymenoptera-Mecopterida association was obtained, leaving Coleoptera and Strepsiptera as the basal groups of the holometabolan insects, which coincides with one of the two main competing hypotheses. For the Paraneroptera, the currently accepted non-monophyly of Homoptera was documented as a phylogenetic novelty for mitochondrial data. However, results were not satisfactory when exploring the entire Eumetabola, revealing the limits of the phylogenetic

  8. Dasypodidae Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): Proposed emendation of spelling to Dasypodaidae, so removing the homonymy with Dasypodidae Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, B.A.; Michener, C.D.; Gardner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    The family-group name DASYPODIDAE Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera) is a junior homonym Of DASYPODIDAE Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra). It is proposed that the homonymy between the two names, which relate to short-tongued bees and armadillos respectively, should be removed by emending the stem of the generic name Dasypoda Latreille, 1802, on which the insect familygroup name is based, to give DASYPODAIDAE, while leaving the mammalian name (based on Dasypus Linnaeus, 1758) unchanged. Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of Dasypus, has a wide distribution in the southern United States, Central and South America. The genus Dasypoda ranges throughout most of the Palearctic region.

  9. Sperm accessory microtubules suggest the placement of Diplura as the sister-group of Insecta s.s.

    PubMed

    Dallai, Romano; Mercati, David; Carapelli, Antonio; Nardi, Francesco; Machida, Ryuichiro; Sekiya, Kaoru; Frati, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Sperm ultrastructure and spermiogenesis of the dipluran Japygidae (Japyx solifugus, Metajapyx braueri and Occasjapyx japonicus) and Campodeidae (Campodea sp.) were studied with the aim of looking for potential characters for the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships of basal hexapods. Both Japygidae and Campodeidae share a common sperm axonemal model 9+9+2, provided with nine accessory microtubules. These microtubules, however, after their formation lose the usual position around the 9+2 and migrate between the two mitochondria. In Japygidae, four of these microtubules are very short and were observed beneath the nucleus after negative staining and serial sections. Accessory microtubules have 13 protofilaments in their tubular wall. Diplura have a sperm morphology which is very different from that of the remaining Entognatha (Protura+Collembola). On the basis of the present results, the presence of accessory microtubules suggests that Diplura are the sister-group of the Insecta s.s.. Moreover, Japygidae and Campodeidae differ with regards to the relative position of the sperm components, the former having the axoneme starting from beneath the nucleus (above which sits the short acrosome), while the latter having a long apical acrosome and a nucleus running parallel with the proximal part of the axoneme. The present study also allowed to redescribe the male genital system of Japyx. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. PCB congener analysis of water and caddisfly larvae (Insecta:Trichoptera) in the upper Hudson River by glass capillary chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, B.; Simpson, K.W.; Shane, L.; Koblintz, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    The separation and analysis of the constituents of industrially produced polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been almost exclusively performed using techniques involving packed gas chromatographic columns. However, the packed column chromatograms proved to be inadequate with regard to the separation of the many congeners which compose the complex PCB mixtures. Unlike the packed column methods, a separation technique based upon gas capillary technology produces chromatograms with sharp peaks, and hence accurate analysis is possible according to individual congener concentrations. This capability permitted more precise analysis of macroinvertebrates - specifically aquatic insects in the polluted water of the upper Hudson River. This study examines the presence and relative concentration of 74 congeners in water and caddisfly larvae collected from 3 sites in the Hudson River. Caddisfly larvae (Insecta:Trichoptera) usually dominate the macroinvertebrate communities in riffle habitats of the study area. Their relatively large size and abundance facilitated the acquisition of sufficient biomass for analysis (200 mg wet weight). The sampling was carried out on July 6, 1983 and August 15, 1983.

  11. Eocene Green River Formation ``Oocardium tufa'' reinterpreted as complex arrays of calcified caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) larval cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggitt, V. Leroy; Loewen, Mark A.

    2002-04-01

    Fossil caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) larval cases are preserved in some Eocene Green River Formation tufa, and well organized arrays of these calcified larval cases have been misidentified as " Oocardium tufa". The arrays of caddisfly larval cases occur as superimposed layers of vertically oriented cases. The cases are parallel to each other, closely packed, equal in size, and are oriented perpendicular to the bedding planes of the tufa. In thin section, the cases are composed of detrital carbonate particles, ooids and quartz grains arranged in a single layer along the walls of the cases. The size and arrangement of the particles in the walls of the fossil caddisfly larval cases compares favorably with modern caddisfly larval cases. Correct identification of the origin of this unique tufa fabric enables us to better understand the important role of metazoans (Trichopteran larvae) in some Eocene Lake Gosiute paleoenvironments. Caddisfly larvae played direct and indirect roles in the deposition and erosion of tufa in Lake Gosiute during the deposition of the Laney Member of the Green River Formation.

  12. Differences in straggling rates between two genera of dove lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) reinforce population genetic and cophylogenetic patterns.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Noah Kerness; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Johnson, Kevin P; Parker, Patricia G

    2004-09-01

    Differences in dispersal abilities have been implicated for causing disparate evolutionary patterns between Columbicola and Physconelloides lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera). However, no study has documented straggling (when lice are found on atypical hosts) rates within these lineages. We used the fact that the Galapagos Hawk, Buteo galapagoensis (Gould) (Falconiformes) feeds on the Galapagos Dove Zenaida galapagoensis Gould (Columbiformes) within an ecologically simplified setting. The Galapagos Dove is the only typical host of Columbicola macrourae (Wilson) and Physconelloides galapagensis (Kellogg and Huwana) in Galapagos. We quantitatively sampled and found these lice on both bird species. A DNA barcoding approach confirmed that stragglers were derived from Galapagos doves. We also collected a Bovicola sp. louse, likely originating from a goat (Capra hircus). On hawks, C. macrourae was significantly more prevalent than P. galapagensis. On doves, the two lice were equally prevalent and abundant. Differences in prevalence on hawks was a function of differences in straggling rate between lice, and not a reflection of their relative representation within the dove population. This provides further evidence that differences in dispersal abilities may drive differences in the degree of cospeciation in Columbicola and Phyconelloides lice, which have become model systems in evolutionary biology.

  13. AN ASSESSMENT OF HOST ASSOCIATIONS, GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS, AND GENETIC DIVERSITY OF AVIAN CHEWING LICE (INSECTA: PHTHIRAPTERA) FROM BENIN.

    PubMed

    Takano, Oona M; Mitchell, Preston S; Gustafsson, Daniel R; Adite, Alphonse; Voelker, Gary; Light, Jessica E

    2017-01-07

    Host associations of highly host-specific chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) across multiple avian species remains fairly undocumented in the West African country of Benin. Two hundred and seventeen bird specimens collected from multiple localities across Benin and housed at the Texas A&M University Biodiversity Research and Teaching Collections were examined for lice. Lice were identified and genetic data (mitochondrial COI and nuclear EF-1α genes) were obtained and phylogenetically analyzed. In total, we found 15 host associations, 7 of which were new to science. Genetically, most lice from Benin were unique and could represent new species. Based on host associations and unique genetic lineages, we estimate we discovered a minimum of 4 and possibly as many as 8 new chewing louse species. Given the lack of current data on chewing louse species distributions in Benin, this study adds to the knowledge of host associations, geographic distribution, and genetic variability of avian chewing louse species in West Africa.

  14. Microtubule organization and the distribution of gamma-tubulin in spermatogenesis of a beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Wolf, K W; Joshi, H C

    1995-12-01

    The present study focuses on the restructuring of the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton and microtubule-organizing centres (MTOCs) throughout spermatogenesis of a darkling beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera, Insecta). To this end, serial ultrathin sections through male germ cells were studied using transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, spindles and young spermatids were isolated from testes under MT-stabilizing conditions and doubly labeled with antibodies against beta- and gamma-tubulin. The latter is a tubulin isoform detected in MTOCs of a wide variety of species. The observations suggest that microtubules may be nucleated from sites with and without high gamma-tubulin content and that these sites do not necessarily possess canonical centrosomes. In a prominent cytoplasmic MT system of primary spermatocytes in prophase, microtubule nucleation apparently occurs in the absence of immunologically detectable gamma-tubulin. At the poles of meiotic spindles, MTs are directly inserted into gamma-tubulin-containing material and this connection is considered responsible for their nucleation. The interzone spindle MTs of telophase cells contain gamma-tubulin and this may confer stability to them. Finally, manchette MTs of spermatids originate in the vicinity of the acrosome precursor but are not inserted into this body. The acrosome precursor is surrounded by a membrane and is clearly detected by the antibody against gamma-tubulin.

  15. A Second New Species of Ice Crawlers from China (Insecta: Grylloblattodea), with Thorax Evolution and the Prediction of Potential Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ming; Jarvis, Karl; Wang, Shu-Yong; Song, Ke-Qing; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Liang; Li, Wen-Zhu; Wang, Wei; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2010-01-01

    Modern grylloblattids are one of the least diverse of the modern insect orders. The thorax changes in morphology might be associated with the changes of the function of the forelegs, wing loss, changes in behavior and adaptation to habitat. As temperature is the main barrier for migration of modern grylloblattids, the range of each species is extremely limited. The potential distribution areas of grylloblattids remain unclear. A second new species of ice crawlers (Insecta: Grylloblattodea), Grylloblattella cheni Bai, Wang et Yang sp. nov., is described from China. The distribution map and key to species of Grylloblattella are given. A comparison of the thorax of extant and extinct Grylloblattodea is presented, with an emphasis on the pronotum using geometric morphometric analysis, which may reflect thorax adaptation and the evolution of Grylloblattodea. Potential global distribution of grylloblattids is inferred. Highly diversified pronota of extinct Grylloblattodea may reflect diverse habitats and niches. The relatively homogeneous pronota of modern grylloblattids might be explained by two hypotheses: synapomorphy or convergent evolution. Most fossils of Grylloblattodea contain an obviously longer meso- and metathorax than prothorax. The length of the meso- and metathorax of modern grylloblattids is normally shorter than the prothorax. This may be associated with the wing loss, which is accompanied by muscle reduction and changes to the thoracic skeleton system. Threats to grylloblattids and several conservation comments are also provided. PMID:20877572

  16. Sedimentary and Paleoclimatic Controls on Caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) Assemblages during the Last Interglacial-to-Glacial Transition in Southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Nancy E.; Eyles, Nicholas

    1995-01-01

    Southern Ontario, Canada, has late Pleistocene deposits that contain evidence for climatic cooling during the last interglacial/glacial transition and much of the succeeding Wisconsin glaciation. Fossils of lacustrine and riverine caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) are abundant and well-preserved in these deposits. We examined 26 samples from the interglacial section exposed in the Don Valley Brickyard and compared their caddisfly assemblages with those recovered from the overlying early Wisconsin Scarborough Formation deposits at nearby Scarborough Bluffs. Fifty-one caddisfly taxa in 16 families were recovered from the Don Valley site. Fossil abundance and species richness appear related to the storm or fair-weather conditions inferred from the sedimentary facies. Caddisfly fossils were most abundant and species richness highest in fair-weather, peaty, rippled sands. Highest proportions of river species as opposed to lake species were recovered from sands (storm and fair-weather). Assemblages from both sites indicate the presence of a large and productive river flowing into ancestral Lake Ontario. However, the river assemblage appeared to be far more sensitive to environmental change than the relatively stable assemblage representing the thermally buffered lake. Warm temperate river species such as Hydropsyche bidens, Hydropsyche mississippiensis, Macrostemum carolina, and Potamyia flava are present in the lower Don samples but absent from the Scarborough Bluffs deposits, while indicators of cooler than present climatic conditions such as Arctopsyche Indogensis and Hagenella canadensis are present in the Scarborough Bluffs sediments but absent from the lower Don samples. For the interval from about 80,000 to 55,000 yr B.P., we infer a climatic cooling from temperature about 2°C warmer than present to about 3°C cooler than present.

  17. Cophylogenetic analysis of New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae) and their parasitic wing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Columbicola).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Andrew D; Johnson, Kevin P

    2016-10-01

    Hosts-parasite interactions are plentiful and diverse, and understanding the patterns of these interactions can provide great insight into the evolutionary history of the organisms involved. Estimating the phylogenetic relationships of a group of parasites and comparing them to that of their hosts can indicate how factors such as host or parasite life history, biogeography, or climate affect evolutionary patterns. In this study we compare the phylogeny generated for a clade of parasitic chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) within the genus Columbicola to that of their hosts, the small New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae). We sampled lice from the majority of host species, including samples from multiple geographic locations. From these samples we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear loci for the lice, and used these data to estimate phylogenetic trees and population networks. After estimating the appropriate number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for the lice, we used cophylogenetic analyses to compare the louse phylogeny to an existing host phylogeny. Our phylogenetic analysis recovered significant structure within the louse clade, including evidence for potentially cryptic species. All cophylogenetic analyses indicated an overall congruence between the host and parasite trees. However, we only recovered a single cospeciation event. This finding suggests that certain branches in the trees are driving the signal of congruence. In particular, lice with the highest levels of congruence are associated with high Andean species of ground-doves that are well separated altitudinally from other related taxa. Other host-parasite associations are not as congruent, and these often involved widespread louse taxa. These widespread lice did, however, have significant phylogeographic structure, and their phylogenetic relationships are perhaps best explained by biogeographic patterns. Overall these results indicate that both host phylogeny and biogeography can be

  18. Surface antigens of Xenorhabdus nematophila (F. Enterobacteriaceae) and Bacillus subtilis (F. Bacillaceae) react with antibacterial factors of Malacosoma disstria (C. Insecta: O. Lepidoptera) hemolymph.

    PubMed

    Giannoulis, Paschalis; Brooks, Cory L; Dunphy, Gary B; Niven, Donald F; Mandato, Craig A

    2008-03-01

    Previous research established different interactions of the insect pathogen, Xenorhabdus nematophila and nonpathogen, Bacillus subtilis, with antimicrobial hemocytes and humoral factors of larval Malacosoma disstria [Giannoulis, P., Brooks, C.L., Dunphy, G.B., Mandato, C.A., Niven, D.F., Zakarian, R.J., 2007. Interaction of the bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila (Enterobacteriaceae) and Bacillus subtilis (Bacillaceae) with the hemocytes of larval Malacosoma disstria (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Lasicocampidae). J. Invertebr. Pathol. 94, 20-30]. The antimicrobial systems were inhibited by X. nematophila and stimulated by B. subtilis. The bacterial surface antigens participating in these reactions were unknown. Thus, herein the effects of lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) from X. nematophila and lipoteichoic acid from B. subtilis on the larval M. disstria immune factors, the hemocytes and phenoloxidase, were determined. Endotoxin elevated the level of damaged hemocytes limiting the removal of X. nematophila from the hemolymph and enhancing the rapid release of bacteria trapped by nodulation. Similar effects were observed with the lipid A moiety of the endotoxin. The effects of lipopolysaccharide and lipid A on the hemocyte activities were abrogated by polymyxin B (an antibiotic that binds to lipid A) confirming lipopolysaccharide as the hemocytotoxin by virtue of the lipid A moiety. Lipoteichoic acid elicited nodulation and enhanced phenoloxidase activation and/or activity. Although lipoidal endotoxin and lipid A inhibited phenoloxidase activation they enhanced the activity of the enzyme. Apolipophorin-III precluded the effects of lipopolysaccharide, lipid A, and lipoteichoic acid on the hemocytes and prophenoloxidase until the antigens exceeded a critical threshold.

  19. The Influence of Heavy Metals and Water Parameters on the Composition and Abundance of Water Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera) in the Kerian River Basin, Perak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ishadi, Nur Adibah Mohd; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abdul, Nurul Huda

    2014-12-01

    The hemipteran (Insecta) diversity in the upper part of the Kerian River Basin was low with only 8 families and 16 genera recorded at 4 study sites from 3 rivers. Water bug composition varied among sampling sites (Kruskal-Wallis χ (2) = 0.00, p<0.05) but was not affected by wet-dry seasons (Z = 0.00, p>0.05). All recorded water parameters were weakly associated with generic abundance but the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Water Quality Index (WQI) and heavy metals (zinc and manganese) showed relatively strong positive or negative relations with hemipteran diversity and richness (H' and R2). Within the ranges of measured water parameters, the WQI was negatively associated with hemipteran diversity and richness, implying the tolerance of the water bugs to the level of pollution encountered in the river basin. Based on its highest abundance and occurrence (ISI), Rhagovelia was the most important genus and along with Rheumatogonus and Paraplea, these genera were common at all study sites. In conclusion, habitat availability and suitability together with some environmental parameters influenced the abundance and composition of hemipterans in this river basin.

  20. The Influence of Heavy Metals and Water Parameters on the Composition and Abundance of Water Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera) in the Kerian River Basin, Perak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ishadi, Nur Adibah Mohd; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abdul, Nurul Huda

    2014-01-01

    The hemipteran (Insecta) diversity in the upper part of the Kerian River Basin was low with only 8 families and 16 genera recorded at 4 study sites from 3 rivers. Water bug composition varied among sampling sites (Kruskal-Wallis χ 2 = 0.00, p<0.05) but was not affected by wet-dry seasons (Z = 0.00, p>0.05). All recorded water parameters were weakly associated with generic abundance but the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Water Quality Index (WQI) and heavy metals (zinc and manganese) showed relatively strong positive or negative relations with hemipteran diversity and richness (H’ and R2). Within the ranges of measured water parameters, the WQI was negatively associated with hemipteran diversity and richness, implying the tolerance of the water bugs to the level of pollution encountered in the river basin. Based on its highest abundance and occurrence (ISI), Rhagovelia was the most important genus and along with Rheumatogonus and Paraplea, these genera were common at all study sites. In conclusion, habitat availability and suitability together with some environmental parameters influenced the abundance and composition of hemipterans in this river basin. PMID:27073600

  1. The effect of age on a visual learning task in the American cockroach.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sheena; Strausfeld, Nicholas

    2009-03-01

    Neuronal modifications that accompany normal aging occur in brain neuropils and might share commonalities across phyla including the most successful group, the Insecta. This study addresses the kinds of neuronal modifications associated with loss of memory that occur in the hemimetabolous insect Periplaneta americana. Among insects that display considerable longevity, the American cockroach lives up to 64 wk and reveals specific cellular alterations in its mushroom bodies, higher centers that have been shown to be associated with learning and memory. The present results describe a vision-based learning paradigm, based on a modified Barnes maze, that compares memory in young (10-wk old), middle-aged (30-wk old), and aged adults (50-wk old). We show that not only is the performance of this task during the 14 training trials significantly decremented in aged cockroaches, but that aged cockroaches show significant impairment in successfully completing a crucial test involving cue rotation. Light and electron microscopical examination of the brains of these different age groups reveal major changes in neuron morphology and synaptology in the mushroom body lobes, centers shown to underlie place memory in this taxon.

  2. A new Neotropical genus of Blastini (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocidae: Amphigerontiinae).

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Román-P, Cristian

    2015-08-17

    A monotypic genus of Psocidae (Amphigerontiinae: Blastini) from Santiago de Cali, Colombia, is here described and illustrated. It differs from Chaetopsocidus Badonnel, from the Páramo de Monserrate, near Bogotá, in having setae on the forewing veins.

  3. New species of Graphocaecilius Enderlein (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Arango, Stephania Sandoval; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso Neri García

    2016-08-05

    Three new species of Graphocaecilius Enderlein are here described and illustrated; the species were found in the Colombian departments of Valle del Cauca and Risaralda, raising to five the number of species of this genus in Colombia, making it the most species rich country for Graphocaecilius in South America. A key to the species in the genus is included.

  4. Age Spots

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery Conditions Acne Scars Aging Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids ... Surgery Conditions Acne Scars Aging Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids ...

  5. [Nutrition, aging, old age].

    PubMed

    Iván, L

    1998-12-06

    In humans there is evidence that the restriction of total caloric intake appears to be more important than the restriction of any particular macronutrient. Today the mechanism of the effect of caloric restriction is unknown. With advancing age and the occurrence of concomitant illness there is an increased risk of developing nutritional deficiencies. Altered nutritional status is associated with the pathogenesis of a number of common diseases of the elderly, thus it would appear that nutritional modulation and manipulation represents one possible approach to successful aging and a healthy longevity. The conceptual framework of the paper suggests the need of a newer light of the aging processes namely by a holistic human-gero-ecological model and a personality oriented geriatry. There are accentuated the role of the nutrients and vitamins, the food intake and drug-nutrients interactions and the meanings of the differences between the normal and pathological aging.

  6. Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  7. Gestational age

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  8. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and 4-(2-dodecyl)-benzene sulfonate (LAS) in Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta) and Chironomus riparius (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Mäenpää, K; Kukkonen, J V K

    2006-05-10

    The discharge of surfactants, such as 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), into water bodies leads to accumulation of the chemicals in the sediments and may thus pose a problem to benthic organisms. To study the bioaccumulation of surfactants, Oligochaeta worm Lumbriculus variegatus was exposed to sediment-spiked, [14C]-labeled 4-NP and 4-(2-dodecyl)-benzene sulfonate (C12-LAS) in three different sediments (S1-S3). The sediments were characterized for organic carbon (OC) content and particle size distribution. The acute toxicity was examined by exposing L. variegatus and three to four instar Chironomus riparius (Insecta) larvae in water-only exposure to 4-NP and LAS at different concentrations. After 48-h exposure, lethal water concentrations (LC50) and lethal body residues (LBR50) were estimated using liquid scintillation counting. Chronic toxicity was evaluated in two different sediments by exposing first instar C. riparius larvae to sediment-spiked chemicals at different concentrations. After 10 days, the sublethal effects of surfactants were observed by measuring wet weight and head capsule length. Finally, another 10-day test was set up in order to measure the LAS body residues associated with sublethal effects in C. riparius in S2 sediment. The bioaccumulation test revealed that the bioaccumulation of both 4-NP and LAS increased as the sediment organic matter content decreased. It is assumed that the chemical binding to organic material decreased chemical bioavailability. The acute toxicity tests showed that L. variegatus was more tolerant of 4-NP, and C. riparius was more tolerant of LAS when based on water exposure concentration. The LBR-estimates revealed, however, that L. variegatus tolerated clearly higher tissue residues of both chemicals compared with C. riparius. Both chemicals had sublethal effects on C. riparius growth in sediment exposure, reducing larvae wet weight and head capsule size. 4-NP, however, showed an irregular

  9. A preliminary account of the fly fauna in Jabal Shada al-A’la Nature Reserve, Saudi Arabia, with new records and biogeographical remarks (Diptera, Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S.; Abdel-Dayem, Mahmoud S.; Elgharbawy, Ali A.; Dhafer, Hathal M. Al

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The first list of insects of Al-Baha Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) was published in 2013 and contained a total of 582 species; an addendum to this list was published in 2015 adding 142 species and bringing the total number recorded from the province to 724 insect species representing 17 orders. The previous two studies excluded Jabal Shada al-A’la Nature Reserve (SANR), so the present study in SANR, as belonging to Al-Baha Province, are complementary to the previous two. The present study presents a preliminary list of Diptera (Insecta) in SANR, with remarks on their zoogeography, and is the first of a series of planned ecological and systematic studies on different insect orders as one of the outputs of a project proposed to study the entire insect fauna of SANR. A total number of 119 Diptera species belonging to 87 genera, 31 tribes, 42 subfamilies, and representing 30 families has been recorded from SANR in the present study. Some species have been identified only to the genus level and listed herein only because this is the first time to record their genera in KSA. Fourteen of the species are recorded for the first time for KSA, namely: Forcipomyia sahariensis Kieffer, 1923 [Ceratopogonidae]; Chaetosciara sp. [Sciaridae]; Neolophonotus sp.1; Neolophonotus sp.2; Promachus sinaiticus Efflatoun, 1934; Saropogon longicornis (Macquart, 1838); Saropogon sp. [Asilidae]; Spogostylum tripunctatum (Pallas in Wiedemann, 1818) [Bombyliidae]; Phycus sp. [Therevidae]; Hemeromyia sp.; Meoneura palaestinensis Hennig, 1937 [Carnidae]; Desmometopa inaurata Lamb, 1914 [Milichiidae]; Stomoxys niger Macquart, 1851 [Muscidae]; and Sarcophaga palestinensis (Lehrer, 1998) [Sarcophagidae]. Zoogeographic affinities of recorded fly species suggest a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region (46%) than to the Palearctic region (23.5%) or the Oriental region (2.5%). This supports the previous studies’ conclusions and emphasizes the fact that parts of the Arabian

  10. The effects of fossil placement and calibration on divergence times and rates: an example from the termites (Insecta: Isoptera).

    PubMed

    Ware, Jessica L; Grimaldi, David A; Engel, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    Among insects, eusocial behavior occurs in termites, ants, some bees and wasps. Isoptera and Hymenoptera convergently share social behavior, and for both taxa its evolution remains poorly understood. While dating analyses provide researchers with the opportunity to date the origin of eusociality, fossil calibration methodology may mislead subsequent ecological interpretations. Using a comprehensive termite dataset, we explored the effect of fossil placement and calibration methodology. A combined molecular and morphological dataset for 42 extant termite lineages was used, and a second dataset including these 42 taxa, plus an additional 39 fossil lineages for which we had only morphological data. MrBayes doublet-model analyses recovered similar topologies, with one minor exception (Stolotermitidae is sister to the Hodotermitidae, s.s., in the 42-taxon analysis but is in a polytomy with Hodotermitidae and (Kalotermitidae + Neoisoptera) in the 81-taxon analysis). Analyses using the r8s program on these topologies were run with either minimum/maximum constraints (analysis a = 42-taxon and analysis c = 81-taxon analyses) or with the fossil taxon ages fixed (ages fixed to be the geological age of the deposit from which they came, analysis b = 81-taxon analysis). Confidence intervals were determined for the resulting ultrametric trees, and for most major clades there was significant overlap between dates recovered for analyses A and C (with exceptions, such as the nodes Neoisoptera, and Euisoptera). With the exception of isopteran and eusiopteran node ages, however, none of the major clade ages overlapped when analysis B is compared with either analysis A or C. Future studies on Dictyoptera should note that the age of Kalotermitidae was underestimated in absence of kalotermitid fossils with fixed ages.

  11. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Older Drivers Problems with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ... It? Sexuality in Later Life Shots for Safety Skin Care and Aging Smoking: It's Never Too Late to Stop Taking ...

  12. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  13. Stepwise enrichment of 15N along food chains: Further evidence and the relation between δ 15N and animal age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minagawa, Masao; Wada, Eitaro

    1984-05-01

    The isotopic composition of nitrogen was measured in marine and fresh-water animals from the East China Sea, The Bering Sea, Lake Ashinoko and Usujiri intertidal zone. Primary producers, showed average δ15Nversus atmospheric nitrogen of +5.0%. (+3.4 to +7.5) in the Bering Sea and Lake Ashinoko, and +6.8%. (+6.0 to +7.6) in Usujiri intertidal zone. Blue green algae from the East China Sea show an average -0.55%. (-0.8 to +1.2). All consumers, Zooplankton, fish and bird exhibited Stepwise enrichment of 15N with increasing trophic level. The 15N enrichment at a single feeding process ranged from +1.3 to +5.3 averaging +3.4 ± 1.1%.. This isotopic fractionation seems to be independent of habitat. The effect of age in animals was obtained by analyzing two marine mussels. The soft tissue nitrogen showed +2.0%. enrichment relative to that of primary producers, and the magnitude was almost constant with shell ages ranging from 0 to 8 years. A similar 15N enrichment occurs in all Molluscs, Crustaceans, Insecta, Amphibia, Fish, Ave and Mammal species regardless of the difference in the form of excreted nitrogen and in laboratory cultured fish, brine shrimp and mice (+2.9 to +4.9%.). The excreted ammonia from guppy was sufficiently light to balance the concentration of 15N to animal body.

  14. Hybridogenesis and a potential case of R2 non-LTR retrotransposon horizontal transmission in Bacillus stick insects (Insecta Phasmida)

    PubMed Central

    Scavariello, Claudia; Luchetti, Andrea; Martoni, Francesco; Bonandin, Livia; Mantovani, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Horizontal transfer (HT) is an event in which the genetic material is transferred from one species to another, even if distantly related, and it has been demonstrated as a possible essential part of the lifecycle of transposable elements (TEs). However, previous studies on the non-LTR R2 retrotransposon, a metazoan-wide distributed element, indicated its vertical transmission since the Radiata-Bilateria split. Here we present the first possible instances of R2 HT in stick insects of the genus Bacillus (Phasmida). Six R2 elements were characterized in the strictly bisexual subspecies B. grandii grandii, B. grandii benazzii and B. grandii maretimi and in the obligatory parthenogenetic taxon B. atticus. These elements were compared with those previously retrieved in the facultative parthenogenetic species B. rossius. Phylogenetic inconsistencies between element and host taxa, and age versus divergence analyses agree and support at least two HT events. These HT events can be explained by taking into consideration the complex Bacillus reproductive biology, which includes also hybridogenesis, gynogenesis and androgenesis. Through these non-canonical reproductive modes, R2 elements may have been transferred between Bacillus genomes. Our data suggest, therefore, a possible role of hybridization for TEs survival and the consequent reshaping of involved genomes. PMID:28165062

  15. The fossil record and taphonomy of butterflies and moths (Insecta, Lepidoptera): implications for evolutionary diversity and divergence-time estimates.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Labandeira, Conrad C; Davis, Donald R

    2015-02-04

    It is conventionally accepted that the lepidopteran fossil record is significantly incomplete when compared to the fossil records of other, very diverse, extant insect orders. Such an assumption, however, has been based on cumulative diversity data rather than using alternative statistical approaches from actual specimen counts. We reviewed documented specimens of the lepidopteran fossil record, currently consisting of 4,593 known specimens that are comprised of 4,262 body fossils and 331 trace fossils. The temporal distribution of the lepidopteran fossil record shows significant bias towards the late Paleocene to middle Eocene time interval. Lepidopteran fossils also record major shifts in preservational style and number of represented localities at the Mesozoic stage and Cenozoic epoch level of temporal resolution. Only 985 of the total known fossil specimens (21.4%) were assigned to 23 of the 40 extant lepidopteran superfamilies. Absolute numbers and proportions of preservation types for identified fossils varied significantly across superfamilies. The secular increase of lepidopteran family-level diversity through geologic time significantly deviates from the general pattern of other hyperdiverse, ordinal-level lineages. Our statistical analyses of the lepidopteran fossil record show extreme biases in preservation type, age, and taxonomic composition. We highlight the scarcity of identified lepidopteran fossils and provide a correspondence between the latest lepidopteran divergence-time estimates and relevant fossil occurrences at the superfamily level. These findings provide caution in interpreting the lepidopteran fossil record through the modeling of evolutionary diversification and in determination of divergence time estimates.

  16. Eochrysis, a new replacement name for the fossil Protochrysis Bischoff, 1916 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Chrysididae) nec Pascher, 1911 (Protista: Cryptomonada).

    PubMed

    Doweld, Alexander B

    2015-12-18

    The genus Protochrysis (type species P. succinalis Bischoff, 1916, by monotypy) was established by Bischoff (1916: 139) for distinctive fossil insect remains of Eocene (Lutetian) age from the former Königsberg outskirts of East Prussia (now Kalinigrad, Russian Federation), referred at present to the Chrysididae (Hymenoptera) (Brues 1933; Carpenter 1985, 1992). However, an identical generic name Protochrysis had previously been proposed by Pascher (1911: 191) for a living protist (Cryptomonada). Bischoff's (1916) name is therefore an invalid junior homonym. Carpenter (1985: 577) proposed a new replacement name for the fossil genus, but overlooked the fact that his newly proposed generic name Protochrysidis was also preoccupied, again by the name of another protist genus, Protochrysidis [Protista: Chrysomonada] described by Skvortzov (1969: 346) from Harbin (China). In fact, the protistan genus Protochrysidis had initially been published as chrysophyte algae following the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (McNeill et al. 2012) by Skvortzov (1961: 4) who had failed to designate holotype of the species, but later fulfilled all conditions for valid publication in 1969 by providing necessary typification and reference to formerly published description and illustrations. At present chrysophyte algae are still maintained as Chrysomonada in protozoology due to a continued somewhat archaic tradition (Preisig & Anderson 2002). Protochrysidis Skvortzov, 1969 remained little studied since the time of its first description and is currently treated as an incertae sedis protistan taxon.

  17. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and Drug ...

  18. Communication & Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, William E.

    This extensive bibliography contains more than 1,800 entries about communication and aging. The citations include journal articles, unpublished papers, speeches, dissertations, research studies, and books that relate aging and the aged to a variety of topics, including the following: physiological deterioration, socialization, political…

  19. Structure and Evolution of Insect Sperm: New Interpretations in the Age of Phylogenomics.

    PubMed

    Dallai, Romano; Gottardo, Marco; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive review of the structure of sperm in all orders of insects evaluates phylogenetic implications, with the background of a phylogeny based on transcriptomes. Sperm characters strongly support several major branches of the phylogeny of insects-for instance, Cercophora, Dicondylia, and Psocodea-and also different infraordinal groups. Some closely related taxa, such as Trichoptera and Lepidoptera (Amphiesmenoptera), differ greatly in sperm structure. Sperm characters are very conservative in some groups (Heteroptera, Odonata) but highly variable in others, including Zoraptera, a small and morphologically uniform group with a tremendously accelerated rate of sperm evolution. Unusual patterns such as sperm dimorphism, the formation of bundles, or aflagellate and immotile sperm have evolved independently in several groups.

  20. Age Limits.

    PubMed

    Antfolk, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Whereas women of all ages prefer slightly older sexual partners, men-regardless of their age-have a preference for women in their 20s. Earlier research has suggested that this difference between the sexes' age preferences is resolved according to women's preferences. This research has not, however, sufficiently considered that the age range of considered partners might change over the life span. Here we investigated the age limits (youngest and oldest) of considered and actual sex partners in a population-based sample of 2,655 adults (aged 18-50 years). Over the investigated age span, women reported a narrower age range than men and women tended to prefer slightly older men. We also show that men's age range widens as they get older: While they continue to consider sex with young women, men also consider sex with women their own age or older. Contrary to earlier suggestions, men's sexual activity thus reflects also their own age range, although their potential interest in younger women is not likely converted into sexual activity. Compared to homosexual men, bisexual and heterosexual men were more unlikely to convert young preferences into actual behavior, supporting female-choice theory.

  1. Mosaic aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lary C.; Herndon, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although all multicellular organisms undergo structural and functional deterioration with age, senescence is not a uniform process. Rather, each organism experiences a constellation of changes that reflect the heterogeneous effects of age on molecules, cells, organs and systems, an idiosyncratic pattern that we refer to as mosaic aging. Varying genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors (local and extrinsic) contribute to the aging phenotype in a given individual, and these agents influence the type and rate of functional decline, as well as the likelihood of developing age-associated afflictions such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Identifying key factors that drive aging, clarifying their activities in different systems, and in particular understanding how they interact will enhance our comprehension of the aging process, and could yield insights into the permissive role that senescence plays in the emergence of acute and chronic diseases of the elderly. PMID:20110150

  2. Population aging.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of population aging in China, the most densely populated country in the world. Statistics indicate that by the end of 1998, 83.75 million out of the 1.248 billion Chinese people will be over 65 years old. According to the UN standards, China will soon become an aging society. The aging population poses several challenges to the country with the greatest challenge being the increasing social responsibility to care for the aged. With the undeveloped legislative framework to protect the interests of the aged and the serious drawbacks in the pension system to cater only to the income part and not the service part of the aged, China is not yet ready for the advent of aging. Violation of the rights of senior citizens is still very rampant despite enactment of the law on Protection of the Rights of the Elderly in 1996. Moreover, China is not economically ready to become an aging society. China faces this challenge by adopting a three-pronged approach to solve the problem namely: family support, establishment of nursing homes, and creating a social security framework that addresses the needs of the society suited to the Chinese condition. It is believed that with the growing economy of the country and the rising income of its people, a comprehensive social security net will be created to take care of the aged.

  3. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-04-04

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  4. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-01-01

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  5. Overview: Pyraloidea adults (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are over 16,000 species of pyraloid or snout moths worldwide and many are pests of crops and stored products. The purpose of this video is twofold: to provide an overview of the current, modern classification of snout moths and to provide tools using morphology to identify adult snout moths t...

  6. Overview: Pyraloidea larvae (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The larvae of pyraloid or snout moths are pests to many crops and stored products and rank as among the most destructive pests to graminaceous crops such as corn, sugarcane, and rice. On the other hand, some larvae have been investigated and used for the biological control of noxious terrestrial a...

  7. Immunological Aging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunosenescence is associated with an increased incidence and severity of infections with common pathogens, neoplastic disease and autoimmunity. In general, aging is associated with a decline in function at the cellular level, rather than cell loss, although thymic atrophy and ...

  8. [Neuronal ageing].

    PubMed

    Piechota, Małgorzata; Sunderland, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Ageing leads to irreversible alterations in the nervous system, which to various extent impair its functions such as capacity to learn and memory. In old neurons and brain, similarly to what may take place in other cells, there is increased oxidative stress, disturbed energetic homeostasis and metabolism, accumulation of damage in proteins and nucleic acids. Characteristic of old neurons are alterations in plasticity, synaptic transmission, sensitivity to neurotrophic factors and cytoskeletal changes. Some markers of senescence, whose one of them is SA-beta-galactosidase were used to show the process of neuronal ageing both in vitro, and in vivo. Some research suggest that, despite the fact that neurons are postmitotic cells, it is cell cycle proteins which play a certain role in their biology, e.g. differentiation. However, their role in neuronal ageing is not known or explained. Ageing is the serious factor of development of neurodegenerative diseases among others Alzheimer disease.

  9. Relative Age

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-04

    In some regions of Mars the relative ages of different materials can be determined. In this image, captured by NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey, the younger lava flows of Daedalia Planum are on top of the older Terra Sirenum materials.

  10. Ageing doctors.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Steven; Milligan, Eleanor

    2017-03-01

    Doctors are neither more nor less susceptible than the general population to the effects of ageing. The relevance of deterioration with age depends on the nature of the work undertaken. Reduced muscle strength and visual and auditory deterioration can compromise clinical ability. Accumulation of chronic disease further reduces capacity. Cognitive decline is of particular importance, as good medical care requires considerable cognitive function. Patient safety is paramount, yet older doctors are an important part of the medical workforce and their value should be recognised. Changes in patient case mix, work place support systems and individual adjustments can assist safe practice. Deterioration in health should be acknowledged and requires proactive management. Current methods of ensuring competence are inadequate for supporting ageing doctors. A new initiative is recommended comprising collaboration between regulators, colleges and employing institutions to support the ageing doctor in providing safe and effective practice.

  11. Immunological Aging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunosenescence is associated with an increased incidence and severity of infections with common pathogens, neoplastic disease and autoimmunity. In general, aging is associated with a decline in function at the cellular level, rather than cell loss, although thymic atrophy and ...

  12. Understanding aging.

    PubMed

    Strehler, B L

    2000-01-01

    Enormous advances in our understanding of human aging have occurred during the last 50 yr. From the late 19th to the mid-20th centuries only four comprehensive and important sources of information were available: 1. August Weismann's book entitled Essays on Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems (the first of these essays dealt with The Duration of Life; 1). Weissmann states (p. 10) "In the first place in regulating the length of life, the advantage to the species, and not to the individual, is alone of any importance. This must be obvious to any one who has once thoroughly thought out the process of natural selection_". 2. A highly systematized second early source of information on aging was the collection of essays edited by Cowdry and published in 1938. This 900+ page volume contains 34 chapters and was appropriately called Problems of Aging. 3. At about the same time Raymond Pearl published his book on aging (2). Pearl believed that aging was the indirect result of cell specialization and that only the germ line was resistant to aging. Unfortunately Pearl died in the late 1930s and is largely remembered now for having been the founding editor of Quarterly Review of Biology while he was at the Johns Hopkins University, this author's alma mater. 4. Alexis Carrel wrote a monumental scientific and philosophical book, Man, the Unknown (3). Carrel believed that he had demonstrated that vertebrate cells could be kept in culture and live indefinitely, a conclusion challenged by others (more on this later).

