Science.gov

Sample records for agglomeration including gasification

  1. Preventing ash agglomeration during gasification of high-sodium lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Dahlin; Johnny R. Dorminey; WanWang Peng; Roxann F. Leonard; Pannalal Vimalchand

    2009-01-15

    Various additives were evaluated to assess their ability to prevent ash agglomeration during the gasification of high-sodium lignite. Additives that showed promise in simple muffle furnace tests included meta-kaolin, vermiculite, two types of silica fume, and one type of bauxite. Additives that were tested and rejected included dolomite, calcite, sand flour, kaolinite, fine kaolin, and calcined bauxite. Based on the muffle furnace test results, the meta-kaolin was selected for a follow-on demonstration in a pilot-scale coal gasifier. Pilot-scale testing showed that the addition of coarse (minus 14-mesh, 920-{mu}m mean size) meta-kaolin at a feed rate roughly equivalent to the ash content of the lignite (10 wt %) successfully prevented agglomeration and deposition problems during gasification of high-sodium lignite at a maximum operating temperature of 927{sup o}C (1700{sup o}F). 13 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Agglomerating combustor-gasifier method and apparatus for coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Joseph L. P.; Archer, David H.

    1976-09-21

    A method and apparatus for gasifying coal wherein the gasification takes place in a spout fluid bed at a pressure of about 10 to 30 atmospheres and a temperature of about 1800.degree. to 2200.degree.F and wherein the configuration of the apparatus and the manner of introduction of gases for combustion and fluidization is such that agglomerated ash can be withdrawn from the bottom of the apparatus and gas containing very low dust loading is produced. The gasification reaction is self-sustaining through the burning of a stoichiometric amount of coal with air in the lower part of the apparatus to form the spout within the fluid bed. The method and apparatus are particularly suitable for gasifying coarse coal particles.

  3. Gasification of palm empty fruit bunch in a bubbling fluidized bed: a performance and agglomeration study.

    PubMed

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin

    2011-01-01

    Gasification of palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was investigated in a pilot-scale air-blown fluidized bed. The effect of bed temperature (650-1050 °C) on gasification performance was studied. To explore the potential of EFB, the gasification results were compared to that of sawdust. Results showed that maximum heating values (HHV) of 5.37 and 5.88 (MJ/Nm3), dry gas yield of 2.04 and 2.0 (Nm3/kg), carbon conversion of 93% and 85 % and cold gas efficiency of 72% and 71 % were obtained for EFB and sawdust at the temperature of 1050 °C and ER of 0.25. However, it was realized that agglomeration was the major issue in EFB gasification at high temperatures. To prevent the bed agglomeration, EFB gasification was performed at temperature of 770±20 °C while the ER was varied from 0.17 to 0.32. Maximum HHV of 4.53 was obtained at ER of 0.21 where no agglomeration was observed. PMID:20980143

  4. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Topical report, Process analysis, FY 1983

    SciTech Connect

    1987-07-31

    KRW Energy Systems, Inc., is engaged in the continuing development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally-acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized carbonaceous feedstocks and industrial fuels. This report presents process analysis of the 24 ton-per-day Process Development Unit (PDU) operations and is a continuation of the process analysis work performed in 1980 and 1981. Included is work performed on PDU process data; gasification; char-ash separation; ash agglomeration; fines carryover, recycle, and consumption; deposit formation; materials; and environmental, health, and safety issues. 63 figs., 43 tabs.

  5. Bed Agglomeration During the Steam Gasification of a High Lignin Corn Stover Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) Digester Residue

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, Daniel T.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Saraf, Laxmikant; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2015-11-13

    This research investigates the bed agglomeration phenomena during the steam gasification of a high lignin residue produced from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corn stover in a bubbling fluidized bed. The studies were conducted at 895°C using alumina as bed material. Biomass was fed at 1.5 kg/hr, while steam was fed to give a velocity equal to 2.5 times the minimum fluidization velocity, with a steam/carbon ratio of 0.9. The pelletized feedstock was co-fed with a cooling nitrogen stream to mitigate feed line plugging issues. Tar production was high at 50.3 g/Nm3, and the fraction of C10+ compounds was greater than that seen in the gasification of traditional lignocellulosic feedstocks. Carbon closures over 94 % were achieved for all experiments. Bed agglomeration was found to be problematic, indicated by pressure drop increases observed below the bed and upstream of the feed line. Two size categories of solids were recovered from the reactor, +60 mesh and -60 mesh. After a 2.75-hour experiment, 61.7 wt % was recovered as -60 mesh particles and 38.2 wt% of the recovered reactor solids were +60 mesh. A sizeable percentage, 31.8 wt%, was +20 mesh. The -60 mesh particles were mainly formed by the initial bed material (Al2O3). Almost 50 wt. % of the + 20 mesh particles was found to be formed by organics. The unreacted carbon remaining in the reactor resulted in a low conversion rate to product gas. ICP-AES, SEM, SEM-EDS, and XRD confirmed that the large agglomerates (+ 20 mesh) were not encapsulated bed material but rather un-gasified feedstock pellets with sand particles attached to it.

  6. Fluidized-bed catalytic coal-gasification process. [US patent; pretreatment to minimize agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Euker, C.A. Jr.; Wesselhoft, R.D.; Dunkleman, J.J.; Aquino, D.C.; Gouker, T.R.

    1981-09-14

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 vol % and 21 vol % oxygen at a temperature between 50 and 250/sup 0/C in an oxidation zone and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  7. Proceedings of the 19 biennial conference of the institute for briquetting and agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the briquetting and agglomeration of materials. Topics considered at the conference included the pelletizing of carbon black, the agglomeration of hard coal, the selection of a coal agglomerate for gasification, the briquetting of soft lignite, fiber addition for increased pellet strength, properties of granules, compaction, the Iowa agglomeration process, land disposal restrictions, the disposal of hazardous materials and industrial wastes, and the compaction of sludges from municipal waste treatment plants.

  8. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Phase 2, Final report, May 1, 1983-July 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    1987-09-15

    KRW Energy Systems Inc. is engaged in the development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed, gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized, carbonaceous feedstocks for electrical power generation, substitute natural gas, chemical feedstocks, and industrial fuels. This report covers Phase II of the contract period (May 1, 1983 to July 31, 1984) and is a continuation of the work performed in 1983 and reported in the Phase I final report, FE-19122-30. Included is work performed in fiscal 1983 to 1984 on PDU testing, process analysis, cold flow scaleup facility, process and component engineering and design, and laboratory support studies.

  9. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-12-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

  10. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Third quarter progress report FY-1984, April 1-June 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-31

    The overall objective of the KRW coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW pressurized, fluidized-bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) modifications to the PDU; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) advanced process design and analysis; and (5) laboratory support studies. For laboratory support studies, coal and/or char fines from Wyoming Sub C, Western Kentucky, Republic of South Africa (RSA), and Pittsburgh seam coals processed in the PDU were characterized for reactivity on a thermogravimetric analyzer. The average relative reactivity of the fines (-120 x +140 mesh) was found to be nearly the same as that for larger size distribution (18 x 60 mesh, -1.0 + 0.25 mm). This is consistent with the observations of studies reported in literature on carbon gasification reactions.

  11. Advanced coal gasification system for electric power generation. Third quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-25

    The operation, maintenance and modifications to the Westinghouse gasification process development unit during the quarter are reviewed. The tests of the gasifier-agglomerator included direct coal feed as well as oxygen-blown gasification of a char or coal bed. Then the whole system was tested in single and double stage operation. Laboratory support involved fluidized bed test facilities at ambient temperature and at design temperature for devolatilization and gasification studies. Other laboratory systems were related to thermal analysis and pressurized high temperature studies of gasification and gas cleaning. (LTN)

  12. Laboratory investigation of briquettes, wafers, and pellets from coal fines for fixed-bed gasification. Task 1-C and Task 1-D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-31

    This report presents the results of studies to determine the technical and economic aspects of coal agglomeration. The agglomerated coal is to be used as a feed coal to a fixed-bed type coal gasification facility. Up to eight coals are examined for agglomerating properties in three different agglomeration techniques: water briquetting in a Carver press; roll briquetting in a double roll briquetter, and pelletizing on a one meter inclined disc pelletizer. The wafer briquetting functioned as a screening examination for various coal/binder combinations to be examined in roll briquetting and pelletizing. Prepared agglomerates were examined in a series of tests to determine their ability to withstand handling and gasification. These tests included: crush strength tests of green agglomerates, hot agglomerates and cured or post (agglomeration) treated agglomerates; high temperature exposure tests; tumble tests on green, posttreated and agglomerates after high temperature exposure; Burghardt tests; small scale gasifier tests; and a high temperature degradation test. Many agglomerates failed the least severe of these tests and thus, were not subjected to the more severe tests.

  13. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1982-10-21

    The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) process analysis; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) process and component engineering and design; and (5) laboratory support studies. Some of the highlights for this period are: TP-032-1, a single stage, oxygen-steam blown gasifier test was conducted in three operational phases from March 30, 1982 through May 2, 1982; TP-032-2 was conducted in two operational phases from May 20, 1982 through May 27, 1982; TP-032-1 and TP-032-2 successfully served as shakedown and demonstrations of the full cyclone cold wall; no visible deposits were found on the cold wall after processing highly fouling coals; samples of product gas produced during TP-032-1, were passed through four different scrubbing solutions and analyzed for 78 EPA primary organic pollutants, all of which were found to be below detection limits; TP-M004, a CO/sub 2/ tracer gas test, was initiated and completed; data analysis of test TP-M002-2 was completed and conclusions are summarized in this report; design, procurement and fabrication of the solids injection device were completed; laboratory studies involved gas-solids flow modeling and coal/ash behavior. 2 references, 11 figures, 39 tables.

  14. Experimental development of a two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rehmat, A.; Bryan, B.G.; Lau, F.S. ); Shearer, T.L. ); Duggan, P.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting an experimental program to develop and test through pilot-plant scale of operation, IGT's two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating incinerator (TSI). The TSI is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration/gasification technology and the cyclonic combustion/incineration technology, which have been developed at IGT over many years. The TSI is a unique and extremely flexible combustor that can operate over a wide range of conditions in the fluidized-bed first stage from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration) including gasification of high-Btu wastes. The TSI can easily and efficiently destroy solid, liquid and gaseous organic wastes, while containing solid inorganic contaminants within an essentially non-leachable glassy matrix, suitable for disposal in an ordinary landfill. This paper presents the results of tests conducted in a batch, fluidized-bed bench-scale unit (BSU) with commercially available clean'' top soil and the same soil spiked with lead and chromium compounds. The objectives of these tests were to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve soil agglomeration and to evaluate the leaching characteristics of the soil agglomerates formed. 7 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

  16. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOEpatents

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

    1997-09-02

    A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet. 5 figs.

  17. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Michael J.; Arzoumanidis, Gregory G.

    1997-01-01

    A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  18. A method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

    1995-12-31

    A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  19. Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Woldy, P.N.; Kaufman, H.C.; Dach, M.M.; Beall, J.F.

    1981-02-03

    This version of Texaco's gasification process for high-ash-content solids is not extended to include the production of superheated steam, as described in US Patent 4,247,302. The hot, raw gas stream passes through fewer coolers, producing a high-pressure steam instead of a superheated steam.

  20. Adapting agglomeration techniques to today's needs

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.C.

    1984-07-01

    New industries and economic trends have created new problems and opportunities for which applications of agglomeration have been developed. These applications are presented and discussed briefly. The areas include sintering of finely divided ores, briquetting feed stocks, agglomerate forms for air pollution control, hazardous waste immobilization, briquetting solid fuels for energy conservation, manufacturing synfuel charges, biomass densification, and agglomerate forms for metallurgical coke.

  1. Coal Gasification (chapter only)

    SciTech Connect

    Shadle, L.J.; Berry, D.A.; Syamlal, Madhava

    2002-11-15

    Coal gasification is presented in terms of the chemistry of coal conversion and the product gas characteristics, the historical development of coal gasifiers, variations in the types and performance of coal gasifiers, the configuration of gasification systems, and the status and economics of coal gasification. In many ways, coal gasification processes have been tailored to adapt to the different types of coal feedstocks available. Gasification technology is presented from a historical perspective considering early uses of coal, the first practical demonstration and utilization of coal gasification, and the evolution of the various processes used for coal gasification. The development of the gasification industry is traced from its inception to its current status in the world economy. Each type of gasifier is considered focusing on the process innovations required to meet the changing market needs. Complete gasification systems are described including typical system configurations, required system attributes, and aspects of the industry's environmental and performance demands. The current status, economics of gasification technology, and future of gasification are also discussed.

  2. Advanced hybrid gasification facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Johnson, S.A.; Dixit, V.B.

    1993-08-01

    The objective of this procurement is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology for electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas{trademark} staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may react with aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their concentration in the hot raw coal gas passing through the system to the gas turbine. This paper describes a novel, staged, airblown, fixed-bed gasifier designed to solve both through the incorporation of pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification. It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration which occurs in a fixed-bed process when coal is gradually heated through the 400{degrees}F to 900{degrees}F range. In a pyrolyzer, the coal is rapidly heated such that coal tar is immediately vaporized. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can be chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NOx from fuel home nitrogen, moisture is minimized to control ammonia generation, and HCN in the upper gasifier region is partially oxidized to NO which reacts with NH3/HCN to form N2.

  3. Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jianjun; Saayman, Jean; Grace, John R; Ellis, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Interest in biomass to produce heat, power, liquid fuels, hydrogen, and value-added chemicals with reduced greenhouse gas emissions is increasing worldwide. Gasification is becoming a promising technology for biomass utilization with a positive environmental impact. This review focuses specifically on woody biomass gasification and recent advances in the field. The physical properties, chemical structure, and composition of biomass greatly affect gasification performance, pretreatment, and handling. Primary and secondary catalysts are of key importance to improve the conversion and cracking of tars, and lime-enhanced gasification advantageously combines CO2 capture with gasification. These topics are covered here, including the reaction mechanisms and biomass characterization. Experimental research and industrial experience are investigated to elucidate concepts, processes, and characteristics of woody biomass gasification and to identify challenges. PMID:26247289

  4. Gasification. 2nd. ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Higman; Maarten van der Burgt

    2008-02-15

    This book covers gasification as a comprehensive topic, covering its many uses, from refining, to natural gas, to coal. It provides an overview of commercial processes and covers applications relevant to today's demands. The new edition is expanded and provides more detail on the integration issues for current generation, state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC); CO{sub 2} capture in the IGCC context addressing the issues of pre-investment and retrofitting as well as defining what the term 'CO{sub 2} capture ready' might mean in practice; issues of plant reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) including as evaluation of feedback from existing plants; implementation of fuel cell technology in IGCC concepts. Contents are: Introduction; The Thermodynamics of Gasification; The Kinetics of Gasification and Reactor Theory; Feedstocks and Feedstock Characteristics; Gasification Processes; Practical Issues; Applications; Auxiliary Technologies; Economics, environmental, and Safety Issues; Gasification and the Future. 5 apps.

  5. Fuel agglomerates and method of agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Wen, Wu-Wey

    1986-01-01

    Solid fuel agglomerates are prepared of particulate coal or other carbonaceous material with a binder having a high humic acid or humate salt content. The humic acid is extracted from oxidized carbonaceous material with a mild aqueous alkali solution of, for instance, ammonia. The particulate material is blended with the extract which serves as the binder for the agglomerates. The water-resistant agglomerates are formed such as by pelletizing, followed by drying to remove moisture and solidify the humic acid binder throughout the agglomerate.

  6. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brooks, K.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Brown, M.J.

    1992-11-01

    The objective is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas{trademark} staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may condense onto aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their exiting with the hot raw coal gas and passing through the system to the gas turbine. The management plan calls for a three phased program. The initial phase (Phase 1), includes the CRS Sinine Engineers, Inc. proprietary gasification invention called PyGas{trademark}, necessary coal and limestone receiving/storage/reclaim systems to allow closely metered coal and limestone to be fed into the gasifier for testing. The coal gas is subsequently piped to and combusted in an existing burner of the Monongahela Power Fort Martin Generating Station Unit No. 2. Continuous gasification process steam is generated by a small GPIF packaged boiler using light oil fuel at startup, and by switching from light oil to coal gas after startup. The major peripheral equipment such as foundations, process water system, ash handling, ash storage silo, emergency vent pipe, building, lavatory, electrical interconnect, control room, provisions for Phases II & III, and control system are all included in Phase I. A future hot gas cleanup unit conceptualized to be a zinc ferrite based fluidized bed process constitutes the following phase (Phase H). The final phase (Phase III) contemplates the addition of a combustion turbine and generator set sized to accommodate the parasitic load of the entire system.

  7. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brooks, K.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Brown, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas[trademark] staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may condense onto aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their exiting with the hot raw coal gas and passing through the system to the gas turbine. The management plan calls for a three phased program. The initial phase (Phase 1), includes the CRS Sinine Engineers, Inc. proprietary gasification invention called PyGas[trademark], necessary coal and limestone receiving/storage/reclaim systems to allow closely metered coal and limestone to be fed into the gasifier for testing. The coal gas is subsequently piped to and combusted in an existing burner of the Monongahela Power Fort Martin Generating Station Unit No. 2. Continuous gasification process steam is generated by a small GPIF packaged boiler using light oil fuel at startup, and by switching from light oil to coal gas after startup. The major peripheral equipment such as foundations, process water system, ash handling, ash storage silo, emergency vent pipe, building, lavatory, electrical interconnect, control room, provisions for Phases II III, and control system are all included in Phase I. A future hot gas cleanup unit conceptualized to be a zinc ferrite based fluidized bed process constitutes the following phase (Phase H). The final phase (Phase III) contemplates the addition of a combustion turbine and generator set sized to accommodate the parasitic load of the entire system.

  8. Powder agglomeration in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, James D.

    1994-01-01

    This is the final report for NASA Grant NAG3-755 entitled 'Powder Agglomeration in a Microgravity Environment.' The research program included both two types of numerical models and two types of experiments. The numerical modeling included the use of Monte Carlo type simulations of agglomerate growth including hydrodynamic screening and molecular dynamics type simulations of the rearrangement of particles within an agglomerate under a gravitational field. Experiments included direct observation of the agglomeration of submicron alumina and indirect observation, using small angle light scattering, of the agglomeration of colloidal silica and aluminum monohydroxide. In the former class of experiments, the powders were constrained to move on a two-dimensional surface oriented to minimize the effect of gravity. In the latter, some experiments involved mixture of suspensions containing particles of opposite charge which resulted in agglomeration on a very short time scale relative to settling under gravity.

  9. Dust agglomeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    John Marshall, an investigator at Ames Research Center and a principal investigator in the microgravity fluid physics program, is studying the adhesion and cohesion of particles in order to shed light on how granular systems behave. These systems include everything from giant dust clouds that form planets to tiny compressed pellets, such as the ones you swallow as tablets. This knowledge should help us control the grains, dust, and powders that we encounter or use on a daily basis. Marshall investigated electrostatic charge in microgravity on the first and second U.S. Microgravity Laboratory shuttle missions to see how grains aggregate, or stick together. With gravity's effects eliminated on orbit, Marshall found that the grains of sand that behaved ever so freely on Earth now behaved like flour. They would just glom together in clumps and were quite difficult to disperse. That led to an understanding of the prevalence of the electrostatic forces. The granules wanted to aggregate as little chains, like little hairs, and stack end to end. Some of the chains had 20 or 30 grains. This phenomenon indicated that another force, what Marshall believes to be an electrostatic dipole, was at work.(The diagram on the right emphasizes the aggregating particles in the photo on the left, taken during the USML-2 mission in 1995.)

  10. Agglomeration in a fluidized bed using multiple jet streams

    SciTech Connect

    Rehmat, A.; Abbasian, J. ); Kothari, M.; Hariri, H.; Arastoopour, H. )

    1992-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the overall temperature distribution, temperature in the vicinity of the jets, and the rate of agglomeration in a fluidized bed containing multiple jet streams. Agglomeration of ash during coal gasification increases carbon utilization efficiency considerably. The agglomeration requires a fluidized-bed reactor with a specially designed distributor equipped with a jet to yield a hot zone confined within the bed. The rate of agglomeration depends upon the size and the intensity of the zone. This rate, and hence the unit capacity, could be increased by adding multiple jets to the distributor. The purpose of this study was to verify this phenomenon. The temperature distribution inside the agglomerating fluidized-bed reactor with a single jet was studied by Hariri et al. Various parameters were involved in agglomeration phenomena -- bed material, fluidization velocity, bed temperature, jet velocity, jet temperature, bed geometry, and distributor geometry. Controlled agglomerates were produced in the fluidized bed when a sloped gas distributor consisting of a central jet and a porous plate was used. Gas at temperatures above the melting temperature of a bed material was introduced into the jet and gas at temperatures below the softening temperature was introduced into the distributor. The rate of agglomerate formation was significantly influenced by an increase in either jet air or auxiliary (grid) air temperature. The extent of agglomeration also depended strongly upon the volume of the hot zone confined within the isotherms with temperatures higher than the melting point of the bed material.

  11. Agglomeration in a fluidized bed using multiple jet streams

    SciTech Connect

    Rehmat, A.; Abbasian, J.; Kothari, M.; Hariri, H.; Arastoopour, H.

    1992-12-31

    Tests were conducted to determine the overall temperature distribution, temperature in the vicinity of the jets, and the rate of agglomeration in a fluidized bed containing multiple jet streams. Agglomeration of ash during coal gasification increases carbon utilization efficiency considerably. The agglomeration requires a fluidized-bed reactor with a specially designed distributor equipped with a jet to yield a hot zone confined within the bed. The rate of agglomeration depends upon the size and the intensity of the zone. This rate, and hence the unit capacity, could be increased by adding multiple jets to the distributor. The purpose of this study was to verify this phenomenon. The temperature distribution inside the agglomerating fluidized-bed reactor with a single jet was studied by Hariri et al. Various parameters were involved in agglomeration phenomena -- bed material, fluidization velocity, bed temperature, jet velocity, jet temperature, bed geometry, and distributor geometry. Controlled agglomerates were produced in the fluidized bed when a sloped gas distributor consisting of a central jet and a porous plate was used. Gas at temperatures above the melting temperature of a bed material was introduced into the jet and gas at temperatures below the softening temperature was introduced into the distributor. The rate of agglomerate formation was significantly influenced by an increase in either jet air or auxiliary (grid) air temperature. The extent of agglomeration also depended strongly upon the volume of the hot zone confined within the isotherms with temperatures higher than the melting point of the bed material.

  12. Gasification Technologie: Opportunities & Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Breault, R.

    2012-01-01

    This course has been put together to provide a single source document that not only reviews the historical development of gasification but also compares the process to combustion. It also provides a short discussion on integrated gasification and combined cycle processes. The major focus of the course is to describe the twelve major gasifiers being developed today. The hydrodynamics and kinetics of each are reviewed along with the most likely gas composition from each of the technologies when using a variety of fuels under different conditions from air blown to oxygen blown and atmospheric pressure to several atmospheres. If time permits, a more detailed discussion of low temperature gasification will be included.

  13. Engineering development of selective agglomeration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report presents the findings of the project entitled ``Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration.`` The purpose is to develop selective agglomeration technology to a commercially acceptable level by 1993. Engineering development included bench-scale process development, component development adaptation or modification of existing unit operations, proof-of-concept (POC) module design, fabrication, testing, data evaluation, and conceptual design of a commercial facility. The information obtained during POC operation resulted in a technical and economic design base sufficient to support construction and operation of a commercial plant. Throughout this project performance targets for the engineering development of selective agglomeration process were to achieve 85% or greater Btu recovery at 85% or greater pyritic sulfur rejection (PSR). Additional objectives included producing a final clean-coal product with an ash content of 6% or less which is suitable for conventional coal handling systems. The selective agglomeration process, as applied to coal cleaning, is based on differences in the surface chemistry of coal and its associated impurities. Coal particles are hydrophobic (i.e., repel water) while the majority of its impurities are hydrophilic (i.e., stabilized in water). During selective agglomeration, a liquid (the agglomerant) that is immiscible with water is introduced into a coal-water slurry and agitated to disperse it in the slurry, thereby allowing it to come into contact with all particles in the slurry. The coal particles, due to their hydrophobic nature, are attracted to the agglomerant phase. The hydrophilic mineral impurities remain in the water phase. Continued agitation of the agglomerant-coated coal particles causes them to coalesce to form agglomerates. Once the agglomerates are formed, they are separated from the mineral matter-bearing aqueous phase by subsequent processing steps.

  14. Development of advanced fluid-bed agglomeration and cyclonic incineration for simultaneous waste disposal and energy recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Rehmat, A.; Khinkis, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is currently developing a two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating incineration system for waste disposal that is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration/incineration and cyclonic combustion techologies. Both technologies have been developed individually at IGT over many years. This combination has resulted in a unique and extremely flexible incinerator for solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes including municipal sludges. The system can operate over a wide range of conditions in the first stage, from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration), including gasification of wastes. In the combined system, solid, liquid, and gaseous organic wastes are incinerated with ease and great efficiency (>99.99% destruction and removal efficiency (DRE)), while solid inorganic contaminants contained within a glassy matrix are rendered benign and suitable for disposal in an ordinary landfill. The heat generated within the incinerator can be recovered using the state-of-the-art boilers. The development of the two-stage incinerator is a culmination of extensive research and development efforts on each stage of the incinerator. The variety of data obtained with solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes for both stages includes agglomeration of ash, incineration and reclamation of used blast grit and foundry sand, partial combustion of carbonaceous fuels, in-situ desulfurization, combustion of low-Btu gases, incineration of industrial wastewater, and incineration of carbon tetrachloride. 5 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Agglomeration of Dust

    SciTech Connect

    Annaratone, B. M.; Arnas, C.; Elskens, Y.

    2008-09-07

    The agglomeration of the matter in plasma, from the atomic level up to millimetre size particles, is here considered. In general we identify a continuous growth, due to deposition, and two agglomeration steps, the first at the level of tens of nanometres and the second above the micron. The agglomeration of nano-particles is attributed to electrostatic forces in presence of charge polarity fluctuations. Here we present a model based on discrete currents. With increasing grain size the positive charge permanence decreases, tending to zero. This effect is only important in the range of nanometre for dust of highly dispersed size. When the inter-particle distance is of the order of the screening length another agglomeration mechanism dominates. It is based on attractive forces, shadow forces or dipole-dipole interaction, overcoming the electrostatic repulsion. In bright plasma radiation pressure also plays a role.

  16. Effect of particle agglomeration in nanotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Bruinink, Arie; Wang, Jing; Wick, Peter

    2015-05-01

    The emission of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into the environment in increasing quantity and variety raises a general concern regarding potential effects on human health. Compared with soluble substances, ENPs exhibit additional dimensions of complexity, that is, they exist not only in various sizes, shapes and chemical compositions but also in different degrees of agglomeration. The effect of the latter is the topic of this review in which we explore and discuss the role of agglomeration on toxicity, including the fate of nanomaterials after their release and the biological effects they may induce. In-depth investigations of the effect of ENP agglomeration on human health are still rare, but it may be stated that outside the body ENP agglomeration greatly reduces human exposure. After uptake, agglomeration of ENPs reduces translocation across primary barriers such as lungs, skin or the gastrointestinal tract, preventing exposure of "secondary" organs. In analogy, also cellular ENP uptake and intracellular distribution are affected by agglomeration. However, agglomeration may represent a risk factor if it occurs after translocation across the primary barriers, and ENPs are able to accumulate within the tissue and thus reduce clearance efficiency. PMID:25618546

  17. Microstickies agglomeration by electric field.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaotang Tony; Hsieh, Jeffery S

    2016-01-01

    Microstickies deposits on both paper machine and paper products when it agglomerates under step change in ionic strength, pH, temperature and chemical additives. These stickies increase the down time of the paper mill and decrease the quality of paper. The key property of microstickies is its smaller size, which leads to low removal efficiency and difficulties in measurement. Thus the increase of microstickies size help improve both removal efficiency and reduce measurement difficulty. In this paper, a new agglomeration technology based on electric field was investigated. The electric treatment could also increase the size of stickies particles by around 100 times. The synergetic effect between electric field treatment and detacky chemicals/dispersants, including polyvinyl alcohol, poly(diallylmethylammonium chloride) and lignosulfonate, was also studied. PMID:27332828

  18. Agglomeration of ceramic powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, James D.; Larosa, Judith; Dirkse, Fredrick

    1989-01-01

    A research program directed at a critical comparison of numerical models for power agglomeration with experimental observations is currently underway. Central to this program is the quantitative characterization of the distribution of mass within an agglomerate as a function of time. Current experiments are designed to restrict agglomeration to a surface, which is oriented perpendicular to the force of gravity. These experiments are discussed with reference to: their significance to ceramic processing; artifacts which may be avoided in microgravity experiments; and the comparison of information available in real space (from optical microscopy) to that in reciprocal space (from light scattering). The principle machine requirement appears to be a need to obtain information at small scattering angles.

  19. Development of a Gas-Promoted Oil Agglomeration Process

    SciTech Connect

    C. Nelson; F. Zhang; J. Drzymala; M. Shen; R. Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1997-11-01

    The preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During a batch agglomeration test the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspensions or by observing changes in turbidity in the case of dilute suspensions. Dilute suspensions were employed for investigating the kinetics of agglomeration, whereas concentrated suspensions were used for determining parameters that characterize the process of agglomeration. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. Each tank was enclosed to control the amount of air present. A variable speed agitator fitted with a six blade turbine impeller was used for agitation. Tests were conducted with moderately hydrophobic Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and with more hydrophobic Upper Freeport coal using either n-heptane, i-octane, or hexadecane as an agglomerant.

  20. Agglomeration rate and action forces between atomized particles of agglomerator and inhaled-particles from coal combustion.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feng; Zhang, Jun-ying; Zheng, Chu-guang

    2005-01-01

    In order to remove efficiently haled-particles emissions from coal combustions, a new way was used to put forward the process of agglomeration and the atomization was produced by the nozzle and then sprayed into the flue before precipitation devices of power station boiler in order to make inhaled-particles agglomerate into bigger particles, which can be easily removed but not change existing running conditions of boiler. According to this idea, a model is set up to study agglomeration rate and effect forces between fly ash inhaled-particles and atomized agglomerator particles. The developed agglomeration rate was expressed by relative particle number decreasing speed per unit volume. The result showed that viscosity force and flow resistance force give main influences on agglomeration effect of inhaled-particles, while springiness force and gravity have little effect on agglomeration effect of theirs. Factors influencing the agglomeration rate and effect forces are studied, including agglomerator concentration, agglomerator flux and agglomerator density, atomized-particles diameters and inhaled-particles diameter and so on. PMID:16295917

  1. Coal Gasification for Power Generation, 3. edition

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered include: an overview of Coal Generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; a description of gasification technology including processes and systems; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; a discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; an evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; a discussion of IGCC project development options; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and, a detailed description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  2. Unstructured multigrid through agglomeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatakrishnan, V.; Mavriplis, D. J.; Berger, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    In this work the compressible Euler equations are solved using finite volume techniques on unstructured grids. The spatial discretization employs a central difference approximation augmented by dissipative terms. Temporal discretization is done using a multistage Runge-Kutta scheme. A multigrid technique is used to accelerate convergence to steady state. The coarse grids are derived directly from the given fine grid through agglomeration of the control volumes. This agglomeration is accomplished by using a greedy-type algorithm and is done in such a way that the load, which is proportional to the number of edges, goes down by nearly a factor of 4 when moving from a fine to a coarse grid. The agglomeration algorithm has been implemented and the grids have been tested in a multigrid code. An area-weighted restriction is applied when moving from fine to coarse grids while a trivial injection is used for prolongation. Across a range of geometries and flows, it is shown that the agglomeration multigrid scheme compares very favorably with an unstructured multigrid algorithm that makes use of independent coarse meshes, both in terms of convergence and elapsed times.

  3. COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: LOW- AND MEDIUM-BTU WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a compilation of environmental characterization data for wastewaters from low- and medium-Btu coal gasification facilities. Fixed-bed, entrained-bed, and ash-agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification processes were examined. The fixed-bed gasifiers are the Chapm...

  4. Coal gasification 2006: roadmap to commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    2006-05-15

    Surging oil and gas prices, combined with supply security and environmental concerns, are prompting power generators and industrial firms to further develop coal gasification technologies. Coal gasification, the process of breaking down coal into its constituent chemical components prior to combustion, will permit the US to more effectively utilize its enormous, low cost coal reserves. The process facilitates lower environmental impact power generation and is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to traditional generation techniques. The study is designed to inform the reader as to this rapidly evolving technology, its market penetration prospects and likely development. Contents include: Clear explanations of different coal gasification technologies; Emissions and efficiency comparisons with other fuels and technologies; Examples of US and global gasification projects - successes and failures; Commercial development and forecast data; Gasification projects by syngas output; Recommendations for greater market penetration and commercialization; Current and projected gasification technology market shares; and Recent developments including proposals for underground gasification process. 1 app.

  5. Method for recovering light hydrocarbons from coal agglomerates

    DOEpatents

    Huettenhain, Horst; Benz, August D.; Getsoian, John

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing light hydrocarbons, such as heptane, from coal agglomerates includes an enclosed chamber having a substantially horizontal perforate surface therein. The coal agglomerates are introduced into a water bath within the chamber. The agglomerates are advanced over the surface while steam is substantially continuously introduced through the surface into the water bath. Steam heats the water and causes volatilization of the light hydrocarbons, which may be collected from the overhead of the chamber. The resulting agglomerates may be collected at the opposite end from the surface and subjected to final draining processes prior to transportation or use.

  6. Selective oil agglomeration of lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Halime Abakay Temel; Volkan Bozkurt; Arun Kumar Majumder

    2009-01-15

    In this study, desulfurization and deashing of Adiyaman-Glbai lignite by the agglomeration method were studied. For this purpose, three groups of agglomeration experiments were made. The effects of solid concentration, bridging liquid type and dosage, pH, and screen size on the agglomeration after desliming were investigated in the first group of experiments. The effects of lake water and sea water (the Mediterranean Sea water, the Aegean Sea water, and the Black Sea water) on the agglomeration were investigated in the second group of experiments. The effects of different salts (NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3}) on the agglomeration were investigated in the third group of experiments. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of sea waters and soda lake water in the agglomeration medium had a positive effect on the reduction of total sulfur content of agglomerates. In addition, the usage of NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3} in the agglomeration medium had a positive effect on the ash content reduction of the agglomerates. 27 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Recent technology advances in the KRW coal gasification development program

    SciTech Connect

    Haldipur, G.B.; Bachovchin, D.; Cherish, P.; Smith, K.J.

    1984-08-01

    This paper presents an update of the technological advances made at the coal gasification PDU during 1982 and 1983. These process improvements have resulted in higher carbon conversion efficiency, greater operational simplicity and enhanced potential for low grade or highly reactive feedstocks such as subbituminous coals and lignites. Process and component performance data are presented on the following topics: Application of advanced non-mechanical fines recycle techniques in a pressurized fluidized bed process, Demonstration of fines consumption and 95+% carbon conversion in recent tests, including results of a successful 15 day process feasibility test; and, Techniques to produce low carbon containing (less than 5%) ash agglomerates from highly reactive feedstocks, such as Wyoming subbituminous coal and North Dakota lignite.

  8. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1985-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  9. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  10. Spectral Element Agglomerate AMGe

    SciTech Connect

    Chartier, T; Falgout, R; Henson, V E; Jones, J E; Vassilevski, P S; Manteuffel, T A; McCormick, S F; Ruge, J W

    2005-05-20

    The purpose of this note is to describe an algorithm resulting from the uniting of two ideas introduced and applied elsewhere. For many problems, AMG has always been difficult due to complexities whose natures are difficult to discern from the entries of matrix A alone. Element-based interpolation has been shown to be an effective method for some of these problems, but it requires access to the element matrices on all levels. One way to obtain these has been to perform element agglomeration to form coarse elements, but in complicated situations defining the coarse degrees of freedom (dofs) is not easy. The spectral approach to coarse dof selection is very attractive due to its elegance and simplicity. The algorithm presented here combines the robustness of element interpolation, the ease of coarsening by element agglomeration, and the simplicity of defining coarse dofs through the spectral approach. As demonstrated in the numerical results, the method does yield a reasonable solver for the problems described. It can, however, be an expensive method due to the number and cost of the local, small dense linear algebra problems; making it a generally competitive method remains an area for further research.

  11. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-05-06

    A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

  12. 2007 gasification technologies conference papers

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    Sessions covered: gasification industry roundtable; the gasification market in China; gasification for power generation; the gasification challenge: carbon capture and use storage; industrial and polygeneration applications; gasification advantage in refinery applications; addressing plant performance; reliability and availability; gasification's contribution to supplementing gaseous and liquid fuels supplies; biomass gasification for fuel and power markets; and advances in technology-research and development

  13. Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2008-12-15

    Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

  14. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC24

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2008-03-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC24, the first test campaign using a bituminous coal as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC24 was conducted from February 16, 2008, through March 19, 2008. The PSDF gasification process operated for about 230 hours in air-blown gasification mode with about 225 tons of Utah bituminous coal feed. Operational challenges in gasifier operation were related to particle agglomeration, a large percentage of oversize coal particles, low overall gasifier solids collection efficiency, and refractory degradation in the gasifier solids collection unit. The carbon conversion and syngas heating values varied widely, with low values obtained during periods of low gasifier operating temperature. Despite the operating difficulties, several periods of steady state operation were achieved, which provided useful data for future testing. TC24 operation afforded the opportunity for testing of various types of technologies, including dry coal feeding with a developmental feeder, the Pressure Decoupled Advanced Coal (PDAC) feeder; evaluating a new hot gas filter element media configuration; and enhancing syngas cleanup with water-gas shift catalysts. During TC24, the PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane.

  15. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC21

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2007-01-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coal. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of the first demonstration of gasification operation with lignite coal following the 2006 gasifier configuration modifications. This demonstration took place during test campaign TC21, occurring from November 7, 2006, through January 26, 2007. The test campaign began with low sodium lignite fuel, and after 304 hours of operation, the fuel was changed to high sodium lignite, for 34 additional hours of operation. Both fuels were from the North Dakota Freedom mine. Stable operation with low sodium lignite was maintained for extended periods, although operation with high sodium lignite was problematic due to agglomeration formation in the gasifier restricting solids circulation.

  16. Particle Agglomeration in Bipolar Barb Agglomerator Under AC Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao; Ma, Xiuqin; Sun, Youshan; Wang, Meiyan; Zhang, Changping; Lou, Yueya

    2015-04-01

    The development of an efficient technology for removing fine particles in flue gas is essential as the haze is becoming more and more serious. To improve agglomeration effectiveness of fine particles, a dual zone electric agglomeration device consisting of a charging chamber and an agglomeration chamber with bipolar barb electrodes was developed. The bipolar barb electric agglomerator with a polar distance of 200 mm demonstrates good agglomeration effectiveness for particles with a size less than 8.0 μm under applied AC electric field. An optimal condition for achieving better agglomeration effectiveness was found to be as follows: flue gas flow velocity of 3.00 m/s, particle concentration of 2.00 g/m3, output voltage of 35 kV and length of the barb of 16 mm. In addition, 4.0-6.0 μm particles have the best effectiveness with the variation of particle volume occupancy of -3.2. supported by the Key Technology R&D Program of Hebei, China (No. 13211207D)

  17. Coal Cleaning by Gas Agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Meiyu Shen; Royce Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1998-03-01

    The gas agglomeration method of coal cleaning was demonstrated with laboratory scale mixing equipment which made it possible to generate microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions of coal particles. A small amount of i-octane was introduced to enhance the hydrophobicity of the coal. Between 1.0 and 2.5 v/w% i-octane was sufficient based on coal weight. Coal agglomerates or aggregates were produced which were bound together by small gas bubbles.

  18. Recent Advances in Agglomerated Multigrid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.; Hammond, Dana P.

    2013-01-01

    We report recent advancements of the agglomerated multigrid methodology for complex flow simulations on fully unstructured grids. An agglomerated multigrid solver is applied to a wide range of test problems from simple two-dimensional geometries to realistic three- dimensional configurations. The solver is evaluated against a single-grid solver and, in some cases, against a structured-grid multigrid solver. Grid and solver issues are identified and overcome, leading to significant improvements over single-grid solvers.

  19. Microbial effects on colloidal agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Hersman, L.

    1995-11-01

    Colloidal particles are known to enhance the transport of radioactive metals through soil and rock systems. This study was performed to determine if a soil microorganism, isolated from the surface samples collected at Yucca Mountain, NV, could affect the colloidal properties of day particles. The agglomeration of a Wyoming bentonite clay in a sterile uninoculated microbial growth medium was compared to the agglomeration in the medium inoculated with a Pseudomonas sp. In a second experiment, microorganisms were cultured in the succinate medium for 50 h and removed by centrifugation. The agglomeration of the clay in this spent was compared to sterile uninoculated medium. In both experiments, the agglomeration of the clay was greater than that of the sterile, uninoculated control. Based on these results, which indicate that this microorganism enhanced the agglomeration of the bentonite clay, it is possible to say that in the presence of microorganisms colloidal movement through a rock matrix could be reduced because of an overall increase in the size of colloidal particle agglomerates. 32 refs.

  20. MTCI acoustic agglomeration particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Chandran, R.R.; Mansour, M.N.; Scaroni, A.W.; Koopmann, G.H.; Loth, J.L.

    1994-10-01

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate pulse combination induced acoustic enhancement of coal ash agglomeration and sulfur capture at conditions typical of direct coal-fired turbines and PFBC hot gas cleanup. MTCI has developed an advanced compact pulse combustor island for direct coal-firing in combustion gas turbines. This combustor island comprises a coal-fired pulse combustor, a combined ash agglomeration and sulfur capture chamber (CAASCC), and a hot cyclone. In the MTCI proprietary approach, the pulse combustion-induced high intensity sound waves improve sulfur capture efficiency and ash agglomeration. The resulting agglomerates allow the use of commercial cyclones and achieve very high particulate collection efficiency. In the MTCI proprietary approach, sorbent particles are injected into a gas stream subjected to an intense acoustic field. The acoustic field serves to improve sulfur capture efficiency by enhancing both gas film and intra-particle mass transfer rates. In addition, the sorbent particles act as dynamic filter foci, providing a high density of stagnant agglomerating centers for trapping the finer entrained (in the oscillating flow field) fly ash fractions. A team has been formed with MTCI as the prime contractor and Penn State University and West Virginia University as subcontractors to MTCI. MTCI is focusing on hardware development and system demonstration, PSU is investigating and modeling acoustic agglomeration and sulfur capture, and WVU is studying aerovalve fluid dynamics. Results are presented from all three studies.

  1. Gasification: redefining clean energy

    SciTech Connect

    2008-05-15

    This booklet gives a comprehensive overview of how gasification is redefining clean energy, now and in the future. It informs the general public about gasification in a straight-forward, non-technical manner.

  2. Review of ash agglomeration in fluidized bed gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Matulevicius, E.S.; Golan, L.P.

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the data and mathematical models which describe the phenomena involved in the agglomeration of ash in fluidized bed coal gasifiers (FBG). Besides highlighting the data and theoretical models, this review lists areas where there is a lack of information regarding the actual mechanisms of agglomeration. Also, potential areas for further work are outlined. The work is directed at developing models of agglomeration which could be included in computer codes describing fluidized bed gasifier phenomena, e.g., FLAG and CHEMFLUB which have been developed for the US Department of Energy. 134 references, 24 figures, 13 tables.

  3. Engineering development of selective agglomeration. Executive summary: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Project performance targets for the selective agglomeration process were to achieve 85% or greater Btu recovery at 85% or greater pyritic sulfur rejection (PSR) on a run-of-mine (ROM) coal basis, while producing a final clean-coal product with an ash content of 6% or less which is handleable by conventional coal handling systems. Engineering development of selective agglomeration included: (1) Batch and continuous bench-scale precess development testing; (2) Continuous pilot-scale (3-t/h) component development testing to evaluate the adaptation and/or modification of existing unit operations for selective agglomeration; (3) Continuous pilot-scale (2-t/h) POC testing to optimize the selective agglomeration process and demonstrate precess reliability; (4) Vendor testing to evaluate pelletization and thermal drying precesses as applied to selective agglomeration; (5) Conceptual design of a commercial-scale (200-V/h) selective agglomeration facility; (6) Economic analysis of the selective agglomeration precess at a commercial (200-t/h) scale. The information obtained from the various modes of testing and analysis, particularly POC operations, resulted in a technical and economic design base sufficient to support construction and operation of a commercial plant.

  4. Considerations on coal gasification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franzen, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

  5. Fundamental aspects of catalysed coal char gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwal, S. K.; Truesdale, R. S.

    1980-06-01

    A brief review of the basic aspects of catalysed coal char gasification is presented. Kinetics and mechanisms of catalysed and uncatalysed gasification reactions of coal char with steam, carbon dioxide and hydrogen are discussed. Mass transport effects and internal structure of coals are shown to be important in determining rates of these reactions. The importance of the type of catalyst used is also discussed. Such factors as catalyst cations and anions, the method by which the catalyst is contacted with the coal char, and physical and chemical states of the catalyst both prior to and during reaction are shown to be important in the gasification process. Finally, research instruments and equipment used recently for studies in catalysed gasification are reviewed. These include various types of reactor systems for following the course of these reactions and analytical instruments for assessing the physical and/or chemical state of the catalysts and/or coal char both prior to and during the gasification reactions.

  6. COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION

    SciTech Connect

    T.D. Wheelock

    1999-03-01

    The technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultra-fine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was prepared by first saturating water with air or carbon dioxide under pressure then reducing the pressure to release the dissolved gas. The formation of microbubbles was facilitated by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this process in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt.% ash, it was shown that the ash content would be reduced to 6--7 wt.% while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis. This was accomplished by employing a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w%, an air saturation pressure of 136 to 205 kPa (5 to 15 psig), and an i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w% based on the weight of coal.

  7. Agglomeration and defluidization in FBC of biomass fuels -- Mechanisms and measures for prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Nordin, A.; Oehman, M.; Skrifvars, B.J.; Hupa, M.

    1996-12-31

    The use of biomass fuels in fluidized bed combustion (FBC) and gasification (FBG) is becoming more important because of the environmental benefits associated with these fuel and processes. However, severe bed agglomeration and defluidization have been reported due to the special ash forming constituents of some biomass fuels. Previous results have indicated that this could possibly be prevented by intelligent fuel mixing. In the present work the mechanisms of bed agglomeration using two different biomass fuels as well as the mechanism of the prevention of agglomeration by co-combustion with coal (50/50 %{sub w}) were studied. Several repeated combustion tests with the two biomass fuels, alone (Lucerne and olive flesh), all resulted in agglomeration and defluidization of the bed within less than 30 minutes. By controlled defluidization experiments the initial cohesion temperatures for the two fuels were determined to be as low as 670 C and 940 C, respectively. However, by fuel mixing the initial agglomeration temperature increased to 950 C and more than 1050 C, respectively. When co-combusted with coal during ten hour extended runs, no agglomeration was observed for either of the two fuel mixtures. The agglomeration temperatures were compared with results from a laboratory method, based on compression strength measurements of ash pellets, and results from chemical equilibrium calculations. Samples of bed materials, collected throughout the experimental runs, as well as the produced agglomerated beds, were analyzed using SEM EDS and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that loss of fluidization resulted from formation of molten phases coating the bed materials; a salt melt in the case of Lucerne and a silicate melt in the case of the olive fuel. By fuel mixing, the in-bed ash composition is altered, conferring higher melting temperatures, and thereby agglomeration and defluidization can be prevented.

