Science.gov

Sample records for agglomeration procedures developed

  1. Engineering development of selective agglomeration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report presents the findings of the project entitled ``Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration.`` The purpose is to develop selective agglomeration technology to a commercially acceptable level by 1993. Engineering development included bench-scale process development, component development adaptation or modification of existing unit operations, proof-of-concept (POC) module design, fabrication, testing, data evaluation, and conceptual design of a commercial facility. The information obtained during POC operation resulted in a technical and economic design base sufficient to support construction and operation of a commercial plant. Throughout this project performance targets for the engineering development of selective agglomeration process were to achieve 85% or greater Btu recovery at 85% or greater pyritic sulfur rejection (PSR). Additional objectives included producing a final clean-coal product with an ash content of 6% or less which is suitable for conventional coal handling systems. The selective agglomeration process, as applied to coal cleaning, is based on differences in the surface chemistry of coal and its associated impurities. Coal particles are hydrophobic (i.e., repel water) while the majority of its impurities are hydrophilic (i.e., stabilized in water). During selective agglomeration, a liquid (the agglomerant) that is immiscible with water is introduced into a coal-water slurry and agitated to disperse it in the slurry, thereby allowing it to come into contact with all particles in the slurry. The coal particles, due to their hydrophobic nature, are attracted to the agglomerant phase. The hydrophilic mineral impurities remain in the water phase. Continued agitation of the agglomerant-coated coal particles causes them to coalesce to form agglomerates. Once the agglomerates are formed, they are separated from the mineral matter-bearing aqueous phase by subsequent processing steps.

  2. Development of a Gas-Promoted Oil Agglomeration Process

    SciTech Connect

    C. Nelson; F. Zhang; J. Drzymala; M. Shen; R. Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1997-11-01

    The preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During a batch agglomeration test the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspensions or by observing changes in turbidity in the case of dilute suspensions. Dilute suspensions were employed for investigating the kinetics of agglomeration, whereas concentrated suspensions were used for determining parameters that characterize the process of agglomeration. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. Each tank was enclosed to control the amount of air present. A variable speed agitator fitted with a six blade turbine impeller was used for agitation. Tests were conducted with moderately hydrophobic Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and with more hydrophobic Upper Freeport coal using either n-heptane, i-octane, or hexadecane as an agglomerant.

  3. Development and Application of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Complex Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2010-01-01

    We report progress in the development of agglomerated multigrid techniques for fully un- structured grids in three dimensions, building upon two previous studies focused on efficiently solving a model diffusion equation. We demonstrate a robust fully-coarsened agglomerated multigrid technique for 3D complex geometries, incorporating the following key developments: consistent and stable coarse-grid discretizations, a hierarchical agglomeration scheme, and line-agglomeration/relaxation using prismatic-cell discretizations in the highly-stretched grid regions. A signi cant speed-up in computer time is demonstrated for a model diffusion problem, the Euler equations, and the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for 3D realistic complex geometries.

  4. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Trace element removal study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Southern Company Services, Inc., (SCS) was contracted in 1989 by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a commercially acceptable selective agglomeration technology to enhance the use of high-sulfur coals by 1993. The project scope involved development of a bench-scale process and components, as well as the design, testing, and evaluation of a proof-of-concept (POC) facility. To that end, a two-ton-per-hour facility was constructed and tested near Wilsonville, Alabama. Although it was not the primary focus of the test program, SCS also measured the ability of selective agglomeration to remove trace elements from coal. This document describes the results of that program.

  5. Development of methods to predict agglomeration and disposition in FBCs

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.K.; Erickson, T.A.

    1995-11-01

    This 3-year, multiclient program is providing the information needed to determine the behavior of inorganic components in FBC units using advanced methods of analysis coupled with bench-scale combustion experiments. The major objectives of the program are as follows: (1) To develop further our advanced ash and deposit characterization techniques to quantify the effects of the liquid-phase components in terms of agglomerate formation and ash deposits, (2) To determine the mechanisms of inorganic transformations that lead to bed agglomeration and ash deposition in FBC systems, and (3) To develop a better means to predict the behavior of inorganic components as a function of coal composition, bed material characteristics, and combustion conditions.