  13. Age matters.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, James Edgar; Marinelli, Michela

    2009-03-01

    The age of an experimental animal can be a critical variable, yet age matters are often overlooked within neuroscience. Many studies make use of young animals, without considering possible differences between immature and mature subjects. This is especially problematic when attempting to model traits or diseases that do not emerge until adulthood. In this commentary we discuss the reasons for this apparent bias in age of experimental animals, and illustrate the problem with a systematic review of published articles on long-term potentiation. Additionally, we review the developmental stages of a rat and discuss the difficulty of using the weight of an animal as a predictor of its age. Finally, we provide original data from our laboratory and review published data to emphasize that development is an ongoing process that does not end with puberty. Developmental changes can be quantitative in nature, involving gradual changes, rapid switches, or inverted U-shaped curves. Changes can also be qualitative. Thus, phenomena that appear to be unitary may be governed by different mechanisms at different ages. We conclude that selection of the age of the animals may be critically important in the design and interpretation of neurobiological studies.

  14. Age Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-10-01

    The ages of rocks from the lunar highlands vary widely, even for a single rock sample. This makes it difficult to quantitatively test ideas for early lunar differentiation and formation of the crust. Lars Borg and Amy Gaffney (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), and Charles Shearer (University of New Mexico) have devised a set of guidelines to apply to geochronological data that leads to a relative ranking of the reliability of the age determined for a sample. Applying their guidelines to existing data for lunar highland rocks shows an upper limit on rock ages between 4340 and 4370 million years. This is essentially the same as the so-called model ages of the formation of KREEP (a chemical component enriched in potassium, rare earth elements, and phosphorous) and of the formation of the deep source regions that melted to produce mare basalts. The numerous ages close to 4370 million years suggests a complicated and protracted cooling of the primordial lunar magma ocean or a widespread vigorous period of magmatic activity in the Moon.

  15. Gay Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    2009-01-01

    The oldest of the baby boomers (boomers) were age 63 in 2009 and on the verge of retirement. This cohort has had a history of making societal changes throughout its life cycle, and it is unlikely that retirement, as we know it, will remain unscathed. This article highlights two events--the Stonewall Inn riots and two prominent professional…

  16. Gay aging.

    PubMed

    Haber, David

    2009-01-01

    The oldest of the baby boomers (boomers) were age 63 in 2009 and on the verge of retirement. This cohort has had a history of making societal changes throughout its life cycle, and it is unlikely that retirement, as we know it, will remain unscathed. This article highlights two events-the Stonewall Inn riots and two prominent professional associations removing homosexuality from their list of personality disorders-and how they occurred early enough in the gay boomers life cycle to change their attitudes, behaviors, and lifestyles. This article introduces the reader to a broad array of facts, research findings, and issues that inform the topic of gay aging. A summary of the discrimination and legal concerns affecting the gay community are also highlighted. Two influential community programs are identified: Services and Advocacy for Gay Elders (SAGE) and the American Society on Aging's LGBT Aging Issues Network (LAIN). Gerontological educators need to be sensitive to the needs, desires, and resources of the coming cohort of gay boomers, who are more likely to advocate for responsive services, organizations, and policies than the current cohort of gay older adults.

  17. Aging Secret

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The canny world of advertising has caught on to the free radical theory of aging, marketing a whole array of antioxidants for preventing anything from wrinkles to dry hair to reducing the risk of heart disease--promising to help slow the hands of time. Working with genetically engineered mice--to produce a natural antioxidant enzyme called…

  18. Aging Secret

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The canny world of advertising has caught on to the free radical theory of aging, marketing a whole array of antioxidants for preventing anything from wrinkles to dry hair to reducing the risk of heart disease--promising to help slow the hands of time. Working with genetically engineered mice--to produce a natural antioxidant enzyme called…

  19. Age Relationship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    12 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a group of impact craters in Aonia Planum, Mars. Remarkably, two of the craters are approximately equal in size, however, they clearly differ in age. The left (west) crater has a well-defined rim and its ejecta blanket overlies part of the less pronounced crater to its immediate east. The one with the ejecta blanket is younger. Other circular depressions in this bouldery scene are also old, eroded impact craters.

    Location near: 59.5oS, 78.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  20. Age Relationship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    12 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a group of impact craters in Aonia Planum, Mars. Remarkably, two of the craters are approximately equal in size, however, they clearly differ in age. The left (west) crater has a well-defined rim and its ejecta blanket overlies part of the less pronounced crater to its immediate east. The one with the ejecta blanket is younger. Other circular depressions in this bouldery scene are also old, eroded impact craters.

    Location near: 59.5oS, 78.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  1. Characteristics of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) rRNA genes of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera): structure, organization, and retrotransposable elements

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, J J; Johnston, J S; Cannone, J J; Gutell, R R

    2006-01-01

    As an accompanying manuscript to the release of the honey bee genome, we report the entire sequence of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-encoding gene sequences (rDNA) and related internally and externally transcribed spacer regions of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apocrita). Additionally, we predict secondary structures for the mature rRNA molecules based on comparative sequence analyses with other arthropod taxa and reference to recently published crystal structures of the ribosome. In general, the structures of honey bee rRNAs are in agreement with previously predicted rRNA models from other arthropods in core regions of the rRNA, with little additional expansion in non-conserved regions. Our multiple sequence alignments are made available on several public databases and provide a preliminary establishment of a global structural model of all rRNAs from the insects. Additionally, we provide conserved stretches of sequences flanking the rDNA cistrons that comprise the externally transcribed spacer regions (ETS) and part of the intergenic spacer region (IGS), including several repetitive motifs. Finally, we report the occurrence of retrotransposition in the nuclear large subunit rDNA, as R2 elements are present in the usual insertion points found in other arthropods. Interestingly, functional R1 elements usually present in the genomes of insects were not detected in the honey bee rRNA genes. The reverse transcriptase products of the R2 elements are deduced from their putative open reading frames and structurally aligned with those from another hymenopteran insect, the jewel wasp Nasonia (Pteromalidae). Stretches of conserved amino acids shared between Apis and Nasonia are illustrated and serve as potential sites for primer design, as target amplicons within these R2 elements may serve as novel phylogenetic markers for Hymenoptera. Given the impending completion of the sequencing of the Nasonia genome

  2. Characteristics of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) rRNA genes of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera): structure, organization, and retrotransposable elements.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, J J; Johnston, J S; Cannone, J J; Gutell, R R

    2006-10-01

    As an accompanying manuscript to the release of the honey bee genome, we report the entire sequence of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-encoding gene sequences (rDNA) and related internally and externally transcribed spacer regions of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apocrita). Additionally, we predict secondary structures for the mature rRNA molecules based on comparative sequence analyses with other arthropod taxa and reference to recently published crystal structures of the ribosome. In general, the structures of honey bee rRNAs are in agreement with previously predicted rRNA models from other arthropods in core regions of the rRNA, with little additional expansion in non-conserved regions. Our multiple sequence alignments are made available on several public databases and provide a preliminary establishment of a global structural model of all rRNAs from the insects. Additionally, we provide conserved stretches of sequences flanking the rDNA cistrons that comprise the externally transcribed spacer regions (ETS) and part of the intergenic spacer region (IGS), including several repetitive motifs. Finally, we report the occurrence of retrotransposition in the nuclear large subunit rDNA, as R2 elements are present in the usual insertion points found in other arthropods. Interestingly, functional R1 elements usually present in the genomes of insects were not detected in the honey bee rRNA genes. The reverse transcriptase products of the R2 elements are deduced from their putative open reading frames and structurally aligned with those from another hymenopteran insect, the jewel wasp Nasonia (Pteromalidae). Stretches of conserved amino acids shared between Apis and Nasonia are illustrated and serve as potential sites for primer design, as target amplicons within these R2 elements may serve as novel phylogenetic markers for Hymenoptera. Given the impending completion of the sequencing of the Nasonia genome

  3. Palaeoclimatological and palaeolimnological records from fossil midges and tree-rings: the role of the North Atlantic Oscillation in eastern Finland through the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoto, Tomi P.; Helama, Samuli

    2010-08-01

    Hydrological changes and air temperature variability are reconstructed from the sediments of Lake Pieni-Kauro, eastern Finland during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA) using transfer functions derived from midge (Insecta: Nematocera)-based calibration models. The reconstructions are compared with a regional tree-ring chronology and sediment physical properties are determined to track depositional changes. An objective of the study is to examine the long-term relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and climate (temperature, precipitation). Our results show that the MCA was characterized by warm and dry summer conditions, which were accompanied by changes in the sediment magnetic susceptibility values most likely representing major forest fires during the tree-ring indicated MCA megadrought. However, the midge-based stream flow reconstruction shows increased values during the MCA, thus implying enhanced spring floods after snowy winters. During the LIA, the tree-ring data indicate that a generally wetter climate prevailed during summers, but the stream flow reconstruction indicates less snowy winters. In the terms of long-term climatology, the present results show support to the concept that the NAO has a positive correlation between winter precipitation and annual temperature and a negative correlation between summer precipitation in eastern Finland. Thus, the results may serve as important background data for global change assessments.

  4. New species of Triplocania Roesler (Psocodea, ‘Psocoptera’, Ptiloneuridae), from Brazil and Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira; Rafael, José Albertino; Aldrete, Alfonso N. García

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four species of Triplocania, three with M3 simple, based on male specimens and one with forewing M3 forked, based on male and female specimens, are here described and illustrated, namely: Triplocania bravoi sp. n. (Napo: Ecuador), Triplocania erwini sp. n. (Napo: Ecuador), Triplocania trifida sp. n. (Mato Grosso and Rondônia: Brazil) and Triplocania lamasoides sp. n. (Rondônia: Brazil). They differ from all the other species in the genus, in which the males are known, by the hypandrium and phallosome structures. The female is first described for the M3 forked group. The identification key for males of the M3 forked group is updated. PMID:26052241

  5. Ectopsocidae (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera') from Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2014-04-14

    The results of a survey of the psocid family Ectopsocidae in Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, are here presented. Fifteen species were identified, in the genera Ectopsocus (14 species), and Ectopsocopsis (one species); four of the Ectopsocus species are new to science and are here described and illustrated. The male of E. thorntoni García Aldrete is here described. Records of Ectopsocopsis cryptomeriae (Enderlein), Ectopsocus briggsi McLachlan, E. californicus Banks, E. columbianus Badonnel, E. maindroni Badonnel, E. meridionalis Ribaga, E. pilosus Badonnel, E. richardsi Pearman, E. titschacki Jentsch, and E. vilhenai Badonnel, are provided. Ten species were found only in Valle del Cauca, two species were found only in the NNP Gorgona, and three species were found at both sites. The specimens studied are deposited in the Entomological Museum, Universidad del Valle, Santiago de Cali, Colombia (MUSENUV).

  6. New species of Lachesilla Westwood in the pedicularia group (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae) from the Colombian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Aldrete, Alfonso Neri García; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2015-02-05

    Two species of Lachesilla, in the pedicularia species group, from the Colombian Amazonia, are here described and illustrated. Also, a record of L. asymmetriproctus García Aldrete, for the Colombian Department of Putumayo is provided. An identification key to Lachesilla species in the pedicularia group with a single male clunial apophysis is presented, together with a diagnosis of this assemblage of species. A table is included indicating the distribution of Lachesilla species with one and two male clunial apophyses. The species treated in this paper constitute the first lachesillids known from the Department of Putumayo, Colombia. 

  7. New species of Triplocania Roesler (Psocodea, 'Psocoptera', Ptiloneuridae), from Brazil and Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira; Rafael, José Albertino; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2015-01-01

    Four species of Triplocania, three with M3 simple, based on male specimens and one with forewing M3 forked, based on male and female specimens, are here described and illustrated, namely: Triplocaniabravoi sp. n. (Napo: Ecuador), Triplocaniaerwini sp. n. (Napo: Ecuador), Triplocaniatrifida sp. n. (Mato Grosso and Rondônia: Brazil) and Triplocanialamasoides sp. n. (Rondônia: Brazil). They differ from all the other species in the genus, in which the males are known, by the hypandrium and phallosome structures. The female is first described for the M3 forked group. The identification key for males of the M3 forked group is updated.

  8. Acantholachesilla gen. n. (Psocodea:'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae: Eolachesillinae: Graphocaeciliini) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2014-06-25

    Acantholachesilla saltoensis gen. et sp. n. is described from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, in the Lachesillidae, tribe Graphocaeciliini (Eolachesillinae). The genus is related to Dagualachesilla and Dagualachesilloides that occur in the same area, differing from them in the male clunial projection, phallosome, and female subgenital plate and gonapophyses.

  9. The genus Elaphopsocus Roesler (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocidae) with six new species from Brazil and Colombia.

    PubMed

    Román-P, Cristian; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2015-05-14

    Six new species of Elaphopsocus Roesler from Brazil and Colombia are described and illustrated. Revised generic diagnoses are provided for Elaphopsocoides and Elaphopsocus; based on the structure of the male hypandrium and phallosome three species groups are recognized in Elaphopsocus.

  10. New species of Cladiopsocus Roesler (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocomorpha: Cladiopsocidae) from the Colombian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Carrejo, Nancy

    2016-06-22

    Ten species of Cladiopsocus Roesler were identified among recent collections from the Colombian departments of Amazonas and Putumayo. Eight new species were found, five from Putumayo and three from Amazonas, that are here described and illustrated. C. ramulosus (Enderlein) and C. domesticus (New) were found in the Putumayo department. The number of species in the genus is increased to 28, with two from Angola, and 26 from the Neotropics. An identification key to the males of the neotropical species is included.

  11. Twelve new species of Triplocania Roesler (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Ptiloneuridae), from South America.

    PubMed

    Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira Da; Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Rafael, José Albertino

    2016-05-09

    Twelve species of Triplocania, seven based on male and female specimens and five based on male specimens, are here described and illustrated; nine species are Brazilian, three are Ecuadorian, and one of the latter is shared with Peru. Comments on sexes known and distribution of the species are included.

  12. New species of Euplocania Enderlein (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocomorpha: Ptiloneuridae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Gironza, Nancy Carrejo

    2015-10-27

    Seven species of Colombian Euplocania, are here described and illustrated, they increase to 16 the number of species in the genus, eight of which are endemic to Colombia. A new species group is also described.

  13. The oldest psyllipsocid booklice, in Lower Cretaceous amber from Lebanon (Psocodea, Trogiomorpha, Psocathropetae, Psyllipsocidae)

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Dany; Nel, André

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Libanopsyllipsocus alexanderasnitsyni gen. et sp. n., of Psyllipsocidae is described and figured from the Lower Cretaceous amber of Lebanon. The position of the new taxon is discussed and the fossil is compared to other psyllipsocids. The species represents the earliest record of the family Psyllipsocidae. PMID:22259273

  14. New species of Triplocania Roesler with forewing M3 forked (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Ptiloneuridae), from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira; Rafael, José Albertino; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2014-07-16

    Four new Brazilian species of Triplocania with forewing M3 forked are described and illustrated based on male specimens, namely: Triplocania lamasi n.sp. (Mato Grosso: Brazil), Triplocania mariateresae n.sp. (Rio de Janeiro: Brazil), Triplocania newi n.sp. (Tocantins: Brazil) and Triplocania plaumanni n.sp. (Santa Catarina: Brasil). They differ from all the other species in the genus, in which the males are known, by the hypandrium and phallosome structures.

  15. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Menachem

    1989-01-01

    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  16. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Menachem

    1989-01-01

    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  17. Aging: What to Expect

    MedlinePlus

    ... 60/healthy-habits/. Accessed Sept. 30, 2015. AgePage: Skin care and aging. National Institute on Aging. https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/skin-care-and-aging. Accessed Sept. 30, 2015. Adults over 60: Concerns. ...

  18. The Biology of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprott, Richard L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen articles in this special issue discuss aging theories, biomarkers of aging, aging research, disease, cancer biology, Alzheimer's disease, stress, oxidation of proteins, gene therapy, service delivery, biogerontology, and ethics and aging research. (SK)

  19. The Biology of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprott, Richard L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen articles in this special issue discuss aging theories, biomarkers of aging, aging research, disease, cancer biology, Alzheimer's disease, stress, oxidation of proteins, gene therapy, service delivery, biogerontology, and ethics and aging research. (SK)

  20. Biological age versus physical fitness age.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, E; Moritani, T; Kanetaka, A

    1989-01-01

    A population of healthy middle-aged (n = 69) and elderly men (n = 12), who participated in a health promotion program, was studied to determine whether really physically fit individuals are in good biological condition, and also whether improvement of physical fitness in the middle-aged and the elderly reduces their "rate of aging". Biological and physical fitness ages of the individuals studied were estimated from the data for 18 physiological function tests and 5 physical fitness tests, respectively, by a principal component model. The correlation coefficient between the estimated biological and physical fitness ages was 0.72 (p less than 0.01). Detailed analyses of the relationship between the estimated biological and physical fitness ages revealed that those who manifested a higher ("older") physical fitness age did not necessarily have a higher biological age, but those who manifested a lower ("younger") physical fitness age were also found to have a lower biological age. These results suggested that there were considerable individual variations in the relationship between biological condition and physical fitness among individuals with an old physical fitness age, but those who were in a state of high physical fitness maintained a relatively good biological condition. The data regarding the elderly men who had maintained a regular exercise program indicated that their estimated biological ages were considerably younger than the expected values. This might suggest that in older individuals regular physical activity may provide physiological improvements which in turn might reduce "the rate of aging".

  1. Avoiding Aging? Social Psychology's Treatment of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Anne E.; Redmond, Rebecca; von Rohr, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Population aging, in conjunction with social and cultural transformations of the life course, has profound implications for social systems--from large-scale structures to micro-level processes. However, much of sociology remains fairly quiet on issues of age and aging, including the subfield of social psychology that could illuminate the impact of…

  2. Old age psychiatry in the modern age.

    PubMed

    Warner, James P

    2015-11-01

    Old age psychiatry services globally are under threat. The discipline enjoyed its heyday in the two decades bridging the millennium. More recently there has been a move to integrate old age services with those of working age adults, to create 'ageless' services. Evidence is beginning to accumulate that this is a bad idea. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  3. Avoiding Aging? Social Psychology's Treatment of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Anne E.; Redmond, Rebecca; von Rohr, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Population aging, in conjunction with social and cultural transformations of the life course, has profound implications for social systems--from large-scale structures to micro-level processes. However, much of sociology remains fairly quiet on issues of age and aging, including the subfield of social psychology that could illuminate the impact of…

  4. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhou; Yu, Janchun; Zhu, Aiqin; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of "microglia aging." This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging.

  5. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhou; Yu, Janchun; Zhu, Aiqin; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of “microglia aging.” This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging. PMID:26941889

  6. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administration on Aging Administration on Disabilities Center for Integrated Programs Center for Performance and Evaluation National Institute ... Project Aging Statistics Profile of Older Americans AGing Integrated Database (AGID) Census Data & Population Estimates Projected Future ...

  7. Corrected Age for Preemies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Preemie > Corrected Age For Preemies Ages & Stages ...

  8. Administration on Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) The Administration on Aging (AOA) is the ... themselves. Back to top Older Americans Act and Aging Network To meet the diverse needs of the ...

  9. Exercise and age

    MedlinePlus

    Age and exercise ... It is never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry ... as you age. The right kind of regular exercise can also reduce your risk of heart disease, ...

  10. Aging Periodontium, Aging Patient: Current Concepts.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Mark

    2015-08-01

    A functioning natural dentition is essential to maintaining overall health in the elderly patient. While age-related alterations in periodontal tissues and the immune system may make an elderly patient more susceptible to periodontal breakdown, age itself is not a major risk factor for periodontal diseases. Rather, individual age-associated factors such as systemic diseases, medications and changes in behavior, motor function and cognitive function should be considered for each elderly patient when making treatment decisions.

  11. [Age(ing), ambivalence and mimicry].

    PubMed

    Küpper, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This essay aims to show that the concept of ambivalence could prove especially productive for gerontology. It is known that age(ing) is a category that is characterized by difference and at the same time delineates a process. Ambivalence is eminently suitable for capturing this duality as it enables us to take into account the dynamics peculiar to age(ing) and move beyond those conventional rigid distinctions which fail to grasp key nuances. These theoretical considerations will be put to the test by looking at the so-called young-old and their ambivalent positioning as well as their own mimicry of the middle-agers.

  12. [Demographic aging and old age pension insurance].

    PubMed

    Dybova, B

    1989-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the aging of the Czechoslovak population and the problems it may create in the future. Comparisons are made between the numbers of people receiving old-age pensions in 1985 with projected numbers for 2005. The author warns of social problems created by the probable dependency burden. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  13. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It becomes thinner, ... if they bother you. See additional resources on aging skin, including information on treatment options, specific conditions, and ...

  14. Aging and Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Networker, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special edition of "The Networker" contains several articles focusing on aging and cerebral palsy (CP). "Aging and Cerebral Palsy: Pathways to Successful Aging" (Jenny C. Overeynder) reports on the National Invitational Colloquium on Aging and Cerebral Palsy held in April 1993. "Observations from an Observer" (Kathleen K. Barrett) describes…

  15. Reprogramming aging and progeria.

    PubMed

    Freije, José M P; López-Otín, Carlos

    2012-12-01

    The aging rate of an organism depends on the ratio of tissue degeneration to tissue repair. As a consequence, molecular alterations that tip this balance toward degeneration cause accelerated aging. Conversely, interventions can be pursued to reduce tissue degeneration or to increase tissue repair with the aim of delaying the onset of age-associated manifestations. Recent studies on the biology of stem cells in aging have revealed the influence of systemic factors on their functionality and demonstrated the feasibility of reprogramming aged and progeroid cells. These results illustrate the reversibility of some aspects of the aging process and encourage the search for new anti-aging and anti-progeria interventions.

  16. Epigenetic Control of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Sedivy, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Organismal aging and longevity are influenced by many complex interacting factors. Epigenetics has recently emerged as another possible determinant of aging. Here, we review some of the epigenetic pathways that contribute to cellular senescence and age-associated phenotypes. Strategies aimed to reverse age-linked epigenetic alterations may lead to the development of new therapeutic interventions to delay or alleviate some of the most debilitating age-associated diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 241–259. PMID:20518699

  17. EZ_Ages: Stellar population age calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Genevieve J.

    2014-07-01

    EZ_Ages is an IDL code package that computes the mean, light-weighted stellar population age, [Fe/H], and abundance enhancements [Mg/Fe], [C/Fe], [N/Fe], and [Ca/Fe] for unresolved stellar populations. This is accomplished by comparing Lick index line strengths between the data and the stellar population models of Schiavon (2007), using a method described in Graves & Schiavon (2008). The algorithm uses the inversion of index-index model grids to determine ages and abundances, and exploits the sensitivities of the various Lick indices to measure Mg, C, N, and Ca enhancements over their solar abundances with respect to Fe.

  18. Aging: phenomena and theories.

    PubMed

    Harman, D

    1998-11-20

    Aging is the accumulation of diverse adverse changes that increase the risk of death. These changes can be attributed to development, genetic defects, the environment, disease, and the inborn aging process. The chance of death at a given age serves as a measure of the number of accumulated aging changes, that is, of physiologic age, and the rate of change of this measure, as the rate of aging. As living conditions in a population approach optimum, the curve of the logarithm of the chance of death versus age shifts towards a limit determined by the sum of (1) the irreducible contributions to the chance of death by aging changes that can be prevented to varying degrees, and (2) those due to the intrinsic aging process. In the developed countries living conditions are now near optimum, and the ALE-Bs are about 6-9 years less than the potential maximum of around 85 years. The inborn aging process is now the major risk factor for disease and death after about age 28. By age 28 only 1 to 2% of a cohort is dead, the remaining 98 to 99% die at an exponentially increasing rate determined by the aging process. This process ensures that few reach 100 years and none exceed about 122 years. Many theories have been advanced to account for the aging process. No single theory is generally accepted. Theories that can contribute to the important practical goal of increasing the healthy, useful span of humans will endure.

  19. Age determination of raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grau, G.A.; Sanderson, G.C.; Rogers, J.P.

    1970-01-01

    Age criteria, based on 61 skulls and eye lenses from 103 known-age captives, are described for separating raccoons (Procyon lotor) into eight age-classes as follows: young-of-the-year, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, > 7 years. Criteria studied were eye lens nitrogen, cranial suture closure, tooth wear and incisor cementum layers. Lens nitrogen increased rapidly up to 12 months of age, but at much reduced rate thereafter. Total lens nitrogen was useful only in separating young-of-the-year from adults. The closure sequence for five cranial sutures accurately divided the total known-age sample of males into seven groups, and the adults into five groups. The tooth wear criteria divided the known-age sample into five relative age groups, but aging of individuals by this method was inaccurate. Histological sectioning of known-age teeth was the best method of observing layering in the cementum tissue. The technique of basing estimation of age on cementum ring counts, although subjective, was accurate for aging individuals through their fourth year but tended to underestimate the age of animals over 4 years old. However, suture closure or tooth wear can be used to identify males over 4 years old. In field studies, technical difficulties limit the utility of age estimation by cementum layers. Maximum root thickness of the lower canine was accurate in determining the sex of individuals from 5 months to ,at least 48 months of age.

  20. Aging in culture.

    PubMed

    Fung, Helene H

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the empirical studies that test socioemotional aging across cultures. The review focuses on comparisons between Western (mostly North Americans and Germans) and Eastern cultures (mostly Chinese) in areas including age-related personality, social relationships, and cognition. Based on the review, I argue that aging is a meaning-making process. Individuals from each cultural context internalize cultural values with age. These internalized cultural values become goals that guide adult development. When individuals from different cultures each pursue their own goals with age, cultural differences in socioemotional aging occur.

  1. Aging of gaseous detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Va'Vra, J.

    1990-03-01

    This paper makes an overview of developments in the wire chamber aging field since the wire chamber aging workshop held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California on January 16--17, 1986. The author discusses new techniques to analyze the gas impurities and the wire aging products, wire nonaging'' in clean systems, wire aging in systems containing various impurities, various examples of problems which can prime'' surfaces prior to the occurrence of the aging, and some recent aging experience with the SSC micro-straw tubes.'' 35 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Trends in Neurocognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Preface The availability of neuroimaging technology has spurred a marked increase in the human cognitive neuroscience literature, including the study of cognitive aging. Although there is a growing consensus that the aging brain retains considerable plasticity of function, currently measured primarily by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging, it is less clear how age differences in brain activity relate to cognitive performance. The field also is hampered by the complexity of the aging process itself and the large number of factors that are influenced by age. In this review, current trends and unresolved issues in the cognitive neuroscience of aging are discussed. PMID:22714020

  3. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species Ptilinus costatus Gyllenhal, 1827, designated herein) syn. nov. of Ptilinus Geoffroy, 1762 (Ptinidae), Paniscus Gistel, 1848 (type species Scarabaeus fasciatus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Trichius Fabricius, 1775 (Scarabaeidae), Phibalus Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela pubescens Linnaeus, 1758, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Omophlus Dejean, 1834 (Tenebrionidae). The following new replacement name is proposed: Gompeliina Bouchard, 2011 nom. nov. for Olotelina Báguena Corella, 1948 (Aderidae). Reversal of Precedence (Article 23.9) is used to conserve usage of the following names (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Perigonini Horn, 1881 nom. protectum over Trechicini Bates, 1873 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Anisodactylina Lacordaire, 1854 nom. protectum over Eurytrichina LeConte, 1848 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Smicronychini Seidlitz, 1891 nom. protectum over Desmorini LeConte, 1876 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Bagoinae Thomson, 1859 nom. protectum over Lyprinae Gistel 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Aterpina Lacordaire, 1863 nom. protectum over Heliomenina Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Naupactini Gistel, 1848 nom. protectum over Iphiini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Cleonini Schönherr, 1826 nom. protectum over Geomorini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Magdalidini Pascoe, 1870 nom. protectum over Scardamyctini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Agrypninae/-ini Candèze, 1857 nom. protecta over Adelocerinae/-ini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblita and Pangaurinae/-ini Gistel, 1856 nom. oblita (Elateridae), Prosternini Gistel, 1856 nom. protectum over Diacanthini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Elateridae), Calopodinae Costa, 1852 nom. protectum over Sparedrinae Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Oedemeridae), Adesmiini Lacordaire, 1859 nom. protectum over Macropodini Agassiz, 1846 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Bolitophagini Kirby, 1837 nom. protectum over Eledonini Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Throscidae Laporte, 1840 nom. protectum over Stereolidae Rafinesque, 1815 nom. oblitum (Throscidae) and Lophocaterini Crowson, 1964 over Lycoptini Casey, 1890 nom. oblitum (Trogossitidae); Monotoma Herbst, 1799 nom. protectum over Monotoma Panzer, 1792 nom. oblitum (Monotomidae); Pediacus Shuckard, 1839 nom. protectum over Biophloeus Dejean, 1835 nom. oblitum (Cucujidae), Pachypus Dejean, 1821 nom. protectum over Pachypus Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Scarabaeidae), Sparrmannia Laporte, 1840 nom. protectum over Leocaeta Dejean, 1833 nom. oblitum and Cephalotrichia Hope, 1837 nom. oblitum (Scarabaeidae). PMID:21594053

  4. DNA Barcodes for Nearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, Eric; Hebert, P. D. N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown the suitability of sequence variation in the 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of species in a wide range of animal groups. We examined 471 species in 147 genera of Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects to assess the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in this group. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 93% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 2% in 70% of congeneric species pairs. Although most species are characterized by a distinct sequence cluster, sequences for members of many groups of closely related species either shared sequences or showed close similarity, with 25% of species separated from their nearest neighbor by less than 1%. Conclusions/Significance This study, although preliminary, provides DNA barcodes for about 8% of the species of this hemipteran suborder found in North America north of Mexico. Barcodes can enable the identification of many species of Auchenorrhyncha, but members of some species groups cannot be discriminated. Future use of DNA barcodes in regulatory, pest management, and environmental applications will be possible as the barcode library for Auchenorrhyncha expands to include more species and broader geographic coverage. PMID:25004106

  5. Morphology of arolia in Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta, Hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Friedemann, Katrin; Beutel, Rolf G

    2014-11-01

    The pretarsal arolium serves as an attachment device in many groups of insects, enabling them to walk efficiently on smooth surfaces, where claws alone do not provide sufficient foothold. The arolia of representatives of all major lineages of Auchenorrhyncha are described and illustrated, mainly using scanning electron microscopy and histology. Glands inside the lumen of the arolia are described for the first time in this group. It is shown that the morphology of arolia within Auchenorrhyncha differs considerably. Some of them are even distinctly bilobed. The cuticle of the contact zone is thickened and formed of branching chitinous rods. In some cases, two layers of rods oriented in different directions were found. An extended definition of "arolium" is proposed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Overview: Identification characters of Lepidoptera eggs (Insecta)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth. The egg stage is the least known biological stage of moths and butterflies and there have been very few comparative studies. The purpose of this video is to provide the few, major characteristics of Lepidoptera...

  7. Flight adaptations in Palaeozoic Palaeoptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Wootton, R J; Kukalová-Peck, J

    2000-02-01

    The use of available morphological characters in the interpretation of the flight of insects known only as fossils is reviewed, and the principles are then applied to elucidating the flight performance and techniques of Palaeozoic palaeopterous insects. Wing-loadings and pterothorax mass/total mass ratios are estimated and aspect ratios and shape-descriptors are derived for a selection of species, and the functional significance of wing characters discussed. Carboniferous and Permian ephemeropteroids ('mayflies') show major differences from modern forms in morphology and presumed flight ability, whereas Palaeozoic odonatoids ('dragonflies') show early adaptation to aerial predation on a wide size-range of prey, closely paralleling modern dragonflies and damselflies in shape and wing design but lacking some performance-related structural refinements. The extensive adaptive radiation in form and flight technique in the haustellate orders Palaeodictyoptera, Megasecoptera, Diaphanopterodea and Permothemistida is examined and discussed in the context of Palaeozoic ecology.

  8. Mathematical models for Isoptera (Insecta) mound growth.

    PubMed

    Buschini, M L T; Abuabara, M A P; Petrere-Jr, Miguel

    2008-08-01

    In this research we proposed two mathematical models for Isoptera mound growth derived from the Von Bertalanffy growth curve, one appropriated for Nasutitermes coxipoensis, and a more general formulation. The mean height and the mean diameter of ten small colonies were measured each month for twelve months, from April, 1995 to April, 1996. Through these data, the monthly volumes were calculated for each of them. Then the growth in height and in volume was estimated and the models proposed.

  9. Ages and Stages: Teen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen Teen Article Body Adolescence can be a rough ...

  10. Aging changes in skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes than people with darker, more heavily pigmented skin. AGING CHANGES With aging, the outer skin layer (epidermis) ... melanocytes) decreases. The remaining melanocytes increase in ... looks thinner, paler, and clear (translucent). Large pigmented ...

  11. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choose the Best Skin Care Products Neuromodulators for Aging Skin Treatment Options Learn more about treatment options for ... MD - Los Angeles, California Why choose neuromodulators for aging skin Non-invasive — does not require surgery. Can be ...

  12. Hsps and aging.

    PubMed

    Tower, John

    2009-07-01

    Heat-shock proteins (Hsps) are increasingly being implicated in aging phenotypes and control of life span across species. They are targets of the conserved heat-shock factor and insulin/IGF1-like signaling pathways that affect life span and aging phenotypes. Hsps are expressed in tissue-specific and disease-specific patterns during aging, and their level of expression and induction by stress correlates with and, in some instances, predicts life span. In model organisms, Hsps have been shown to increase life span and ameliorate aging-associated proteotoxicity. Finally, Hsps have emerged as key components in regulating aging-related cellular phenotypes, including cell senescence, apoptosis and cancer. The Hsps, therefore, provide a metric of individual stress and aging and are potential targets for interventions in aging and aging-related diseases.

  13. Aging According to Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Uses Erik Erikson's work to discuss how biographies treat aging. Explores how developmental theorists observe biographical representations of the life cycle and its applicability to aging. (Author/BHK)

  14. Mitochondria and Cardiovascular Aging

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Dao-Fu; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    Old age is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Several lines of evidence in experimental animal models have indicated the central role of mitochondria both in lifespan determination and cardiovascular aging. In this article we review the evidence supporting the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and biogenesis as well as the crosstalk between mitochondria and cellular signaling in cardiac and vascular aging. Intrinsic cardiac aging in the murine model closely recapitulates age-related cardiac changes in humans (left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction), while the phenotype of vascular aging include endothelial dysfunction, reduced vascular elasticity and chronic vascular inflammation. Both cardiac and vascular aging involve neurohormonal signaling (e.g. renin-angiotensin, adrenergic, insulin-IGF1 signaling) and cell-autonomous mechanisms. The potential therapeutic strategies to improve mitochondrial function in aging and cardiovascular diseases are also discussed, with a focus on mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants, calorie restriction, calorie restriction mimetics and exercise training. PMID:22499901

  15. Aging According to Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Uses Erik Erikson's work to discuss how biographies treat aging. Explores how developmental theorists observe biographical representations of the life cycle and its applicability to aging. (Author/BHK)

  16. [Aging and gynecologic cancer].

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Arturo A

    2005-01-01

    The interrelation between cancer and ageing in women is emphasized, on its increased incidence, in their molecular background, into the particular biological characteristics of the different tumors and the effects of ageing in the affected women.

  17. [Old age workers].

    PubMed

    Izmerov, N F

    2012-01-01

    The author demonstrates that in conditions of demographic aging an important contribution in solving the task set in "Strategy 2020" on more efficient usage of working resources could be involvement of occupational potential of old age workers, e.g. through changeable working schedules, outwork and distance work. With that, employment level at old age should consider performance level, health state and psycho-physiologic potential of the certain age group.

  18. Aging is not programmed

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-01-01

    Aging is not and cannot be programmed. Instead, aging is a continuation of developmental growth, driven by genetic pathways such as mTOR. Ironically, this is often misunderstood as a sort of programmed aging. In contrast, aging is a purposeless quasi-program or, figuratively, a shadow of actual programs. “The brightest flame casts the darkest shadow.” -George Martin PMID:24240128

  19. English Education and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)

  20. The School Age Criminal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgenstern, Robert

    School age crime has increased a great deal in recent decades and a review of types of school age criminals may help school officials develop policies and programs to handle the problem. Both increased crime and improved news coverage have made the general public more concerned about school crime and school age criminals. A comparison of crime…

  1. English Education and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)

  2. Anatomy of ageing face.

    PubMed

    Ilankovan, V

    2014-03-01

    Ageing is a biological process that results from changes at a cellular level, particularly modification of mRNA. The face is affected by the same physiological process and results in skeletal, muscular, and cutaneous ageing; ligamentous attenuation, descent of fat, and ageing of the appendages. I describe these changes on a structural and clinical basis and summarise possible solutions for a rejuvenation surgeon.

  3. Functional Age and Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaie, K. Warner

    Mandatory retirement because of chronological age is coming under increasing attack and, at least in the United States, it is likely that there may soon be legislative prohibitions against forcing individuals to retire because of age. As a consequence there is renewed interest in redefining retirement criteria in terms of a functional age concept…

  4. Mechanisms of lung aging.

    PubMed

    Brandenberger, Christina; Mühlfeld, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Lung aging is associated with structural remodeling, a decline of respiratory function and a higher susceptibility to acute and chronic lung diseases. Individual factors that modulate pulmonary aging include basic genetic configuration, environmental exposure, life-style and biography of systemic diseases. However, the actual aging of the lung takes place in pulmonary resident cells and is closely linked to aging of the immune system (immunosenescence). Therefore, this article reviews the current knowledge about the impact of aging on pulmonary cells and the immune system, without analyzing those factors that may accelerate the aging process in depth. Hallmarks of aging include alterations at molecular, cellular and cell-cell interaction levels. Because of the great variety of cell types in the lung, the consequences of aging display a broad spectrum of phenotypes. For example, aging is associated with more collagen and less elastin production by fibroblasts, thus increasing pulmonary stiffness and lowering compliance. Decreased sympathetic airway innervation may increase the constriction status of airway smooth muscle cells. Aging of resident and systemic immune cells leads to a pro-inflammatory milieu and reduced capacity of fighting infectious diseases. The current review provides an overview of cellular changes occurring with advancing age in general and in several cell types of the lung as well as of the immune system. Thereby, this survey not only aims at providing a better understanding of the mechanisms of pulmonary aging but also to identify gaps in knowledge that warrant further investigations.

  5. Exercise and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    In this presentation on exercise and aging, the following explanations are made: the nature of physical fitness, physical fitness values, the importance of recognizing individual differences, physiological changes occurring with age through the adult years, physical fitness studies pertaining to middle-aged persons, the trainability of older…

  6. Age and Terrorist Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trela, James; Hewitt, Christopher

    While research has examined how age-related factors structure the probability of experiencing a particular event or suffering a particular kind of injury, one issue which has not been empirically addressed is the age structure of victimization from terrorist activity and civil strife. To explore the relationship between age and terrorist…

  7. Aging and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor's Office for Senior Citizens, Chicago, IL.

    The process of learning with respect to age is discussed. Learning may be defined as the acquisition of information or skills. Three non-cognitive factors varying with age are loss of speed, health, and motivation. Studies on learning in relation to age have not controlled for non-learning factors. Perceptual and psychomotor studies are not…

  8. Language and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; Anagnopoulos, Cheryl

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the effects of aging on language usage focusing on three areas of exploration: (1) changes in language in relation to changes in other cognitive abilities, (2) the linguistic consequences of normal aging versus those of dementia and aphasia, and (3) age-group differences in patterns of conversational interaction. (67 references) (GLR)

  9. Havana: aging in an aging city.

    PubMed

    Coyula, Miguel

    2010-10-01

    In Cuba, various factors have led to nearly zero population growth and a rapidly aging society. In a few years, the rush of baby-boomers reaching retirement will stand the population pyramid on its head, as the country's life expectancy already nears 80 years. Almost 20% of all Cubans live in Havana, demographically and structurally an aging city. Yet, the city is not prepared to offer its older inhabitants the spaces, services and housing options they require for a healthy quality of life. Studies must be undertaken to address this issue comprehensively, generating creative alternatives for wise use of limited resources to fulfill the material, social and spiritual needs of this growing population sector. KEYWORDS Aging, quality of life, social environment, urban health, housing for the elderly, Cuba.