  8. Column oil agglomeration of fly ash with ultrasonics

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, M.L.; Champagne, K.J.; Soong, Y.; Finseth, D.H.

    1999-07-01

    A promising oil agglomeration process has been developed for the beneficiation of fly ash using a six-foot agglomeration column. Carbon concentrates have been separated from fly ash with yields greater than 60 % and purities of 55 to 74 %. The parameters examined in the study include ultrasonic exposure, pulse rate, frequency, agitation speed, and blade configuration. The effects of the experimental variables on the quality of separation are discussed.

  9. Acoustic agglomeration methods and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Methods are described for using acoustic energy to agglomerate fine particles on the order of one micron diameter that are suspended in gas, to provide agglomerates large enough for efficient removal by other techniques. The gas with suspended particles, is passed through the length of a chamber while acoustic energy at a resonant chamber mode is applied to set up one or more acoustic standing wave patterns that vibrate the suspended particles to bring them together so they agglomerate. Several widely different frequencies can be applied to efficiently vibrate particles of widely differing sizes. The standing wave pattern can be applied along directions transversed to the flow of the gas. The particles can be made to move in circles by applying acoustic energy in perpendicular directions with the energy in both directions being of the same wavelength but 90 deg out of phase.

  10. Catalysis in biomass gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Mudge, L.K.

    1984-06-01

    The objective of these studies is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products by catalytic gasification of biomass. Catalyst performance is a key factor in the feasibility of catalytic gasification processes. The results of studies designed to gain a fundamental understanding of catalytic mechanisms and causes of deactivation, and discussion of the state-of-the-art of related catalytic processes are presented. Experiments with primary and secondary catalysts were conducted in a 5-cm-diameter, continuous-wood-feed, fixed-catalyst-bed reactor. The primary catalysts used in the experiments were alkali carbonates mixed with the biomass feed; the secondary catalysts included nickel or other transition metals on supports such as alumina, silica, or silica-alumina. The primary catalysts were found to influence wood pyrolysis as well as the char/steam reaction. Secondary catalysts were used in a fixed-bed configuration to direct gas phase reactions. Results of the performance of these catalysts are presented. Secondary catalysts were found to be highly effective for conversion of biomass to specific gas products: synthesis gases and methane-rich gas. With an active catalyst, equilibrium gas composition are obtained, and all liquid pyrolysis products are converted to gases. The major cause of catalyst deactivation was carbon deposition, or coking. Loss of surface area by sintering was also inportant. Catalyst deactivation by sulfur poisoning was observed when bagasse was used as the feedstock for catalytic gasification. Mechanisms of catalyst activity and deactivation are discussed. Model compounds (methane, ethylene, and phenol) were used to determine coking behavior of catalysts. Carbon deposition is more prevalent with ethylene and phenol than with methane. Catalyst formulations that are resistant to carbon deposition are presented. 60 references, 10 figures, 21 tables.

  11. Compression behavior of porous dust agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seizinger, A.; Speith, R.; Kley, W.

    2012-05-01

    Context. The early planetesimal growth proceeds through a sequence of sticking collisions of dust agglomerates. Very uncertain is still the relative velocity regime in which growth rather than destruction can take place. The outcome of a collision depends on the bulk properties of the porous dust agglomerates. Aims: Continuum models of dust agglomerates require a set of material parameters that are often difficult to obtain from laboratory experiments. Here, we aim at determining those parameters from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Our goal is to improve on the existing model that describe the interaction of individual monomers. Methods: We use a molecular dynamics approach featuring a detailed micro-physical model of the interaction of spherical grains. The model includes normal forces, rolling, twisting and sliding between the dust grains. We present a new treatment of wall-particle interaction that allows us to perform customized simulations that directly correspond to laboratory experiments. Results: We find that the existing interaction model by Dominik & Tielens leads to a too soft compressive strength behavior for uni- and omni-directional compression. Upon making the rolling and sliding coefficients stiffer we find excellent agreement in both cases. Additionally, we find that the compressive strength curve depends on the velocity with which the sample is compressed. Conclusions: The modified interaction strengths between two individual dust grains will lead to a different behavior of the whole dust agglomerate. This will influences the sticking probabilities and hence the growth of planetesimals. The new parameter set might possibly lead to an enhanced sticking as more energy can be stored in the system before breakup.

  12. Air agglomeration of hydrophobic particles

    SciTech Connect

    Drzymala, J.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    The agglomeration of hydrophobic particles in an aqueous suspension was accomplished by introducing small amounts of air into the suspension while it was agitated vigorously. The extent of aggregation was proportional both to the air to solids ratio and to the hydrophobicity of the solids. For a given air/solids ratio, the extent of aggregation of different materials increased in the following order: graphite, gilsonite, coal coated with heptane, and Teflon. The structure of agglomerates produced from coarse Teflon particles differed noticeably from the structure of bubble-particle aggregates produced from smaller, less hydrophobic particles.

  13. Conceptual design report -- Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; House, L.S.; Duck, R.R.; Lisauskas, R.A.; Dixit, V.J.; Morgan, M.E.; Johnson, S.A.; Boni, A.A.

    1994-09-01

    The problems heretofore with coal gasification and IGCC concepts have been their high cost and historical poor performance of fixed-bed gasifiers, particularly on caking coals. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is being developed to solve these problems through the development of a novel coal gasification invention which incorporates pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification (fixed-bed). It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration caused in the conventional process of gradually heating coal through the 400 F to 900 F range. In so doing, the coal is rapidly heated sufficiently such that the coal tar exists in gaseous form rather than as a liquid. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can become chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NH{sub 3} and HCN from fuel born nitrogen, steam injection is minimized, and residual nitrogen compounds are partially chemically reduced in the cracking stage in the upper gasifier region. Assuming testing confirms successful deployment of all these integrated processes, future IGCC applications will be much simplified, require significantly less mechanical components, and will likely achieve the $1,000/kWe commercialized system cost goal of the GPIF project. This report describes the process and its operation, design of the plant and equipment, site requirements, and the cost and schedule. 23 refs., 45 figs., 23 tabs.

  14. Dispersion of TiO₂ nanoparticle agglomerates by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Horst, Allison M; Neal, Andrea C; Mielke, Randall E; Sislian, Patrick R; Suh, Won Hyuk; Mädler, Lutz; Stucky, Galen D; Holden, Patricia A

    2010-11-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are increasingly incorporated into consumer products and are emerging as potential environmental contaminants. Upon environmental release, nanoparticles could inhibit bacterial processes, as evidenced by laboratory studies. Less is known regarding bacterial alteration of nanoparticles, including whether bacteria affect physical agglomeration states controlling nanoparticle settling and bioavailability. Here, the effects of an environmental strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on TiO₂ nanoparticle agglomerates formed in aqueous media are described. Environmental scanning electron microscopy and cryogenic scanning electron microscopy visually demonstrated bacterial dispersion of large agglomerates formed in cell culture medium and in marsh water. For experiments in cell culture medium, quantitative image analysis verified that the degrees of conversion of large agglomerates into small nanoparticle-cell combinations were similar for 12-h-growth and short-term cell contact experiments. Dispersion in cell growth medium was further characterized by size fractionation: for agglomerated TiO₂ suspensions in the absence of cells, 81% by mass was retained on a 5-μm-pore-size filter, compared to only 24% retained for biotic treatments. Filtrate cell and agglomerate sizes were characterized by dynamic light scattering, revealing that the average bacterial cell size increased from 1.4 μm to 1.9 μm because of nano-TiO₂ biosorption. High-magnification scanning electron micrographs showed that P. aeruginosa dispersed TiO₂ agglomerates by preferential biosorption of nanoparticles onto cell surfaces. These results suggest a novel role for bacteria in the environmental transport of engineered nanoparticles, i.e., growth-independent, bacterially mediated size and mass alterations of TiO₂ nanoparticle agglomerates. PMID:20851981

  15. Acoustic agglomeration of power plant fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reethof, G.; McDaniel, O.H.

    1982-01-01

    The work has shown that acoustic agglomeration at practical acoustic intensities and frequencies is technically and most likely economically viable. The following studies were performed with the listed results: The physics of acoustic agglomeration is complex particularly at the needed high acoustic intensities in the range of 150 to 160 dB and frequencies in the 2500 Hz range. The analytical model which we developed, although not including nonlinear acoustic efforts, agreed with the trends observed. We concentrated our efforts on clarifying the impact of high acoustic intensities on the generation of turbulence. Results from a special set of tests show that although some acoustically generated turbulence of sorts exists in the 150 to 170 dB range with acoustic streaming present, such turbulence will not be a significant factor in acoustic agglomeration compared to the dominant effect of the acoustic velocities at the fundamental frequency and its harmonics. Studies of the robustness of the agglomerated particles using the Anderson Mark III impactor as the source of the shear stresses on the particles show that the agglomerates should be able to withstand the rigors of flow through commercial cyclones without significant break-up. We designed and developed a 700/sup 0/F tubular agglomerator of 8'' internal diameter. The electrically heated system functioned well and provided very encouraging agglomeration results at acoustic levels in the 150 to 160 dB and 2000 to 3000 Hz ranges. We confirmed earlier results that an optimum frequency exists at about 2500 Hz and that larger dust loadings will give better results. Studies of the absorption of acoustic energy by various common gases as a function of temperature and humidity showed the need to pursue such an investigation for flue gas constituents in order to provide necessary data for the design of agglomerators. 65 references, 56 figures, 4 tables.

  16. Development program to support industrial coal gasification. Quarterly report 1

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-15

    The Development Program to Support Industrial Coal Gasification is on schedule. The efforts have centered on collecting background information and data, planning, and getting the experimental program underway. The three principal objectives in Task I-A were accomplished. The technical literature was reviewed, the coals and binders to be employed were selected, and tests and testing equipment to be used in evaluating agglomerates were developed. The entire Erie Mining facility design was reviewed and a large portion of the fluidized-bed coal gasification plant design was completed. Much of the work in Task I will be experimental. Wafer-briquette and roll-briquette screening tests will be performed. In Task II, work on the fluidized-bed gasification plant design will be completed and work on a plant design involving entrained-flow gasifiers will be initiated.

  17. Environmental report for the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Norris, E.S.; Duck, R.R.; Hass, R.B.; Morgan, M.E.; Helble, J.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Fossil Energy Program has a mission to develop energy systems that utilize national coal resources in power systems with increased efficiency and environmental compatibility. Coal gasification technology is a versatile candidate that meets this goal. This two phased project consists primarily of the design, construction and operation of a 5-foot inside diameter (minimum) fixed-bed gasifier called PyGas{trademark} and supporting infrastructure (Phase I), and an additional follow on phase consisting of the design, construction and operation of a hot fuel gas cleanup unit (Phase II). Issues expected to be successfully overcome by PyGas{trademark} through its application in this test facility include the processing of high-swelling coals, which causes agglomeration in conventional fixed-bed gasifiers. Such coals comprise 87% of all eastern coals. Other issues expected to be eliminated or significantly reduced include: production of ash clinkers, production of ammonia, the presence of significant tars and fines, and the volatilization of alkalinity in the product fuel gas. A second portion of the NEPA report is concerned with the emission of toxic metal compounds by the gasification process improvement facility (GPIF). The GPIF facility will be located on site at the Fort Martin facility of Allegheny Power Company, and the energy produced (steam) will be directly used by Fort Martin to produce electricity. The coal used at the GPIF facility will be the same coal used by the utility. Therefore, the emissions of the GPIF will be put in context of the entire facility. The GPIF assessment will be divided into four sections: Estimation of the toxic metals content of the raw coal; calculation of the emissions from Fort Martin normally; an estimate of the emission from the GPIF; and a comparison of the two flows.

  18. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  19. Coal-gasification basic research and cost studies. Quarterly report 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-16

    Coal-gasification basic research and cost studies performed at Davy McKee Corporation supporting the Department of Energy's coal gasification program is on schedule through the Second Quarter. It is anticipated that work will continue on schedule for the remainder of the program. During the Second Quarter, efforts were concentrated on evaluations, laboratory studies and design activities. In Task I, information on how coals perform in and around fixed-bed gasifiers was reviewed and standards and tests to evaluate the expected performance of agglomerates were developed. The economics of coal agglomeration, the preferred size of agglomerates, and possible coal upgrading methods to enhance agglomerates were examined. Two topical reports describing the findings were prepared and were issued. Approximately 200 separate wafer briquetting runs and 29 double-roll briquetting runs were performed during the period to evaluate potential binders and to investigate different briquetting variables. In Task II, the design of a Winkler coal gasification plant to replace a two-stage gasifier plant in the original Erie Mining facility design was completed, and work on the design of a Combustion Engineering entrained-flow gasification plant replacement was initiated. 24 figures, 12 tables.

  20. Solar coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, D. W.; Aiman, W. R.; Otsuki, H. H.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of solar coal gasification has been performed. The analysis indicates that the medium-Btu product gas from a solar coal-gasification plant would not only be less expensive than that from a Lurgi coal-gasification plant but also would need considerably less coal to produce the same amount of gas. A number of possible designs for solar coal-gasification reactors are presented. These designs allow solar energy to be chemically stored while at the same time coal is converted to a clean-burning medium-Btu gas.

  1. Gasification-based biomass

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  2. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  3. Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology

    ScienceCinema

    Gary Stiegel

    2010-01-08

    NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

  4. Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Stiegel

    2008-03-26

    NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

  5. 2006 gasification technologies conference papers

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    Sessions covered: business overview, industry trends and new developments; gasification projects progress reports; industrial applications and opportunities; Canadian oil sands; China/Asia gasification markets - status and projects; carbon management with gasification technologies; gasification economics and performance issues addressed; and research and development, and new technologies initiatives.

  6. Hydrophobic Agglomeration of Mineral Fines in Aqueous Suspensions and its Application in Flotation: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bingqiao; Song, Shaoxian

    2014-05-01

    Hydrophobic agglomeration is originated from the hydrophobic attraction between particles, which is essentially different from electrolyte coagulation and polymer flocculation. It is applied to mineral processing in floc-flotation process to improve the recovery of mineral fines. In this paper, the applications of this phenomenon in mineral fines were summarized, including the origin of hydrophobic agglomeration, the main factors affect hydrophobic agglomeration (particle hydrophobicity, shear rate and duration, nonpolar oil and tank geometry), as well as hydrophobic agglomeration based separation processes (carrier flotation and floc-flotation).

  7. Fuel Flexibility in Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    McLendon, T. Robert; Pineault, Richard L.; Richardson, Steven W.; Rockey, John M.; Beer, Stephen K.; Lui, Alain P.; Batton, William A.

    2001-11-06

    coal to percent by weight sawdust. The mixtures of interest were: 65/35 subbituminous, 75/25 subbituminous, 85/15 subbituminous, and 75/25 bituminous. Steady state was achieved quickly when going from one subbituminous mixture to another, but longer when going from subbituminous to bituminous coal. The most apparent observation when comparing the base case to subbituminous coal/sawdust mixtures is that operating conditions are nearly the same. Product gas does not change much in composition and temperatures remain nearly the same. Comparisons of identical weight ratios of sawdust and subbituminous and bituminous mixtures show considerable changes in operating conditions and gas composition. The highly caking bituminous coal used in this test swelled up and became about half as dense as the comparable subbituminous coal char. Some adjustments were required in accommodating changes in solids removal during the test. Nearly all the solids in the bituminous coal sawdust were conveyed into the upper freeboard section and removed at the mid-level of the reactor. This is in marked contrast to the ash-agglomerating condition where most solids are removed at the very bottom of the gasifier. Temperatures in the bottom of the reactor during the bituminous test were very high and difficult to control. The most significant discovery of the tests was that the addition of sawdust allowed gasification of a coal type that had previously resulted in nearly instant clinkering of the gasifier. Several previous attempts at using Pittsburgh No. 8 were done only at the end of the tests when shutdown was imminent anyway. It is speculated that the fine wood dust somehow coats the pyrolyzed sticky bituminous coal particles and prevents them from agglomerating quickly. As the bituminous coal char particles swell, they are carried to the cooler upper regions of the reactor where they re-solidify. Other interesting phenomena were revealed regarding the transport (rheological) properties of the

  8. Materials of Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-15

    The objective of this project was to accumulate and establish a database of construction materials, coatings, refractory liners, and transitional materials that are appropriate for the hardware and scale-up facilities for atmospheric biomass and coal gasification processes. Cost, fabricability, survivability, contamination, modes of corrosion, failure modes, operational temperatures, strength, and compatibility are all areas of materials science for which relevant data would be appropriate. The goal will be an established expertise of materials for the fossil energy area within WRI. This would be an effort to narrow down the overwhelming array of materials information sources to the relevant set which provides current and accurate data for materials selection for fossil fuels processing plant. A significant amount of reference material on materials has been located, examined and compiled. The report that describes these resources is well under way. The reference material is in many forms including texts, periodicals, websites, software and expert systems. The most important part of the labor is to refine the vast array of available resources to information appropriate in content, size and reliability for the tasks conducted by WRI and its clients within the energy field. A significant has been made to collate and capture the best and most up to date references. The resources of the University of Wyoming have been used extensively as a local and assessable location of information. As such, the distribution of materials within the UW library has been added as a portion of the growing document. Literature from recent journals has been combed for all pertinent references to high temperature energy based applications. Several software packages have been examined for relevance and usefulness towards applications in coal gasification and coal fired plant. Collation of the many located resources has been ongoing. Some web-based resources have been examined.

  9. Mechanisms for selective agglomeration of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.-C.; Tyson, D.; Xiaoping, Qiu; Lessa, A.

    1989-05-01

    Work continued on the basic mechanisms which underlie various processes for beneficiating aqueous suspensions of coal by selective agglomeration with oil. A new method was demonstrated for characterizing the agglomerability of coal suspensions. This method utilizes a photometric dispersion analyzer to monitor changes in the turbidity of a particle suspension as increasing amounts of oil are added to the suspension in a batch agglomeration test. Agglomeration of the particles leads to a marked decrease in the turbidity of the suspension. Another experimental technique was also demonstrated for characterizing oil agglomeration. This technique involves measuring the rate of growth of agglomerates in a continuous flow system operating under stead-state conditions. The data are analyzed by means of a population balance. The results of a preliminary set of experiments in which Indiana V seam coal was agglomerated with tetralin seemed to fit a particular growth model very well. Equipment was also constructed for studying the kinetics of agglomeration in a batch process. While earlier work showed that quebracho (a commercially available dispersant) is a strong agglomeration depressant for pyrite, recent experiments with mixtures of Upper Freeport coal and mineral pyrite showed that quebracho does not appear to be sufficiently selective. Further consideration was given to the separation of mixtures of coal and pyrite agglomeration with heptane. 2 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Theranostic potential of gold nanoparticle-protein agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Sanpui, Pallab; Paul, Anumita; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2015-11-28

    Owing to the ever-increasing applications, glittered with astonishing success of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in biomedical research as diagnostic and therapeutic agents, the study of Au NP-protein interaction seems critical for maximizing their theranostic efficiency, and thus demands comprehensive understanding. The mutual interaction of Au NPs and proteins at physiological conditions may result in the aggregation of protein, which can ultimately lead to the formation of Au NP-protein agglomerates. In the present article, we try to appreciate the plausible steps involved in the Au NP-induced aggregation of proteins and also the importance of the proteins' three-dimensional structures in the process. The Au NP-protein agglomerates can potentially be exploited for efficient loading and subsequent release of various therapeutically important molecules, including anticancer drugs, with the unique opportunity of incorporating hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic drugs in the same nanocarrier system. Moreover, the Au NP-protein agglomerates can act as 'self-diagnostic' systems, allowing investigation of the conformational state of the associated protein(s) as well as the protein-protein or protein-Au NP interaction within the agglomerates. Furthermore, the potential of these Au NP-protein agglomerates as a novel platform for multifunctional theranostic application along with exciting future-possibilities is highlighted here. PMID:26508277

  11. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  12. Theranostic potential of gold nanoparticle-protein agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanpui, Pallab; Paul, Anumita; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2015-11-01

    Owing to the ever-increasing applications, glittered with astonishing success of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in biomedical research as diagnostic and therapeutic agents, the study of Au NP-protein interaction seems critical for maximizing their theranostic efficiency, and thus demands comprehensive understanding. The mutual interaction of Au NPs and proteins at physiological conditions may result in the aggregation of protein, which can ultimately lead to the formation of Au NP-protein agglomerates. In the present article, we try to appreciate the plausible steps involved in the Au NP-induced aggregation of proteins and also the importance of the proteins' three-dimensional structures in the process. The Au NP-protein agglomerates can potentially be exploited for efficient loading and subsequent release of various therapeutically important molecules, including anticancer drugs, with the unique opportunity of incorporating hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic drugs in the same nanocarrier system. Moreover, the Au NP-protein agglomerates can act as `self-diagnostic' systems, allowing investigation of the conformational state of the associated protein(s) as well as the protein-protein or protein-Au NP interaction within the agglomerates. Furthermore, the potential of these Au NP-protein agglomerates as a novel platform for multifunctional theranostic application along with exciting future-possibilities is highlighted here.

  13. Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process: Air-promoted oil agglomeration of moderately hydrophobic coals. 2: Effect of air dosage in a model mixing system

    SciTech Connect

    Drzymala, J.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1996-07-01

    In a selective oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal, fine-size particles are suspended in water and treated with a water-immiscible hydrocarbon which can range from pentane to heavy fuel oil. Vigorous agitation is applied to disperse the oil and to produce frequent contacts between oil-coated particles. In Part 1 of this series of papers, it was shown that a definite amount of air had to be present in a laboratory mixing unit which produced a moderate shear rate in order to form compact, spherical agglomerates in an aqueous suspension of moderately hydrophobic coal using heptane or hexadecane as an agglomerate. In this paper, the effects of different amounts of air including dissolved air are discussed. The results indicate that a small amount of air will trigger the process of agglomeration, and even the air dissolved in water under equilibrium conditions at room temperature and pressure is sufficient to promote agglomeration provided it is released from solution.

  14. Development and scale-up of particle agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Meiyu

    The development of two modified agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation is presented separately in Parts I and II of this dissertation. Part I is based on research which was conducted to study the mechanism and characteristics of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Part II is based on research which was carried out to develop a newer and more innovative method for agglomerating coal particles with microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions. In Part I, the development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During batch agglomeration tests the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspension. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. It was shown that gas bubbles trigger the process of agglomeration and participate in a very complex mechanism involving the interaction of particles, oil droplets, and gas bubbles. The process takes place in stages involving dispersion of oil and gas, flocculation, coagulation, and agglomerate building. Numerous agglomeration tests were conducted with two kinds of coal in concentrated suspensions to determine the important characteristics of the process and to study the effects of the following operating parameters: i-octane concentration, air concentration, particle concentration, tank diameter, impeller diameter, and impeller speed

  15. EMERY BIOMASS GASIFICATION POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Phillips; Scott Hassett; Harry Gatley

    2002-11-27

    Emery Recycling Corporation (now Emery Energy Company, LLC) evaluated the technical and economical feasibility of the Emery Biomass Gasification Power System (EBGPS). The gasifier technology is owned and being developed by Emery. The Emery Gasifier for this project was an oxygen-blown, pressurized, non-slagging gasification process that novelly integrates both fixed-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes into a single vessel. This unique internal geometry of the gasifier vessel will allow for tar and oil destruction within the gasifier. Additionally, the use of novel syngas cleaning processes using sorbents is proposed with the potential to displace traditional amine-based and other syngas cleaning processes. The work scope within this project included: one-dimensional gasifier modeling, overall plant process modeling (ASPEN), feedstock assessment, additional analyses on the proposed syngas cleaning process, plant cost estimating, and, market analysis to determine overall feasibility and applicability of the technology for further development and commercial deployment opportunities. Additionally, the project included the development of a detailed technology development roadmap necessary to commercialize the Emery Gasification technology. Process modeling was used to evaluate both combined cycle and solid oxide fuel cell power configurations. Ten (10) cases were evaluated in an ASPEN model wherein nine (9) cases were IGCC configurations with fuel-to-electricity efficiencies ranging from 38-42% and one (1) case was an IGFC solid oxide case where 53.5% overall plant efficiency was projected. The cost of electricity was determined to be very competitive at scales from 35-71 MWe. Market analysis of feedstock availability showed numerous market opportunities for commercial deployment of the technology with modular capabilities for various plant sizes based on feedstock availability and power demand.

  16. Element Agglomeration Algebraic Multilevel Monte-Carlo Library

    SciTech Connect

    2015-02-19

    ElagMC is a parallel C++ library for Multilevel Monte Carlo simulations with algebraically constructed coarse spaces. ElagMC enables Multilevel variance reduction techniques in the context of general unstructured meshes by using the specialized element-based agglomeration techniques implemented in ELAG (the Element-Agglomeration Algebraic Multigrid and Upscaling Library developed by U. Villa and P. Vassilevski and currently under review for public release). The ElabMC library can support different type of deterministic problems, including mixed finite element discretizations of subsurface flow problems.

  17. Element Agglomeration Algebraic Multilevel Monte-Carlo Library

    2015-02-19

    ElagMC is a parallel C++ library for Multilevel Monte Carlo simulations with algebraically constructed coarse spaces. ElagMC enables Multilevel variance reduction techniques in the context of general unstructured meshes by using the specialized element-based agglomeration techniques implemented in ELAG (the Element-Agglomeration Algebraic Multigrid and Upscaling Library developed by U. Villa and P. Vassilevski and currently under review for public release). The ElabMC library can support different type of deterministic problems, including mixed finite element discretizationsmore » of subsurface flow problems.« less

  18. Multidimensional nature of fluidized nanoparticle agglomerates.

    PubMed

    de Martín, Lilian; Bouwman, Wim G; van Ommen, J Ruud

    2014-10-28

    We show that fluidized nanoparticle agglomerates are hierarchical fractal structures with three fractal dimensions: one characterizing sintered aggregates formed during nanoparticle synthesis, one that is also found in stored agglomerates and represents unbroken agglomerates, and one describing the large agglomerates broken during fluidization. This has been possible by using spin-echo small-angle neutron scattering-a relatively novel technique that, for the first time, allowed to characterize in situ the structure of fluidized nanoparticle agglomerates from 21 nm to ∼20 μm. The results show that serial agglomeration mechanisms in the gas phase can generate nanoparticle clusters with different fractal dimensions, contradicting the common approach that considers fluidized nanoparticle agglomerates as single fractals, in analogy to the agglomerates formed by micron-sized particles. This work has important implications for the fluidization field but also has a wider impact. Current studies deal with the formation and properties of clusters where the building blocks are particles and the structure can be characterized by only one fractal dimension. However, fluidized nanoparticle agglomerates are low-dimensional clusters formed by higher-dimensional clusters that are formed by low-dimensional clusters. This multifractality demands a new type of multiscale model able to capture the interplay between different scales. PMID:25313446

  19. Trace metal transformations in gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, T.A.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1995-08-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  20. Trace metal transformations in gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; O`Keefe, C.A.; Katrinak, K.; Allan, S.E.; Hassett, D.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Zygarlicke, C.J.

    1995-11-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems; (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions; and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions. Results are presented and discussed on the partitioning of trace metals and the model design for predicting trace metals behavior.

  1. Trace metal transformations in gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.; Erickson, T.A.; Zygarlicke, C.J.

    1995-12-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  2. Trace metal transformation in gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; O`Keefe, C.A.; Katrinak, K.A.; Allen, S.E.; Hassett, D.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Holcombe, N.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to 1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, 2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and 3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  3. Programmed temperature gasification study. Final report, October 1, 1979-November 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Spoon, M.J.; Gardner, M.P.; Starkovich, J.A.; Fein, H.L.; Apte, A.J.

    1980-11-30

    An experimental, modeling and conceptual engineering analysis study has been performed to assess the feasibility of TRW's Programmed Temperature Gasification (PTG) concept for carbonizing caking coals without severe agglomeration. The concept involves control of carbonizing heating rate to maintain metaplast concentration at a level equal to or slightly below that which causes agglomeration. The experimental studies required the contruction of a novel programmed temperature, elevated pressure, hot stage video microscope for observation of coal particle changes during heating. This system was used to develop a minimum-time heating schedule capable of carbonizing the coal at elevated pressures in the presence of hydrogen without severe agglomeration. Isothermal fixed heating rate data for a series of coals were subsequently used to calibrate and verify the mathematical model for the PTG process. These results showed good correlation between experimental data and mathematical predictions. Commercial application of the PTG concept to batch, moving bed and fluid bed processing schemes was then evaluated. Based on the calibrated model programmed temperature gasification of the coal without severe agglomeration could be carried out on a commercial batch reaction in 4 to 12 minutes. The next step in development of the PTG concept for commercial application would require testing on a bench scale (3-inch diameter) gasifier coupled with a full commercial assessment to determine size and cost of various gasification units.

  4. Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment: Consolidated Report

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, M.; Yale, J.

    2012-11-01

    Harris Group Inc. (HGI) was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to assess gasification and tar reforming technologies. Specifically, the assessments focused on gasification and tar reforming technologies that are capable of producing a syngas suitable for further treatment and conversion to liquid fuels. HGI gathered sufficient information to analyze three gasification and tar reforming systems. This report summarizes the equipment, general arrangement of the equipment, operating characteristics, and operating severity for each technology. The order of magnitude capital cost estimates are supported by a basis-of-estimate write-up, which is also included in this report. The report also includes Microsoft Excel workbook models, which can be used to design and price the systems. The models can be used to analyze various operating capacities and pressures. Each model produces a material balance, equipment list, capital cost estimate, equipment drawings and preliminary general arrangement drawings. Example outputs of each model are included in the Appendices.

  5. Coal gasification for power generation. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-15

    The report gives an overview of the opportunities for coal gasification in the power generation industry. It provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; A description of gasification technology including processes and systems; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; An analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; A discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; An evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; A discussion of IGCC project development options; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; Profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and A description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  6. Pulse combusted acoustic agglomeration apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Mansour, Momtaz N.; Chandran, Ravi

    1994-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for removal of particulates entrained in a gas stream are provided. The removal process employs a pulse combustor to provide an acoustic pressure wave to acoustically enhance agglomeration of particulates which may be collected and removed using a conventional separation apparatus. The apparatus may be employed as a direct fired system for improved operation of gas-operated equipment such as a gas turbine, or may, alternatively, be employed as an add-on subsystem for combustion exhaust clean-up. Additionally, added particulates may include a sorbent for effecting sorption of other contaminants such as sulfur. Various other particulates for contaminant removal may also be introduced into the system as exemplified by alkali-gettering agents.

  7. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  8. Coal-gasification basic research and costs studies. Quarterly report No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-15

    Work was continued on basic research and cost studies supporting the Department of Energy's coal gasification program. Two major activities or tasks are being performed. The first activity is the development of a process or processes to produce agglomerates from coal fines suitable for use as a feed to fixed-bed gasifiers. During the Fourth Quarter approximately 70 double-roll briquetting runs and 97 pelletizing runs were performed to evaluate promising binder candidates and to investigate other briquetting and pelletizing variables. All agglomerates were tested for room temperature handling ease (measured by crush-strength and drop-shatter tests) and for stability and performance at gasifier temperatures. The best agglomerates were further evaluated in a modified Burghardt test and in a tumbler test. Ten agglomerate compositions, eight briquettes and two pellets, were run in a small gasifier at American Natural Resources. Most agglomerates performed well in this gasifier. In Task II, the design of a gasification plant with Rockwell Molten Salt gasifiers was completed, and estimates of capital and operating costs were developed. Work on all basic cases has now been completed and only the incorporation of a briquetting facility into the fixed-bed plant design remains to be done.

  9. Chicken-Bio Nuggets Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, A.C.

    1996-12-31

    With the cost of landfill disposal skyrocketing and land availability becoming scarce, better options are required for managing our nation`s biomass waste. In response to this need, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) is evaluating an innovative idea (described as Chicken-Bio Nuggets Gasification process) to gasify waste products from the poultry industry and industrial wood/biomass-based residues in {open_quotes}as-is{close_quotes} or aggregate form. The presence of potassium salts in the poultry waste as well as in the biomass can act as a catalyst in reducing the severity of the thermal gasification. As a result, the mixture of these waste products can be gasified at a much lower temperature (1,300-1,400{degrees}F versus 1,800-2,000{degrees}F for conventional thermal gasification). Also, these potassium salts act as a catalyst by accelerating the gasification reaction and enhancing the mediation reaction. Hence, the product gas from this UTSI concept can be richer in methane and probably can be used as a source of fuel (to replace propane in hard reach remote places) or as a chemical feed stock. Exxon Research and Engineering Company has tested a similar catalytic gasification concept in a fluid-bed gasifier using coal in a one ton/day pilot plant in Baytown, Texas. If found technically and economically feasible, this concept can be later on extended to include other kinds of waste products such as cow manure and wastes from swine, etc.

  10. Hydrothermal Gasification for Waste to Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epps, Brenden; Laser, Mark; Choo, Yeunun

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal gasification is a promising technology for harvesting energy from waste streams. Applications range from straightforward waste-to-energy conversion (e.g. municipal waste processing, industrial waste processing), to water purification (e.g. oil spill cleanup, wastewater treatment), to biofuel energy systems (e.g. using algae as feedstock). Products of the gasification process are electricity, bottled syngas (H2 + CO), sequestered CO2, clean water, and inorganic solids; further chemical reactions can be used to create biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. We present a comparison of gasification system architectures, focusing on efficiency and economic performance metrics. Various system architectures are modeled computationally, using a model developed by the coauthors. The physical model tracks the mass of each chemical species, as well as energy conversions and transfers throughout the gasification process. The generic system model includes the feedstock, gasification reactor, heat recovery system, pressure reducing mechanical expanders, and electricity generation system. Sensitivity analysis of system performance to various process parameters is presented. A discussion of the key technological barriers and necessary innovations is also presented.

  11. Simulation of acoustic agglomeration processes of poly-disperse solid particles

    SciTech Connect

    Changdong Sheng; Xianglin Shen

    2007-01-15

    This article presents the simulation of acoustic agglomeration of poly-disperse solid particles with the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. The modelled processes include the agglomeration due to the orthokinetic and hydrodynamic mechanisms, Brownian coagulation and wall deposition. The aggregates formed during the agglomeration process were characterised as mass fractal aggregates with an equivalent radius to estimate the average radius of the primary particles in individual aggregates. Acoustic agglomeration of fly ash with a lognormal size distribution and TiO{sub 2} particles with a bimodal size distribution was simulated and validated against the experimental data in the literature. It was found that the acoustic agglomeration process of solid particles could be represented with a modified version of Song's orthokinetic model and Koenig's hydrodynamic equation that account for the fractal-like morphology of the aggregates. The fractal dimensions of around 1.8 and 2.2 were obtained for the fly ash and TiO{sub 2} particles, respectively, consistent with the values reported for the aggregates in the literature. The poly-disperse nature of the primary particles is essential to the simulation; assuming mono-disperse primary particles leads to a significant underestimation of the agglomeration rate and the particle size growth particularly during the early stages of the acoustic agglomeration process. Particle deposition on the chamber walls also has some effect on acoustic agglomeration.

  12. Modeling of particle agglomeration in nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, K. Hari; Neti, S.; Oztekin, A.; Mohapatra, S.

    2015-03-01

    Agglomeration strongly influences the stability or shelf life of nanofluid. The present computational and experimental study investigates the rate of agglomeration quantitatively. Agglomeration in nanofluids is attributed to the net effect of various inter-particle interaction forces. For the nanofluid considered here, a net inter-particle force depends on the particle size, volume fraction, pH, and electrolyte concentration. A solution of the discretized and coupled population balance equations can yield particle sizes as a function of time. Nanofluid prepared here consists of alumina nanoparticles with the average particle size of 150 nm dispersed in de-ionized water. As the pH of the colloid was moved towards the isoelectric point of alumina nanofluids, the rate of increase of average particle size increased with time due to lower net positive charge on particles. The rate at which the average particle size is increased is predicted and measured for different electrolyte concentration and volume fraction. The higher rate of agglomeration is attributed to the decrease in the electrostatic double layer repulsion forces. The rate of agglomeration decreases due to increase in the size of nano-particle clusters thus approaching zero rate of agglomeration when all the clusters are nearly uniform in size. Predicted rates of agglomeration agree adequate enough with the measured values; validating the mathematical model and numerical approach is employed.

  13. Modeling of particle agglomeration in nanofluids

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, K. Hari; Neti, S.; Oztekin, A.; Mohapatra, S.

    2015-03-07

    Agglomeration strongly influences the stability or shelf life of nanofluid. The present computational and experimental study investigates the rate of agglomeration quantitatively. Agglomeration in nanofluids is attributed to the net effect of various inter-particle interaction forces. For the nanofluid considered here, a net inter-particle force depends on the particle size, volume fraction, pH, and electrolyte concentration. A solution of the discretized and coupled population balance equations can yield particle sizes as a function of time. Nanofluid prepared here consists of alumina nanoparticles with the average particle size of 150 nm dispersed in de-ionized water. As the pH of the colloid was moved towards the isoelectric point of alumina nanofluids, the rate of increase of average particle size increased with time due to lower net positive charge on particles. The rate at which the average particle size is increased is predicted and measured for different electrolyte concentration and volume fraction. The higher rate of agglomeration is attributed to the decrease in the electrostatic double layer repulsion forces. The rate of agglomeration decreases due to increase in the size of nano-particle clusters thus approaching zero rate of agglomeration when all the clusters are nearly uniform in size. Predicted rates of agglomeration agree adequate enough with the measured values; validating the mathematical model and numerical approach is employed.

  14. Modeling of Particle Agglomeration in Nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanagala, Hari Krishna

    Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nano sized particles (<100nm in diameter) in dispersion mediums. They are of great interest in industrial applications as heat transfer fluids owing to their enhanced thermal conductivities. Stability of nanofluids is a major problem hindering their industrial application. Agglomeration and then sedimentation are some reasons, which drastically decrease the shelf life of these nanofluids. Current research addresses the agglomeration effect and how it can affect the shelf life of a nanofluid. The reasons for agglomeration in nanofluids are attributable to the interparticle interactions which are quantified by the various theories. By altering the governing properties like volume fraction, pH and electrolyte concentration different nanofluids with instant agglomeration, slow agglomeration and no agglomeration can be produced. A numerical model is created based on the discretized population balance equations which analyses the particle size distribution at different times. Agglomeration effects have been analyzed for alumina nanoparticles with average particle size of 150nm dispersed in de-ionized water. As the pH was moved towards the isoelectric point of alumina nanofluids, the particle size distribution became broader and moved to bigger sizes rapidly with time. Particle size distributions became broader and moved to bigger sizes more quickly with time with increase in the electrolyte concentration. The two effects together can be used to create different temporal trends in the particle size distributions. Faster agglomeration is attributed to the decrease in the electrostatic double layer repulsion forces which is due to decrease in the induced charge and the double layer thickness around the particle. Bigger particle clusters show lesser agglomeration due to reaching the equilibrium size. The procedures and processes described in this work can be used to generate more stable nanofluids.

  15. Percolative fragmentation and spontaneous agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, R.; Davis, K.

    1999-03-01

    Captive particle imaging experiments were performed on over 200 coal and char particles in the pulverized size range from four coals of various rank at oxygen concentration from 3--19 mol% and at gas temperatures of about 1250 K. Despite wide variations in single-particle behavior, the data set reveals two clear trends that provide new information on the nature of char combustion. First, the low-rank coal chars are observed to maintain their high reactivity through the late stages of combustion, thus avoiding the near-extinction events and long burnout tails observed for bituminous coal chars. Secondly, percolative fragmentation in the late stages of combustion is a rare event under these conditions. Some particles reach a percolation threshold rate in combustion, but typically undergo spontaneous agglomeration rather than liberation of the incipient fragments. It is concluded that percolative fragmentation behavior in the pulverized size range is determined not only by solid-phase connectivity, but also by a real competition between disruptive and cohesive forces present at the time of formation of the colloidal-sized incipient fragments.

  16. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests

  17. Numerical simulation of waste tyres gasification.

    PubMed

    Janajreh, Isam; Raza, Syed Shabbar

    2015-05-01

    Gasification is a thermochemical pathway used to convert carbonaceous feedstock into syngas (CO and H2) in a deprived oxygen environment. The process can accommodate conventional feedstock such as coal, discarded waste including plastics, rubber, and mixed waste owing to the high reactor temperature (1000 °C-1600 °C). Pyrolysis is another conversion pathway, yet it is more selective to the feedstock owing to the low process temperature (350 °C-550 °C). Discarded tyres can be subjected to pyrolysis, however, the yield involves the formation of intermediate radicals additional to unconverted char. Gasification, however, owing to the higher temperature and shorter residence time, is more opted to follow quasi-equilibrium and being predictive. In this work, tyre crumbs are subjected to two levels of gasification modelling, i.e. equilibrium zero dimension and reactive multi-dimensional flow. The objective is to investigate the effect of the amount of oxidising agent on the conversion of tyre granules and syngas composition in a small 20 kW cylindrical gasifier. Initially the chemical compositions of several tyre samples are measured following the ASTM procedures for proximate and ultimate analysis as well as the heating value. The measured data are used to carry out equilibrium-based and reactive flow gasification. The result shows that both models are reasonably predictive averaging 50% gasification efficiency, the devolatilisation is less sensitive than the char conversion to the equivalence ratio as devolatilisation is always complete. In view of the high attained efficiency, it is suggested that the investigated tyre gasification system is economically viable. PMID:25755167

  18. Agglomeration of microparticles in complex plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Cheng-Ran; Thomas, Hubertus M.; Ivlev, Alexei V.; Konopka, Uwe; Morfill, Gregor E.

    2010-11-15

    Agglomeration of highly charged microparticles was observed and studied in complex plasma experiments carried out in a capacitively coupled rf discharge. The agglomeration was caused by strong waves triggered in a particle cloud by decreasing neutral gas pressure. Using a high-speed camera during this unstable regime, it was possible to resolve the motion of individual microparticles and to show that the relative velocities of some particles were sufficiently high to overcome the mutual Coulomb repulsion and hence to result in agglomeration. After stabilizing the cloud again through the increase of the pressure, we were able to observe the aggregates directly with a long-distance microscope. We show that the agglomeration rate deduced from our experiments is in good agreement with theoretical estimates. In addition, we briefly discuss the mechanisms that can provide binding of highly charged microparticles in a plasma.

  19. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  20. Successfully use agglomeration for size enlargement

    SciTech Connect

    Pietsch, W.

    1996-04-01

    The processing of fine and ultrafine particles by size enlargement finds an ever increasing application. At the same time, undesirable agglomeration such as buildup, caking, bridging, and uncontrolled aggregation of fine particles can occur during processing and handling of these particulate solids. This article will provide a survey of the phenomena of agglomeration and discuss the unit operation of size enlargement by agglomeration. This article is also an invitation, particularly to young engineers, to become interested in agglomeration. Considering that mechanical process technologies are requiring more energy every year than any other group of consumers and efficiencies are typically in the single digits or teens at best, considerable rewards can be expected from the development of scientifically modified, more energy-efficient methods and equipment.

  1. Mechanisms for selective agglomeration of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.-C.; Tyson, D.; Xiaoping, Qiu; Lessa, A.

    1989-10-01

    Measurement and control of the surface properties of coal and pyrite are important in the application of selective oil agglomeration for coal beneficiation and both received further study and consideration. One method of surface characterization involves measuring the heat of immersion of coal in water or other liquids. To develop a useful and consistent measurement technique, numerous measurements were conducted with Illinois No. 6 coal to study the effects of coal particle size and moisture content on the heat of immersion in heptane, water, hexadecane and methanol. The effect of particle size was also studied. Also, ground mineral pyrite was pretreated with dilute solutions of sodium sulfide at various Ph and then agglomerated with heptane. To achieve better control over the oil agglomeration process, oil agglomeration experiments were conducted with aqueous suspensions of graphite which were first degassed with a vacuum pump. 7 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Advances in food powder agglomeration engineering.

    PubMed

    Cuq, B; Gaiani, C; Turchiuli, C; Galet, L; Scher, J; Jeantet, R; Mandato, S; Petit, J; Murrieta-Pazos, I; Barkouti, A; Schuck, P; Rondet, E; Delalonde, M; Dumoulin, E; Delaplace, G; Ruiz, T

    2013-01-01

    Food powders are used in everyday life in many ways and offer technological solutions to the problem of food production. The natural origin of food powders, diversity in their chemical composition, variability of the raw materials, heterogeneity of the native structures, and physicochemical reactivity under hydrothermal stresses contribute to the complexity in their behavior. Food powder agglomeration has recently been considered according to a multiscale approach, which is followed in the chapter layout: (i) at the particle scale, by a presentation of particle properties and surface reactivity in connection with the agglomeration mechanisms, (ii) at the mechanisms scale, by describing the structuration dynamics of agglomerates, (iii) at the process scale, by a presentation of agglomeration technologies and sensors and by studying the stress transmission mode in the powder bed, and finally (iv) by an integration of the acquired knowledge, thanks to a dimensional analysis carried out at each scale. PMID:23522795

  3. Variable capacity gasification burner

    SciTech Connect

    Saxon, D.I.

    1985-03-05

    A variable capacity burner that may be used in gasification processes, the burner being adjustable when operating in its intended operating environment to operate at two different flow capacities, with the adjustable parts being dynamically sealed within a statically sealed structural arrangement to prevent dangerous blow-outs of the reactants to the atmosphere.

  4. Gasification of black liquor

    DOEpatents

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  5. Gasification of black liquor

    DOEpatents

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

  6. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large,more » almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.« less

  7. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  8. Proceedings, volume 17, Institute for Briquetting and Agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Papers presented discussed pelletizing of coal fines, graphite manufacture, compacting of coal, use of computers in agglomeration, HYL-III process, briquetting of iron ore fines, RECLAFORM, INMETCO process, binders for agglomeration, acoustic agglomeration, pelletizing of lime-fly ash mixtures, extrusion of aluminas for catalysts, and agglomeration of wastes. Seven papers have been abstracted separately.

  9. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.; Breault, R.W.

    1988-06-01

    Research on mild gasification is discussed. The report is divided into three sections: literature survey of mild gasification processes; literature survey of char, condensibles, and gas upgrading and utilization methods; and industrial market assessment of products of mild gasification. Recommendations are included in each section. (CBS) 248 refs., 58 figs., 62 tabs.