  6. Development of a full scale selective oil agglomeration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, J.C.; Cooney, B.; Hoare, I.; Waugh, B.; Robinson, R.

    1998-12-31

    A research and development program managed by Australian Mining Investments Limited (AMI) on behalf of an investment syndicate was conducted with the objective of improving the efficiency and economy of the Selective Oil Agglomeration Process (SOAP), and developing viable commercial sized operating plants. Fewer than half the coal preparation plants in Australia beneficiate fine coal by froth flotation, the only viable alternative to SOAP for the recovery of low ash, fine and ultra fine coal. Those plants without flotation generally dispose of the ultra fine material, approximately {minus}100{micro}m in size, as tailings to waste. In the majority of cases this ultra fine waste contains more than 50% relatively low ash coal of saleable quality. It is believed that this coal constitutes a loss of 8--10 million tonnes per annum and that the coal mining industry would welcome a recovery process which has low capital and operating costs and will function automatically with minimal operator attention. The authors carried out a comprehensive literature study of selective oil agglomeration in order to gain a full understanding of the process and to plan the research program. Extensive studies were then undertaken on oil dispersion in the water phase, formation of oil water emulsions with surfactants and the optimization of surfactant selection. Oil and emulsion properties were investigated including stability, viscosity, temperature, concentration of components, time of formation, and cost. This work was followed by characterization studies on coals from the Gunnedah Basin and agglomeration test work on these coals. These agglomeration studies were performed firstly at bench level and then by using a small, 200 kg/hr continuous process development unit. The results were sufficiently encouraging to justify the design and construction of a fully instrumented, PLC controlled, 2 tph pilot plant at Gunnedah Colliery Coal Preparation Plant. Extensive trials were carried out on

  7. Development of a Gas-Promoted Oil Agglomeration Process

    SciTech Connect

    M. Shen; T. D. Wheelock

    1998-10-30

    Further agglomeration tests were conducted in a series of tests designed to determine the effects of various parameters on the size and structure of the agglomerates formed, the rate of agglomeration, coal recovery, and ash rejection. For this series of tests, finely ground Pittsburgh No. 8 coal has been agglomerated with i-octane in a closed mixing system with a controlled amount of air present to promote particle agglomeration. The present results provide further evidence of the role played by air. As the concentration of air in the system was increased from 4.5 to 18 v/w% based on the weight of coal, coal recovery and ash rejection both increased. The results also show that coal recovery and ash rejection were improved by increasing agitator speed. On the other hand, coal recovery was not affected by a change in solids concentration from 20 to 30 w/w%.

  8. Development of a Gas-Promoted Oil Agglomeration Process

    SciTech Connect

    M. Shen; R. Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1998-10-30

    Two series of agglomeration tests were conducted as part of an effort to find a suitable basis for size scale-up of the mixing system used for a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. In the first series of tests the agitator impeller diameter and speed were varied among runs so as to vary impeller tip speed and agitator power independently while keeping other conditions constant. In the second series of tests the mixing tank size and agitator speed were varied while the ratio of tank diameter to impeller diameter were held constant. All tests were conducted with finely ground Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and with i-octane as the agglomerant. The results of these tests showed that the minimum time te required to produce spherical agglomerates was predominantly a function of the agitator power input per unit volume. In addition, the size of the agglomerates produced in a given time was also strongly dependent on power input. At lower power input levels, the mean size rose as power input increased until a point was reached where agglomerate breakage became important and the mean size decreased. The results also showed that the ash content of the agglomerates produced in a given time tended to decrease with increasing power input. On the other hand, the recovery of clean coal on a dry, ash-free basis was not greatly affected by power input.