  10. Studying aging in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-06-15

    Drosophila melanogaster represents one of the most important genetically accessible model organisms for aging research. Studies in flies have identified single gene mutations that influence lifespan and have characterized endocrine signaling interactions that control homeostasis systemically. Recent studies have focused on the effects of aging on specific tissues and physiological processes, providing a comprehensive picture of age-related tissue dysfunction and the loss of systemic homeostasis. Here we review methodological aspects of this work and highlight technical considerations when using Drosophila to study aging and age-related diseases.

  11. Social and Emotional Aging

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Susan; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    The past several decades have witnessed unidimensional decline models of aging give way to life-span developmental models that consider how specific processes and strategies facilitate adaptive aging. In part, this shift was provoked by the stark contrast between findings that clearly demonstrate decreased biological, physiological, and cognitive capacity with those suggesting that people are generally satisfied in old age and experience relatively high levels of emotional well-being. In recent years, this supposed “paradox” of aging has been reconciled through careful theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Viewing aging as adaptation sheds light on resilience, wellbeing, and emotional distress across adulthood. PMID:19575618

  12. [Molecular physiology of aging].

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Morozov, V G; Malinin, V V

    2001-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the analysis of the peptide bioregulators role in molecular mechanisms of ageing and age-related pathology development. There has been put forward the concept of peptide regulation of ageing based on the priority data of authors long-term investigations on inhibition of involution processes in organs and tissues developed with age and restoration of specific proteins synthesis in cells under the influence of natural and synthetic peptide bioregulators. The prospects of peptide bioregulators employment in gerontological practice are being discussed in the paper with the purpose of treatment and prevention of age-associated pathology and human longevity increase.

  13. Aging and Vision.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Marcel V

    2016-01-01

    Aging involves defined genetic, biochemical and cellular pathways that regulate lifespan. These pathways are called longevity pathways and they have relevance for many age-related diseases. In the eye, longevity pathways are involved in the major blinding diseases, cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy. Pharmaceutical targeting of longevity pathways can extend healthy lifespan in laboratory model systems. This offers the possibility of therapeutic interventions to also delay onset or slow the progression of age-related eye diseases. I suggest that retinal degeneration may be viewed as accelerated aging of photoreceptors and that interventions extending healthy lifespan may also slow the pace of photoreceptor loss.

  14. Carcinogenesis and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, V.N.; Petrov, N.N.

    1987-01-01

    This 2-voluem set discusses the problem of inter-relation between carcinogenesis and aging, and the phenomenon of age-related increase in cancer incidence in animals and humans. Covered topics include current concepts in mechanisms of carcinogenesis and aging; data on chemical, radiation, ultraviolet-light, hormonal and viral carcinogenesis in aging; data on the role of age-related shifts in the activity of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes; binding of carcinogens with macromolecules; DNA repair; tissue proliferation; and immunity and homono-metabolic patterns in realization of initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis.

  15. UV, stress and aging.

    PubMed

    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic-also called "photo-aging"-resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on the cell type (fibroblasts or keratinocytes, normal or immortalized) and the type of UV used (UVA or UVB).

  16. Computational biology for ageing.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Daniela; Papatheodorou, Irene; Ziehm, Matthias; Thornton, Janet M

    2011-01-12

    High-throughput genomic and proteomic technologies have generated a wealth of publicly available data on ageing. Easy access to these data, and their computational analysis, is of great importance in order to pinpoint the causes and effects of ageing. Here, we provide a description of the existing databases and computational tools on ageing that are available for researchers. We also describe the computational approaches to data interpretation in the field of ageing including gene expression, comparative and pathway analyses, and highlight the challenges for future developments. We review recent biological insights gained from applying bioinformatics methods to analyse and interpret ageing data in different organisms, tissues and conditions.

  17. Computational biology for ageing

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Daniela; Papatheodorou, Irene; Ziehm, Matthias; Thornton, Janet M.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput genomic and proteomic technologies have generated a wealth of publicly available data on ageing. Easy access to these data, and their computational analysis, is of great importance in order to pinpoint the causes and effects of ageing. Here, we provide a description of the existing databases and computational tools on ageing that are available for researchers. We also describe the computational approaches to data interpretation in the field of ageing including gene expression, comparative and pathway analyses, and highlight the challenges for future developments. We review recent biological insights gained from applying bioinformatics methods to analyse and interpret ageing data in different organisms, tissues and conditions. PMID:21115530

  18. Aging, longevity and health

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Sander, Miriam; Wewer, Ulla M.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2016-01-01

    The IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health, held on 5–7 October 2010 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was hosted by Rector Ralf Hemmingsen, University of Copenhagen and Dean Ulla Wewer, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen and was organized by Center for Healthy Aging (CEHA) under the leadership of CEHA Managing Director Lene Juel Rasmussen and Prof. Vilhelm Bohr, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, USA (associated to CEHA). The Congress was attended by approximately 125 researchers interested in and/or conducting research on aging and aging-related topics. The opening Congress Session included speeches by Ralf Hemmingsen, Ulla Wewer, and Lene Juel Rasmussen and Keynote Addresses by four world renowned aging researchers: Povl Riis (The Age Forum), Bernard Jeune (University of Southern Denmark), George Martin (University of Washington, USA) and Jan Vijg (Albert Einstein School of Medicine, USA) as well as a lecture discussing the art-science interface by Thomas Söderqvist (Director, Medical Museion, University of Copenhagen). The topics of the first six Sessions of the Congress were: Neuroscience and DNA damage, Aging and Stress, Life Course, Environmental Factors and Neuroscience, Muscle and Life Span and Life Span and Mechanisms. Two additional Sessions highlighted ongoing research in the recently established Center for Healthy Aging at the University of Copenhagen. This report highlights outcomes of recent research on aging-related topics, as described at the IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health. PMID:21820462

  19. Aging, longevity and health.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Sander, Miriam; Wewer, Ulla M; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2011-10-01

    The IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health, held on 5-7 October 2010 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was hosted by Rector Ralf Hemmingsen, University of Copenhagen and Dean Ulla Wewer, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen and was organized by Center for Healthy Aging (CEHA) under the leadership of CEHA Managing Director Lene Juel Rasmussen and Prof. Vilhelm Bohr, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, USA (associated to CEHA). The Congress was attended by approximately 125 researchers interested in and/or conducting research on aging and aging-related topics. The opening Congress Session included speeches by Ralf Hemmingsen, Ulla Wewer, and Lene Juel Rasmussen and Keynote Addresses by four world renowned aging researchers: Povl Riis (The Age Forum), Bernard Jeune (University of Southern Denmark), George Martin (University of Washington, USA) and Jan Vijg (Albert Einstein School of Medicine, USA) as well as a lecture discussing the art-science interface by Thomas Söderqvist (Director, Medical Museion, University of Copenhagen). The topics of the first six Sessions of the Congress were: Neuroscience and DNA damage, Aging and Stress, Life Course, Environmental Factors and Neuroscience, Muscle and Life Span and Life Span and Mechanisms. Two additional Sessions highlighted ongoing research in the recently established Center for Healthy Aging at the University of Copenhagen. This report highlights outcomes of recent research on aging-related topics, as described at the IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health.

  20. Ageing and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chia-Wei; Chen, Yu-Chih; Hsieh, Wan-Ling; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Kao, Chung-Lan

    2010-11-01

    Ageing, which all creatures must encounter, is a challenge to every living organism. In the human body, it is estimated that cell division and metabolism occurs exuberantly until about 25 years of age. Beyond this age, subsidiary products of metabolism and cell damage accumulate, and the phenotypes of ageing appear, causing disease formation. Among these age-related diseases, neurodegenerative diseases have drawn a lot of attention due to their irreversibility, lack of effective treatment, and accompanied social and economical burdens. In seeking to ameliorate ageing and age-related diseases, the search for anti-ageing drugs has been of much interest. Numerous studies have shown that the plant polyphenol, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), extends the lifespan of several species, prevents age-related diseases, and possesses anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. The beneficial effects of resveratrol are believed to be associated with the activation of a longevity gene, SirT1. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and cerebrovascular disease. The therapeutic potential of resveratrol, diet and the roles of stem cell therapy are discussed to provide a better understanding of the ageing mystery.

  1. Comparison of cable ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaček, Vít; Kohout, Tomáš

    2010-03-01

    Two cable types, which currently are used in nuclear power plants (NPP) and which are composed by jacket/insulation materials, i.e. PVC/PVC and PVC/PE, were exposed to accelerated ageing conditions, in order to simulate their behavior after 10 years in service. The cables were aged under two different test conditions: With relatively high accelerating ageing speed:Radiation ageing was carried out at room temperature at a dose rate of 2900 Gy/h, followed by thermal ageing at 100 °C. This accelerated ageing condition was fairly fast, but still in compliance with the standards. With moderate ageing speed:The radiation and thermal ageing was performed simultaneously (superimposed) at a dose rate of 2.7-3.7Gy/h and a temperature of 68-70 °C. Such a test condition seems to be very close to the radiation and temperature impact onto the cables in the real NPP service. Finally, mechanical properties were measured to characterize the ageing status of the cables. The purpose of this study was to compare degradation effects, derived from both ageing methods, and to demonstrate that results obtained from high values of accelerating parameters and from fast ageing simulation can be very different from reality. The observed results corroborated this assumption.

  2. The Hallmarks of Aging

    PubMed Central

    López-Otín, Carlos; Blasco, Maria A.; Partridge, Linda; Serrano, Manuel; Kroemer, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of physiological integrity, leading to impaired function and increased vulnerability to death. This deterioration is the primary risk factor for major human pathologies including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. Aging research has experienced an unprecedented advance over recent years, particularly with the discovery that the rate of aging is controlled, at least to some extent, by genetic pathways and biochemical processes conserved in evolution. This review enumerates nine tentative hallmarks that represent common denominators of aging in different organisms, with special emphasis on mammalian aging. These hallmarks are: genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient-sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication. A major challenge is to dissect the interconnectedness between the candidate hallmarks and their relative contribution to aging, with the final goal of identifying pharmaceutical targets to improve human health during aging with minimal side-effects. PMID:23746838

  3. Aging and the aged in Aesopic fables.

    PubMed

    Wortley, J

    1997-01-01

    Little attempt has been made to re-assess the attitudes to aging and old age of the ancient-medieval Greek-speaking world on the basis of the literary remains (which are common to both) since Richardson (1933). There are however some collections (proverbs, sayings, "purple passages" from literature and so forth) which include material revealing attitudes which are in fact quite different from those of today and which can even be surprising. One such collection, the large number of fables which more or less conform to the genre associated with Aesop, is here analyzed to isolate the texts which have to do with aging and the attitudes they reveal. Of the surprisingly few fables which touch upon the matter, most are distinctly complimentary. In most instances the elderly are seen to increase, rather diminish, in certain powers other than physical strength. Fables are found which characterize them as being astute, intelligent, crafty, loyal and, above all, capable of giving sound advice and good leadership when the situation requires it of them. The celebrated Fable of the Tortoise and the Hare, although it was not specifically interpreted in this way in ancient times, best sums up the general attitude: that dogged persistence (the characteristic of the elderly) will ultimately prove superior to all the erratic bursts of youthful speed anytime. Hence Cicero: "Old age is more spirited than youth, and stronger!"

  4. Menopause accelerates biological aging

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Morgan E.; Lu, Ake T.; Chen, Brian H.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bandinelli, Stefania; Salfati, Elias; Manson, JoAnn E.; Quach, Austin; Kusters, Cynthia D. J.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Teschendorff, Andrew E.; Widschwendter, Martin; Ritz, Beate R.; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Horvath, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Although epigenetic processes have been linked to aging and disease in other systems, it is not yet known whether they relate to reproductive aging. Recently, we developed a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of age (known as the “epigenetic clock”), which is based on DNA methylation levels. Here we carry out an epigenetic clock analysis of blood, saliva, and buccal epithelium using data from four large studies: the Women's Health Initiative (n = 1,864); Invecchiare nel Chianti (n = 200); Parkinson's disease, Environment, and Genes (n = 256); and the United Kingdom Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (n = 790). We find that increased epigenetic age acceleration in blood is significantly associated with earlier menopause (P = 0.00091), bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0018), and a longer time since menopause (P = 0.017). Conversely, epigenetic age acceleration in buccal epithelium and saliva do not relate to age at menopause; however, a higher epigenetic age in saliva is exhibited in women who undergo bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0079), while a lower epigenetic age in buccal epithelium was found for women who underwent menopausal hormone therapy (P = 0.00078). Using genetic data, we find evidence of coheritability between age at menopause and epigenetic age acceleration in blood. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we find that two SNPs that are highly associated with age at menopause exhibit a significant association with epigenetic age acceleration. Overall, our Mendelian randomization approach and other lines of evidence suggest that menopause accelerates epigenetic aging of blood, but mechanistic studies will be needed to dissect cause-and-effect relationships further. PMID:27457926

  5. Aging of clean foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weon, Byung Mook; Stewart, Peter S.

    2014-11-01

    Aging is an inevitable process in living systems. Here we show how clean foams age with time through sequential coalescence events: in particular, foam aging resembles biological aging. We measure population dynamics of bubbles in clean foams through numerical simulations with a bubble network model. We demonstrate that death rates of individual bubbles increase exponentially with time, independent on initial conditions, which is consistent with the Gompertz mortality law as usually found in biological aging. This consistency suggests that clean foams as far-from-equilibrium dissipative systems are useful to explore biological aging. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST.

  6. Estrogens and aging skin

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity. Its protective function becomes compromised and aging is associated with impaired wound healing, hair loss, pigmentary changes and skin cancer.   Skin aging can be significantly delayed by the administration of estrogen. This paper reviews estrogen effects on human skin and the mechanisms by which estrogens can alleviate the changes due to aging. The relevance of estrogen replacement, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and phytoestrogens as therapies for diminishing skin aging is highlighted. Understanding estrogen signaling in skin will provide a basis for interventions in aging pathologies. PMID:24194966

  7. Replicative Aging in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Steinkraus, K.A.; Kaeberlein, M.; Kennedy, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    Progress in aging research is now rapid, and surprisingly, studies in a single-celled eukaryote are a driving force. The genetic modulators of replicative life span in yeast are being identified, the molecular events that accompany aging are being discovered, and the extent to which longevity pathways are conserved between yeast and multicellular eukaryotes is being tested. In this review, we provide a brief retrospective view on the development of yeast as a model for aging and then turn to recent discoveries that have pushed aging research into novel directions and also linked aging in yeast to well-developed hypotheses in mammals. Although the question of what causes aging still cannot be answered definitively, that day may be rapidly approaching. PMID:18616424

  8. The 'Age of Never'

    PubMed Central

    Paupst, James C.

    1984-01-01

    Specific clinical problems emerge in middle-aged men, not so much because of aging, but as a result of the path they have chosen to follow and their reaction to life experiences. For instance, the middle-aged executive has probably spent a lifetime working towards success. His daily existence is characterized by aggression, and his drive to conquer may make him prone to heart disease. Mild depression due to anxious self scrutiny also is common in middle age. Depression and fatigue may lead some patients to overindulge in food, alcohol and/or drugs. Others may become addicted to exercise. These patients look on pain as an ominous threat to their finely balanced daily ritual, and therefore may disregard the warning signs of injury or illness. In treating the problems of middle age, physicians should remember that most middle-aged patients have acquired some practical wisdom. PMID:21278995

  9. Age and injury severity.

    PubMed

    Brorsson, B

    1989-01-01

    This study aims at showing if and to what extent injury severity in frontal car crashes increases with the age of front seat occupants. Data on 2658 belted drivers and front seat passengers in Volvo private car series 140, 240 and 740/760, involved in frontal crashes were extracted from the Volvo Car Crash Register. The results show that the risk of injury resulting in "medical observation" does not increase systematically with age. However, the risk of fracture with any localization is more than three times higher among those aged 65-74 than in those aged 18-24, and the risk of fracture in the rib cage is nearly eleven times higher among the older than in the younger age group. It can be concluded that the incidence of specific types of injuries - as exemplified with fractures of any localization and fractures in the rib cage - increases with advancing age.

  10. Hemostasis and ageing.

    PubMed

    Mari, Daniela; Ogliari, Giulia; Castaldi, Davide; Vitale, Giovanni; Bollini, Elisa Mariadele; Lio, Domenico

    2008-10-23

    On March 19, 2008 a Symposium on Pathophysiology of Ageing and Age-Related Diseases was held in Palermo, Italy. The lecture of D. Mari on Hemostasis and ageing is summarized herein. Physiological ageing is associated with increased plasma levels of many proteins of blood coagulation together with fibrinolysis impairment. This may be of great concern in view of the known association between vascular and thromboembolic diseases and ageing. On the other hand, centenarians are characterized by a state of hypercoagulability and possession of several high-risk alleles and well-known atherothrombotic risk markers but this appears to be compatible with longevity and/or health. Parameters considered risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular diseases in young people may lose their biological significance in advanced age and assume a different role.

  11. The aging anesthesiologist.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jonathan D

    2016-04-01

    The average age of anesthesiologists in the USA is increasing. Advancing age is accompanied by challenges and opportunities to the individual anesthesiologist and his/her colleagues. This article will discuss the science behind policies to assure continued competence among these aging physicians and safety for their patients. There is growing evidence that aging anesthesiologists may be advantaged by a lifetime of experience but possibly disadvantaged under certain circumstances by lapses in current medical knowledge contributing to medical errors. Policies and procedures are emerging to assist in evaluating the continued competence of aging physicians. The average age of practicing anesthesiologists in the USA is increasing. As physicians continue to practice into later years, it is critical that innovative continuing medical education programs and objective evaluations of clinical skills and competence focused upon this group continue to be developed to assure public safety.

  12. The future of aging.

    PubMed

    Rowe, J W; Kahn, R L

    1999-02-01

    In 1984, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation funded a long-term research program that brought together 16 scientists from various disciplines to study what factors contribute to successful physical and mental aging. Last year, two of those scientists published Successful Aging, in which they discuss the study's generally encouraging findings. In the sections excerpted below, they share some sometimes surprising insights into how people age in America.

  13. Aging and cosmetic enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Honigman, Roberta; Castle, David J

    2006-01-01

    Obsession with a youthful appearance has become commonplace in modern society and has resulted in an upswing in cosmetic procedures trying to reverse the aging process. We selectively review the literature on aging and cosmetic surgery, with particular regard for the aging face. We pay attention to psychosocial aspects of response to such cosmetic procedures, both in terms of outcome and with respect to risk factors for a poor outcome. PMID:18044108

  14. Muscle Changes in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Siparsky, Patrick N.; Kirkendall, Donald T.; Garrett, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle physiology in the aging athlete is complex. Sarcopenia, the age-related decrease in lean muscle mass, can alter activity level and affect quality of life. This review addresses the microscopic and macroscopic changes in muscle with age, recognizes contributing factors including nutrition and changes in hormone levels, and identifies potential pharmacologic agents in clinical trial that may aid in the battle of this complex, costly, and disabling problem. Level of Evidence: Level 5. PMID:24427440

  15. Neurodegeneration in accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Moren

    2016-11-01

    The growing proportion of elderly people represents an increasing economic burden, not least because of age-associated diseases that pose a significant cost to the health service. Finding possible interventions to age-associated disorders therefore have wide ranging implications. A number of genetically defined accelerated aging diseases have been characterized that can aid in our understanding of aging. Interestingly, all these diseases are associated with defects in the maintenance of our genome. A subset of these disorders, Cockayne syndrome, Xeroderma pigmentosum group A and ataxia-telangiectasia, show neurological involvement reminiscent of what is seen in primary human mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondria are the power plants of the cells converting energy stored in oxygen, sugar, fat, and protein into ATP, the energetic currency of our body. Emerging evidence has linked this organelle to aging and finding mitochondrial dysfunction in accelerated aging disorders thereby strengthens the mitochondrial theory of aging. This theory states that an accumulation of damage to the mitochondria may underlie the process of aging. Indeed, it appears that some accelerated aging disorders that show neurodegeneration also have mitochondrial dysfunction. The mitochondrial alterations may be secondary to defects in nuclear DNA repair. Indeed, nuclear DNA damage may lead to increased energy consumption, alterations in mitochondrial ATP production and defects in mitochondrial recycling, a term called mitophagy. These changes may be caused by activation of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1 (PARP1), an enzyme that responds to DNA damage. Upon activation PARP1 utilizes key metabolites that attenuate pathways that are normally protective for the cell. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 or reconstitution of the metabolites rescues the changes caused by PARP1 hyperactivation and in many cases reverse the phenotypes associated with accelerated aging. This implies that modulation

  16. The essence of aging

    PubMed Central

    Vijg, Jan; Kennedy, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that aging is a purposeful, programmed series of events is intuitively appealing based on its many conserved aspects and the demonstrated feasibility of modifying life span by manipulating single genes or pathways. Yet, the case for a non-adaptive basis of aging is strong and now all but generally accepted in the field. Here, we briefly review why the case for programmed aging is weak, with a focus on the lack of possible evolutionary beneficial effects. PMID:26389968

  17. Disease drivers of aging

    PubMed Central

    Hodes, Richard J.; Sierra, Felipe; Austad, Steven N.; Epel, Elissa; Neigh, Gretchen N.; Erlandson, Kristine M.; Schafer, Marissa J.; LeBrasseur, Nathan K.; Wiley, Christopher; Campisi, Judith; Sehl, Mary E.; Scalia, Rosario; Eguchi, Satoru; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.; Halter, Jeffrey B.; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Ahles, Tim A.; Barzilai, Nir; Hurria, Arti; Hunt, Peter W.

    2017-01-01

    It has long been known that aging, at both the cellular and organismal levels, contributes to the development and progression of the pathology of many chronic diseases. However, much less research has examined the inverse relationship—the contribution of chronic diseases and their treatments to the progression of aging-related phenotypes. Here, we discuss the impact of three chronic diseases (cancer, HIV/AIDS, and diabetes) and their treatments on aging, putative mechanisms by which these effects are mediated, and the open questions and future research directions required to understand the relationships between these diseases and aging. PMID:27943360

  18. The scent of age.

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Kazumi; Yamazaki, Kunio; Curran, Maryanne; Bard, Judith; Smith, Benjamin P C; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2003-01-01

    In many species, older males are often preferred mates because they carry 'good' genes that account for their viability. How females discern a male's age is a matter of question. However, for animals that rely heavily on chemical communication there is some indication that an animal's age can be determined by its scent. To investigate whether there are changes in body odours with age, and if so their composition, mice were trained in a Y-maze to discriminate urine odours of donor mice of different ages: Adult (3-10 months old) and Aged (more than 17 months old). Trained mice could discriminate between these two age groups by odour alone. To determine the chemical basis for these discriminations, studies were performed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. These analyses demonstrated differences in the ratio of urinary volatiles with age. The most prominent differences involved significantly greater amounts of 2-phenylacetamide and significantly lower amounts of methylbutyric acids in Aged animals relative to Adult animals. Fractionating and manipulating the levels of these compounds in the urine demonstrated that the mice can distinguish age based on variation in amounts of these specific compounds in the combined urine. PMID:12803907

  19. [Aging and autophagy].

    PubMed

    Quy, Pham Nguyen; Mizushima, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy, a major intracellular degradation system which is conserved from yeast to mammals, is essential for the cellular clearance and the maintenance of homeostasis inside the cell. The autophagic activity is reported to decrease in almost all cells and tissues following aging, and genetic inhibition of autophagy in mice leads to degenerative changes and diseases that are highly associated with aging. On the other hand, various intervention strategies that delay senescence or increase life span in model organisms often stimulate autophagy, and autophagy inhibition compromises these anti-aging effects. Here, we review recent evidences in support of tight connections between autophagy and aging.

  20. Trinations aging symposium.

    PubMed

    Kaeberlein, Matt; Kennedy, Brian K; Liu, Xinguang; Suh, Yousin; Zhou, Zhongjun

    2011-01-01

    The "Trinations Aging Symposium" was held on the campus of Guangdong Medical College in Dongguan, China from April 28 to 30, 2011. The goal was to promote interaction, collaboration, and exchange of ideas between scientists in the field of aging research from Japan, South Korea, and China. Aging research is on the rise in Asia. This represents an important development, since Korea and Japan are the two longest-lived countries in the world, and life expectancy is increasing rapidly in China and other Asian countries. The world will see a greater percentage of people over age 65 in coming years than any period in human history. Developing therapeutic approaches to increase healthspan has the potential not only to enhance quality of life, but would also help stem the looming economic crisis associated with a high percentage of elderly. The focus of the Trinations Aging Symposium was on the basic biology of aging, and topics discussed included genome maintenance, metabolism and aging, longevity genes and interventions, and new therapies for age-related diseases. The meeting finished with a commitment for another symposium next year that will include additional Asian countries and the formation of a new scientific organization, the Asian Association for Aging Research.

  1. The age 60 rule.

    PubMed

    2004-08-01

    The impetus for amending the Age 60 Rule compels the review of recent scientific literature pertinent to pilot age and performance. The Rule has been the subject of extensive debate among policymakers and the aviation community. The aviation medical community is in a position to continue research and discussion that may provide additional evidence for the development of future policy decisions. Those addressing the future of the Age 60 Rule may benefit from understanding the nature and limitations of these studies, whether their outcomes are conclusive or not. Hopefully, some measure of guidance may be achieved as they address pilot age limits and related safety, economic, and operational issues of the aviation industry.

  2. Aging and Neuronal Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Mark P.; Magnus, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Everyone ages, but only some will acquire a neurodegenerative disorder in the process. Disease might occur when cells fail to respond adaptively to age-related increases in oxidative, metabolic and ionic stress resulting in excessive accumulation of damaged proteins, DNA and membranes. Determinants of neuronal vulnerability might include cell size and location, metabolism of disease-specific proteins, and repertoire of signal transduction pathways and stress resistance mechanisms. Emerging evidence on protein interaction networks that monitor and respond to the normal aging process suggests that successful neural aging is possible for most, but also cautions that cures for neurodegenerative disorders are unlikely in the near future. PMID:16552414

  3. Chemical Structural Aging Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    prediction 20 AIISTRPACT (Continue for reverse aid@ It necessary and lpentity 6v blockA moso&-, Aging studies have been conducted upon one batch of ANB - 3066...correlations can indeed be employed which will allow the use of accelerated surveillance to predict chemical aging rates of ANB -3066 under silo storage...3.2.2 Kinetic Analysis of Parameter Aging Changes 2-4 1.2. 1 Temperature and Strain Dependence of Aging Rates " 3.2.4 Comparison With Other ANB -3066

  4. Disease drivers of aging.

    PubMed

    Hodes, Richard J; Sierra, Felipe; Austad, Steven N; Epel, Elissa; Neigh, Gretchen N; Erlandson, Kristine M; Schafer, Marissa J; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; Wiley, Christopher; Campisi, Judith; Sehl, Mary E; Scalia, Rosario; Eguchi, Satoru; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S; Halter, Jeffrey B; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Ahles, Tim A; Barzilai, Nir; Hurria, Arti; Hunt, Peter W

    2016-12-01

    It has long been known that aging, at both the cellular and organismal levels, contributes to the development and progression of the pathology of many chronic diseases. However, much less research has examined the inverse relationship-the contribution of chronic diseases and their treatments to the progression of aging-related phenotypes. Here, we discuss the impact of three chronic diseases (cancer, HIV/AIDS, and diabetes) and their treatments on aging, putative mechanisms by which these effects are mediated, and the open questions and future research directions required to understand the relationships between these diseases and aging. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Biodemography of human ageing

    PubMed Central

    Vaupel, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Human senescence has been delayed by a decade. This finding, documented in 1994 and bolstered since, is a fundamental discovery about the biology of human ageing, and one with profound implications for individuals, society and the economy. Remarkably, the rate of deterioration with age seems to be constant across individuals and over time: it seems that death is being delayed because people are reaching old age in better health. Research by demographers, epidemiologists and other biomedical researchers suggests that further progress is likely to be made in advancing the frontier of survival — and healthy survival — to even greater ages. PMID:20336136

  6. Carcinogenesis and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    A suggested mechanism of carcinogenesis is presented. This scheme takes into account the effect of carcinogens at different integration levels: subcellular, tissue, and organism. Any of these levels may be age dependent. Age-associated changes in the activity of enzymes responsible for activation and inactivation of carcinogens, and variations in concentrations of lipids and proteins contributing to the transport of carcinogenic agents into cells, may play an important role in the modifying effect of age on carcinogenesis. The effects of age-associated changes in DNA repair need clarification. However, they are thought to exert a permissive influence on the age-associated rise in tumor incidence. It seems that proliferative activity of target tissues is the important modifying factor of carcinogenesis. Age-related changes of regulation at tissue and organism levels are also powerful factors in carcinogenesis modification. Age-dependent changes in the neuroendocrine system provide conditions for metabolic immunodepression and promotion of carcinogenesis. On the other hand, carcinogens per se (especially chemical and radiological) may intensify aging processes in the organism. Normalization, by drugs, of age-associated shifts requiring synthetic and energetic changes of a transformed tumor cells, and of immunological shifts, may exert both antitumor and geroprotective effects.

  7. Premature aging syndrome.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and Werner syndrome are two of the best characterized human progeroid diseases with clinical features mimicking physiological aging at an early age. Both disorders have been the focus of intense research in recent years since they might provide insights into the pathology of normal human aging. The chapter contains a detailed description of the clinical features of both disorders and then it focuses on the genetics, the resulting biochemical alterations at the protein level and the most recent findings and hypotheses concerning the molecular basis of the premature aging phenotypes. A description of available diagnostic and therapeutic approaches is included.

  8. We Are Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Kolovou, Genovefa D.; Kolovou, Vana; Mavrogeni, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Ageing and longevity is unquestioningly complex. Several thoughts and mechanisms of ageing such as pathways involved in oxidative stress, lipid and glucose metabolism, inflammation, DNA damage and repair, growth hormone axis and insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF), and environmental exposure have been proposed. Also, some theories of ageing were introduced. To date, the most promising leads for longevity are caloric restriction, particularly target of rapamycin (TOR), sirtuins, hexarelin and hormetic responses. This review is an attempt to analyze the mechanisms and theories of ageing and achieving longevity. PMID:25045704

  9. Anorexia of Aging.

    PubMed

    Visvanathan, Renuka

    2015-08-01

    The anorexia of aging is common, leading to adverse health consequences. As populations age, the impacts from anorexia in the older population are set to increase. Only greater awareness will allow for prevention or early intervention. This article discusses the physiologic anorexia of aging, highlights contributing factors, and proposes management strategies, including screening, especially in primary care. Many neuroendocrine factors have been implicated in the pathophysiology; it is clear that further human research is necessary if there is to be a pharmacologic breakthrough. There are currently no approved pharmacologic treatment strategies to prevent or treat the anorexia of aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Aging: A Kindergarten Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storck, Patricia A.; Davies, Barbara K.

    This paper presents a curriculum for kindergarten children designed to increase children's understanding of the aging adult, make them aware of the likenesses and differences between the young and old adult, and encourage them to develop a friendship with an older adult. An introduction discusses the attention recently being given to aging and…

  11. Adventures of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Gloria O.

    There is nothing in American society to prepare women for aging. It has been proposed that the status that the aged hold in any culture diminishes when modernization, an increased number and proportion of elderly, or rapid social change is present. All three of these conditions exist in American society. Women face many dangers, especially as they…

  12. Adventures of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Gloria O.

    There is nothing in American society to prepare women for aging. It has been proposed that the status that the aged hold in any culture diminishes when modernization, an increased number and proportion of elderly, or rapid social change is present. All three of these conditions exist in American society. Women face many dangers, especially as they…

  13. Curriculum Activities on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; Benge, Nancy

    This paper contains learning activities on aging for use with elementary, high school, and university students in health, family relationships, social studies, and art courses. The activities are intended to help youth develop a more realistic understanding of the aging process and to become aware of both the problems and benefits associated with…

  14. Truth about Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This booklet examines aging, exposing various stereotypes and biases and describing the truth about aging. These topics are discussed: (1) the absence of older adults from printed and aduiovisual materials and the need to ensure that elderly persons be visible in all communications; (2) societal myths that deny older persons their individuality;…

  15. Selected Issues on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ruby D.

    Aging is a continuum which begins at birth and ends at death. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to the study of aging as a part of developmental psychology. The individual is a biological organism as well as a member of society. Biological adjustments to life are affected by physical changes which influence motives and emotions. Some of…

  16. Sexuality and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkley, Nancy E.

    Literature on sexuality and aging and Maslow's hierarchy of needs (which include physiological needs, safety and security needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs, and the need for self-actualization) are used in this paper to identify at each level the needs of the aging individual as they derive from his sexuality in order to provide a…

  17. Aging scaled Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safdari, Hadiseh; Chechkin, Aleksei V.; Jafari, Gholamreza R.; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Scaled Brownian motion (SBM) is widely used to model anomalous diffusion of passive tracers in complex and biological systems. It is a highly nonstationary process governed by the Langevin equation for Brownian motion, however, with a power-law time dependence of the noise strength. Here we study the aging properties of SBM for both unconfined and confined motion. Specifically, we derive the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements and analyze their behavior in the regimes of weak, intermediate, and strong aging. A very rich behavior is revealed for confined aging SBM depending on different aging times and whether the process is sub- or superdiffusive. We demonstrate that the information on the aging factorizes with respect to the lag time and exhibits a functional form that is identical to the aging behavior of scale-free continuous time random walk processes. While SBM exhibits a disparity between ensemble and time averaged observables and is thus weakly nonergodic, strong aging is shown to effect a convergence of the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacement. Finally, we derive the density of first passage times in the semi-infinite domain that features a crossover defined by the aging time.

  18. Aging in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Karlin, Nancy J.; Weil, Joyce; Felmban, Wejdan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This exploratory study sought to measure current self-reported experiences of older Saudi adults. Method: Self-reported aging perceptions and demographic data from semistructured questions were obtained from 52 community-dwelling older Saudi adults aged 50 or older. A thematic content analysis was completed around issues of family life/social support, daily/weekly activities, health and health programs, and older adults’ own thoughts about aging and the experience and future of personal aging. Results: Several key themes emerged from the interviews. The majority of respondents in this preliminary study acknowledge a preference for family care. Formal programs in Saudi Arabia are attended with relative infrequency while older adults recognize family support as the preferred method of support. Older Saudi interviewees hold a positive view of aging, but physical functioning, varying financial resources, and other daily obligations are a concern for those in this study. Discussion: Data suggest as the Saudi population ages, more research is needed on the aging experience with particiular emphasis on issues relevant to older adults . Future research must work to clarify the aging experience as cultural context changes. PMID:28138483

  19. Aging and Work Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrank, Harris T.; Waring, Joan M.

    Business firms are an integral part of the age stratification structure of society. Although the age structures of people and roles within the organization are dynamic, these structures yield a fairly stable strata in which norms exist to suggest the various roles expected of certain persons. Those in roles with greater financial rewards, power,…

  20. Age Discrimination in Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York University Law Review, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Economic, psychological, and social effects of age discrimination in employment are examined. This note analyzes constitutional challenges to hiring-age ceiling and mandatory retirement policies, as well as the constitutional criteria against which those ceilings and policies should be measured. Federal statutory prohibitions and their judicial…

  1. Aging: A Kindergarten Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storck, Patricia A.; Davies, Barbara K.

    This paper presents a curriculum for kindergarten children designed to increase children's understanding of the aging adult, make them aware of the likenesses and differences between the young and old adult, and encourage them to develop a friendship with an older adult. An introduction discusses the attention recently being given to aging and…

  2. "Brainberries" and Aging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The onset of age-related neurodegenerative diseases superimposed on a declining nervous system could exacerbate the motor and cognitive behavioral deficits that normally occur in senescence. This means that unless some way is found to reduce these age-related declines in neuronal function, health ca...

  3. Nuclear Age Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    The primary goal of the Oregon nuclear age education curriculum is to develop in students the knowledge and skills needed to meet the challenges of living in a nuclear age. This curriculum is developed around five general themes, each corresponding to a specific unit. The general goals for the units are: (Unit 1) to increase students' exposure to…

  4. Curriculum Activities on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; Benge, Nancy

    This paper contains learning activities on aging for use with elementary, high school, and university students in health, family relationships, social studies, and art courses. The activities are intended to help youth develop a more realistic understanding of the aging process and to become aware of both the problems and benefits associated with…

  5. Aging scaled Brownian motion.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Hadiseh; Chechkin, Aleksei V; Jafari, Gholamreza R; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Scaled Brownian motion (SBM) is widely used to model anomalous diffusion of passive tracers in complex and biological systems. It is a highly nonstationary process governed by the Langevin equation for Brownian motion, however, with a power-law time dependence of the noise strength. Here we study the aging properties of SBM for both unconfined and confined motion. Specifically, we derive the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements and analyze their behavior in the regimes of weak, intermediate, and strong aging. A very rich behavior is revealed for confined aging SBM depending on different aging times and whether the process is sub- or superdiffusive. We demonstrate that the information on the aging factorizes with respect to the lag time and exhibits a functional form that is identical to the aging behavior of scale-free continuous time random walk processes. While SBM exhibits a disparity between ensemble and time averaged observables and is thus weakly nonergodic, strong aging is shown to effect a convergence of the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacement. Finally, we derive the density of first passage times in the semi-infinite domain that features a crossover defined by the aging time.

  6. Myocontrol in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Fimbel, Eric J.; Arguin, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Myoelectric (EMG) signals are used in assistive technology for prostheses, computer and domestic control. An experimental study previously conducted with young participants was replicated with elderly persons in order to assess the effect of age on the ability to control myoelectric amplitude (or myocontrol). Participants performed pointing tasks as the myoelectric amplitude was captured by a surface electrode in two modalities (sustained: stabilize the amplitude after reaching the desired level; impulsion: return immediately to resting amplitude). There was a significant decrease of performance with Age. However, the patterns of performance of young and aged were noticeably similar. The Impulsion modality was difficult (high rates of failure) and the speed-accuracy trade-offs predicted by Fitts' law were absent (bow-shaped patterns as function of target amplitude instead of logarithmic increase). Conversely, the reach phase of the Sustained modality followed the predictions of Fitts' law. However, the slope of the regression line with Fitts' index of difficulty was quite steeper in aged than in young participants. These findings suggest that 1) all participants, young and aged, adapt their reaching strategies to the anticipated state (sustained amplitude or not) and/or to the difficulty of the task, 2) myocontrol in aged persons is more fragile, i.e., performance is markedly degraded as the difficulty of the task increases. However, when individual performance was examined, some aged individuals were found to perform as well as the young participants, congruently with the literature on good aging. PMID:18030349

  7. Renal osteodystrophy and aging.

    PubMed

    Sherrard, Donald J

    2009-11-01

    The bone disease seen in our aging dialysis population is a complex mixture of osteoporosis and renal osteodystrophy. Attention must be paid to both of these issues. Hip fractures are increased with aging and this increase is further aggravated by renal failure. Preventive management with Vitamin D and bisphosphonates is reviewed.