  10. Start-up method for coal gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Farnia, K.; Petit, P.J.

    1983-04-05

    A method is disclosed for initiating operation of a coal gasification plant which includes a gasification reactor and gas cleansing apparatus fabricated in part from materials susceptible to chloride induced stress corrosion cracking the presence of oxygen. The reactor is preheated by combusting a stoichiometric mixture of air and fuel to produce an exhaust gas which is then diluted with steam to produce product gas which contains essentially no free oxygen. The product gas heats the reactor to a temperature profile necessary to maintain autothermic operation of the gasification process while maintaining air oxygen-free environment within the plant apparatus while chlorine is liberated from coal being gasified.

  11. An Experimental Investigation of Sewage Sludge Gasification in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, L. F.; García, A. I.; Otero, M.

    2013-01-01

    The gasification of sewage sludge was carried out in a simple atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. Flow and fuel feed rate were adjusted for experimentally obtaining an air mass : fuel mass ratio (A/F) of 0.2 < A/F < 0.4. Fuel characterization, mass and power balances, produced gas composition, gas phase alkali and ammonia, tar concentration, agglomeration tendencies, and gas efficiencies were assessed. Although accumulation of material inside the reactor was a main problem, this was avoided by removing and adding bed media along gasification. This allowed improving the process heat transfer and, therefore, gasification efficiency. The heating value of the produced gas was 8.4 MJ/Nm, attaining a hot gas efficiency of 70% and a cold gas efficiency of 57%. PMID:24453863

  12. Differences in gasification behaviors and related properties between entrained gasifier fly ash and coal char

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Gu; Shiyong Wu; Youqing Wu; Ye Li; Jinsheng Gao

    2008-11-15

    In the study, two fly ash samples from Texaco gasifiers were compared to coal char and the physical and chemical properties and reactivity of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption method, and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The main results were obtained. The carbon content of gasified fly ashes exhibited 31-37%, which was less than the carbon content of 58-59% in the feed coal. The fly ashes exhibited higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, richer meso- and micropores, more disordered carbon crystalline structure, and better CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity than coal char. Ashes in fly ashes occurred to agglomerate into larger spherical grains, while those in coal char do not agglomerate. The minerals in fly ashes, especial alkali and alkaline-earth metals, had a catalytic effect on gasification reactivity of fly ash carbon. In the low-temperature range, the gasification process of fly ashes is mainly in chemical control, while in the high-temperature range, it is mainly in gas diffusion control, which was similar to coal char. In addition, the carbon in fly ashes was partially gasified and activated by water vapor and exhibited higher BET surface area and better gasification activity. Consequently, the fact that these carbons in fly ashes from entrained flow gasifiers are reclaimed and reused will be considered to be feasible. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Fluidized bed gasification of industrial solid recovered fuels.

    PubMed

    Arena, Umberto; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    The study evaluates the technical feasibility of the fluidized bed gasification of three solid recovered fuels (SRFs), obtained as co-products of a recycling process. The SRFs were pelletized and fed to a pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor, operated in gasification and co-gasification mode. The tests were carried out under conditions of thermal and chemical steady state, with a bed of olivine particles and at different values of equivalence ratio. The results provide a complete syngas characterization, in terms of its heating value and composition (including tars, particulates, and acid/basic pollutants) and of the chemical and physical characterization of bed material and entrained fines collected at the cyclone outlet. The feasibility of the fluidized bed gasification process of the different SRFs was evaluated with the support of a material and substance flow analysis, and a feedstock energy analysis. The results confirm the flexibility of fluidized bed reactor, which makes it one of the preferable technologies for the gasification of different kind of wastes, even in co-gasification mode. The fluidized bed gasification process of the tested SRFs appears technically feasible, yielding a syngas of valuable quality for energy applications in an appropriate plant configuration. PMID:26896004

  14. High temperature steam gasification of solid wastes: Characteristics and kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomaa, Islam Ahmed

    Greater use of renewable energy sources is of pinnacle importance especially with the limited reserves of fossil fuels. It is expected that future energy use will have increased utilization of different energy sources, including biomass, municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes, agricultural wastes and other low grade fuels. Gasification is a good practical solution to solve the growing problem of landfills, with simultaneous energy extraction and nonleachable minimum residue. Gasification also provides good solution to the problem of plastics and rubber in to useful fuel. The characteristics and kinetics of syngas evolution from the gasification of different samples is examined here. The characteristics of syngas based on its quality, distribution of chemical species, carbon conversion efficiency, thermal efficiency and hydrogen concentration has been examined. Modeling the kinetics of syngas evolution from the process is also examined. Models are compared with the experimental results. Experimental results on the gasification and pyrolysis of several solid wastes, such as, biomass, plastics and mixture of char based and plastic fuels have been provided. Differences and similarities in the behavior of char based fuel and a plastic sample has been discussed. Global reaction mechanisms of char based fuel as well polystyrene gasification are presented based on the characteristic of syngas evolution. The mixture of polyethylene and woodchips gasification provided superior results in terms of syngas yield, hydrogen yield, total hydrocarbons yield, energy yield and apparent thermal efficiency from polyethylene-woodchips blends as compared to expected weighed average yields from gasification of the individual components. A possible interaction mechanism has been established to explain the synergetic effect of co-gasification of woodchips and polyethylene. Kinetics of char gasification is presented with special consideration of sample temperature, catalytic effect of ash

  15. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  16. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 7, Evaluation of bench-scale and component tests

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report presents the Task 7 findings of the project entitled Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration'' to develop selective agglomeration technology to a commercially acceptable level by 1992. The objectives of this report are to summarize the work completed as a part of Task 7, which includes engineering analysis of process deficiencies, analysis of all project test results, and evaluation and selection of an agglomeration process for further development in Phase II. Other objectives of this task included evaluation of the selective agglomeration technology and analysis of all the major deficiencies remaining at the conclusion of Phase I of the project. An overview of the agglomeration processes that were under consideration is presented, along with a discussion of the various test parameters that were found to be important during project testing. This report includes a comprehensive evaluation of all test data and a summary of the major findings; it also provides characterization data for all the project coals and presents the agglomeration process selected for Phase II along with a discussion of the criteria and rationale for the selection.

  17. Development of a full scale selective oil agglomeration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, J.C.; Cooney, B.; Hoare, I.; Waugh, B.; Robinson, R.

    1998-12-31

    A research and development program managed by Australian Mining Investments Limited (AMI) on behalf of an investment syndicate was conducted with the objective of improving the efficiency and economy of the Selective Oil Agglomeration Process (SOAP), and developing viable commercial sized operating plants. Fewer than half the coal preparation plants in Australia beneficiate fine coal by froth flotation, the only viable alternative to SOAP for the recovery of low ash, fine and ultra fine coal. Those plants without flotation generally dispose of the ultra fine material, approximately {minus}100{micro}m in size, as tailings to waste. In the majority of cases this ultra fine waste contains more than 50% relatively low ash coal of saleable quality. It is believed that this coal constitutes a loss of 8--10 million tonnes per annum and that the coal mining industry would welcome a recovery process which has low capital and operating costs and will function automatically with minimal operator attention. The authors carried out a comprehensive literature study of selective oil agglomeration in order to gain a full understanding of the process and to plan the research program. Extensive studies were then undertaken on oil dispersion in the water phase, formation of oil water emulsions with surfactants and the optimization of surfactant selection. Oil and emulsion properties were investigated including stability, viscosity, temperature, concentration of components, time of formation, and cost. This work was followed by characterization studies on coals from the Gunnedah Basin and agglomeration test work on these coals. These agglomeration studies were performed firstly at bench level and then by using a small, 200 kg/hr continuous process development unit. The results were sufficiently encouraging to justify the design and construction of a fully instrumented, PLC controlled, 2 tph pilot plant at Gunnedah Colliery Coal Preparation Plant. Extensive trials were carried out on

  18. Atmospheric pressure gasification process for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.

    1996-12-31

    Since 1987 TPS Termiska Processer AB has been working on the development of both a biomass-fueled circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification process and a downstream dolomite catalytic tar removal process. The combined process has been developed in a 2 MWth pilot plant which was built originally for investigating the use of the product gas in a diesel motor cogeneration plant. A prototype gasification plant comprising two waste-fueled 15 MWth CFB gasifiers has been installed in Greve-in-Chianti, Italy. Since 1990, TPS has been working on the development of a biomass-fueled integrated gasification combined-cycle scheme utilizing both a CFB gasifier and a CFB tar cracker. In 1992, TPS was contracted by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) to perform work for Phase II of the Brazilian BIG-GT (Biomass Integrated Gasification-Gas Turbine) project. This stage of the project involved both experimental and engineering studies and the basic engineering for a 30 MWe eucalyptus-fueled power plant in Brazil. The plant is based on the GE LM 2500 gas turbine. During this stage of the project the TPS process was in competition with a process from a pressurized gasification technology vendor. However, in 1995 TPS was selected for participation in Phase III of the project. Phase III of the project includes construction and commissioning of the plant. Involvement in the Brazilian BIG-GT project has served as a springboard for the participation of TPS in similar projects in the Netherlands and the UK. In the UK, ARBRE Energy Limited is constructing a coppice-fueled 8 MWe plant with support from the EU THERMIE program and the UKs NFFO (Non Fossil Fuel Obligation). The design contract will be awarded in late 1996. In the Netherlands, a number of projects for biomass and wastes are being pursued by TPS in cooperation with Royal Schelde of the Netherlands.

  19. Rapid toxicity screening of gasification ashes.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Xu; Rong, Le; Ng, Wei Cheng; Ong, Cynthia; Baeg, Gyeong Hun; Zhang, Wenlin; Lee, Si Ni; Li, Sam Fong Yau; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Neoh, Koon Gee; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-04-01

    The solid residues including bottom ashes and fly ashes produced by waste gasification technology could be reused as secondary raw materials. However, the applications and utilizations of these ashes are very often restricted by their toxicity. Therefore, toxicity screening of ash is the primary condition for reusing the ash. In this manuscript, we establish a standard for rapid screening of gasification ashes on the basis of in vitro and in vivo testing, and henceforth guide the proper disposal of the ashes. We used three different test models comprising human cell lines (liver and lung cells), Drosophila melanogaster and Daphnia magna to examine the toxicity of six different types of ashes. For each ash, different leachate concentrations were used to examine the toxicity, with C0 being the original extracted leachate concentration, while C/C0 being subsequent diluted concentrations. The IC50 for each leachate was also quantified for use as an index to classify toxicity levels. The results demonstrated that the toxicity evaluation of different types of ashes using different models is consistent with each other. As the different models show consistent qualitative results, we chose one or two of the models (liver cells or lung cells models) as the standard for rapid toxicity screening of gasification ashes. We may classify the gasification ashes into three categories according to the IC50, 24h value on liver cells or lung cells models, namely "toxic level I" (IC50, 24h>C/C0=0.5), "toxic level II" (C/C0=0.05gasification plants every day. Subsequently, appropriate disposal methods can be recommended for each toxicity category. PMID:26923299

  20. Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

    1998-12-04

    The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary

  1. Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhimin

    In coal preparation plant circuits, fine coal particles are aggregated either by oil agglomeration or by flocculation. In a new hydrophobic agglomeration process, recently developed hydrophobic latices are utilized. While the selectivity of such aggregation processes determines the beneficiation results, the degree of aggregation has a strong effect on fine coal filtration. The aim of this research was to study the fundamentals and analyze the common grounds for these processes, including the potential effect of the coal surface properties. The selective flocculation tests, in which three types of coal, which differed widely in surface wettability, and three additives (hydrophobic latices, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte) were utilized, showed that coal wettability plays a very important role in selective flocculation. The abstraction of a hydrophobic latex on coal and silica revealed that the latex had a much higher affinity towards hydrophobic coal than to hydrophilic mineral matter. As a result, the UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated only hydrophobic coal particles while the polyelectrolyte (PAM) flocculated all the tested coal samples and minerals, showing no selectivity in the fine coal beneficiation. The oil agglomeration was tested using kerosene emulsified with various surfactants (e.g. cationic, anionic and non-ionic). Surfactants enhance not only oil emulsification, hence reducing oil consumption (down to 0.25--0.5%), but also entirely change the electrokinetic properties of the droplets and affect the interaction energy between oil droplets and coal particles. Consequently, the results found in the course of the experimental work strongly indicate that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. Oil agglomeration of the Ford-4 ultrafine coal showed that even at extremely low oil consumption (0.25 to 0.5%), a clean coal product with an ash content around 5% at over

  2. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  3. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I

    SciTech Connect

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-12-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  4. Steam gasification of wood in the presence of catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudge, L. K.; Mitchell, D. H.; Baker, E. G.; Robertus, R. J.; Brown, M. D.

    1982-09-01

    Catalytic steam gasification of wood, including sawdust, chipped forest slash, and mill shavings, is investigated. Results of laboratory, process development unit (PDR), and feasibility studies illustrate attractive processes for conversion of wood to methanol and a substitute natural gas (SNG). Recent laboratory studies developed a long-lived alloy catalyst for generation of a methanol synthesis gas by steam gasification of wood. Modification of the PDU for operation at 10 atm (150 psia) is complete and initial tests are completed. The modified PDU will be operated at elevated pressures to confirm yields and design parameters used in process feasibility studies. A computer program for evaluating the effect of yield changes on process economics was completed. The base case was the study on economics of methanol-from-wood using catalytic gasification. It was found that methanol-from-wood by catalytic gasification was competitive with the process for methanol production from natural gas.

  5. Assessment of the SRI Gasification Process for Syngas Generation with HTGR Integration -- White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Gandrik

    2012-04-01

    This white paper is intended to compare the technical and economic feasibility of syngas generation using the SRI gasification process coupled to several high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) with more traditional HTGR-integrated syngas generation techniques, including: (1) Gasification with high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE); (2) Steam methane reforming (SMR); and (3) Gasification with SMR with and without CO2 sequestration.

  6. Coal-gasification basic research and cost studies. Quarterly report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-16

    Two major activities or tasks are being performed. The first activity (Task I) is the development of a process or processes to produce agglomerates from coal fines suitable for use as a feed to fixed-bed gasifiers. Seven US coals are being investigated. The second activity (Task II) is a design and cost study to examine the effects of gasifier selection on overall plant costs for a commercial-scale coal gasification facility. Task I work during the Third Quarter involved laboratory experimentation and some limited cost studies. Twenty-four different materials and many material combinations were evaluated as potential binders for coal briquettes. Potential binder materials were initially prescreened in wafer briquette tests. Of the materials tested,approximately a dozen showed good promise as a suitable binder. The most promising candidates were then used to produce larger briquetts on a double-roll press. Binderless briquetting was also investigated. In addition, work was initiated during the period in developing suitable pelletizing processes for coal fines and a tour was made of commercial briquetting plants in Europe. The results to date indicate that there is a good probability that a suitable process that will result in agglomerates that will stand up in a fixed-bed gasifier will be techincally possible for each of the seven coals being studied. The econonics of these processes, however, are uncertain at this time and are being studied. Task II work during the Third Quarter centered on (1) completing the capital and operating cost estimates for a large coal gasification plant based on Winkler gasifiers and (2) initiating the design of a similar plant based on Molten Salt gasifiers. Capital and operating costs for the Molten Salt gasification plant and for a fixed-bed gasification plant incorporating agglomeration facilities will be developed during the next Quarter.

  7. Gasification reactivities of solid biomass fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E.

    1995-12-31

    The design and operation of the biomass based gasification processes require knowledge about the biomass feedstocks characteristics and their typical gasification behaviour in the process. In this study, the gasification reactivities of various biomasses were investigated in laboratory scale Pressurized Thermogravimetric apparatus (PTG) and in the PDU-scale (Process Development Unit) Pressurized Fluidized-Bed (PFB) gasification test facility of VTT.

  8. Underground gasification of coal

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.; Komar, Charles A.

    1976-01-20

    There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

  9. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  10. Coal gasification power plant and process

    DOEpatents

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    In an integrated coal gasification power plant, a humidifier is provided for transferring as vapor, from the aqueous blowdown liquid into relatively dry air, both (I) at least a portion of the water contained in the aqueous liquid and (II) at least a portion of the volatile hydrocarbons therein. The resulting humidified air is advantageously employed as at least a portion of the hot air and water vapor included in the blast gas supplied via a boost compressor to the gasifier.

  11. Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Cherish, Peter; Salvador, Louis A.

    1981-01-01

    A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

  12. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    facility based on the Subtask 3.2 design. The air-blown case was chosen since it was less costly and had a better return on investment than the oxygen-blown gasifier case. Under appropriate conditions, this study showed a combined heat and power air-blown gasification facility could be an attractive option for upgrading or expanding the utilities area of industrial facilities. Subtask 3.4 developed a base case design for a large lignite-fueled IGCC power plant that uses the advanced GE 7FB combustion turbine to be located at a generic North Dakota site. This plant uses low-level waste heat to dry the lignite that otherwise would be rejected to the atmosphere. Although this base case plant design is economically attractive, further enhancements should be investigated. Furthermore, since this is an oxygen-blown facility, it has the potential for capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2}. The third objective for Task 3 was accomplished by having NETL personnel working closely with Nexant and Gas Technology Institute personnel during execution of this project. Technology development will be the key to the long-term commercialization of gasification technologies. This will be important to the integration of this environmentally superior solid fuel technology into the existing mix of power plants and industrial facilities. As a result of this study, several areas have been identified in which research and development will further advance gasification technology. Such areas include improved system availability, development of warm-gas clean up technologies, and improved subsystem designs.

  13. Air blown gasification cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, S.G.; Mordecai, M.; Brown, D.; Burnard, G.K.

    1995-12-31

    The Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC) is a hybrid partial gasification cycle based on a novel, air blown pressurized fluidized bed gasifier (PFBG) with a circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) to burn the residual char from the PFBG. The ABGC has been developed primarily as a clean coal generation system and embodies a sulfur capture mechanism based on the addition of limestone, or other sorbent, to the PFBG where it is sulfided in the reducing atmosphere, followed by oxidation to a stable sulfate residue in the CFBC. In order to achieve commercialization, certain key technological issues needed to be addressed and an industry-led consortium was established to develop the components of the system through the prototype plant to commercial exploitation. The consortium, known as the Clean Coal Power Generation Group (CCPGG), is undertaking a program of activity aimed at achieving a design specification for a 75 MWe prototype integrated plant by March, 1996. Component development consists of both the establishment of new components, such as the PFBG and the hot gas clean up system, and specific development of already established components, such as the CFBC, raw gas cooler, heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and gas turbine. This paper discusses the component development activities and indicates the expected performance and economics of both the prototype and commercial plants. In addition, the strategy for component development and achievement of the specification for a 75 MWe prototype integrated plant is described.

  14. Coal gasification cogeneration process

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, J.H.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a process for the coproduction of a combustible first gas stream usable as an energy source, a sulfur-dioxide-containing second gas stream usable as a source for oxidant in the gasification of coal and a sulfur-dioxide-containing third gas stream usable as a feedstock for the production of sulfuric acid. It comprises: reacting coal in a coal gasification zone in the presence of an oxidant under partial coal-gasifying conditions to produce carbonaceous char and a crude gas stream; separating sulfur-containing compounds from the crude gas stream in a sulfur recovery zone to produce a combustible first gas stream and elemental sulfur; reacting the carbonaceous char and gypsum in a reaction zone in proportions such that the non-gypsum portion of the carbonaceous char and gypsum mixture contains sufficient reducing potential to reduce sulfur in the gypsum to gaseous compounds of sulfur in a +4 or lower oxidation state under reducing conditions to produce first a sulfur-dioxide-containing second gas stream which contains weaker SO{sub 2} produced in an early stage of the reaction zone and removed from the reaction zone, and then a sulfur-dioxide-containing third gas stream which contains concentrated SO{sub 2} recovered from a later stage of the reaction zone.

  15. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-05-31

    The term “hydrothermal” used here refers to the processing of biomass in water slurries at elevated temperature and pressure to facilitate the chemical conversion of the organic structures in biomass into useful fuels. The process is meant to provide a means for treating wet biomass materials without drying and to access ionic reaction conditions by maintaining a liquid water processing medium. Typical hydrothermal processing conditions are 523-647K of temperature and operating pressures from 4-22 MPa of pressure. The temperature is sufficient to initiate pyrolytic mechanisms in the biopolymers while the pressure is sufficient to maintain a liquid water processing phase. Hydrothermal gasification is accomplished at the upper end of the process temperature range. It can be considered an extension of the hydrothermal liquefaction mechanisms that begin at the lowest hydrothermal conditions with subsequent decomposition of biopolymer fragments formed in liquefaction to smaller molecules and eventually to gas. Typically, hydrothermal gasification requires an active catalyst to accomplish reasonable rates of gas formation from biomass.

  16. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOEpatents

    Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Lippert, T.E.

    1997-08-05

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains fly ash and other particulates. The fly ash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The fly ash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured fly ash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled. 11 figs.

  17. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Wen-Ching; Newby, Richard A.; Lippert, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains flyash and other particulate. The flyash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The flyash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured flyash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled.

  18. Analysis of Urban Agglomeration and Its Meaning for Rural People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegelman, Robert G.

    Agglomeration--the clustering of people, businesses, or structures within an area--is investigated for two purposes: (1) defining the nature of agglomeration and erecting a suitable agglomeration theory, and (2) suggesting further research. These two objectives are seen as being vital to help improve the economic well-being of rural people by…

  19. Method for providing improved solid fuels from agglomerated subbituminous coal

    DOEpatents

    Janiak, Jerzy S.; Turak, Ali A.; Pawlak, Wanda; Ignasiak, Boleslaw L.

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for separating agglomerated subbituminous coal and the heavy bridging liquid used to form the agglomerates. The separation is performed by contacting the agglomerates with inert gas or steam at a temperature in the range of 250.degree. to 350.degree. C. at substantially atmospheric pressure.

  20. Effect of temperature on wet agglomeration of crystals

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoodi, Maryam; Yari, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): This study dealt with the wet agglomeration process in which a small quantity of binder liquid was added into a suspension of crystals, directly in the stirring vessel where the crystallization took place. The purpose of this investigation was evaluation of the effect of temperature on the agglomeration process in order to gain insight into the mechanism of the formation of the agglomerates. Materials and Methods: Carbamazepine was used as a model drug and water/ethanol and isopropyl acetate were used as crystallization system and binder liquid, respectively. The agglomeration of crystals was carried out at various temperatures and the agglomerates were characterized in terms of size, morphology, density and mechanical strength. Results: Evaluation of the agglomerates along the course of agglomeration shows that the properties of the particles change gradually but substantially. Higher temperature of the system during agglomeration process favors the formation of more regular agglomerates with mechanically stronger and denser structure; this can be explained by the promotion effect of temperature on the agglomeration process. Conclusion: With optimized wet agglomeration temperature, spherical, dense, and strong agglomerates can be obtained. PMID:24967063

  1. Biomass thermochemical gasification: Experimental studies and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay

    The overall goals of this research were to study the biomass thermochemical gasification using experimental and modeling techniques, and to evaluate the cost of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation. This dissertation includes an extensive review of progresses in biomass thermochemical gasification. Product gases from biomass gasification can be converted to biopower, biofuels and chemicals. However, for its viable commercial applications, the study summarizes the technical challenges in the gasification and downstream processing of product gas. Corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstocks. One of the objectives was to determine selected physical and chemical properties of corn stover related to thermochemical conversion. The parameters of the reaction kinetics for weight loss were obtained. The next objective was to investigate the effects of temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition and efficiencies. DDGS gasification was performed on a lab-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents and efficiencies. A model was developed to simulate the performance of a lab-scale gasifier using Aspen Plus(TM) software. Mass balance, energy balance and minimization of Gibbs free energy were applied for the gasification to determine the product gas composition. The final objective was to optimize the process by maximizing the net energy efficiency, and to estimate the cost of industrial gas, and combined heat and power (CHP) at a biomass feedrate of 2000 kg/h. The selling price of gas was estimated to be 11.49/GJ for corn stover, and 13.08/GJ for DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were 37 and 86%, respectively for corn stover, and 34 and 78%, respectively for DDGS. For

  2. Solar heated fluidized bed gasification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar-powered fluidized bed gasification system for gasifying carbonaceous material is presented. The system includes a solar gasifier which is heated by fluidizing gas and steam. Energy to heat the gas and steam is supplied by a high heat capacity refractory honeycomb which surrounds the fluid bed reactor zone. The high heat capacity refractory honeycomb is heated by solar energy focused on the honeycomb by solar concentrator through solar window. The fluid bed reaction zone is also heated directly and uniformly by thermal contact of the high heat capacity ceramic honeycomb with the walls of the fluidized bed reactor. Provisions are also made for recovering and recycling catalysts used in the gasification process. Back-up furnace is provided for start-up procedures and for supplying heat to the fluid bed reaction zone when adequate supplies of solar energy are not available.

  3. Modeling Agglomeration of Dust Particles in Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Lorin S.; Land, Victor; Ma Qianyu; Perry, Jonathan D.; Hyde, Truell W.

    2011-11-29

    The charge on an aggregate immersed in a plasma environment distributes itself over the aggregate's surface; this can be approximated theoretically by assuming a multipole distribution. The dipole-dipole (or higher order) charge interactions between fractal aggregates lead to rotations of the grains as they interact. Other properties of the dust grains also influence the agglomeration process, such as the monomer shape (spherical or ellipsoidal) or the presence of magnetic material. Finally, the plasma and grain properties also determine the morphology of the resultant aggregates. Porous and fluffy aggregates are more strongly coupled to the gas, leading to reduced collisional velocities, and greater collisional cross sections. These factors in turn can determine the growth rate of the aggregates and evolution of the dust cloud. This paper gives an overview of the numerical and experimental methods used to study dust agglomeration at CASPER and highlights some recent results.

  4. Engineering development of selective agglomeration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the findings of the project entitled {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration.{close_quotes} In 1989 the US Department of Energy contracted with Southern Company Services, Inc. (DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-89PC88879) to develop selective agglomeration technology to a commercially acceptable level by 1993. This project is part of DOE`s program to advance the state of physical coal cleaning technologies in order to accelerate the utilization of high-sulfur coals while complying with environmental regulations. Such projects assume added importance in light of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Appropriate utilization of the abundant reserves of high-sulfur coal in the United States can make a significant contribution to achieving the goal of energy independence.

  5. Field observations of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalyander, Patricia (Soupy); Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Mickey, Rangley C.

    2015-01-01

    Oil that comes into the surf zone following spills, such as occurred during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, can mix with local sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs), at times in the form of mats a few centimeters thick and tens of meters long. Smaller agglomerates that form in situ or pieces that break off of larger mats, sometimes referred to as surface residual balls (SRBs), range in size from sand-sized grains to patty-shaped pieces several centimeters (cm) in diameter. These mobile SOAs can cause beach oiling for extended periods following the spill, on the scale of years as in the case of DWH. Limited research, including a prior effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigating SOA mobility, alongshore transport, and seafloor interaction using numerical model output, focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. To address this data gap, we constructed artificial sand and oil agglomerates (aSOAs) with sand and paraffin wax to mimic the size and density of genuine SOAs. These aSOAs were deployed in the nearshore off the coast of St. Petersburg, Florida, during a field experiment to investigate their movement and seafloor interaction. This report presents the methodology for constructing aSOAs and describes the field experiment. Data acquired during the field campaign, including videos and images of aSOA movement in the nearshore (1.5-meter and 0.5-meter water depth) and in the swash zone, are also presented in this report.

  6. Agglomeration and Sedimentation of MWCNTS in Chloroform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, Yu. S.; Kolesnikova, A. A.; Grekhov, A. M.

    The kinetics of agglomeration of multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersed in chloroform has been studied by the methods of optical spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. With the use of the models of the diffusion of cylindrical particles, the sizes of particles obtained by this method can be recalculated to the DLS data and the concentration at which the dispersion of individual МWCNTs occurs can be determined.

  7. Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates

    SciTech Connect

    Guloy, A.

    1992-01-28

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising.

  8. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The gasifier selected for development under this contract is an innovative and patented hybrid technology which combines the best features of both fixed-bed and fluidized-bed types. PyGas{trademark}, meaning Pyrolysis Gasification, is well suited for integration into advanced power cycles such as IGCC. It is also well matched to hot gas clean-up technologies currently in development. Unlike other gasification technologies, PyGas can be designed into both large and small scale systems. It is expected that partial repowering with PyGas could be done at a cost of electricity of only 2.78 cents/kWh, more economical than natural gas repowering. It is extremely unfortunate that Government funding for such a noble cause is becoming reduced to the point where current contracts must be canceled. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project was initiated to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology at a cost approaching $1,000 per kilowatt for electric power generation applications. The project was to include an innovative, advanced, air-blown, pressurized, fixed-bed, dry-bottom gasifier and a follow-on hot metal oxide gas desulfurization sub-system. To help defray the cost of testing materials, the facility was to be located at a nearby utility coal fired generating site. The patented PyGas{trademark} technology was selected via a competitive bidding process as the candidate which best fit overall DOE objectives. The paper describes the accomplishments to date.

  9. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING

    SciTech Connect

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick

    2003-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate poultry litter

  10. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix A: Coal gasification catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The scope of work in preparing the Coal Gasification Data Catalog included the following subtasks: (1) candidate system subsystem definition, (2) raw materials analysis, (3) market analysis for by-products, (4) alternate products analysis, (5) preliminary integrated facility requirements. Definition of candidate systems/subsystems includes the identity of and alternates for each process unit, raw material requirements, and the cost and design drivers for each process design.

  11. Coal gasification developments in Europe -- A perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Burnard, G.K.; Sharman, P.W.; Alphandary, M.

    1994-12-31

    This survey paper will review the development status of coal gasification in Europe and give a broad perspective of the future uptake of the technology. Three main families of gasifier design are currently being developed or demonstrated world-wide, namely fixed bed (also known as moving bed), fluidized bed and entrained flow. Gasifiers belonging to each of these families have been or are being developed in European countries. Of the three families, entrained flow gasifiers are at the most advanced stage of development, with two demonstration projects currently underway: these projects are based on designs developed by Shell and Krupp Koppers. Fixed bed systems have been developed to operate under either slagging or non-slagging conditions, ie, the British Gas-Lurgi and Tampella U-Gas systems, respectively. Fluid bed systems of various designs have also been developed, eg, the Rheinbraun HTW, British Coal and Ahlstrom systems. Gasification cycles can be based on either total or partial gasification, and the above designs represent both these options. In addition, a wide variety of fuel sources can be used in gasifiers, including bituminous coal, lignite, biomass, petroleum coke, etc or, indeed, any combination of these. The major demonstration projects in Europe are at Buggenum in the Netherlands, where a 250 MWe entrained flow gasifier based on Shell technology first gasified coal in December 1993. A further 335 MWe entrained flow gasifier, located at Puertollano in Spain, based on Krupp Koppers Prenflo technology, is at an advanced stage of construction.

  12. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Wotzak; Chellappa Balan; Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    The pre-baseline configuration for an Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) system has been developed. This case uses current gasification, clean-up, gas turbine, and bottoming cycle technologies together with projected large planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. This pre-baseline case will be used as a basis for identifying the critical factors impacting system performance and the major technical challenges in implementing such systems. Top-level system requirements were used as the criteria to evaluate and down select alternative sub-systems. The top choice subsystems were subsequently integrated to form the pre-baseline case. The down-selected pre-baseline case includes a British Gas Lurgi (BGL) gasification and cleanup sub-system integrated with a GE Power Systems 6FA+e gas turbine and the Hybrid Power Generation Systems planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) sub-system. The overall efficiency of this system is estimated to be 43.0%. The system efficiency of the pre-baseline system provides a benchmark level for further optimization efforts in this program.

  13. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  14. Coal gasification vessel

    DOEpatents

    Loo, Billy W.

    1982-01-01

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  15. Technology Assessment Report: Aqueous Sludge Gasification Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study reveals that sludge gasification is a potentially suitable alternative to conventional sludge handling and disposal methods. However, very few commercial operations are in existence. The limited pilot, demonstration or commercial application of gasification technology t...

  16. June 2007 gasification technologies workshop papers

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-15

    Topics covered in this workshop are fundamentals of gasification, carbon capture and sequestration, reviews of financial and regulatory incentives, co-production, and focus on gasification in the Western US.

  17. Agglomeration defects on irradiated carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Steini Moura, Cassio; Balzaretti, Naira Maria; Amaral, Livio; Gribel Lacerda, Rodrigo; Pimenta, Marcos A.

    2012-03-15

    Aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) were irradiated in the longitudinal and perpendicular directions, with low energy carbon and helium ions in order to observe the formation of defects in the atomic structure. Analysis through Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated bundle rupture and ion track formation on nanotube bundles. Aligned CNT presented a kind of defect comprising ravine formation and tube agglomeration on top of the substrate. The latter structure is possibly caused by static charge accumulation induced by the incoming ions. Fluence plays a role on the short range order. Higher fluence irradiation transforms CNT into amorphous carbon nanowires.

  18. Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luche, J.; Falcoz, Q.; Bastien, T.; Leninger, J. P.; Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J. M.; Lédé, J.

    2012-02-01

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

  19. Gasification of agricultural residues (biomass): Influence of inorganic constituents

    SciTech Connect

    DeGroot, W.F.; Kannan, M.P.; Richards, G.N. ); Theander, O. )

    1990-01-01

    Four different biomass samples are included in this study, viz., sphagnum peat, wheat straw, sugar beet pulp, and potato pulp. They were chosen to represent a wide range of plant origin and inorganic content. This paper represents a preliminary investigation of an approach based on pyrolysis of biomass to produce volatile products and chars, followed by gasification of the chars. The particular interest lies in the investigation of the influence of the indigenous metal ions on the rate of gasification. Carbon dioxide has been used for the gasification, and the biomass was analyzed for nine metals, uronic acids (which are implicated in the binding of inorganic counterions), protein, and Klason lignin. The highest individual metal ion content was 13,964 ppm of potassium in potato pulp, and the gasification rates, under constant conditions, covered up to a 20-fold range, with char from potato pulp being the most readily gasified and char from peat the most resistant. The correlation of gasification rates with content of the major metal ions (alkali metals and alkaline earths) was poor. However, a high level of correlation was observed when wheat straw was omitted. It is speculated that the latter biomass may be anomalous with respect to the other three because of its high silica content.

  20. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  1. Release of fuel-bound nitrogen during biomass gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.; Masutani, S.M.; Ishimura, D.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Kinoshita, C.M.

    2000-03-01

    Gasification of four biomass feedstocks (leucaena, sawdust, bagasse, and banagrass) with significantly different fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) content was investigated to determine the effects of operational parameters and nitrogen content of biomass on the partitioning of FBN among nitrogenous gas species. Experiments were performed using a bench-scale, indirectly heated, fluidized-bed gasifier. Data were obtained over a range of temperatures and equivalence ratios representative of commercial biomass gasification processes. An assay of all major nitrogenous components in the gasification products was performed for the first time, providing a clear accounting of the evolution of FBN. Important findings of this research include the following: (1) NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are the dominant species evolved from fuel nitrogen during biomass gasification; >90% of FBN in feedstock is converted to NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}; (2) relative levels of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are determined by thermochemical reactions in the gasifier; these reactions are affected strongly by temperature; (3) N{sub 2} appears to be primarily produced through the conversion of NH{sub 3} in the gas phase; (4) the structural formula and content of fuel nitrogen in biomass feedstock significantly affect the formation and evolution of nitrogen species during biomass gasification.

  2. Multifrequency scanning probe microscopy study of nanodiamond agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravind, Vasudeva; Lippold, Stephen; Li, Qian; Strelcov, Evgheny; Okatan, Baris; Legum, Benjamin; Kalinin, Sergei; Clarion University Team; Oak Ridge National Laboratory Team

    Due to their rich surface chemistry and excellent mechanical properties and non-toxic nature, nanodiamond particles have found applications such as biomedicine, tribology and lubrication, targeted drug delivery systems, tissue scaffolds and surgical implants. Although single nanodiamond particles have diameters about 4-5nm, they tend to form agglomerates. While these agglomerates can be useful for some purposes, many applications of nanodiamonds require single particle, disaggregated nanodiamonds. This work is oriented towards studying forces and interactions that contribute to agglomeration in nanodiamonds. In this work, using multifrequency scanning probe microscopy techniques, we show that agglomerate sizes can vary between 50-100nm in raw nanodiamonds. Extremeties of particles and Interfaces between agglomerates show dissipative forces with scanning probe microscope tip, indicating agglomerates could act as points of increased adhesion, thus reducing lubricating efficiency when nanodiamonds are used as lubricant additives. This research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  3. Apparatus and method for compacting, degassing and carbonizing carbonaceous agglomerates

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore, F.W.

    1980-08-19

    An apparatus for compacting, degassing and carbonizing carbonaceous agglomerates is described. The apparatus comprises a rotary kiln having an agglomerate inlet means for introducing green agglomerates into the kiln near the inlet of the kiln and a heating medium inlet for introducing a heating medium comprising a finely divided solid into the kiln at a preselected location intermediate the inlet end of the kiln and the outlet end of the kiln to produce a mixture at a temperature above the carbonizing temperature of the agglomerates and a sieve positioned to receive the products from the rotary kiln and separate the heating medium and the compacted, degassed, carbonized agglomerate product. A method for producing compacted, degassed, carbonized carbonaceous agglomerates by the use of the apparatus is also disclosed.

  4. General concepts of hydrargillite Al(OH) 3, agglomeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veesler, S.; Roure, S.; Boistelle, R.

    1994-02-01

    Agglomeration is an important stage of the Bayer process aiming at increasing the initial size of Al(OH) 3 particles. In the present work, we investigate the effects of supersaturation, seed charge and stirring rate on the agglomeration of hydrargillite crystallites, the size of which ranges from about 2 to 10 μm. The experiments are carried out in a batch crystallizer at constant temperature and caustic concentration. It is shown that the agglomeration rate increases with increasing seed charge, but rapidly reaches a plateau before decreasing when the seed charge is too high. On the other hand, agglomeration continuously decreases with increasing stirring rate, while it is favoured by increasing supersaturation. In the latter case, growth of the crystallites contributes to coarsening the agglomerates. We propose the general outlines of an agglomeration model taking collision and disagglomeration probabilities into account.

  5. Analysis and synthesis of solutions for the agglomeration process modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babuk, V. A.; Dolotkazin, I. N.; Nizyaev, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    The present work is devoted development of model of agglomerating process for propellants based on ammonium perchlorate (AP), ammonium dinitramide (ADN), HMX, inactive binder, and nanoaluminum. Generalization of experimental data, development of physical picture of agglomeration for listed propellants, development and analysis of mathematical models are carried out. Synthesis of models of various phenomena taking place at agglomeration implementation allows predicting of size and quantity, chemical composition, structure of forming agglomerates and its fraction in set of condensed combustion products. It became possible in many respects due to development of new model of agglomerating particle evolution on the surface of burning propellant. Obtained results correspond to available experimental data. It is supposed that analogical method based on analysis of mathematical models of particular phenomena and their synthesis will allow implementing of the agglomerating process modeling for other types of metalized solid propellants.

  6. Biothermal gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Srivastava, V.J.; Henry, M.P.; Tarman, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The BIOTHERMGAS Process is described for conversion of biomass, organic residues, and peat to substitute natural gas (SNG). This new process, under development at IGT, combines biological and thermal processes for total conversion of a broad variety of organic feeds (regardless of water or nutrient content). The process employs thermal gasification for conversion of refractory digester residues. Ammonia and other inorganic nutrients are recycled from the thermal process effluent to the bioconversion unit. Biomethanation and catalytic methanation are presented as alternative processes for methanation of thermal conversion product gases. Waste heat from the thermal component is used to supply the digester heat requirements of the bioconversion component. The results of a preliminary systems analysis of three possible applications of this process are presented: (1) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with catalytic methanation; (2) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with biomethanation; and (3) 1000 ton/day municipal solid waste (MSW) sewage sludge plant with biomethanation. The results indicate that for these examples, performance is superior to that expected for biological or thermal processes used separately. The results of laboratory studies presented suggest that effective conversion of thermal product gases can be accomplished by biomethanation.

  7. Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Colt

    2008-12-31

    ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

  8. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

    2002-04-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward. PMID:12046301

  9. Method for producing ceramic particles and agglomerates

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Gleiman, Seth S.; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2001-01-01

    A method for generating spherical and irregularly shaped dense particles of ceramic oxides having a controlled particle size and particle size distribution. An aerosol containing precursor particles of oxide ceramics is directed into a plasma. As the particles flow through the hot zone of the plasma, they melt, collide, and join to form larger particles. If these larger particles remain in the hot zone, they continue melting and acquire a spherical shape that is retained after they exit the hot zone, cool down, and solidify. If they exit the hot zone before melting completely, their irregular shape persists and agglomerates are produced. The size and size distribution of the dense product particles can be controlled by adjusting several parameters, the most important in the case of powder precursors appears to be the density of powder in the aerosol stream that enters the plasma hot zone. This suggests that particle collision rate is responsible for determining ultimate size of the resulting sphere or agglomerate. Other parameters, particularly the gas flow rates and the microwave power, are also adjusted to control the particle size distribution.

  10. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Feasibility analyses and systems engineering studies for a 20,000 tons per day medium Btu (MBG) coal gasification plant to be built by TVA in Northern Alabama were conducted. Major objectives were as follows: (1) provide design and cost data to support the selection of a gasifier technology and other major plant design parameters, (2) provide design and cost data to support alternate product evaluation, (3) prepare a technology development plan to address areas of high technical risk, and (4) develop schedules, PERT charts, and a work breakdown structure to aid in preliminary project planning. Volume one contains a summary of gasification system characterizations. Five gasification technologies were selected for evaluation: Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Lurgi Dry Ash, Slagging Lurgi, and Babcock and Wilcox. A summary of the trade studies and cost sensitivity analysis is included.

  11. Rapid determination of plasmonic nanoparticle agglomeration status in blood.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Samir V; Qu, Haiou; Mudalige, Thilak; Ingle, Taylor M; Wang, Rongrong; Wang, Feng; Howard, Paul C; Chen, Jingyi; Zhang, Yongbin

    2015-05-01

    Plasmonic nanomaterials as drug delivery or bio-imaging agents are typically introduced to biological systems through intravenous administration. However, the potential for agglomeration of nanoparticles in biological systems could dramatically affect their pharmacokinetic profile and toxic potential. Development of rapid screening methods to evaluate agglomeration is urgently needed to monitor the physical nature of nanoparticles as they are introduced into blood. Here, we establish novel methods using darkfield microscopy with hyperspectral detection (hsDFM), single particle inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS), and confocal Raman microscopy (cRM) to discriminate gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and their agglomerates in blood. Rich information about nanoparticle agglomeration in situ is provided by hsDFM monitoring of the plasmon resonance of primary nanoparticles and their agglomerates in whole blood; cRM is an effective complement to hsDFM to detect AuNP agglomerates in minimally manipulated samples. The AuNPs and the particle agglomerates were further distinguished in blood for the first time by quantification of particle mass using spICP-MS with excellent sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, the agglomeration status of synthesized and commercial NPs incubated in blood was successfully assessed using the developed methods. Together, these complementary methods enable rapid determination of the agglomeration status of plasmonic nanomaterials in biological systems, specifically blood. PMID:25771013

  12. Development and Application of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Complex Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2010-01-01

    We report progress in the development of agglomerated multigrid techniques for fully un- structured grids in three dimensions, building upon two previous studies focused on efficiently solving a model diffusion equation. We demonstrate a robust fully-coarsened agglomerated multigrid technique for 3D complex geometries, incorporating the following key developments: consistent and stable coarse-grid discretizations, a hierarchical agglomeration scheme, and line-agglomeration/relaxation using prismatic-cell discretizations in the highly-stretched grid regions. A signi cant speed-up in computer time is demonstrated for a model diffusion problem, the Euler equations, and the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for 3D realistic complex geometries.

  13. Rapid Determination of Plasmonic Nanoparticle Agglomeration Status in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Samir V.; Qu, Haiou; Mudalige, Thilak; Ingle, Taylor; Wang, RongRong; Wang, Feng; Howard, Paul C.; Chen, Jingyi; Zhang, Yongbin

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic nanomaterials as drug delivery or bio-imaging agents are typically introduced to biological systems through intravenous administration. However, the potential for agglomeration of nanoparticles in biological systems could dramatically affect their pharmacokinetic profile and toxic potential. Development of rapid screening methods to evaluate agglomeration is urgently needed to monitor the physical nature of nanoparticles as they are introduced into blood. Here, we establish novel methods using darkfield microscopy with hyperspectral detection (hsDFM), single particle inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS), and confocal Raman microscopy (cRM) to discriminate gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and their agglomerates in blood. Rich information about nanoparticle agglomeration in situ is provided by hsDFM monitoring of the plasmon resonance of primary nanoparticles and their agglomerates in whole blood; cRM is an effective complement to hsDFM to detect AuNP agglomerates in minimally manipulated samples. The AuNPs and the particle agglomerates were further distinguished in blood for the first time by quantification of particle mass using spICP-MS with excellent sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, the agglomeration status of synthesized and commercial NPs incubated in blood was successfully assessed using the developed methods. Together, these complementary methods enable rapid determination of the agglomeration status of plasmonic nanomaterials in biological systems, specifically blood. PMID:25771013

  14. Catalytic steam gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.

    1983-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) tested the catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol synthesis gas. The process uses steam, indirect heat, and a catalyst to produce synthesis gas in one step in fluidized bed gasifier. Both laboratory and process development scale (nominal 1 ton/day) gasifiers were used to test two different catalyst systems: (1) supported nickel catalysts and (2) alkali carbonates doped on the bagasse. This paper presents the results of laboratory and process development unit gasification tests and includes an economic evaluation of the process. 20 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

  15. The shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O.

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  16. Mild coal gasification: Product separation

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.; Singleton, M.F.

    1992-08-04

    Our general objective is to further the development of efficient continuous mild coal gasification processes. The research this year has been focused on product separation problems and particularly the problem of separating entrained ultra-fine particles from the chemically reactive environment of the product gas stream. Specifically, the objective of the present work has been to study candidate barrier filters for application to mild coal gasification processes. Our approach has been to select the most promising existing designs, to develop a design of our own and to test the designs in our bench-scale gasification apparatus. As a first step towards selection of the most promising barrier filter we have determined coking rates on several candidate filter media.

  17. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 7, Evaluation of bench-scale and component tests. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report presents the Task 7 findings of the project entitled ``Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration`` to develop selective agglomeration technology to a commercially acceptable level by 1992. The objectives of this report are to summarize the work completed as a part of Task 7, which includes engineering analysis of process deficiencies, analysis of all project test results, and evaluation and selection of an agglomeration process for further development in Phase II. Other objectives of this task included evaluation of the selective agglomeration technology and analysis of all the major deficiencies remaining at the conclusion of Phase I of the project. An overview of the agglomeration processes that were under consideration is presented, along with a discussion of the various test parameters that were found to be important during project testing. This report includes a comprehensive evaluation of all test data and a summary of the major findings; it also provides characterization data for all the project coals and presents the agglomeration process selected for Phase II along with a discussion of the criteria and rationale for the selection.