  9. Engineering development of selective agglomeration. Site closeout report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The Selective Agglomeration POC facility consisted of a coal crushing and grinding circuit, followed by an agglomeration circuit and product dewatering. (A plot plan of the facility is shown in Figure 1-2.) The coal crushing and grinding system consisted of a hammermill coal crusher, weigh-belt feeder, two ball mills (primary and secondary), and necessary hoppers, pumps, and conveyors. The mills were capable of providing coal over a range of grinds from a d{sub 50} of 125 to 25 microns. Slurry discharged from the ball mills was pumped to the agglomeration circuit. The agglomeration circuit began with a high-shear mixer, where diesel was added to the slurry to begin the formation of microagglomerates. The high-shear mixer was followed by two stages of conventional flotation cells for microagglomerate recovery. The second-stage-flotation-cell product was pumped to either a rotary-drum vacuum filter or a high-G centrifuge for dewatering. The dewatered product was then convoyed to the product pad from which dump trucks were used to transfer it to the utility plant located next to the facility. Plant tailings were pumped to the water clarifier for thickening and then dewatered in plate-and-frame filter presses. These dewatered tailings were also removed to the utility via dump truck. Clarified water (thickener overflow) was recycled to the process via a head tank.

  10. Influence of excipients and processing conditions on the development of agglomerates of racecadotril by crystallo-co-agglomeration

    PubMed Central

    Garala, Kevin; Patel, Jaydeep; Patel, Anjali; Raval, Mihir; Dharamsi, Abhay

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present investigation was to improve the flow and mechanical properties of racecadotril by a crystallo-co-agglomeration (CCA) technique. Direct tableting is a requirement of pharmaceutical industries. Poor mechanical properties of crystalline drug particles require wet granulation which is uneconomical, laborious, and tedious. Materials and Methods: The objective of this work was to study the influence of various polymers/excipients and processing conditions on the formation of directly compressible agglomerates of the water-insoluble drug, racecadotril, an antidiarrheal agent. The agglomerates of racecadotril were prepared using dichloromethane (DCM)–water as the crystallization system. DCM acted as a good solvent for racecadotril as well as a bridging liquid for the agglomeration of the crystallized drug and water as the nonsolvent. The prepared agglomerates were tested for micromeritic and mechanical properties. Results: The process yielded ~90 to 96% wt/ wt spherical agglomerates containing racecadotril with the diameter between 299 and 521 μ. A higher rotational speed of crystallization system reduces the size of the agglomerates and disturbs the sphericity. Spherical agglomerates were generated with a uniform dispersion of the crystallized drug. CCA showed excellent flowability and crushing strength. Conclusion: Excipients and processing conditions can play a key role in preparing spherical agglomerates of racecadotril by CCA, an excellent alternative to the wet granulation process to prepare intermediates for direct compression. PMID:23580935

  11. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract ``Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,`` there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

  12. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 5, Bench- scale process testing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Under the overall objectives of DOE Contract Engineering Development of Selective Agglomeration,'' there were a number of specific objectives in the Task 5 program. The prime objectives of Task 5 are highlighted below: (1) Maximize process performance in pyritic sulfur rejection and BTU recovery, (2) Produce a low ash product, (3) Compare the performance of the heavy agglomerant process based on diesel and the light agglomerant process using heptane, (4) Define optimum processing conditions for engineering design, (5) Provide first-level evaluation of product handleability, and (6) Explore and investigate process options/ideas which may enhance process performance and/or product handleability.

  13. Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    The preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal advanced in three major research areas. One area of research resulted in the development of a method for measuring the rate of agglomeration of dilute particle suspensions and using the method to relate the rate of agglomeration of coal particles to various key parameters. A second area of research led to the development of a method for monitoring a batch agglomeration process by measuring changes in agitator torque. With this method it was possible to show that the agglomeration of a concentrated coal particle suspension is triggered by the introduction of a small amount of gas. The method was also used in conjunction with optical microscopy to study the mechanism of agglomeration. A third area of research led to the discovery that highly hydrophobic particles in an aqueous suspension can be agglomerated by air alone.