  8. Aging of SRC liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, T.; Jones, L.; Tewari, K. C.; Li, N. C.

    1981-02-01

    The viscosity of SRC-LL liquid increases when subjected to accelerated aging by bubbling oxygen in the presence of copper strip at 62°C. Precipitates are formed and can be separated from the aged liquid by Soxhlet extraction with pentane. A 30-70 blend of SRC-I with SRC-LL was subjected to oxygen aging in the absence of copper, and the viscosity increased dramatically after 6 days at 62°. The content of preasphaltene and its molecular size increase with time of aging, accompanied by decrease of asphaltene and pentane-soluble contents. For the preasphaltene fraction on aging, gel permeation chromatography shows formation of larger particles. ESR experiments show that with oxygen aging, spin concentration in the preasphaltene fraction decreases. Perhaps some semiquinone, together with di- and tri-substituted phenoxy radicals, generated by oxygen aging of the coal liquid, interact with the free radicals already present in coal to yield larger particles and reduce free radical concentration. We are currently using the very high-field (600-MHz) NMR spectrometer at Mellon Institute to determine changes in structural parameters before and after aging of SRC-II and its chromatographically separated fractions.

  9. Towards Consensus Gene Ages

    PubMed Central

    Liebeskind, Benjamin J.; McWhite, Claire D.; Marcotte, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Correctly estimating the age of a gene or gene family is important for a variety of fields, including molecular evolution, comparative genomics, and phylogenetics, and increasingly for systems biology and disease genetics. However, most studies use only a point estimate of a gene’s age, neglecting the substantial uncertainty involved in this estimation. Here, we characterize this uncertainty by investigating the effect of algorithm choice on gene-age inference and calculate consensus gene ages with attendant error distributions for a variety of model eukaryotes. We use 13 orthology inference algorithms to create gene-age datasets and then characterize the error around each age-call on a per-gene and per-algorithm basis. Systematic error was found to be a large factor in estimating gene age, suggesting that simple consensus algorithms are not enough to give a reliable point estimate. We also found that different sources of error can affect downstream analyses, such as gene ontology enrichment. Our consensus gene-age datasets, with associated error terms, are made fully available at so that researchers can propagate this uncertainty through their analyses (geneages.org). PMID:27259914

  10. Blueberries and neuronal aging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As the population of people in the United States over the age of 65 years continues to increase, so too will the incidence of age-related pathologies, including decreases in cognitive and motor function. In cases of severe deficits in memory or motor function, hospitalization and/or custodial care ...

  11. Illness and Women's Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furstenberg, Anne-Linda

    When a woman defines herself as old is a complex phenomenon reflecting, among other variables, cultural attitudes, environmental constraints, and health status. In the later years, self-perceived age lags behind chronological age, but alters with the progressive contracting of life space, changes in health status, and decreases in perceived…

  12. Successful ageing for psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Peisah, Carmelle

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to explore the concept and determinants of successful ageing as they apply to psychiatrists as a group, and as they can be applied specifically to individuals. Successful ageing is a heterogeneous, inclusive concept that is subjectively defined. No longer constrained by the notion of "super-ageing", successful ageing can still be achieved in the face of physical and/or mental illness. Accordingly, it remains within the reach of most of us. It can, and should be, person-specific and individually defined, specific to one's bio-psycho-social and occupational circumstances, and importantly, reserves. Successful professional ageing is predicated upon insight into signature strengths, with selection of realistic goal setting and substitution of new goals, given the dynamic nature of these constructs as we age. Other essential elements are generativity and self-care. Given that insight is key, taking a regular stock or inventory of our reserves across bio-psycho-social domains might be helpful. Importantly, for successful ageing, this needs to be suitably matched to the professional task and load. This lends itself to a renewable personal ageing plan, which should be systemically adopted with routine expectations of self-care and professional responsibility. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  13. Oxidative stress and ageing.

    PubMed

    Birch-Machin, M A; Bowman, A

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress is the resultant damage due to redox imbalances (increase in destructive free radicals [reactive oxygen species (ROS)] and reduction in antioxidant protection/pathways) and is linked to ageing in many tissues including skin. In ageing skin there are bioenergetic differences between keratinocytes and fibroblasts which provide a potential ageing biomarker. The differences in skin bioenergy are part of the mitochondrial theory of ageing which remains one of the most widely accepted ageing theories describing subsequent increasing free radical generation. Mitochondria are the major source of cellular oxidative stress and form part of the vicious cycle theory of ageing. External and internal sources of oxidative stress include UVR/IR, pollution (environment), lifestyle (exercise and diet), alcohol and smoking all of which may potentially impact on skin although many exogenous actives and endogenous antioxidant defence systems have been described to help abrogate the increased stress. This also links to differences in skin cell types in terms of the UVR action spectrum for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage (the latter a previously described UVR biomarker in skin). Recent work associates bioenergy production and oxidative stress with pigment production thereby providing another additional potential avenue for targeted anti-ageing intervention in skin. This new data supporting the detrimental effects of the numerous wavelengths of UVR may aid in the development of cosmetic/sunscreen design to reduce the effects of photoageing. Recently, complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain appears to be more important than previously thought in the generation of free radicals (suggested predominantly by non-human studies). We investigated the relationship between complex II and ageing using human skin as a model tissue. The rate of complex II activity per unit of mitochondria was determined in fibroblasts and keratinocytes cultured from skin covering

  14. Genetics and skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Bekou, Vassiliki; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex process and underlies multiple influences with the probable involvement of heritable and various environmental factors. Several theories have been conducted regarding the pathomechanisms of aged skin, however fundamental mechanisms still remain poorly understood. This article addresses the influence of genetics on skin aging and in particular deals with the differences observed in ethnic populations and between both genders. Recent studies indicate that male and female aged skin differs as far as the type, the consistency and the sensitivity to external factors is concerned. The same has been also documented between elderly people of different origin. Consequently, the aging process taking place in both genders and in diverse ethnic groups should be examined separately and products specialized to each population should be developed in order to satisfy the special needs. PMID:23467395

  15. Epigenetics of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Marta I.; Fernández, Agustín F.; Fraga, Mario F.

    2015-01-01

    The best-known phenomenon exemplifying epigenetic drift (the alteration of epigenetic patterns during aging) is the gradual decrease of global DNA methylation. Aging cells, different tissue types, as well as a variety of human diseases possess their own distinct DNA methylation profiles, although the functional impact of these is not always clear. DNA methylation appears to be a dynamic tool of transcriptional regulation, with an extra layer of complexity due to the recent discovery of the conversion of 5-methylcytosine into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. This age-related DNA demethylation is associated with changes in histone modification patterns and, furthermore, we now know that ncRNAs have evolved in eukaryotes as epigenetic regulators of gene expression. In this review, we will discuss current knowledge on how all these epigenetic phenomena are implicated in human aging, and their links with external, internal and stochastic factors which can affect human age-related diseases onset. PMID:27019618

  16. Cooee bitumen: Chemical aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarchand, Claire A.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.; Hansen, Jesper S.

    2013-09-01

    We study chemical aging in "Cooee bitumen" using molecular dynamic simulations. This model bitumen is composed of four realistic molecule types: saturated hydrocarbon, resinous oil, resin, and asphaltene. The aging reaction is modelled by the chemical reaction: "2 resins → 1 asphaltene." Molecular dynamic simulations of four bitumen compositions, obtained by a repeated application of the aging reaction, are performed. The stress autocorrelation function, the fluid structure, the rotational dynamics of the plane aromatic molecules, and the diffusivity of each molecule are determined for the four different compositions. The aging reaction causes a significant dynamics slowdown, which is correlated to the aggregation of asphaltene molecules in larger and dynamically slower nanoaggregates. Finally, a detailed description of the role of each molecule types in the aggregation and aging processes is given.

  17. Aging hippocampus and amygdala.

    PubMed

    Malykhin, Nikolai V; Bouchard, Thomas P; Camicioli, Richard; Coupland, Nicholas J

    2008-03-26

    Earlier studies suggest that the anterior hippocampus may show resilience to age-associated volume loss. This study compared high-resolution magnetic resonance images obtained from younger (n=28; age range: 22-50 years) and older (n=39; age range: 65-84 years) healthy right-handed individuals to determine whether age-related volume changes varied between the hippocampal head, body and tail. Volumetric reductions were progressively more severe from hippocampal head to tail. Amygdala volume differences were intermediate in size. Although limited by the cross-sectional design, these data suggest that hippocampal subregions show a gradient of volume reduction in healthy aging that contrasts with the preferential reduction of anterior hippocampal volumes in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  18. Hypertension in aging patients.

    PubMed

    Logan, Alexander G

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension, especially isolated systolic hypertension, is commonly found in older (60-79 years of age) and elderly (≥80 years of age) people. Antihypertensive drug therapy should be considered in all aging hypertensive patients, as treatment greatly reduces cardiovascular events. Most classes of antihypertensive medications may be used as first-line treatment with the possible exception of α- and β-blockers. An initial blood pressure treatment goal is less than 140/90 mmHg in all older patients and less than 150/80 mmHg in the nonfrail elderly. The current paradigm of delaying therapeutic interventions until people are at moderate or high cardiovascular risk, a universal feature of hypertensive patients over 60 years of age, leads to vascular injury or disease that is only partially reversible with treatment. Future management will likely focus on intervening earlier to prevent accelerated vascular aging and irreversible arterial damage.

  19. Gut microbiota and aging.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Paul W; Jeffery, Ian B

    2015-12-04

    The potential for the gut microbiota to affect health has a particular relevance for older individuals. This is because the microbiota may modulate aging-related changes in innate immunity, sarcopaenia, and cognitive function, all of which are elements of frailty. Both cell culture-dependent and -independent studies show that the gut microbiota of older people differs from that of younger adults. There is no chronological threshold or age at which the composition of the microbiota suddenly alters; rather, changes occur gradually with time. Our detailed analyses have separated the microbiota into groups associated with age, long-term residential care, habitual diet, and degree of retention of a core microbiome. We are beginning to understand how these groups change with aging and how they relate to clinical phenotypes. These data provide a framework for analyzing microbiota-health associations, distinguishing correlation from causation, identifying microbiota interaction with physiological aging processes, and developing microbiota-based health surveillance for older adults.

  20. Parylene C Aging Studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; White II, Gregory Von; Bernstein, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and "lessons learned" that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (%7E40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted "lessons learned" which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues ("necking") for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C.

  1. Memory, language, and ageing.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, D M; Mackay, D G

    1997-01-01

    This overview provides both theoretical and empirical reasons for emphasizing practice and familiar skills as a practical strategy for enhancing cognitive functioning in old age. Our review of empirical research on age-related changes in memory and language reveals a consistent pattern of spared and impaired abilities in normal old age. Relatively preserved in old age is memory performance involving highly practised skills and familiar information, including factual, semantic and autobiographical information. Relatively impaired in old age is memory performance that requires the formation of new connections, for example, recall of recent autobiographical experiences, new facts or the source of newly acquired facts. This pattern of impaired new learning versus preserved old learning cuts across distinctions between semantic memory, episodic memory, explicit memory and perhaps also implicit memory. However, familiar verbal information is not completely preserved when accessed on the output side rather than the input side: aspects of language production, namely word finding and spelling, exhibit significant age-related declines. This emerging pattern of preserved and impaired abilities presents a fundamental challenge for theories of cognitive ageing, which must explain why some aspects of language and memory are more vulnerable to the effects of ageing than others. Information-universal theories, involving mechanisms such as general slowing that are independent of the type or structure of the information being processed, require additional mechanisms to account for this pattern of cognitive aging. Information-specific theories, where the type or structure of the postulated memory units can influence the effects of cognitive ageing, are able to account for this emerging pattern, but in some cases require further development to account for comprehensive cognitive changes such as general slowing. PMID:9460069

  2. Communication and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Bourgeois, Michelle S.; Baylor, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Interpersonal communication has been described as a critical tool for life adjustment, linking people to their environment.1 When communication disorders are present these links can be easily broken. Communication disorders form a diverse group of conditions that vary in terms of type, severity, and co-occurrence with other symptoms that limit mobility, vision, endurance, or cognition. Although communication disorders affect people of all ages, the prevalence and complexity of these conditions increase with age, and may be characterized by a stable, recovering or degenerative course. Disabilities associated with communication disorders may best be viewed as a dynamic process that varies over time instead of as a single static event that remains constant. Two broad trajectories of disability and aging have been described2 and can be applied to those with communication disorders. The disability with aging group includes people who live most of their lives without disability and either experience the subtle communication problems associated with age or the onset of conditions such as stroke that occur most commonly in old age. The aging with disability group includes people who either have lifelong or early onset communication disorders as a result of cerebral palsy or multiple sclerosis (MS) and age in the context of the already-existing disability. Regardless of the trajectory, the burden of communication disorder is cumulative; it grows with age and has important implications for health care providers. This article describes various communication disabilities associated with aging and how these disabilities affect important functions such as access to health care and maintenance of social roles. Suggestions that preserve and enhance communication function in older adults are also provided in this article. PMID:20494279

  3. [Cardiovascular system and aging].

    PubMed

    Saner, H

    2005-12-01

    Aging is one of the most important cardiovascular risk factors. Age-related morphologic changes in large resistance vessels include an intima-media-thickening and increased deposition of matrix substance, ultimately leading to a reduced compliance and an increased stiffness of the vessels. Aging of the heart is mainly characterized by an increase of the left ventricular mass in relation to the chamber volume and a decrease of diastolic function. There is some controversy in regard to the question if these changes in the vessel wall are the consequence of aging or if a decrease in physical activity is a major contributor of this process. With age the cardiovascular profile is changing. Whereas smoking is less prominent, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus are more often encountered. Primary and secondary prevention through cardiovascular risk factor management is also very important in the aging population due to the increased risk of acute vascular complications with age. Preventive measures have to include life style factor interventions as well as optimized drug therapy. There is no scientific evidence that vascular aging can be prevented by administration of supplements such as antioxidant vitamins. Aspirin is effective for cardiovascular prevention up to a higher age. Betablockers and ACE-inhibitors are generally underused in older patients after myocardial infarctions. Statins are effective in reducing cardiovascular complications up to an age of 80 years. Myocardial infarction in elderly patients is often characterized by atypical symptoms and may be even silent. Interventional therapy in elderly patients is as successful as in younger patients but has an increased complication rate. Ambulatory cardiac rehabilitation in elderly patients leads to significant improvements of physical capacity, well-being and quality of life and may help to prevent social isolation.

  4. Epigenetics and aging

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sangita; Tyler, Jessica K.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, a growing number of studies have revealed that progressive changes to epigenetic information accompany aging in both dividing and nondividing cells. Functional studies in model organisms and humans indicate that epigenetic changes have a huge influence on the aging process. These epigenetic changes occur at various levels, including reduced bulk levels of the core histones, altered patterns of histone posttranslational modifications and DNA methylation, replacement of canonical histones with histone variants, and altered noncoding RNA expression, during both organismal aging and replicative senescence. The end result of epigenetic changes during aging is altered local accessibility to the genetic material, leading to aberrant gene expression, reactivation of transposable elements, and genomic instability. Strikingly, certain types of epigenetic information can function in a transgenerational manner to influence the life span of the offspring. Several important conclusions emerge from these studies: rather than being genetically predetermined, our life span is largely epigenetically determined; diet and other environmental influences can influence our life span by changing the epigenetic information; and inhibitors of epigenetic enzymes can influence life span of model organisms. These new findings provide better understanding of the mechanisms involved in aging. Given the reversible nature of epigenetic information, these studies highlight exciting avenues for therapeutic intervention in aging and age-associated diseases, including cancer. PMID:27482540

  5. Epigenetics and aging.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sangita; Tyler, Jessica K

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade, a growing number of studies have revealed that progressive changes to epigenetic information accompany aging in both dividing and nondividing cells. Functional studies in model organisms and humans indicate that epigenetic changes have a huge influence on the aging process. These epigenetic changes occur at various levels, including reduced bulk levels of the core histones, altered patterns of histone posttranslational modifications and DNA methylation, replacement of canonical histones with histone variants, and altered noncoding RNA expression, during both organismal aging and replicative senescence. The end result of epigenetic changes during aging is altered local accessibility to the genetic material, leading to aberrant gene expression, reactivation of transposable elements, and genomic instability. Strikingly, certain types of epigenetic information can function in a transgenerational manner to influence the life span of the offspring. Several important conclusions emerge from these studies: rather than being genetically predetermined, our life span is largely epigenetically determined; diet and other environmental influences can influence our life span by changing the epigenetic information; and inhibitors of epigenetic enzymes can influence life span of model organisms. These new findings provide better understanding of the mechanisms involved in aging. Given the reversible nature of epigenetic information, these studies highlight exciting avenues for therapeutic intervention in aging and age-associated diseases, including cancer.

  6. Aging in the glomerulus.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Jocelyn E

    2012-12-01

    Kidney function declines with age in the majority of the population. Although very few older people progress to end stage, the consequences of doing so are burdensome for the patient and very expensive for the society. Although some of the observed decline is likely due to changes in the vasculature, much is associated with the development of age-associated glomerulosclerosis. This article will review the well-established structural and functional changes in the glomerulus with age. The role of calorie restriction in modifying age-related pathology will be discussed. The importance of the podocyte as a critical cell in the aging process is considered using animal models and human biopsy material. Newer data on changes in gene expression driven by nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkB) and possible changes in biology in the glomerulus are discussed. The relationship between pathways involved in aging and the decline in kidney function is reviewed. There is speculation on the significance of these changes in relation to normal and pathological aging.

  7. Probabilistic population aging

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We merge two methodologies, prospective measures of population aging and probabilistic population forecasts. We compare the speed of change and variability in forecasts of the old age dependency ratio and the prospective old age dependency ratio as well as the same comparison for the median age and the prospective median age. While conventional measures of population aging are computed on the basis of the number of years people have already lived, prospective measures are computed also taking account of the expected number of years they have left to live. Those remaining life expectancies change over time and differ from place to place. We compare the probabilistic distributions of the conventional and prospective measures using examples from China, Germany, Iran, and the United States. The changes over time and the variability of the prospective indicators are smaller than those that are observed in the conventional ones. A wide variety of new results emerge from the combination of methodologies. For example, for Germany, Iran, and the United States the likelihood that the prospective median age of the population in 2098 will be lower than it is today is close to 100 percent. PMID:28636675

  8. [Normal aging and cognition].

    PubMed

    Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2006-03-01

    It is now well documented that normal aging modifies the cognitive functioning and most observations suggest that cognition evolves in the direction of deterioration. The more frequently impaired functions are memory, attention and visual-spatial abilities. On the other hand, some abilities seem to increase, such as vocabulary. Considering the aging effect on cognition, questions remain regarding directionality, universality and reversibility. A great variability in aged related impacts is observed among subjects and among cognitive domains. Some individuals evolved more rapidly than others. Some cognitive functions are more affected by aging than others. General and specific factors are hypothesized to explain the aged related cognitive decline. Among them, educational level, health, cognitive style, life style, personality, are likely to modulate the aged related cognitive evolution by influencing attentional resources and cerebral plasticity. Cognitive resources are essential to develop adaptative strategies. During the life span, resources are activated and increased by learning and training. Considering the role of cognitive resources, successful aging is dependent on several conditions : absence of disease leading to a loss of autonomy, maintenance of cognitive and physical activities, and active and social engaged lifestyle.

  9. Subjective Age in Early Adolescence: Relationships with Chronological Age, Pubertal Timing, Desired Age, and Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubley, Anita M.; Arim, Rubab G.

    2012-01-01

    Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five…

  10. Subjective Age in Early Adolescence: Relationships with Chronological Age, Pubertal Timing, Desired Age, and Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubley, Anita M.; Arim, Rubab G.

    2012-01-01

    Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five…

  11. Three ages of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles A.; Coombs, Cassandra R.

    1989-01-01

    A central question for any planet is the age of its surface. Based on comparative planetological arguments, Venus should be as young and active as the Earth (Wood and Francis). The detection of probable impact craters in the Venera radar images provides a tool for estimating the age of the surface of Venus. Assuming somewhat different crater production rates, Bazilevskiy et al. derived an age of 1 + or - 0.5 billion years, and Schaber et al. and Wood and Francis estimated an age of 200 to 400 million years. The known impact craters are not randomly distributed, however, thus some area must be older and others younger than this average age. Ages were derived for major geologic units on Venus using the Soviet catalog of impact craters (Bazilevskiy et al.), and the most accessible geologic unit map (Bazilevskiy). The crater counts are presented for (diameters greater than 20 km), areas, and crater densities for the 7 terrain units and coronae. The procedure for examining the distribution of craters is superior to the purely statistical approaches of Bazilevskiy et al. and Plaut and Arvidson because the bins are larger (average size 16 x 10(6) sq km) and geologically significant. Crater densities define three distinct groups: relatively heavily cratered (Lakshmi, mountain belts), moderately cratered (smooth and rolling plains, ridge belts, and tesserae), and essentially uncratered (coronae and domed uplands). Following Schaber et al., Grieve's terrestrial cratering rate of 5.4 + or - 2.7 craters greater than 20 km/10(9) yrs/10(6) sq km was used to calculate ages for the geologic units on Venus. To improve statistics, the data was aggregated into the three crater density groups, deriving the ages. For convenience, the three similar age groups are given informal time stratigraphic unit names, from youngest to oldest: Ulfrunian, Sednaian, Lakshmian.

  12. [Epidermal aging and anti-aging strategies].

    PubMed

    Wohlrab, J; Hilpert, K; Wolff, L

    2016-02-01

    Epithelial senescence is a complex process depending on intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors (e.g., UV or IR light, tobacco smoke) and must be seen in the context of the aging process especially of the corium and the subcutis. Morphological alterations become apparent in the form of epithelial atrophy, structural changes within the basal membrane, and a decrease in cell count of melanocytes and Langerhans cells. Signs of cellular senescence are reduced proliferation of keratinocytes, cumulation of dysplastic keratinocytes, various mutations (e.g., c-Fos/c-Jun, STAT3, FoxO1), as well as multiple lipid or amino acid metabolic aberrations (e.g., production of advanced glycation endproducts). This causes functional changes within the physical (lipid deficiency, water distribution dysfunction, lack of hygroscopic substances), chemical (pH conditions, oxygen radicals), and immunological barrier. Prophylactically, barrier-protective care products, antioxidant substances (e.g., vitamin C, B3, E, polyphenols, flavonoids), sunscreen products/measurements, and retinoids are used. For correcting alterations in aged epidermis, chemical peelings (fruit acids, β-hydroxy acid, trichloroacetic acid, phenolic compounds), non-ablative (IPL, PDL, Nd:YAG) as well as ablative (CO2, Erbium-YAG) light-assisted methods are used.

  13. 42 CFR 435.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 435.520 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  14. 42 CFR 436.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 436.520 Section 436... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  15. 42 CFR 435.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 435.520 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  16. 42 CFR 436.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 436.520 Section 436... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  17. 42 CFR 435.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 435.520 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  18. 42 CFR 436.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 436.520 Section 436... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  19. 42 CFR 435.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 435.520 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  20. 42 CFR 435.520 - Age requirements for the aged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age requirements for the aged. 435.520 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.520 Age requirements for the aged. The agency must not impose an age requirement of more than 65 years....

  1. Envy, Politics, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christine R.; Henniger, Nicole E.

    2013-01-01

    In the last 5 years, the phrase “politics of envy” has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age. PMID:23471177

  2. Longevity, Genes, and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michal Jazwinski, S.

    1996-07-01

    Until recently, biogerontology was a backwater of biology, but progress in the qualitative and quantitative genetic analysis of longevity has led to a revolution in aging research. This research has revealed that extended longevity is frequently associated with enhanced metabolic capacity and response to stress. Moreover, it suggests that there are multiple mechanisms of aging. Because of its complexity, the aging process takes us into the realm of integrative biology, and thus, biogerontology should prove instrumental in deciphering the functional and regulatory circuitry of the sequenced genome.

  3. Drug metabolism and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Kinirons, M T; O'Mahony, M S

    2004-01-01

    Important changes in drug metabolism occur with ageing. Age-associated reductions in function of some but not all cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) have been described. Induction and inhibition of CYPs needs to be revisited in light of recent advances. The function and pharmacology of transporters have not yet been examined for an age-related effect. Finally, the concept of frailty is being underpinned by studies documenting a decline in drug metabolism and changes in disposition in frail older people compared with either healthy elderly or the young. PMID:15089805

  4. [Old age and smoking].

    PubMed

    Menecier, Pascal; Moscato, Alba; Fernandez, Lydia

    Elderly people today have seen a radical change in the image of smokers over the last half century. While once it was approved, it is now demonised. Although smoking declines with age, there are still many elderly smokers. The risks and harm of smoking remain, even in old age. An individual choice to start with, smoking becomes a collective issue in a nursing home. Stopping smoking always brings benefits, even after the age of 80. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Ageing and its implications

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthi, P; Joshua, Elizabeth; Ranganathan, K

    2010-01-01

    Ageing processes are defined as those that increase the susceptibility of individuals, as they grow older, to the factors that eventually lead to death. It is a complex multi-factorial process, where several factors may interact simultaneously and may operate at many levels of functional organization. The heterogeneity of ageing phenotype among individuals of the same species and differences in longevity among species are due to the contribution of both genetic and environmental factors in shaping the life span. The various theories of ageing and their proposed roles are discussed in this review. PMID:21731262

  6. Envy, politics, and age.

    PubMed

    Harris, Christine R; Henniger, Nicole E

    2013-01-01

    In the last 5 years, the phrase "politics of envy" has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age.

  7. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health More information on sexual health Many older women ... Protecting yourself Return to top More information on Sexual health Read more from womenshealth.gov Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

  8. HEU age determination

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, A.R.; Kato, W.Y.

    1995-08-01

    A technique has been developed to determine the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Age which is defined as the time since the HEU was produced in an enrichment process. The HEU age is determined from the ratios of relevant uranium parents and their daughters viz {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U. Uranium isotopes are quantitatively measured by their characteristic gammas and their daughters by alpha spectroscopy. In some of the samples where HEU is enriched more than 99%, the only mode of HEU age determination is by the measurement of {sup 231}Pa since there is negligible quantity of {sup 230}Th due to very low atom concentrations of {sup 234}U in the sample. In this paper we have presented data and methodology of finding the age of two HEU samples.

  9. Aging metabolism: intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Esteban

    2017-07-04

    Human beings are subjected to aging and age-associated diseases. Life expectancy has improved impressively in the last century due to social and economic development, but despite increasing improvement is still more limited than average in those ones with chronic diseases such as treated HIV infection. There has been a substantial research on the underlying factors responsible for aging both in the general and the HIV-infected populations. Several specific targets for potential intervention have been identified but studies so far have been limited to small experiments in cultured cells or living beings other than humans such as mice or flies. Time has come for designing and developing human studies with those candidate therapies showing most promising benefits and least potential toxicities to treat age-related diseases.

  10. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA’s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  11. The discourse of aging.

    PubMed

    Madden, Connie L; Cloyes, Kristin G

    2012-01-01

    Historical and epistemological developments contribute to and reinforce the underlying framework that categorizes antiaging discourse and healthy aging discourse. This discourse creates the question "Can we live longer or better?" and encompasses issues of quality versus quantity, dependency versus autonomy, and risk versus benefit. By positing this discourse as a dichotomous tension, the development can be traced through the examination of select examples of influential studies in the field of aging. For nursing, the risk of these continued oppositions is potential oversimplification that may limit discernment of the complexities of care of older adults. Through understanding of the evolution and imposition of this dichotomizing discourse, nursing can provide older adult care within the reality of the aging experience, and develop frameworks, theories, and multidisciplinary discursive practice to optimize nursing care in the real-world spaces that exist between antiaging and healthy aging boundaries.

  12. Sleep and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Sleep and Aging About Sleep We all look forward to a good night's ... health and quality of life. Two Types of Sleep There are two types of sleep: non-rapid ...

  13. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA’s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  14. Myths of ageing.

    PubMed

    Mulley, Graham

    2007-01-01

    Historical and contemporary images of ageing have generally reinforced negative stereotypes of old age. An examination of sculpture, painting, poetry, literature and film, as well as television, advertising, newspaper stories, birthday cards and road signs reveals that old age is often shown as being a time of loneliness, depression and physical decline. These conditions do occur but their prevalence and severity have been exaggerated. There are many myths of ageing that have been influenced by these representations: that old people with physical or cognitive decline are social problems; that families no longer care for their elders; that geriatric medicine is an unglamorous specialty. Low expectations of old people and ageist thinking can adversely affect how we speak of disadvantaged old people. The challenge is to question inaccurate assumptions. Key to the improvement of medical care of older people is to extend the teaching of geriatric medicine and improve and coordinate research.

  15. Premature Aging in Fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Hassett, Afton L; Clauw, Daniel J; Williams, David A

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain is highly prevalent in older adults, and until recently, was considered to be common but relatively "benign." Mounting evidence, however, suggests that some of the 116 million US adults who suffer from chronic pain are also at an increased risk for developing age-related diseases prematurely, suffering earlier cognitive and physical decline, and experiencing earlier mortality. Given the aging US population and the prevalence of chronic pain along with related healthcare consequences, there is a critical need to better understand the relationship between aging and chronic pain. Herein, we focus on one chronic pain state, fibromyalgia, and provide an overview of the evidence suggesting that individuals with this chronic pain condition show signs of premature aging.

  16. The biochemistry of aging.

    PubMed

    Knight, J A

    2000-01-01

    Although philosophers and scientists have long been interested in the aging process, general interest in this fascinating and highly important topic was minimal before the 1960s. In recent decades, however, interest in aging has greatly accelerated, not only since the elderly form an ever-increasing percentage of the population, but because they utilize a significant proportion of the national expenditures. In addition, many people have come to the realization that one can now lead a very happy, active, and productive life well beyond the usual retirement age. Scientifically, aging is an extremely complex, multifactorial process, and numerous aging theories have been proposed; the most important of these are probably the genomic and free radical theories. Although it is abundantly clear that our genes influence aging and longevity, exactly how this takes place on a chemical level is only partially understood. For example, what kinds of genes are these, and what proteins do they control? Certainly they include, among others, those that regulate the processes of somatic maintenance and repair, such as the stress-response systems. The accelerated aging syndromes (i.e., Hutchinson-Gilford, Werner's, and Down's syndromes) are genetically controlled, and studies of them have decidedly increased our understanding of aging. In addition, C. elegans and D. melanogaster are important systems for studying aging. This is especially true for the former, in which the age-1 mutant has been shown to greatly increase the life span over the wild-type strain. This genetic mutation results in increased activities of the antioxidative enzymes, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase. Thus, the genomic and free radical theories are closely linked. In addition, trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome) is characterized by a significantly shortened life span; it is also plagued by increased oxidative stress which results in various free radical-related disturbances. Exactly how this extra chromosome

  17. Biochemical Reversal of Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, John T. A.

    2006-03-01

    We cite our progress on biochemical reversal of aging. However, it may be circa 2 years before we have necessary substances at low cost. Meanwhile, without them, a number of measures can be adopted providing marked improvement for the problems of aging in modern societies. For example, enzymes are needed to excrete toxins that accelerate aging; Hg is the ultimate toxin that disables all enzymes (including those needed to excrete Hg itself). Low Hg level in the urine, due to loss of excretory ability, causes the diagnosis of Hg toxicity to almost always be missed. Hg sources must be removed from the body! Another example is excess sugar; hyperglycemia decreases intracellular ascorbic acid (AA) by competitively inhibiting the insulin- mediated active transport of AA into cells. Thus, immunity is impaired by low leucocyte AA. AA is needed for new proteins in aging tissues. Humans must supplement AA; their need same as in AA-synthesizing mammals.

  18. Resilience in Aging Mice.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, James L; Stout, Michael B; Sierra, Felipe

    2016-11-01

    Recently discovered interventions that target fundamental aging mechanisms have been shown to increase life span in mice and other species, and in some cases, these same manipulations have been shown to enhance health span and alleviate multiple age-related diseases and conditions. Aging is generally associated with decreases in resilience, the capacity to respond to or recover from clinically relevant stresses such as surgery, infections, or vascular events. We hypothesize that the age-related increase in susceptibility to those diseases and conditions is driven by or associated with the decrease in resilience. Thus, a test for resilience at middle age or even earlier could represent a surrogate approach to test the hypothesis that an intervention delays the process of aging itself. For this, animal models to test resilience accurately and predictably are needed. In addition, interventions that increase resilience might lead to treatments aimed at enhancing recovery following acute illnesses, or preventing poor outcomes from medical interventions in older, prefrail subjects. At a meeting of basic researchers and clinicians engaged in research on mechanisms of aging and care of the elderly, the merits and drawbacks of investigating effects of interventions on resilience in mice were considered. Available and potential stressors for assessing physiological resilience as well as the notion of developing a limited battery of such stressors and how to rank them were discussed. Relevant ranking parameters included value in assessing general health (as opposed to focusing on a single physiological system), ease of use, cost, reproducibility, clinical relevance, and feasibility of being repeated in the same animal longitudinally. During the discussions it became clear that, while this is an important area, very little is known or established. Much more research is needed in the near future to develop appropriate tests of resilience in animal models within an aging context

  19. Molecular neuropathology of aging

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, P.; Finch, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 30 selections. Some of the titles are: Physiological Approaches to the Roles of Gene Regulation in the Brain during Aging; Isolation of a cDNA Clone Encoding the Alzheimer's Disease and Down's Syndrome Amyloid Peptide; Isolation, Characterization, and Chromosomal Localization of a human brain cDNA clone coding for the amyloid BETA-protein Found in Alzheimer's Disease, Down's Syndrome, and Aging Brain; and Genetic Linkage Analysis of Familial Alzheimer's Disease.

  20. [Regional aging in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bucher, H

    1996-01-01

    Elderly people in Germany have a specific regional distribution. Recent regional population projections show that these patterns will change. The most dynamic process of aging will take place in the suburban parts of the large western Germany agglomerations, whereas in eastern Germany aging concentrates in regions with a lower density. There will be a regional deconcentration of elderly people with consequences for the planning of infrastructure.

  1. Stress, Inflammation and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lavretsky, Helen; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This editorial provides a summary of the state of research on stress-related changes associated with aging and discuss how factors such as inflammation and sex steroid alterations may interact with psychosocial stress to affect the risk for mood and cognitive disturbance in older individuals. The authors provide an integrated summary of four studies reported in this issue of the journal and views on future direction in stress and aging research and interventions targeting resilience to stress. PMID:22874577

  2. Female fecundity and age.

    PubMed

    DeCherney, A H; Berkowitz, G S

    1982-02-18

    Studies have shown that fertility (defined as number of live births) declines with age in women. However, it is not known to what extent other factors, such as male reproductive capacity and coital patterns affect this decrease. Male fecundity may also decline with age, and coital frequency is believed to decline with length of marriage. All these factors are closely related to the woman's age. The effects of male fecundity and coital frequency can be eliminated in evaluating female fecundity by studying patients who have received artificial insemination and restricting the group to those with azoospermic husbands. In 2193 patients drawn from 11 centers in France that offer artificial insemination with frozen donor semen, women over 30 exhibited a marked decline in fecundity. The cumulative success rate after 12 cycles of insemination was 73% for those under 25, 74.1% for the 26-30 age group, 61.5% for those 31-35 years old, and 53.6% for those over 35 years. The difference in fecundity with age was consistent across the centers, an important factor to note since the mean success rate per cycle differed considerably among the participating centers. The decreased fecundity in women over 30 may be attributed to gynecologic diseases, or effects of age on the incidence of tubal deciliation and occurrence of ovulatory disorders. New guidelines for counseling on reproduction may be needed for women over 30. Currently, counseling regarding reproduction and maternal age is limited to increased risks of Down's syndrome and other genetic abnormalities and risks of spontaneous abortion and perinatal deaths. The age of a woman should be considered when deciding when to start an infertility workup or stop treatment for infertility, and in selecting appropriate candidates for tubal surgery and in vitro fertilization. There is also a need to reevaluate individual and societal goals regarding childbearing to accommodate women's desires to have both a family and a career.

  3. Aging and Circadian Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Jeanne F.; Zitting, Kirsi-Marja; Chinoy, Evan D.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with numerous changes, including changes in sleep timing, duration, and quality. The circadian timing system interacts with a sleep-wake homeostatic system to regulate human sleep, including sleep timing and structure. Here, we review key features of the human circadian timing system, age-related changes in the circadian timing system, and how those changes may contribute to the observed alterations in sleep. PMID:26568120

  4. Aging according to biography.

    PubMed

    Weiland, S

    1989-04-01

    Aging can no longer be considered an afterthought in biographies. How scholarly biographers treat their subjects is considered in the context of the work of Erik H. Erikson. Readers of biographies can discover in accounts of the subject's last years the same interest in developmental values typical of biographical attention to youth. Developmental theorists can observe in biography representations of the life cycle that add meaning to aging.

  5. Epidemiological aspects of ageing.

    PubMed

    Khaw, K T

    1997-12-29

    A major societal challenge is to improve quality of life and prevent or reduce disability and dependency in an ageing population. Increasing age is associated with increasing risk of disability and loss of independence, due to functional impairments such as loss of mobility, hearing and vision; a major issue must be how far disability can be prevented. Ageing is associated with loss of bone tissue, reduction in muscle mass, reduced respiratory function, decline in cognitive function, rise in blood pressure and macular degeneration which predispose to disabling conditions such as osteoporosis, heart disease, dementia and blindness. However, there are considerable variations in different communities in terms of the rate of age-related decline. Large geographic and secular variations in the age-adjusted incidence of major chronic diseases such as stroke, hip fracture, coronary heart disease, cancer, visual loss from cataract, glaucoma and macular degeneration suggest strong environmental determinants in diet, physical activity and smoking habit. The evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of chronic disabling conditions associated with ageing are preventable, or at least postponable and not an inevitable accompaniment of growing old. Postponement or prevention of these conditions may not only increase longevity, but, more importantly, reduce the period of illnesses such that the majority of older persons may live high-quality lives, free of disability, until very shortly before death. We need to understand better the factors influencing the onset of age-related disability in the population, so that we have appropriate strategies to maintain optimal health in an ageing population.

  6. Malnutrition and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Hickson, M

    2006-01-01

    This article aims to provide an overview of the problems that exist in relation to malnutrition and the elderly population. The changes that occur in body composition during ageing are described and how this may affect disease risk. The possible metabolic processes behind weight loss are discussed and the numerous factors that affect nutritional status in the older age group are described. Prevention of malnutrition in this group is important and so the roles of nutrition screening and assessment are examined. PMID:16397072

  7. Aging of hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2005-06-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life expectation, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and also more capable to deliver active products that are directed toward meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft and aging of the hair follicle. The latter manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production in androgenetic and senescent alopecia. The scalp is also subject to intrinsic or physiologic aging and extrinsic aging caused by external factors. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation. Prototypes are familial premature graying and androgenetic alopecia. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and smoking. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in skin and hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds for hair include humefactants, hair conditioners, photoprotectors, and antioxidants. Current available treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil, oral finasteride, and autologous hair transplantation. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants are the mainstays of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are under current investigation.

  8. Aging and the kidney.

    PubMed

    Perico, Norberto; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Benigni, Ariela

    2011-05-01

    Aging in most species is associated with impaired adaptive and homeostatic mechanisms, leading to susceptibility to environmental or internal stresses with increasing rates of disease. A number of different theories of primarily disease-independent renal aging, which can be categorized as evolutionary, molecular, cellular and systemic, have been put forward in the past decades, and recent studies have provided evidence for some of them. This review is focused on the several mechanisms that are considered to underlie the primary aging process and contribute to age-related changes and adaptive responses in the kidney. These mechanisms include genetic modulations, telomere shortening, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, all markers of cell senescence. Moreover, we also highlight new advances in understanding functions of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor that contribute to the renal aging process. Here we review recent advances in understanding the role of Klotho, sirtuins, cell senescence through oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as of the renin-angiotensin system in modulating age-related kidney damage.