  18. Characterization of cellulosic wastes and gasification products from chicken farms

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, Paul; Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana; McKenna, Siobhan

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The gas chromatography indicated the variable quality of the producer gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The char had appreciable NPK values, and can be used as a fertiliser. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bio-oil produced was of poor quality, having high moisture content and low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mass and energy balances showed inadequate level energy recovery from the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Future work includes changing the operating parameters of the gasification unit. - Abstract: The current article focuses on gasification as a primary disposal solution for cellulosic wastes derived from chicken farms, and the possibility to recover energy from this process. Wood shavings and chicken litter were characterized with a view to establishing their thermal parameters, compositional natures and calorific values. The main products obtained from the gasification of chicken litter, namely, producer gas, bio-oil and char, were also analysed in order to establish their potential as energy sources. The experimental protocol included bomb calorimetry, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), mineral content analyses and gas chromatography. The mass and energy balances of the gasification unit were also estimated. The results obtained confirmed that gasification is a viable method of chicken litter disposal. In addition to this, it is also possible to recover some energy from the process. However, energy content in the gas-phase was relatively low. This might be due to the low energy efficiency (19.6%) of the gasification unit, which could be improved by changing the operation parameters.

  19. Influence of excipients and processing conditions on the development of agglomerates of racecadotril by crystallo-co-agglomeration

    PubMed Central

    Garala, Kevin; Patel, Jaydeep; Patel, Anjali; Raval, Mihir; Dharamsi, Abhay

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present investigation was to improve the flow and mechanical properties of racecadotril by a crystallo-co-agglomeration (CCA) technique. Direct tableting is a requirement of pharmaceutical industries. Poor mechanical properties of crystalline drug particles require wet granulation which is uneconomical, laborious, and tedious. Materials and Methods: The objective of this work was to study the influence of various polymers/excipients and processing conditions on the formation of directly compressible agglomerates of the water-insoluble drug, racecadotril, an antidiarrheal agent. The agglomerates of racecadotril were prepared using dichloromethane (DCM)–water as the crystallization system. DCM acted as a good solvent for racecadotril as well as a bridging liquid for the agglomeration of the crystallized drug and water as the nonsolvent. The prepared agglomerates were tested for micromeritic and mechanical properties. Results: The process yielded ~90 to 96% wt/ wt spherical agglomerates containing racecadotril with the diameter between 299 and 521 μ. A higher rotational speed of crystallization system reduces the size of the agglomerates and disturbs the sphericity. Spherical agglomerates were generated with a uniform dispersion of the crystallized drug. CCA showed excellent flowability and crushing strength. Conclusion: Excipients and processing conditions can play a key role in preparing spherical agglomerates of racecadotril by CCA, an excellent alternative to the wet granulation process to prepare intermediates for direct compression. PMID:23580935

  20. Beluga coal gasification feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Chaney; Lawrence Van Bibber

    2006-07-15

    The objective of the study was to determine the economic feasibility of developing and siting a coal-based integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant in the Cook Inlet region of Alaska for the co-production of electric power and marketable by-products. The by-products, which may include synthesis gas, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids, fertilizers such as ammonia and urea, alcohols, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, would be manufactured for local use or for sale in domestic and foreign markets. This report for Phase 1 summarizes the investigation of an IGCC system for a specific industrial setting on the Cook Inlet, the Agrium U.S. Inc. ('Agrium') fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska. Faced with an increase in natural gas price and a decrease in supply, the Agrium is investigating alternatives to gas as feed stock for their plant. This study considered all aspects of the installation and infrastructure, including: coal supply and cost, coal transport costs, delivery routes, feedstock production for fertilizer manufacture, plant steam and power, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) uses, markets for possible additional products, and environmental permit requirements. The Cook Inlet-specific Phase 1 results, reported here, provided insight and information that led to the conclusion that the second study should be for an F-T plant sited at the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, Alaska. This Phase 1 case study is for a very specific IGCC system tailored to fit the chemical and energy needs of the fertilizer manufacturing plant. It demonstrates the flexibility of IGCC for a variety of fuel feedstocks depending on plant location and fuel availability, as well as the available variety of gas separation, gas cleanup, and power and steam generation technologies to fit specific site needs. 18 figs., 37 tabs., 6 apps.

  1. Geosphere in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, D.J.; Groenewold, G.H.; Schmit, C.R.; Evans, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    The feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG), the in-situ conversion of coal to natural gas, has been demonstrated through 28 tests in the US alone, mainly in low-rank coals, since the early 1970s. Further, UCG is currently entering the commercial phase in the US with a planned facility in Wyoming for the production of ammonia-urea from UCG-generated natural gas. Although the UCG process both affects and is affected by the natural setting, the majority of the test efforts have historically been focused on characterizing those aspects of the natural setting with the potential to affect the burn. With the advent of environmental legislation, this focus broadened to include the potential impacts of the process on the environment (e.g., subsidence, degradation of ground water quality). Experience to date has resulted in the growing recognition that consideration of the geosphere is fundamental to the design of efficient, economical, and environmentally acceptable UCG facilities. The ongoing RM-1 test program near Hanna, Wyoming, sponsored by the US Department of Energy and an industry consortium led by the Gas Research Institute, reflects this growing awareness through a multidisciplinary research effort, involving geoscientists and engineers, which includes (1) detailed geological site characterization, (2) geotechnical, hydrogeological, and geochemical characterization and predictive modeling, and (3) a strategy for ground water protection. Continued progress toward commercialization of the UCG process requires the integration of geological and process-test information in order to identify and address the potentially adverse environmental ramifications of the process, while identifying and using site characteristics that have the potential to benefit the process and minimize adverse impacts.

  2. Agglomeration multigrid for viscous turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, D. J.; Venkatakrishnan, V.

    1994-01-01

    Agglomeration multigrid, which has been demonstrated as an efficient and automatic technique for the solution of the Euler equations on unstructured meshes, is extended to viscous turbulent flows. For diffusion terms, coarse grid discretizations are not possible, and more accurate grid transfer operators are required as well. A Galerkin coarse grid operator construction and an implicit prolongation operator are proposed. Their suitability is evaluated by examining their effect on the solution of Laplace's equation. The resulting strategy is employed to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for aerodynamic flows. Convergence rates comparable to those obtained by a previously developed non-nested mesh multigrid approach are demonstrated, and suggestions for further improvements are given.

  3. Soot agglomeration in isolated, free droplet combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, M. Y.; Dryer, F. L.; Green, G. J.; Sangiovanni, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Under the conditions of an isolated, free droplet experiment, hollow, carbonaceous structures, called soot spheres, were observed to form during the atmospheric pressure, low Reynolds number combustion of 1-methylnaphthalene. These structures which are agglomerates composed of smaller spheroidal units result from both thermophoretic effects induced by the envelope flame surrounding each drop and aerodynamic effects caused by changes in the relative gas/drop velocities. A chemically reacting flow model was used to analyze the process of sootshell formation during microgravity droplet combustion. The time-dependent temperature and gas property field surrounding the droplet was determined, and the soot cloud location for microgravity combustion of n-heptane droplets was predicted. Experiments showed that the sooting propensity of n-alkane fuel droplets can be varied through diluent substitution, oxygen-index variations, and ambient pressure reductions.

  4. Pulse combusted acoustic agglomeration apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Mansour, Momtaz N.

    1993-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for removal of particulates entrained in a gas stream are provided. The removal process employs a pulse combustor to provide an acoustic pressure wave to acoustically enhance bimodal agglomeration of particulates which may be collected and removed using a conventional separation apparatus. A particulate having a size different from the size of the particulate in the gas stream to be cleaned is introduced into the system to effectuate the bimodal process. The apparatus may be employed as a direct fired system for improved operation of gas-operated equipment such as a gas turbine, or may, alternatively, be employed as an add-on subsystem for combustion exhaust clean-up. Additionally, the added particulate may be a sorbent for effecting sorption of other contaminants such as sulfur. Various other particulates for contaminant removal may also be introduced into the system as exemplified by alkali-gettering agents.

  5. Calcium silicate cement sorbent for H/sub 2/S removal and improved gasification processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, H.J.; Steinberg, M.

    1983-10-01

    Based on the studies performed on the agglomerated cement sorbent (ACS) pellet for in-situ desulfurization of gases and for improved gasification, in low and medium Btu fluidized bed coal gasifier (FBG) systems, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) The pelletization method by a drum pelletizer is a good way of agglomerating large sized (>20 US mesh) ACS pellets having high sorbent performance. (2) The ACS pellets have a sulfur capture capacity of about 60% at 950/sup 0/C, are 100% regenerable, and so not lose reactivity during cyclic use. (3) The rate of sulfidation increases linearly with H/sub 2/S concentration in the feed gas stream up to 1.0%. (4) The rate of sulfidation first increases with temperature in an Arrhenius fashion in the temperature range of 800/sup 0/C to 1000/sup 0/C and then decreases with further increase in temperatures, giving rise to an optimum sulfidation temperature of about 1000/sup 0/C. (5) The gasification of coal or coal char either with CO/sub 2/ gas or by partial oxidation in a 40 mm ID FBG shows that the gasification efficiency of coal (or coal char) is very much enhanced with the ACS pellets and with Greer limestone over the coal (or coal char) alone. There is, however, not much difference between the ACS pellets and Greer limestone in the degree of enhancement. (6) The gasification of coal by partial oxidation with air to low Btu gas in a 1-inch coal-fired FBG unit shows that in the temperature range of 800/sup 0/ to 900/sup 0/C the efficiency of coal gasification is improved by as much as 40% when ACS pellets are used compared to the use of Greer limestone. At the same time the sulfur removal efficiency is increased from 50 to 65% with Greer limestone to over 95% with the ACS pellets.

  6. Biological effects of agglomerated multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Song, Zheng-Mei; Wang, Lin; Chen, Ni; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Yuanfang; Wang, Haifang

    2016-06-01

    The physicochemical properties of nanomaterials play crucial roles in determining their biological effects. Agglomeration of nanomaterials in various systems is a common phenomenon, however, how agglomeration affects the biological consequence of nanomaterials has not been well investigated because of its complexity. Herein, we prepared variable sized agglomerates of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (O-MWCNTs) by using Ca(2+) and studied their cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in HeLa cells. We found the altered property of O-MWCNTs agglomerates could be controlled and adjusted by the amount of Ca(2+). Agglomeration remarkably facilitated the cellular uptake of O-MWCNTs at the initial contact stage, due to the easy contact of agglomerates with cells. But agglomeration did not induce evident cytotoxicity when the concentration of O-MWCNTs was less than 150μg/mL. That was assayed by cell proliferation, membrane integrity, apoptosis and ROS generation. This study suggests us that the biological behaviors of nanomaterials could be altered by their states of agglomeration. PMID:26930035

  7. Measuring agglomerate size distribution and dependence of localized surface plasmon resonance absorbance on gold nanoparticle agglomerate size using analytical ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Zook, Justin M; Rastogi, Vinayak; Maccuspie, Robert I; Keene, Athena M; Fagan, Jeffrey

    2011-10-25

    Agglomeration of nanoparticles during measurements in relevant biological and environmental media is a frequent problem in nanomaterial property characterization. The primary problem is typically that any changes to the size distribution can dramatically affect the potential nanotoxicity or other size-determined properties, such as the absorbance signal in a biosensor measurement. Herein we demonstrate analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) as a powerful method for measuring two critical characteristics of nanoparticle (NP) agglomerates in situ in biological media: the NP agglomerate size distribution, and the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorbance spectrum of precise sizes of gold NP agglomerates. To characterize the size distribution, we present a theoretical framework for calculating the hydrodynamic diameter distribution of NP agglomerates from their sedimentation coefficient distribution. We measure sedimentation rates for monomers, dimers, and trimers, as well as for larger agglomerates with up to 600 NPs. The AUC size distributions were found generally to be broader than the size distributions estimated from dynamic light scattering and diffusion-limited colloidal aggregation theory, an alternative bulk measurement method that relies on several assumptions. In addition, the measured sedimentation coefficients can be used in nanotoxicity studies to predict how quickly the agglomerates sediment out of solution under normal gravitational forces, such as in the environment. We also calculate the absorbance spectra for monomer, dimer, trimer, and larger gold NP agglomerates up to 600 NPs, to enable a better understanding of LSPR biosensors. Finally, we validate a new method that uses these spectra to deconvolute the net absorbance spectrum of an unknown bulk sample and approximate the proportions of monomers, dimers, and trimers in a polydisperse sample of small agglomerates, so that every sample does not need to be measured by AUC. These results

  8. BIMOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  9. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    } separation, and also syngas production from coal with the calcium sulfide (CaS)/calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) loop utilizing the PDU facility. The results of Phase I were reported in Reference 1, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase I Report' The objective for Phase II was to develop the carbonate loop--lime (CaO)/calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) loop, integrate it with the gasification loop from Phase I, and ultimately demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen production from the combined loops. The results of this program were reported in Reference 3, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase II Report'. The objective of Phase III is to operate the pilot plant to obtain enough engineering information to design a prototype of the commercial Chemical Looping concept. The activities include modifications to the Phase II Chemical Looping PDU, solids transportation studies, control and instrumentation studies and additional cold flow modeling. The deliverable is a report making recommendations for preliminary design guidelines for the prototype plant, results from the pilot plant testing and an update of the commercial plant economic estimates.

  10. AMG by element agglomeration and constrained energy minimization interpolation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolev, T V; Vassilevski, P S

    2006-02-17

    This paper studies AMG (algebraic multigrid) methods that utilize energy minimization construction of the interpolation matrices locally, in the setting of element agglomeration AMG. The coarsening in element agglomeration AMG is done by agglomerating fine-grid elements, with coarse element matrices defined by a local Galerkin procedure applied to the matrix assembled from the individual fine-grid element matrices. This local Galerkin procedure involves only the coarse basis restricted to the agglomerated element. To construct the coarse basis, one exploits previously proposed constraint energy minimization procedures now applied to the local matrix. The constraints are that a given set of vectors should be interpolated exactly, not only globally, but also locally on every agglomerated element. The paper provides algorithmic details, as well as a convergence result based on a ''local-to-global'' energy bound of the resulting multiple-vector fitting AMG interpolation mappings. A particular implementation of the method is illustrated with a set of numerical experiments.

  11. Agglomeration multigrid for the three-dimensional Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatakrishnan, V.; Mavriplis, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    A multigrid procedure that makes use of coarse grids generated by the agglomeration of control volumes is advocated as a practical approach for solving the three dimensional Euler equations on unstructured grids about complex configurations. It is shown that the agglomeration procedure can be tailored to achieve certain coarse grid properties such as the sizes of the coarse grids and aspect ratios of the coarse grid cells. The agglomeration is done as a preprocessing step and runs in linear time. The implications for multigrid of using arbitrary polyhedral coarse grids are discussed. The agglomeration multigrid technique compares very favorably with existing multigrid procedures both in terms of convergence rates and elapsed times. The main advantage of the present approach is the ease with which coarse grids of any desired degree of coarseness may be generated in three dimensions, without being constrained by considerations of geometry. Inviscid flows over a variety of complex configurations are computed using the agglomeration multigrid strategy.

  12. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-09-30

    Heap leaching is one of the methods being used to recover metal from low grade ore deposits. The main problem faced during heap leaching is the migration of fine grained particles through the heap, forming impermeable beds which result in poor solution flow. The poor solution flow leads to less contact between the leach solution and the ore, resulting in low recovery rates. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses prevents fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Currently, there is one facility in the United States which uses agglomeration. This operation agglomerates their ore using leach solution (raffinate), but is still experiencing undesirable metal recovery from the heaps due to agglomerate breakdown. The use of a binder, in addition to the leach solution, during agglomeration would help to produce stronger agglomerates that did not break down during processing. However, there are no known binders that will work satisfactorily in the acidic environment of a heap, at a reasonable cost. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. Increasing copper recovery in heap leaching by the use of binders and agglomeration would result in a significant decrease in the amount of energy consumed. Assuming that 70% of all the leaching heaps would convert to using agglomeration technology, as much as 1.64*10{sup 12} BTU per year would be able to be saved if a 25% increase in copper recovery was experienced, which is equivalent to saving approximately 18% of the energy currently being used in leaching heaps. For every week a leach cycle was decreased, a savings of as much as 1.23*10{sup 11} BTU per week would result. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures. These binders and experimental procedures will be able to be used for use in improving the energy efficiency of

  13. Effect of drug content and agglomerate size on tabletability and drug release characteristics of bromhexine hydrochloridetalc agglomerates prepared by crystallo-co-agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Namdeo; Pawar, Atmaram; Paradkar, Anant

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the investigation was to study the effect of bromhexine hydrochloride (BXH) content and agglomerate size on mechanical, compressional and drug release properties of agglomerates prepared by crystallo-co-agglomeration (CCA). Studies on optimized batches of agglomerates (BXT1 and BXT2) prepared by CCA have showed adequate sphericity and strength required for efficient tabletting. Trend of strength reduction with a decrease in the size of agglomerates was noted for both batches, irrespective of drug loading. However, an increase in mean yield pressure (14.189 to 19.481) with an increase in size was observed for BXT2 having BXH-talc (1:15.7). Surprisingly, improvement in tensile strength was demonstrated by compacts prepared from BXT2, due to high BXH load, whereas BXT1, having a low amount of BXH (BXH-talc, 1:24), showed low tensile strength. Consequently, increased tensile strength was reflected in extended drug release from BXT2 compacts (Higuchi model, R(2) = 0.9506 to 0.9981). Thus, it can be concluded that interparticulate bridges formed by BXH and agglomerate size affect their mechanical, compressional and drug release properties. PMID:20228039

  14. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  15. Method and system for controlling a gasification or partial oxidation process

    SciTech Connect

    Rozelle, Peter L; Der, Victor K

    2015-02-10

    A method and system for controlling a fuel gasification system includes optimizing a conversion of solid components in the fuel to gaseous fuel components, controlling the flux of solids entrained in the product gas through equipment downstream of the gasifier, and maximizing the overall efficiencies of processes utilizing gasification. A combination of models, when utilized together, can be integrated with existing plant control systems and operating procedures and employed to develop new control systems and operating procedures. Such an approach is further applicable to gasification systems that utilize both dry feed and slurry feed.

  16. Operational source receptor calculations for large agglomerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauss, Michael; Shamsudheen, Semeena V.; Valdebenito, Alvaro; Pommier, Matthieu; Schulz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    For Air quality policy an important question is how much of the air pollution within an urbanized region can be attributed to local sources and how much of it is imported through long-range transport. This is critical information for a correct assessment of the effectiveness of potential emission measures. The ratio between indigenous and long-range transported air pollution for a given region depends on its geographic location, the size of its area, the strength and spatial distribution of emission sources, the time of the year, but also - very strongly - on the current meteorological conditions, which change from day to day and thus make it important to provide such calculations in near-real-time to support short-term legislation. Similarly, long-term analysis over longer periods (e.g. one year), or of specific air quality episodes in the past, can help to scientifically underpin multi-regional agreements and long-term legislation. Within the European MACC projects (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and the transition to the operational CAMS service (Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service) the computationally efficient EMEP MSC-W air quality model has been applied with detailed emission data, comprehensive calculations of chemistry and microphysics, driven by high quality meteorological forecast data (up to 96-hour forecasts), to provide source-receptor calculations on a regular basis in forecast mode. In its current state, the product allows the user to choose among different regions and regulatory pollutants (e.g. ozone and PM) to assess the effectiveness of fictive emission reductions in air pollutant emissions that are implemented immediately, either within the agglomeration or outside. The effects are visualized as bar charts, showing resulting changes in air pollution levels within the agglomeration as a function of time (hourly resolution, 0 to 4 days into the future). The bar charts not only allow assessing the effects of emission

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: SOURCE TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT ADDENDUM - LURGI-TYPE MEDIUM-BTU GASIFICATION. VOLUME 2. APPENDIX B

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an addendum to a 1981 environmental assessment source test and evaluation report (EPA-600/7-81-142) on Lurgi-type medium-Btu gasification in Kosovo, Yugoslavia. It contains analytical data on 21 gasification plant streams, not included in the final report. Condensab...

  18. ENCOAL mild coal gasification project. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July--September 1993) and the 1993 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, has completed the construction of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). ENCOAL submitted an application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project was selected by DOE in December, 1989 and the Cooperative Agreement approved in September, 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL mild coal gasification facility was completed in June of 1992, and the project is currently in the operations phase. Some plant modifications have been required and are discussed in this report.

  19. In Situ Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Alan Sinquefield

    2005-10-01

    Black liquor gasification offers a number of attractive incentives to replace Tomlinson boilers but it also leads to an increase in the causticizing load. Reasons for this have been described in previous reports (FY04 ERC, et.al.). The chemistries have also been covered but will be reviewed here briefly. Experimental results of the causticizing reactions with black liquor are presented here. Results of the modeling work were presented in detail in the Phase 1 report. They are included in Table 2 for comparison but will not be discussed in detail. The causticizing agents were added to black liquor in the ratios shown in Table 1, mixed, and then spray-dried. The mixture ratios (doping levels) reflect amount calculated from the stoichiometry above to achieve specified conversions shown in the table. The solids were sieved to 63-90 microns for use in the entrained flow reactors. The firing conditions are shown in Table 2. Pictures and descriptions of the reactors can be found in the Phase 1 annual report. Following gasification, the solids (char) was collected and analyzed by coulometric titration (for carbonate and total carbon), and by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP) for a wide array of metals.

  20. Experimental investigations of biomass gasification with carbon-dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sircar, Indraneel

    A sustainable energy cycle may include enhanced utilization of solar energy and atmospheric CO2 to produce biomass and enhanced utilization of exhaust CO2 from power plants for synthetic gas production. The reaction of carbon with CO2 is potentially one of the important processes in a future sustainable carbon cycle. Reactions involving carbon and CO2 are also relevant to the chemical process and metal industries. Biomass char has been recognized as a present and future alternative to fossil-fuels for energy production and fuel synthesis. Therefore, biomass char gasification with CO2 recycling is proposed as a sustainable and carbon-neutral energy technology. Biomass char is a complex porous solid and its gasification involves heat and mass transfer processes within pores of multiple sizes from nanometer to millimeter scales. These processes are coupled with heterogeneous chemistry at the internal and external surfaces. Rates for the heterogeneous carbon gasification reactions are affected by inorganic content of the char. Furthermore, pore structure of the char develops with conversion and influences apparent gasification rates. Effective modeling of the gasification reactions has relied on the best available understanding of diffusion processes and kinetic rate property constants from state of the art experiments. Improvement of the influences of inorganic composition, and process parameters, such as pressure and temperature on the gasification reaction rates has been a continuous process. Economic viability of gasification relies on use of optimum catalysts. These aspects of the current status of gasification technologies have motivated the work reported in this dissertation. The reactions between biomass chars and CO2 are investigated to determine the effects of temperature and pressure on the reaction rates for large char particles of relevance to practical gasification technologies. An experimental apparatus consisting of a high-pressure fixed-bed reactor

  1. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; J. A. Gurtler; K. Lewandowski

    2005-09-30

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.

  2. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-03-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.

  3. Crystal growth and agglomeration of calcium sulfite hemihydrate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, C.Y.; Chen, P.C.

    1995-04-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes are most commonly utilized to remove sulfur dioxide from stack gases of coal- or oil-fired plants. In the simple slurry technology, SO{sub 2} is absorbed by a slurry of lime/limestone to form calcium sulfite crystals of acicular habit and its strong agglomeration, requiring large clarifiers and filters to dewater the sludge to make an acceptable landfill. Crystal growth and agglomeration of calcium sulfite hemihydrate crystals from solution were studied by reacting Ca(OH){sub 2} with NaHSO{sub 3} in a pH-stat semibatch crystallizer. Single platelet crystals and agglomerates of platelet crystals were produced in the pH range from 5.80 to 6.80. The crystallization mechanism changed from primary nucleation to crystal growth in the progressive precipitation. Using the titration curves, the growth rate was calculated from the titration rate at the final stage of operation. The crystal growth rates of calcium sulfate hemihydrate crystals were found to obey the parabolic rate law in the low supersaturation range. Another point to be noted is that the precipitates of calcium sulfite hemihydrate in agitated suspensions have a tendency to form agglomerates. It was found that the degree of agglomeration is a weak function of relative supersaturation and magma density, while the pH value is a key factor that affects the degree of agglomeration. Addition of EDTA also has an effect on the agglomeration of calcium sulfite hemihydrates.

  4. Analysis of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion agglomerates. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, D. III; Brekke, D.W.; Karner, F.R.

    1984-04-01

    Chemical and textural studies of AFBC agglomerates have revealed detailed information regarding the mechanisms of agglomeration. The formation of agglomerates in a silica sand bed can be described by a four step process: initial ash coatings of quartz grains; thickening of ash coatings and the formation of nodules; cementation of nodules to each other by a sulfated aluminosilicate matrix; and partial or complete melting of eutectic compositions to produce a sticky glass phase between grains and along fractures. Once agglomeration has begun, large scale solidification and restricted flow within the bed will lead to hot spots, wholesale melting and further agglomeration which ultimately forces a shutdown. Standard operating temperatures during normal AFBC runs come quite close to, or may actually exceed, the minimum temperatures for eutectic melting of the silicate phases in the coal and standard bed materials. The partially melted material may be expected to lead to the formation of dense, sticky areas within the bed, and the formation of hot spots which further exacerbate the problem. Ultimately, large scale bed agglomeration will result. Attempts to eliminate agglomeration by removal of sodium via an ion exchange process have yielded encouraging results. A second approach, used to raise melting temperatures within the bed, has been to use bed materials that may react with low-temperature minerals to produce high-temperature refractory phases such as mullite or other alkali and alkali-earth alumino-silicates.

  5. Fragmentation and bond strength of airborne diesel soot agglomerates

    PubMed Central

    Rothenbacher, Sonja; Messerer, Armin; Kasper, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Background The potential of diesel soot aerosol particles to break up into smaller units under mechanical stress was investigated by a direct impaction technique which measures the degree of fragmentation of individual agglomerates vs. impact energy. Diesel aerosol was generated by an idling diesel engine used for passenger vehicles. Both the aerosol emitted directly and aerosol that had undergone additional growth by Brownian coagulation ("aging") was investigated. Optionally a thermo-desoption technique at 280°C was used to remove all high-volatility and the majority of low-volatility HC adsorbates from the aerosol before aging. Results It was found that the primary soot agglomerates emitted directly from the engine could not be fragmented at all. Soot agglomerates permitted to grow additionally by Brownian coagulation of the primary emitted particles could be fragmented to a maximum of 75% and 60% respectively, depending on whether adsorbates were removed from their surface prior to aging or not. At most, these aged agglomerates could be broken down to roughly the size of the agglomerates from the primary emission. The energy required for a 50% fragmentation probability of all bonds within an agglomerate was reduced by roughly a factor of 2 when aging "dry" agglomerates. Average bond energies derived from the data were 0.52*10-16 and 1.2*10-16 J, respectively. This is about 2 orders of magnitude higher than estimates for pure van-der-Waals agglomerates, but agrees quite well with other observations. Conclusion Although direct conclusions regarding the behavior of inhaled diesel aerosol in contact with body fluids cannot be drawn from such measurements, the results imply that highly agglomerated soot aerosol particles are unlikely to break up into units smaller than roughly the size distribution emitted as tail pipe soot. PMID:18533015

  6. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC16

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2004-08-24

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR (formerly Kellogg Brown & Root) Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report discusses Test Campaign TC16 of the PSDF gasification process. TC16 began on July 14, 2004, lasting until August 24, 2004, for a total of 835 hours of gasification operation. The test campaign consisted of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal and high sodium lignite from the North Dakota Freedom mine. The highest gasifier operating temperature mostly varied from 1,760 to 1,850 F with PRB and 1,500 to 1,600 F with lignite. Typically, during PRB operations, the gasifier exit pressure was maintained between 215 and 225 psig using air as the gasification oxidant and between 145 and 190 psig while using oxygen as the oxidant. With lignite, the gasifier operated only in air-blown mode, and the gasifier outlet pressure ranged from 150 to 160 psig.

  7. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC22

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2008-11-01

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC22, the first test campaign using a high moisture lignite from Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC22 was conducted from March 24 to April 17, 2007. The gasification process was operated for 543 hours, increasing the total gasification operation at the PSDF to over 10,000 hours. The PSDF gasification process was operated in air-blown mode with a total of about 1,080 tons of coal. Coal feeder operation was challenging due to the high as-received moisture content of the lignite, but adjustments to the feeder operating parameters reduced the frequency of coal feeder trips. Gasifier operation was stable, and carbon conversions as high as 98.9 percent were demonstrated. Operation of the PCD and other support equipment such as the recycle gas compressor and ash removal systems operated reliably.

  8. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC20

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2006-09-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coal. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of the first demonstration of the Transport Gasifier following significant modifications of the gasifier configuration. This demonstration took place during test campaign TC20, occurring from August 8 to September 23, 2006. The modifications proved successful in increasing gasifier residence time and particulate collection efficiency, two parameters critical in broadening of the fuel operating envelope and advancing gasification technology. The gasification process operated for over 870 hours, providing the opportunity for additional testing of various gasification technologies, such as PCD failsafe evaluation and sensor development.

  9. Agglomeration of proteins in acoustically levitated droplets.

    PubMed

    Delissen, Friedmar; Leiterer, Jork; Bienert, Ralf; Emmerling, Franziska; Thünemann, Andreas F

    2008-09-01

    An ultrasonic trap (acoustic levitator) was used as an analytical tool to allow container-free handling of proteins in small sample volumes. This trap was combined for the first time with synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) for structure analysis of biological macromolecules in a solution. The microfocus beamline at BESSY was used as a source of intense X-ray radiation. Apoferritin (APO) was used as a model protein, and its aggregation behavior in a levitator was followed from a diluted solution to the solid state. Different stages of APO agglomeration were observed without solid container walls, which may influence aggregation behavior and produce a parasitic scattering background. Starting with a volume of 5 microL we analyzed the concentration dependence of APO structure factors in the range from 5 to 1,200 mg/mL (solid protein). The solution was stirred automatically due to convection inside the droplet caused by the ultrasonic field. SAXS data recording of APO was performed in time intervals of 60 s during an aggregation experiment of 30 to 60 min. PMID:18607573

  10. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Derting, T.M.

    1988-07-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  11. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

    1988-02-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1-Test Plan; Task 2-Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3-Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4-Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  12. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Williams, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  13. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

    1987-11-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  14. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  15. Transport and Deposition of Welding Fume Agglomerates in a Realistic Human Nasal Airway.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lin; Inthavong, Kiao; Lidén, Göran; Shang, Yidan; Tu, Jiyuan

    2016-07-01

    Welding fume is a complex mixture containing ultra-fine particles in the nanometer range. Rather than being in the form of a singular sphere, due to the high particle concentration, welding fume particles agglomerate into long straight chains, branches, or other forms of compact shapes. Understanding the transport and deposition of these nano-agglomerates in human respiratory systems is of great interest as welding fumes are a known health hazard. The neurotoxin manganese (Mn) is a common element in welding fumes. Particulate Mn, either as soluble salts or oxides, that has deposited on the olfactory mucosa in human nasal airway is transported along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb within the brain. If this Mn is further transported to the basal ganglia of the brain, it could accumulate at the part of the brain that is the focal point of its neurotoxicity. Accounting for various dynamic shape factors due to particle agglomeration, the current computational study is focused on the exposure route, the deposition pattern, and the deposition efficiency of the inhaled welding fume particles in a realistic human nasal cavity. Particular attention is given to the deposition pattern and deposition efficiency of inhaled welding fume agglomerates in the nasal olfactory region. For particles in the nanoscale, molecular diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism. Therefore, Brownian diffusion, hydrodynamic drag, Saffman lift force, and gravitational force are included in the model study. The deposition efficiencies for single spherical particles, two kinds of agglomerates of primary particles, two-dimensional planar and straight chains, are investigated for a range of primary particle sizes and a range of number of primary particles per agglomerate. A small fraction of the inhaled welding fume agglomerates is deposited on the olfactory mucosa, approximately in the range 0.1-1%, and depends on particle size and morphology. The strong size dependence of the deposition

  16. Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

  17. Coal gasification players, projects, prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Blankinship, S.

    2006-07-15

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has been running refineries and chemical plants for decades. Power applications have dotted the globe. Two major IGCC demonstration plants operating in the United States since the mid-1900s have helped set the stage for prime time, which is now approaching. Two major reference plant designs are in the wings and at least two major US utilities are poised to build their own IGCC power plants. 2 figs.

  18. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.D.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which lead to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. A survey of agglomeration and deposit formation in industrial fluidized bed boilers is in progress. Preliminary results indicate that at least five boilers were experiencing some form of bed material agglomeration. In these instances it was observed that large particles were forming within the bed which were larger that the feed. Four operators could confirm that the larger bed particles had formed due to bed particles sticking together or agglomerating. Deposit formation was reported at nine sites with these deposits being found most commonly at coal feed locations and in cyclones. Other deposit locations included side walls and return loops. Examples of these agglomerates and deposits have been received from five of the surveyed facilities. Also during this quarter, a bulk sample of Illinois No. 6 coal was obtained from the Fossil Energy Program at Ames Laboratory here at Iowa State University and prepared for combustion tests. This sample was first ground to a top-size of 3/8`` using a jaw crusher then a size fraction of 3/8`` {times} 8 (US mesh) was then obtained by sieving using a Gilson Test-Master. This size fraction was selected for the preliminary laboratory-scale experiments designed to simulate the dense bed conditions that exist in the bottom of CFB combustors. To ensure uniformity of fuel composition among combustion runs, the sized coal was riffled using, a cone and long row method and stored in bags for each experiment. During this quarter additional modifications were made to achieve better control of fluidization regimes and to aid in monitoring the hydrodynamic and chemical conditions within the reactor.

  19. Catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Robertus, R.J.

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of catalytic gasification of bagasse to produce methanol. In previous studies, a catalytic steam gasification process was developed which converted wood to methanol synthesis gas in one step using nickel based catalysts in a fluid-bed gasifier. Tests in a nominal 1 ton/day process development unit (PDU) gasifier with these same catalysts showed bagasse to be a good feedstock for fluid-bed gasifiers, but the catalysts deactivated quite rapidly in the presence of bagasse. Laboratory catalyst screening tests showed K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on the bagasse to be a promising catalyst for converting bagasse to methanol synthesis gas. PDU tests with 10 wt % K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on bagasse showed the technical feasibility of this type of catalyst on a larger scale. A high quality synthesis gas was produced and carbon conversion to gas was high. The gasifier was successfully operated without forming agglomerates of catalyst, ash, and char in the gasifier. There was no loss of activity throughout the runs because catalysts is continually added with the bagasse. Laboratory tests showed about 80% of the potassium carbonate could be recovered and recycled with a simple water wash. An economic evaluation of the process for converting bagasse to methanol showed the required selling price of methanol to be significantly higher than the current market price of methanol. Several factors make this current evaluaton using bagasse as a feedstock less favorable: (1) capital costs are higher due to inflation and some extra costs required to use bagasse, (2) smaller plant sizes were considered so economies of scale are lost, and (3) the market price of methanol in the US has fallen 44% in the last six months. 24 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    SciTech Connect

    Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar

  1. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.; Potas, T.A.; DeWall, R.A.; Musich, M.A.

    1992-11-10

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-degradable, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  2. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.; Potas, Todd A.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Musich, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-decrepitating, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  3. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    SciTech Connect

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; C.A. Hardison; K. Lewandowski

    2004-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking.

  4. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; J. A. Gurtler

    2004-03-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process. As a result, operators of acidic heap-leach facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of other agglomeration applications, particularly advanced primary ironmaking.

  5. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    SciTech Connect

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; K. Lewandowski

    2005-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not breakdown during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process. As a result, operators of many facilities see large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching.

  6. TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the evaluation of the Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The Texaco Gasification Process was developed by Texaco Inc. The TGP is a comm...

  7. COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: TRACE ELEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes trace element measurements made at several coal gasification facilities. Most of the measurements were made as part of EPA's source testing and evaluation program on low- and medium-Btu gasification. The behavior of trace elements is discussed in light of th...

  8. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this research is to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible “syngas” in a high temperature (above 700 °C), oxygen deficient environmen...

  9. Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

    1984-05-25

    This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Agglomeration Multigrid for an Unstructured-Grid Flow Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frink, Neal; Pandya, Mohagna J.

    2004-01-01

    An agglomeration multigrid scheme has been implemented into the sequential version of the NASA code USM3Dns, tetrahedral cell-centered finite volume Euler/Navier-Stokes flow solver. Efficiency and robustness of the multigrid-enhanced flow solver have been assessed for three configurations assuming an inviscid flow and one configuration assuming a viscous fully turbulent flow. The inviscid studies include a transonic flow over the ONERA M6 wing and a generic business jet with flow-through nacelles and a low subsonic flow over a high-lift trapezoidal wing. The viscous case includes a fully turbulent flow over the RAE 2822 rectangular wing. The multigrid solutions converged with 12%-33% of the Central Processing Unit (CPU) time required by the solutions obtained without multigrid. For all of the inviscid cases, multigrid in conjunction with an explicit time-stepping scheme performed the best with regard to the run time memory and CPU time requirements. However, for the viscous case multigrid had to be used with an implicit backward Euler time-stepping scheme that increased the run time memory requirement by 22% as compared to the run made without multigrid.

  11. Pilot gasification and hot gas cleanup operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rockey, J.M.; Galloway, E.; Thomson, T.A.; Rutten, J.; Lui, A.

    1995-12-31

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has an integrated gasification hot gas cleanup facility to develop gasification, hot particulate and desulfurization process performance data for IGCC systems. The objective of our program is to develop fluidized-bed process performance data for hot gas desulfurization and to further test promising sorbents from lab-scale screening studies at highpressure (300 psia), and temperatures (1,200{degrees}F) using coal-derived fuel gases from a fluid-bed gasifier. The 10-inch inside diameter (ID), nominal 80 lb/hr, air blown gasifier is capable of providing about 300 lb/hr of low BTU gas at 1,000{degrees}F and 425 psig to downstream cleanup devices. The system includes several particle removal stages, which provide the capability to tailor the particle loading to the cleanup section. The gas pressure is reduced to approximately 300 psia and filtered by a candle filter vessel containing up to four filter cartridges. For batch-mode desulfurization test operations, the filtered coal gas is fed to a 6-inch ID, fluid-bed reactor that is preloaded with desulfurization sorbent. Over 400 hours of gasifier operation was logged in 1993 including 384 hours of integration with the cleanup rig. System baseline studies without desulfurization sorbent and repeatability checks with zinc ferrite sorbent were conducted before testing with the then most advanced zinc titanate sorbents, ZT-002 and ZR-005. In addition to the desulfurization testing, candle filters were tested for the duration of the 384 hours of integrated operation. One filter was taken out of service after 254 hours of filtering while another was left in service. At the conclusion of testing this year it is expected that 3 candles, one each with 254, 530, and 784 hours of filtering will be available for analysis for effects of the exposure to the coal gas environment.

  12. Gasification Studies Task 4 Topical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitty, Kevin; Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald; Smith, Philip; Sutherland, James; Thornock, Jeremy; Boshayeshi, Babak; Hunsacker, Isaac; Lewis, Aaron; Waind, Travis; Kelly, Kerry

    2014-02-01

    A key objective of the Task 4 activities has been to develop simulation tools to support development, troubleshooting and optimization of pressurized entrained-flow coal gasifiers. The overall gasifier models (Subtask 4.1) combine submodels for fluid flow (Subtask 4.2) and heat transfer (Subtask 4.3) with fundamental understanding of the chemical processes (Subtask 4.4) processes that take place as coal particles are converted to synthesis gas and slag. However, it is important to be able to compare predictions from the models against data obtained from actual operating coal gasifiers, and Subtask 4.6 aims to provide an accessible, non-proprietary system, which can be operated over a wide range of conditions to provide well-characterized data for model validation. Highlights of this work include: • Verification and validation activities performed with the Arches coal gasification simulation tool on experimental data from the CANMET gasifier (Subtask 4.1). • The simulation of multiphase reacting flows with coal particles including detailed gas-phase chemistry calculations using an extension of the one-dimensional turbulence model’s capability (Subtask 4.2). • The demonstration and implementation of the Reverse Monte Carlo ray tracing (RMCRT) radiation algorithm in the ARCHES code (Subtask 4.3). • Determination of steam and CO{sub 2} gasification kinetics of bituminous coal chars at high temperature and elevated pressure under entrained-flow conditions (Subtask 4.4). In addition, attempts were made to gain insight into the chemical structure differences between young and mature coal soot, but both NMR and TEM characterization efforts were hampered by the highly reacted nature of the soot. • The development, operation, and demonstration of in-situ gas phase measurements from the University of Utah’s pilot-scale entrained-flow coal gasifier (EFG) (Subtask 4.6). This subtask aimed at acquiring predictable, consistent performance and characterizing the

  13. Calcium silicate cement sorbent for H/sub 2/S removal and improved gasification processes. Annual progress report, October 1, 1981-September 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, H.J.; Steinberg, M.

    1982-10-01

    Commercial calcium silicate bearing Portland cement type III (PC III), in the form of agglomerated cement sorbent (ACS) pellets, is being investigated for in-situ desulfurization of fuel gases and for improved coal gasification. The preparation procedure and conditions for pelletizing agglomerated cement sorbent (ACS) by a low energy, low cost agglomeration technique have been modified using a two-stage pelletization procedure, which yields ACS pellets of greater mechanical strength. A 40 mm ID bench scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) was used to determine sulfur removal efficiency of ACS pellets as well as their attrition resistance, using a simulated gas mixture. These tests show that 90% or more of the sulfur removal from the gas is achieved until 35% of the ACS pellet is sulfidated and that it has excellent attrition resistance (less than 0.1% wt loss) during cyclic tests excluding the first conditioning cycle. The gasification of coal by partial oxidation with air to low Btu gas was conducted in a 1-inch bench scale FBG unit by our collaborator, the Foster Wheeler Corporation (FWC). At temperatures between 800/sup 0/C and 950/sup 0/C the efficiency of coal gasification is improved by as much as 40% when ACS pellets are used compared to the use of Greer limestone. At the same time the sulfur removal efficiency is increased from 50 to 65% with Greer limestone to over 95% with the ACS pellets. The test on sulfur fixation characteristics of the sorbent in the 1-inch FBG unit using a simulated gas also shows that the ACS pellet is much more reactive toward H/sub 2/S than Greer limestone. The ability of ACS pellets to simultaneously desulfurize and improve the gasification efficiency of coal in FBG justifies further investigation.

  14. Modeling biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Qi

    reactions occur in gas phase. Each section was divided into a number of small cells, over which mass and energy balances were applied. Due to the high heating rate in circulating fluidized bed, the pyrolysis was considered instantaneous. A number of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions were considered in the model. Mass transfer resistance was considered negligible since the reactions were under kinetic control due to good gas-solid mixing. The model is capable of predicting the bed temperature distribution along the gasifier, the concentration and distribution of each species in the vertical direction of the bed, the composition and lower heating value (LHV) of produced gas, the gasification efficiency, the overall carbon conversion and the produced gas production rate. A sensitivity analysis was performed to test its response to several gasifier operating conditions. The model sensitivity analysis showed that equivalence ratio (ER), bed temperature, fluidization velocity, biomass feed rate and moisture content had various effects on the gasifier performance. However, the model was more sensitive to variations in ER and bed temperature. The model was validated using the experimental results obtained from the demonstration plant. The reactor was operated on rice husk at various ERs, fluidization velocities and biomass feed rates. The model gave reasonable predictions. The model was also validated by comparing the simulation results with two other different size CFBBGs using different biomass feedstock, and it was concluded that the developed model can be applied to other CFBBGs using various biomass fuels and having comparable reactor geometries. A thermodynamic model was developed under ASPEN PLUS environment. Using the approach of Gibbs free energy minimization, the model was essentially independent of kinetic parameters. A sensitivity analysis was performed on the model to test its response to operating variables, including ER and biomass moisture content. The results

  15. Influences of Different Components on Agglomeration Behavior of MoS2 During Oxidation Roasting Process in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Guo-Hua; Wang, Jing-Song; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2016-08-01

    An agglomeration of the furnace charge always takes place during the oxidation roasting process of molybdenite concentrate (with the main component of MoS2) in multiple hearth furnaces, which greatly affects the production process and furnace service life. In the present work, a preliminary study about the influence of various components on the agglomeration phenomenon of pure MoS2 have been carried out. The results show that reaction temperature, impurity content, and air flow rate have significant effects on the agglomeration extent. Meanwhile, the impurity type added into the pure MoS2 plays a crucial role. It was found that CaO and MgO have a stronger sulfur-fixing effect and that the desulphurization of the roasted product was uncompleted. It was also concluded that the agglomeration is due to the formation of low-melting-point eutectics, including that between MoO3 and impurities and that between MoO3 and Mo4O11. It is suggested that decreasing the impurities contents, especially K, Cu, Pb, and Fe, is an effective method for reducing the extent of agglomeration.

  16. Influences of Different Components on Agglomeration Behavior of MoS2 During Oxidation Roasting Process in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Guo-Hua; Wang, Jing-Song; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2016-05-01

    An agglomeration of the furnace charge always takes place during the oxidation roasting process of molybdenite concentrate (with the main component of MoS2) in multiple hearth furnaces, which greatly affects the production process and furnace service life. In the present work, a preliminary study about the influence of various components on the agglomeration phenomenon of pure MoS2 have been carried out. The results show that reaction temperature, impurity content, and air flow rate have significant effects on the agglomeration extent. Meanwhile, the impurity type added into the pure MoS2 plays a crucial role. It was found that CaO and MgO have a stronger sulfur-fixing effect and that the desulphurization of the roasted product was uncompleted. It was also concluded that the agglomeration is due to the formation of low-melting-point eutectics, including that between MoO3 and impurities and that between MoO3 and Mo4O11. It is suggested that decreasing the impurities contents, especially K, Cu, Pb, and Fe, is an effective method for reducing the extent of agglomeration.