  14. Experimental development of a two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rehmat, A.; Bryan, B.G.; Lau, F.S. ); Shearer, T.L. ); Duggan, P.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting an experimental program to develop and test through pilot-plant scale of operation, IGT's two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating incinerator (TSI). The TSI is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration/gasification technology and the cyclonic combustion/incineration technology, which have been developed at IGT over many years. The TSI is a unique and extremely flexible combustor that can operate over a wide range of conditions in the fluidized-bed first stage from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration) including gasification of high-Btu wastes. The TSI can easily and efficiently destroy solid, liquid and gaseous organic wastes, while containing solid inorganic contaminants within an essentially non-leachable glassy matrix, suitable for disposal in an ordinary landfill. This paper presents the results of tests conducted in a batch, fluidized-bed bench-scale unit (BSU) with commercially available clean'' top soil and the same soil spiked with lead and chromium compounds. The objectives of these tests were to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve soil agglomeration and to evaluate the leaching characteristics of the soil agglomerates formed. 7 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.

    1995-12-01

    Several scale model mixing systems have been built and are being utilized to study the gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal. Numerous batch agglomeration tests have been conducted with these systems. During an individual test the progress of agglomeration has been monitored by observing either changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated particle suspensions or changes in turbidity in the case of dilute suspensions. A mathematical model has been developed for relating the rate of agglomeration of coal particles to the rate of change of turbidity of a dilute particle suspension undergoing agglomeration. The model has been utilized for analyzing and interpreting the results of a number of oil agglomeration tests in which several different system parameters were varied.

  16. Process development for production of coal/sorbent agglomerates

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop a process flow diagram to economically produce a clean-burning fuel from fine Illinois coal. To accomplish this, the process of pelletizing fine coal with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur capturing sorbent, was investigated. Carbonation, which is the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide (in the presence of moisture) to produce a bonding matrix of calcium carbonate, was investigated as a method for improving pellet quality and reducing binder costs. Proper moisture level is critical to allow the reaction to occur. If too much moisture is present in a pellet, the pore spaces are filled and carbon dioxide must diffuse through the water to reach the calcium hydroxide and react. This severely slows or stops the reaction. The ideal situation is when there is just enough moisture to coat the calcium hydroxide allowing for the reaction to proceed. The process has been successfully demonstrated on a pilot-scale as a method of hardening iron ore pellets (Imperato, 1966). Two potential combustion options are being considered for the coal/calcium hydroxide pellets: fluidized bed combustors and industrial stoker boilers.

  17. Crew procedures development techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Hawk, M. L.; Mangiaracina, A. A.; Mcgavern, J. L.; Spangler, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    The study developed requirements, designed, developed, checked out and demonstrated the Procedures Generation Program (PGP). The PGP is a digital computer program which provides a computerized means of developing flight crew procedures based on crew action in the shuttle procedures simulator. In addition, it provides a real time display of procedures, difference procedures, performance data and performance evaluation data. Reconstruction of displays is possible post-run. Data may be copied, stored on magnetic tape and transferred to the document processor for editing and documentation distribution.

  18. Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. [Quarterly] technical progress report, September 1, 1993--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.

    1993-12-31

    The overall purpose of this research project is to carry out the preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal using model mixing systems. Previous research showed that having a gas present in an agitated system used for the agglomeration of an aqueous suspension of coal particles with oil would reduce greatly the required mixing shear rate and power input. To take advantage of this discovery, the present research project was initiated. The project will involve building and testing two model mixing systems which differ in scale but are representative of standard industrial mixing systems used for mixing solid particles, liquid, and gas. These systems will be tested by conducting oil agglomeration tests under various conditions and measuring agitator torque and power as well as agglomeration performance. Special attention will be given to the effects produced by having gas present in the system.

  19. Environmental influence of Wuhan urban agglomeration development and strategies of environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qun; Liu, Ying-Tao; Mao, Han-Ying

    2006-01-01

    In Wuhan urban agglomeration (WUA), the population growth and concentration, the industrial development and urban sprawl have been affecting the environment fundamentally. Comparing with Yangtze delta metropolitan region, the level of urbanization and industrialization of WUA has lagged behind for about 10 years; but the problems in environmental protection and rehabilitation are commonly serious. In the future, WUA should avoid unnecessary mistakes and seek a win-win strategy for economy and environment in its large-scale development stage. Based on the analysis of the changing of main environmental pollutants and the coupled curves in past decades, the paper discussed the important links among the urban environmental pollutions, industry growth and urban sprawl in WUA. It is concluded that the integration of economic and environmental policies in urban development is more required and significant at the large urban agglomeration region. Four proactive and long-term strategies need to be adopted to provide prior guidance and better protection for the development of WUA.