  9. Biological anthropology and aging.

    PubMed

    Ice, Gillian H

    2005-06-01

    As the number of persons aged 65 and older is increasing dramatically in both developed and developing nations of the world, the health and well-being of elders has become a worldwide public health concern. Although older adults are now found in higher proportions across all cultures, the biology, behavior, and environment vary tremendously across older populations. Biomedical research largely follows a reductionist paradigm separating the domains of culture and biology. Even when health is examined in association with culture and behavior, biomedical researchers largely focus on static unidirectional associations instead of examining the dynamic multidirectional impact of culture, behavior, and the environment on physiology and ultimately health. Since aging and the processes of senescence clearly involve complex interactions among biological, environmental, and cultural domains, anthropologists with a bio-cultural and evolutionary perspective are well-equipped to study variation in aging and senescence. While relatively few biological anthropologists have focused their attention on aging, a growing literature has demonstrated the utility of biocultural approaches to aging. This paper serves as an introduction to a special issue that highlights the core of the biological anthropology of aging.

  10. HEU age determination

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, A.R.; Kato, W.Y.

    1997-07-01

    A new technique has been developed to determine the age of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in solids. Uranium age is defined as the time since the uranium-containing material was last subjected to a process capable of separating uranium from its radioactive-decay daughters. [Most chemical processing, uranium enrichment, volatilization processes, and phase transformations (especially relevant for uranium hexafluoride) can result in separation of the uranium parent material from the decay-product daughters.] Determination of the uranium age, as defined here, may be relevant in verifying arms-control agreements involving uranium-containing nuclear weapons. The HEU age is determined from the ratios of relevant uranium daughter isotopes and their parents, viz {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U. Uranium isotopes are quantitatively measured by their characteristic gamma rays and their daughters by alpha spectroscopy. In some of the samples, where HEU is enriched more than 99%, the only mode of HEU age determination is by the measurement of {sup 231}Pa since there is negligible quantity of {sup 230}Th due to very low atom concentrations of {sup 234}U in the samples. In this report the methodology and the data for determining the age of two HEU samples are presented.

  11. Symbiotic Origin of Aging.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Edward F; Vatolin, Sergei

    2017-09-25

    Normally aging cells are characterized by an unbalanced mitochondrial dynamic skewed toward punctate mitochondria. Genetic and pharmacological manipulation of mitochondrial fission/fusion cycles can contribute to both accelerated and decelerated cellular or organismal aging. In this work, we connect these experimental data with the symbiotic theory of mitochondrial origin to generate new insight into the evolutionary origin of aging. Mitochondria originated from autotrophic α-proteobacteria during an ancient endosymbiotic event early in eukaryote evolution. To expand beyond individual host cells, dividing α-proteobacteria initiated host cell lysis; apoptosis is a product of this original symbiont cell lytic exit program. Over the course of evolution, the host eukaryotic cell attenuated the harmful effect of symbiotic proto-mitochondria, and modern mitochondria are now functionally interdependent with eukaryotic cells; they retain their own circular genomes and independent replication timing. In nondividing differentiated or multipotent eukaryotic cells, intracellular mitochondria undergo repeated fission/fusion cycles, favoring fission as organisms age. The discordance between cellular quiescence and mitochondrial proliferation generates intracellular stress, eventually leading to a gradual decline in host cell performance and age-related pathology. Hence, aging evolved from a conflict between maintenance of a quiescent, nonproliferative state and the evolutionarily conserved propagation program driving the life cycle of former symbiotic organisms: mitochondria.

  12. Can ageing be slowed?

    PubMed Central

    Gaman, L; Stoian, I; Atanasiu, V

    2011-01-01

    Redox metabolism has long been considered to play important roles in aging and the development of age-related diseases. Both dietary and pharmacological manipulations of redox metabolism have been associated with the extension of lifespan. Increasing new evidence s also suggests that the process of aging may derive from imperfect clearance of oxidatively damaged material. The accumulation of this molecular “garbage”, relatively indigestible, further hinders cellular functions, induces progressive failure of maintenance and repair and increases the probability of death. One important trend in anti–aging strategy is, therefore, to prevent or even revert the accumulation of these oxidatively altered molecules by stimulating the maintenance and repair systems through hormesis. A promising approach for slowing down ageing and achieving a healthy senescence is represented by repeated exposure to various mild stresses (caloric restriction, moderate exercise, nutritional or pharmacological hormetins). This article reviews the potential therapeutic tools available to date for increasing longevity and obtaining and successful ageing from the redox and hormetic perspective. PMID:22514565

  13. Polyphenols and aging.

    PubMed

    Queen, Brannon L; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2010-02-01

    Age-associated changes within an individual are inherently complex and occur at multiple levels of organismal function. The overall decline in function of various tissues is known to play a key role in both aging and the complex etiology of certain age-associated diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer. Continuing research highlights the dynamic capacity of polyphenols to protect against age-associated disorders through a variety of important mechanisms. Numerous lines of evidence suggest that dietary polyphenols such as resveratrol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and curcumin have the capacity to mitigate age-associated cellular damage induced via metabolic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, recently acquired evidence also demonstrates a likely role for these polyphenols as anticancer agents capable of preventing formation of new vasculature in neoplastic tissues. Polyphenols have also been shown to possess other anticancer properties such as specific cell-signaling actions that may stimulate the activity of the regulatory protein SIRT1. Additionally, polyphenolic compounds have demonstrated their inhibitory effects against chronic vascular inflammation associated with atherosclerosis. These increasingly well-documented results have begun to provide a basis for considering the use of polyphenols in the development of novel therapies for certain human diseases. And while the mechanisms by which these effects occur are yet to be fully understood, it is evident that further investigation may yield a potential use for polyphenols as pharmacological interventions against specific age-associated diseases.

  14. Aging assessment of cables

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.

    1992-04-01

    This paper summarizes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of Class 1E cables used in nuclear power generating stations. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal ({approximately}100{degrees}C) and radiation ({approximately}0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. After the aging, the cables were exposed to a simulated accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation ({approximately}6 kGy/hr) followed by a high temperature steam (up to 400{degrees}C) exposure. A fourth set of cables, which were unaged, was also exposed to the accident conditions. The cables that were aged for 3 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a high temperature steam fragility test (up to 400{degrees}C), while the cables that were aged for 6 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a 1000-hour submergence test in a chemical solution. The results of these tests do not indicate any reason to believe that many popular nuclear power plant cable products cannot inherently be qualified for 60 years of operation for conditions simulated by this testing. Mechanical measurements (primarily elongation, modulus, and density) are more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation. In the high temperature steam test, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials generally survived to higher temperatures than crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cable materials. In dielectric testing after the submergence testing, the XLPO materials performed better than the EPR materials.

  15. Aging assessment of cables

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of Class 1E cables used in nuclear power generating stations. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal ({approximately}100{degrees}C) and radiation ({approximately}0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. After the aging, the cables were exposed to a simulated accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation ({approximately}6 kGy/hr) followed by a high temperature steam (up to 400{degrees}C) exposure. A fourth set of cables, which were unaged, was also exposed to the accident conditions. The cables that were aged for 3 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a high temperature steam fragility test (up to 400{degrees}C), while the cables that were aged for 6 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a 1000-hour submergence test in a chemical solution. The results of these tests do not indicate any reason to believe that many popular nuclear power plant cable products cannot inherently be qualified for 60 years of operation for conditions simulated by this testing. Mechanical measurements (primarily elongation, modulus, and density) are more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation. In the high temperature steam test, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials generally survived to higher temperatures than crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cable materials. In dielectric testing after the submergence testing, the XLPO materials performed better than the EPR materials.

  16. Polyphenols and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Queen, Brannon L.; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2010-01-01

    Age-associated changes within an individual are inherently complex and occur at multiple levels of organismal function. The overall decline in function of various tissues is known to play a key role in both aging and the complex etiology of certain age-associated diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cancer. Continuing research highlights the dynamic capacity of polyphenols to protect against age-associated disorders through a variety of important mechanisms. Numerous lines of evidence suggest that dietary polyphenols such as resveratrol, (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and curcumin have the capacity to mitigate age-associated cellular damage induced via metabolic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, recently acquired evidence also demonstrates a likely role for these polyphenols as anticancer agents capable of preventing formation of new vasculature in neoplastic tissues. Polyphenols have also been shown to possess other anticancer properties such as specific cell-signaling actions that may stimulate the activity of the regulatory protein SIRT1. Additionally, polyphenolic compounds have demonstrated their inhibitory effects against chronic vascular inflammation associated with atherosclerosis. These increasingly well-documented results have begun to provide a basis for considering the use of polyphenols in the development of novel therapies for certain human diseases. And while the mechanisms by which these effects occur are yet to be fully understood, it is evident that further investigation may yield a potential use for polyphenols as pharmacological interventions against specific age-associated diseases. PMID:20298168

  17. Extracellular RNA in aging.

    PubMed

    Dluzen, Douglas F; Noren Hooten, Nicole; Evans, Michele K

    2017-03-01

    Since the discovery of extracellular RNA (exRNA) in circulation and other bodily fluids, there has been considerable effort to catalog and assess whether exRNAs can be used as markers for health and disease. A variety of exRNA species have been identified including messenger RNA and noncoding RNA such as microRNA (miRNA), small nucleolar RNA, transfer RNA, and long noncoding RNA. Age-related changes in exRNA abundance have been observed, and it is likely that some of these transcripts play a role in aging. In this review, we summarize the current state of exRNA profiling in various body fluids and discuss age-related changes in exRNA abundance that have been identified in humans and other model organisms. miRNAs, in particular, are a major focus of current research and we will highlight and discuss the potential role that specific miRNAs might play in age-related phenotypes and disease. We will also review challenges facing this emerging field and various strategies that can be used for the validation and future use of exRNAs as markers of aging and age-related disease. WIREs RNA 2017, 8:e1385. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1385 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  18. Cellular aging and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hornsby, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Aging is manifest in a variety of changes over time, including changes at the cellular level. Cellular aging acts primarily as a tumor suppressor mechanism, but also may enhance cancer development under certain circumstances. One important process of cellular aging is oncogene-induced senescence, which acts as an important anti-cancer mechanism. Cellular senescence resulting from damage caused by activated oncogenes prevents the growth or potentially neoplastic cells. Moreover, cells that have entered senescence appear to be targets for elimination by the innnate immune system. In another aspect of cellular aging, the absence of telomerase activity in normal tissues results in such cells lacking a telomere maintenance mechanism. One consequence is that in aging there is an increase in cells with shortened telomeres. In the presence of active oncogenes that cause expansion of a neoplastic clone, shortening of telomeres leading to telomere dysfunction prevents the indefinite expansion of the clone because the cells enter crisis. Crisis results from fusions and other defects caused by dysfunctional telomeres and is a terminal state of the neoplastic clone. In this way the absence of telomerase in human cells, while one cause of cellular aging, also acts as an anti-cancer mechanism. PMID:20705476

  19. Arginase and vascular aging

    PubMed Central

    Santhanam, Lakshmi; Christianson, David W.; Nyhan, Daniel; Berkowitz, Dan E.

    2008-01-01

    Vascular and associated ventricular stiffness is one of the hallmarks of the aging cardiovascular system. Both an increase in reactive oxygen species production and a decrease in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability contribute to the endothelial dysfunction that underlies this vascular stiffness, independent of other age-related vascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis. The activation/upregulation of arginase appears to be an important contributor to age-related endothelial dysfunction by a mechanism that involves substrate (l-arginine) limitation for NO synthase (NOS) 3 and therefore NO synthesis. Not only does this lead to impaired NO production but also it contributes to the enhanced production of reactive oxygen species by NOS. Although arginase abundance is increased in vascular aging models, it appears that posttranslational modification by S-nitrosylation of the enzyme enhances its activity as well. The S-nitrosylation is mediated by the induction of NOS2 in the endothelium. Furthermore, arginase activation contributes to aging-related vascular changes by mechanisms that are not directly related to changes in NO signaling, including polyamine-dependent vascular smooth muscle proliferation and collagen synthesis. Taken together, arginase may represent an as yet elusive target for the modification of age-related vascular and ventricular stiffness contributing to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:18719233

  20. Age and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    White, Mary C.; Holman, Dawn M.; Boehm, Jennifer E.; Peipins, Lucy A.; Grossman, Melissa; Henley, S. Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that cancer cannot be prevented among older adults by examining different aspects of the relationship between age and cancer. Although the sequential patterns of aging cannot be changed, several age-related factors that contribute to disease risk can be. For most adults, age is coincidentally associated with preventable chronic conditions, avoidable exposures, and modifiable risk behaviors that are causally associated with cancer. Midlife is a period of life when the prevalence of multiple cancer risk factors is high and incidence rates begin to increase for many types of cancer. However, current evidence suggests that for most adults, cancer does not have to be an inevitable consequence of growing older. Interventions that support healthy environments, help people manage chronic conditions, and promote healthy behaviors may help people make a healthier transition from midlife to older age and reduce the likelihood of developing cancer. Because the number of adults reaching older ages is increasing rapidly, the number of new cancer cases will also increase if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Thus, the need to translate the available research into practice to promote cancer prevention, especially for adults at midlife, has never been greater. PMID:24512933

  1. [Market and ageing].

    PubMed

    Joël, M-E

    2005-06-01

    Ageing can be defined as growth of the proportion of elderly people in the population, but also as a group of transformations in life cycles: older age at time of first job, marriage, birth of first child, early retirement, longer life expectancy, active retirement, greater number of dependent persons. The economic impact of the ageing population has been extensively studied from the perspective of the social security fund. In France and in most developed countries, population ageing has considerably destabilized social accounting creating a gap between a system thought out after WWII and the present social environment. The current response of social security system to elderly person's needs is considered inadequate. There are however other consequences of ageing. It is important to measure the upheaval caused by longer life expectancy and changing life stages on all markets. Three kinds of markets are involved in different ways: job market, services market for the elderly and all goods market for seniors and golden aged. Many studies have focused on the links between economic production and physiological ageing. The traditional organisation of working conditions stresses working intensity over experience, young workers'capabilities over than those of older workers. The link between age and the job market can also be analyzed by considering supply and demand for employment for workers over 50. Another question is the workforce shortage forecasted in some sectors (health and social sectors in particular) and the role of immigration. Growth in the supply of long-term care will require restructuring of the sector's logistics and financing. Certain trends are appearing: government authorities are reducing their supply of services, private production is increasing, public financing is being maintained, and individual contributions are growing while the role of insurance has remained stagnant. A qualitative analysis of the markets also shows heterogeneous workers

  2. Genome size of termites (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Isoptera) and wood roaches (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Cryptocercidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Cornette, Richard; Matsumoto, Tadao; Miura, Toru

    2008-09-01

    The evolution of genome size has been discussed in relation to the evolution of various biological traits. In the present study, the genome sizes of 22 dictyopteran species were estimated by Feulgen image analysis densitometry and 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-based flow cytometry. The haploid genome sizes ( C-values) of termites (Isoptera) ranged from 0.58 to 1.90 pg, and those of Cryptocercus wood roaches (Cryptocercidae) were 1.16 to 1.32 pg. Compared to known values of other cockroaches (Blattaria) and mantids (Mantodea), these values are low. A relatively small genome size appears to be a (syn)apomorphy of Isoptera + Cryptocercus, together with their sociality. In some phylogenetic groups, genome size evolution is thought to be influenced by selective pressure on a particular trait, such as cell size or rate of development. The present results raise the possibility that genome size is influenced by selective pressures on traits associated with the evolution of sociality.

  3. Genome size of termites (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Isoptera) and wood roaches (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Cryptocercidae).

    PubMed

    Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Cornette, Richard; Matsumoto, Tadao; Miura, Toru

    2008-09-01

    The evolution of genome size has been discussed in relation to the evolution of various biological traits. In the present study, the genome sizes of 22 dictyopteran species were estimated by Feulgen image analysis densitometry and 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-based flow cytometry. The haploid genome sizes (C-values) of termites (Isoptera) ranged from 0.58 to 1.90 pg, and those of Cryptocercus wood roaches (Cryptocercidae) were 1.16 to 1.32 pg. Compared to known values of other cockroaches (Blattaria) and mantids (Mantodea), these values are low. A relatively small genome size appears to be a (syn)apomorphy of Isoptera + Cryptocercus, together with their sociality. In some phylogenetic groups, genome size evolution is thought to be influenced by selective pressure on a particular trait, such as cell size or rate of development. The present results raise the possibility that genome size is influenced by selective pressures on traits associated with the evolution of sociality.

  4. A new species of Limnephilidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from the Western Alps (Insecta: Trichoptera).

    PubMed

    Graf, Wolfram; Vitecek, Simon

    2016-03-03

    A new species of the alpine caddisfly genus Consorophylax (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Stenophylacini) and the female of the recently described C. vinconi Graf & Malicky 2015 are described. The new species C. lepontiorumsp. nov. is a microendemic of the South-Western Alps and differs from its congeners in the shape of the superior and inferior appendages and the unique setation of the aedeagus, absent in all other Consorophylax species. The female of C. vinconi is characterized by the unique formation of the anal tube. Potential effects of alpine orogenesis, phenology and climatic oscillation on speciation of aquatic insects inhabiting high-altitude habitats are discussed. The description of C. lepontiorumsp. nov. accentuates the significance of the Western Alps as harbours of aquatic insect biodiversity, and demonstrates the necessity of faunal and taxonomic studies in Europe - a supposedly well-explored region.

  5. A new species of Limnephilidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from the Western Alps (Insecta: Trichoptera)

    PubMed Central

    GRAF, WOLFRAM; VITECEK, SIMON

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the alpine caddisfly genus Consorophylax (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Stenophylacini) and the female of the recently described C. vinconi Graf & Malicky 2015 are described. The new species C. lepontiorum sp. nov. is a microendemic of the South-Western Alps and differs from its congeners in the shape of the superior and inferior appendages and the unique setation of the aedeagus, absent in all other Consorophylax species. The female of C. vinconi is characterized by the unique formation of the anal tube. Potential effects of alpine orogenesis, phenology and climatic oscillation on speciation of aquatic insects inhabiting high-altitude habitats are discussed. The description of C. lepontiorum sp. nov. accentuates the significance of the Western Alps as harbours of aquatic insect biodiversity, and demonstrates the necessity of faunal and taxonomic studies in Europe – a supposedly well-explored region. PMID:27069351

  6. Homologization of the flight musculature of zygoptera (insecta: odonata) and neoptera (insecta).

    PubMed

    Büsse, Sebastian; Genet, Cécile; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Among the winged insects (Pterygota) the Dragonflies and Damselflies (Odonata) are unique for several reasons. Behaviourally they are aerial predators that hunt and catch their prey in flight, only. Morphologically the flight apparatus of Odonata is significantly different from what is found in the remaining Pterygota. However, to understand the phylogenetic relationships of winged insects and the origin and evolution of insect flight in general, it is essential to know how the elements of the odonatan flight apparatus relate to those of the other Pterygota. Here we present a comprehensive, comparative morphological investigation of the thoracic flight musculature of damselflies (Zygoptera). Based on our new data we propose a homologization scheme for the thoracic musculature throughout Pterygota. The new homology hypotheses will allow for future comparative work and especially for phylogenetic analyses using characters of the thoracic musculature throughout all winged insects. This will contribute to understand the early evolution of pterygote insects and their basal phylogenetic relationship.

  7. Homologization of the Flight Musculature of Zygoptera (Insecta: Odonata) and Neoptera (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Büsse, Sebastian; Genet, Cécile; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Among the winged insects (Pterygota) the Dragonflies and Damselflies (Odonata) are unique for several reasons. Behaviourally they are aerial predators that hunt and catch their prey in flight, only. Morphologically the flight apparatus of Odonata is significantly different from what is found in the remaining Pterygota. However, to understand the phylogenetic relationships of winged insects and the origin and evolution of insect flight in general, it is essential to know how the elements of the odonatan flight apparatus relate to those of the other Pterygota. Here we present a comprehensive, comparative morphological investigation of the thoracic flight musculature of damselflies (Zygoptera). Based on our new data we propose a homologization scheme for the thoracic musculature throughout Pterygota. The new homology hypotheses will allow for future comparative work and especially for phylogenetic analyses using characters of the thoracic musculature throughout all winged insects. This will contribute to understand the early evolution of pterygote insects and their basal phylogenetic relationship. PMID:23457479

  8. Prion protein and aging

    PubMed Central

    Gasperini, Lisa; Legname, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been widely investigated ever since its conformational isoform, the prion (or PrPSc), was identified as the etiological agent of prion disorders. The high homology shared by the PrPC-encoding gene among mammals, its high turnover rate and expression in every tissue strongly suggest that PrPC may possess key physiological functions. Therefore, defining PrPC roles, properties and fate in the physiology of mammalian cells would be fundamental to understand its pathological involvement in prion diseases. Since the incidence of these neurodegenerative disorders is enhanced in aging, understanding PrPC functions in this life phase may be of crucial importance. Indeed, a large body of evidence suggests that PrPC plays a neuroprotective and antioxidant role. Moreover, it has been suggested that PrPC is involved in Alzheimer disease, another neurodegenerative pathology that develops predominantly in the aging population. In prion diseases, PrPC function is likely lost upon protein aggregation occurring in the course of the disease. Additionally, the aging process may alter PrPC biochemical properties, thus influencing its propensity to convert into PrPSc. Both phenomena may contribute to the disease development and progression. In Alzheimer disease, PrPC has a controversial role because its presence seems to mediate β-amyloid toxicity, while its down-regulation correlates with neuronal death. The role of PrPC in aging has been investigated from different perspectives, often leading to contrasting results. The putative protein functions in aging have been studied in relation to memory, behavior and myelin maintenance. In aging mice, PrPC changes in subcellular localization and post-translational modifications have been explored in an attempt to relate them to different protein roles and propensity to convert into PrPSc. Here we provide an overview of the most relevant studies attempting to delineate PrPC functions and fate in aging

  9. Metallothioneins and renal ageing.

    PubMed

    Leierer, Johannes; Rudnicki, Michael; Braniff, Susie-Jane; Perco, Paul; Koppelstaetter, Christian; Mühlberger, Irmgard; Eder, Susanne; Kerschbaum, Julia; Schwarzer, Christoph; Schroll, Andrea; Weiss, Günter; Schneeberger, Stefan; Wagner, Silvia; Königsrainer, Alfred; Böhmig, Georg A; Mayer, Gert

    2016-09-01

    Human lifespan is increasing continuously and about one-third of the population >70 years of age suffers from chronic kidney disease. The pathophysiology of the loss of renal function with ageing is unclear. We determined age-associated gene expression changes in zero-hour biopsies of deceased donor kidneys without laboratory signs of impaired renal function, defined as a last serum creatinine >0.96 mg/dL in females and >1.18 mg/dL in males, using microarray technology and the Significance Analysis of Microarrays routine. Expression changes of selected genes were confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for localization of respective mRNA and protein. Functional aspects were examined in vitro. Donors were classified into three age groups (<40, 40-59 and >59 years; Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively). In Group 3 especially, genes encoding for metallothionein (MT) isoforms were more significantly expressed when compared with Group 1; localization studies revealed predominant staining in renal proximal tubular cells. RPTEC/TERT1 cells overexpressing MT2A were less susceptible towards cadmium chloride-induced cytotoxicity and hypoxia-induced apoptosis, both models for increased generation of reactive oxygen species. Increased expression of MTs in the kidney with ageing might be a protective mechanism against increased oxidative stress, which is closely related to the ageing process. Our findings indicate that MTs are functionally involved in the pathophysiology of ageing-related processes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  10. Gestational age in twins.

    PubMed Central

    James, W H

    1980-01-01

    Dubowitz et al. have offered a scoring system for estimating the gestational age of newborn babies. If the system is applied to twin pairs, the heavier twin is generally estimated to have a greater gestational age than the lighter one. Previously this has been interpreted as a flaw in the scoring system. However, it may well be that in some twin pairs the gestational ages are slightly different and that therefore, the heavier twin would be expected to have a greater gestational age. Such cases would arise through superfecundation (the formation of two zygotes from different coitions). Superfecundation can be proved only in rare case (those with two fathers). It can be argued that the rarity of such cases is accounted for by the rarity with which women expose themselves to the risk of bearing such twins (and by the improbability of detection), rather than by the rarity of superfecundation. It is inferred that superfecundation by the same man is relatively common and that therefore dizygotic twins quite often have different gestational ages. The scoring system of Dubowitz can be tested for bias by submitting monozygotic pairs to it: the association between weight and estimated gestational age should be absent in such pairs. If the system proves free of such bias, then a finding first reported here will assume some interest: it is that in opposite-sexed twin pairs, the male is significantly more often assessed as having the greater gestational age. It is suggested that this finding should be provisionally accepted as evidence for the hyopthesis that male zygotes are formed earlier than females. PMID:7191240

  11. Senescence, aging, and disease.

    PubMed

    Crews, Douglas E

    2007-05-01

    All over the world people are surviving into their seventh and later decades of life more frequently today than ever before in human history. Some remain in good health, while others show chronic degenerative conditions (CDCs), frailty, and relatively rapid mortality. Thereafter, multiple factors promoting health and well-being become ever more complex as we age. After attainment of reproductive maturation, many physiological decrements occurring in concert with age reflect both senescent and disease processes, not simply the passage of time. Senescence is a process that begins with DNA, molecules and cells and ultimately terminates in cellular death, loss of organ function, and somatic frailty. These changes are different from benign changes with age that do not alter function. Both differ from the pathological processes represented by disease. Either disease or senescence may be age-related, but neither is age-determined. Disease results from pathological alterations and it affects all age groups. Diseases need not be related to senescence, which includes alterations due to inherent aspects of organismal biology. Distinctions among senescence, aging, and disease blur for the late-life CDCs because, in addition to disease processes, many CDCs are phenotypic manifestations of senescing DNA, organelles, cells, and organs. During earlier epochs of human evolution, greater environmental exposures and fewer cultural buffers likely lead to greater frailty and mortality before senescence progressed greatly, as they still do for most animals. In modern-day settings, culturally patterned behaviors have allowed human frailty to become disconnected somewhat from mortality, unlike non-human species.

  12. Asteroid family ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoto, Federica; Milani, Andrea; Knežević, Zoran

    2015-09-01

    A new family classification, based on a catalog of proper elements with ∼384,000 numbered asteroids and on new methods is available. For the 45 dynamical families with >250 members identified in this classification, we present an attempt to obtain statistically significant ages: we succeeded in computing ages for 37 collisional families. We used a rigorous method, including a least squares fit of the two sides of a V-shape plot in the proper semimajor axis, inverse diameter plane to determine the corresponding slopes, an advanced error model for the uncertainties of asteroid diameters, an iterative outlier rejection scheme and quality control. The best available Yarkovsky measurement was used to estimate a calibration of the Yarkovsky effect for each family. The results are presented separately for the families originated in fragmentation or cratering events, for the young, compact families and for the truncated, one-sided families. For all the computed ages the corresponding uncertainties are provided, and the results are discussed and compared with the literature. The ages of several families have been estimated for the first time, in other cases the accuracy has been improved. We have been quite successful in computing ages for old families, we have significant results for both young and ancient, while we have little, if any, evidence for primordial families. We found 2 cases where two separate dynamical families form together a single V-shape with compatible slopes, thus indicating a single collisional event. We have also found 3 examples of dynamical families containing multiple collisional families, plus a dubious case: for these we have obtained discordant slopes for the two sides of the V-shape, resulting in distinct ages. We have found 2 cases of families containing a conspicuous subfamily, such that it is possible to measure the slope of a distinct V-shape, thus the age of the secondary collision. We also provide data on the central gaps appearing in

  13. Plutonium age dating reloaded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Monika; Richter, Stephan; Aregbe, Yetunde; Wellum, Roger; Mayer, Klaus; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Although the age determination of plutonium is and has been a pillar of nuclear forensic investigations for many years, additional research in the field of plutonium age dating is still needed and leads to new insights as the present work shows: Plutonium is commonly dated with the help of the 241Pu/241Am chronometer using gamma spectrometry; in fewer cases the 240Pu/236U chronometer has been used. The age dating results of the 239Pu/235U chronometer and the 238Pu/234U chronometer are scarcely applied in addition to the 240Pu/236U chronometer, although their results can be obtained simultaneously from the same mass spectrometric experiments as the age dating result of latter. The reliability of the result can be tested when the results of different chronometers are compared. The 242Pu/238U chronometer is normally not evaluated at all due to its sensitivity to contamination with natural uranium. This apparent 'weakness' that renders the age dating results of the 242Pu/238U chronometer almost useless for nuclear forensic investigations, however turns out to be an advantage looked at from another perspective: the 242Pu/238U chronometer can be utilized as an indicator for uranium contamination of plutonium samples and even help to identify the nature of this contamination. To illustrate this the age dating results of all four Pu/U clocks mentioned above are discussed for one plutonium sample (NBS 946) that shows no signs of uranium contamination and for three additional plutonium samples. In case the 242Pu/238U chronometer results in an older 'age' than the other Pu/U chronometers, contamination with either a small amount of enriched or with natural or depleted uranium is for example possible. If the age dating result of the 239Pu/235U chronometer is also influenced the nature of the contamination can be identified; enriched uranium is in this latter case a likely cause for the missmatch of the age dating results of the Pu/U chronometers.

  14. Healthy Aging in China.

    PubMed

    Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-12-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist. Other positive forces include increasing detection and treatment of disease and the availability of health insurance and health services so that diseases like hypertension and diabetes do not remain silent killers in China. Transparency is eased on the research level by publicly available data such as CHARLS, a sharp departure from prior scientific norm in China. Negative forces center on disturbing trends in personal health behaviors such as growing rates of smoking (among men) and obesity (for both genders), and pollution-,especially in urban centers. Public health campaigns and incentives are needed on all these fronts so that predictable long-term consequences of these behaviors on older age disease are not realized. There will not be a simple demographic fix to healthy aging in China as fertility rates are unlikely to rise much, while migration will likely continue to rise leaving growing numbers of elderly parents geographically separated from their adult children. Government policy will have to allow migration of elderly parents to live with their adult children while reducing the rigid connection of policy (health insurance and health services) with place of residence.

  15. Healthy Aging in China

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James P.; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist. Other positive forces include increasing detection and treatment of disease and the availability of health insurance and health services so that diseases like hypertension and diabetes do not remain silent killers in China. Transparency is eased on the research level by publicly available data such as CHARLS, a sharp departure from prior scientific norm in China. Negative forces center on disturbing trends in personal health behaviors such as growing rates of smoking (among men) and obesity (for both genders), and pollution—,especially in urban centers. Public health campaigns and incentives are needed on all these fronts so that predictable long-term consequences of these behaviors on older age disease are not realized. There will not be a simple demographic fix to healthy aging in China as fertility rates are unlikely to rise much, while migration will likely continue to rise leaving growing numbers of elderly parents geographically separated from their adult children. Government policy will have to allow migration of elderly parents to live with their adult children while reducing the rigid connection of policy (health insurance and health services) with place of residence. PMID:25621202

  16. [Remarriage in the aged].

    PubMed

    Heekerens, H P

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive review of our knowledge on remarriage in old age is presented, based on demographic data and on empirical studies both from Germany and elsewhere. In 1984, more than 8000 people aged 60 years and above remarried after the death of a partner or following divorce. The probability for remarriage in this age group in Germany and other Western industrial countries is about 0.015. The likelihood for men to remarry is approximately five to six times higher and can be best interpreted as a reflector of the distribution of sexes on the "remarriage market", rather than as an expression of any differential priorities or attitudes between sex groups. Other factors influencing remarriage are numeric age, social status, ethnic and religious integration and previous experiences of married life. The interval between loss of a partner and remarriage commonly stretches between 1.5 and 5.5 years. The main motive for remarriage is the wish not be alone. Basic values underlying the choice of a partner are the same as in the previous partnership. There are no apparent differences between the sexes with regard to the estimated success of their partnership. In three out of four cases, remarriage in old age seems to be a successful undertaking.

  17. Embodied cognition of aging

    PubMed Central

    Vallet, Guillaume T.

    2015-01-01

    Embodiment is revolutionizing the way we consider cognition by incorporating the influence of our body and of the current context within cognitive processing. A growing number of studies which support this view of cognition in young adults stands in stark contrast with the lack of evidence in favor of this view in the field of normal aging and neurocognitive disorders. Nonetheless, the validation of embodiment assumptions on the whole spectrum of cognition is a mandatory step in order for embodied cognition theories to become theories of human cognition. More pragmatically, aging populations represent a perfect target to test embodied cognition theories due to concomitant changes in sensory, motor and cognitive functioning that occur in aging, since these theories predict direct interactions between them. Finally, the new perspectives on cognition provided by these theories might also open new research avenues and new clinical applications in the field of aging. The present article aims at showing the value and interest to explore embodiment in normal and abnormal aging as well as introducing some potential theoretical and clinical applications. PMID:25932019

  18. [Strategies for successful ageing].

    PubMed

    Orozco Ríos, Adriana Martha; López Velarde Peña, Tatiana; Martínez Gallardo Prieto, Lorenza

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in the interest of anti-ageing medicine in the last few years, with a growth in the industry of products that promise to prolong life and restore all the suffering or "defects" produced by age. The understanding of ageing has changed over the years, giving rise to the possibility of intervening in different metabolic and cellular pathways, and thus, delaying the appearance of the degenerative chronic diseases that appear with age, and that are finally the causing factors of the vulnerability that leads to our death. It is hoped that we can help the clinician to orientate their patients, who, due to the overwhelming amount of information they receive by the Internet, arrive at the clinic full of questions, waiting to receive absolute answer from their physician in order to increase their longevity and quality of life. This article presents an analysis of the physical activity, diets, supplements and drugs that are being investigated as anti-ageing measures and of the many clinical studies that have produced encouraging, measurable and reproducible results.

  19. Aging and PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, C.B.; Idar, D.J.; Buntain, G.A.; Son, S.F.; Sander, R.K.

    1998-12-31

    Components made from PBX 9502, an insensitive high explosive formulated with triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and Kel-F 800 binder, have been in service for nearly two decades. Since that time, samples have been destructively evaluated to determine if potential changes that might affect safety, reliability, or performance have occurred in the high explosive with time. Data from routine, historical testing is reported elsewhere. This paper focuses on specific tests conducted to evaluate the effects of natural aging on handling sensitivity (through the small-scale tests of Human Electrostatic Discharge, friction, and Drop Weight Impact), compressive strength, and thermal ignition. Also reported are the effects of a radiation environment on TATB. Small-scale sensitivity tests show no differences between aged and unaged material. Observed differences in compressive strength behavior are attributed to conditions of original material rather than aging effects. Thermal ignition by flame and laser methods showed no changes between aged and unaged material. Extreme levels of radiation are shown to have only minimal effects in explosive response tests. PBX 9502 is concluded, once again, to be a very stable material, aging gracefully.

  20. Stress, Aging and Thirst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1998-01-01

    After growth during adolesence, total body water decreases progressively with aging from 65% of body weight to about 53% of body weight in the 70th decade; a majority of the loss occurs from the extracellular volume, from 42% to about 25%, respectively. Cellular volume also reaches equilibrium in the 70th decade at about 25% of body weight. Various stresses such as exercise, heat and attitude exposure, ad prior dehydration attenuate voluntary fluid intake (involuntary dehydration). Voluntary fluid intake appears to decrease with aging (involuntary dehydration in this sense aging can be considered as a stress. Kidney function and muscle mass (80% water) decrease somewhat with aging, and voluntary fluid intake (thirst) is also attenuated. Thirst is stimulated by increasing osmolality (hypernatremia) of the extracellular fluid and by decreased extracellular volume (mainly plasma volume) which act to increase intracellular fluid volume osmolality to activiate drinking. The latter decreases fluid compartment osmolality which ' It terminates drinking. However, this drinking mechanism seems to be attenuated with aging such that increasing plasma osmolality no longer stimulates fluid intake appropriately. Hypernatremia in the elderly has been associated all too frequently with greater incidence of bacterial infection and increased mortality. Involuntary dehydration can be overcome in young men by acclimation to an intermittent exercise-in-heat training program. Perhaps exercise training in the elderly would also increase voluntary fluid intake and increase muscle mass to enhance retention of water.

  1. Energy Expenditure and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Manini, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    The study of energy expenditure (EE) has deep roots in understanding aging and lifespan in all species. In humans, total EE decreases substantially in advanced age resulting from parallel changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR) and activity EE. For RMR, this reduction appears to be due to a reduction in organ mass and specific metabolic rates of individual tissues. However, these anatomical changes explain very little regarding the decline in activity EE, which is governed by both genetic and environmental sources. The biological control centers for activity EE are closely coupled with body mass fluctuations and seem to originate in the brain. Several candidate neuromodulators may be involved in the age-related reduction of activity EE that include: orexin, agouti-related proteins and dopaminergic pathways. Unfortunately, the existing body of research has primarily focused on how neuromodulators influence weight gain and only a few studies have been performed in aging models. Recent evidence suggests that activity EE has an important role in dictating lifespan and thus places emphasis on future research to uncover the underlying biological mechanisms. The study of EE continues to unlock clues to aging. PMID:19698803

  2. Hormesis in aging.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Suresh I S

    2008-01-01

    Hormesis in aging is represented by mild stress-induced stimulation of protective mechanisms in cells and organisms resulting in biologically beneficial effects. Single or multiple exposure to low doses of otherwise harmful agents, such as irradiation, food limitation, heat stress, hypergravity, reactive oxygen species and other free radicals have a variety of anti-aging and longevity-extending hormetic effects. Detailed molecular mechanisms that bring about the hormetic effects are being increasingly understood, and comprise a cascade of stress response and other pathways of maintenance and repair. Although the extent of immediate hormetic effects after exposure to a particular stress may only be moderate, the chain of events following initial hormesis leads to biologically amplified effects that are much larger, synergistic and pleiotropic. A consequence of hormetic amplification is an increase in the homeodynamic space of a living system in terms of increased defence capacity and reduced load of damaged macromolecules. Hormetic strengthening of the homeodynamic space provides wider margins for metabolic fluctuation, stress tolerance, adaptation and survival. Hormesis thus counter-balances the progressive shrinkage of the homeodynamic space, which is the ultimate cause of aging, diseases and death. Healthy aging may be achieved by hormesis through mild and periodic, but not severe or chronic, physical and mental challenges, and by the use of nutritional hormesis incorporating mild stress-inducing molecules called hormetins. The established scientific foundations of hormesis are ready to pave the way for new and effective approaches in aging research and intervention.

  3. Age Distribution of Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, U.; Daughney, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater at the discharge point comprises a mixture of water from different flow lines with different travel time and therefore has no discrete age but an age distribution. The age distribution can be assessed by measuring how a pulse shaped tracer moves through the groundwater system. Detection of the time delay and the dispersion of the peak in the groundwater compared to the tracer input reveals the mean residence time and the mixing parameter. Tritium from nuclear weapons testing in the early 1960s resulted in a peak-shaped tritium input to the whole hydrologic system on earth. Tritium is the ideal tracer for groundwater because it is an isotope of hydrogen and therefore is part of the water molecule. Tritium time series data that encompass the passage of the bomb tritium pulse through the groundwater system in all common hydrogeologic situations in New Zealand demonstrate a semi-systematic pattern between age distribution parameters and hydrologic situation. The data in general indicate high fraction of mixing, but in some cases also indicate high piston flow. We will show that still, 45 years after the peak of the bomb tritium, it is possible to assess accurately the parameters of age distributions by measuring the tail of the bomb tritium.

  4. Rejuvenation of aging hearts.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Andrew R; Larrick, James W

    2013-08-01

    Specific subtle changes in regulation or activity of factors that maintain homeostasis and cell differentiation may play significant roles in mammalian aging. Drift resulting from reaching the end of an organism's developmental program might involve a specific ordered set of changes. Several studies have suggested that dysfunctional changes associated with aging in skeletal muscle, neurons, and hematopoietic stem cells may be caused by specific changes either in the extracellular environment or in intracellular regulatory networks and that such dysfunction may be reversible. On the basis these data, Loffredo et al. hypothesized that extrinsic circulating factors in young mice might reverse cardiac aging. Parabiosis, the surgical linking of circulations between old and young mice, was employed to identify an anti-hypertrophic factor (growth differentiation factor 11 [GDF-11]) that appears to rejuvenate aging murine hearts, raising exciting prospects for the development of anti-aging therapeutics. However, much work remains to be done to evaluate the utility of GDF-11 as a therapeutic rejuvenation factor. Similar rejuvenating factors for diverse tissues may exist as well and will hopefully be identified in the near future.