  17. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  18. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-12-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures that can be used for improving the energy efficiency of heap leaching, by preventing the ''ponding'' and ''channeling'' effects that currently cause reduced recovery and extended leaching cycle times. Methods have also been developed for iron ore processing which are intended to improve the

  19. Colloidal stability of coal-simulated suspensions in selective agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Schurger, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    A coal suspension was simulated by using graphite to simulate the carbonaceous fraction and kaolinite clay to simulate the ash fraction. Separate studies on each material established their response to additions of oxidized pyrite (ferrous sulfate) and a humic acid simulate (salicylic acid) in terms of zeta potentials profiles with pH and Ionic strength. Concentrations of iron and salicylic acid evaluated were 4.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M and 2.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M, respectively. The zeta potentials profiles of graphite, clay and hexadecane were negative throughout the pH ranges studied. The addition of iron lowered the zeta potentials all of the suspensions under all pH and ionic strength conditions. Salicylic acid decreased the graphite and hexadecane zeta potentials but had no effect on the clay zeta potential profiles. Agglomeration of graphite with bridging liquid shows distinct time dependent rate mechanisms, a initial growth of graphite agglomerates followed by consolidation phase. Graphite agglomeration was rapid with the maximum amount of agglomerate volume growth occurring in under 2-4 minutes. Agglomeration in the first two minutes was characterized by a 1st order rate mechanism. The presence of either Iron and salicylic acid generally improved the first order rates. The addition of clay also improved the first order rates except in the presence of salicylic acid. Heteroagglomeration of graphite with clay was found by hydrodynamic arguments to be unfavored. A multicomponent population balance model which had been developed for evaluating collision efficiencies of coal, ash and pyrite selective agglomeration was evaluated to explain these results. The growth and consolidation characteristics of graphite agglomeration for the experimental conditions examined herein revealed the limitations of such as model for this application.

  20. The assessment of sewage sludge gasification by-products toxicity by ecotoxicologial test.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2015-08-01

    The process of gasification of sewage sludge generates by-products, which may be contaminated with toxic and hazardous substances, both organic and inorganic. It is therefore important to assess the environmental risk associated with this type of waste. The feasibility of using an ecotoxicological tests for this purpose was determined in the presented study. The applied tests contained indicator organisms belonging to various biological groups (bacteria, crustaceans, plants). The subject of the study were solid (ash, char) and liquid (tar) by-products generated during gasification (in a fixed bed reactor) of dried sewage sludge from various wastewater treatment systems. The tested samples were classified based on their toxic effect. The sensitivity of the indicator organisms to the tested material was determined. In-house procedures for the preparation for toxicity analysis of both sewage sludge and by-products generated during the gasification were presented. The scope of work also included the determination of the effect of selected process parameters (temperature, amount of gasifying agent) on the toxicity of gasification by-products depending on the sewage sludge source. It was shown that both the type of sewage sludge and the parameters of the gasification process affects the toxicity of the by-products of gasification. However, the results of toxicity studies also depend on the type of ecotoxicological test used, which is associated with a different sensitivity of the indicator organisms. Nevertheless, it may be concluded that the by-products formed during the gasification of the low toxicity sewage sludge can be regarded as non-toxic or low toxic. However, the results analysis of the gasification of the toxic sludge were not conclusive, which leads to further research needs in this area. PMID:25827844

  1. Kinetics characteristics of straw semi-char gasification with carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ruirui; Yang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    The gasification process has promising potential as a solution for the current global energy problem. Kinetics characteristics of straw semi-char gasification were investigated. The main influence factors of gasification, which include bio-char particle size, pyrolysis temperature and pyrolysis atmosphere, were studied. The smaller the particle size is, the higher is the conversion rate. The gasification reactivity of semi-chars increases with pyrolysis temperature and reaches its maximum at approximately 400°C. The straw semi-char obtained in an H2 pyrolysis atmosphere has the best gasification reactivity, while the semi-char obtained in a CO2 atmosphere has the worst reactivity. In addition, characteristics of semi-char were systematically tested. A random pore model, unreacted core shrinking model and integrated model were employed to describe the reactive behavior of semi-chars. Gasification kinetics parameters were calculated. The random pore model fitting result is in better agreement with the experiments than that of the other two models. PMID:26890792

  2. A Critical Study of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Agglomerated multigrid techniques used in unstructured-grid methods are studied critically for a model problem representative of laminar diffusion in the incompressible limit. The studied target-grid discretizations and discretizations used on agglomerated grids are typical of current node-centered formulations. Agglomerated multigrid convergence rates are presented using a range of two- and three-dimensional randomly perturbed unstructured grids for simple geometries with isotropic and stretched grids. Two agglomeration techniques are used within an overall topology-preserving agglomeration framework. The results show that multigrid with an inconsistent coarse-grid scheme using only the edge terms (also referred to in the literature as a thin-layer formulation) provides considerable speedup over single-grid methods but its convergence deteriorates on finer grids. Multigrid with a Galerkin coarse-grid discretization using piecewise-constant prolongation and a heuristic correction factor is slower and also grid-dependent. In contrast, grid-independent convergence rates are demonstrated for multigrid with consistent coarse-grid discretizations. Convergence rates of multigrid cycles are verified with quantitative analysis methods in which parts of the two-grid cycle are replaced by their idealized counterparts.

  3. A Critical Study of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, James L.; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Agglomerated multigrid techniques used in unstructured-grid methods are studied critically for a model problem representative of laminar diffusion in the incompressible limit. The studied target-grid discretizations and discretizations used on agglomerated grids are typical of current node-centered formulations. Agglomerated multigrid convergence rates are presented using a range of two- and three-dimensional randomly perturbed unstructured grids for simple geometries with isotropic and highly stretched grids. Two agglomeration techniques are used within an overall topology-preserving agglomeration framework. The results show that multigrid with an inconsistent coarse-grid scheme using only the edge terms (also referred to in the literature as a thin-layer formulation) provides considerable speedup over single-grid methods but its convergence deteriorates on finer grids. Multigrid with a Galerkin coarse-grid discretization using piecewise-constant prolongation and a heuristic correction factor is slower and also grid-dependent. In contrast, grid-independent convergence rates are demonstrated for multigrid with consistent coarse-grid discretizations. Actual cycle results are verified using quantitative analysis methods in which parts of the cycle are replaced by their idealized counterparts.

  4. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

    2007-09-30

    of the vapor phase components of the conveyed sample gas. In addition, to minimize adsorption or chemical changes in the syngas components prior to analysis, the temperature of the transported stream is maintained as hot as is practical, while still being cooled only as much necessary prior to entering the analyzer(s). The successful transport of the sample gas stream to the analyzer(s) is accomplished through the managed combination of four basic gas conditioning methods that are applied as specifically called for by the process conditions, the gas constituent concentrations, the analyzer requirements, and the objectives of the syngas analyses: 1) removing entrained particulate matter from the sample stream; 2) maintaining the temperature of the sample gas stream; 3) lowering the pressure of the sample gas stream to decrease the vapor pressures of all the component vapor species in the sample stream; and 4) diluting the gas stream with a metered, inert gas, such as nitrogen. Proof-of-concept field demonstrations of the sampling approach were conducted for gasification process streams from a black liquor gasifier, and from the gasification of biomass and coal feedstocks at GTI’s Flex-Fuel Test Facility. In addition to the descriptions and data included in this Final Report, GTI produced a Special Topical Report, Design and Protocol for Monitoring Gaseous Species in Thermochemical Processes, that explains and describes in detail the objectives, principles, design, hardware, installation, operation and representative data produced during this successful developmental effort. Although the specific analyzers used under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024 were referenced in the Topical Report and this Final Report, the sampling interface design they present is generic enough to adapt to other analyzers that may be more appropriate to alternate process streams or facilities.

  5. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-04

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats through a window onto the surface of a moving bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam in one embodiment at the rear surface of a secondary mirror used to redirect the focused sunlight. Another novel feature of the invention is the location and arrangement of the array of mirrors on an inclined surface (e.g., a hillside) to provide for direct optical communication of said mirrors and the carbonaceous feed without a secondary redirecting mirror.

  6. Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Butner, Robert Scott; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-08-14

    Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent separation of sulfur contaminants, or combinations thereof. Treatment further includes separating the precipitates out of the wet feedstock, removing sulfur contaminants, or both using a solids separation unit and a sulfur separation unit, respectively. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfur that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  7. Survey of integrated gasification combined cycle power plant performance estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, J. W.

    1980-03-01

    The idea of a combined cycle power plant integrated with a coal gasification process has attracted broad interest in recent years. This interest is based on unique attributes of this concept which include potentially low pollutant emissions, low heat rate and competitive economics as compared to conventional steam plants with stack gas scrubbing. Results from a survey of technical literature containing performance and economic predictions have been compiled for comparison and evaluation of this new technique. These performance and economic results indicate good promise for near-term commercialization of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant using current gas turbine firing temperatures. Also, these data show that advancements in turbine firing temperature are expected to provide sufficiently favorable economics for the concept to penetrate the market now held by conventional steam power plants.

  8. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC14

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2004-02-28

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details test campaign TC14 of the PSDF gasification process. TC14 began on February 16, 2004, and lasted until February 28, 2004, accumulating 214 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. The gasifier operating temperatures varied from 1760 to 1810 F at pressures from 188 to 212 psig during steady air blown operations and approximately 160 psig during oxygen blown operations.

  9. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC18

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2005-08-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details Test Campaign TC18 of the PSDF gasification process. Test campaign TC18 began on June 23, 2005, and ended on August 22, 2005, with the gasifier train accumulating 1,342 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Some of the testing conducted included commissioning of a new recycle syngas compressor for gasifier aeration, evaluation of PCD filter elements and failsafes, testing of gas cleanup technologies, and further evaluation of solids handling equipment. At the conclusion of TC18, the PSDF gasification process had been operated for more than 7,750 hours.

  10. Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Euker, Jr., Charles A.; Wesselhoft, Robert D.; Dunkleman, John J.; Aquino, Dolores C.; Gouker, Toby R.

    1984-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  11. Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.-C.; Tyson, D.; Xiaoping, Qiu; Lessa, A.

    1990-01-01

    Numerous measurements of the heat of immersion of coal were conducting using several different particle size fractions of No. 2 Gas Seam coal from Raleigh County, West Virginia. The heat of immersion was determined in water, methanol, heptane, hexadecane and neohexane (2,2-dimethybutane). A comparison of the results with those determined previously for Illinois No. 6 coal is discussed. A number of potential pyrite depressants for use in oil agglomeration of coal were screened by testing the response of sulfidized mineral pyrite to agglomeration with heptane in the presence of the potential depressant. The following were tested; sodium dithionite, sodium thiosulfate, ferrous sulfate, ferric sulfate, titanous chloride, hydrogen peroxide, Oxone (a form of potassium monopersulfate), pyrogallol, quebracho (colloidal dispersant derived from tree bark), milk whey, and several organic thiols. Ferric chloride was applied to mixtures of Upper Freeport coal and sulfidized mineral pyrite before subjecting the mixtures to agglomeration with heptane. 7 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Ultrasonic de-agglomeration of barium titanate powder.

    PubMed

    Marković, S; Mitrić, M; Starcević, G; Uskoković, D

    2008-01-01

    BaTiO3 (BT) powder, with average particle size of 1.4 microm, was synthesized by solid-state reaction. A high-intensity ultrasound irradiation (ultrasonication) was used to de-agglomerate micro-sized powder to nano-sized one. The crystal structure, crystallite size, morphology, particle size, particle size distribution, and specific surface area of the BT powder de-agglomerated for different ultrasonication times (0, 10, 60, and 180 min) were determined. It was found that the particles size of the BT powder was influenced by ultrasonic treatment, while its tetragonal structure was maintained. Therefore, ultrasonic irradiation can be proposed as an environmental-friendly, economical, and effective tool for the de-agglomeration of barium titanate powders. PMID:17845864

  13. Effect of calcium ions on agglomeration of bayer aluminium trihydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, N.

    1988-10-01

    Small amounts of calcium ions in caustic aluminate solution can lead to enhanced agglomeration of aluminium trihydroxide [Al(OH) 3] particles in the crystallization step of the Bayer process. The present study shows that the magnitude of the effect is strongly dependent on the nature and polycrystallinity of the Al(OH) 3 seed crystals. The more irregular and polycrystalline the seed crystals, the smaller is the optimum amount of added calcium for maximum coarsening ( ≈ 50 mg/l, expressed as CaO). While the same degree of agglomeration can be achieved using well-rounded, smooth-surfaced seed crystals of the same overall size, more calcium is required (75-100 mg/l, expressed as CaO) and the agglomerated particles formed are weaker and less resistant to size reduction on handling.

  14. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 10. Gasification of Benton lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the tenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Benton lignite. The period of gasification test was November 1-8, 1983. 16 refs., 22 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. Gasification characteristics of an activated carbon catalyst during the decomposition of hazardous waste material in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Yukihiko; Nuessle, F.W.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Recently, carbonaceous materials including activated carbon were proven to be effective catalysts for hazardous waste gasification in supercritical water. Using coconut shell activated carbon catalyst, complete decomposition of industrial organic wastes including methanol and acetic acid was achieved. During this process, the total mass of the activated carbon catalyst changes by two competing processes: a decrease in weight via gasification of the carbon by supercritical water, or an increase in weight by deposition of carbonaceous materials generated by incomplete gasification of the biomass feedstocks. The deposition of carbonaceous materials does not occur when complete gasification is realized. Gasification of the activated carbon in supercritical water is often favored, resulting in changes in the quality and quantity of the catalyst. To thoroughly understand the hazardous waste decomposition process, a more complete understanding of the behavior of activated carbon in pure supercritical water is needed. The gasification rate of carbon by water vapor at subcritical pressures was studied in relation to coal gasification and generating activated carbon.

  16. Recent satellite-based trends of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide over large urban agglomerations worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, P.; Lahoz, W. A.; van der A, R.

    2014-09-01

    Trends in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations over 66 large urban agglomerations worldwide have been computed using data from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) instrument onboard the Envisat platform for the period August 2002 to March 2012. A seasonal model including a linear trend was fitted to the satellite-based time series over each site. The results indicate distinct spatial patterns in trends. While agglomerations in Europe, North America, and some locations in East Asia/Oceania show decreasing tropospheric NO2 levels on the order of -5 % yr-1, rapidly increasing levels of tropospheric NO2 are found for agglomerations in large parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. The site with the most rapidly increasing absolute levels of tropospheric NO2 was found to be Tianjin in China with a trend value of 3.04 (±0.47) × 1015 molecules cm-2 yr-1, whereas the site with the most rapidly increasing relative trend was Kabul in Afghanistan with 14.3 (±2.2) % yr-1. In total, 34 sites exhibited increasing trends of tropospheric NO2 throughout the study period, 24 of which were found to be statistically significant. A total of 32 sites showed decreasing levels of tropospheric NO2 during the study period, of which 20 sites did so at statistically significant magnitudes. Overall, going beyond the relatively small set of megacities investigated previously, this study provides the first consistent analysis of recent changes in tropospheric NO2 levels over most large urban agglomerations worldwide.

  17. Recent satellite-based trends of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide over large urban agglomerations worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, P.; Lahoz, W. A.; van der A, R.

    2015-02-01

    Trends in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns over 66 large urban agglomerations worldwide have been computed using data from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) instrument onboard the Envisat platform for the period August 2002 to March 2012. A seasonal model including a~linear trend was fitted to the satellite-based time series over each site. The results indicate distinct spatial patterns in trends. While agglomerations in Europe, North America, and some locations in East Asia/Oceania show decreasing tropospheric NO2 levels on the order of -5% yr-1, rapidly increasing levels of tropospheric NO2 are found for agglomerations in large parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. The site with the most rapidly increasing absolute levels of tropospheric NO2 was found to be Tianjin in China with a trend of 3.04 (±0.47) × 1015 molecules cm-2yr-1, whereas the site with the most rapidly increasing relative trend was Kabul in Afghanistan with 14.3 (±2.2) % yr-1. In total, 34 sites exhibited increasing trends of tropospheric NO2 throughout the study period, 24 of which were found to be statistically significant. A total of 32 sites showed decreasing levels of tropospheric NO2 during the study period, of which 20 sites did so at statistically significant magnitudes. Overall, going beyond the relatively small set of megacities investigated previously, this study provides the first consistent analysis of recent changes in tropospheric NO2 levels over most large urban agglomerations worldwide, and indicates that changes in urban NO2 levels are subject to substantial regional differences as well as influenced by economic and demographic factors.

  18. Acoustic agglomeration of fine particles based on a high intensity acoustical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yun; Zeng, Xinwu; Tian, Zhangfu

    2015-10-01

    Acoustic agglomeration (AA) is considered to be a promising method for reducing the air pollution caused by fine aerosol particles. Removal efficiency and energy consuming are primary parameters and generally have a conflict with each other for the industry applications. It was proved that removal efficiency is increased with sound intensity and optimal frequency is presented for certain polydisperse aerosol. As a result, a high efficiency and low energy cost removal system was constructed using acoustical resonance. High intensity standing wave is generated by a tube system with abrupt section driven by four loudspeakers. Numerical model of the tube system was built base on the finite element method, and the resonance condition and SPL increase were confirmd. Extensive tests were carried out to investigate the acoustic field in the agglomeration chamber. Removal efficiency of fine particles was tested by the comparison of filter paper mass and particle size distribution at different operating conditions including sound pressure level (SPL), and frequency. The experimental study has demonstrated that agglomeration increases with sound pressure level. Sound pressure level in the agglomeration chamber is between 145 dB and 165 dB from 500 Hz to 2 kHz. The resonance frequency can be predicted with the quarter tube theory. Sound pressure level gain of more than 10 dB is gained at resonance frequency. With the help of high intensity sound waves, fine particles are reduced greatly, and the AA effect is enhanced at high SPL condition. The optimal frequency is 1.1kHz for aerosol generated by coal ash. In the resonace tube, higher resonance frequencies are not the integral multiplies of the first one. As a result, Strong nonlinearity is avoided by the dissonant characteristic and shock wave is not found in the testing results. The mechanism and testing system can be used effectively in industrial processes in the future.

  19. Phagocytosis-dependent and independent mechanisms underlie the microglial cell damage caused by carbon nanotube agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Shigemoto-Mogami, Yukari; Hoshikawa, Kazue; Hirose, Akihiko; Sato, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used in many fields, including energy, healthcare, environmental technology, materials, and electronics, the adverse effects of CNTs in the brain are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of CNTs on cultured microglia, as microglia are the first responders to foreign materials. We compared the effects of sonicated suspensions of 5 kinds of CNTs and their flow-through filtered with a 0.22 µm membrane filter on microglial viability. We found that sonicated suspensions caused microglial cell damage, but their flow-through did not. The number of microglial aggregates was well correlated with the extent of the damage. We also determined that the CNT agglomerates consisted of two groups: one was phagocytosed by microglia and caused microglial cell damage, and the other caused cell damage without phagocytosis. These results suggest that phagocytosis-dependent and independent mechanisms underlie the microglial cell damage caused by CNT agglomerates and it is important to conduct studies about the relationships between physical properties of nanomaterial-agglomerates and cell damage. PMID:27432236

  20. The impact of solution agglomeration on the deposition of self-assembled monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    BUNKER,BRUCE C.; CARPICK,ROBERT W.; ASSINK,ROGER A.; THOMAS,MICHAEL L.; HANKINS,MATTHEW G.; VOIGT,JAMES A.; SIPOLA,DIANA L.; DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; GULLEY,GERALD L.

    2000-04-17

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMS) are commonly produced by immersing substrates in organic solutions containing trichlorosilane coupling agents. Unfortunately, such deposition solutions can also form alternate structures including inverse micelles and lamellar phases. The formation of alternate phases is one reason for the sensitivity of SAM depositions to factors such as the water content of the deposition solvent. If such phases are present, the performance of thin films used for applications such as minimization of friction and stiction in micromachines can be seriously compromised. Inverse micelle formation has been studied in detail for depositions involve 1H-, 1H-, 2H-, 2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) in isooctane. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments have been used to monitor the kinetics of hydrolysis and condensation reactions between water and FDTS. Light scattering experiments show that when hydrolyzed FDTS concentrations reach a critical concentration, there is a burst of nucleation to form high concentrations of spherical agglomerates. Atomic force microscopy results show that the agglomerates then deposit on substrate surfaces. Deposition conditions leading to monolayer formation involve using deposition times that are short relative to the induction time for agglomeration. After deposition, inverse micelles can be converted into lamellar or monolayer structures with appropriate heat treatments if surface concentrations are relatively low.

  1. Particle Trajectories and Agglomeration/Accumulation in Branching Arteries subjected to Orbital Atherectomy

    PubMed Central

    Helgeson, Zach L; Jenkins, Jed S; Abraham, John P; Sparrow, Ephraim M

    2011-01-01

    Background: The transport of particles in surrogate and actual arterial geometries has been investigated synergistically by experimentation and numerical simulation. The motivating application for this work is orbital atherectomy which spawns a particle cloud in the process of debulking plaque from arterial walls. Methods: Paired simulations and experiments were performed to prove the capability of the simulation model to predict both fluid and particle motions in branched arterial geometries. The verified model was then employed to predict the pattern of fluid flow in an actual multi-branched arterial geometry, including the flowrates passing through each of the individual branches. These predictions are in very good agreement with experimental data. Focus was then shifted to the issues of particle agglomeration within the flowing fluid and particle accumulation on the vessel walls. Once again, a synergistic approach was used. Flow visualization was employed to track the particle motions and to identify possible particle agglomeration within the fluid. Results and Conclusions: Accumulation of particles on walls was identified by measuring size distributions of effluent and residue within the artery. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) evaluation showed evidence of a size-based sorting as the particles passed through vessels. It was found that plaque-facsimile particles resisted particle-particle agglomeration. They also did not accumulate to the wall of the facsimile artery. In addition, simulations showed that if particle-wall accumulation were to occur, it would be limited to very small regions in the artery branches. PMID:21643425

  2. Coal gasification. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods and processes for the gasification of coals. Included are patents for a variety of processes, including fluidized beds, alkali-metal catalytic systems, fixed beds, hot inert heat transfer; and in-situ, pressurized, and steam-iron processes. Topics also include catalyst recovery, desulfurization during gasification, heating methods, pretreatment of coals, heat recovery, electrical power generation, byproduct applications, and pollution control. Liquefaction of coal is examined in a related published bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Coal gasification. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods and processes for the gasification of coals. Included are patents for a variety of processes, including fluidized beds, alkali-metal catalytic systems, fixed beds, hot inert heat transfer; and in-situ, pressurized, and steam-iron processes. Topics also include catalyst recovery, desulfurization during gasification, heating methods, pretreatment of coals, heat recovery, electrical power generation, byproduct applications, and pollution control. Liquefaction of coal is examined in a related published bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Coal gasification. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods and processes for the gasification of coals. Included are patents for a variety of processes, including fluidized beds, alkali-metal catalytic systems, fixed beds, hot inert heat transfer; and in-situ, pressurized, and steam-iron processes. Topics also include catalyst recovery, desulfurization during gasification, heating methods, pretreatment of coals, heat recovery, electrical power generation, byproduct applications, and pollution control. Liquefaction of coal is examined in a related published bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration. Fossil energy interim report, October 1, 1983--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.

    1992-12-31

    Numerous agglomeration tests were conducted with several types of low-ash coal and graphite, high grade mineral pyrite, and other materials. Relatively pure hydrocarbons, including heptane and hexadecane, were used as agglomerants. Access of air to the system was controlled. Particle recovery by agglomeration was observed to depend on a number of system parameters. Among the most important parameters are the hydrophobicity of the particles and the oil dosage, so that the, recovery of solids per unit of oil administered is proportional to the hydrophobicity. The pH and ionic strength of the aqueous suspension affect particle recovery in different ways depending on the surface properties of the particles. On the other hand, the presence of air in the system generally improves particle recovery. The greatest effect of air was observed in a closely related study which showed that air had to be present to produce good agglomerates from a moderately hydrophobic coal in a mixer producing a lower shear rate. The rate of agglomeration was found to be much greater for a strongly hydrophobic coal than for a moderately hydrophobic coal, and the rate was observed to be proportional to the oil dosage. Also the rate was enhanced by the presence of air in the, system. For hydrophobic coals, the rate increased with increasing ionic strength of the aqueous medium, but it was not affected greatly by pH over a wide range. The separation of coal and pyrite particles by selective agglomeration was found to depend on the relative hydrophobicity of the materials, the oil dosage, and the properties of the aqueous medium.

  6. A pocket model for aluminum agglomeration in composite propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a model for the purpose of estimating the fraction of aluminum powder that will form agglomerates at the surface of deflagrating composite propellants. The basic idea is that the fraction agglomerated depends upon the amount of aluminum that melts within effective binder pocket volumes framed by oxidizer particles. The effective pocket depends upon the ability of ammonium perchlorate modals to encapsulate the aluminum and provide a local temperature sufficient to ignite the aluminum. Model results are discussed in the light of data showing effects of propellant formulation variables and pressure.

  7. Agglomeration behavior of solid nickel on polycrystalline barium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K Scott; Mast, Eric S; Sprenkle, Vince

    2007-11-01

    This letter describes the phenomenon that takes place between nickel/barium titanate couples when heated under conditions employed in multilayer ceramic capacitor manufacturing practice: a 4hr, 1300°C isothermal anneal in 1% H2 – 99% N2. Dense, sputtered nickel films were observed to dewet the titanate and agglomerate into discrete or interconnected islands via a solid-state process. Up to a critical film thickness value of ~1.4 μm, the degree of agglomeration was found to display an exponential dependence on the thickness of the original nickel film.

  8. Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.; Hayashi, Kanetoshi

    1999-08-01

    A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

  9. Continuous air agglomeration method for high carbon fly ash beneficiation

    DOEpatents

    Gray, McMahon L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Finseth, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carboree mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

  10. Continuous air Agglomeration Method for high Carbon fly ash Beneficiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Finseth, Dennis H.

    1998-09-29

    The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carbon-free mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

  11. Gasification of rice straw in a fluidized-bed gasifier for syngas application in close-coupled boiler-gasifier systems.

    PubMed

    Calvo, L F; Gil, M V; Otero, M; Morán, A; García, A I

    2012-04-01

    The feasibility and operation performance of the gasification of rice straw in an atmospheric fluidized-bed gasifier was studied. The gasification was carried out between 700 and 850 °C. The stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (A/F) for rice straw was 4.28 and air supplied was 7-25% of that necessary for stoichiometric combustion. Mass and power balances, tar concentration, produced gas composition, gas phase ammonia, chloride and potassium concentrations, agglomeration tendencies and gas efficiencies were assessed. Agglomeration was avoided by replacing the normal alumina-silicate bed by a mixture of alumina-silicate sand and MgO. It was shown that it is possible to produce high quality syngas from the gasification of rice straw. Under the experimental conditions used, the higher heating value (HHV) of the produced gas reached 5.1 MJ Nm(-3), the hot gas efficiency 61% and the cold gas efficiency 52%. The obtained results prove that rice straw may be used as fuel for close-coupled boiler-gasifier systems. PMID:22297044

  12. Steam gasification of coal, project prototype plant nuclear process heat: Report at the end of the reference phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanheek, K. H.

    1982-05-01

    The work carried out in the field of steam gasification of coal is described. On the basis of the status achieved to date, it can be stated that the mode of operation of the gas generator developed, including the direct feeding of caking high volatile coal, is technically feasible. Moreover, throughput can be improved by 65% at minimum by using catalysts. On the whole, industrial application of steam gasification, using nuclear process heat, stays attractive compared with other gasification processes. Not only coal is conserved, but also the costs of the gas manufactured are favorable. As confirmed by recent economic calculations, these are 20 to 25% lower.

  13. Advances in the shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Doering, E.L.; Cremer, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a dry-feed, oxygen-blown, entrained flow coal gasification process which has the capability to convert virtually any coal or petroleum coke into a clean medium Btu synthesis gas, or syngas, consisting predominantly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. In SCGP, high pressure nitrogen or recycled syngas is used to pneumatically convey dried, pulverized coal to the gasifier. The coal enters the gasifier through diametrically opposed burners where it reacts with oxygen at temperatures in excess of 2500{degrees}F. The gasification temperature is maintained to ensure that the mineral matter in the coal is molten and will flow smoothly down the gasifier wall and out the slag tap. Gasification conditions are optimized, depending on coal properties, to achieve the highest coal to gas conversion efficiency, with minimum formation of undesirable byproducts.

  14. Catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Douglas W.; Spiro, Clifford L.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1985-01-01

    Catalyst for the production of methane from carbon and/or coal by means of catalytic gasification. The catalyst compostion containing at least two alkali metal salts. A particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used.

  15. Development of biomass gasification to produce substitute fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.J.; Knight, R.A.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.

    1988-03-01

    The development of an efficient pressurized, medium-Btu steam-oxygen-blown fluidized-bed biomass gasification process was conducted. The overall program included initial stages of design-support research before the 12-ton-per-day (TPD) process research unit (PRU) was built. These stages involved the characterization of test-specific biomass species and the characteristics and limits of fluidization control. Also obtained for the design of the adiabatic PRU was information from studies with bench-scale equipment on the rapid rates of biomass devolatilization and on kinetics of the rate-controlling step of biomass char and steam gasification. The development program culminated with the sucessful operation of the PRU through 19 parametric-variation tests and extended steady-state process-proving tests. the program investigated the effect of gasifier temperature, pressure, biomass throughput rate, steam-to-biomass ratio, type of feedstock, feedstock moisture, and fludized-bed height on gasification performance. A long-duration gasification test of 3 days steady-state operation was conducted with the whole tree chips to indentify long-term effects of fluidized process conditions; to establish gasifier material and energy balances; to determine the possible breakthrough of low concentration organic species; and to evaluate the mechanical performance of the system components. Results indicate that the pressurized fludizied-bed process, can achieve carbon conversions of about 95% with cold gas thermal efficiences about 75% and with low and tar production. New information was collected on the oil and tar fraction, which relate to the process operating conditions and feedstock type. The different feedstocks studied were very similar in elemental compositions, and produced similar product gas compositions, but each has a different distribution and character of the oil and tar fractions. 11 refs., 45 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  17. UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS

    SciTech Connect

    Vas Choudhry; Stephen Kwan; Steven R. Hadley

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the project entitled ''Utilization of Lightweight Materials Made from Coal Gasification Slags'' was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of manufacturing low-unit-weight products from coal gasification slags which can be used as substitutes for conventional lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates. In Phase I, the technology developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates from slag (termed SLA) was applied to produce a large batch (10 tons) of expanded slag using pilot direct-fired rotary kilns and a fluidized bed calciner. The expanded products were characterized using basic characterization and application-oriented tests. Phase II involved the demonstration and evaluation of the use of expanded slag aggregates to produce a number of end-use applications including lightweight roof tiles, lightweight precast products (e.g., masonry blocks), structural concrete, insulating concrete, loose fill insulation, and as a substitute for expanded perlite and vermiculite in horticultural applications. Prototypes of these end-use applications were made and tested with the assistance of commercial manufacturers. Finally, the economics of expanded slag production was determined and compared with the alternative of slag disposal. Production of value-added products from SLA has a significant potential to enhance the overall gasification process economics, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are considered.

  18. Carbon-catalyzed gasification of organic feedstocks in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.; Matsumura, Y.; Stenberg, J.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1996-08-01

    Spruce wood charcoal, macadamia shell charcoal, coal activated carbon, and coconut shell activated carbon catalyze the gasification of organic compounds in supercritical water. Feedstocks studied in this paper include glycerol, glucose, cellobiose, whole biomass feedstocks (depithed bagasse liquid extract and sewage sludge), and representative Department of Defense (DoD) wastes (methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, ethylene glycol, acetic acid, and phenol). The effects of temperature, pressure, reactant concentration, weight hourly space velocity, and the type of catalyst on the gasification of glucose are reported. Complete conversion of glucose (22% by weight in water) to a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas was realized at a weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 22.2 h{sup {minus}1} in supercritical water at 600 C, 34.5 MPa. Complete conversions of the whole biomass feeds were also achieved at the same temperature and pressure. The destruction efficiencies for the representative DoD wastes were also high. Deactivation of the carbon catalyst was observed after 4 h of operation without swirl in the entrance region of the reactor, but the carbon gasification efficiency remained near 100% for more than 6 h when a swirl generator was employed in the entrance of the reactor.

  19. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC17

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2004-11-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR (formerly Kellogg Brown & Root) Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results gasification operation with Illinois Basin bituminous coal in PSDF test campaign TC17. The test campaign was completed from October 25, 2004, to November 18, 2004. System startup and initial operation was accomplished with Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal, and then the system was transitioned to Illinois Basin coal operation. The major objective for this test was to evaluate the PSDF gasification process operational stability and performance using the Illinois Basin coal. The Transport Gasifier train was operated for 92 hours using PRB coal and for 221 hours using Illinois Basin coal.

  20. Shell Coal Gasification Project. Final report on eighteen diverse feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.N.; Kiszka, M.B.; Mahagaokar, U.; Krewinghaus, A.B.

    1993-07-01

    This report summarizes the overall performance of the Shell Coal Gasification Process at SCGP-1 in Deer Park, Texas. It covers the four year demonstration and experimental program jointly conducted by Shell oil and Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute. The report describes coal properties and gasification results on eighteen feeds which include seventeen diverse coals from domestic and international markets, and petroleum coke. Comparisons between design premises and actual performance on two key feeds, Illinois No. 5 coal and Texas lignite demonstrate that the plant met and exceeded design targets on all key process parameters. Equipment performance results are discussed for all areas of the plant based on periodic interim inspections, and the final inspection conducted in April 1991 after the end of operations. The report describes process control tests conducted in gasifier lead and turbine lead configurations, demonstrating the ability of the process to meet utility requirements for load following. Environmental result on the process for a wide variety of feedstocks are documented. These results underscore the inherent strength of the SCGP technology in meeting and exceeding all environmental standards for air, water and solids. The excellent applicability of the Shell Coal Gasification Process in integrated combined cycle power generation systems is described in view of the high efficiency derived from this process.

  1. Coal gasification for electric power generation.

    PubMed

    Spencer, D F; Gluckman, M J; Alpert, S B

    1982-03-26

    The electric utility industry is being severely affected by rapidly escalating gas and oil prices, restrictive environmental and licensing regulations, and an extremely tight money market. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have the potential to be economically competitive with present commercial coal-fired power plants while satisfying stringent emission control requirements. The current status of gasification technology is discussed and the critical importance of the 100-megawatt Cool Water IGCC demonstration program is emphasized. PMID:17788466

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: SOURCE TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT ADDENDUM - LURGI-TYPE MEDIUM-BTU GASIFICATION. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT AND APPENDIX A

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an addendum to a 1981 environmental assessment source test and evaluation report (EPA-600/7-81-142) on Lurgi-type medium-Btu gasification in Kosovo, Yugoslavia. It contains analytical data on 21 gasification plant streams, not included in the final report. Condensab...

  3. Life-cycle CO{sub 2} emissions for air-blown gasification combined-cycle using selexol

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.; Berry, G.F.; Livengood, C.D.

    1993-06-01

    Initiatives to limit carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions have drawn considerable interest to integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation. With its higher efficiency, this process can reduce CO{sub 2} production. It is also amenable to CO{sub 2} capture, because CO{sub 2} Can be removed before combustion and the associated dilution with atmospheric nitrogen. This paper presents a process-design baseline that encompasses the IGCC system, CO{sub 2} transport -by pipeline, and land-based sequestering of CO{sub 2} in geological reservoirs. The intent of this study is to provide the CO{sub 2} budget, or an ``equivalent CO{sub 2}`` budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps. Design capital and operating costs for the process are included in the fill study but are not reported in the present paper. The value used for the equivalent CO{sub 2} budget will be 1 kg CO{sub 2}/kWh{sub e}. The base case is a 470-MW (at the busbar) IGCC system using an air-blown Kellogg Rust Westinghouse (KRW) agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, US Illinois {number_sign}6 bituminous coal feed, and in-bed sulfur removal. Mining, feed preparation, and conversion result in a net electric power production of 461 MW, with a CO{sub 2} release rate of 0.830 kg/kWh{sub e}. In the CO{sub 2} recovery case, the gasifier output is taken through water-gas shift and then to Selexol, a glycol-based absorber-stripper process that recovers CO{sub 2} before it enters the combustion turbine. This process results in 350 MW at the busbar.

  4. Frequency comparative study of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzhong; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Guangxue; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2011-01-01

    Particulate pollution is main kind of atmospheric pollution. The fine particles are seriously harmful to human health and environment. Acoustic agglomeration is considered as a promising pretreatment technology for fine particle agglomeration. The mechanisms of acoustic agglomeration are very complex and the agglomeration efficiency is affected by many factors. The most important and controversial factor is frequency. Comparative studies between high-frequency and low-frequency sound source to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash were carried out to investigate the influence of frequency on agglomeration efficiency. Acoustic agglomeration theoretical analysis, experimental particle size distributions (PSDs) and orthogonal design were examined. The results showed that the 20 kHz high-frequency sound source was not suitable to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash. Only within the size ranging from 0.2 to 0.25 microm the particles agglomerated to adhere together, and the agglomerated particles were smaller than 2.5 microm. The application of low-frequency (1000-1800 Hz) sound source was proved as an advisable pretreatment with the highest agglomeration efficiency of 75.3%, and all the number concentrations within the measuring range decreased. Orthogonal design L16 (4)3 was introduced to determine the optimum frequency and optimize acoustic agglomeration condition. According to the results of orthogonal analysis, frequency was the dominant factor of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration and the optimum frequency was 1400 Hz. PMID:22432309

  5. Investigation of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air/steam and oxygen/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal. Numerical simulation showed that the plasma oxygen/steam gasification of coal is a more preferable process in comparison with the plasma air/steam coal gasification. On the numerical experiments, a plasma vortex fuel reformer is designed.

  6. Engineering development of selective agglomeration. Site closeout report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The Selective Agglomeration POC facility consisted of a coal crushing and grinding circuit, followed by an agglomeration circuit and product dewatering. (A plot plan of the facility is shown in Figure 1-2.) The coal crushing and grinding system consisted of a hammermill coal crusher, weigh-belt feeder, two ball mills (primary and secondary), and necessary hoppers, pumps, and conveyors. The mills were capable of providing coal over a range of grinds from a d{sub 50} of 125 to 25 microns. Slurry discharged from the ball mills was pumped to the agglomeration circuit. The agglomeration circuit began with a high-shear mixer, where diesel was added to the slurry to begin the formation of microagglomerates. The high-shear mixer was followed by two stages of conventional flotation cells for microagglomerate recovery. The second-stage-flotation-cell product was pumped to either a rotary-drum vacuum filter or a high-G centrifuge for dewatering. The dewatered product was then convoyed to the product pad from which dump trucks were used to transfer it to the utility plant located next to the facility. Plant tailings were pumped to the water clarifier for thickening and then dewatered in plate-and-frame filter presses. These dewatered tailings were also removed to the utility via dump truck. Clarified water (thickener overflow) was recycled to the process via a head tank.

  7. Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.C.; Tyson, D.; Ziaoping, Qiu, Lessa, A.

    1990-04-01

    The overall objective is to determine the basic principles and mechanisms which underlie a number of selective oil agglomeration processes that have been proposed for beneficiating fine-size coal. An understanding of the basic principles and mechanisms will greatly facilitate technical development and application of such processes to various types of coal. 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Universities' Entrepreneurial Performance: The Role of Agglomeration Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping Penny

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the extensive research on universities' entrepreneurship, whether research strength fosters or dampens their entrepreneurial performance remains controversial. Much research claims an influential role of research universities in regional economy, however, little has been said about what a part that the agglomeration economies may play…

  9. Experimental study on static and impact strength of sintered agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machii, Nagisa; Nakamura, Akiko M.

    2011-01-01

    Porous internal structure is common among small bodies in the planetary systems and possible range of porosity, strength, and scale of in-homogeneity is wide. Icy agglomerates, such as icy dust aggregates in the proto-planetary disks or icy re-accumulated bodies of fragments from impact disruption beyond snow-line would have stronger bulk strength once the component particles physically connect each other due to sintering. In this study, in order to get better understanding of impact disruption process of such bodies, we first investigated the critical tensile (normal) and bending (tangential) forces to break a single neck, the connected part of the sintered particles, using sintered dimer of macro glass particles of ˜5 mm in diameter. We found that the critical tensile force is proportional to the cross-section of the neck when the neck grows sufficiently larger than the surface roughness of the original particles. We also found that smaller force is required to break a neck when the force is applied tangentially to the neck than normally applied. Then we measured the bulk tensile strength of sintered glass agglomerates consisting of 90 particles and showed that the average tensile stress to break a neck of agglomerates in static loading is consistent with the measured value for dimers. Impact experiments with velocity from 40 to 280 m/s were performed for the sintered agglomerates with ˜40% porosity, of two different bulk tensile strengths. The size ratio of the beads to the target was 0.19. The energy density required to catastrophically break the agglomerate was shown to be much less than those required for previously investigated sintered glass beads targets with ˜40% porosity, of which the size of component bead is 10 -2 times smaller and the size ratio of the bead to target is also ˜10 -2 times smaller than the agglomerates in this study. This is probably due to much smaller number of necks for the stress wave to travel through the agglomerates and

  10. Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Parag Kulkarni; Jie Guan; Raul Subia; Zhe Cui; Jeff Manke; Arnaldo Frydman; Wei Wei; Roger Shisler; Raul Ayala; om McNulty; George Rizeq; Vladimir Zamansky; Kelly Fletcher

    2008-03-31

    In the near future, the nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It is necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact of fossil fuel utilization including greenhouse gas management. GE Global Research (GEGR) investigated an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology with potential to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP technology offers the long-term potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions. GE was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to investigate and develop the UFP technology. Work started on the Phase I program in October 2000 and on the Phase II effort in April 2005. In the UFP technology, coal, water and air are simultaneously converted into (1) hydrogen rich stream that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) CO{sub 2} rich stream for sequestration, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air stream to produce electricity in a gas turbine expander. The process produces near-zero emissions with an estimated efficiency higher than Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) process with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The Phase I R&D program established the chemical feasibility of the major reactions of the integrated UFP technology through lab-, bench- and pilot-scale testing. A risk analysis session was carried out at the end of Phase I effort to identify the major risks in the UFP technology and a plan was developed to mitigate these risks in the Phase II of the program. The Phase II effort focused on three high-risk areas: economics, lifetime of solids used in the UFP process, and product gas quality for turbines (or the impact of impurities in the coal on the overall system). The economic analysis included estimating the capital cost as well as the costs of hydrogen

  11. Kinetic models comparison for steam gasification of coal/biomass blend chars.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chaofen; Hu, Song; Xiang, Jun; Yang, Haiping; Sun, Lushi; Su, Sheng; Wang, Baowen; Chen, Qindong; He, Limo

    2014-11-01

    The non-isothermal thermogravimetric method (TGA) was applied to different chars produced from lignite (LN), sawdust (SD) and their blends at the different mass ratios in order to investigate their thermal reactivity under steam atmosphere. Through TGA analysis, it was determined that the most prominent interaction between sawdust and lignite occurred at the mass ratio of sawdust/lignite as 1:4, but with further dose of more sawdust into its blends with lignite, the positive interaction deteriorated due to the agglomeration and deactivation of the alkali mineral involved in sawdust at high steam gasification temperature. Through systematic comparison, it could be observed that the random pore model was the most suitable among the three gas-solid reaction models adopted in this research. Finally, rational kinetic parameters were reached from these gas-solid reaction models, which provided a basis for design and operation of the realistic system of co-gasification of lignite and sawdust in this research. PMID:25203234

  12. Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips

    2007-09-01

    This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating, maintenance, and management costs for the reference plant. To perform these assessments, detailed models of the gasification and lime kiln processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The material and energy balance outputs from the Aspen Plus model were used as inputs to both the material and economic evaluations.

  13. Lock hopper valves for coal gasification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of two configurations of Lock Hopper Valves is described. These two configurations are intended to meet the requirements for four typical types of service in coal gasification plants. Operating pressures for either configuration is 1600 psi. One configuration is designed for use at temperatures up to 2000/sup 0/F, and the other for temperatures up to 850/sup 0/F. Several unique construction features are employed, including the extensive use of dense alumina ceramic, especially in the high-temperature valve. The description includes details of construction, and problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and proposed solutions to those problems.

  14. Advanced high-temperature, high-pressure transport reactor gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, M.L.

    1999-07-01

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Technology Center Office of Power Systems Product Management is to foster the development and deployment of advanced, clean, and affordable fossil-based (coal) power systems. These advanced power systems include the development and demonstration of gasification-based advanced power systems. These systems are integral parts of the Vision 21 Program for the co-production of power and chemicals which is being developed at DOE. DOE has been developing advanced gasification systems which lower the capital and operating cost of producing syngas for electricity or chemicals production. A transport reactor gasifier has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer as compared to other gasification systems because of its high throughput. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) utilizing the Kellogg, Brown and Root (KBR) transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services (SCS) Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 1000 hours of operation on three different fuels in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) has been completed to date. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has established an extensive database on the operation of various fuels in a transport reactor gasifier. This database will be useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on a transport reactor gasifier. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging between 105 to 130 Btu/scf can be achieved. Factors that affect the TRDU product gas quality appear to be circulation rate, coal type, temperature, and air:coal and steam:coal ratios. Future plans are to modify the transport reactor mixing zone and J-leg loop seal to increase backmixing, thereby increasing solids residence time and gasifier performance. Enriched air- and oxygen-blown gasification tests, especially on widely available low-cost fuels such as petroleum coke, will also be

  15. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  16. Solid fuel gasification in the global energy sector (a review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ol'khovskii, G. G.

    2015-07-01

    In the review of the Conference on Gasification of Solid Fuels, which was held on October 2013 by the United States, the commercial use of the most advanced coal gasification systems in the chemical and power industry is considered. Data on the projects of integrated solid fuel gasification combined-cycle plants, either being developed or exploited in the United States, as well as the nature and results performed in specialized organizations to improve the existing gasification equipment and systems, are presented.

  17. Engineering and economic evaluation of integrated gasification compressed air storage with humidification (IGCASH). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, O.; McCone, A.; Nakhamkin, M.; Patel, M.

    1993-11-01

    Integrated Gasification Compressed Air Storage with Humidification (IGCASH) is concept for an intermediate-load, cycling-duty plant with the environmental advantages of coal gasification and the reliability benefits of continuous operation of the hot gasification and turbomachinery equipment. The IGCASH concept integrates a quench-type coal gasification system with an advanced compressed air storage system in which the compression heat is recovered and stored in water which is used to humidify and preheat the air and fuel gas sent to the turbine. Bechtel under contract to EPRI (RP 2834-3) performed an engineering and economic evaluation to verify the feasibility of IGCASH as an option for intermediate-load power generation from coal. A baseline design was developed for a conceptual 400 MW generic IGCASH plant using currently available technology, including the Texaco full-quench gasification process, Westinghouse turbomachinery, and solution-mined salt-dome cavern for air storage. Three alternatives to the baseline design were also developed to assess the effects of storage water temperature and next-generation turbomachinery on plant performance and economics. The IGCASH concept compared favorably with conventional pulverized coal fired steam (PCFS) power generation. The IGCASH baseline design showed a significantly lower heat rate and yielded a lower cost of electricity than a comparable PCFS plant operating on the same duty cycle.