  20. Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.

    1996-07-01

    The overall purpose of this research project is to carry out the preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal using model mixing systems. Specific objectives include determining the nature of the gas promotion mechanism, the effects of hydrodynamic factors and key parameters on process performance, and a suitable basis for size scale-up of the mixing system. An investigation of the phenomena which occur during the oil agglomeration of coal particle suspensions showed that the process of agglomeration involves several step which can be identified by changes in agitator torque and by application of optical microscopy. During one of these steps, aggregation of hydrophobic particles and microflocs takes place on the surface of gas bubbles dispersed in the suspension with the result that large flocs or flakes are produced which subsequently evolve into agglomerates. The time required to produce spherical agglomerates appears to be a function of the power input per unit volume with the time decreasing as the power input increases.

  1. Development of a fluidized bed agglomeration modeling methodology to include particle-level heterogeneities in ash chemistry and granular physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadilkar, Aditi B.

    The utility of fluidized bed reactors for combustion and gasification can be enhanced if operational issues such as agglomeration are mitigated. The monetary and efficiency losses could be avoided through a mechanistic understanding of the agglomeration process and prediction of operational conditions that promote agglomeration. Pilot-scale experimentation prior to operation for each specific condition can be cumbersome and expensive. So the development of a mathematical model would aid predictions. With this motivation, the study comprised of the following model development stages- 1) development of an agglomeration modeling methodology based on binary particle collisions, 2) study of heterogeneities in ash chemical composition and gaseous atmosphere, 3) computation of a distribution of particle collision frequencies based on granular physics for a poly-disperse particle size distribution, 4) combining the ash chemistry and granular physics inputs to obtain agglomerate growth probabilities and 5) validation of the modeling methodology. The modeling methodology comprised of testing every binary particle collision in the system for sticking, based on the extent of dissipation of the particles' kinetic energy through viscous dissipation by slag-liquid (molten ash) covering the particles. In the modeling methodology developed in this study, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are used to estimate the amount of slag-liquid in the system, and the changes in particle collision frequencies are accounted for by continuously tracking the number density of the various particle sizes. In this study, the heterogeneities in chemical composition of fuel ash were studied by separating the bulk fuel into particle classes that are rich in specific minerals. FactSage simulations were performed on two bituminous coals and an anthracite to understand the effect of particle-level heterogeneities on agglomeration. The mineral matter behavior of these constituent classes was studied

  2. Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Technical progress report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Zhang, F.

    1994-05-01

    The overall purpose of this research project is to carry out the preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal using model mixing systems. A model mixing system has been previously designed and constructed for conducting oil agglomeration tests in such a way that agitator speed and torque can be measured as well as agglomeration performance. Equipment is also provided for monitoring the progress of agglomeration during a batch test. This equipment includes a photometric dispersion analyzer for measuring the turbidity of the particle suspension. In order to measure the turbidity a small stream of material is withdrawn from the mixing tank and conducted through an optical cell associated with the photometric dispersion analyzer. The material is then returned to the mixing tank. A peristaltic pump located between the optical cell and the mixing tank is used for circulating the material. During the past quarter a series of shakedown test were carried out to calibrate the equipment and to determine some of its operating characteristics. The accuracy of the agitator speed and torque measuring instrument was checked. Also the gas dispersing effectiveness of the mixing system was investigated. In addition, the effects of agitator speed and solids concentration on agitator torque and power requirements were studied.

  3. Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.

    1996-09-01

    The series of agglomeration tests designed to study the agglomeration characteristics of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal with i-octane was continued using a larger agitated tank. This series is designed to determine the effects of various parameters on the size and structure of the agglomerates formed, the rate of agglomeration, coal recovery, and ash rejection. The results reported here show that once spherical agglomerates are formed they continue to grow at almost a constant rate which is proportional to the concentration of i-octane. The constant growth rate is interrupted when spherical agglomerates combine to form large clusters. This only seems to occur with a large concentration of i-octane (e.g., 30 v/w%) and limited agitator power. The present results also show that coal recovery and ash rejection are highly dependent on agglomerate size when the mean agglomerate diameter is less than the size of the openings in the screen used for recovering the agglomerates.