  5. Stress, Aging and Thirst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1998-01-01

    After growth during adolesence, total body water decreases progressively with aging from 65% of body weight to about 53% of body weight in the 70th decade; a majority of the loss occurs from the extracellular volume, from 42% to about 25%, respectively. Cellular volume also reaches equilibrium in the 70th decade at about 25% of body weight. Various stresses such as exercise, heat and attitude exposure, ad prior dehydration attenuate voluntary fluid intake (involuntary dehydration). Voluntary fluid intake appears to decrease with aging (involuntary dehydration in this sense aging can be considered as a stress. Kidney function and muscle mass (80% water) decrease somewhat with aging, and voluntary fluid intake (thirst) is also attenuated. Thirst is stimulated by increasing osmolality (hypernatremia) of the extracellular fluid and by decreased extracellular volume (mainly plasma volume) which act to increase intracellular fluid volume osmolality to activiate drinking. The latter decreases fluid compartment osmolality which ' It terminates drinking. However, this drinking mechanism seems to be attenuated with aging such that increasing plasma osmolality no longer stimulates fluid intake appropriately. Hypernatremia in the elderly has been associated all too frequently with greater incidence of bacterial infection and increased mortality. Involuntary dehydration can be overcome in young men by acclimation to an intermittent exercise-in-heat training program. Perhaps exercise training in the elderly would also increase voluntary fluid intake and increase muscle mass to enhance retention of water.

  6. Inner-Ages of Middle-Aged Prime-Lifers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Benny

    1998-01-01

    Examines three age-role self-concepts: cognitive, ideal, and social with 40-69 year olds who consider themselves middle-aged. Reviews inner-age research and evaluates inner-age infrastructure as well as connections between inner-age and participants' characteristics in the context of eight psychographic trait sets. (Author/MKA)

  7. The Sciences and Aging. Adding to the Knowledge about Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Dean

    The Social Sciences, as they relate to the aged and the aging, are discussed. Social gerontology seeks to discover the role of the social environment as a determinant of aging and of the behavior and position of older people in society. In the United States, some 20 million people are over 65 years of age, and the median age of the elderly has…

  8. Aging and the kidney.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Castro, Eddie M; Córdova, Héctor R

    2011-01-01

    The kidney undergoes functional and structural changes during the aging process. The factors influencing these changes are currently under active investigation. The renal functional reserve is diminished in the elderly predisposing these individuals to the development of acute kidney injury when the balance of vasconstrictive and vasodilatory hormones are altered, particularly with medications. The development of acute kidney injury in the elderly portends a negative prognosis for the recovery of renal function. The management of end stage renal disease in the elderly is also a topic of intense discussion and clinical investigation. In this review, we explore the mechanisms responsible for the aging of the kidney. We also summarize the renal hemodynamic changes, urine and concentration and dilution alterations, and the changes in sodium and potassium metabolism associated with aging. The role and the consequences of dialysis treatment in the elderly are also explored in this review article.

  9. Aging Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Musso, Carlos G; Giordani, María C; Imperiali, Nora

    2016-01-01

    There are several immunological and non-immunological factors related to renal graft deterioration, and histological lesions such as interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy overlap with those observed in aging kidneys. Consequently, it has been proposed that kidney transplant senescence could contribute to graft loss. The process of cell senescence displays characteristics such as an increased expression of specific aging suppressor genes, shortened telomeres, mitochondrial changes, increased expression of negative regulators of the cell cycle, and immunological senescence. Additionally, tubular frailty characterizes the aged kidney, making it more susceptible to ischemia, reperfusion, toxic injury, and consequently, to inflammation. Moreover, renal tissue injury predisposes the older graft not only to progressive deterioration due to glomerular hyperfiltration, but also triggers acute rejection due to increased immunogenicity. In conclusion, renal graft senescence is a complex process, and its better understanding will help the nephrologist in its management in order to achieve a longer graft survival.

  10. Aging as disease.

    PubMed

    De Winter, Gunnar

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, I will argue that ageing can be construed as disease. First, the concept of disease is discussed, where the distinction is made between two lines of thought, an objectivist and a subjectivist one. After determining the disease conception to be used throughout the argument, it is proposed that senescence could be seen as disease. Three common counterarguments are discussed, none of which appears strong enough to effectively counter the advocated view. In the third section, two potential implications of the view advocated here will be briefly touched upon. These are the quest for a cure or treatment for ageing and the general attitude towards the elderly. It is concluded that, utilizing an objective disease concept, ageing could be seen as a disease. None of the considered counterarguments packs enough of a punch to discard this. The implications are complex and intertwined, but need not be negative.

  11. Autoantibodies, mortality and ageing.

    PubMed

    Richaud-Patin, Y; Villa, A R

    1995-01-01

    Immunological failure may be the cause of predisposition to certain infections, neoplasms, and vascular diseases in adulthood. Mortality risks through life may reflect an undetermined number of causes. This study describes the prevalence of positivity of autoantibodies through life, along with general and specific mortality causes in three countries with different socioeconomic development (Guatemala, Mexico and the United States). Prevalence of autoantibodies by age was obtained from previous reports. In spite of having involved different ethnic groups, the observed trends in prevalence of autoantibodies, as well as mortality through life, showed a similar behavior. Thus, both the increase in autoantibody production and death risk as age rises, may share physiopathological phenomena related to the ageing process.

  12. Aging in Birds.

    PubMed

    Travin, D Y; Feniouk, B A

    2016-12-01

    Rodents are the most commonly used model organisms in studies of aging in vertebrates. However, there are species that may suit this role much better. Most birds (Aves), having higher rate of metabolism, live two-to-three times longer than mammals of the same size. This mini-review briefly covers several evolutionary, ecological, and physiological aspects that may contribute to the phenomenon of birds' longevity. The role of different molecular mechanisms known to take part in the process of aging according to various existing theories, e.g. telomere shortening, protection against reactive oxygen species, and formation of advanced glycation end-products is discussed. We also address some features of birds' aging that make this group unique and perspective model organisms in longevity studies.

  13. Sleep and Human Aging.

    PubMed

    Mander, Bryce A; Winer, Joseph R; Walker, Matthew P

    2017-04-05

    Older adults do not sleep as well as younger adults. Why? What alterations in sleep quantity and quality occur as we age, and are there functional consequences? What are the underlying neural mechanisms that explain age-related sleep disruption? This review tackles these questions. First, we describe canonical changes in human sleep quantity and quality in cognitively normal older adults. Second, we explore the underlying neurobiological mechanisms that may account for these human sleep alterations. Third, we consider the functional consequences of age-related sleep disruption, focusing on memory impairment as an exemplar. We conclude with a discussion of a still-debated question: do older adults simply need less sleep, or rather, are they unable to generate the sleep that they still need?

  14. Redox theory of aging

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dean P.

    2015-01-01

    Metazoan genomes encode exposure memory systems to enhance survival and reproductive potential by providing mechanisms for an individual to adjust during lifespan to environmental resources and challenges. These systems are inherently redox networks, arising during evolution of complex systems with O2 as a major determinant of bioenergetics, metabolic and structural organization, defense, and reproduction. The network structure decreases flexibility from conception onward due to differentiation and cumulative responses to environment (exposome). The redox theory of aging is that aging is a decline in plasticity of genome–exposome interaction that occurs as a consequence of execution of differentiation and exposure memory systems. This includes compromised mitochondrial and bioenergetic flexibility, impaired food utilization and metabolic homeostasis, decreased barrier and defense capabilities and loss of reproductive fidelity and fecundity. This theory accounts for hallmarks of aging, including failure to maintain oxidative or xenobiotic defenses, mitochondrial integrity, proteostasis, barrier structures, DNA repair, telomeres, immune function, metabolic regulation and regenerative capacity. PMID:25863726

  15. Glucose and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, John T. A.

    2008-04-01

    When a human's enzymes attach glucose to proteins they do so at specific sites on a specific molecule for a specific purpose that also can include ascorbic acid (AA) at a high level such as 1 gram per hour during exposure. In an AA synthesizing animal the manifold increase of AA produced in response to illness is automatic. In contrast, the human non-enzymatic process adds glucose haphazardly to any number of sites along available peptide chains. As Cerami clarified decades ago, extensive crosslinking of proteins contributes to loss of elasticity in aging tissues. Ascorbic acid reduces the random non-enyzmatic glycation of proteins. Moreover, AA is a cofactor for hydroxylase enzymes that are necessary for the production and replacement of collagen and other structural proteins. We will discuss the relevance of ``aging is scurvy'' to the biochemistry of human aging.

  16. Signatures of aging

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwall, J.; Dyson, F.; Garwin, R.; Hammer, D.; Happer, W.; Lewis, N.; Schwitters, R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.

    1998-01-06

    The Department of Energy and its three weapons laboratories (LANL, LLNL, and SNL) have developed a Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program (SSMP) in response to their designated mission of maintaining an effective, i.e. reliable and safe, nuclear deterrent without underground nuclear tests (UGTs). The need to ensure the effectiveness of an aging stockpile presents new challenges of major importance. In this study we review what is known about the aging of critical constituents, particularly the high explosives, polymers, and metals in the enduring stockpile. We discuss data that are required to provide a fuller understanding of aging, and how to obtain that data as a basis for anticipating and addressing potential stockpile problems. Our particular concern is problems that may arise in the short term, i.e. within the next 5 to 10 years, and their implied requirements for preventive maintenance and remanufacture.

  17. Exercise, age, and bones.

    PubMed

    Thomas, W C

    1994-05-01

    Skeletal development in average healthy individuals is maximal at age 25 in women and at age 30 to 35 in men. However, there are significant racial differences, skeletal mass being greater in black than in white individuals. This difference appears best accounted for by increased muscle mass in blacks. Bed rest, immobilization, weightlessness (as in space flights), and aging induce a decrease in skeletal mass. The degree of osteopenia in the elderly depends partly on skeletal development during formative years and can be prevented from becoming severe by maintaining good nutritional status (calcium, vitamin D, protein) and physical activity. Maintenance or actual increase in muscle mass is a desired effect of appropriate physical activity, but excessive physical exercise may induce estrogen deficiency and menstrual irregularities in premenopausal women. In addition to diet and exercise, pharmacologic therapy (estrogens, androgens, diphosphonates, or calcitonin) is indicated in patients with significant osteoporosis.

  18. Aging and neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gwenn S

    2013-03-01

    Neuroplasticity can be defined as a final common pathway of neurobiological processes, including structural, functional or molecular mechanisms, that result in stability or compensation for age- or disease-related changes. The papers in this issue address the aging process, as well as depression, dementia, and stroke and a range of interventions, including manipulations in behavior (physical and cognitive activity/exercise), physiological factors (caloric restriction, cholesterol), pharmacologic treatments (AMPA receptors) and manipulation of brain magnetic fields and electrical activity (transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy, and deep brain stimulation).This editorial will address different facets of neuroplasticity, the need for translational research to interpret neuroimaging data thought to reflect neuroplasticity in the human brain, and the next steps for testing interventions in aging and in disease.

  19. Dreams and age.

    PubMed

    Zanasi, Marco; De Persis, Simone; Caporali, Manlio; Siracusano, Alberto

    2005-06-01

    This work evaluated the association of age and dream reports. The verbal reports of 148 dreams of elderly people (M age=75.8 yr.) were compared with 151 dreams of a group of young people (M age=22.0). The dreams were analyzed according to the Jungian vision (which looks at the dream as a text produced by the dreamer's unconscious while sleeping), using processing techniques derived from textual analysis. Significant differences were found between the number of words denoting emotion, with the young people reporting more explicit statements regarding emotional states. Significant differences were found also in use of verb tenses. When older people explicitly expressed an emotional state in a dream text, they shifted between present and past tense more frequently than young people. A significant prevalence in the semantic field of visual sense was evident as younger subjects used more sentences referring to sight than the elderly participants.

  20. Anemia, fatigue and aging.

    PubMed

    Balducci, L

    2010-12-01

    Aging is associated with increased incidence and prevalence of both cancer and anemia. Cancer and aging may conspire in making anemia more frequent and more severe. This article reviews the causes and the consequences of anemia in the older individual. The most common causes include chronic inflammation that is a typical manifestation of aging, iron deficiency that may be due to chronic hemorrhage, malabsorption and Helicobacter pylori infection, cobalamin deficiency from malabsorption and renal insufficiency. Other causes of anemia whose prevalence is not well established include myelodysplasia, copper deficiency, hypothyroidism, and sarcopenia. Anemia is associated with increased risk of mortality, functional dependence, dementia, falls, and chemotherapy-related toxicity. When correcting the anemia of older cancer patients one should remember that the erythropoietic stimulating agents (ESA) may stimulate cancer growth and cause thrombosis. These products may be safe when given exclusively to patients receiving chemotherapy and when the hemoglobin levels are maintained below 12 g/dL.

  1. The aging raptor.

    PubMed

    Tristan, Tim

    2010-01-01

    There is little information available in the literature regarding geriatric raptor medicine. Estimating the life span of birds of prey and evaluating factors that influence longevity are continuing to be explored. Identifying disease conditions that arise with advancing age may involve various body systems including the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and others. Falconry, exhibit, and wildlife raptors are reviewed with regard to factors that affect their mortality, life expectancy, and age evaluation. In addition, medical conditions that are frequently seen in geriatric raptors are covered in this article.

  2. Ageing and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Fixa, B; Komárková, O; Nozicka, Z

    1975-01-01

    A total of 483 healthy persons from Czechoslovakia, divided into three age groups (below 40, 41-60 and above 61 years) were examined for eight types of autoantibodies (antibodies to epithelial cells and to colloid of thyroid gland, parietal cell antibodies, antibody to intersititial duct cells of parotis and to adrenal cells, anti-nuclear and anti-mitochondrial antibodies, intrinsic factor antibodies). A significantly increased occurrence was observed in the oldest age group, the results being more manifest in women. A conspicious increase was seen particularly in the thyroid antibodies. The results correspond to those of other authors from different geographic areas.

  3. Predictive aging of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, Edward F. (Inventor); Willis, Paul B. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A method of predicting aging of polymers operates by heating a polymer in the outdoors to an elevated temperature until a change of property is induced. The test is conducted at a plurality of temperatures to establish a linear Arrhenius plot which is extrapolated to predict the induction period for failure of the polymer at ambient temperature. An Outdoor Photo Thermal Aging Reactor (OPTAR) is also described including a heatable platen for receiving a sheet of polymer, means to heat the platen, and switching means such as a photoelectric switch for turning off the heater during dark periods.

  4. [United theory of aging].

    PubMed

    Trubitsyn, A G

    2012-01-01

    In attempts to develop a means of life prolongation the humankind has created more than three hundred theories of the aging; each of them offers the original cause of aging. However, none of them has given practical result by now. The majority of the theories have now only historical interest. There are several different theories that are mainly under consideration currently. They are based on reliable, proven evidence: the free radical theory, the protein error theory, the replicative senescence theory, the theory of reparation weakening, the immunological theory, several versions of neuroendocrinal theories, and programmed aging theory. The theory presented here is based on conception that the life as the phenomenon represents many of the interconnected physical and chemical processes propelled by energy of the mitochondrial bioenergetical machine. Gradual degradation of all vital processes is caused by the programmed decrease in level of bioenergetics. This theory unites all existing theories of aging constructed on authentic facts: it is shown, that such fundamental phenomena accompanying aging process as the increase in level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the decrease in the general level of protein synthesis, the limitation of cellular dividing (Haiflick limit), decrease in efficiency of reparation mechanisms are caused by bioenergetics attenuation. Each of these phenomena in turn generates a number of harmful secondary processes. Any of the theories bases on one of these destructive phenomena or their combination. Hence, each of them describes one of sides of process of the aging initially caused by programmed decrease of level of bioenergetics. This united theory gives the chance to understand the nature of aging clock and explains a phenomenon of increase in longevity at the condition of food restriction. Failures of attempts to develop means from aging are explained by that the manipulations with the separate secondary phenomena of attenuation of

  5. [Trends in population aging].

    PubMed

    Valkovics, E

    1990-11-01

    The age structure of the world population between 1950 and 1985 is analyzed according to changes in fertility, mortality, and international migration in developing and developed countries. "Relying on the results of the medium scenario of the population forecasts prepared by the U.N. Division of International Economic and Social Affairs, the author demonstrates that aging of the world population will become a global phenomenon, characteristic of every region and county of the world, between 1985 and 2025." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  6. Exaptation, serendipity and aging.

    PubMed

    Andriani, Pierpaolo

    2017-01-12

    The paper shows the importance of serendipity and exaptation in selected key moments of ageing research and argue that rationalistic dominant models in scientific research have masked the importance of reverse models of discovery based on serendipity and exaptation. I ask why this is the case and analyze three contributing factors: unprestatability of the functions of technologies, multidimensionality and astronomical complexity of the space over which biological reactions occurs and role of scientific paradigms in channeling research toward incrementalism. Empirical evidence of the limits of the rationalistic models are presented next. I close the paper by discussing the implications for aging research.

  7. Predictive aging of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, Edward F. (Inventor); Willis, Paul B. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method of predicting aging of polymers operates by heating a polymer in the outdoors to an elevated temperature until a change of property is induced. The test is conducted at a plurality of temperatures to establish a linear Arrhenius plot which is extrapolated to predict the induction period for failure of the polymer at ambient temperature. An Outdoor Photo Thermal Aging Reactor (OPTAR) is also described including a heatable platen for receiving a sheet of polymer, means to heat the platen and switching means such as a photoelectric switch for turning off the heater during dark periods.

  8. Stereopsis and ageing.

    PubMed

    Wright, L A; Wormald, R P

    1992-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of defective stereopsis in an elderly population. Of 728 individuals over the age of 65 who attempted a Frisby stereotest, only 27% had full stereopsis and 29% had no stereopsis. In the elderly population defective stereopsis is a common finding in the absence of any other ocular morbidity. The prevalence of defective stereopsis increased with age. This finding was noted as a part of a survey of eye health of elderly people living in an inner city. The finding was not associated with any symptoms. The significance of this finding is discussed.

  9. Stem Cells and Aging.

    PubMed

    Koliakos, George

    2017-02-01

    The article is a presentation at the 4th Conference of ESAAM, which took place on October 30-31, 2015, in Athens, Greece. Its purpose was not to cover all aspects of cellular aging but to share with the audience of the Conference, in a 15-minute presentation, current knowledge about the rejuvenating and repairing somatic stem cells that are distinct from other stem cell types (such as embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells), emphasize that our body in old age cannot take advantage of these rejuvenating cells, and provide some examples of novel experimental stem cell applications in the field of rejuvenation and antiaging biomedical research.

  10. Space Shuttle Aging Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Cris E.

    2007-01-01

    The reusable Manned Space Shuttle has been flying into Space and returning to earth for more than 25 years. The Space Shuttle's uses various types of elastomers and they play a vital role in mission success. The Orbiter has been in service well past its design life of 10 years or 100 missions. As part of the aging vehicle assessment one question under evaluation is how the elastomers are performing. This paper will outline a strategic assessment plan, how identified problems were resolved and the integration activities between subsystems and Aging Orbiter Working Group.

  11. Therapeutics for cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Shineman, Diana W.; Salthouse, Timothy A.; Launer, Lenore J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Bartzokis, George; Kleiman, Robin; Luine, Victoria; Buccafusco, Jerry J.; Small, Gary W.; Aisen, Paul S.; Lowe, David A.; Fillit, Howard M.

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the scientific talks presented at the conference “Therapeutics for Cognitive Aging,” hosted by the New York Academy of Sciences and the Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation on May 15, 2009. Attended by scientists from industry and academia, as well as by a number of lay people—approximately 200 in all—the conference specifically tackled the many aspects of developing therapeutic interventions for cognitive impairment. Discussion also focused on how to define cognitive aging and whether it should be considered a treatable, tractable disease. PMID:20392284

  12. Therapeutics for cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Shineman, Diana W; Salthouse, Timothy A; Launer, Lenore J; Hof, Patrick R; Bartzokis, George; Kleiman, Robin; Luine, Victoria; Buccafusco, Jerry J; Small, Gary W; Aisen, Paul S; Lowe, David A; Fillit, Howard M

    2010-04-01

    This review summarizes the scientific talks presented at the conference "Therapeutics for Cognitive Aging," hosted by the New York Academy of Sciences and the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation on May 15, 2009. Attended by scientists from industry and academia, as well as by a number of lay people-approximately 200 in all-the conference specifically tackled the many aspects of developing therapeutic interventions for cognitive impairment. Discussion also focused on how to define cognitive aging and whether it should be considered a treatable, tractable disease.

  13. A new species of Symbiopsocus Li (Psocodea: "Psocoptera": Psocidae) from Taiwan, China, with a revised checklist and key to species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Luxi; Li, Fasheng; Liu, Zhiqi

    2014-03-06

    Symbiopsocus yangminus sp. n. is described based on specimens collected from Taiwan, China. We provide an updated checklist and comprehensive geographic distribution of Symbiopsocus, including species from China described in Mecampsis. The genus Symbiopsocus now comprises 20 species from mainland China, two species from Taiwan and one species from Japan. Updated keys to males and females of species from China are provided.

  14. Morphological and molecular characterization of a sexually reproducing colony of the booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocodea: Liposcelididae) found in Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qianqian; Kučerová, Zuzana; Perlman, Steve J.; Opit, George P.; Mockford, Edward L.; Behar, Adi; Robinson, Wyatt E.; Stejskal, Václav; Li, Zhihong; Shao, Renfu

    2015-01-01

    The booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila, is a worldwide pest of stored products. For decades, only thelytokous parthenogenetic reproduction was documented in L. bostrychophila. Male L. bostrychophila were first found in Hawaii in 2002. In 2009, a sexual strain was found in Arizona. We examined the morphology of both males and females of the Arizona strain and compared the Arizona sexual strain with the Hawaii sexual strain and the parthenogenetic strains of L. bostrychophila. The sexual and parthenogenetic strains show some differences in eye morphology. To examine the relationship between sexual and asexual lineages, we sequenced the mitochondrial 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA genes of males and females from the Arizona strain. Phylogenetic analyses of L. bostrychophila individuals revealed that: 1) the sexually reproducing colony found in Arizona contains two closely related mitochondrial DNA haplotypes – one present in only females and the other in both males and females; and 2) the Arizona sexual strain was most closely related to a parthenogenetic strain in Illinois. We detected Rickettsia in all of the parthenogenetic individuals we checked but not in any Arizona sexual individuals. Further evidence is required to establish whether the presence of Rickettsia is linked to asexual reproduction in Liposcelis. PMID:26013922

  15. A new species of Timnewia García Aldrete (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Ptiloneuridae), from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neto, Alberto Moreira Da Silva; Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Rafael, José Albertino

    2016-10-06

    A new species of Timnewia from the Brazilian state of Roraima, is here described and illustrated. It differs from T. greeni (New) in details of the forewing and in hypandrium and phallosome morphology.

  16. Two new species of Lachesilla in the andra group, from the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae).

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira

    2013-11-14

    Two new species of Lachesilla in the andra group are described from Brazil, where the group was previously unknown. They raise to five the number of species in the group known in South America. An identification key for females of the andra group in South America is included.

  17. Genus Cyptophania Banks (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lepidopsocidae): unique features, augmented description of the generotype, and descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Mockford, Edward L; Wynne, J Judson

    2013-01-01

    We define the genus Cyptophania with characters that clearly separate it from other genera of the Family Lepidopsocidae in which wing reduction has occurred. We redescribe the generotype, C. hirsuta Banks (Hawaii, presumably introduced), and describe three new species, C. australica n.sp. (Queensland, Australia), C. costalis n.sp. (Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean), and C. pakaratii n.sp. (Rapa Nui = Easter Island, probably endemic). The latter species is described from both sexes and presents the first males known for the genus. One female of this species presents a large spermatophore protruding from the genital chamber, thus indicating the mode of sperm transfer in sexual members of this genus. A key to the known species is included. All of the species of Cyptophania are highly neotenic, but differences in the level of neoteny are noted among the species studied. We question the synonymy of the genus Ptenocorium Enderlein with Cyptophania on the basis of several characters illustrated in the original description of Ptenocorium. We note similarities of Cyptophania to the entirely macropterous genus Lepidopsocus Enderlein and suggest a possible close relationship between the two genera.

  18. New species of Prolachesilla Mockford & Sullivan (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae: Graphocaeciliini) from Bolivia and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arango, Stephania Sandoval; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso Neri García

    2017-03-20

    The genus Prolachesilla Mockford & Sullivan presently includes nine species, all described when the genus was erected; since then, no other species have been discovered. Here, we describe and illustrate one Bolivian and three Mexican species. This is the first record of Prolachesilla from Bolivia. A key to the species of the genus is included.

  19. Design for the Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Given the differences in social, emotional, and physiological development among elementary, middle, and high school students, it should come as no surprise that collaborative spaces should be designed differently for each age group. The needs of younger students do not necessarily mirror those of their older peers. Architect and educator Peter…

  20. Curcumin and aging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Curcumin has been used commonly as a spice, food additive, and an herbal medicine worldwide. Known as a bioactive polyphenolic, curcumin has a broad range of beneficial properties to human health. Recently, active research on curcumin with respect to aging and related traits in model organisms has d...

  1. Wisdom of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Margaret

    Aging can be difficult for some, but for others it is a process in which problems and joys are encountered and faced through the life cycle. In this study, 50 older adults responded to an open-ended question. Respondents were asked to give advice to the young on their insights toward fulfillment of life goals. Responses were put into five…

  2. Aging and Visual Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, A. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Eye diseases of the aged include diabetic retinopathy, senile cataracts, senile macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Environmental modifications such as better levels of illumination and reduction of glare can enhance an individual's ability to function. Programs to screen and treat visual problems in elderly persons are called for. (Author/JDD)

  3. Aging and Health: Cataracts

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Cataracts Basic Facts & Information What are Cataracts? The lens of the eye is a clear ... in the US. The Most Common Types of Cataracts Cataracts are categorized depending on their location. They ...

  4. Ageing with Muscular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinsen, Bente; Dreyer, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The demographic development with an ageing population is predicted to be the next global public health challenge. Advances in medicine and the socioeconomic development have reduced mortality and morbidity due to infectious conditions and non-communicable diseases. The increase in longevity will not be restricted to healthy people. Objective: To understand how people with muscular diseases experience ageing. Method: A literature review was conducted using the Matrix Method developed by Garrard (2007). This systematic method was used to identify, describe and interpret studies, irrespective of the methods applied. To avoid the exclusion of important sources, experiences and topics, we chose an integrative approach that accommodates the inclusion of studies with different methodologies. People with MD have gradually extended their life expectancy during the last 30 years. Thus, we reviewed the literature regarding MD and ageing without time limit. Results: We identified three themes: 1) Slowing down early 2) Accepting lifelong deterioration and 3) Striving for normality. Conclusion: People with MD live in a field of tension between a feeling of autonomy and normality and difficulties coping with reduced physical abilities. Getting older accentuates this tension since the physical strength diminishes and it is harder to maintain autonomy. The bodily challenges may coincide with the end of the rehabilitation people living with MD have received. Seemingly, no age-related rehabilitation is offered, and people living with MD are thus at risk of an unnecessarily passive life. PMID:28144383

  5. Age patterns of marriage.

    PubMed

    Coale, A J

    1971-07-01

    Abstract In different populations there is a common curve describing first-marriage frequency (first marriages per woman) as a function of age for each cohort. To fit the variety of patterns of human nuptiality it suffices to choose the age that serves as origin for a standard curve of first-marriage frequency, and to choose appropriate horizontal and vertical scales for the curve. The prevalence of a standard form for first-marriage frequency implies that the proportion ever-married in any cohort also rises along a standard curve, subject to choice of origin (the earliest age of first marriage), vertical scale (the proportion ever-marrying by the end of life), and horizontal scale (the pace at which the proportion ever-married increases with age). A mathematical expression (a double exponential) is found to fit the risk offirst marriage (among those who ever marry), and some of the implications of uniform features of nuptiality in different populations are discussed.

  6. Is extinction age dependent?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, N.A.; Arnold, A.J.; Parker, W.C.; Huffer, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    Age-dependent extinction is an observation with important biological implications. Van Valen's Red Queen hypothesis triggered three decades of research testing its primary implication: that age is independent of extinction. In contrast to this, later studies with species-level data have indicated the possible presence of age dependence. Since the formulation of the Red Queen hypothesis, more powerful tests of survivorship models have been developed. This is the first report of the application of the Cox Proportional Hazards model to paleontological data. Planktonic foraminiferal morphospecies allow the taxonomic and precise stratigraphic resolution necessary for the Cox model. As a whole, planktonic foraminiferal morphospecies clearly show age-dependent extinction. In particular, the effect is attributable to the presence of shorter-ranged species (range < 4 myr) following extinction events. These shorter-ranged species also possess tests with unique morphological architecture. The morphological differences are probably epiphenomena of underlying developmental and heterochronic processes of shorter-ranged species that survived various extinction events. Extinction survivors carry developmental and morphological characteristics into postextinction recovery times, and this sets them apart from species populations established independently of extinction events. Copyright ?? 2006, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  7. The aging thyroid.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaie, Vafa; Surks, Martin I

    2013-10-01

    As life expectancy increases and population age advances, diagnosis and treatment of diseases common in the geriatric population assume an increasingly important role in modern medicine. In the last few years, the emergence of age-specific reference ranges for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) has added to the complexity of diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction in this age group, especially in the 'subclinical' category. The recent studies confirm an increase in population TSH distribution with age, both in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Conclusive evidence about adverse cardiovascular, metabolic, and cognitive consequences of subclinical hypothyroidism in the elderly remains elusive. The transient nature of subtle degrees of thyroid dysfunction in a significant proportion of elderly patients has also been reproduced in the recent publications. A growing body of literature in the last few years, reviewed here, highlights the importance of employing additional caution before assigning diagnoses of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism to elderly patients and initiation of treatment modalities that can have long-lasting effects.

  8. Printmaking for All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Annette W.

    2005-01-01

    Foam printing offers all ages and abilities a way to explore textures in the classroom and to develop personal creativity and imagination. Polystyrene foam trays (commonly known as "meat trays") are readily available, inexpensive, lightweight, portable, and receptive to a wide variety of surface treatments. The printmaking process requires only a…

  9. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  10. A Good Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bert Kruger

    The story of the Austin Groups for the Elderly (AGE), a conglomeration of service agencies serving older adults and children, is related in this document. The agencies' decision to coordinate services as much as possible and to share a building to facilitate coordination and lower costs in financially difficult times is explained. The activities…

  11. Growth Hormone and Aging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    GH to animals of 24 months of replacement therapy in hypopituitary adults on age elicited beneficial effects in the same way as lipid metabolism and...carbohydrate tolerance. those seen in humans. Animals treated during one J Clin Endocrinol Metab,80:356-363 (1995). month with 2 UI of GH

  12. Coming of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    In the Unitarian tradition, Coming of Age (COA) is the counterpart of confirmations or bar/bat mitzvahs, with much less structure. Unitarians are all about freedom of thought, of belief, of expression, and this young adult rite of passage is an opportunity for each young person to say to the congregation, "This is what I believe." The author…

  13. Resocializing Aged Mental Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Stewart; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A special project for aged, hospitalized mental patients, drawing on home economics skills in a team approach to rehabilitation, provides skills training leading to patients' increased capacity for self-care, helps patients transfer from the hospital to some form of community life, and provides follow-up services. (Author/AJ)

  14. Depression and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Marshall, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains four articles related to depression and aging. Compares normal adults with those having a major depressive disorder. Focuses on life satisfaction in the elderly, describing an individualized measure of life satisfaction. Describes similarities and differences between grief and depression. Contains a psychometric analysis of the Zung…

  15. Aging, Empathy, and Prosociality

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Alexander H.; Dahlben, Brian; Gutchess, Angela H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Although empathy is a well-established motivation in younger adults for helping others, it is not known whether this extends to aging. Prioritization of socioemotional goals with age may increase the salience of helping others (i.e., prosocial behavior), but older adults also experience decreased cognitive empathy. Thus, we investigated age-related differences in relationships among empathy and prosocial behavior. Method. Participants were 24 younger (M = 19.8 years) and 24 older (M = 77.9 years) healthy adults. Whereas participants believed the study involved playing the dictator game, in reality, state emotional empathy was induced implicitly through a note from an opponent describing their experience with cancer. Prosocial behavior was measured by participants’ monetary offers to that opponent. Results. Older adults showed greater prosocial behavior due to the empathy induction than younger adults. There was a positive association between state emotional empathy ratings and prosocial behavior in older, but not in younger adults, and preliminary evidence for higher state emotional empathy levels in older adults with higher trait cognitive empathy. Discussion. This suggests that in contexts relevant to socioemotional goals, older adults may be more motivated than younger adults to help others and state emotional empathy may be a potential mechanism for greater prosocial behavior in aging. PMID:24115776

  16. Nuclear age thinking

    SciTech Connect

    Depastas, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    According to the practicalist school, thinking emerges from activity and each human practice is giving food to its own distinctive kinds of perception, conduct, and perspective of the world. The author, while studying and describing developments after the commencement of the nuclear age in many fields of human behavior and knowledge, including the social sciences, particularly psychology and international politics, became an adherent to the practicalist philosophy when he perceived new relevant thoughts coming to his mind at the same time. Indeed writing is a learning experience. He has, therefore, systematically included these thoughts in the following pages and synoptically characterized them in the title: Nuclear Age Thinking. He considers this kind of thinking as automatic, conscious activity which is gradually influencing our choices and decisions. The author has reservations as regards Albert Einstein's saying that the unleashed power of the atom changed everything save our modes of thinking, because the uncontrollability of nuclear energy is apparently in the subconscious of mankind nowadays, influencing the development of a new mode of thinking, and that is the nuclear age thinking which is the subject of this book. Nuclear age thinking drives from the collective fear of extinction of life on earth due to this new power at man's disposal, and it is not only limited to the change in the conventional meaning of the words war and peace.

  17. Printmaking for All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Annette W.

    2005-01-01

    Foam printing offers all ages and abilities a way to explore textures in the classroom and to develop personal creativity and imagination. Polystyrene foam trays (commonly known as "meat trays") are readily available, inexpensive, lightweight, portable, and receptive to a wide variety of surface treatments. The printmaking process requires only a…

  18. The Economics of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Myron H., Ed.

    Papers included are as follows: "An Overview" (Ross); "The Outlook for Social Security in the Wake of the 1983 Amendments" (Munnell); "The Economics of Aging: Doomsday or Shangrila?" (Schulz); "Retirement Incentives--the Carrot and the Stick. (Why No One Works beyond 65 Anymore)" (Quinn); "Inflation and…

  19. [Biomechanics and aging].

    PubMed

    Struck, H J

    1991-01-01

    Starting from the physical basics of the biomechanics of connective tissues, organ structures and the corresponding age-related changes of skin, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bones, blood vessels, and lungs are described. Finally, exogenous factors such as nutrition, hormones, immobilization, activity and adaptive mechanisms and their influence on the biomechanical properties of connective tissue are represented.

  20. [Inflammaging. Aging inflammatory origin].

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Montaña-Alvarez, Mariano

    2009-01-01

    The association between the increase in life expectancy in humans and age-related changes in the immune system promotes that individuals are exposed longer to endogenous and environment antigens which allows an activation of the innate immune system and the subsequent establishment of a low grade chronic inflammation state with an increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, etc.). This inflammatory state referred as inflammaging is characterized by a inflammatory origin of aging given by the activation of cellular systems responsible of gene promotion and suppression as the nuclear factor kappa B, sirtuins, forkhead box O and KLOTHO, who are directly or indirectly involved in cellular mechanisms of resistance to oxidative stress, apoptosis and nucleic acids transcriptional mistakes repair. The activation of these cellular systems is associated with the pathogenesis of several chronic and degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, late-onset diabetes or cardiovascular diseases. However, we are placed in a crossroad because we can not establish whether this inflammatory state observed in the aging process is responsible of development of degenerative diseases or if the presences of these chronic diseases are responsible for this inflammatory state of aging. Evidence in centenarians who are healthy and have preserved functional status has shown that there is a chronic inflammatory state present among them but is balanced by a higher expression of anti-inflammatory molecules.

  1. CETA and the Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schram, Sanford F.; Osten, David F.

    1978-01-01

    To assess the impact of the 1973 Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) on older worker's problems, article examines CETA's history, options, and authority. Finds major systemic factors that encourage local prime sponsors to understate aging populations' needs. Concludes there is a need for substantial CETA changes to effectively serve…

  2. Aging and Visual Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, A. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Eye diseases of the aged include diabetic retinopathy, senile cataracts, senile macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Environmental modifications such as better levels of illumination and reduction of glare can enhance an individual's ability to function. Programs to screen and treat visual problems in elderly persons are called for. (Author/JDD)

  3. Confrontation: Aging in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, George

    This publication contains two activities on aging for use with secondary students. The activities are designed to challenge the prevailing myths about growing old, to provide students with better information, and to foster more positive attitudes about older people. In the first activity, which will take about five class periods, students clarify…

  4. Cable indenter aging monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Shook, T.A.; Gardner, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    This project was undertaken to develop a hand-held, nondestructive test device to assess the aged condition of electrical cable by in situ measurement of mechanical properties of polymeric jackets and insulations. The device is an indenter similar to those used to make hardness measurements. Comparison of measurements made on installed cables with previous measurements serving as baseline aging/mechanical property data will determine the state of aging of the field cables. Such a device will be valuable in nuclear and fossil plant life extension programs. Preliminary laboratory tests on cables covered with ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and chlorosulfated polyethylene (CSPE) point to the measurement of the rate of force increase resulting from constant rate deformation as having the best correlation with progressive thermal aging. This first phase of the work has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the method. A second phase will include the generation of additional groundwork data and the design of the portable indenter for in situ plant measurements.

  5. Nutritional hormesis and aging.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Daniel P

    2009-11-16

    Nutritional hormesis has the potential to serve as a pro-healthy aging intervention by reducing the susceptibility of the elderly to various chronic degenerative diseases and thereby extending human healthspan. Supportive evidence for nutritional hormesis arising from essential nutrients (vitamins and minerals), dietary pesticides (natural and synthetic), dioxin and other herbicides, and acrylamide will be reviewed and discussed.

  6. Aging of Polymeric Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-31

    the de- sired surface finish, and positioned inside a demountable Teflon form. Room- temperature vulcanizing silicone rubber (General Electric RTV ... 664 ) was mixed according to the manufacturer’s suggestions and poured into the form until the I TABLE 1. SAMPLE TYPES PREPARED FOR AGING STUDIES

  7. Sexuality and old age.

    PubMed

    Wylie, K R; Wood, A; McManus, R

    2013-02-01

    Sexuality in older people is a multifaceted field of study. Ageing may offer opportunities for and restrictions on sexuality. Ageing individuals may have increased time for and may wish to explore their sexuality, for example, by considering a same-sex relationship, after a long-term partner dies. However, they may also lack a partner or autonomy. They may develop or have increased symptoms from chronic diseases. Consequent medication may affect their sexual functioning. Their attitudes to sex often change and their capacity for sexual activity may diminish unless they seek help. However, they may lack the confidence to do so and the health professionals consulted may be disinclined or ill-equipped to assist them. They may have concerns regarding how their sexuality or their sexual orientation would be perceived should they require residential care or start to lose their memory. We consider the recent work relating to this broad range of influences on sexuality in old age and conclude that, whilst the challenge for researchers is to accurately clarify the impact of individual factors on sexuality and identify helpful potential interventions, increased academic and educational focus on this area is enhancing the prospects for a sexually enjoyable old age.