  18. Biomass-oxygen gasification in a high-temperature entrained-flow gasifier.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinsong; Chen, Qing; Zhao, Hui; Cao, Xiaowei; Mei, Qinfeng; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2009-01-01

    The technology associated with indirect biomass liquefaction is currently arousing increased attention, as it could ensure a supply of transportation fuels and reduce the use of petroleum. The characteristics of biomass-oxygen gasification in a bench-scale laminar entrained-flow gasifier were studied in the paper. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of some key factors, including reaction temperature, residence time and oxygen/biomass ratio, on the gasification. The results indicated that higher temperature favored H2 and CO production. Cold gas efficiency was improved by N10% when the temperature was increased from 1000 to 1400 degrees C. The carbon conversion increased and the syngas quality was improved with increasing residence time. A shorter residence resulted in incomplete gasification. An optimal residence time of 1.6 s was identified in this study. The introduction of oxygen to the gasifier strengthened the gasification and improved the carbon conversion, but lowered the lower heating value and the H2/CO ratio of the syngas. The optimal oxygen/biomass ratio in this study was 0.4. The results of this study will help to improve our understanding of syngas production by biomass high-temperature gasification. PMID:19393735

  19. Interaction and kinetic analysis for coal and biomass co-gasification by TG-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chaofen; Hu, Song; Xiang, Jun; Zhang, Liqi; Sun, Lushi; Shuai, Chao; Chen, Qindong; He, Limo; Edreis, Elbager M A

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the interaction and kinetic behavior of CO2 gasification of coal, biomass and their blends by thermogravimetry analysis (TG). The gas products evolved from gasification were measured online with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled with TG. Firstly, TG experiments indicated that interaction between the coals and biomasses mainly occurred during co-gasification process. The most significant synergistic interaction occurred for LN with SD at the blending mass ratio 4:1. Furthermore, thermal kinetic analysis indicated that the activation energy involved in co-gasification decreased as the SD content increased until the blending ratio of SD with coal reached 4:1. The rise of the frequency factor indicated that the increase of SD content favored their synergistic interaction. Finally, FTIR analysis of co-gasification of SD with LN indicated that except for CO, most gases including CH3COOH, C6H5OH, H2O, etc., were detected at around 50-700°C. PMID:24412857

  20. Combustion and gasification characteristics of chars from four commercially significant coals of different rank. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala, N.Y.; Patel, R.L.; Lao, T.C.

    1982-09-01

    The combustion and gasification kinetics of four size graded coal chars were investigated experimentally in Combustion Engineering's Drop Tube Furnace System (DTFS). The chars were prepared in the DTFS from commercially significant coals representing a wide range of rank; these included a Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam hvAb coal, an Illinois No. 6 Seam hvCb coal, a Wyoming Sub C, and a Texas Lignite A. Additionally, a number of standard ASTM and special bench scale tests were performed on the coals and chars to characterize their physicochemical properties. Results showed that the lower rank coal chars were more reactive than the higher rank coal chars and that combustion reactions of chars were much faster than the corresponding gasification reactions. Fuel properties, temperature, and reactant gas partial pressure had a significant influence on both combustion and gasification, and particle size had a mild but discernible influence on gasification. Fuel reactivities were closely related to pore structure. Computer simulation of the combustion and gasification performances of the subject samples in the DTFS supported the experimental findings.

  1. Surface Gasification Materials Program. Semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    The objective of the Surface Gasification Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for application to the specific needs of coal gasification systems. One of the goals of the program is to evaluate innovative fabrication methods which have the potential to lower costs and improve reliability and safety for gasifier vessels and components. Another goal is to conduct engineering-scale development and application of materials for coal gasification systems to ensure that the materials of construction for pilot plants and furture large-scale plants can be properly selected and specified. Contents of this report include: (1) corrosion studies of plant materials surveillance tests; (2) slagging gasifier refractories - application/evaluation; (3) protective coatings and claddings - application/evaluation; (4) corrosion of structural ceramics in coal gasification environments; (5) advanced pressure vessel materials technology; (6) electroslag component casting; (7) production and evaluation of electroslag casting; and (8) materials review and component failure analysis in support of coal gasification processes and plants.

  2. Saltation threshold reduction due to the electrostatic agglomeration of fine particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Rodman N.; Greeley, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    Particles between 80 and 110 microns in diameter are the most easily moved by the wind. As the particle size decreases below 60 microns, they are increasingly more difficult to move by surface winds, and a number of experiments were performed in an attempt to reduce the required wind velocity. These include: (1) the bombardment of a bed of fine particles by particles near the optimum size, the larger particles kicking the fine particles into the windstream where they are entrained; and (2) the electrostatic agglomeration of fine particles into sizes more easily saltated. The results of these experiments are discussed.

  3. Dual Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-30

    The dual fluidized bed reactor is a recirculating system in which one half of the unit operates as a steam pyrolysis device for biomass. The pyrolysis occurs by introducing biomass and steam to a hot fluidized bed of inert material such as coarse sand. Syngas is produced during the pyrolysis and exits the top of the reactor with the steam. A crossover arm, fed by gravity, moves sand and char from the pyrolyzer to the second fluidized bed. This sand bed uses blown air to combust the char. The exit stream from this side of the reactor is carbon dioxide, water and ash. There is a second gravity fed crossover arm to return sand to the pyrolysis side. The recirculating action of the sand and the char is the key to the operation of the dual fluidized bed reactor. The objective of the project was to design and construct a dual fluidized bed prototype reactor from literature information and in discussion with established experts in the field. That would be appropriate in scale and operation to measure the relative performance of the gasification of biomass and low ranked coals to produce a high quality synthesis gas with no dilution from nitrogen or combustion products.

  4. Uses found for gasification slag

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    A study carried out for the Electric Power Research Institute by Praxis Engineers, Inc. has examined possible uses for the gasifier slag produced during coal gasification. After describing some of the problems foreseen to market development, seven categories of uses are listed and briefly discussed. The possible uses for slag identified are: (1) Agriculture (soil conditioner, lime substitute, low analysis fertilizer, carrier for insecticides); (2) Industrial material (abrasive grit, catalyst and adsorbent, roofing granules, industrial filler, mineral wool production, filter media); (3) Cement and Concrete (concrete aggregate, mortar/grouting material, pozzolanic admixture, raw materials for Portland cement production, masonary unit production); (4) Road Construction and Maintenance (de-icing grit, fine aggregate for bituminous pavement, base aggregate, sub-base aggregate, seal-cost aggregate); (5) Synthetic Aggregate (lightweight construction aggregate, landscaping material, sand substitute); (6) Land Fill and Soil Stabilization (soil conditioner for improving stability, structural fill, embankment material); (7) Resource Recovery (source of carbon, magnetite, iron, aluminium, and other metals). 2 tables.

  5. Solar gasification of carbonaceous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. W.; Berjoan, R.; Coutures, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    Charcoal, wood and paper have ben gasified in a packed-bed reactor using steam and solar energy. The steam was generated by spraying water directly on to the surface of the fuel and, at the same time, heating the fuel at the focus of a solar furnace. Half of the steam reacted with carbon and 30 pct of the incident solar energy was stored as chemical enthalpy. The performance of a fluidized-bed reactor was compared to that of a packed-bed reactor using charcoal and CO2. The fraction of the incident solar energy utilized to produce CO (stored) was 10 pct in the case of the fluidized-bed reactor and 40 pct for the packed-bed reactor. The fuel value of the gas produced from the steam-gasification of wood and paper was 65 kcal/mole (320 Btu/lb). On an ash free basis the volume yield of the gas was within 0.1 of 1 cu m/kq.

  6. Coal gasification using solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, V. K.; Breault, R. W.; Lakshmanan, S.

    1983-01-01

    An economic evaluation of conventional and solar thermal coal gasification processes is presented, together with laboratory bench scale tests of a solar carbonization unit. The solar design consists of a heliostat field, a central tower receiver, a gasifier, and a recirculation loop. The synthetic gas is produced in the gasifier, with part of the gas upgraded to CH4 and another redirected through the receiver with steam to form CO and H2. Carbonaceous fuels are burned whenever sunlight is not available. Comparisons are made for costs of Lurgi, Bi-gas, Hygas, CO2 Acceptor, and Peat Gas processes and hybrid units for each. Solar thermal systems are projected to become economical with 350 MWt output and production of 1,420,000 cu m of gas per day. The laboratory bench scale unit was tested with Montana rosebud coal to derive a heat balance assessment and analyse the product gas. Successful heat transfer through a carrier gas was demonstrated, with most of the energy being stored in the product gas.

  7. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  8. Solar coal gasification - Plant design and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiman, W. R.; Thorsness, C. B.; Gregg, D. W.

    A plant design and economic analysis is presented for solar coal gasification (SCG). Coal pyrolysis and char gasification to form the gasified product are reviewed, noting that the endothermic gasification reactions occur only at temperatures exceeding 1000 K, an energy input of 101-136 kJ/mol of char reformed. Use of solar heat offers the possibility of replacing fuels needed to perform the gasification and the oxygen necessary in order to produce a nitrogen-free product. Reactions, energetics, and byproducts from the gasification of subbituminous coal are modeled for a process analysis code used for the SCG plant. Gas generation is designed to occur in a unit exposed to the solar flux focus from a heliostat field. The SCG gas would have an H2 content of 88%, compared to the 55% offered by the Lurgi process. Initial capital costs for the SCG plant are projected to be 4 times those with the Lurgi process, with equality being achieved when coal costs $4/gJ.

  9. Research approach and first results on agglomerate compaction in protoplanetary dust simulation in the Cloud Manipulation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedernikov, Andrei; Blum, Jurgen; Ingo Von Borstel, Olaf; Schraepler, Rainer; Balapanov, Daniyar; Cecere, Anselmo

    2016-07-01

    Nanometre and micrometre-sized solid particles are ubiquitous in space and on Earth - from galaxies, interstellar space, protoplanetary and debris disks to planetary rings and atmospheres, planetary surfaces, comets, interplanetary space, Earth's atmosphere. Apparently, the most intriguing problem in the picture of the formation of planets is the transition from individual microscopic dust grains to kilometre-sized planetesimals. Revealing the mechanisms of this transition is one of the main tasks of the European Space Agency's project Interaction in Cosmic and Atmospheric Particle Systems (ICAPS). It was found that Brownian motion driven agglomeration could not provide the transition within reasonable time scale. As a result, at this stage top scientific goals shifted towards forced agglomeration and concentration of particles, targeting revealing the onset of compaction, experimental study of the evolution of fractal dimensions, size and mass distribution, occurrence of bouncing. The main tasks comprise 1) development of the rapid agglomeration model 2) development of the experimental facilities creating big fractal-type agglomerates from 10 to 1000 μm from a cloud of micrometre-size grains; 3) experimental realization of the rapid agglomeration in microgravity and ground conditions; and 4) in situ investigation of the morphology, mobility, mechanical and optical properties of the free-floating agglomerates, including investigation of thermophoresis, photophoresis of the agglomerates and of the two-phase flow phenomena. To solve the experimental part of the tasks we developed a Cloud Manipulation System, realized as a breadboard (CMS BB) for long duration microgravity platforms and a simplified laboratory version (CMS LV) mostly oriented on short duration microgravity and ground tests. The new system is based on the use of thermophoresis, most favourable for cloud manipulation without creating additional particle-particle forces in the cloud with a possibility

  10. On Some Versions of the Element Agglomeration AMGe Method

    SciTech Connect

    Lashuk, I; Vassilevski, P

    2007-08-09

    The present paper deals with element-based AMG methods that target linear systems of equations coming from finite element discretizations of elliptic PDEs. The individual element information (element matrices and element topology) is the main input to construct the AMG hierarchy. We study a number of variants of the spectral agglomerate element based AMG method. The core of the algorithms relies on element agglomeration utilizing the element topology (built recursively from fine to coarse levels). The actual selection of the coarse degrees of freedom (dofs) is based on solving large number of local eigenvalue problems. Additionally, we investigate strategies for adaptive AMG as well as multigrid cycles that are more expensive than the V-cycle utilizing simple interpolation matrices and nested conjugate gradient (CG) based recursive calls between the levels. The presented algorithms are illustrated with an extensive set of experiments based on a matlab implementation of the methods.

  11. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Trace element removal study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Southern Company Services, Inc., (SCS) was contracted in 1989 by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a commercially acceptable selective agglomeration technology to enhance the use of high-sulfur coals by 1993. The project scope involved development of a bench-scale process and components, as well as the design, testing, and evaluation of a proof-of-concept (POC) facility. To that end, a two-ton-per-hour facility was constructed and tested near Wilsonville, Alabama. Although it was not the primary focus of the test program, SCS also measured the ability of selective agglomeration to remove trace elements from coal. This document describes the results of that program.

  12. Development of methods to predict agglomeration and disposition in FBCs

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.K.; Erickson, T.A.

    1995-11-01

    This 3-year, multiclient program is providing the information needed to determine the behavior of inorganic components in FBC units using advanced methods of analysis coupled with bench-scale combustion experiments. The major objectives of the program are as follows: (1) To develop further our advanced ash and deposit characterization techniques to quantify the effects of the liquid-phase components in terms of agglomerate formation and ash deposits, (2) To determine the mechanisms of inorganic transformations that lead to bed agglomeration and ash deposition in FBC systems, and (3) To develop a better means to predict the behavior of inorganic components as a function of coal composition, bed material characteristics, and combustion conditions.

  13. Functionally graded porous scaffolds made of Ti-based agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Keivan A; Hilditch, Tim; Dargusch, Matthew S; Nouri, Alireza

    2016-10-01

    Mono- and double-layer porous scaffolds were successfully fabricated using ball-milled agglomerates of Ti and Ti-10Nb-3Mo alloy. For selectively controlling the level of porosity and pore size, the agglomerates were sieved into two different size fractions of 100-300μm and 300-500μm. Compressive mechanical properties were measured on a series of cylindrical sintered compacts with different ratios of solid core diameter to porous layer width. The graded porous scaffolds exhibited stress-strain curves typical for metallic foams with a defined plateau region after yielding. The compressive strengths and elastic moduli ranged from 300 to 700MPa and 14 to 55GPa, respectively, depending on the core diameter and the material used. The obtained properties make these materials suitable for load-bearing implant applications. PMID:27389321

  14. Liquid bridge agglomeration: A fundamental approach to toner deinking

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, B.A.; Berg, J.C. . Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-05-01

    An alternative agglomeration technique for deinking toner-printed furnishes has been investigated. This technique requires only the addition of an immiscible hydrocarbon oil dispersed in water at dosages of approximately 1% by weight on fiber. The addition is made during repulping: the process appears to be effective at all temperatures of interest (23 C and 70 C are tested) and requires no surfactants or additional chemicals. The result of the oil addition is the agglomeration of the toner particles into spheres of 1 mm to 1 cm in size. These spheres contain the added oil which acts as a binder, holding the toner particles together by liquid bridges. The process is ineffective when the furnish contains highly sized fibers or starched paper, and future work seeks to address these crucial problems.

  15. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical

  16. De-agglomeration Effect of the US Pharmacopeia and Alberta Throats on Carrier-Based Powders in Commercial Inhalation Products.

    PubMed

    Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Tang, Patricia; Zhou, Qi Tony; Tong, Zhenbo; Leung, Cassandra; Decharaksa, Janwit; Yang, Runyu; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2015-11-01

    The US pharmacopeia (USP) and Alberta throats were recently reported to cause further de-agglomeration of carrier-free powders emitted from some dry powder inhalers (DPIs). This study assessed if they have similar influences on commercially available carrier-based DPIs. A straight tube, a USP throat, and an Alberta throat (non-coated and coated) were used for cascade impaction testing. Aerosol fine particle fraction (FPF ≤ 5 μm) was computed to evaluate throat-induced de-agglomeration. Computational fluid dynamics are employed to simulate airflow patterns and particle trajectories inside the USP and Alberta throats. For all tested products, no significant differences in the in vitro aerosol performance were observed between the USP throat and the straight tube. Using fine lactose carriers (<10 μm), Symbicort(®) and Oxis(™) showed minimal impaction inside the Alberta throat and resulted in similar FPF among all induction ports. For products using coarse lactose carriers (>10 μm), impaction frequency and energy inside the Alberta throat were significant. Further de-agglomeration was noted inside the non-coated Alberta throat for Seretide(®) and Spiriva(®), but agglomerates emitted from Relenza(®), Ventolin(®), and Foradil(®) did not further break up into smaller fractions. The coated Alberta throat considerably reduced the FPF values of these products due to the high throat retention, but they generally agreed better with the in vivo data. In conclusion, depending on the powder formulation (including carrier particle size), the inhaler, and the induction port, further de-agglomeration could happen ex-inhaler and create differences in the in vitro measurements. PMID:26201967

  17. Parallel Element Agglomeration Algebraic Multigrid and Upscaling Library

    2015-02-19

    ParFELAG is a parallel distributed memory C++ library for numerical upscaling of finite element discretizations. It provides optimal complesity algorithms ro build multilevel hierarchies and solvers that can be used for solving a wide class of partial differential equations (elliptic, hyperbolic, saddle point problems) on general unstructured mesh (under the assumption that the topology of the agglomerated entities is correct). Additionally, a novel multilevel solver for saddle point problems with divergence constraint is implemented.

  18. Leaching studies of coal gasification solid waste to meet RCRA requirements for land disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, T.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the research currently underway at ORNL related to the land disposal of coal gasification ash. Included are data on the chemical composition and properties of ash from five of six proposed gasification/liquefaction demonstration plants and of several selected soils. Batch leaching results are presented which determine compliance with RCRA, along with other suggested batch leaching procedures. Leaching studies with ash/soil columns are also presented. The ultimate goal of this study is to provide design information and procedures to insure that solid wastes from gasification plants will comply with RCRA regardless of whether the waste is classified as hazardous or non-hazardous.

  19. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of food processing wastes. 1995 topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.

    1996-08-01

    The catalytic gasification system described in this report has undergone continuing development and refining work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for over 16 years. The original experiments, performed for the Gas Research Institute, were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous stirred-tank reactor tests provided useful design information for evaluating the preliminary economics of the process. This report is a follow-on to previous interim reports which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with batch and continuous-feed reactor systems from 1989 to 1994, including much work with food processing wastes. The discussion here provides details of experiments on food processing waste feedstock materials, exclusively, that were conducted in batch and continuous- flow reactors.

  20. Water assessment report: Section 13 (c); Great Plains gasification project, Mercer County, ND

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    The Water Resources Council is completing a water assessment of synfuels development in the Upper Missouri River Basin. This is being done under Section 13(a) of the Federal Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act. The assessment area includes the coal deposits in the Mercer County project site. Levels of North Dakota coal gasification development that are several times the production level of the Great Plains gasification project are being examined. This report assesses: (1) the availability of adequate water supplies to meet the water requirements of the project, supporting activities, and other development induced by the project; and (2) the changes in the water resources that will result from the project. Findings of the 13(a) assessment show that water supplies are physically available within the mainstem of the Missouri River in North Dakota to supply the requirements of the gasification facilities and the supporting activities - mining and reclamation, electricity, and project-induced population increases.

  1. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 13. Gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the thirteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal, from July 31, 1984 to August 11, 1984. 6 refs., 22 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 15. Gasification of ''fresh'' Rosebud subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-09-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and government agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the fifteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Rosebud subbituminous coal, from June 17, 1985 to June 24, 1985. 4 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Nifedipine Nanoparticle Agglomeration as a Dry Powder Aerosol Formulation Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Plumley, Carl; Gorman, Eric M.; Munson, Eric J.; Berkland, Cory

    2009-01-01

    Efficient administration of drugs represents a leading challenge in pulmonary medicine. Dry powder aerosols are of great interest compared to traditional aerosolized liquid formulations in that they may offer improved stability, ease of administration, and simple device design. Particles 1–5 µm in size typically facilitate lung deposition. Nanoparticles may be exhaled as a result of their small size; however, they are desired to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. Nanoparticles of the hypertension drug nifedipine were co-precipitated with stearic acid to form a colloid exhibiting negative surface charge. Nifedipine nanoparticle colloids were destabilized by using sodium chloride to disrupt the electrostatic repulsion between particles as a means to achieve the agglomerated nanoparticles of a controlled size. The aerodynamic performance of agglomerated nanoparticles was determined by cascade impaction. The powders were found to be well suited for pulmonary delivery. In addition, nanoparticle agglomerates revealed enhanced dissolution of the drug species suggesting the value of this formulation approach for poorly water soluble pulmonary medicines. Ultimately, nifedipine powders are envisioned as an approach to treat pulmonary hypertension. PMID:19015016

  4. Reversible or not? Distinguishing agglomeration and aggregation at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Stanislav V; Tschulik, Kristina; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Compton, Richard G

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticles are prone to clustering either via aggregation (irreversible) or agglomeration (reversible) processes. It is exceedingly difficult to distinguish the two via conventional techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), or electron microscopy imaging (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM)) as such techniques only generally confirm the presence of large particle clusters. Herein we develop a joint approach to tackle the issue of distinguishing between nanoparticle aggregation vs agglomeration by characterizing a colloidal system of Ag NPs using DLS, NTA, SEM imaging and the electrochemical nanoimpacts technique. In contrast to the conventional techniques which all reveal the presence of large clusters of particles, electrochemical nanoimpacts provide information regarding individual nanoparticles in the solution phase and reveal the presence of small nanoparticles (<30 nm) even in high ionic strength (above 0.5 M KCl) and allow a more complete analysis. The detection of small nanoparticles in high ionic strength media evidence the clustering to be a reversible process. As a result it is concluded that agglomeration rather than irreversible aggregation takes place. This observation is of general importance for all colloids as it provides a feasible analysis technique for a wide range of systems with an ability to distinguish subtly different processes. PMID:26352558

  5. Combustion of metal agglomerates in a solid rocket core flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, Filippo; Dossi, Stefano; DeLuca, Luigi T.

    2013-12-01

    The need for access to space may require the use of solid propellants. High thrust and density are appealing features for different applications, spanning from boosting phase to other service applications (separation, de-orbiting, orbit insertion). Aluminum is widely used as a fuel in composite solid rocket motors because metal oxidation increases enthalpy release in combustion chamber and grants higher specific impulse. Combustion process of metal particles is complex and involves aggregation, agglomeration and evolution of reacting particulate inside the core flow of the rocket. It is always stated that residence time should be enough in order to grant complete metal oxidation but agglomerate initial size, rocket grain geometry, burning rate, and other factors have to be reconsidered. New space missions may not require large rocket systems and metal combustion efficiency becomes potentially a key issue to understand whether solid propulsion embodies a viable solution or liquid/hybrid systems are better. A simple model for metal combustion is set up in this paper. Metal particles are represented as single drops trailed by the core flow and reacted according to Beckstead's model. The fluid dynamics is inviscid, incompressible, 1D. The paper presents parametric computations on ideal single-size particles as well as on experimental agglomerate populations as a function of operating rocket conditions and geometries.

  6. Sustainable sewage solutions for small agglomerations.

    PubMed

    Galvão, A; Matos, J; Rodrigues, J; Heath, P

    2005-01-01

    In a significant number of European countries, the need for providing appropriate treatment for the effluents of small rural communities is still especially relevant. In fact, in countries like Portugal, Spain, and many others, significant amounts of investment will be addressed in the next few years to the construction of small Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP). The problems faced when constructing and operating WWTP serving small communities may be relevant when energy and labour costs are relatively high, or when the visual impact on the surrounding areas is especially negative. Sustainable treatment solutions require the selection of appropriate technologies using fewer resources. In this paper, information is presented about sustainability indicators of twenty-one small secondary wastewater treatment plants, including conventional (trickling filters and extended aeration plants) and non-conventional treatment systems (constructed wetlands). The data refer to allocated areas per inhabitant, amounts of concrete per inhabitant, power per inhabitant, and construction and installation costs per inhabitant. The data seem to show that for different reasons, constructed wetlands are promising treatment solutions for application to rural areas in particular because of the relatively low power requirements and relatively low construction costs for served populations below 500 inhabitants. PMID:16477968

  7. ADVANCED GASIFICATION BY-PRODUCT UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2005-04-01

    The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2003 to August 31, 2004. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

  8. Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  9. Process for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  10. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal

    2008-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Coal and Environmental Systems has as its mission to develop advanced gasification-based technologies for affordable, efficient, zero-emission power generation. These advanced power systems, which are expected to produce near-zero pollutants, are an integral part of DOE's Vision 21 Program. DOE has also been developing advanced gasification systems that lower the capital and operating costs of producing syngas for chemical production. A transport reactor has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer compared to other gasification systems since its high-throughput-per-unit cross-sectional area reduces capital costs. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the KBR transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 2800 hours of operation on 11 different coals ranging from bituminous to lignite along with a petroleum coke has been completed to date in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The EERC has established an extensive database on the operation of these various fuels in both air-blown and oxygen-blown modes utilizing a pilot-scale transport reactor gasifier. This database has been useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on an advanced transport reactor gasifier and for determining the performance of various feedstocks in a transport reactor. The effects of different fuel types on both gasifier performance and the operation of the hot-gas filter system have been determined. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging from 90 to 130 Btu/scf have been achieved in air-blown mode, while heating values up to 230 Btu/scf on a dry basis have been achieved in oxygen-blown mode. Carbon conversions up to 95% have also been obtained and are highly dependent on the oxygen-coal ratio. Higher

  11. Modeling heat and mass transfer in catalytic wood gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.D.; Robertus, R.J.; Baker, E.G.; Mudge, L.K.

    1986-03-01

    Current research in the gasification of biomass materials includes production of a methanol synthesis gas catalytically. Previous experiments have indicated early deactivation of catalysts due primarily to carbon deposition. This study presents the results of efforts to model the heat and mass transfer within a spherical catalyst pellet using orthogonal collocation. Solutions are presented which predict temperature and concentration distributions and pellet effectiveness factors. These solutions are compared to a thermodynamic equilibrium model to predict regimes of carbon deposition and subsequent deactivation. Experimental data are presented which support conclusions drawn above. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Sarah; Bower, Cynthia K; Patil, Krushna N; DeWitt, Christina A Mireles

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible "syngas" in a high temperature (above 700 degrees C), oxygen deficient environment. Syngas can be combusted to generate power, which recycles energy from waste products. At 66% to 79% moisture, raw salmon waste streams are too wet to undergo pyrolysis and combustion. Ground raw or de-oiled salmon whole fish, heads, viscera, or frames were therefore "dried" by mixing with wood pellets to a final moisture content of 20%. Ground whole salmon with moisture reduced to 12% moisture was gasified without a drying agent. Gasification tests were performed in a small-scale, fixed-bed, updraft gasifer. After an initial start-up period, the gasifier was loaded with 1.5 kg of biomass. Temperature was recorded at 6 points in the gasifier. Syngas was collected during the short steady-state period during each gasifier run and analyzed. Percentages of each type of gas in the syngas were used to calculate syngas heating value. High heating value (HHV) ranged from 1.45 to 1.98 MJ/kg. Bomb calorimetry determined maximum heating value for the salmon by-products. Comparing heating values shows the efficiency of gasification. Cold gas efficiencies of 13.6% to 26% were obtained from the various samples gasified. Though research of gasification as a means of salmon waste disposal and energy production is ongoing, it can be concluded that pre-dried salmon or relatively low moisture content mixtures of waste with wood are gasifiable. PMID:19799663

  13. Production of Hydrogen from Underground Coal Gasification

    DOEpatents

    Upadhye, Ravindra S.

    2008-10-07

    A system of obtaining hydrogen from a coal seam by providing a production well that extends into the coal seam; positioning a conduit in the production well leaving an annulus between the conduit and the coal gasification production well, the conduit having a wall; closing the annulus at the lower end to seal it from the coal gasification cavity and the syngas; providing at least a portion of the wall with a bifunctional membrane that serves the dual purpose of providing a catalyzing reaction and selectively allowing hydrogen to pass through the wall and into the annulus; and producing the hydrogen through the annulus.

  14. Continuous Removal of Coal-Gasification Residue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.; Suitor, J.; Dubis, D.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous-flow hopper processes solid residue from coal gasification, converting it from ashes, cinders, and clinkers to particles size of sand granules. Unit does not require repeated depressurization of lockhopper to admit and release materials. Therefore consumes less energy. Because unit has no airlock valves opened and closed repeatedly on hot, abrasive particles, subjected to lesser wear. Coal-gasification residue flows slowly through pressure-letdown device. Material enters and leaves continuously. Cleanout door on each pressure-letdown chamber allows access for maintenance and emergencies.

  15. Updraft Fixed Bed Gasification Aspen Plus Model

    2007-09-27

    The updraft fixed bed gasification model provides predictive modeling capabilities for updraft fixed bed gasifiers, when devolatilization data is available. The fixed bed model is constructed using Aspen Plus, process modeling software, coupled with a FORTRAN user kinetic subroutine. Current updraft gasification models created in Aspen Plus have limited predictive capabilities and must be "tuned" to reflect a generalized gas composition as specified in literature or by the gasifier manufacturer. This limits the applicability ofmore » the process model.« less

  16. Study of char gasification reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ballal, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    A Texas lignite, an anthracite and two bituminous coals, Pittsburgh number8 and Illinois number6, were pyrolyzed in a nitrogen atmosphere to prepare chars. Optical microscopy, mercury porosimetry and gas adsorption techniques using nitrogen, CO/sub 2/ and CO, were employed for pore structure characterization. The lignite char exhibited the fastest rates of gaseous diffusion, followed in order of decreasing diffusivities by the Illinois number6, Pittsburgh number8 and anthracite chars. The changes in reactivities and pore structures of chars were measured experimentally during their reaction with oxygen (400-550C) and CO/sub 2/ (800-1000C). For a particular char-gas system, the normalized rate-conversion pattern was invariant with respect to temperature and gaseous concentration. In the case of lignite and Pittsburgh number8 chars, the rate-conversion pattern was similar during reaction with oxygen and CO/sub 2/. Adsorption experiments on partially reacted chars indicated that the micropores in the lignite char were accessible to both reactants. The micropores in the Illinois number6 char were, however, not accessible during its reaction with oxygen. The evolution of pore structure during reaction was modeled by using a probabilistic approach which accounts for overlapping pores with different shapes and sizes. The kinetics of gasification of the lignite and the Pittsburgh number8 chars was studied using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type kinetic expression to correlate the experimental data. CO was found to inhibit the reaction substantially. The effect of a potassium carbonate catalyst on the reaction of these two chars was also investigated. Substantial increases in reaction rates were observed, and the enhancement was approximately proportional to the catalyst loading.

  17. Low/medium btu coal gasification assessment program for specific sites of two New York utilities. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The scope of this study is to investigate the technical and economic aspects of coal gasification to supply low- or medium Btu gas to the two power plant boilers selected for study. This includes the following: select a coal based on its availability, mode of transportation and delivered cost to each power plant site; investigate the effects of burning low- and medium-Btu gas in the selected power plant boilers based on efficiency, rating and cost of modifications and make recommendations for each; review the technical feasibility of converting the power plant boilers to coal-derived gas; identify coal gasification systems that are compatible with the selected coals; have proven pilot, demonstration, or commercial plant operating experience; and produce a product gas which is compatible with the fuel requirements of the power plant; review the technical feasibility of designing a coal gasification facility to meet the constantly changing fuel demands of a power plant; select a low- or medium-Btu coal gasification system for study at Arthur Kill Power Plant; select a low- or medium-Btu coal gasification system for study at Oswego Power Plant; identify gas cleanup systems that are available and compatible with the coal gasification systems, and one capable of reducing the total sulfur emission levels to that required by environmental regulations; select a gas cleanup system for use with the selected coal gasification systems; review the regulatory and financial aspects of conversion to a coal-derived gas; prepare capital cost estimates in 1980 dollars for each of the coal gasification systems; prepare capital cost estimates in 1980 dollars for the boiler modifications; and perform economic evaluations for each of the synthetic gas-fired options, and compare them to the case of continued oil-firing.

  18. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 6. Gasification of delayed petroleum coke

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the sixth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of delayed petroleum coke from Pine Bend, MN. The period of the gasification test was June 1-17, 1983. 2 refs., 15 figs., 22 tabs.

  19. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 4. Gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the fourth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal from Sweetwater County, Wyoming. The period of the gasification test was April 11-30, 1983. 4 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  20. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 7. Gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the seventh volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal. The period of the gasification test was July 18-24, 1983. 6 refs., 20 figs., 17 tabs.

  1. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 5. Gasification of Stahlman Stoker bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the fifth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Stahlman Stoker bituminous coal from Clarion County, PA. The period of the gasification test was April 30 to May 4, 1983. 4 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Preparation and evaluation of agglomerated crystals by crystallo-co-agglomeration: an integrated approach of principal component analysis and Box-Behnken experimental design.

    PubMed

    Garala, Kevin C; Patel, Jaydeep M; Dhingani, Anjali P; Dharamsi, Abhay T

    2013-08-16

    Poor mechanical properties of crystalline drug particles require wet granulation technique for tablet production which is uneconomical, laborious, and tedious. The present investigation was aimed to improve flow and mechanical properties of racecadotril (RCD), a poorly water soluble antidiarrheal agent, by a crystallo-co-agglomeration (CCA) technique. The influence of various excipients and processing conditions on formation of directly compressible agglomerates of RCD was evaluated. Principal component analysis and Box-Behnken experimental design was implemented to optimize the agglomerates with good micromeritics and mechanical properties. The overall yield of the process was 88-98% with size of agglomerates between 351 and 1214 μm. Further, higher rotational speed reduced the size of agglomerates and disturbed sphericity. The optimized batch of agglomerates exhibited excellent flowability and crushing strength. The optimized batch of RCD agglomerates was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry and gas chromatography which illustrated absence of drug-excipient interaction with minimal entrapment of residual solvent. Hence, it may be concluded that both excipients and processing conditions played a vital role to prepare spherical crystal agglomerates of RCD by CCA and it can be adopted as an excellent alternative to wet granulation. PMID:23684660

  3. CO-GASIFICATION OF DENSIFIED SLUDGE AND SOLID WASTE IN A DOWNDRAFT GASIFIER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal gasification, the subject of this report, is a new process for the co-disposal of densified sewage sludge and solid waste in a co-current flow, fixed bed reactor (also called a downdraft gasifier). The advantages of this technology include lower costs than other sewage sl...

  4. CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID BED PROCESS FOR SULPHUR REMOVAL DURING GASIFICATION OF CARBONACEOUS FUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report covers the final 3 years of a 9-year program to evaluate the Chemically Active Fluid Bed (CAFB) process for gasification and desulfurization of liquid and solid fuels in a fluidized bed of hot lime. A range of alternative fuels, including three coals and a lignite, wer...

  5. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC25

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2008-12-01

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC25, the second test campaign using a high moisture lignite coal from the Red Hills mine in Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC25 was conducted from July 4, 2008, through August 12, 2008. During TC25, the PSDF gasification process operated for 742 hours in air-blown gasification mode. Operation with the Mississippi lignite was significantly improved in TC25 compared to the previous test (TC22) with this fuel due to the addition of a fluid bed coal dryer. The new dryer was installed to dry coals with very high moisture contents for reliable coal feeding. The TC25 test campaign demonstrated steady operation with high carbon conversion and optimized performance of the coal handling and gasifier systems. Operation during TC25 provided the opportunity for further testing of instrumentation enhancements, hot gas filter materials, and advanced syngas cleanup technologies. The PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane with syngas from the Transport Gasifier.

  6. Pressure-swinging underground gasification. Theoretical and experimental investigations of gasification, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohtadi, M.; Breidung, P.; Fuhrmann, F.; Guntermann, K.; Kurth, M.; Paersch, M.; Ropertz, G.; Subklew, G.

    1982-05-01

    Simulation experiments were run in order to determine the form of the combustion front, the combustion front velocity, the different type of gases liberated, the effect on quality of steam/oxygen ratio, the efficiency of gasification process, and data for regulating and conducting from the surface the channel gasification process. The simulation of the channel gasification process was performed in coal samples 0.32 m in diameter, 4 m long with an axial channel of 3 cm in diameter. Samples were put in an autoclave working at 1 bar or 10 bar pressure. The simulation of the penetration process was performed with coal samples 1 m long and 170 mm in diameter put in an autoclave able to work at 100 bar pressure. It is stated that the penetration process not usable is without a preliminary increase of coal permeability. Reverse combustion was also tested at pressures of 1 and 10 bar. Theoretical investigations simulated a nonstationary gasification. It is shown that this method is usable in case of oxidizing gasification. Practical confirmation of the computation has to be carried out. The reaction constants by air/steam gasification are calculated. A stationary model studied the effect of gas temperature, of steam/coal ratio, and pressure.

  7. BIOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT STUDY PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  8. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS TEXACO, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) has operated commercially for nearly 45 years on feeds such as natural gas, liquid petroleum fractions, coal, and petroleum coke. More than 45 plants are either operational or under development in the United States and abroad. Texaco has dev...

  9. Integrated coal drying and steam gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Nahas, N.C.

    1981-08-18

    Carbonaceous solids slurried in an aqueous solution, which preferably contains catalyst constituents having gasification activity, are dried by contacting the slurry with superheated steam in a fluid bed slurry dryer and the resultant dried solids are subsequently gasified with steam generated in the dryer.

  10. EFFECT OF UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION ON GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effect of underground coal gasification on groundwater has been examined in a laboratory study. The study was directed at Fruitland Formation subbituminous coal of the San Juan Basin and at the groundwater found in this coal seam. Two wells were drilled into the coa...

  11. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    procurement of facility upgrades. Chemrec AB is also operating a pressurized, O2-blown gasifier pilot facility in Piteaa, Sweden. There was an exchange of knowledge with the pressurized projects including utilization of the experimental results from facilities in Piteaa, Sweden. Resources at the Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC, a.k.a., the Institute of Paper Science and Technology) were employed primarily to conduct the fundamental investigations on scaling and plugging mechanisms and characterization of green liquor dregs. The project also tapped GTRC expertise in the development of the critical underlying black liquor gasification rate subroutines employed in the CFD code. The actual CFD code development and application was undertaken by Process Simulation, Ltd (PSL) and Simulent, Ltd. PSL focused on the overall integrated gasifier CFD code, while Simulent focused on modeling the black liquor nozzle and description of the black liquor spray. For nozzle development and testing Chemrec collaborated with ETC (Energy Technology Centre) in Piteae utilizing their test facility for nozzle spray investigation. GTI (Gas Technology Institute), Des Plains, IL supported the team with advanced gas analysis equipment during the gasifier test period in June 2005.

  12. Biomass waste gasification - can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    PubMed

    Sulc, Jindřich; Stojdl, Jiří; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Jiří; Vacek, Jiří; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

    2012-04-01

    A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW(th). The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950°C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER=0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV=3.15 MJ/Nm(3)), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950°C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the

  13. Development of a catalytic system for gasification of wet biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J.; Phelps, M.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R.

    1993-08-01

    A gasification system is under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory that can be used with high-moisture biomass feedstocks. The system operates at 350 C and 205 atm using a liquid water phase as the processing medium. Since a pressurized system is used, the wet biomass can be fed as a slurry to the reactor without drying. Through the development of catalysts, a useful processing system has been produced. This paper includes assessment of processing test results of different catalysts. Reactor system results including batch, bench-scale continuous, and engineering-scale processing results are presented to demonstrate the applicability of this catalytic gasification system to biomass. The system has utility both for direct conversion of biomass to fuel gas or as a wastewater cleanup system for treatment of unconverted biomass from bioconversion processes. By the use of this system high conversion of biomass to fuel gas can be achieved. Medium-Btu is the primary product. Potential exists for recovery/recycle of some of the unreacted inorganic components from the biomass in the aqueous byproduct stream.

  14. Recent design and cost studies for air blown gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, S.G.; Mordecai, M.; Welford, G.B.; Otter, N.R.

    1997-12-31

    The Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC) (formerly known as the British Coal Topping Cycle) is a high efficiency low cost system for producing power with excellent environmental performance. High efficiency is achieved without the complexity associated with other advanced cycles and the technology can be introduced in a modular fashion. Being a simple air blown fluid bed gasifier and combustor combination it is capable of using a wide range of fuels and is particularly suited for dealing with high ash melting point fuels found in areas of the world short of natural gas. An extensive program of pilot plant testing of a variety of fuels is now being completed on the test facility at the Coal Technology Development Division (CTDD) of British Coal as part of a UK program to develop the Air Blown Gasification Cycle. This program is supplying data to produce a design specification for a Prototype Integrated Plant (PIP) of around 90 MWe, and is managed by a consortium, the Clean Coal Power Generation Group. The paper summarizes recent results and operating experience for the pilot plant including fuel behavior studies, research in hot gas cleaning (particulate and gaseous contaminants), and gas combustion experience. The various cost studies undertaken on the ABGC are outlined and compared, including recent studies by EPRI.

  15. Development of a catalytic system for gasification of wet biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, D. C.; Sealock, L. J.; Phelps, M. R.; Neuenschwander, G. G.; Hart, T. R.

    1993-08-01

    A gasification system is under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory that can be used with high-moisture biomass feedstocks. The system operates at 350 C and 205 atm using a liquid water phase as the processing medium. Since a pressurized system is used, the wet biomass can be fed as a slurry to the reactor without drying. Through the development of catalysts, a useful processing system has been produced. This paper includes assessment of processing test results of different catalysts. Reactor system results including batch, bench-scale continuous, and engineering-scale processing results are presented to demonstrate the applicability of this catalytic gasification system to biomass. The system has utility both for direct conversion of biomass to fuel gas or as a wastewater cleanup system for treatment of unconverted biomass from bioconversion processes. By the use of this system, high conversion of biomass to fuel gas can be achieved. Medium-Btu is the primary product. Potential exists for recovery/recycle of some of the unreacted inorganic components from the biomass in the aqueous byproduct stream.

  16. Fluidized bed reactor apparatus and related gasification system

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, J.M.; Hoffert, F.D.; Marina, J.M.; Milligan, J.D.

    1982-11-16

    A process and pressurized, gasification reactor apparatus are claimed for converting combustible carbon containing materials such as coal char and other carbonaceous solids or carbonaceous solids/heavy oil combinations to an intermediate heating value fuel gas. The gasification reactor includes an insulated fluidized bed reactor chamber, an upper reactor housing for a freely suspended bayonet bundle type heat exchanger for (A) superheating incoming saturated steam and (B) cooling outgoing high temperature product gas, and a lower reactor housing structure which includes a freefloating, conically-shaped perforated plenum chamber. The superheated steam and oxygen are premixed with the plenum chamber before being pressure directed into the fluidized bed reactor chamber for mixture and combustion with the incoming combustible carbon containing materials such as coal char. After reaction of the superheated steam, oxygen and coal char in the fluidized bed reactor at temperatures ranging from 900/sup 0/ F to 1750/sup 0/ F, the product fuel gases and associated particulate matter are cooled by steam flowing through the bayonet heat exchanger, the steam being superheated by this exchange. After discharge from the heat exchanger, the fuel gas product containing particulate matter is pressure directed into a conventional cyclone separator for (A) separation of the desired product gases and (B) return of the particulate matter for further recycling in the reactor chamber. Undesirable ash clinkers are gravitationally and pressure directed out of the reactor chamber through a central ash withdrawal pipe.

  17. Coalbed methane production enhancement by underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Hettema, M.H.H.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Neumann, B.V.

    1997-12-31

    The sub-surface of the Netherlands is generally underlain by coal-bearing Carboniferous strata at greater depths (at many places over 1,500 m). These coal seams are generally thinner than 3 meter, occur in groups (5--15) within several hundred meters and are often fairly continuous over many square kilometers. In many cases they have endured complex burial history, influencing their methane saturation. In certain particular geological settings, a high, maximum coalbed methane saturation, may be expected. Carboniferous/Permian coals in the Tianjin-region (China) show many similarities concerning geological settings, rank and composition. Economical coalbed methane production at greater depths is often obstructed by the (very) low permeabilities of the coal seams as with increasing depth the deformation of the coal reduces both its macro-porosity (the cleat system) and microporosity. Experiments in abandoned underground mines, as well as after underground coal gasification tests indicate ways to improve the prospects for coalbed methane production in originally tight coal reservoirs. High permeability areas can be created by the application of underground coal gasification of one of the coal seams of a multi-seam cycle with some 200 meter of coal bearing strata. The gasification of one of the coal seams transforms that seam over a certain area into a highly permeable bed, consisting of coal residues, ash and (thermally altered) roof rubble. Additionally, roof collapse and subsidence will destabilize the overburden. In conjunction this will permit a better coalbed methane production from the remaining surrounding parts of the coal seams. Moreover, the effects of subsidence will influence the stress patterns around the gasified seam and this improves the permeability over certain distances in the coal seams above and below. In this paper the effects of the combined underground coal gasification and coalbed methane production technique are regarded for a single

  18. Mississippi Ethanol Gasification Project, Final Scientific / Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Larry, E.

    2007-04-30

    The Mississippi Ethanol (ME) Project is a comprehensive effort to develop the conversion of biomass to ethanol utilizing a proprietary gasification reactor technology developed by Mississippi Ethanol, LLC. Tasks were split between operation of a 1/10 scale unit at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) of Mississippi State University (MSU) and the construction, development, and operation of a full scale pilot unit located at the ME facility in Winona, Mississippi. In addition to characterization of the ME reactor gasification system, other areas considered critical to the operational and economic viability of the overall ME concept were evaluated. These areas include syngas cleanup, biological conversion of syngas to alcohol, and effects of gasification scale factors. Characterization of run data from the Pre-Pilot and Pilot Units has allowed development of the factors necessary for scale-up from the small unit to the larger unit. This scale range is approximately a factor of 10. Particulate and tar sampling gave order of magnitude values for preliminary design calculations. In addition, sampling values collected downstream of the ash removal system show significant reductions in observed loadings. These loading values indicate that acceptable particulate and tar loading rates could be attained with standard equipment additions to the existing configurations. Overall operation both the Pre-Pilot and Pilot Units proceeded very well. The Pilot Unit was operated as a system, from wood receiving to gas flaring, several times and these runs were used to address possible production-scale concerns. Among these, a pressure feed system was developed to allow feed of material against gasifier system pressure with little or no purge requirements. Similarly, a water wash system, with continuous ash collection, was developed, installed, and tested. Development of a biological system for alcohol production was conducted at Mississippi State University with

  19. Innovative gasification technology for future power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, K.; Shadle, L.J.; Sadowski, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    Ever tightening environmental regulations have changed the way utility and non-utility electric generation providers currently view their fuels choices. While coal is still, by far, the major fuel utilized in power production, the general trend over the past 20 years has been to switch to low-sulfur coal and/or make costly modifications to existing coal-fired facilities to reach environmental compliance. Unfortunately, this approach has led to fragmented solutions to balance our energy and environmental needs. To date, few integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) suppliers have been able to compete with the cost of other more conventional technologies or fuels. One need only look at the complexity of many IGCC approaches to understand that unless a view toward IEC is adopted, the widespread application of such otherwise potentially attractive technologies will be unlikely in our lifetime. Jacobs-Sirrine Engineers and Riley Stoker Corporation are working in partnership with the Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center to help demonstrate an innovative coal gasification technology called {open_quotes}PyGas{trademark},{close_quotes} for {open_quotes}pyrolysis-gasification{close_quotes}. This hybrid variation of fluidized-bed and fixed-bed gasification technologies is being developed with the goal to efficiently produce clean gas at costs competitive with more conventional systems by incorporating many of the principles of IEC within the confines of a single-gasifier vessel. Our project is currently in the detailed design stage of a 4 ton-per-hour gasification facility to be built at the Fort Martin Station of Allegheny Power Services. By locating the test facility at an existing coal-fired plant, much of the facility infrastructure can be utilized saving significant costs. Successful demonstration of this technology at this new facility is a prerequisite to its commercialization.

  20. Consumption of milk and milk products in the population of the Upper Silesian agglomeration inhabitants

    PubMed Central

    Kardas, Marek; Grochowska-Niedworok, Elżbieta; Całyniuk, Beata; Kolasa, Ilona; Grajek, Mateusz; Bielaszka, Agnieszka; Kiciak, Agata; Muc-Wierzgoń, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Background Providing the appropriate amount of nutrients at every stage of life is a key element determining the proper development and functioning of the body. Objective Because of the nutritional value and resulting position of milk and milk products in the daily diet, this study was undertaken to assess the consumption of milk and milk products among the inhabitants of the Upper Silesian agglomeration. Design The survey covered 600 people, including 339 women (56.5%) and 261 men (43.5%) aged 18–78 years. To assess the consumption of milk and milk products, as a research tool an original survey with the closed-ended and open-ended questions was used. The questions concerned the characteristics of the surveyed group and various aspects of the consumption of milk and milk products. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using the Statistica 10.0 program with a chi-square test for quality features. Results The level of consumption of milk and milk products among the Upper Silesian agglomeration inhabitants is insufficient in relation to nutrition recommendations. However, despite many controversies surrounding milk, the respondents also claimed that it played an important role in their daily diet. Conclusions The most frequently consumed type of milk in the surveyed group is ultra heat treated (UHT) milk with average fat content. PMID:26942408

  1. Agglomeration multigrid methods with implicit Runge-Kutta smoothers applied to aerodynamic simulations on unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    For unstructured finite volume methods an agglomeration multigrid with an implicit multistage Runge-Kutta method as a smoother is developed for solving the compressible Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The implicit Runge-Kutta method is interpreted as a preconditioned explicit Runge-Kutta method. The construction of the preconditioner is based on an approximate derivative. The linear systems are solved approximately with a symmetric Gauss-Seidel method. To significantly improve this solution method grid anisotropy is treated within the Gauss-Seidel iteration in such a way that the strong couplings in the linear system are resolved by tridiagonal systems constructed along these directions of strong coupling. The agglomeration strategy is adapted to this procedure by taking into account exactly these anisotropies in such a way that a directional coarsening is applied along these directions of strong coupling. Turbulence effects are included by a Spalart-Allmaras model, and the additional transport-type equation is approximately solved in a loosely coupled manner with the same method. For two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical examples and a variety of differently generated meshes we show the wide range of applicability of the solution method. Finally, we exploit the GMRES method to determine approximate spectral information of the linearized RANS equations. This approximate spectral information is used to discuss and compare characteristics of multistage Runge-Kutta methods.

  2. Remediation of a heavy metal-contaminated soil by means of agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella; Valente, Mattia

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of treating a heavy metal-contaminated soil by means of a solidification/stabilization treatment consisting of a granulation process is discussed in the present article. The aim of the study was to attain contaminant immobilization within the agglomerated solid matrix. The soil under concern was characterized by varying levels of heavy metal contamination, ranging from 50 to 500 mg kg(-1) dry soil for chromium. from 300 to 2000 mg kg(-1) dry soil for lead and from 270 to 5000 mg kg(-1) dry soil for copper. An artificially contaminated soil with contaminant concentrations corresponding to the upper level of the mentioned ranges was prepared from a sample of uncontaminated soil by means of spiking experiments. Pure soluble species of chromium, copper and lead. namely CrCl3.6H2O, CuCl2.2H2O and Pb(NO3)2, were selected for the spiking experiments, which were arranged according to a 2(3) full factorial design. The solidification/stabilization treatment was based on an agglomeration process making use of hydraulic binders including Portland cement, hydrated lime and sodium methasilicate, which were selected on the basis of preliminary test runs. It was found that after 7 days of curing the applied treatment was able to efficiently immobilize the investigated heavy metals within the hydrated matrix. Good acid neutralization behavior was also observed, indicating improved matrix resistance to acid attack and decreased potential for metal leaching. PMID:15137715

  3. Intra-metropolitan migration in the Warsaw agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Rykiel, Z

    1984-01-01

    "Two questions of intra-metropolitan migration are analyzed in the paper, intra-metropolitan hierarchy and intra-metropolitan spatial barriers. The former embraces four detailed questions: ranking of centers; spatial pattern of hierarchical subordination; degree of unequivocalness of the subordinations, or degree of dominance; and degree of hierarchicality of interrelationships. Two specialties of the Warsaw [Poland] agglomeration are discussed, the influence of the present crisis, and the administrative restrictions to migration to the city, or the spatial barriers. Social connotations of the latter are also presented." PMID:12312885

  4. Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.

    2008-07-01

    Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

  5. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Task 6 -- Selective agglomeration laboratory research and engineering development for premium fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-06-27

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report represents the findings of Subtask 6.5 Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Testing and Process Scale-up. During this work, six project coals, namely Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Sunnyside, Taggart, Indiana VII, and Hiawatha were processed in a 25 lb/hr continuous selective agglomeration bench-scale test unit.

  6. Desulfurization and deashing of Hazro coal by selective oil agglomeration in various water mediums

    SciTech Connect

    Halime Abakay Temel; Fatma Deniz Ayhan

    2006-10-15

    The aim of this study was to study the effects of various water mediums on desulfurization and deashing of Hazro coal by the agglomeration method. For this purpose, three groups of agglomeration experiments were made. The effects of some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of selective oil agglomeration, such as solid concentration, bridging liquid concentration, and pH, on the agglomeration were investigated in the first group of experiments. The effects of different salts (NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3}) on the agglomeration were investigated in the second group of experiments. The effects of lake water and sea water on the agglomeration were investigated in the third group of experiments. The influences of the Mediterranean Sea water and Aegean Sea water on the removal of ash and total sulfur were found to be important. 22 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Laboratory support for in situ gasification: reaction kinetics. Annual report October 1977-September 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.E.; Wong, S.H.; Johnson, J.E.; Sikand, N.; Jonke, A.A.

    1980-02-01

    This work is directed toward support studies for the national program for the development and demonstration of in situ coal gasification processes. The objective of this work is to determine the reaction-controlling variables and reaction kinetics for the gasification of chars obtained by pyrolyzing coal in simulated underground gasification conditions. The reactions being studied and to be studied include steam-char, CO/sub 2/-char, H/sub 2/-char, the water-gas shift reaction, and the methanation reaction. In this report are presented data regarding the kinetics of the reaction of steam with chars prepared from Pittsburgh seam high-volatile bituminous coal. In addition, a reaction model is described correlating the steam-char reaction rates measured earlier for Hanna subbituminous coal with operating conditions including temperature, partial pressures of steam and hydrogen, and extent of carbon gasification. Partial results are presented and discussed for an investigation of structural parameters of Hanna char as a function of pyrolysis conditions and extent of carbon gasified.

  8. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 3: Gasification, process fuels, and balance of plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothe, W. A.; Corman, J. C.; Johnson, G. G.; Cassel, T. A. V.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of gasification and clean fuels from coal. Factors discussed include: coal and coal transportation costs; clean liquid and gas fuel process efficiencies and costs; and cost, performance, and environmental intrusion elements of the integrated low-Btu coal gasification system. Cost estimates for the balance-of-plant requirements associated with advanced energy conversion systems utilizing coal or coal-derived fuels are included.

  9. Generalized flooded agglomerate model for the cathode catalyst layer of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarajugadda, Sai; Mazumder, Sandip

    2012-06-01

    The flooded agglomerate model has found prolific usage in modeling the oxygen reduction reaction within the cathode catalyst layer of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The assumption made in this model is that the ionomer-coated carbon-platinum agglomerate is spherical in shape and that the spheres are non-overlapping. This assumption is convenient because the governing equations lend themselves to closed-form analytical solution when a spherical shape is assumed. In reality, micrographs of the catalyst layer show that the agglomerates are best represented by sets of overlapping spheres of unequal radii. In this article, the flooded agglomerate is generalized by considering overlapping spheres of unequal radii. As a first cut, only two overlapping spheres are considered. The governing reaction-diffusion equations are solved numerically using the unstructured finite-volume method. The volumetric current density is extracted for various parametric variations, and tabulated. This sub-grid-scale generalized flooded agglomerate model is first validated and finally coupled to a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for predicting the performance of the PEMFC. Results show that when the agglomerates are small (<200 nm equivalent radius), the effect of agglomerate shape on the overall PEMFC performance is insignificant. For large agglomerates, on the other hand, the effect of agglomerate shape was found to be critical, especially for high current densities for which the mass transport resistance within the agglomerate is strongly dependent on the shape of the agglomerate, and was found to correlate well with the surface-to-volume ratio of the agglomerate.

  10. Chemical and physicochemial properties of submicron aerosol agglomerates

    SciTech Connect

    Scripsick, R.C.; Ehrman, S.; Friedlander, S.K.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The formation of nanometer-sized aerosol particles in a premixed methane flame from both solid-phase aerosol precursors and gas-phase precursors was investigated. Techniques were developed to determine the distribution of the individual chemical species as a function of agglomerate size by using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). To determine the distribution of chemical species both from particle to particle and within the particles on a nanometer scale, we used the analytical electron microscopy techniques of energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) coupled with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The observed distribution of individual chemical species as a function of agglomerate size was linked to the material properties of the solid-phase precursors. For aerosol formed from gas-phase precursors by gas-to-particle conversion, the distribution of species on a manometer scale was found to correspond to the equilibrium phase distribution expected from equilibrium for the system at the flame temperatures.

  11. Agglomeration of soot particles in diffusion flames under microgravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, H.; Fujita, O.; Ito, K.

    1994-11-01

    Experiments have been conducted to investigate the behavior of soot particles in diffusion flames under microgravity conditions using a 490-m drop shaft (10-s microgravity duration) in Hokkaido, Japan. Flames from the combustion of paper sheets and butane jet diffusion flames are observed under microgravity. The oxygen concentration of the surroundings, the butane flow rate,and the burner diameter are varied as experimental parameters. The generated soot particles are sampled under microgravity and observed using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes. The flames with a residual convection or forced convection are also observed to examine the influence of flow field on soot particle generation under microgravity. From these results, it is found that a number of large luminous spots appear in diffusion flames under microgravity. From the observation of TEM images, the luminous spots are the result of agglomerated soot particles and the growth of their diameters to a discernible level. The diameter of the agglomerated particles measure about 0.1 mm, 200 to 500 times as large as those generated under normal gravity. It is suggested that these large soot particles are generated in the limited areas where the conditions for the formation of these particles, such as gas velocity (residence time) and oxygen concentration, are satisfied.

  12. Mechanism of nanoparticle agglomeration during the combustion synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, Igor S.; Agranovski, Igor E.; Choi, Mansoo

    2005-08-01

    The mechanism of agglomeration of nanoparticles generated during combustion synthesis is discussed. This is based on the analysis of the transmission electron microscope images of probes collected at different heights. Although direct temperature measurements were not available, the qualitative temperature dependence of the particle formation streamlines is taken into account. It is demonstrated that agglomeration of the MgO nanoparticles, which are formed during a Mg particle combustion, occurs as the result of bonding the mature nanoparticles by the supercritical clusters existing in the system. Accumulation of these supercritical clusters in the flame has been revealed and their nature has been explained in our recent paper [I.S. Altman, I.E. Agranovski, and M. Choi, Phys. Rev E 70, 062603 (2004)]. Also, some inspection of the previously published experimental data on the nanoparticle generation shows that the similar supercritical clusters may exist in another flame reactor generating titania nanopaprticles. If this is the case, the cluster-based process of nanoparticle bonding we suggest can be considered to be general.

  13. Agglomeration of Luminescent Porous Silicon Nanoparticles in Colloidal Solutions.

    PubMed

    Herynková, Kateřina; Šlechta, Miroslav; Šimáková, Petra; Fučíková, Anna; Cibulka, Ondřej

    2016-12-01

    We have prepared colloidal solutions of clusters composed from porous silicon nanoparticles in methanol, water and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Even if the size of the nanoclusters is between 60 and 500 nm, due to their highly porous "cauliflower"-like structure, the porous silicon nanoparticles are composed of interconnected nanocrystals having around 2.5 nm in size and showing strong visible luminescence in the orange-red spectral region (centred at 600-700 nm). Hydrophilic behaviour and good solubility of the nanoclusters in water and water-based solutions were obtained by adding hydrogen peroxide into the etching solution during preparation and 16 min long after-bath in hydrogen peroxide. By simple filtration of the solutions with syringe filters, we have extracted smaller nanoclusters with sizes of approx. 60-70 nm; however, these nanoclusters in water and PBS solution (pH neutral) are prone to agglomeration, as was confirmed by zeta potential measurements. When the samples were left at ambient conditions for several weeks, the typical nanocluster size increased to approx. 330-400 nm and then remained stable. However, both freshly filtered and aged samples (with agglomerated porous silicon nanoparticles) of porous silicon in water and PBS solutions can be further used for biological studies or as luminescent markers in living cells. PMID:27541815

  14. Combination Chemotherapeutic Dry Powder Aerosols via Controlled Nanoparticle Agglomeration

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Nashwa; Berkland, Cory

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop an aerosol system for efficient local lung delivery of chemotherapeutics where nanotechnology holds tremendous potential for developing more valuable cancer therapies. Concurrently, aerosolized chemotherapy is generating interest as a means to treat certain types of lung cancer more effectively with less systemic exposure to the compound. Methods Nanoparticles of the potent anticancer drug, paclitaxel, were controllably assembled to form low density microparticles directly after preparation of the nanoparticle suspension. The amino acid, L-leucine, was used as a colloid destabilizer to drive the assembly of paclitaxel nanoparticles. A combination chemotherapy aerosol was formed by assembling the paclitaxel nanoparticles in the presence of cisplatin in solution. Results Freeze-dried powders of the combination chemotherapy possessed desirable aerodynamic properties for inhalation. In addition, the dissolution rates of dried nanoparticle agglomerate formulations (~60% to 66% after 8 h) were significantly faster than that of micronized paclitaxel powder as received (~18% after 8 h). Interestingly, the presence of the water soluble cisplatin accelerated the dissolution of paclitaxel. Conclusions Nanoparticle agglomerates of paclitaxel alone or in combination with cisplatin may serve as effective chemotherapeutic dry powder aerosols to enable regional treatment of certain lung cancers. PMID:19415471

  15. DETERMINATION OF STOKES SHAPE FACTOR FOR SINGLE PARTICLES AND AGGLOMERATES

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Schaible, Micah J.; Vienna, John D.

    2011-09-01

    The large octahedral crystals of spinel can precipitate from glass during the high-level waste vitrification process and potentially block the glass discharge riser of electrically heated ceramic melters. To help predict the settling behavior of spinel in the riser, the settling of single particles and agglomerates was studied in stagnant and transparent viscosity oils at room temperature with developed optical particle-dynamics-analyzer. Determined dimensions and terminal settling velocities of particles were used for calculation of their Stokes shape factors. Calculated shape factor for the glass beads was almost identical with the theoretical shape factor of 2/9 for a perfect sphere. The shape factor for single spinel crystal was about 7.6 % higher compare to the theoretically predicted value for octahedron. Stokes shape factor of irregularly shaped multi-particle agglomerates was lower than that of the glass beads and individual spinel crystals because of the higher surface drag caused by the larger surface area to volume ratio.

  16. Air-blown Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Clean Power Cogeneration, Inc. (CPC) has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design construction, and operation of a normal 1270 ton-per-day (120-MWe), air-blown integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) demonstration plant. The demonstration plant would produce both power for the utility grid and steam for a nearby industrial user. The objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate air-blown, fixed-bed Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology. The integrated performance to be demonstrated will involve all the subsystems in the air-blown IGCC system to include coal feeding; a pressurized air-blown, fixed-bed gasifier capable of utilizing caking coal; a hot gas conditioning systems for removing sulfur compounds, particulates, and other contaminants as necessary to meet environmental and combustion turbine fuel requirements; a conventional combustion turbine appropriately modified to utilize low-Btu coal gas as fuel; a briquetting system for improved coal feed performance; the heat recovery steam generation system appropriately modified to accept a NO{sub x} reduction system such as the selective catalytic reduction process; the steam cycle; the IGCC control systems; and the balance of plant. The base feed stock for the project is an Illinois Basin bituminous high-sulfur coal, which is a moderately caking coal. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Hydrogen production by gasification of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R. III

    1994-05-20

    As fossil fuel reserves run lower and lower, and as their continued widespread use leads toward numerous environmental problems, the need for clean and sustainable energy alternatives becomes ever clearer. Hydrogen fuel holds promise as such as energy source, as it burns cleanly and can be extracted from a number of renewable materials such as municipal solid waste (MSW), which can be considered largely renewable because of its high content of paper and biomass-derived products. A computer model is being developed using ASPEN Plus flow sheeting software to simulate a process which produces hydrogen gas from MSW; the model will later be used in studying the economics of this process and is based on an actual Texaco coal gasification plant design. This paper gives an overview of the complete MSW gasification process, and describes in detail the way in which MSW is modeled by the computer as a process material. In addition, details of the gasifier unit model are described; in this unit modified MSW reacts under pressure with oxygen and steam to form a mixture of gases which include hydrogen.

  18. Numerical derivation of forces on particles and agglomerates in a resonant acoustic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoop, Claas; Fritsching, Udo

    2013-10-01

    Particles and agglomerates are investigated in gaseous acoustic flow fields. Acoustic fields exert forces on solid objects, which can influence the shape of the exposed bodies, even to the point of breakage of the structures. Motivated by experimentally observed breakage of agglomerates in an acoustic levitator (f = 20 kHz), a numerical study is presented that derives the acoustic forces on a complex model agglomerate from the pressure and velocity fields of a resonant standing ultrasound wave, calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It is distinguished between the drag and lift/lateral forces on the overall agglomerate and on the different primary particles of the model.

  19. Catalytic Wet Gasification of Municipal and Animal Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Ro, Kyoung S.; Cantrell, Keri; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hunt, Patrick G.

    2007-02-21

    Applicability of wet gasification technology for various animal and municipal wastes was examined. Wet gasification of swine manure and raw sewage sludge generated high number of net energies. Furthermore, the moisture content of these wastes is ideal for current wet gasification technology. Significant quantities of water must be added to dry feedstock wastes such as poultry litter, feedlot manures and MSW to make the feedstock pumpable. Because of their high ash contents, MSW and unpaved feedlot manure would not generate positive energy return from wet gasification. The costs of a conceptual wet gasification manure management system for a model swine farm were significantly higher than that of the anaerobic lagoon system. However, many environmental advantages of the wet gasification system were identified, which might reduce the costs significantly. Due to high sulfur content of the wastes, pretreatment to prevent the poisoning of catalysts is critically needed.

  20. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Marvin W.

    1988-01-01

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  1. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, M.W.

    1987-03-23

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  2. Converting moving-grate incineration from combustion to gasification - numerical simulation of the burning characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yao Bin; Sharifi, Vida N; Swithenbank, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Waste incineration is a politically sensitive issue in the UK. The major current technology is based on direct combustion of wastes in a moving-grate furnace. However, general public opinion prefers non-direct burning technologies. Waste gasification is one of those nearest technologies available. By reducing the primary air-flow rate through the grate of a packed-bed system, operation of the existing solid-waste incineration equipment can be easily converted from combustion mode to gasification mode without major modification of the hardware. The potential advantages of this are lower dust carry-over in the flue gases, lower bed temperature (and therefore lower NO(x) formation in the bed), simplified gas-treatment procedures and lower running cost, among other benefits. The major disadvantages are, however, reduced throughput of the wastes and possibly higher carbon in the ash at exit. In this study, numerical simulation of both combustion and gasification of municipal solid wastes in a full-scale moving grate furnace is carried out employing advanced mathematical models. Burning characteristics, including burning rate, gas composition, temperature and burning efficiency as a function of operating parameters are investigated. Detailed comparisons between the combustion mode and gasification mode are made. The study helps to explore new incineration technology and optimise furnace operating conditions. PMID:16730435

  3. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures. PMID:27463975

  4. Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Umberto

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

  5. Demonstration plasma gasification/vitrification system for effective hazardous waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Moustakas, K; Fatta, D; Malamis, S; Haralambous, K; Loizidou, M

    2005-08-31

    Plasma gasification/vitrification is a technologically advanced and environmentally friendly method of disposing of waste, converting it to commercially usable by-products. This process is a drastic non-incineration thermal process, which uses extremely high temperatures in an oxygen-starved environment to completely decompose input waste material into very simple molecules. The intense and versatile heat generation capabilities of plasma technology enable a plasma gasification/vitrification facility to treat a large number of waste streams in a safe and reliable manner. The by-products of the process are a combustible gas and an inert slag. Plasma gasification consistently exhibits much lower environmental levels for both air emissions and slag leachate toxicity than other thermal technologies. In the framework of a LIFE-Environment project, financed by Directorate General Environment and Viotia Prefecture in Greece, a pilot plasma gasification/vitrification system was designed, constructed and installed in Viotia Region in order to examine the efficiency of this innovative technology in treating industrial hazardous waste. The pilot plant, which was designed to treat up to 50kg waste/h, has two main sections: (i) the furnace and its related equipment and (ii) the off-gas treatment system, including the secondary combustion chamber, quench and scrubber. PMID:15878635

  6. Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.

    PubMed

    Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste. PMID:23444152

  7. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002.

  8. Surface Gasification Materials Program. Semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.A.

    1985-06-01

    The objective of the Surface Gasification Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for application to the specific needs of coal gasification systems. One of the goals of the program is to evaluate innovative fabrication methods which have the potential to lower costs and improve reliability and safety for gasifier vessels and components. Another goal is to conduct engineering-scale development and application of materials for coal gasification systems to ensure that the materials of construction for pilot plants and future large-scale plants can be properly selected and specified. Contents of this semiannual progress report include: (1) corrosion studies of plant materials surveillance tests; (2) slagging gasifier refractories - application/evaluation; (3) protective coatings and claddings - application/evaluation; (4) corrosion of structural ceramics in coal gasification environments; (5) advanced pressure vessel materials technology; (6) electroslag component casting; (7) production and evaluation of electroslag castings; (8) cost reduction of electroslag casting manufacturing process; and (9) quantitative microstructural characterization of steel casting.

  9. Surface Gasification Materials Program. Semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.A.

    1984-06-01

    The objective of the Surface Gasification Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for application to the specific needs of coal gasification systems. One of the goals of the program is to evaluate innovative fabrication methods which have the potential to lower costs and improve reliability and safety for gasifier vessels and components. Another goal is to conduct engineering-scale development and application of materials for coal gasification systems to ensure that the materials of construction for pilot plants and future large-scale plants can be properly selected and specified. Contents of this report include the following: (1) plant materials surveillance tests; (2) slagging gasifier refractories; (3) protective coatings and claddings; (4) ceramic fabrication/application technology; (5) advanced pressure vessel materials technology; (6) electroslag component casting; (7) production and evaluation of electroslag castings; (8) cost reduction of the electroslag casting manufacturing process; (9) quantitative microstructural characterization of steel casting; and (10) materials review and component failure analysis in support of coal gasification processes and plants.

  10. Influence of operating conditions on the air gasification of dry refinery sludge in updraft gasifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, R.; Sinnathambi, C. M.

    2013-06-01

    In the present work, details of the equilibrium modeling of dry refinery sludge (DRS) are presented using ASPEN PLUS Simulator in updraft gasifier. Due to lack of available information in the open journal on refinery sludge gasification using updraft gasifier, an evaluate for its optimum conditions on gasification is presented in this paper. For this purpose a Taguchi Orthogonal array design, statistical software is applied to find optimum conditions for DRS gasification. The goal is to identify the most significant process variable in DRS gasification conditions. The process variables include; oxidation zone temperature, equivalent ratio, operating pressure will be simulated and examined. Attention was focused on the effect of optimum operating conditions on the gas composition of H2 and CO (desirable) and CO2 (undesirable) in terms of mass fraction. From our results and finding it can be concluded that the syngas (H2 & CO) yield in term of mass fraction favors high oxidation zone temperature and at atmospheric pressure while CO2 acid gas favor at a high level of equivalent ratio as well as air flow rate favoring towards complete combustion.

  11. LLNL Underground-Coal-Gasification Project. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.; Clements, W.

    1981-11-09

    We have continued our laboratory studies of forward gasification in small blocks of coal mounted in 55-gal drums. A steam/oxygen mixture is fed into a small hole drilled longitudinally through the center of the block, the coal is ignited near the inlet and burns toward the outlet, and the product gases come off at the outlet. Various diagnostic measurements are made during the course of the burn, and afterward the coal block is split open so that the cavity can be examined. Development work continues on our mathematical model for the small coal block experiments. Preparations for the large block experiments at a coal outcrop in the Tono Basin of Washington State have required steadily increasing effort with the approach of the scheduled starting time for the experiments (Fall 1981). Also in preparation is the deep gasification experiment, Tono 1, planned for another site in the Tono Basin after the large block experiments have been completed. Wrap-up work continues on our previous gasification experiments in Wyoming. Results of the postburn core-drilling program Hoe Creek 3 are presented here. Since 1976 the Soviets have been granted four US patents on various aspects of the underground coal gasification process. These patents are described here, and techniques of special interest are noted. Finally, we include ten abstracts of pertinent LLNL reports and papers completed during the quarter.

  12. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures. PMID:27463975

  13. Study on GIS Visualization in Evaluation of the Human Living Environment in Shenyang-Dalian Urban Agglomeration

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Kang; Zhou, Jieting; Li, Xuxiang; Ge, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of human living environmental quality of Shenyang-Dalian urban agglomerations has important theoretical and practical significance in rapid development region. A lot of investigations have been carried for Shenyang-Dalian urban agglomerations, including 38 counties. Based on the carrying capacity of resources, natural and socioeconomic environmental factors and regional changes of human living environmental evaluation are analyzed with the application of geographic information systems (GIS) software. By using principal component analysis (PCA) model and natural breaks classification (NBC) method, the evaluation results are divided into five categories. The results show that the human living environmental evaluation (HLEE) indexes of Dalian, Shenyang, and Liaoyang are higher than other counties. Among these counties, the human living environmental evaluation (HLEE) indexes of coastal counties are significantly higher than inland counties. The range of the human living environmental evaluation index in most of the study area is at III, IV, and V levels, accounting for 80.01%. Based on these results, it could illustrate the human living environment is in relatively suitable condition in Shenyang-Dalian urban agglomeration. PMID:27200212

  14. Assessment of Morphological and Functional Changes in Organs of Rats after Intramuscular Introduction of Iron Nanoparticles and Their Agglomerates

    PubMed Central

    Sizova, Elena; Miroshnikov, Sergey; Yausheva, Elena; Polyakova, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The research was performed on male Wistar rats based on assumptions that new microelement preparations containing metal nanoparticles and their agglomerates had potential. Morphological and functional changes in tissues in the injection site and dynamics of chemical element metabolism (25 indicators) in body were assessed after repeated intramuscular injections (total, 7) with preparation containing agglomerate of iron nanoparticles. As a result, iron depot was formed in myosymplasts of injection sites. The quantity of muscle fibers having positive Perls' stain increased with increasing number of injections. However, the concentration of the most chemical elements and iron significantly decreased in the whole skeletal muscle system (injection sites are not included). Consequently, it increased up to the control level after the sixth and the seventh injections. Among the studied organs (liver, kidneys, and spleen), Caspase-3 expression was revealed only in spleen. The expression had a direct dependence on the number of injections. Processes of iron elimination from preparation containing nanoparticles and their agglomerates had different intensity. PMID:25789310

  15. Study on GIS Visualization in Evaluation of the Human Living Environment in Shenyang-Dalian Urban Agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Hou, Kang; Zhou, Jieting; Li, Xuxiang; Ge, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of human living environmental quality of Shenyang-Dalian urban agglomerations has important theoretical and practical significance in rapid development region. A lot of investigations have been carried for Shenyang-Dalian urban agglomerations, including 38 counties. Based on the carrying capacity of resources, natural and socioeconomic environmental factors and regional changes of human living environmental evaluation are analyzed with the application of geographic information systems (GIS) software. By using principal component analysis (PCA) model and natural breaks classification (NBC) method, the evaluation results are divided into five categories. The results show that the human living environmental evaluation (HLEE) indexes of Dalian, Shenyang, and Liaoyang are higher than other counties. Among these counties, the human living environmental evaluation (HLEE) indexes of coastal counties are significantly higher than inland counties. The range of the human living environmental evaluation index in most of the study area is at III, IV, and V levels, accounting for 80.01%. Based on these results, it could illustrate the human living environment is in relatively suitable condition in Shenyang-Dalian urban agglomeration. PMID:27200212

  16. Selecting the process arrangement for preparing the gas turbine working fluid for an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkov, A. F.; Gordeev, S. I.; Bogatova, T. F.

    2015-11-01

    Introduction of a combined-cycle technology based on fuel gasification integrated in the process cycle (commonly known as integrated gasification combined cycle technology) is among avenues of development activities aimed at achieving more efficient operation of coal-fired power units at thermal power plants. The introduction of this technology is presently facing the following difficulties: IGCC installations are characterized by high capital intensity, low energy efficiency, and insufficient reliability and availability indicators. It was revealed from an analysis of literature sources that these drawbacks are typical for the gas turbine working fluid preparation system, the main component of which is a gasification plant. Different methods for improving the gasification plant chemical efficiency were compared, including blast air high-temperature heating, use of industrial oxygen, and a combination of these two methods implying limited use of oxygen and moderate heating of blast air. Calculated investigations aimed at estimating the influence of methods for achieving more efficient air gasification are carried out taking as an example the gasifier produced by the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) with a thermal capacity of 500 MW. The investigation procedure was verified against the known experimental data. Modes have been determined in which the use of high-temperature heating of blast air for gasification and cycle air upstream of the gas turbine combustion chamber makes it possible to increase the working fluid preparation system efficiency to a level exceeding the efficiency of the oxygen process performed according to the Shell technology. For the gasification plant's configuration and the GTU working fluid preparation system be selected on a well-grounded basis, this work should be supplemented with technical-economic calculations.

  17. Apparatus and method for solar coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, David W.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called "synthesis gas", which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  18. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, Dolores C.; DaPrato, Philip L.; Gouker, Toby R.; Knoer, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

  19. Supercritical droplet gasification experiments with forced convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron; Parigger, Chris; Jeng, San-Mou

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results of a comprehensive experimental program are presented which offer the first direct observations of suspended n-heptane droplet gasifications in pure nitrogen with forced convection without the interference to optical probing associated with a flame. Measurements show attainment of a wet-bulb temperature until reduced pressures exceed about 1.0 under supercritical gas temperatures. Thereafter, temperature measurements indicate fully transient heat-up through the critical temperature. The surface is found to regress in a continuous manner with the measured temperature approaching the critical value at the end of the droplet lifetime under supercritical conditions with very mild level of convection. At increased level of convection for the same ambient conditions, similar sized droplets will undergo significant deformation during the gasification process until partially convected away as a dense vapor cloud as the critical temperature is approached.

  20. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

    1984-07-06

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The ENCOAL Mild Gasification Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The DOE plans to enter into a Cooperative Agreement with ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, for the cost-shared design, construction and operation of a mild gasification facility based on Liquids-from-Coal (LFC) technology. The facility is planned to be located at the Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The mild gasification process to be demonstrated will produce two new, low-sulfur fuel forms (a solid and a liquid) from subbituminous coal. The new fuel forms would be suitable for combustion in commercial, industrial, and utility boilers. This environmental assessment has been prepared by the DOE to comply with the requirements of the NEPA. Pollutant emissions, land use, water, and waste management are briefly discussed. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Catalytic gasification: Isotopic labeling and transient reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Saber, J.M.; Falconer, J.L.; Brown, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Temperature-programmed reaction was used with labeled isotopes (/sup 13/C and /sup 18/O) to study interactions between carbon black and potassium carbonate in pure He and 10% CO/sub 2//90% He atmospheres. Catalytic gasification precursor complexes were observed. Carbon and oxygen-bearing carbon surface groups interacted with the carbonate above 500 K to form surface complexes. Between 500 K and 950 K, and in the presence of gaseous carbon dioxide, the complexes promoted carbon and oxygen exchange between the gas-phase CO/sub 2/ and the surface. Oxygen exchanged between the surface complexes; but carbon did not exchange between the carbonate and the carbon black. As the temperature rose, the complexes decomposed to produce carbon dioxide, and catalytic gasification then began. Elemental potassium formed, and the active catalyst appears to alternate between potassium metal and a potassium-oxygen-carbon complex.

  3. Test and evaluate the tri-gas low-Btu coal-gasification process. Final report, October 21, 1977-October 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Zabetakis, M.G.

    1980-12-01

    This report describes the continuation of work done to develop the BCR TRI-GAS multiple fluidized-bed gasification process. The objective is the gasification of all ranks of coals with the only product being a clean, low-Btu fuel gas. Design and construction of a 100 lb/h process and equipment development unit (PEDU) was completed on the previous contract. The process consists of three fluid-bed reactors in series, each having a specific function: Stage 1 - pretreatment; Stage 2- - gasification; Stage 3 - maximization of carbon utilization. Under the present contract, 59 PEDU tests have been conducted. A number of these were single-stage tests, mostly in Stage 1; however, integrated PEDU tests were conducted with a western coal (Rosebud) and two eastern coals (Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh seam). Both Rosebud and Pittsburgh seam coals were gasified with the PEDU operating in the design mode. Operation with Illinois No. 6 seam coal was also very promising; however, time limitations precluded further testing with this coal. One of the crucial tasks was to operate the Stage 1 reactor to pretreat and devolatilize caking coals. By adding a small amount of air to the fluidizing gas, the caking properties of the coal can be eliminated. However, it was also desirable to release a high percentage of the volatile matter from the coal in this vessel. To accomplish this, the reactor had to be operated above the agglomerating temperature of caking coals. By maintaining a low ratio of fresh to treated coal, this objective was achieved. Both Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh seam coals were treated at temperatures of 800 to 900 F without agglomerating in the vessel.

  4. Gasification performance of switchgrass pretreated with torrefaction and densification

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Various

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gasification performance of four switchgrass pretreatments (torrefaction at 230 and 270 °C, densification, and combined torrefaction and densification) and three gasification temperatures (700, 800 and 900 °C). Gasification was performed in a fixed-bed externally heated reactor with air as an oxidizing agent. Switchgrass pretreatment and gasification temperature had significant effects on gasification performance such as gas yields, syngas lower heating value (LHV), and carbon conversion and cold gas efficiencies. With an increase in the gasification temperature, yields of H2 and CO, syngas LHV, and gasifier efficiencies increased whereas CH4, CO2 and N2 yields decreased. Among all switchgrass pretreatments, gasification performance of switchgrass with combined torrefaction and densification was the best followed by that of densified, raw and torrefied switchgrass. Gasification of combined torrefied and densified switchgrass resulted in the highest yields of H2 (0.03 kg/kg biomass) and CO (0.72 kg/kg biomass), highest syngas LHV (5.08 MJ m-3), CCE (92.53%), and CGE (68.40%) at the gasification temperature of 900 °C.

  5. Integrated gasification iron-air electrical system

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.T.

    1988-05-17

    An integrated, gasification, iron-air electrical system, capable of generating electrical energy from a carbonaceous material is described comprising: (A) a gasification means for carbonaceous materials comprising at least one gasification reactor, where a carbonaceous material is contacted and reacted with a gaseous medium containing steam and air, at a temperature and for a time effective to gasify the carbonaceous material and produce a hot gaseous reaction product comprising CO and H/sub 2/; (B) an iron-air cell containing at least one discharged iron electrode; (C) means to remove the discharged iron electrode from the cell of (B), and contact it with the gaseous reaction product produced in (A); (D) the discharged iron electrode removed from the cell of (B), containing material consisting essentially of Fe and Fe(OH)/sub 2/, which electrode is contacted with the hot gaseous reaction product produced in the gasification reactor of (A), directly, at a temperature of from about 450/sup 0/C to about 700/sup 0/C, for a time effective to convert, by reduction, discharged iron compounds consisting essentially of Fe and Fe(OH)/sub 2/ to charge iron compounds in the electrode and provide a recharged iron electrode; (E) an iron-air cell into which the recharged iron electrode provided in (D) is placed; (F) means to transport the recharged iron electrode provided in (D) to the iron-air cell of (E); and (G) electrical connection means attached to the iron-air cell of (E), providing the cell with capability of generating electrical energy.

  6. Gasification of ash-containing solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, G.

    1983-03-01

    Ash-contaminated solid or semi-solid fuel is passed into the bottom zone of a fluidized bed gasifier, preferably containing cao to fix labile sulfur moieties, and gasified at a temperature below the ash-softening point. The resulting char and ash of relatively low size and/or weight pass to a top zone of the bed wherein the char is gasified at a temperature above the ash-softening point whereby a substantial proportion of the ash sticks to and agglomerates with solids in the top zone until the particle size and/or weight of the resulting agglomerates causes them to sink to the bottom of the gasifier from where they can be recovered. The hot gases leaving the top of the gasifying bed have a reduced burden of entrained ash, and may be cooled to prevent any entrained ash adhering to downstream equipment through which the gases pass.

  7. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 9. Gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the ninth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal. The period of gasificastion test was September 13 to October 12, 1983. 9 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

  8. Development of solar coal gasification technology

    SciTech Connect

    Adinberg, R.; Epstein, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes an approach to the development and characterization of a solar-assisted coal gasification plant. Two solar receivers for steam coal gasification, both on a sub pilot scale, have been designed and set up at the Weizmann Institute`s solar facilities for tests under the conditions of highly concentrated solar radiation. In spite of the fact that chemical reactors of different types, one-tubular and the second-volumetric, have been installed in each of these receivers, they have in common the integration of a reactor and associated steam generator into one complex solar thermal system. The receiver constructed of a reaction tube coupled with a superheated steam generator provides processing of grained carbonaceous materials at temperature as high as 900--950 C with a sufficiently high rate of the syngas yield. Results from a series of the windowed reactor/receiver tests are also successful, demonstrating the suitability of this reactor for operating in a wide range of conditions required for coal gasification. Being designed in a certain degree of simplicity, that is adequate to the present stage of problem initiation, the receivers employed need to be optimized in order to achieve considerable efficiency of solar thermal power conversion into the energy of product gas. Results show that the temperature of process steam can strongly influence the system performance.

  9. Mild temperature gasification: Partitioning sulfur to gas as H{sub 2}S. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.M.; Neathery, J.K.; Schaefer, J.L.; Yang, J.; Banerjee, D.

    1993-05-01

    Bench-scale, mild-temperature fluidized bed gasification (MTFBG) of three high sulfur Illinois basin coals (IBC) mixed with phosphoric acid will be performed to initiate development of an advanced processing technology which partitions coal sulfur to the gas phase as H{sub 2}S. The influence of coal type, coal agglomeration, and steam injection on the properties of the solid, condensible and gaseous products produced during MTFBG will be examined. Analytical measurements of the products will be obtained and are designed to provide product quality and quantity. Combustion reactivity testing of the char, and pressurized, hot water extraction of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} from the char, will be performed to provide information for design of a continuous and integrated process for the removal and recovery of coal sulfur. During this quarter, the acquisition and construction of equipment to be used for MTFBG of Illinois coals and hot water, pressurized filtration of chars were completed. IBC 106 was subjected to fluidized bed gasification testing under nitrogen and steam/nitrogen atmospheres. The percentage of total sulfur removed from the parent coal using physical cleaning followed by MTFBG of coal/phosphoric acid mixtures was as high as 94% at a gasification temperature of 500{degrees}C.

  10. Identification of micro parameters for discrete element simulation of agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palis, Stefan; Antonyuk, Sergiy; Dosta, Maksym; Heinrich, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    The mechanical behaviour of solid particles like agglomerates, granules or crystals strongly depends on their micro structure, e.g. structural defects and porosity. In order to model the mechanical behaviour of these inhomogeneous media the discrete element method has been proven to be an appropriate tool. The model parameters used are typically micro parameters like bond stiffness, particle-particle contact stiffness, strength of the bonds. Due to the lack of general methods for a direct micro parameter determination, normally laborious parameter adaptation has to be done in order to fit experiment and simulation. In this contribution a systematic and automatic way for parameter adaptation using real experiments is proposed. Due to the fact, that discrete element models are typically systems of differential equations of very high order, gradient based methods are not suitable. Hence, the focus will be on derivative free methods.

  11. Remediation of Sucarnoochee soil by agglomeration with fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, P.S.; Arnold, D.W.; Rahnama, M.B. )

    1994-01-01

    Fine-sized Blue Creek coal was used to remove high molecular weight hydrocarbons from Sucarnoochee soil, a fine-sized high-organic soil. Fine coal in slurry form was blended with Sucarnoochee soil contaminated with 15.0% by wt of crude oil, and agglomerates were removed in a standard flotation cell. Crude oil in the remediated soil was reduced from the original 15.0% to less than a tenth of a wt% by a two-step process. Oil removal of approx. 99.3% was obtained. An added benefit was that the low-grade coal used in the process was simultaneously upgraded. The final level of cleaning was not affected by initial oil concentration. The process compared favorably with a hot water wash technique used to recovery oils from contaminated soil.

  12. Megacities and large urban agglomerations in the coastal zone: interactions between atmosphere, land, and marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    von Glasow, Roland; Jickells, Tim D; Baklanov, Alexander; Carmichael, Gregory R; Church, Tom M; Gallardo, Laura; Hughes, Claire; Kanakidou, Maria; Liss, Peter S; Mee, Laurence; Raine, Robin; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Ramesh, R; Sundseth, Kyrre; Tsunogai, Urumu; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Zhu, Tong

    2013-02-01

    Megacities are not only important drivers for socio-economic development but also sources of environmental challenges. Many megacities and large urban agglomerations are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere, and ocean meet, posing multiple environmental challenges which we consider here. The atmospheric flow around megacities is complicated by urban heat island effects and topographic flows and sea breezes and influences air pollution and human health. The outflow of polluted air over the ocean perturbs biogeochemical processes. Contaminant inputs can damage downstream coastal zone ecosystem function and resources including fisheries, induce harmful algal blooms and feedback to the atmosphere via marine emissions. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is hundreds to thousands of kilometers in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometers in the ocean. We list research needs to further our understanding of coastal megacities with the ultimate aim to improve their environmental management. PMID:23076973

  13. Cold bond agglomeration of waste oxides for recycling

    SciTech Connect

    D`Alessio, G.; Lu, W.K.

    1996-12-31

    Recycling of waste oxides has been an on-going challenge for integrated steel plants. The majority of these waste oxides are collected from the cleaning systems of ironmaking and steelmaking processes, and are usually in the form of fine particulates and slurries. In most cases, these waste materials are contaminated by oils and heavy metals and often require treatment at a considerable expense prior to landfill disposal. This contamination also limits the re-use or recycling potential of these oxides as secondary resources of reliable quality. However, recycling of some selected wastes in blast furnaces or steelmaking vessels is possible, but first requires agglomeration of the fine particulate by such methods as cold bond briquetting. Cold bond briquetting technology provides both mechanical compacting and bonding (with appropriate binders) of the particulates. This method of recycling has the potential to be economically viable and environmentally sustainable. The nature of the present study is cold bond briquetting of iron ore pellet fines with a molasses-cement-H{sub 2}O binder for recycling in a blast furnace. The inclusion of molasses is for its contribution to the green strength of briquettes. During the curing stage, significant gains in strength may be credited to molasses in the presence of cement. The interactions of cement (and its substitutes), water and molasses and their effects on the properties of the agglomerates during and after various curing conditions were investigated. Tensile strengths of briquettes made in the laboratory and subjected to experimental conditions which simulated the top part of a blast furnace shaft were also examined.

  14. Technoeconomic Comparison of Biofuels: Ethanol, Methanol, and Gasoline from Gasification of Woody Residues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Tarud, J.; Phillips, S.

    2011-08-01

    This presentation provides a technoeconomic comparison of three biofuels - ethanol, methanol, and gasoline - produced by gasification of woody biomass residues. The presentation includes a brief discussion of the three fuels evaluated; discussion of equivalent feedstock and front end processes; discussion of back end processes for each fuel; process comparisons of efficiencies, yields, and water usage; and economic assumptions and results, including a plant gate price (PGP) for each fuel.

  15. Comparison of diffusion charging and mobility-based methods for measurement of aerosol agglomerate surface area

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Bon Ki; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    We compare different approaches to measure surface area of aerosol agglomerates. The objective was to compare field methods, such as mobility and diffusion charging based approaches, with laboratory approach, such as Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) method used for bulk powder samples. To allow intercomparison of various surface area measurements, we defined ‘geometric surface area’ of agglomerates (assuming agglomerates are made up of ideal spheres), and compared various surface area measurements to the geometric surface area. Four different approaches for measuring surface area of agglomerate particles in the size range of 60–350 nm were compared using (i) diffusion charging-based sensors from three different manufacturers, (ii) mobility diameter of an agglomerate, (iii) mobility diameter of an agglomerate assuming a linear chain morphology with uniform primary particle size, and (iv) surface area estimation based on tandem mobility–mass measurement and microscopy. Our results indicate that the tandem mobility–mass measurement, which can be applied directly to airborne particles unlike the BET method, agrees well with the BET method. It was also shown that the three diffusion charging-based surface area measurements of silver agglomerates were similar within a factor of 2 and were lower than those obtained from the tandem mobility–mass and microscopy method by a factor of 3–10 in the size range studied. Surface area estimated using the mobility diameter depended on the structure or morphology of the agglomerate with significant underestimation at high fractal dimensions approaching 3. PMID:26692585

  16. A MODEL FOR FINE PARTICLE AGGLOMERATION IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED ABSORBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model for fine particle agglomeration in circulating fluidized bed absorbers (CFBAS) has been developed. It can model the influence of different factors on agglomeration, such as the geometry of CFBAs, superficial gas velocity, initial particle size distribution, and type of ag...

  17. Agglomeration characteristics of river sand and wheat stalk ash mixture at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Linlin; Li, Shiyuan; Lu, Qinggang

    2013-02-01

    The agglomeration characteristics of river sand and wheat stalk ash mixture at various temperatures are investigated using a muffle furnace. The surface structural changes, as well as the elemental makeup of the surface and cross-section of the agglomerates, are analyzed by polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Multi-phase equilibrium calculation is performed with FactSage in identifying the melting behavior of the river sand-wheat stalk ash mixture at high temperatures. No indication of agglomeration is detected below 850°C. At a temperature of 900-1000°C, however, obvious agglomeration is observed and the agglomerates solidify further as temperature increases. The presence of potassium and calcium enrichment causes the formation of a sticky sand surface that induces agglomeration. The main component of the agglomerate surface is K2O-CaO-SiO2, which melts at low temperatures. The formation of molten silicates causes particle cohesion. The main ingredient of the binding phase in the cross-section is K2O-SiO2-Na2O-Al2O3-CaO; the agglomeration is not the result of the melting behavior of wheat stalk ash itself but the comprehensive results of chemical reaction and the melting behavior at high temperatures. The multi-phase equilibrium calculations agree well with the experimental results.