  8. Chromium and aging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aging is associated with increased blood glucose, insulin, blood lipids, and fat mass, and decreased lean body mass leading to increased incidences of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Improved chromium nutrition is associated with improvements in all of these variables. Insulin sensitivity de...

  9. Aging in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Harold L.; Streib, Gordon F.

    This document consists of facts and impressions gathered during 1984, in the course of an 18-day visit to the Peoples Republic of China by a team of epidemiologists and gerontologists from the United States. The major portion of the paper presents demographic, economic, and social perspectives on aging in China. It is noted that China remains a…

  10. Aging and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, C. Roberta

    1984-01-01

    Discusses emotional, social, medical, and nutritional needs of older people, and stresses the need for education of the families of the elderly and the need for a coordinated approach to service delivery to this population. In this way, maximum independence of the aged can be achieved. (NRJ)

  11. Aging and Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzarre, Terry L.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews nutrition education programs in relation to aging. A summary of nutritional information that constitutes different components of nutrition education programs for the elderly is discussed. A brief review of physiological changes affecting nutrient utilization and food selection and changes in dietary intake and requirements are presented.…

  12. The Alzheimerization of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    The National Institute on Aging (NIA) invests a disproportionately large share of its resources in research on Alzheimer's Disease at the expense of other interests of the broader scientific community in gerontology. Complex social forces that continue to shape this outcome embrace discipline-specific traditions of science advocacy, as well as…

  13. Music across the Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmons, Scott; Kautz-Sindberg, Laura

    1998-01-01

    Describes an example of community music making in which middle school students, their parents, and a senior adult band all participated in a concert. Indicates the concert intended to celebrate the participants' musical accomplishments, gain support for music education, and demonstrate that music can provide joy for performers of all ages. (CMK)

  14. Time perception and age.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vanessa Fernanda Moreira; Paiva, Gabriel Pina; Prando, Natália; Graça, Carla Renata; Kouyoumdjian, João Aris

    2016-04-01

    Our internal clock system is predominantly dopaminergic, but memory is predominantly cholinergic. Here, we examined the common sensibility encapsulated in the statement: "time goes faster as we get older". To measure a 2 min time interval, counted mentally in subjects of different age groups. 233 healthy subjects (129 women) were divided into three age groups: G1, 15-29 years; G2, 30-49 years; and G3, 50-89 years. Subjects were asked to close their eyes and mentally count the passing of 120 s. The elapsed times were: G1, mean = 114.9 ± 35 s; G2, mean = 96.0 ± 34.3 s; G3, mean = 86.6 ± 34.9 s. The ANOVA-Bonferroni multiple comparison test showed that G3 and G1 results were significantly different (P < 0.001). Mental calculations of 120 s were shortened by an average of 24.6% (28.3 s) in individuals over age 50 years compared to individuals under age 30 years.

  15. Aging in Magnetic Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Tathagata; Pleimling, Michel; Binek, Christian

    2010-03-01

    Aging phenomena can be observed in non-equilibrium systems with slow relaxation dynamics. Magnetic specimens with well defined interactions and dimensions can serve as model systems for universal aspects of aging. Magnetic thin films provide access to a wide range of microscopic parameters. Superlattice structures allow tuning the intra and inter-plane exchange and enable geometrical confinement of the spin fluctuations. We use Co/Cr thin film superlattices to study magnetic aging. The static and dynamic magnetic properties are affected via the Co and Cr film thicknesses. The Curie temperature of the Co films is reduced from the bulk value by geometrical confinement. Cr provides antiferromagnetic coupling between the Co films. In-plane magnetic set fields of some 10-100 mT are applied and the sample is exposed to the latter for various waiting times. After removing the field, relaxation of the magnetization is recorded via longitudinal Kerr-magnetometry and SQUID. The relaxation data are analyzed by scaling plots revealing universal aspects of aging. Financial support by NRI, and NSF through EPSCoR, Career DMR-0547887, DMR-0904999, and MRSEC.

  16. Solid Propellant Aging Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    groups. CURING AGENTS tDDI dimer acid diisocyanate IHDI hexamethylene dlisocyanate IPDI Isophorone 1-11-ocyanate TDI toluene diisocyanate PLASTICIZERS...N N N7 APPENDIX IV PROPELLANT INGREDIENTS BEING AGED POLYMERS HTPB hydroxy terminated polybutadiene CTPB carboxy terminated polybutadiene FBAN

  17. A Good Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bert Kruger

    The story of the Austin Groups for the Elderly (AGE), a conglomeration of service agencies serving older adults and children, is related in this document. The agencies' decision to coordinate services as much as possible and to share a building to facilitate coordination and lower costs in financially difficult times is explained. The activities…

  18. Nutritional Hormesis and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional hormesis has the potential to serve as a pro-healthy aging intervention by reducing the susceptibility of the elderly to various chronic degenerative diseases and thereby extending human healthspan. Supportive evidence for nutritional hormesis arising from essential nutrients (vitamins and minerals), dietary pesticides (natural and synthetic), dioxin and other herbicides, and acrylamide will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:20221283

  19. Diet and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ribarič, Samo

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition has important long-term consequences for health that are not only limited to the individual but can be passed on to the next generation. It can contribute to the development and progression of chronic diseases thus effecting life span. Caloric restriction (CR) can extend the average and maximum life span and delay the onset of age-associated changes in many organisms. CR elicits coordinated and adaptive stress responses at the cellular and whole-organism level by modulating epigenetic mechanisms (e.g., DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications), signaling pathways that regulate cell growth and aging (e.g., TOR, AMPK, p53, and FOXO), and cell-to-cell signaling molecules (e.g., adiponectin). The overall effect of these adaptive stress responses is an increased resistance to subsequent stress, thus delaying age-related changes and promoting longevity. In human, CR could delay many diseases associated with aging including cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. As an alternative to CR, several CR mimetics have been tested on animals and humans. At present, the most promising alternatives to the use of CR in humans seem to be exercise, alone or in combination with reduced calorie intake, and the use of plant-derived polyphenol resveratrol as a food supplement. PMID:22928085

  20. Aging and Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzarre, Terry L.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews nutrition education programs in relation to aging. A summary of nutritional information that constitutes different components of nutrition education programs for the elderly is discussed. A brief review of physiological changes affecting nutrient utilization and food selection and changes in dietary intake and requirements are presented.…

  1. Aging and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, C. Roberta

    1984-01-01

    Discusses emotional, social, medical, and nutritional needs of older people, and stresses the need for education of the families of the elderly and the need for a coordinated approach to service delivery to this population. In this way, maximum independence of the aged can be achieved. (NRJ)

  2. Coming of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    In the Unitarian tradition, Coming of Age (COA) is the counterpart of confirmations or bar/bat mitzvahs, with much less structure. Unitarians are all about freedom of thought, of belief, of expression, and this young adult rite of passage is an opportunity for each young person to say to the congregation, "This is what I believe." The author…

  3. Aging women with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pentland, Wendy; Miscio, Gina; Eastabrook, Shirley; Krupa, Terry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the aging experiences of women with schizophrenia. The research focused on how participants viewed their own aging with schizophrenia, their perceived worries and concerns and how they were coping with aging with the disorder. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected using multiple in-depth interviews with six participants selected purposefully from the client list of a community mental health center. Interview transcriptions were coded and analyzed according to the study questions using QSR Nudist 4 software. Several categories and sub-categories emerged. These included the improvement in the illness over time; physical and daily living activity limitations; specific positive and negative changes that the women report have accompanied aging; the profound losses experienced by the participants when they were younger as a result of having schizophrenia; and how these losses have affected their present lives in terms of limiting available informal support, creating dependency on formal programs and services, and participants' fears of the future. Based on the study findings, implications for mental health practice and services are considered and suggestions are made to guide future research.

  4. Aging in polio.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Matthew N; Omura, Akiko

    2005-02-01

    For a disease that was "conquered" some 40 years ago with the onset of effective vaccination, the issues of long-term survivors of paralytic polio as they age continue to present challenges to rehabilitation specialists. Aging with polio is a definition of PPS. There are over a million patients with PPS in the United States. Management has to include the appropriate use of exercises, appropriate bracing and support, and, in the case of bulbar and respiratory symptoms, the appropriate use of speech therapy services and ventilatory support. There are no prospective randomized trials studying the treatment of weakness and fatigue in PPS. Pharmacologic interventions are limited at this time but include anticholinergics for muscle weakness and dopaminergic agents or amantadine to control central fatigue. The pathophysiology of aging with polio is consistent with neuronal loss and denervation lying at the heart of the developing disorder, whereas the central nervous system components of the fatigue syndrome may be related to central changes with neuronal loss in the basal ganglia and reticular-activating system. Many of the survivors of the polio epidemics are in their later retirement years, and their needs will increase as they have other disabilities due to natural aging. Sensitivity to some of the special issues in PPS may help to avoid complications. Polio is an active infection in the third world. Although great strides have been made, the disease is endemic in eight nations and is threatening to spread. The lessons learned in treating PPS now will be useful in years to come as these individuals age and manifest PPS in the future.

  5. Aging changes in the face

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004004.htm Aging changes in the face To use the sharing ... face with age References Brodie SE, Francis JH. Aging and disorders of the eye. In: Fillit HM, ...

  6. American Federation for Aging Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthier, longer Age Better Fund LEARN about healthy aging through AFAR's expert-edited guides InfoAging What's New Awardee in News: Dongsheng Cai's research on hypothalamus stem cells in R&D magazine Board Member in the ...

  7. Correlation among chronologic age, skeletal maturity, and dental age.

    PubMed

    Sukhia, Rashna H; Fida, Mubassar

    2010-01-01

    To determine the correlation among chronologic age, skeletal maturity, and dental age in reference to both sexes. In 380 subjects (147 males and 233 females) between 7 and 17 years of age, skeletal maturity was assessed using the cervical vertebral maturation stages described by Baccetti et al. Dental age was determined using the Demirjian method. The correlation between skeletal maturity and chronologic age on one side and between skeletal maturity and dental age on the other was assessed with Spearman rank correlation coefficients. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between chronologic and dental age. For both sexes, significant correlations among chronologic age, skeletal maturity, and dental age were found. The mandibular first premolar had the highest correlation with skeletal maturation in both sexes. As skeletal maturity and dental age are significantly correlated, tooth development may be used to assess a patient's skeletal maturity at an early age. © 2011 BY QUINTESSENCE PUBLISHING CO, INC.

  8. The healthy aged

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Marshall; Pike, Andrea; McCrate, Farah; Parsons, Karen; Parsons, Wanda; Pitcher, Heather; Buehler, Sharon; Gadag, Veeresh; Miller, Robert; Sclater, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe a population of cognitively functioning seniors aged 80 years and older who are living independently in the community. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study based on the enrolment cohort of a randomized controlled trial. Setting St John’s, Nfld. Participants A total of 236 cognitively functioning seniors aged 80 years and older living independently in the community. Main outcome measures Demographic characteristics including age, sex, marital status, and education; health status and quality of life measured by the Short Form–36 and the CASP-19 (control, autonomy, self-realization, and pleasure); use of formal and informal community services; satisfaction with family physician care as measured by the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire–18; and use of health care resources (family physician visits, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and laboratory and diagnostic imaging tests). Results Overall, 66.5% of those in the group were women and the average age was 85.5 years. A quarter had postsecondary diplomas or degrees; 54.7% were widowed (69.4% of women and 25.3% of men). The cohort scored well in terms of health status and quality of life, with a range of scores on the Short Form–36 from 57.5 to 93.5 out of 100, and a score of 44 out of 57 on the CASP-19; they were satisfied with the care received from family physicians, with scores between 3.8 and 4.3 out of 5 on the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire–18; and use of health services was low—70% had no emergency department visits in the previous year and 80% had not used any laboratory or diagnostic services. Conclusion Seniors aged 80 years and older living independently are involved in the social fabric of society. They are generally well educated, slightly more than half are widowed, and two-thirds are female. They score well on scales that measure well-being and quality of life, and they use few health services. They are the healthy aged. Trial registration

  9. Neuroimmunomodulation and Aging.

    PubMed

    Gemma, Carmelina

    2010-12-01

    Inflammation is by definition a protective phase of the immune response. The very first goal of inflammation is destroying and phagocytosing infected or damaged cells to avoid the spread of the pathogen or of the damage to neighboring, healthy, cells. However, we now know that during many chronic neurological disorders, inflammation and degeneration always coexist at certain time points. For example, inflammation comes first in multiple sclerosis, but degeneration follows, while in Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease degeneration starts and inflammation is secondary. Either way these are the two pathological detectable problems. The central nervous system (CNS) has long been viewed as exempt from the effects of the immune system. The brain has physical barriers for protection, and it is now clear that cells in the nervous system respond to inflammation and injury in unique ways. In recent years, researchers have presented evidence supporting the idea that in the CNS there is an ongoing protective inflammatory mechanism, which involves macrophage, monocytes, T cells, regulatory T-cells, effector T cells and many others; these, in turn, promote repair mechanisms in the brain not only during inflammatory, and degenerative disorders but also in healthy people. This "repair mechanism" can be considered as an intrinsic part of the physiological activities of the brain. It is now well known that the microenvironment of the brain is a crucial player in determining the relative contribution of the two different outcomes. Failure of molecular and cellular mechanisms sustaining the "brain-repair programme" might be, at least in part, a cause of neurological disorders. Today, the neurotoxic and neuroprotective roles of the innate immune reactions in aging, brain injury, ischemia, autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders of the CNS are widely investigated and highly debated research topics. Nevertheless, several issues remain to be elucidated, notably the earlier cellular

  10. Neuroimmunomodulation and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gemma, Carmelina

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation is by definition a protective phase of the immune response. The very first goal of inflammation is destroying and phagocytosing infected or damaged cells to avoid the spread of the pathogen or of the damage to neighboring, healthy, cells. However, we now know that during many chronic neurological disorders, inflammation and degeneration always coexist at certain time points. For example, inflammation comes first in multiple sclerosis, but degeneration follows, while in Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease degeneration starts and inflammation is secondary. Either way these are the two pathological detectable problems. The central nervous system (CNS) has long been viewed as exempt from the effects of the immune system. The brain has physical barriers for protection, and it is now clear that cells in the nervous system respond to inflammation and injury in unique ways. In recent years, researchers have presented evidence supporting the idea that in the CNS there is an ongoing protective inflammatory mechanism, which involves macrophage, monocytes, T cells, regulatory T-cells, effector T cells and many others; these, in turn, promote repair mechanisms in the brain not only during inflammatory, and degenerative disorders but also in healthy people. This “repair mechanism” can be considered as an intrinsic part of the physiological activities of the brain. It is now well known that the microenvironment of the brain is a crucial player in determining the relative contribution of the two different outcomes. Failure of molecular and cellular mechanisms sustaining the “brain-repair programme” might be, at least in part, a cause of neurological disorders. Today, the neurotoxic and neuroprotective roles of the innate immune reactions in aging, brain injury, ischemia, autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders of the CNS are widely investigated and highly debated research topics. Nevertheless, several issues remain to be elucidated, notably the earlier

  11. Aging trends -- the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Biddlecom, A E; Domingo, L J

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a description of the trends in growth of the elderly population in the Philippines and their health, disability, education, work status, income, and family support. The proportion of elderly in the Philippines is much smaller than in other Southeast Asian countries, such as Singapore and Malaysia. The elderly population aged over 65 years increased from 2.7% of total population in 1990 to 3.6% in 1990. The elderly are expected to comprise 7.7% of total population in 2025. The proportion of elderly is small due to the high fertility rate. Life expectancy averages 63.5 years. The aged dependency ratio will double from 5.5 elderly per 100 persons aged 15-64 years in 1990 to 10.5/100 in 2025. A 1984 ASEAN survey found that only 11% of elderly rated their health as bad. The 1990 Census reveals that 3.9% were disabled elderly. Most were deaf, blind, or orthopedically impaired. 16% of elderly in the ASEAN survey reported not seeing a doctor even when they needed to. 54% reported that a doctor was not visited due to the great expense. In 1980, 67% of men and 76% of women aged over 60 years had less than a primary education. The proportion with a secondary education in 2020 is expected to be about 33% for men and 33% for women. 66.5% of men and 28.5% of women aged over 60 years were in the formal labor force in 1990. Women were less likely to receive cash income from current jobs or pensions. 65% of earnings from older rural people was income from agricultural production. 60% of income among urban elderly was from children, and 23% was from pensions. Family support is provided to the elderly in the form of coresidence. In 1988, 68% of elderly aged over 60 years lived with at least one child. Retirement or nursing homes are uncommon. The Philippines Constitution states that families have a duty to care for elderly members.

  12. Age Group Differences in Perceived Age Discrimination: Associations With Self-Perceptions of Aging.

    PubMed

    Giasson, Hannah L; Queen, Tara L; Larkina, Marina; Smith, Jacqui

    2017-08-01

    From midlife onwards, age stereotypes increasingly underlie social judgments and contribute to age-based discrimination. Whereas many studies compare differences between young and older adults in reports of age discrimination or sensitivity to age stereotypes, few consider age group differences among adults over 50. We form subgroups corresponding to social age group membership (early midlife, late midlife, young old, oldest old) and examine differences in reported experiences of everyday age discrimination and associations with self-perceptions of aging. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS: N = 15,071; M Age = 68, range 50-101), multivariate logistic regression was used to examine experiences of everyday discrimination attributed to age, and associations between age discrimination and self-perceptions of aging, in four age groups: early midlife, late midlife, young old, oldest old. People in the early midlife group (aged 50-59) reported more experiences of unfair treatment than the older age groups but were less likely to attribute their experiences to age discrimination. After controlling for covariates, individuals in all age groups who perceived their own aging positively were less likely to report experiences of age discrimination. The magnitude of this effect, however, was greatest in the early midlife group. Findings support proposals that midlife is a pivotal life period when individuals adjust to life events and social role transitions. Future longitudinal studies will provide further insight into whether positive self-perceptions of aging are especially important in this phase of the life course.

  13. Stop Aging Disease! ICAD 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ilia, Stambler

    2015-01-01

    On November 1–2, 2014, there took place in Beijing, China, the first International Conference on Aging and Disease (ICAD 2014) of the International Society on Aging and Disease (ISOAD). The conference participants presented a wide and exciting front of work dedicated to amelioration of aging-related conditions, ranging from regenerative medicine through developing geroprotective substances, elucidating a wide range of mechanisms of aging and aging-related diseases, from energy metabolism through genetics and immunomodulation to systems biology. The conference further emphasized the need to intensify and support research on aging and aging-related diseases to provide solutions for the urgent health challenges of the aging society. PMID:25821637

  14. The Great Ice Age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Louis L.

    1992-01-01

    The Great Ice Age, a recent chapter in the Earth's history, was a period of recurring widespread glaciations. During the Pleistocene Epoch of the geologic time scale, which began about a million or more years ago, mountain glaciers formed on all continents, the icecaps of Antarctica and Greenland were more extensive and thicker than today, and vast glaciers, in places as much as several thousand feet thick, spread across northern North America and Eurasia. So extensive were these glaciers that almost a third of the present land surface of the Earth was intermittently covered by ice. Even today remnants of the great glaciers cover almost a tenth of the land, indicating that conditions somewhat similar to those which produced the Great Ice Age are still operating in polar and subpolar climates.

  15. Age and fentanyl pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Bentley, J B; Borel, J D; Nenad, R E; Gillespie, T J

    1982-12-01

    Fentanyl pharmacokinetics was compared in two groups of adult patients, one group (n = 5) aged less than 50 years, and one group (n = 4) aged greater than 60 years. Despite equivalent doses of fentanyl (10 microgram/kg IV), serum drug concentrations were significantly higher in the older patient group. This was reflected by a prolonged terminal elimination half-life in the elderly compared with the younger patients (945 versus 265 minutes, respectively, p less than 0.005). Volumes of the central compartment and volumes of drug distribution were similar in both patient groups. However, drug clearance was markedly decreased in the elderly (265 versus 991 ml/min, p less than 0.005). These data suggest that a given dose of fentanyl will be clinically effective for a longer period in older patients than in younger patients.

  16. Signatures of aging revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Drell, S.; Jeanloz, R.; Cornwall, J.; Dyson, F.; Eardley, D.

    1998-03-18

    This study is a follow-on to the review made by JASON during its 1997 Summer Study of what is known about the aging of critical constituents, particularly the high explosives, metals (Pu, U), and polymers in the enduring stockpile. The JASON report (JSR-97-320) that summarized the findings was based on briefings by the three weapons labs (LANL, LLNL, SNL). They presented excellent technical analyses covering a broad range of scientific and engineering problems pertaining to determining signatures of aging. But the report also noted: `Missing, however, from the briefings and the written documents made available to us by the labs and DOE, was evidence of an adequately sharp focus and high priorities on a number of essential near-term needs of maintaining weapons in the stockpile.

  17. Constipation in old age.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Paul; O'Mahony, Denis

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of constipation increases with age. However, constipation is not a physiological consequence of normal ageing. Indeed, the aetiology of constipation in older people is often multifactorial with co-morbid diseases, impaired mobility, reduced dietary fibre intake and prescription medications contributing significantly to constipation in many instances. A detailed clinical history and physical examination including digital rectal examination is usually sufficient to uncover the causes of constipation in older people; more specialized tests of anorectal physiology and colonic transit are rarely required. The scientific evidence base from which to develop specific treatment recommendations for constipation in older people is, for the most part, slim. Constipation can be complicated by faecal impaction and incontinence, particularly in frail older people with reduced mobility and cognitive impairment; preventative strategies are important in those at risk.

  18. Epigenetics and aging.

    PubMed

    D'Aquila, Patrizia; Rose, Giuseppina; Bellizzi, Dina; Passarino, Giuseppe

    2013-02-01

    Over the past two decades, a growing interest on the research of the biological basis of human longevity has emerged, in order to clarify the intricacy of biological and environmental factors affecting (together with stochastic factors) the quality and the rate of human aging. These researches have outlined a complex scenario in which epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation and numerous histone modifications, are emerging as important factors of the overall variation in life expectancy. In fact, epigenetic marks, that are responsible of the establishment of specific expression programs and of genome stability, represent a "drawbridge" across genetic, environmental and stochastic factors. In this review we provide an overview on the current knowledge and the general features of the epigenetic modifications characterizing the aging process.

  19. Aging in Poland.

    PubMed

    Leszko, Magdalena; Zając-Lamparska, Ludmila; Trempala, Janusz

    2015-10-01

    With 38 million residents, Poland has the eighth-largest population in Europe. A successful transition from communism to democracy, which began in 1989, has brought several significant changes to the country's economic development, demographic structure, quality of life, and public policies. As in the other European countries, Poland has been facing a rapid increase in the number of older adults. Currently, the population 65 and above is growing more rapidly than the total population and this discrepancy will have important consequences for the country's economy. As the population ages, there will be increased demands to improve Poland's health care and retirement systems. This article aims to provide a brief overview of the demographic trends in Poland as well a look at the country's major institutions of gerontology research. The article also describes key public policies concerning aging and how these may affect the well-being of Poland's older adults.

  20. [Driving and aging].

    PubMed

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Durán Segura, Mercedes; Castro Ramírez, Cándida

    2010-01-01

    The number of older people who continue to drive is constantly increasing. However, whether older people have more traffic accidents than other age groups is unclear. This age group has certain risk factors due to decreased motor, sensory and cognitive functions and also has greater frailty and vulnerability to injury. However, older drivers are aware of their heightened crash risk and employ certain compensatory actions, avoiding traveling under threatening conditions (dense traffic, bad weather or night driving), traveling by well-known routes and driving carefully. In view of these apparent contradictions, the present study attempts to discern the real crash risk and the driving and crash patterns characteristic of this population, which is continually increasing in industrialized countries.

  1. Seizure semiology and aging.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Diosely C; Jehi, Lara; Chapin, Jessica; Krishnaiengar, Suparna; Novak, Eric; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy; Najm, Imad

    2011-02-01

    The incidence of epilepsy is high in older individuals. However, epilepsy in the elderly may be underdiagnosed and undertreated because of diagnostic difficulties. The main goal of this study was to determine whether seizure semiology differs between older and younger adults with epilepsy in the outpatient setting. Fifty patients with focal epilepsy aged 55 years and older and 50 patients aged between 18 and 45 years were included. Review of medical records contained detailed seizure description. There were no differences in seizure semiology between groups, except that subtle perceptions of transient confusion were seen in older patients but not in younger patients (P=0.0028). Older patients had less generalized motor seizures, but the differences between groups did not reach significance (P=0.01). Older patients may present with subtle symptoms of seizures characterized by brief periods of confusion, which may contribute to greater difficulty diagnosing seizures in the elderly. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exercise, aging, and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Z V; Nelson-Steen, S; Scafidi, K

    1994-05-01

    Age-associated declines in resting energy expenditure and the thermogenesis of activity result in lower energy requirements in older adults. Regular aerobic exercise programs and strength or resistive training may increase the daily energy expenditure and/or may preserve or increase the lean body mass, which decreases with increasing age. Regular strength training exercise programs may improve bone mineral density and ambulation in older adults. Nutritional assessments suggest that older adults' protein intake should be at least 1 g per kilogram of body weight, and that calcium intake should be between 1,200 and 1,500 mg/day. Regular strenuous physical activity may require subtle changes in vitamin and mineral intake to compensate for loss of minerals in sweat and for exercise-induced increases in metabolism. Older adults may have a decreased thirst response to fluid deprivation. Fluid intake must be closely monitored with exercise activity to prevent dehydration.

  3. Age Limit of Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Amy Peykoff; Hackell, Jesse M

    2017-09-01

    Pediatrics is a multifaceted specialty that encompasses children's physical, psychosocial, developmental, and mental health. Pediatric care may begin periconceptionally and continues through gestation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Although adolescence and young adulthood are recognizable phases of life, an upper age limit is not easily demarcated and varies depending on the individual patient. The establishment of arbitrary age limits on pediatric care by health care providers should be discouraged. The decision to continue care with a pediatrician or pediatric medical or surgical subspecialist should be made solely by the patient (and family, when appropriate) and the physician and must take into account the physical and psychosocial needs of the patient and the abilities of the pediatric provider to meet these needs. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Breaking the Age Barrier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Jane

    2010-01-01

    When people retire today they can expect to live for longer than ever before. So much so, that the lifespan model has moved to encompass a "fourth age" of over-75s, for whom an integral part of life is the ability to learn. However, only 14% of people over 75 have engaged in any learning in the past three years. As the pressure on public…

  5. Diabetes in the Aged

    PubMed Central

    Grobin, Wulf

    1970-01-01

    In keeping with the already known high prevalence of diabetes among residents of the Jewish Home for the Aged, Toronto, annual screening disclosed an average incidence of 25.5% of abnormal glucose tolerance (two-hour post-glucose blood sugars above 140 mg./100 ml.) in residents not known to be diabetic. Forty-five (47%) of the 94 residents with abnormal screening values were considered subsequently to be diabetic according to our criteria. Long-term follow-up, particularly of 81 residents initially normoglycemic in 1964-5, confirmed that the natural course of glucose tolerance in this population was one of progressive deterioration. By contrast, improvement amounting to remission has been demonstrated in nine out of 20 residents several years after they had been declared diabetic, and is thought to have been induced by dietotherapy. Moderate hyperglycemia per se did not cause symptoms in these almost always keto-resistant and usually aglycosuric aged diabetics, who often claimed they felt better when hyperglycemic. Hypoglycemia was an ever present danger when anti-diabetic medication was used; it was the main reason for undertreatment. So far, data from our long-term study have not shown morbidity to be markedly increased in the diabetics, and mortality was found to be evenly distributed among diabetic and non-diabetic male residents. However, in the females there was a clear correlation between mortality rate and the diminished glucose tolerance. What may appear as overdiagnosis of diabetes in the aged is recommended in the hope that early institution of dietary treatment will delay the development of clinical diabetes and the need for anti-diabetic agents. This, in turn, would prevent iatrogenic hypoglycemia. It would also reduce the severity and frequency of spontaneous hypoglycemia which, we believe, occurs more commonly in the early phase of diabetes in the aged than is generally realized. PMID:5476778

  6. Concrete containment aging study

    SciTech Connect

    Pachner, J.; Tai, T.M.; Naus, D.

    1994-04-01

    In 1989, IAEA initiated a pilot study on the management of aging of nuclear power plant components. The Phase I and II studies of concrete containment are discussed. With the data base, plant owners will be able to review and enhance their existing programs. IAEA will analyze data provided by participating plants and the report is scheduled to be released by late 1994 (final report release mid-1995).

  7. Understanding Information Age Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    control systems will often be used in sustained crisis action or warfare arenas. Hence, human lives will be at stake and the operators under considerable...JHU/APL Gary Wheatley EBR Larry Wiener OPNAV/N6C Doug Williams Litton TASC xiii Preface Understanding the Emerging Theory of Warfare The age we live ...are not alone. Organizations in every competitive space and individuals in every area of human endeavor are grappling with the relentless demands of our

  8. Aging and space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.

  9. Space age. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    Space age had its world premiere at the large-screen Spaceport Theater at Cape Canaveral/Kennedy Spaceport. The first program was screened for invited guests who, that morning, also witnessed a launch of the Space Shuttle. Since that mission carried the first Japanese astronaut, it was a nice tie-in to the substantial co-production participation of space age by NHK Japan. A special press conference for the series and a twenty-minute preview reel was screened for journalists who were also at the Cape for the shuttle launch. Numerous first-hand newspaper articles were generated. CNN ran part of the preview reel. The first episode in the series, `The Quest for Planet Mars,` then ran twice a day for a week, prior to the Public Broadcasting Service broadcast on an Imax format screen at the Spaceport theater. The program was seen by thousands of visitors. Space age also had a special premier at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC with some 400 special guests, including scientists and government agency representatives.

  10. Aging, immunity, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Fulop, Tamas; Larbi, Anis; Kotb, Rami; de Angelis, Flavia; Pawelec, Graham

    2011-06-01

    Age is the most important risk factor for tumorigenesis. More than 60% of new cancers and more than 70% of cancer deaths occur in elderly subjects >65 years. The immune system plays an important role in the battle of the host against cancer development. Deleterious alterations occur to the immune response with aging, termed immunosenescence. It is tempting to speculate that this waning immune response contributes to the higher incidence of cancer, but robust data on this important topic are few and far between. This review is devoted to discussing state of the art knowledge on the relationship between immunosenescence and cancer. Emerging understanding of the aging process at the molecular level is viewed from the perspective of this increased tumorigenesis. We also consider some of the most recent means to intervene in the modulation of immunosenescence to increase the ability of the immune system to fight against tumors. Future research will unravel new aspects of the immune response against tumors which will be modulable to decrease the burden of cancer in elderly individuals.

  11. The little ice age

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Little Ice Age, a period of glacier expansion in alpine regions that began sometime between the twelfth and sixteenth centuries and lasted until late in the nineteenth century, was recorded not only in glacial features dated by geologic techniques but also in historical documents such as field sketches, land values, and weather records, especially in the Alps. Indirect evidence of its impact in other parts of the world includes the records of sea-ice extent near Iceland and Greenland, the fate of the Viking settlements in Greenland, and many other suggestions that the climate was colder in the recent past than it is today. Jean Grove's book is an authoritative, superbly documented, and excellently written summary of the abundant evidence of climatic change during the last few centuries in the context of broader climatic variations of the last 10,000 years. This summary provides a much-needed perspective for considering the magnitude and frequency of natural climatic variations in the past, given predictions for the future. In the final chapter, Grove notes that natural climatic variations, including another minor ice age, might be expected in the future but at the end of the Little Ice Age coincided with the increased burning of fossil fuels during the industralization of Europe and North America. This coincidence does indeed suggest that modern scientists already have had a significant impact on the global climate.

  12. Adult Graduates' Negotiations of Age(ing) and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siivonen, Päivi; Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we will explore Finnish adult graduates' social positioning in relation to age and ageing, and the new discursive framing of employability that is firmly expressed in national as well as in European policy agendas. Age is here understood as a social construction and ageing as a lifelong process. We will analyse our joint interview…

  13. Age Norms: The Influence of Age, Sex, and Occupational Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepelin, Harold; And Others

    Although informal age norms which influence the timing of major role transitions have been well documented, recent research questions the pervasiveness of this influence. In order to assess the effects of age, sex, and occupational level on perceptions of informal age norms, white-collar and blue-collar men and women (N=462) at two age levels,…

  14. Aging: Aging as a Theme in Art and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Heta

    1987-01-01

    Presents several central themes about aging which may prove useful in interpreting art works and increasing students' awareness of the human qualities of aging. Indicates that, when the artist represents the physical changes of aging, he or she equally characterizes cognitive, emotional, social, and spiritual levels of aging. Includes seven…

  15. Adult Graduates' Negotiations of Age(ing) and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siivonen, Päivi; Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we will explore Finnish adult graduates' social positioning in relation to age and ageing, and the new discursive framing of employability that is firmly expressed in national as well as in European policy agendas. Age is here understood as a social construction and ageing as a lifelong process. We will analyse our joint interview…

  16. Age aspects of habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonova, M.; Murthy, J.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    2016-04-01

    A `habitable zone' of a star is defined as a range of orbits within which a rocky planet can support liquid water on its surface. The most intriguing question driving the search for habitable planets is whether they host life. But is the age of the planet important for its habitability? If we define habitability as the ability of a planet to beget life, then probably it is not. After all, life on Earth has developed within only ~800 Myr after its formation - the carbon isotope change detected in the oldest rocks indicates the existence of already active life at least 3.8 Gyr ago. If, however, we define habitability as our ability to detect life on the surface of exoplanets, then age becomes a crucial parameter. Only after life had evolved sufficiently complex to change its environment on a planetary scale, can we detect it remotely through its imprint on the atmosphere - the so-called biosignatures, out of which the photosynthetic oxygen is the most prominent indicator of developed (complex) life as we know it. Thus, photosynthesis is a powerful biogenic engine that is known to have changed our planet's global atmospheric properties. The importance of planetary age for the detectability of life as we know it follows from the fact that this primary process, photosynthesis, is endothermic with an activation energy higher than temperatures in habitable zones, and is sensitive to the particular thermal conditions of the planet. Therefore, the onset of photosynthesis on planets in habitable zones may take much longer time than the planetary age. The knowledge of the age of a planet is necessary for developing a strategy to search for exoplanets carrying complex (developed) life - many confirmed potentially habitable planets are too young (orbiting Population I stars) and may not have had enough time to develop and/or sustain detectable life. In the last decade, many planets orbiting old (9-13 Gyr) metal-poor Population II stars have been discovered. Such planets had had

  17. Epigenetics of Aging and Aging-related Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with a wide range of human disorders, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Long thought to be an inexorable road toward decline and diseases, aging is in fact remarkably plastic. Such plasticity could be harnessed to approach age-related diseases from a novel perspective. Although many studies have focused on the genes that impact aging, the nongenetic regulation of aging is gaining increasing attention. Specifically, aging is associated with profound epigenetic changes, resulting in alterations of gene expression and disturbances in broad genome architecture and the epigenomic landscape. The potential reversibility of these epigenetic changes that occur as a hallmark of aging offers exciting opportunities to alter the trajectory of age-related diseases. This short review highlights key epigenetic players in the regulation of aging, as well as both future goals and challenges to the utilization of epigenetic strategies to delay and reverse the main diseases of aging. PMID:24833581

  18. Epigenetics of aging and aging-related disease.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Anne; Berger, Shelley L

    2014-06-01

    Aging is associated with a wide range of human disorders, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Long thought to be an inexorable road toward decline and diseases, aging is in fact remarkably plastic. Such plasticity could be harnessed to approach age-related diseases from a novel perspective. Although many studies have focused on the genes that impact aging, the nongenetic regulation of aging is gaining increasing attention. Specifically, aging is associated with profound epigenetic changes, resulting in alterations of gene expression and disturbances in broad genome architecture and the epigenomic landscape. The potential reversibility of these epigenetic changes that occur as a hallmark of aging offers exciting opportunities to alter the trajectory of age-related diseases. This short review highlights key epigenetic players in the regulation of aging, as well as both future goals and challenges to the utilization of epigenetic strategies to delay and reverse the main diseases of aging.

  19. AgeFactDB—the JenAge Ageing Factor Database—towards data integration in ageing research

    PubMed Central

    Hühne, Rolf; Thalheim, Torsten; Sühnel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    AgeFactDB (http://agefactdb.jenage.de) is a database aimed at the collection and integration of ageing phenotype data including lifespan information. Ageing factors are considered to be genes, chemical compounds or other factors such as dietary restriction, whose action results in a changed lifespan or another ageing phenotype. Any information related to the effects of ageing factors is called an observation and is presented on observation pages. To provide concise access to the complete information for a particular ageing factor, corresponding observations are also summarized on ageing factor pages. In a first step, ageing-related data were primarily taken from existing databases such as the Ageing Gene Database—GenAge, the Lifespan Observations Database and the Dietary Restriction Gene Database—GenDR. In addition, we have started to include new ageing-related information. Based on homology data taken from the HomoloGene Database, AgeFactDB also provides observation and ageing factor pages of genes that are homologous to known ageing-related genes. These homologues are considered as candidate or putative ageing-related genes. AgeFactDB offers a variety of search and browse options, and also allows the download of ageing factor or observation lists in TSV, CSV and XML formats. PMID:24217911

  20. Subjective age in early adolescence: relationships with chronological age, pubertal timing, desired age, and problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hubley, Anita M; Arım, Rübab G

    2012-04-01

    Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five problem behaviors, and (d) the relative contributions of chronological age, pubertal timing, desired age, and problem behaviors to subjective age in boys and girls. Adolescents generally reported subjective and desired ages that were slightly older than their chronological ages. A cross-over in subjective age occurred at 10.4 years. Late maturing adolescents reported relatively younger subjective ages than their early and on-time maturing peers. For boys, only desired age significantly predicted subjective age. For girls, an older desired age, late maturation, and higher scores on anxious/depressed feelings, rule-breaking behavior, and aggressive behavior significantly predicted older subjective ages. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Aging Education: A National Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Sandra L.; Klein, Diane A.; Couper, Donna

    2005-01-01

    Americans are living longer than ever before. However, many are not prepared for the long life ahead of them. Although lifespan-aging education has been endorsed since the first White House Conference on Aging in 1961, little is happening with aging education in our homes, schools and communities. Americans often reach old age with little or no…

  2. Dominance and Age in Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    The present article examines the relationship between age and dominance in bilingual populations. Age in bilingualism is understood as the point in development at which second language (L2) acquisition begins and as the chronological age of users of two languages. Age of acquisition (AoA) is a factor in determining which of a bilingual's two…

  3. Aging Education: A National Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Sandra L.; Klein, Diane A.; Couper, Donna

    2005-01-01

    Americans are living longer than ever before. However, many are not prepared for the long life ahead of them. Although lifespan-aging education has been endorsed since the first White House Conference on Aging in 1961, little is happening with aging education in our homes, schools and communities. Americans often reach old age with little or no…

  4. Learning Activities for Understanding Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Stephen B.

    1988-01-01

    Presents five learning activities which are designed to enable the student of psychology to better understand the aging and the aged. Activities are concerned with current demographic data, stereotyping, perceptions of personal aging, attitudes about age found in greeting cards, and an examination of popular culture's messages about the elderly.…

  5. Paths for Future Population Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigsby, Jill S.

    Population aging refers to an entire age structure becoming older. The age structure of a population is the result of three basic processes: fertility, mortality, and migration. Age structures reflect both past effects and current patterns of these processes. At the town, city, or regional level, migration becomes an important factor in raising…

  6. Perceived age as a biomarker of ageing: a clinical methodology.

    PubMed

    Gunn, David A; Murray, Peter G; Tomlin, Cyrena C; Rexbye, Helle; Christensen, Kaare; Mayes, Andrew E

    2008-10-01

    In a previous field-based study, how old one looks for one's age (perceived age) was found to be predictive of mortality in elderly individuals. In conjunction, perceived age is of relevance and interest to the layperson. Here, a clinical methodology for generating perceived age as a biomarker of facial ageing is detailed. The methodology utilises facial photographs of subjects to present images to large numbers of age assessors who are primarily nationals of the country of study origin. In five observational studies in five different countries involving 874 female subjects it was found that subject age and assessor gender, nationality, age and ageing expertise had little effect on the perceived age data generated. However, increasing the numbers of age assessors up to 50 substantially increased the reproducibility of the mean perceived age for an image and a minimum of 10 assessors were required to give reproducible data. This methodology was also compared to a methodology that utilises passport-type photographs of subjects typically taken in field studies. Although the perceived age data from the two types of images were more similar to each other than to chronological age, there was a marked difference between the two sets of data. Therefore, to allow meaningful comparisons across perceived age studies, the same type of image should be used for the generation of perceived age. In conclusion, the methodology detailed here has demonstrated that perceived age can be a reproducible measure when large numbers of adult age assessors are used and can be utilised globally in studies to investigate facial ageing.