  18. Operating and environmental performances of commercial-scale waste gasification and melting technology.

    PubMed

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Fujinaga, Yasuka; Kajiyama, Hirohisa; Ishida, Yoshihiro

    2013-11-01

    Gasification technologies for waste processing are receiving increased interest. A lot of gasification technologies, including gasification and melting, have been developed in Japan and Europe. However, the flue gas and heavy metal behaviors have not been widely reported, even though those of grate furnaces have been reported. This article reports flue gas components of gasification and melting technology in different flue gas treatment systems. Hydrogen chloride concentrations at the inlet of the bag filter ranged between 171 and 180 mg Nm(-3) owing to de-acidification by limestone injection to the gasifier. More than 97.8% of hydrogen chlorides were removed by a bag filter in both of the flue gas treatment systems investigated. Sulfur dioxide concentrations at the inlet of the baghouse were 4.8 mg Nm(-3) and 12.7 mg Nm(-3), respectively. Nitrogen oxides are highly decomposed by a selective catalytic reduction system. Owing to the low regenerations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, and the selective catalytic reduction system, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans at the stacks were significantly lower without activated carbon injection. More than 99% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 97.6% and 96.5%, respectively. Most high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that the slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals, such as lead. The heavy metal distribution behaviors are almost the same regardless of the compositions of the processed waste. These results indicate that the gasification of municipal solid waste constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling. PMID:24019383

  19. Improving process performances in coal gasification for power and synfuel production

    SciTech Connect

    M. Sudiro; A. Bertucco; F. Ruggeri; M. Fontana

    2008-11-15

    This paper is aimed at developing process alternatives of conventional coal gasification. A number of possibilities are presented, simulated, and discussed in order to improve the process performances, to avoid the use of pure oxygen, and to reduce the overall CO{sub 2} emissions. The different process configurations considered include both power production, by means of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant, and synfuel production, by means of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The basic idea is to thermally couple a gasifier, fed with coal and steam, and a combustor where coal is burnt with air, thus overcoming the need of expensive pure oxygen as a feedstock. As a result, no or little nitrogen is present in the syngas produced by the gasifier; the required heat is transferred by using an inert solid as the carrier, which is circulated between the two modules. First, a thermodynamic study of the dual-bed gasification is carried out. Then a dual-bed gasification process is simulated by Aspen Plus, and the efficiency and overall CO{sub 2} emissions of the process are calculated and compared with a conventional gasification with oxygen. Eventually, the scheme with two reactors (gasifier-combustor) is coupled with an IGCC process. The simulation of this plant is compared with that of a conventional IGCC, where the gasifier is fed by high purity oxygen. According to the newly proposed configuration, the global plant efficiency increases by 27.9% and the CO{sub 2} emissions decrease by 21.8%, with respect to the performances of a conventional IGCC process. 29 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Acoustic agglomeration of power-plant fly ash. A comprehensive semi-annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Reethof, G.

    1980-02-01

    Results obtained during the reporting period are presented. The agglomeration of submicron fly ash particles has been studied as a function of sound pressure level, sound frequency, loading, and exposure time. A second generation model of the agglomeration process is being developed. A high-frequency, high-intensity variable speed siren delivering at least 600 W at frequencies up to 4000 Hz has been developed and tested. Details on the design and operation are presented. The agglomeration chamber has been completely cleaned and the aerosol generating system has been rebuilt. A mathematical model of the acoustics of agglomeration is being developed. Preliminary results of computerized electron microscopic scanning of fly ash particles during agglomeration are presented. (DMC)

  1. Influence of primary-particle density in the morphology of agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Camejo, M D; Espeso, D R; Bonilla, L L

    2014-07-01

    Agglomeration processes occur in many different realms of science, such as colloid and aerosol formation or formation of bacterial colonies. We study the influence of primary-particle density in agglomerate structures using diffusion-controlled Monte Carlo simulations with realistic space scales through different regimes (diffusion-limited aggregation and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation). The equivalence of Monte Carlo time steps to real time scales is given by Hirsch's hydrodynamical theory of Brownian motion. Agglomerate behavior at different time stages of the simulations suggests that three indices (the fractal exponent, the coordination number, and the eccentricity index) characterize agglomerate geometry. Using these indices, we have found that the initial density of primary particles greatly influences the final structure of the agglomerate, as observed in recent experimental works. PMID:25122302

  2. Influence of primary-particle density in the morphology of agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camejo, M. D.; Espeso, D. R.; Bonilla, L. L.

    2014-07-01

    Agglomeration processes occur in many different realms of science, such as colloid and aerosol formation or formation of bacterial colonies. We study the influence of primary-particle density in agglomerate structures using diffusion-controlled Monte Carlo simulations with realistic space scales through different regimes (diffusion-limited aggregation and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation). The equivalence of Monte Carlo time steps to real time scales is given by Hirsch's hydrodynamical theory of Brownian motion. Agglomerate behavior at different time stages of the simulations suggests that three indices (the fractal exponent, the coordination number, and the eccentricity index) characterize agglomerate geometry. Using these indices, we have found that the initial density of primary particles greatly influences the final structure of the agglomerate, as observed in recent experimental works.

  3. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  4. Surface Gasification Materials Program semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1986. [Fe/sub 3/Al (iron aluminides)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    The objective of the Surface Gasification Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for application to the specific needs of coal gasification systems. One of the goals of the program is to evaluate innovative fabrication methods which have the potential to lower costs and improve reliability and safety for gasifier vessels and components. Another goal is to conduct engineering-scale development and application of materials for coal gasification systems to ensure that the materials of construction for pilot plants and future large-scale plants can be properly selected and specified. Contents of this semiannual progress report include: (1) protective coatings and claddings - application/evaluation; (2) corrosion of structural ceramics in coal gasification environments; (3) electroslag component casting; and (4) development of iron aluminides. 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Computational prediction of the refinement of oxide agglomerates in a physical conditioning process for molten aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, M.; Jagarlapudi, S. C.; Patel, J. B.; Stone, I. C.; Fan, Z.; Browne, D. J.

    2015-06-01

    Physically conditioning molten scrap aluminium alloys using high shear processing (HSP) was recently found to be a promising technology for purification of contaminated alloys. HSP refines the solid oxide agglomerates in molten alloys, so that they can act as sites for the nucleation of Fe-rich intermetallic phases which can subsequently be removed by the downstream de-drossing process. In this paper, a computational modelling for predicting the evolution of size of oxide clusters during HSP is presented. We used CFD to predict the macroscopic flow features of the melt, and the resultant field predictions of temperature and melt shear rate were transferred to a population balance model (PBM) as its key inputs. The PBM is a macroscopic model that formulates the microscopic agglomeration and breakage of a population of a dispersed phase. Although it has been widely used to study conventional deoxidation of liquid metal, this is the first time that PBM has been used to simulate the melt conditioning process within a rotor/stator HSP device. We employed a method which discretizes the continuous profile of size of the dispersed phase into a collection of discrete bins of size, to solve the governing population balance equation for the size of agglomerates. A finite volume method was used to solve the continuity equation, the energy equation and the momentum equation. The overall computation was implemented mainly using the FLUENT module of ANSYS. The simulations showed that there is a relatively high melt shear rate between the stator and sweeping tips of the rotor blades. This high shear rate leads directly to significant fragmentation of the initially large oxide aggregates. Because the process of agglomeration is significantly slower than the breakage processes at the beginning of HSP, the mean size of oxide clusters decreases very rapidly. As the process of agglomeration gradually balances the process of breakage, the mean size of oxide clusters converges to a

  6. Process for control of pollutants generated during coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Frumerman, Robert; Hooper, Harold M.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improvement in the coal gasification process that effectively eliminates substantially all of the environmental pollutants contained in the producer gas. The raw producer gas is passed through a two-stage water scrubbing arrangement with the tars being condensed essentially water-free in the first stage and lower boiling condensables, including pollutant laden water, being removed in the second stage. The pollutant-laden water is introduced into an evaporator in which about 95 percent of the water is vaporized and introduced as steam into the gas producer. The condensed tars are combusted and the resulting products of combustion are admixed with the pollutant-containing water residue from the evaporator and introduced into the gas producer.

  7. Proceedings of the ninth annual underground coal gasification symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Wieber, P.R.; Martin, J.W.; Byrer, C.W.

    1983-12-01

    The Ninth Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was held August 7 to 10, 1983 at the Indian Lakes Resort and Conference Center in Bloomingdale, Illinois. Over one-hundred attendees from industry, academia, National Laboratories, State Government, and the US Government participated in the exchange of ideas, results and future research plans. Representatives from six countries including France, Belgium, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, West Germany, and Brazil also participated by presenting papers. Fifty papers were presented and discussed in four formal sessions and two informal poster sessions. The presentations described current and future field testing plans, interpretation of field test data, environmental research, laboratory studies, modeling, and economics. All papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  8. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Commercial plant feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    In order to determine the viability of any Liquids from Coal (LFC) commercial venture, TEK-KOL and its partner, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), have put together a technical and economic feasibility study for a commercial-size LFC Plant located at Zeigler Coal Holding Company`s North Rochelle Mine site. This resulting document, the ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Plant: Commercial Plant Feasibility Study, includes basic plant design, capital estimates, market assessment for coproducts, operating cost assessments, and overall financial evaluation for a generic Powder River Basin based plant. This document and format closely resembles a typical Phase II study as assembled by the TEK-KOL Partnership to evaluate potential sites for LFC commercial facilities around the world.

  9. Gasification CFD Modeling for Advanced Power Plant Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.; Guenther, C.P.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we have described recent progress on developing CFD models for two commercial-scale gasifiers, including a two-stage, coal slurry-fed, oxygen-blown, pressurized, entrained-flow gasifier and a scaled-up design of the PSDF transport gasifier. Also highlighted was NETL’s Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator for coupling high-fidelity equipment models with process simulation for the design, analysis, and optimization of advanced power plants. Using APECS, we have coupled the entrained-flow gasifier CFD model into a coal-fired, gasification-based FutureGen power and hydrogen production plant. The results for the FutureGen co-simulation illustrate how the APECS technology can help engineers better understand and optimize gasifier fluid dynamics and related phenomena that impact overall power plant performance.

  10. Characteristics of rice husk gasification in an entrained flow reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yijun; Sun, Shaozeng; Tian, Hongming; Qian, Juan; Su, Fengming; Ling, Feng

    2009-12-01

    Experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor to better understand the characteristics of biomass gasification. Rice husk was used in this study. Effects of the gasification temperature (700, 800, 900 and 1000 degrees C) and the equivalence ratio in the range of 0.22-0.34 on the biomass gasification and the axial gas distribution in the reactor were studied. The results showed that reactions of CnHm were less important in the gasification process except cracking reactions which occurred at higher temperature. In the oxidization zone, reactions between char and oxygen had a more prevailing role. The optimal gasification temperature of the rice husk could be above 900 degrees C, and the optimal value of ER was 0.25. The gasification process was finished in 1.42 s when the gasification temperature was above 800 degrees C. A first order kinetic model was developed for describing rice husk air gasification characteristics and the relevant kinetic parameters were determined. PMID:19589673

  11. BIOMASS REACTIVITY IN GASIFICATION BY THE HYNOL PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A thermobalance reactor was used to evaluate the reactivity of poplar wood in gasification under the operating conditions specific for the Hynol process where biomass is gasified at 30 atm and 800E C with a hydrogen-rich gas recycled from methane synthesis. The gasification invol...

  12. THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF SELECTED TRACE ELEMENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a theoretical investigation of the disposition of five volatile trace elements (arsenic, boron, lead, selenium, and mercury) in SNG-producing coal gasification plants. Three coal gasification processes (dry-bottom Lurgi, Koppers-Totzek, and HYGAS) were...

  13. Methods for sequestering carbon dioxide into alcohols via gasification fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, J. Randy; Slape, M. Sean

    2013-11-26

    The present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for use with synthesis gas fermentation. Further, the present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for the production of alcohols from a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas containing at least one microorganism.

  14. U.S. EPA'S EVALUATION OF A TEXACO GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasification technologies are designed to produce, from carbonaceous organic materials (e.g., coal, oil), a useable mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen called synthesis gas, or syngas. yngas could be used to produce power or chemicals. he Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) emp...

  15. FUGITIVE EMISSION TESTING AT THE KOSOVO COAL GASIFICATION PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of a test program to characterize fugitive emissions from the Kosovo coal gasification plant in Yugoslavia, a test program implemented by the EPA in response to a need for representative data on the potential environmental impacts of Lurgi coal gasif...

  16. Catalytic wet gasification of municipal and animal wastes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, there is worldwide interest in deriving energy from bio-based materials via gasification. Our objective was to assess the feasibility of wet gasification for treatment/energy conversion of both animal and municipal wastes. Wet wastes such as swine manure and raw sewage sludge could be pro...

  17. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    The status of 18 coal gasification pilot plants or supporting projects supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract number, funding, gasification process, history, process description, flowsheet and progress in the July-September 1979 quarter. (LTN)

  18. Hydrogen-rich gas production via CaO sorption-enhanced steam gasification of rice husk: a modelling study.

    PubMed

    Beheshti, Sayyed Mohsen; Ghassemi, Hojat; Shahsavan-Markadeh, Rasoul; Fremaux, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Gasification is a thermochemical process in which solid or liquid fuels are transformed into synthesis gas through partial oxidation. In this paper, a kinetic model of rice husk gasification has been developed, which is interesting for the applications of the syngas produced. It is a zero-dimensional, steady-state model based on global reaction kinetic, empirical correlation of pyrolysis and is capable of predicting hydrogen yield in the presence of sorbent CaO. The model can also be used as a useful tool to investigate the influence of process parameters including steam/biomass ratio, CaO/fuel ratio (CaO/Fuel), and gasification temperature on hydrogen efficiency, CO2 capture ratio (CCR), and average carbonation conversion (Save). Similar to hydrogen formation, CCR also increases with increasing CaO/Fuel, but an opposite trend is exhibited in Save. Model predictions were compared with available data from the literature, which showed fairly good agreement. PMID:25403373

  19. Feed Processing, Handling, and Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    Both current and future sugar biorefineries will generate a wide variety of residue streams that can be used as feedstocks for thermochemical processes, including corn stover, corn fiber, lignin-rich materials, and distillers’ dried grain and solubles.

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Ultra-Superheated Steam Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Fen

    Pure steam gasification has been of interest in hydrogen production, but with the challenge of supplying heat for endothermic reactions. Traditional solutions included either combusting feedstocks at the price of decreasing carbon conversion ratio, or using costly heating apparatus. Therefore, a distributed gasifier with an Ultra-Superheated-Steam (USS) generator was invented, satisfying the heat requirement and avoiding carbon combustion in steam gasification. This project developed the first version of the Ultra-Superheated-Steam-Fluidization-Model (USSFM V1.0) for the USS gasifier. A stand-alone equilibrium combustion model was firstly developed to calculate the USS mixture, which was the input to the USSFM V1.0. Model development of the USSFM V1.0 included assumptions, governing equations, boundary conditions, supporting equations and iterative schemes of guessed values. There were three nested loops in the dense bed and one loop in the freeboard. The USSFM V1.0 included one main routine and twenty-four subroutines. The USSFM V1.0 was validated with experimental data from the Enercon USS gasifier. The calculated USS mixture had a trace of oxygen, validating the initial expectation of creating an oxygen-free environment in the gasifier. Simulations showed that the USS mixture could satisfy the gasification heat requirement without partial carbon combustion. The USSFM V1.0 had good predictions on the H2% in all tests, and on other variables at a level of the lower oxygen feed. Provided with higher oxygen feed, the USSFM V1.0 simulated hotter temperatures, higher CO% and lower CO2%. Errors were explained by assumptions of equilibrium combustion, adiabatic reactors, reaction kinetics, etc. By investigating specific modeling data, gas-particle convective heat transfers were found to be critical in energy balance equations of both emulsion gas and particles, while bubble size controlled both the mass and energy balance equations of bubble gas. Parametric study

  1. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

    2007-09-30

    While thermochemical syngas production facilities for biomass utilization are already employed worldwide, exploitation of their potential has been inhibited by technical limitations encountered when attempting to obtain real-time syngas compositional data required for process optimization, reliability, and syngas quality assurance. To address these limitations, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) carried out two companion projects (under US DOE Cooperative Agreements DE-FC36-02GO12024 and DE-FC36-03GO13175) to develop and demonstrate the equipment and methods required to reliably and continuously obtain accurate and representative on-line syngas compositional data. These objectives were proven through a stepwise series of field tests of biomass and coal gasification process streams. GTI developed the methods and hardware for extractive syngas sample stream delivery and distribution, necessary to make use of state-of-the-art on-line analyzers to evaluate and optimize syngas cleanup and conditioning. The primary objectives of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024 were the selection, acquisition, and application of a suite of gas analyzers capable of providing near real-time gas analyses to suitably conditioned syngas streams. A review was conducted of sampling options, available analysis technologies, and commercially available analyzers, that could be successfully applied to the challenging task of on-line syngas characterization. The majority of thermochemical process streams comprise multicomponent gas mixtures that, prior to crucial, sequential cleanup procedures, include high concentrations of condensable species, multiple contaminants, and are often produced at high temperatures and pressures. Consequently, GTI engaged in a concurrent effort under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-03GO13175 to develop the means to deliver suitably prepared, continuous streams of extracted syngas to a variety of on-line gas analyzers. The review of candidate analysis technology

  2. Metal catalysts for steam reforming of tar derived from the gasification of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Li, Dalin; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2015-02-01

    Biomass gasification is one of the most important technologies for the conversion of biomass to electricity, fuels, and chemicals. The main obstacle preventing the commercial application of this technology is the presence of tar in the product gas. Catalytic reforming of tar appears a promising approach to remove tar and supported metal catalysts are among the most effective catalysts. Nevertheless, improvement of catalytic performances including activity, stability, resistance to coke deposition and aggregation of metal particles, as well as catalyst regenerability is greatly needed. This review focuses on the design and catalysis of supported metal catalysts for the removal of tar in the gasification of biomass. The recent development of metal catalysts including Rh, Ni, Co, and their alloys for steam reforming of biomass tar and tar model compounds is introduced. The role of metal species, support materials, promoters, and their interfaces is described. PMID:25455089

  3. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Harold Schobert

    2006-02-01

    With the recent passing of new legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2004 to August 31, 2005. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

  4. Vaporization and gasification of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, H.S.; Garstang, J.H.; Timmins, C.

    1983-08-23

    Heavy hydrocarbon feedstocks, e.g. gas oils, are vaporized and subsequently gasified at high temperatures without pyrolytic degradation by first admixing the hydrocarbon with a hot gaseous reactant, e.g. product gas or steam, to bring the temperature of the mixture above that of the dew point of the hydrocarbon and thereafter raising the temperature of the mixture to above that at which pyrolysis of the hydrocarbon begins to be significant by admixture with further quantities of the reactant which are superheated thereby to bring the temperature of the resultant mixture to that required for effecting a catalytic gasification reaction.

  5. Nanosized rods agglomerates as a new approach for formulation of a dry powder inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Salem, HF; Abdelrahim, ME; Eid, K Abo; Sharaf, MA

    2011-01-01

    Background: Nanosized dry powder inhalers provide higher stability for poorly water-soluble drugs as compared with liquid formulations. However, the respirable particles must have a diameter of 1–5 μm in order to deposit in the lungs. Controlled agglomeration of the nanoparticles increases their geometric particle size so they can deposit easily in the lungs. In the lungs, they fall apart to reform nanoparticles, thus enhancing the dissolution rate of the drugs. Theophylline is a bronchodilator with poor solubility in water. Methods: Nanosized theophylline colloids were formed using an amphiphilic surfactant and destabilized using dilute sodium chloride solutions to form the agglomerates. Results: The theophylline nanoparticles thus obtained had an average particle size of 290 nm and a zeta potential of −39.5 mV, whereas the agglomerates were 2.47 μm in size with a zeta potential of −28.9 mV. The release profile was found to follow first-order kinetics (r2 > 0.96). The aerodynamic characteristics of the agglomerated nanoparticles were determined using a cascade impactor. The behavior of the agglomerate was significantly better than unprocessed raw theophylline powder. In addition, the nanoparticles and agglomerates resulted in a significant improvement in the dissolution of theophylline. Conclusion: The results obtained lend support to the hypothesis that controlled agglomeration strategies provide an efficient approach for the delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs into the lungs. PMID:21383856

  6. Nanoparticle agglomeration in an evaporating levitated droplet for different acoustic amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijerino, Erick; Basu, Saptarshi; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2013-01-01

    Radiatively heated levitated functional droplets with nanosilica suspensions exhibit three distinct stages namely pure evaporation, agglomeration, and finally structure formation. The temporal history of the droplet surface temperature shows two inflection points. One inflection point corresponds to a local maximum and demarcates the end of transient heating of the droplet and domination of vaporization. The second inflection point is a local minimum and indicates slowing down of the evaporation rate due to surface accumulation of nanoparticles. Morphology and final precipitation structures of levitated droplets are due to competing mechanisms of particle agglomeration, evaporation, and shape deformation. In this work, we provide a detailed analysis for each process and propose two important timescales for evaporation and agglomeration that determine the final diameter of the structure formed. It is seen that both agglomeration and evaporation timescales are similar functions of acoustic amplitude (sound pressure level), droplet size, viscosity, and density. However, we show that while the agglomeration timescale decreases with initial particle concentration, the evaporation timescale shows the opposite trend. The final normalized diameter can be shown to be dependent solely on the ratio of agglomeration to evaporation timescales for all concentrations and acoustic amplitudes. The structures also exhibit various aspect ratios (bowls, rings, spheroids) which depend on the ratio of the deformation timescale (tdef) and the agglomeration timescale (tg). For tdef

  7. Coal-gasification-instrumentation program (PR 11734). Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1981-December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-12

    Research programs involving coherent anti-Stokes Raman and infrared spectroscopy techniques to measure the concentrations of minority species in coal gasification streams are considered. Equipment modifications to improve the spectral quality (lower line widths), fundamental studies of spectral lines of gases of interest, detection limits and a study of possible interferences (including subtracting some of these) are presented. Some studies involve laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. This work involves two pulsed lasers and a timing system to introduce the appropriate delay. (LTN)

  8. Small scale gasification of short rotation coppice willow for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, W.M.; Forbes, G.; McCracken, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    Conversion technologies for wood chip produced from short rotation coppice willow have concentrated on small dispersed systems suitable for the farm structure found in Northern Ireland. The development of a 100 kW downdraft gasification, combined heat and power system identified a number of problems including fuel characteristics and gas clean up. Modifications to fuel feed systems, hearth design and particulate and tar removal methods have resulted consistent production of high quality gas for the diesel engine used for electricity generation.

  9. Active sites in char gasification: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtowicz, M.; Lilly, W.D.; Perkins, M.T.; Hradil, G.; Calo, J.M.; Suuberg, E.M.

    1987-09-01

    Among the key variables in the design of gasifiers and combustors is the reactivity of the chars which must be gasified or combusted. Significant loss of unburned char is unacceptable in virtually any process; the provision of sufficient residence time for complete conversion is essential. A very wide range of reactivities are observed, depending upon the nature of the char in a process. The current work focuses on furthering the understanding of gasification reactivities of chars. It has been well established that the reactivity of char to gasification generally depends upon three principal factors: (1) the concentration of ''active sites'' in the char; (2) mass transfer within the char; and (3) the type and concentration of catalytic impurities in the char. The present study primarily addresses the first factor. The subject of this research is the origin, nature, and fate of active sites in chars derived from parent hydrocarbons with coal-like structure. The nature and number of the active sites and their reactivity towards oxygen are examined in ''model'' chars derived from phenol-formaldehyde type resins. How the active sites are lost by the process of thermal annealing during heat treatment of chars are studied, and actual rate for the annealing process is derived. Since intrinsic char reactivities are of primary interest in the present study, a fair amount of attention was given to the model char synthesis and handling so that the effect of catalytic impurities and oxygen-containing functional groups in the chemical structure of the material were minimized, if not completely eliminated. The project would not be considered complete without comparing characteristic features of synthetic chars with kinetic behavior exhibited by natural chars, including coal chars.

  10. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, R.E.; Griswold, G.H.; Fankhanel, M.O.; Kastner, C.E.; Pontium, D.H.

    1992-11-01

    Efficiencies in advanced power generation systems such as integrated gasification combined cycle, pressurized fluidized bed combustion and integrated gasification fuel cells can be maximized by feeding hot fuel gas or flue gas to the power block. However, advanced gas turbines have strict particulate requirements to minimize wear on the blades due to the close tolerances used to maximize the efficiency of the turbomachinery. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells also have strict particulate requirements to prevent blinding of the electrodes. Therefore, one of the main barriers to developing these advanced power generation systems is the removal of particulates in a hot gas stream. Although the development of several high temperature/pressure PCD systems has been ongoing for the past several years, long term operation under realistic conditions for advanced power generation has been limited. The demonstration of reliable operation is critical to the commercialization of PCD technology for advanced power generation. The conceptual design of the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Project was expanded to include additional modules to better address the scope of the Cooperative Agreement with the DOE/METC. The expanded test facility, referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility, will provide a flexible test location in which the development of advanced power system components, the evaluation of advanced turbine and fuel cell configurations, and the integration and control issues of these systems. The facility is intended to provide direct support for upcoming DOE demonstrations of power generation technologies utilizing hot stream cleanup and will provide a resource for rigorous testing and performance assessment of hot stream cleanup devices now being developed with the support of DOE/METC.

  11. Diffusion-Limited Agglomeration and Defect Generation during Chemical Mechanical Planarization

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, R.; Han, Y.; Karra, P.; Sherman, P.; Chandra, A.

    2008-06-06

    Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) of copper involves removal of surface asperities with abrasive particles and polishing processes. This leads to copper-containing nanoparticles extruded into the solution. We model the diffusion-limited agglomeration (DLA) of such nanoparticles which can rapidly grow to large sizes. These large particles are detrimental because they can participate in polishing, causing scratches and surface defects during CMP. The agglomeration is much slower in the reaction-limited agglomeration process. Under realistic conditions the defect generation probability can increase significantly over time scales of {approx}10 to 20 min from DLA, unless prevented by slurry rejuvenation or process modification measures.

  12. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,'' there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

  13. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract ``Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,`` there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

  14. Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Huber, Dale L.

    2011-07-05

    A method for controlling the size of chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles that employs magnetic interaction between particles to control particle size and does not rely on conventional kinetic control of the reaction to control particle size. The particles are caused to reversibly agglomerate and precipitate from solution; the size at which this occurs can be well controlled to provide a very narrow particle size distribution. The size of particles is controllable by the size of the surfactant employed in the process; controlling the size of the surfactant allows magnetic control of the agglomeration and precipitation processes. Agglomeration is used to effectively stop particle growth to provide a very narrow range of particle sizes.

  15. Constraints on chondrule agglomeration from fine-grained chondrule rims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzler, K.; Bischoff, A.

    1994-01-01

    Fine-grained rims around chondrules, Ca,Al-rich inclusions, and other coarse-grained components occur in most types of unequilibrated chondrites, most prominently in carbonaceous chondrites of the CM group. Based on mineralogical and petrographic investigations, it was suggested that rim structures in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites could have formed in the solar nebula by accretion of dust on the surfaces of the chondrules. Dust mantles in CM chondrites seem to have formed by accretion of dust on the surfaces of chondrules and other components during their passage through dust-rich regions in the solar nebula. Concentric mantles with compositionally different layers prove the existence of various distinct dust reservoirs in the vicinity of the accreting parent body. Despite mineralogical and chemical differences, fine-grained rims from other chondrite groups principally show striking similarities to dust mantle textures in CM chondrite. This implies that the formation of dust mantles was a cosmically significant event like the chondrule formation itself. Dust mantles seem to have formed chronologically between chondrule-producing transient heating events and the agglomeration of chondritic parent bodies. For this reason the investigation of dust mantle structures may help to answer the question of how a dusty solar nebula was transformed into a planetary system.

  16. Nearshore dynamics of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.; McLaughlin, Molly R.

    2015-01-01

    Weathered oil can mix with sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs) that can cause beach re-oiling for years after a spill. Few studies have focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. In this study, artificial SOAs (aSOAs) were created and deployed in the nearshore, and shear stress-based mobility formulations were assessed to predict SOA response. Prediction sensitivity to uncertainty in hydrodynamic conditions and shear stress parameterizations were explored. Critical stress estimates accounting for large particle exposure in a mixed bed gave the best predictions of mobility under shoaling and breaking waves. In the surf zone, the 10-cm aSOA was immobile and began to bury in the seafloor while smaller size classes dispersed alongshore. aSOAs up to 5 cm in diameter were frequently mobilized in the swash zone. The uncertainty in predicting aSOA dynamics reflects a broader uncertainty in applying mobility and transport formulations to cm-sized particles.

  17. Capillary condensation onto titania (TiO2) nanoparticle agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seonmin; Ehrman, Sheryl H

    2007-02-27

    A capillary condensation process was developed for the purpose of forming interconnections between nanoparticles at low temperatures. The process was performed in a temperature-controlled flow chamber on nanoparticle agglomerates deposited at submonolayer coverage on a transmission electron microscope grid. The partial pressure of the condensing species, tetraethyl orthosilicate, and the temperature of the chamber were adjusted in order to obtain the various saturation conditions for capillary condensation. The modified samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, BET surface area method, and scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron energy-loss spectrometry. Experimental results show that bridge-shaped layers were dominantly formed in the neck region between particles and were composed of amorphous silica. The analysis of TEM micrographs verified that the coverage of the layers is strongly dependent on the saturation ratio. Image analysis of TEM micrographs shows that this dependency is qualitatively in agreement with theoretical predictions based on the classical Kelvin equation for the specific geometries in our system. PMID:17243733

  18. Reducing adhesion and agglomeration within a cloud of combustible particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D.

    1988-01-01

    The study of combustible particle clouds inside flame tubes is of fundamental scientific interest as well as a practical concern. Only the suspended concentration is important to the combustion process, so that assurances must be provided that a minimum of particles adheres to the tube wall. This paper demonstrates experimentally the ability to minimize adhesion and agglomeration of acoustically-mixed lycopodium particles within a 5-cm diameter lexan flame tube. The area density of particles (ADP) adhering to the wall of bare lexan tubes was measured at greater than 100 particles/sq mm. The nature of adhesion was found to be clearly electrostatic, with the ADP level aggravated by increased mixing time, vigor, and the concentration of particles. Increases in the conductivity of the air and the tube wall did not affect ADP levels substantially. However, the observed adhesion was reduced to less than 10 p/sq mm when the air was ionized by use of an alpha emitter mounted on the inner walls of the flame tube.

  19. Assessment of Traffic Noise on Highway Passing from Urban Agglomeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Kori, Chandan; Kumar, Manoj; Chakrabarti, T.; Gupta, Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Assessment of traffic noise pollution in developing countries is complex due to heterogeneity in traffic conditions like traffic volume, road width, honking, etc. To analyze the impact of such variables, a research study was carried out on a national highway passing from an urban agglomeration. Traffic volume and noise levels (L10, Lmin, Lmax, Leq and L90) were measured during morning and evening peak hours. Contribution of noise by individual vehicle was estimated using passenger car noise unit. Extent of noise pollution and impact of noisy vehicles were estimated using noise pollution level and traffic noise index, respectively. Noise levels were observed to be above the prescribed Indian and International standards. As per audio spectrum analysis of traffic noise, honking contributed an additional 3-4 dB(A) noise. Based on data analysis, a positive relationship was observed between noise levels and honking while negative correlation was observed between noise levels and road width. The study suggests that proper monitoring and analysis of traffic data is required for better planning of noise abatement measures.

  20. The Physics of Protoplanetesimal Dust Agglomerates. V. Multiple Impacts of Dusty Agglomerates at Velocities Above the Fragmentation Threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothe, Stefan; Güttler, Carsten; Blum, Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, a number of new experiments have advanced our knowledge on the early growth phases of protoplanetary dust aggregates. Some of these experiments have shown that collisions between porous and compacted agglomerates at velocities above the fragmentation threshold velocity can lead to growth of the compact body, when the porous collision partner fragments upon impact and transfers mass to the compact agglomerate. To obtain a deeper understanding of this potentially important growth process, we performed laboratory and drop tower experiments to study multiple impacts of small, highly porous dust-aggregate projectiles onto sintered dust targets. The projectile and target consisted of 1.5 μm monodisperse, spherical SiO2 monomers with volume filling factors of 0.15 ± 0.01 and 0.45 ± 0.05, respectively. The fragile projectiles were accelerated by a solenoid magnet and combined with a projectile magazine with which 25 impacts onto the same spot on the target could be performed in vacuum. We measured the mass-accretion efficiency and the volume filling factor for different impact velocities between 1.5 and 6.0 m s^{-1}. The experiments at the lowest impact speeds were performed in the Bremen drop tower under microgravity conditions to allow partial mass transfer also for the lowest adhesion case. Within this velocity range, we found a linear increase of the accretion efficiency with increasing velocity. In the laboratory experiments, the accretion efficiency increases from 0.12 to 0.21 in units of the projectile mass. The recorded images of the impacts showed that the mass transfer from the projectile to the target leads to the growth of a conical structure on the target after less than 100 impacts. From the images, we also measured the volume filling factors of the grown structures, which ranged from 0.15 (uncompacted) to 0.40 (significantly compacted) with increasing impact speed. The velocity dependency of the mass-transfer efficiency and the packing

  1. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    The advantages of biomass as a feedstock are examined and biomass conversion techniques are described. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products gas, wood tars, and charcoal can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  2. Economics of synfuel and gasification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, O.J.

    1981-01-01

    The performance characteristics of several gasification systems are discussed. Cost estimates of various synthetic fuels are presented. The lowest cost synthetic fuel is significantly above the current natural gas price of about $2.75/MMBtu and about equivalent to present oil prices at the plant gate. Gas prices for the Welman-Galusha gasifier would have to be increased significantly if the plant ran on two shifts only or if the gasifiers were not fully loaded. For industrial application the lowest cost fuel is probably the direct use of low sulfur coal with some post combustion pollution control. This is followed by the atmospheric fluidized bed combustor. Coal/oil mixtures and solvent refined coal liquids (SRC I or SRC II) are the next options. High Btu gas from a large coal gasification plant will be more competitive for industrial use. Large industrial uses in the range of 1000 tons of coal a day may find reduced costs with an entrained coal conversion unit such as a Texaco or the Saarberg-Otto Gasifiers. However, before 1985 when the gas price decontrol has been felt, it is unlikely that low Btu gas, medium Btu gas and methanol will be an economical choice for industrial users.

  3. Advanced gasification-based biomass power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.H.; Larson, E.D.

    1993-12-31

    A promising strategy for modernizing bioenergy is the production of electricity or the cogeneration of electricity and heat using gasified biomass with advanced conversion technologies. Major advances that have been made in coal gasification technology, to marry the gas turbine to coal, are readily adaptable to biomass applications. Integrating biomass gasifiers with aeroderivative gas turbines in particular makes it possible to achieve high efficiencies and low unit capital costs at the modest scales required for bioenergy systems. Electricity produced with biomass-integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) power systems not only offers major environmental benefits but also would be competitive with electricity produced from fossil fuels and nuclear energy under a wide range of circumstances. Initial applications will be with biomass residues generated in the sugarcane, pulp and paper, and other agro- and forest-product industries. Eventually, biomass grown for energy purposes on dedicated energy farms will also be used to fuel these gas turbine systems. Continuing improvements in jet engine and biomass gasification technologies will lead to further gains in the performance of BIG/GT systems over the next couple of decades. Fuel cells operated on gasified biomass offer the promise of even higher performance levels in the period beyond the turn of the century. 79 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  5. Solar gasification of biomass: design and characterization of a molten salt gasification reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, Brandon Jay

    The design and implementation of a prototype molten salt solar reactor for gasification of biomass is a significant milestone in the development of a solar gasification process. The reactor developed in this work allows for 3 kWth operation with an average aperture flux of 1530 suns at salt temperatures of 1200 K with pneumatic injection of ground or powdered dry biomass feedstocks directly into the salt melt. Laboratory scale experiments in an electrically heated reactor demonstrate the benefits of molten salt and the data was evaluated to determine the kinetics of pyrolysis and gasification of biomass or carbon in molten salt. In the presence of molten salt overall gas yields are increased by up to 22%; pyrolysis rates double due to improved heat transfer, while carbon gasification rates increase by an order of magnitude. Existing kinetic models for cellulose pyrolysis fit the data well, while carbon gasification in molten salt follows kinetics modeled with a 2/3 order shrinking-grain model with a pre-exponential factor of 1.5*106 min-1 and activation energy of 158 kJ/mol. A reactor concept is developed based around a concentric cylinder geometry with a cavity-style solar receiver immersed within a volume of molten carbonate salt. Concentrated radiation delivered to the cavity is absorbed in the cavity walls and transferred via convection to the salt volume. Feedstock is delivered into the molten salt volume where biomass gasification reactions will be carried out producing the desired product gas. The features of the cavity receiver/reactor concept are optimized based on modeling of the key physical processes. The cavity absorber geometry is optimized according to a parametric survey of radiative exchange using a Monte Carlo ray tracing model, resulting in a cavity design that achieves absorption efficiencies of 80%-90%. A parametric survey coupling the radiative exchange simulations to a CFD model of molten salt natural convection is used to size the annulus

  6. Supercritical gasification for the treatment of o-cresol wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chao-hai; Hu, Cheng-sheng; Wu, Chao-fei; Yan, Bo

    2006-01-01

    The supercritical water gasification of phenolic wastewater without oxidant was performed to degrade pollutants and produce hydrogen-enriched gases. The simulated o-cresol wastewater was gasified at 440-650 degrees C and 27.6 MPa in a continuous Inconel 625 reactor with the residence time of 0.42-1.25 min. The influence of the reaction temperature, residence time, pressure, catalyst, oxidant and the pollutant concentration on the gasification efficiency was investigated. Higher temperature and longer residence time enhanced the o-cresol gasification. The TOC removal rate and hydrogen gasification rate were 90.6% and 194.6%, respectively, at the temperature of 650 degrees C and the residence time of 0.83 min. The product gas was mainly composed of H2, CO2, CH4 and CO, among which the total molar percentage of H2 and CH4 was higher than 50%. The gasification efficiency decreased with the pollutant concentration increasing. Both the catalyst and oxidant could accelerate the hydrocarbon gasification at a lower reaction temperature, in which the catalyst promoted H2 production and the oxidant enhanced CO2 generation. The intermediates of liquid effluents were analyzed and phenol was found to be the main composition. The results indicate that the supercritical gasification is a promising way for the treatment of hazardous organic wastewater. PMID:17078539

  7. Launch Vehicle with Combustible Polyethylene Case Gasification Chamber Design Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yemets, V.

    A single-stage launch vehicle equipped with a combustible tank shell of polyethylene and a moving propulsion plant is proposed. The propulsion plant is composed of a chamber for the gasification of the shell, a compressor of pyrolysed polyethylene and a magnetic powder obturator. It is shown that the “dental” structure of the gasification chamber is necessary to achieve the necessary contact area with the polyethylene shell. This conclusion is drawn from consideration of the thermo- physical properties of polyethylene, calculating quasisteady temperature field in the gasification chamber, estimating gasification rate of polyethylene, launch vehicle shortening rate and area of gasification. Experimental determination of the gasification rate is described. The gasification chamber specific mass as well as the propulsion plant weight-to-thrust ratio are estimated under some assumptions concerning the obturator and compressor. Combustible launch vehicles are compared with conventional launch vehicles taking into consideration their payload mass ratios. Combustible launchers are preferable as small launchers for micro and nano satellites. Reusable versions of such launchers seem suitable if polyethylene tank shells filled with metal or metal hydride fine dusts are used.

  8. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project: Public design report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (the Project), conceived in October of 1990 and selected by the US Department of Energy as a Clean Coal IV demonstration project in September 1991, is expected to begin commercial operations in August of 1995. The Participants, Destec Energy, Inc., (Destec) of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc., (PSI) of Plainfield, Indiana, formed the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (the JV) to participate in the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program by demonstrating the coal gasification repowering of an existing 1950`s vintage generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The Participants, acting through the JV, signed the Cooperative Agreement with the DOE in July 1992. The Participants jointly developed, and separately designed, constructed, own, and will operate an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (CGCC) power plant using Destec`s coal gasification technology to repower Unit {number_sign}1 at PSI`s Wabash River Generating Station located in Terre Haute, Indiana. PSI is responsible for the new power generation facilities and modification of the existing unit, while Destec is responsible for the coal gasification plant. The Project demonstrates integration of the pre-existing steam turbine generator, auxiliaries, and coal handling facilities with a new combustion turbine generator/heat recovery steam generator tandem and the coal gasification facilities.

  9. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and

  10. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE's bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and gas

  11. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel S. Tam

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this series of design and estimating efforts was to start from the as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project and to develop optimized designs for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC power and coproduction projects. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This unoptimized plant has a thermal efficiency of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW. This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for single-train coal and coke-fueled power plants. This side-by-side comparison of these plants, which contain the Subtask 1.3 VIP enhancements, showed their similarity both in design and cost (1,318 $/kW for the

  12. Steady-state model for estimating gas production from underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Perkins; Veena Sahajwalla

    2008-11-15

    A pseudo-one-dimensional channel model has been developed to estimate gas production from underground coal gasification. The model incorporates a zero-dimensional steady-state cavity growth submodel and models mass transfer from the bulk gas to the coal wall using a correlation for natural convection. Simulations with the model reveal that the gas calorific value is sensitive to coal reactivity and the exposed reactive surface area per unit volume in the channel. A comparison of model results with several small-scale field trials conducted at Centralia in the U.S.A. show that the model can make good predictions of the gas production and composition under a range of different operating conditions, including operation with air and steam/oxygen mixtures. Further work is required to determine whether the model formulation is also suitable for simulating large-scale underground coal gasification field trials.

  13. Generation of hydrogen rich gas through fluidized bed gasification of biomass.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, M K; Datta, A B

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the process of generating hydrogen rich syngas through thermo chemical fluidized bed gasification of biomass. The experiments were performed in a laboratory scale externally heated biomass gasifier. Rice husk had been taken as a representative biomass and, steam had been used as the fluidizing and gasifying media. A thermodynamic equilibrium model was used to predict the gasification process. The work included the parametric study of process parameters such as reactor temperature and steam biomass ratio which generally influence the percentage of hydrogen content in the product gas. Steam had been used here to generate nitrogen free product gas and also to increase the hydrogen concentration in syngas with a medium range heating value of around 12 MJ/Nm3. PMID:20797847

  14. Steam reforming of gasification gas tar over dolomite with benzene as a model compound

    SciTech Connect

    Simell, P.A.; Hirvensalo, E.K.; Smolander, V.T.; Krause, A.O.I.

    1999-04-01

    Tar decomposition over a dolomite catalyst in gasification conditions was modeled using benzene as a tar model compound. The reactions of the gas main components were included in the models studied. Kinetic studies were carried out at 750--925 C and under ambient pressure in a plug flow reactor using a mixture of simulated gasification gas. Operation conditions without external or internal mass-transfer limitations were applied. Mechanistic models of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood type describing benzene decomposition were developed and tested. Experimental results could be best described by a kinetic rate equation based on the assumption that single-site adsorption of benzene was the rate-determining step and that adsorption of hydrogen inhibited benzene decomposition.

  15. Coal-gasification/MHD/steam-turbine combined-cycle (GMS) power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, J.M.; Marchant, D.D.

    1980-11-01

    The coal-gasification/MHD/steam-turbine combined cycle (GMS) refers to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems in which coal gasification is used to supply a clean fuel (free of mineral matter and sulfur) for combustion in an MHD electrical power plant. Advantages of a clean-fuel system include the elimination of mineral matter or slag from all components other than the coal gasifier and gas cleanup system; reduced wear and corrosion on components; and increased seed recovery resulting from reduced exposure of seed to mineral matter or slag. Efficiencies in some specific GMS power plants are shown to be higher than for a comparably sized coal-burning MHD power plant. The use of energy from the MHD exhaust gas to gasify coal (rather than the typical approach of burning part of the coal) results in these higher efficiencies.

  16. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James R

    2014-11-04

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  17. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

    2013-12-17

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

  18. Analysis of a coal fired combined cycle with carried-heat gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiangdong; Zhu, Weimin; Zhao, Li; Fett, F. N.

    1994-12-01

    In the research of a more efficient, less costly, more environmentally responsible and less technically difficult method for generating electrical power from coal, the Carried-heat Gasification Combined Cycle (CGCC) is introduced by Tsinghua University. The high efficiency cycle includes carried-heat partial gasification, compressed air heating in a fluidized bed immersed air heater followed by a combustor and the heat recovery of gas turbine exhaust used as the combustion air for the differential-velocity atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (DFBC). Superheat steam is raised in the DFBC boiler. The comparison of results identifies the causes of performance difference between eight cases. Features of the cycle ensure a high coal conversion efficiency within current state of the art.

  19. Simulation on gasification of forestry residues in fluidized beds by Eulerian-Lagrangian approach.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Zhong, Wenqi; Jin, Baosheng; Shao, Yingjuan; Liu, Hao

    2012-10-01

    A comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model is developed to simulate forestry residues gasification in a fluidized bed reactor using Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. The complex granular flow behaviors and chemical reaction characteristics are addressed simultaneously. The model uses an Eulerian method for fluid phase and a discrete particle method for solid phase, which takes particle contact force into account. Heterogeneous and homogenous reaction rates are solved on the Eulerian grid. The numerical model is employed to study the gasification performance in a lab-scale pine gasifier. A series of simulations have been performed with some critical parameters including temperature, equivalence ratio and steam to biomass ratio. The model predicts product gas composition and carbon conversion efficiency in good agreement with experimental data. The formation and development of flow regimes, profiles of particle species, and distributions of gas compositions inside the reactor are also discussed. PMID:22858466

  20. Thermodynamic analyses of a biomass-coal co-gasification power generation system.

    PubMed

    Yan, Linbo; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu

    2016-04-01

    A novel chemical looping power generation system is presented based on the biomass-coal co-gasification with steam. The effects of different key operation parameters including biomass mass fraction (Rb), steam to carbon mole ratio (Rsc), gasification temperature (Tg) and iron to fuel mole ratio (Rif) on the system performances like energy efficiency (ηe), total energy efficiency (ηte), exergy efficiency (ηex), total exergy efficiency (ηtex) and carbon capture rate (ηcc) are analyzed. A benchmark condition is set, under which ηte, ηtex and ηcc are found to be 39.9%, 37.6% and 96.0%, respectively. Furthermore, detailed energy Sankey diagram and exergy Grassmann diagram are drawn for the entire system operating under the benchmark condition. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the units composing the system are also predicted. PMID:26826573