  7. Immunosupportive therapies in aging

    PubMed Central

    Fülöp, Tamas; Larbi, Anis; Hirokawa, Katsuiku; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Lesourd, Bruno; Castle, Stephen; Wikby, Anders; Franceschi, Claudio; Pawelec, Graham

    2007-01-01

    The primary role of the immune system is to protect the organism against pathogens, but age-associated alterations to immunity increase the susceptibility of the elderly to infectious disease. The exact nature of these changes is still controversial, but the use of screening procedures, such as the SENIEUR protocol to exclude underlying illness, helped to better characterize the changes actually related to physiological aging rather than pathology. It is generally agreed that the most marked changes occur in the cellular immune response reflecting profound alterations in T cells. Much of this is due to thymic involution as well as changes in the proportions of T cell subpopulations resulting from antigen exposure, and altered T cell activation pathways. However, a body of data indicates that innate immune responses, including the critical bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and antigen presenting capacity are not completely resistant to senescence processes. The consequences of all these alterations are an increased incidence of infections, as well as possibly cancers, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory diseases. The leading question is what, if anything, can we do to prevent these deleterious changes without dangerously dysregulating the precarious balance of productive immunity versus immunopathology? There are many potential new therapeutic means now available to modulate immunosenescence and many others are expected to be available shortly. One main problem in applying these experimental therapies is ethical: there is a common feeling that as ageing is not a disease; the elderly are not sick and therefore do not require adventurous therapies with unpredictable side-effects in mostly frail individuals. Animal models are not helpful in this context. In this chapter we will first briefly review what we think we know about human immunosenescence and its consequences for the health status of elderly individuals. We will then discuss possible

  8. [Cognitive aging in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Bazin, Nadine

    2011-09-01

    The development of studies of aging patients with schizophrenia results from their increasing life expectancy in accordance with that of the general population, but remains far below that one. Studies devoted to cognitive deficits in these patients globally show various complex cognitive deficits, which usually remain stable in their evolution. However, some patients develop a severe cognitive decline after 65 years, following a long institutionalization. Complex cognitive functions particularly deserve to be systematically explored in patients presenting with cognitive complaints and/or communication difficulties. As an example, we present the case report of a patient showing a theory of mind deficit.

  9. Ice age paleotopography.

    PubMed

    Peltier, W R

    1994-07-08

    A gravitationally self-consistent theory of postglacial relative sea level change is used to infer the variation of surface ice and water cover since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The results show that LGM ice volume was approximately 35 percent lower than suggested by the CLIMAP reconstruction and the maximum heights of the main Laurentian and Fennoscandian ice complexes are inferred to have been commensurately lower with respect to sea level. Use of these Ice Age boundary conditions in atmospheric general circulation models will yield climates that differ significantly from those previously inferred on the basis of the CLIMAP data set.

  10. Ice age paleotopography

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, W.R. )

    1994-07-08

    A gravitationally self-consistent theory of postglacial relative sea level change is used to infer the variation of surface ice and water cover since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The results show that LGM ice volume was approximately 35 percent lower than suggested by the CLIMAP reconstruction and the maximum heights of the main Laurentian and Fennoscandian ice complexes are inferred to have been commensurately lower with respect to sea level. Use of these Ice Age boundary conditions in atmospheric general circulation models will yield climates that differ significantly from those previously inferred on the basis of the CLIMAP data set.

  11. Interbehavioral perspectives on aging.

    PubMed

    Herrick, J W

    1983-01-01

    This paper questions the assumption that behavioral, mental, or cognitive incompetence accompanies the biological aging process, a fundamental assumption underlying a great deal of the geropsychological research. Using Kantor's analysis of the history of psychological thought and systems, the philosophical, psychological, social, and cultural-historical bases to this erroneous assumption are investigated. It is concluded that gerontological psychologists have, through their uncritical use of medieval conceptions of behavior, directly contributed to the negative stereotypes of elderly persons found in our society. This has resulted in what is termed "scientific ageism".

  12. Aging and Bone

    PubMed Central

    Boskey, A.L.; Coleman, R.

    2010-01-01

    Bones provide mechanical and protective function, while also serving as housing for marrow and a site for regulation of calcium ion homeostasis. The properties of bones do not remain constant with age; rather, they change throughout life, in some cases improving in function, but in others, function deteriorates. Here we review the modifications in the mechanical function and shape of bones, the bone cells, the matrix they produce, and the mineral that is deposited on this matrix, while presenting recent theories about the factors leading to these changes. PMID:20924069

  13. Age and Stress Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Genoa is a software product that predicts progressive aging and failure in a variety of materials. It is the result of a SBIR contract between the Glenn Research Center and Alpha Star Corporation. Genoa allows designers to determine if the materials they plan on applying to a structure are up to the task or if alternate materials should be considered. Genoa's two feature applications are its progressive failure simulations and its test verification. It allows for a reduction in inspection frequency, rapid design solutions, and manufacturing with low cost materials. It will benefit the aerospace, airline, and automotive industries, with future applications for other uses.

  14. [Environmental pollution and skin aging].

    PubMed

    Vierkötter, A

    2011-08-01

    Extrinsic skin aging is the skin aging process induced by environmental factors. The most prominent environmental factor leading to extrinsic skin aging is the sun; therefore extrinsic skin aging is also known as photoaging. However, numerous studies in recent years have shown that smoking leads to extrinsic skin aging. Further, very recently it has been shown, that environmental pollution by traffic is also associated with the occurrence of signs of extrinsic skin aging. Thus, in preventive skin aging strategies the long-term exposure towards air pollution by traffic must also be considered.

  15. Unmaking old age: political and cognitive formats of active ageing.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Aske Juul; Moreira, Tiago

    2014-08-01

    Active ageing is a policy tool that dominates the way the ageing society has been constituted during the last decades. The authors argue that active ageing is an attempt at unmaking the concept of old age, by engaging in the plasticity of ageing in various ways. Through a document study of the different epistemes, models and forms used in the constitution of active ageing policies, the authors show how active ageing is not one coordinated set of policy instruments, but comes in different formats. In the WHO, active ageing configures individual lifestyle in order to expand the plasticity of ageing, based on epidemiological and public health conventions. In the EU, active ageing reforms the retirement behaviour of populations in order to integrate the plasticity of ageing into the institutions, based on social gerontological and demographic conventions. These conventional arrangements are cognitive and political in the way they aim at unmaking both the structures and the expectations that has made old age and format a new ideal of the 'good late life'. The paper examines the role of knowledge in policy and questions whether the formats of active ageing should be made to co-exist, or whether the diversity and comprehensiveness enable a local adaptation and translation of active ageing policies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Maintained memory in aging is associated with young epigenetic age.

    PubMed

    Degerman, Sofie; Josefsson, Maria; Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie; Wennstedt, Sigrid; Landfors, Mattias; Haider, Zahra; Pudas, Sara; Hultdin, Magnus; Nyberg, Lars; Adolfsson, Rolf

    2017-02-20

    Epigenetic alterations during aging have been proposed to contribute to decline in physical and cognitive functions, and accelerated epigenetic aging has been associated with disease and all-cause mortality later in life. In this study, we estimated epigenetic age dynamics in groups with different memory trajectories (maintained high performance, average decline, and accelerated decline) over a 15-year period. Epigenetic (DNA-methylation [DNAm]) age was assessed, and delta age (DNAm age - chronological age) was calculated in blood samples at baseline (age: 55-65 years) and 15 years later in 52 age- and gender-matched individuals from the Betula study in Sweden. A lower delta DNAm age was observed for those with maintained memory functions compared with those with average (p = 0.035) or accelerated decline (p = 0.037). Moreover, separate analyses revealed that DNAm age at follow-up, but not chronologic age, was a significant predictor of dementia (p = 0.019). Our findings suggest that young epigenetic age contributes to maintained memory in aging.

  17. The Aging Navigational System.

    PubMed

    Lester, Adam W; Moffat, Scott D; Wiener, Jan M; Barnes, Carol A; Wolbers, Thomas

    2017-08-30

    The discovery of neuronal systems dedicated to computing spatial information, composed of functionally distinct cell types such as place and grid cells, combined with an extensive body of human-based behavioral and neuroimaging research has provided us with a detailed understanding of the brain's navigation circuit. In this review, we discuss emerging evidence from rodents, non-human primates, and humans that demonstrates how cognitive aging affects the navigational computations supported by these systems. Critically, we show 1) that navigational deficits cannot solely be explained by general deficits in learning and memory, 2) that there is no uniform decline across different navigational computations, and 3) that navigational deficits might be sensitive markers for impending pathological decline. Following an introduction to the mechanisms underlying spatial navigation and how they relate to general processes of learning and memory, the review discusses how aging affects the perception and integration of spatial information, the creation and storage of memory traces for spatial information, and the use of spatial information during navigational behavior. The closing section highlights the clinical potential of behavioral and neural markers of spatial navigation, with a particular emphasis on neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mobility in old age.

    PubMed

    Walsh, K; Roberts, J; Bennett, G

    1999-12-01

    Immobility is common in older people and may impact on their dental care. Immobility in old age may have physical, psychological and environmental causes. Immobile elderly people often suffer from a number of diseases which worsen their mobility. Arthritis, osteoporosis, hip fracture, stroke and Parkinson's disease are among the most common causes of immobility in old age. Complications of immobility such as orthostatic hypotension may occur in the dental patient. Careful history-taking and a thorough physical examination by the physician are the most important parts of the assessment process. This assessment should lead to a list of active problems and treatment should then be aimed at these problems. Active management, carried out by the multidisciplinary team, will lead to improvements in mobility and lessen the frequency and severity of the complications of immobility. This broad description thus provides the basis for a wide understanding for the special problems that the immobile patient present to the practitioner and ways of overcoming the problems.

  19. Physical aging in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meech, Karen J.

    1991-01-01

    The question of physical aging in cometary nuclei is addressed in order to elucidate the relationship between the past conditions in the protosolar nebula and the present state of the cometary nucleus, and to understand the processes that will physically and chemically alter the nucleus as a function of time. Attention is given to some of the processes that might be responsible for causing aging in comets, namely, radiation damage in the upper layers of the nucleus during the long residences in the Oort cloud, processing from heating and collisions within the Oort cloud, loss of highly volatile species from the nucleus on the first passage through the inner solar system, buildup of a dusty mantle, which can eventually prohibit further sublimation, and a change in the porosity, and hence the thermal properties, of the nucleus. Recent observations suggest that there are distinct differences between 'fresh' Oort cloud comets and thermally processed periodic comets with respect to intrinsic brightness and rate of change of activity as a function of distance.

  20. [Age related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Sayen, Alexandra; Hubert, Isabelle; Berrod, Jean-Paul

    2011-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a multifactorial disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It is the first cause of blindness in patients over 50 in the western world. The disease has been traditionally classified into early and late stages with dry (atrophic) and wet (neovascular) forms: neovascular form is characterized by new blood vessels development under the macula (choroidal neovascularisation) which lead to a rapid decline of vision associated with metamorphopsia and requiring an urgent ophtalmological examination. Optical coherence tomography is now one of the most important part of the examination for diagnosis and treatment. Patient with age related maculopathy should consider taking a dietary supplement such that used in AREDS. The treatment of the wet ARMD has largely beneficied since year 2006 of anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) molecules such as ranibizumab or bevacizumab given as repeated intravitreal injections. A systematic follow up each 4 to 8 week in required for several years. There is no effective treatment at the moment for dry AMD. For patients with binocular visual acuity under 60/200 rehabilitation includes low vision specialist, vision aids and psychological support.

  1. Aging and intuitive physics.

    PubMed

    Léoni, Véronique; Mullet, Etienne; Chasseigne, Gerard

    2002-07-01

    The present study was aimed at comparing the judgment capacities manifested by young adults, middle-aged adults, and elderly people in an everyday life setting implying the consideration of direct as well as inverse relationships between the cues and the criterion. The chosen situation was borrowed from elementary physics and concerned the relationships between mass, volume and density. In forming their estimations of mass, all elderly people were able to use volume and density information. In addition, most of them were able to combine these pieces of information in a correct, multiplicative way. In forming their estimations of volume, all elderly people were able to use mass and density information but a majority of them used the density information in a direct way. By contrast, most young and middle-aged adults correctly used the density information in an inverse way. The findings strengthen and extend the case made by Chasseigne et al. [Acta Psychologica 97 (1997) 235] as regards the trouble elderly people face in using inverse relationships in a judgment situation. The difficulty elderly people face is not confined to learning settings. It may also be observed in ecological, non-learning environments, where the relationships considered do not entirely depend on the experimenter's choice.

  2. Demographic aspects of ageing.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, B

    1989-01-01

    The first part of this paper examines future changes in the age structure of the population of England and Wales which are likely to occur as a result of past and future changes in fertility and mortality. These changes in fertility and mortality are examined in some detail. Different methods of projecting future changes in mortality are discussed. On the basis of conservative estimates of these changes, estimates are made of the future economic strain of dependency and there is some discussion of the way in which this might be best handled to the advantage of both the active and the elderly populations. The second part of the paper looks at different ways of examining improvements in longevity and also discusses some of the biological and environmental factors involved. Reference is made to the limited morbidity data available and the tentative conclusion is reached that improvement in longevity, so far, owes less to the reduction of disease incidence than to medical maintenance. This review paper, which relates to England and Wales, is in two main parts: (1) a general discussion of the population factors and changes which have led to a focusing of attention upon the ageing of the population and associated economic problems; and (2) a consideration of the implications of current health advances for individual survival.

  3. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    PubMed

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  4. The environment of ageing.

    PubMed Central

    Tinker, A

    1997-01-01

    The issue of housing and the wider environment for an ageing population is one where there are many unanswered questions. In this paper a number of key issues are discussed and for each of these the focus is on three aspects. These are the current situation, its reasonableness and what research is needed in order to make decisions about policy and practice. The first three issues relate to the profile of older people themselves and the importance of home to them. The changing profile of older people is not just about an ageing population but also about the growing prominence of those with dementia, women, people from black and ethnic minority groups and one person households, yet little is known about the type of housing which should be provided. Of equal concern is the widening gap between those with a high standard of living (including housing) and those with a low standard of living. The importance of home to older people means that research must focus on how people can be enabled to remain there, and also on the costs, financial and otherwise, to carers and to society. The next three issues relate to the type of housing older people live in and moves in later life. The startling change in the tenure pattern with a growth of owner occupation brings problems as does the decline in social housing. The advantages and disadvantages of the different types of housing--mainstream and specialized--for older people are relatively well known. However the balance between the two needs more research as does that on retirement communities. While it is well known that there are peaks of migration in old age and that moves are often made in haste, little is known about the process of decision making. The final two topics concern links between housing and other aspects of older people's lives. On health more research is needed on temperature, mortality and morbidity, homelessness and accidents and especially on links between services. These topics have implications for planning

  5. Analyzing an Aging ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, R.

    2014-01-01

    The ISS External Survey integrates the requirements for photographic and video imagery of the International Space Station (ISS) for the engineering, operations, and science communities. An extensive photographic survey was performed on all Space Shuttle flights to the ISS and continues to be performed daily, though on a level much reduced by the limited available imagery. The acquired video and photo imagery is used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of external deposition and contamination, surface degradation, dynamic events, and MMOD strikes. Many of these assessments provide important information about ISS surfaces and structural integrity as the ISS ages. The imagery is also used to assess and verify the physical configuration of ISS structure, appendages, and components.

  6. Ice age terminations.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence; Broecker, Wallace S; Denton, George H; Kong, Xinggong; Wang, Yongjin; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Xianfeng

    2009-10-09

    230Th-dated oxygen isotope records of stalagmites from Sanbao Cave, China, characterize Asian Monsoon (AM) precipitation through the ends of the third- and fourthmost recent ice ages. As a result, AM records for the past four glacial terminations can now be precisely correlated with those from ice cores and marine sediments, establishing the timing and sequence of major events. In all four cases, observations are consistent with a classic Northern Hemisphere summer insolation intensity trigger for an initial retreat of northern ice sheets. Meltwater and icebergs entering the North Atlantic alter oceanic and atmospheric circulation and associated fluxes of heat and carbon, causing increases in atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperatures that drive the termination in the Southern Hemisphere. Increasing CO2 and summer insolation drive recession of northern ice sheets, with probable positive feedbacks between sea level and CO2.

  7. Ageing, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Ward, Roberta J; Dexter, David T; Crichton, Robert R

    2015-06-01

    During ageing, different iron complexes accumulate in specific brain regions which are associated with motor and cognitive dysfunction. In neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, changes in local iron homoeostasis result in altered cellular iron distribution and accumulation, ultimately inducing neurotoxicity. The use of iron chelators which are able to penetrate the blood brain barrier and reduce excessive iron accumulation in specific brain regions have been shown to reduce disease progression in both Parkinson's disease and Friedreich's Ataxia. Neuroinflammation often occurs in neurodegenerative diseases, which is mainly sustained by activated microglia exhibiting the M1 phenotype. Such inflammation contributes to the disease progression. Therapeutic agents which reduce such inflammation, e.g. taurine compounds, may ameliorate the inflammatory process by switching the microglia from a M1 to a M2 phenotype.

  8. [Sleep changes with aging].

    PubMed

    Arbus, Christophe; Cochen, Valérie

    2010-03-01

    Many factors contribute to the alteration of sleep in older adults. Most of their complaints can be explained by the modifications of the sleep organisation observed in this population. Sleep architecture is altered with aging. Insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness can reflect an alteration of the circadian rhythm. This population is also frequently exposed to specific sleep disorders such as the restless leg syndrome, periodic limb movements or obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep disorders in patients with Alzheimer's disease is a daily preoccupation at home or in institution. Circadian rhythm modifications and sleep disorders are frequent in this frail population and can induce disturbing behavior disorders. Before the prescription of hypnotics and psychotropic drugs, facing a sleep complaint practitioners should take into account the risks induced by these treatments that should no longer be the unique and reflex treatment in these situations.

  9. [The aging eyelid].

    PubMed

    Press, U P

    2010-01-01

    Surgery of the aging eyelid makes great demands on the oculoplastic surgeon regarding preoperative diagnostics as well as choosing the ideal surgical method. This is not only important regarding reconstructive anatomic function but also for aesthetic aspects. This paper gives a résumé of modern diagnostics and therapy of the involutional syndrome of the eyelid. Treating ptosis of the eyebrow, blepharoplasty, blepharoptosis as well as malposition of the lower lid such as ectropion and entropion not only has an impact on the visual system but also on the individual facial features. Considering and treating this makes the highest demands on the oculoplastic surgeon to consider and treat the above problens in order to achieve ideal results. (c)Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  10. Reconditioning aging muscles.

    PubMed

    Kraus, H

    1978-06-01

    Weakness or stiffness of key posture muscles can cause much of the disability seen in elderly patients. Too much tension and too little exercise greatly increase the natural loss of muscular fitness with age. A systematic program of exercise, stressing relaxation and stretching of tight muscles and strenghthening of weak muscles, can improve physical fitness. The program must be tailored to the patient, starting with relaxation and gentle limbering exercises and proceeding ultimately to vigorous muscle-stretching exercises. Muscle aches and pain from tension and muscle imbalance are to be expected. Relaxation relieves tension pain, and strengthening weak muscles and stretching tight muscles will correct muscle imbalance. To prevent acute muscle spasm, the patient should avoid excessive exertion and increase exercise intensity gradually.

  11. Age-Defying Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-29

    An age-defying star called IRAS 19312+1950 exhibits features characteristic of a very young star and a very old star. The object stands out as extremely bright inside a large, chemically rich cloud of material, as shown in this image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. IRAS 19312+1950 is the bright red star in the center of this image. A NASA-led team of scientists thinks the star -- which is about 10 times as massive as our sun and emits about 20,000 times as much energy -- is a newly forming protostar. That was a big surprise, because the region had not been known as a stellar nursery before. But the presence of a nearby interstellar bubble, which indicates the presence of a recently formed massive star, also supports this idea. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20914

  12. Age-related cataract.

    PubMed

    Asbell, Penny A; Dualan, Ivo; Mindel, Joel; Brocks, Dan; Ahmad, Mehdi; Epstein, Seth

    Cataract, opacification of the lens, is one of the commonest causes of loss of useful vision, with an estimated 16 million people worldwide affected. Several risk factors have been identified in addition to increasing age--genetic composition, exposure to ultraviolet light, and diabetes. However, no method to halt the formation of a cataractous lens has been shown to be effective. Nevertheless, advances in surgical removal of cataracts, including small-incision surgery, use of viscoelastics, and the development of intraocular lenses, have made treatment very effective and visual recovery rapid in most cases. Despite these advances, cataract continues to be a leading public-health issue that will grow in importance as the population increases and life expectancy is extended worldwide.

  13. [Aging and work capability].

    PubMed

    Petz, B

    1993-06-01

    With the average life duration becoming longer there is an increasing number of old people in the population. In the literature the problem of old people is still neglected. The most visible changes in old people occur in physical characteristics and functions; at first a change in psychological functions was also reported to take place. However, it was shown that results depended to a great extent on the method used: the longitudinal method (following up one and the same generation) frequently gave rather different and much better results than the cross-sectional method. The question of old age and working abilities is an important one. Certain positive personality traits seem to compensate for a drop in certain abilities. In the modern automated industry time pressure and adaptation to new working conditions are a handicap for the elderly, but the application of different ergonomic principles can greatly improve the situation.

  14. Mitochondrial aging and age-related dysfunction of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Sobenin, Igor A; Revin, Victor V; Orekhov, Alexander N; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2014-01-01

    Age-related changes in mitochondria are associated with decline in mitochondrial function. With advanced age, mitochondrial DNA volume, integrity and functionality decrease due to accumulation of mutations and oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In aged subjects, mitochondria are characterized by impaired function such as lowered oxidative capacity, reduced oxidative phosphorylation, decreased ATP production, significant increase in ROS generation, and diminished antioxidant defense. Mitochondrial biogenesis declines with age due to alterations in mitochondrial dynamics and inhibition of mitophagy, an autophagy process that removes dysfunctional mitochondria. Age-dependent abnormalities in mitochondrial quality control further weaken and impair mitochondrial function. In aged tissues, enhanced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis contributes to an increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells. However, implementation of strategies such as caloric restriction and regular physical training may delay mitochondrial aging and attenuate the age-related phenotype in humans.

  15. The age of universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Zeeshan

    The presence of short-lived isotope Curium-247 in the early Solar System complicates the job of dating the earliest events in the solar nebula. Primitive components in meteorites contain a detailed record of the conditions and processes in the solarnebula, the cloud of dust and gas surrounding the infant Sun. Determining accurately when the first materialsformed re-quires the lead-lead (Pb-Pb) dating method, a method based on the decay of uranium (U) isotopes toPb isotopes. The initial ratio of U-238 to U-235 is critical to determining theages correctly, and many studies have concluded that the ratio is constant for any given age. How-ever, my colleagues at Arizona State University(Frankfurt, Germany), and the Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum (also in Frankfurt) and I have found that some calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondritic meteorites deviate from the conventional value for the U-238/U-235 ratio. This could lead to inaccuracies of up to 5 million years in the age of these objects, if no correction is made.Variations in the concentrations of thorium and neodymium with the U-238/U-235 ratio suggest that the ratio may have been lowered by the decay of curium-247, which decays to U-235 with a half-life of 15.6 million years. Curium-247 is created in certain types of energetic supernovae, so its presence suggests that a supernova added material to the pre-solar interstellar cloud between 110 and 140 million years before theSolar System began to form.

  16. [Hypertension in old age].

    PubMed

    García-Palmieri, M

    1995-09-01

    Hypertension occurs in 50% of the elderly persons in industrialized societies. This disorder of the regulation of the arterial blood pressure has different manifestations in different age groups. The young hypertensive usually has an increase in cardiac output and a normal peripheral vascular resistance. The elderly patient with hypertension exhibits a decreased cardiac output and an increased peripheral vascular resistance. In the elderly hypertensive there is a progressive anteriolar narrowing and there is hardening of the largest arteries. The vascular disease that contributes to the hypertension in the elderly also causes hypoperfusion of the target organs. During the aging process there is a decrease in cardiac output, glomerular filtration rate, vital capacity, renal plasma flow and maximal cardiac rate. There are changes in the kidneys and the liver that influence the way different medications are handled by the body. The main findings of the Australian, EWPHE, Coope & Warrender, SHEP, STOP-HYP and MRC studies of hypertension in the elderly have been summarized. The intervention studies have proven that the treatment of hypertension in the elderly patient is efficacious and decreases the mortality and morbidity due to coronary and cerebrovascular events. The pharmacologic agents available for the treatment of hypertension in the elderly are the diuretics, beta blockers, vasodilators, calcium-channel blockers, adrenergic blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. The morbidity and mortality benefits derived from antihypertensive trials are greater for the older than for the younger patients. The pharmacologic antihypertensive agents to be used in older patients will also depend upon the presence or not of associated illnesses in which some agents might be harmful or contraindicated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Technology for successful aging.

    PubMed

    Tyrer, Harry W; Alwan, Majd; Demiris, George; He, Zhihai; Keller, Jim; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    Americans are living longer, and research shows that seniors are embracing independence, and will benefit from living in the same place. These are the rationale for 'Aging in Place' and the development of Tiger Place, an 'Aging in Place' Environment in Columbia Missouri. Our goal is to minimize intrusion, allow the resident complete control over privacy and treatment (if any), and to provide substantive improvement in quality of life. Nevertheless there continues to be significant risks to the elderly which results in reduced functional and cognitive activity. While there has been much technology developed to ameliorate these factors, there is no comprehensive evaluation of the benefit of these devices nor a comprehensive strategy to improve the quality of life of seniors as determined by functional ability and possibly later cognitive ability. With our partners at the University of Virginia we are developing a system of sensors, to monitor the activity of seniors in their residences. We measure motion, footfalls, sleep and restlessness, we have stove sensors and sensing mats, all connected wirelessly to a computer which performs an initial evaluation and data transfer to a secure server for further study. Based upon the monitor data we will implement an intervention to ameliorate functional decline. Focus group studies determine the attitudes, concerns and impressions of the residents and staff. We find that senior's attitude to technology is healthy and they will try helpful approaches. In addition to the statistical comparisons, we model the data using hidden Markov models, integrate or fuse the monitor data with video images, and reason about behavior using fuzzy logic. The results of this work will additionally reduce the workload on caregivers, foster communication between residents and family, and give these seniors independence. We have requested and received IRB approval for this study.

  18. Graduation at age 50+: Contested efforts to construct "third age" identities and negotiate cultural age stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2015-12-01

    The cultural and social contexts of aging have changed a great deal during the last two decades and aging experiences have become more differentiated. However, pervasive age stereotypes still exist that limit the agency and self-perception of older people, and part of the experience of new aging is to actively combat such negative stereotypes. The purpose of this study is to explore how lifelong learning and a degree attainment in midlife become embedded into new aging practices. The study will focus on a specific group of aging workers who attained a Master's degree from Finnish universities in their fifties. In order to better understand the aging experiences of these older graduates, this study seeks to address how they construct the meaning of aging in relation to their own educational and professional status. The data consist of 14 life-history interviews, which were analyzed as narrative identity performances. Differentiating oneself from the stereotype of physical and mental decline and positioning oneself in a favorable way in inter-generational relations were common ways of approaching aging. Age-negotiation and ambivalence about aging were expressed by structuring narratives around clear oppositions and contradictions. University studies at age 50+ became a talking point in countering cultural age-stereotypes, because it showed that aging workers could still accomplish significant goals and "renew" oneself intellectually. University studies also enabled collaboration with the younger generation and the breaking of narrow age boundaries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Theories and mechanisms of aging.

    PubMed

    Cefalu, Charles A

    2011-11-01

    This article discusses various theories of aging and their relative plausibility related to the human aging process. Structural and physiologic changes of aging are discussed in detail by organ system. Each of the organ systems is discussed when applicable to the various theories of aging. Normal versus abnormal aging is discussed in the context of specific aging processes, with atypical presentations of disease and general links to life expectancy. Life expectancy and lifespan are discussed in the context of advances in medical science and the potential ultimate link to human life span.

  20. The aging kidney: structural changes.

    PubMed

    Pannarale, Giovanni; Carbone, Raffaella; Del Mastro, Giuseppe; Gallo, Carmela; Gattullo, Vincenzo; Natalicchio, Luigi; Navarra, Antonino; Tedesco, Agostino

    2010-01-01

    A number of structural changes occur in the kidney with aging. The aging kidney is characterized by loss of renal mass, arterial sclerosis, arteriolar hyalinosis, an increased number of sclerotic glomeruli, loss of tubules and interstitial fibrosis. The pathogenesis of aging-associated structural changes is not completely understood. Both genetic background and hemodynamic factors have been associated with progression of age-related morphological changes. The structural changes of aging kidney are nonspecific and can be seen in many conditions, including diabetes and hypertension, and, as such, arterionephrosclerosis of aging is a diagnosis of exclusion.

  1. The cognitive neuroscience of ageing.

    PubMed

    Grady, Cheryl

    2012-06-20

    The availability of neuroimaging technology has spurred a marked increase in the human cognitive neuroscience literature, including the study of cognitive ageing. Although there is a growing consensus that the ageing brain retains considerable plasticity of function, currently measured primarily by means of functional MRI, it is less clear how age differences in brain activity relate to cognitive performance. The field is also hampered by the complexity of the ageing process itself and the large number of factors that are influenced by age. In this Review, current trends and unresolved issues in the cognitive neuroscience of ageing are discussed.

  2. Changing Attitudes towards Ageing and the Aged amongst Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Antonio; Goncalves, Daniela; Martin, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    Society is ageing. In Europe, the ageing of the population is a recurrent and discussed theme. The impact of the ageing of the population is varied and transversal in different fields. The increase in the number of elderly people implies an increase in the levels of dependence and, consequently, more sanitary, physical, and human resources. Also,…

  3. Industrial age to information age organizations: Changing business ethic

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, we argue that Informatoin age organizations both allow and require a higher level of moral development on the part of the members of the organizations. We describe industrial age and information age organization structure charactreistics and identify moral values consistent with each structure.

  4. The Age 21 Minimum Legal Drinking Age Law. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Currently, all 50 states limit alcohol purchases to people aged 21 and over. But that hasn't always been the case. In fact, it was July 17, 1984, when President Ronald Reagan signed the national 21 minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) legislation into law. At that time, only 23 states had minimum alcohol purchasing ages of 21 years old. The…

  5. Changing Attitudes towards Ageing and the Aged amongst Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Antonio; Goncalves, Daniela; Martin, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    Society is ageing. In Europe, the ageing of the population is a recurrent and discussed theme. The impact of the ageing of the population is varied and transversal in different fields. The increase in the number of elderly people implies an increase in the levels of dependence and, consequently, more sanitary, physical, and human resources. Also,…

  6. Direct simulation of groundwater age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    A new method is proposed to simulate groundwater age directly, by use of an advection-dispersion transport equation with a distributed zero-order source of unit (1) strength, corresponding to the rate of aging. The dependent variable in the governing equation is the mean age, a mass- weighted average age. The governing equation is derived from residence- time-distribution concepts for the case of steady flow. For the more general case of transient flow, a transient governing equation for age is derived from mass-conservation principles applied to conceptual 'age mass.' The age mass is the product of the water mass and its age, and age mass is assumed to be conserved during mixing. Boundary conditions include zero age mass flux across all noflow and inflow boundaries trod no age mass dispersive flux across outflow boundaries. For transient-flow conditions, the initial distribution of age must be known. The solution of the governing transport equation yields the spatial distribution of the mean groundwater age and includes diffusion, dispersion, mixing, and exchange processes that typically are considered only through tracer-specific solute transport simulation. Traditional methods have relied on advective transport to predict point values of groundwater travel time and age. The proposed method retains the simplicity and tracer-independence of advection-only models, but incorporates the effects of dispersion and mixing on volume- averaged age. Example simulations of age in two idealized regional aquifer systems, one homogeneous and the other layered, demonstrate the agreement between the proposed method and traditional particle-tracking approaches and illustrate use of the proposed method to determine the effects of diffusion, dispersion, and mixing on groundwater age.

  7. Modeled ground water age distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  8. Modeled ground water age distributions.

    PubMed

    Woolfenden, Linda R; Ginn, Timothy R

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  9. How Old Do You Feel? The Role of Age Discrimination and Biological Aging in Subjective Age

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Subjective age, or how young or old individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, is a crucial construct in gerontology. Subjective age is a significant predictor of important health outcomes, but little is known about the criteria by which individuals' subjectively evaluate their age. To identify psychosocial and biomedical factors linked to the subjective evaluation of age, this study examined whether perceived age discrimination and markers of biological aging are associated with subjective age. Participants were 4776 adults (Mage = 68) from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) who completed measures of subjective age, age discrimination, demographic variables, self-rated health and depression, and had physical health measures, including peak expiratory flow, grip strength, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Telomere length was available for a subset of participants in the 2008 wave (n = 2214). Regression analysis indicated that perceived age discrimination, lower peak expiratory flow, lower grip strength, and higher waist circumference were associated with an older subjective age, controlling for sociodemographic factors, self-rated health, and depression. In contrast, blood pressure and telomere length were not related to subjective age. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that how old a person feels depends in part on psychosocial and biomedical factors, including the experiences of ageism and perceptible indices of fitness and biological age. PMID:25738579

  10. Systems biology of aging.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Kendra; Bergman, Aviv

    2015-01-01

    Human aging occurs at rates that vary widely between organisms and cell types. We hypothesize that in both cases, variation is due to differences in heat production, heat management and molecular susceptibility to heat-induced change. Metabolic rates have long been implored for their contributions to the aging process, with a negative correlation observed between basal metabolic rate and lifespan (Savage et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:4718–4723, 2007, Economos, Exp Gerontol 17:145–152, 1982, Keys et al., Metabolism 22:579–587, 1973, O’Connor et al., Comp Biochem Physiol Part A, Molr & Integr Physiol 133:835–842, 2002, Speakman, J Exp Biol 208:1717–1730, 2005, Poehlman, J Am Geriatrics Soc 41:552–559, 1993). Small amounts of heat are the well-known byproduct of metabolism and other biological processes, and despite their magnitude, are sufficient to elicit alterations in biomolecular characteristics (Somero, Ann Rev Physiol 57:43–68, 1995). Existing theories of aging suggest that damage occurs to the conformations or sequences of molecules, which only shifts focus onto the implied failure of repair mechanisms. Contrarily, heat-induced changes affect the behavioral characteristics of molecules and are thus able to persist “under the radar” of heat shock proteins and other canalizing mechanisms, which recognize only physical aberrancies (Rutherford and Lindquist, Nature 396:336–342, 1998, Siegal and Bergman, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:10528–10532, 2002, Waddington, Nature 150:563–565, 1942). According to our hypothesis, behavioral changes to the binding affinities, kinetics, motilities, and functionalities are dependent on minute energetic fields within and between molecules. Exposure to the thermal byproducts of metabolism cause heritable shifts in molecular interaction schemes and diminish the integrity of genetic and epigenetic networks. Restructured topologies alter the emergent properties of networks and are observed as the

  11. Personality Plasticity After Age 30

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T.; McCrae, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Rank-order consistency of personality traits increases from childhood to age 30. After that, different summaries of the literature predict a plateau at age 30, or at age 50, or a curvilinear peak in consistency at age 50. These predictions were evaluated at group and individual levels using longitudinal data from the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory over periods of up to 42 years. Consistency declined toward a non-zero asymptote with increasing time-interval. Although some scales showed increasing stability after age 30, the rank-order consistencies of the major dimensions and most facets of the Five-Factor Model were unrelated to age. Ipsative stability, assessed with the California Adult Q-Set, was also unrelated to age. These data strengthen claims of predominant personality stability after age 30. PMID:16861305

  12. Sexual Patterns at Different Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Helen S.; Sager, Clifford J.

    1971-01-01

    When not understood as normal consequences of growth and aging, sexual fluctuations can be the source of personal and marital distress. Discussed are sexual behavior norms as they change from infancy to old age. (Author/CJ)

  13. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees' shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (M age = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals' perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work.

  14. Large for gestational age (LGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/002248.htm Large for gestational age (LGA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Large for gestational age means that a fetus or infant is larger ...

  15. Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Age-related Macular Degeneration About AMD Click for more ... a leading cause of vision loss among people age 60 and older. It causes damage to the ...

  16. Sexual Patterns at Different Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Helen S.; Sager, Clifford J.

    1971-01-01

    When not understood as normal consequences of growth and aging, sexual fluctuations can be the source of personal and marital distress. Discussed are sexual behavior norms as they change from infancy to old age. (Author/CJ)

  17. [Reflexions about aging and work].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rosangela Ferreira; Matias, Hernani Aparecido; Brêtas, Ana Cristina Passarella

    2010-09-01

    This qualitative research has the aim to know the meaning of the aging process in the work market referring to the aged people. Six aged persons have participated in this research. The data were collected through an interview and were analyzed using the technique of thematically analyze. Three analytical categories emerged: the meaning of aging/to be aged; the meaning of work; the meaning of aging in the work. Concluding, this paper reinforces the theory that the capitalist societies attach excessive value to the work in the human being life. When it isn't into the life--because of the retirement or the unemployment--it compromises the quality of aging/to be aged of the person, mainly if skills and (individual, social and economical) conditions will lack participation and priority to others activities and values in her/his life.

  18. Age-related hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... grow older. Your genes and loud noise (from rock concerts or music headphones) may play a large role. The following factors contribute to age-related hearing loss: Family history (age-related hearing loss tends to run in ...

  19. Aging, Rejuvenation, and Epigenetic Reprogramming: Resetting the Aging Clock

    PubMed Central

    Rando, Thomas A.; Chang, Howard Y.

    2012-01-01

    The underlying cause of aging remains one of the central mysteries of biology. Recent studies in several different systems suggest that not only may the rate of aging be modified by environmental and genetic factors, but also that the aging clock can be reversed, restoring characteristics of youthfulness to aged cells and tissues. This Review focuses on the emerging biology of rejuvenation through the lens of epigenetic reprogramming. By defining youthfulness and senescence as epigenetic states, a framework for asking new questions about the aging process emerges. PMID:22265401

  20. LMC clusters - Age calibration and age distribution revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elson, Rebecca A.; Fall, S. Michael

    1988-01-01

    The empirical age relation for star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud presented by Elson and Fall (1985) are reexamined using ages based only on main-sequence turnoffs. The present sample includes 57 clusters, 24 of which have color-magnitude diagrams published since 1985. The new calibration is very similar to that found previously, and the scatter in the relation corresponds to uncertainties of about a factor of 2 in age. The age distribution derived from the new calibration does not differ significantly from that derived in earlier work. It is compared with age distributions estimated by other authors for different samples of clusters, and the results are discussed.