  4. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.; Marr, J.

    1990-04-01

    The specific objectives of the bituminous coal program were to explore and evaluate the application of advanced agglomeration technology for: (1)desulphurization of bituminous coals to sulphur content acceptable within the current EPA SO{sub 2} emission guidelines; (2) deashing of bituminous coals to ash content of less than 10 percent; and (3)increasing the calorific value of bituminous coals to above 13,000 Btu/lb. (VC)

  5. Development of Impregnated Agglomerate Pelletization (IAP) process for fabrication of (Th,U)O 2 mixed oxide pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khot, P. M.; Nehete, Y. G.; Fulzele, A. K.; Baghra, Chetan; Mishra, A. K.; Afzal, Mohd.; Panakkal, J. P.; Kamath, H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Impregnated Agglomerate Pelletization (IAP) technique has been developed at Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility (AFFF), BARC, Tarapur, for manufacturing (Th, 233U)O 2 mixed oxide fuel pellets, which are remotely fabricated in hot cell or shielded glove box facilities to reduce man-rem problem associated with 232U daughter radionuclides. This technique is being investigated to fabricate the fuel for Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). In the IAP process, ThO 2 is converted to free flowing spheroids by powder extrusion route in an unshielded facility which are then coated with uranyl nitrate solution in a shielded facility. The dried coated agglomerate is finally compacted and then sintered in oxidizing/reducing atmosphere to obtain high density (Th,U)O 2 pellets. In this study, fabrication of (Th,U)O 2 mixed oxide pellets containing 3-5 wt.% UO 2 was carried out by IAP process. The pellets obtained were characterized using optical microscopy, XRD and alpha autoradiography. The results obtained were compared with the results for the pellets fabricated by other routes such as Coated Agglomerate Pelletization (CAP) and Powder Oxide Pelletization (POP) route.

  6. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Task 6 -- Selective agglomeration laboratory research and engineering development for premium fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-06-27

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report represents the findings of Subtask 6.5 Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Testing and Process Scale-up. During this work, six project coals, namely Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Sunnyside, Taggart, Indiana VII, and Hiawatha were processed in a 25 lb/hr continuous selective agglomeration bench-scale test unit.

  7. Designing of the Information Advising System to Assess the Potential of Creation and Development of Cluster Agglomeration in the Industrial Complex of the Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averchenkova, E. E.; Averchenkov, A. V.; Kulagina, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    The theoretical aspects of creation of the information advising system to assess the potential of development of the cluster agglomeration are described in this article. The algorithm provided in the article estimates possibilities of creation and development of the regional industrial cluster agglomeration. This article describes the possible use of the information advising system of the evaluation and diagnostic type in making managerial decisions by the participants of the technology innovation cluster.

  8. Recent Advances in the Development and Application of Power Plate Transducers in Dense Gas Extraction and Aerosol Agglomeration Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, E.; Cardoni, A.; Gallego-Juárez, J. A.; Acosta, V. M.; Blanco, A.; Rodríguez, G.; Blasco, M.; Herranz, L. E.

    Power ultrasound (PU) is an emerging, innovative, energy saving and environmental friendly technology that is generating a great interest in sectors such as food and pharmaceutical industries, green chemistry, environmental pollution, and other processes, where sustainable and energy efficient methods are required to improve and/or produce specific effects. Two typical effects of PU are the enhancement of mass transfer in gases and liquids, and the induction of particle agglomeration in aerosols. These effects are activated by a variety of mechanisms associated to the nonlinear propagation of high amplitude ultrasonic waves such as diffusion, agitation, entrainment, turbulence, etc. During the last years a great effort has been jointly made by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and the company Pusonics towards introducing novel processes into the market based on airborne ultrasonic plate transducers. This technology was specifically developed for the treatment of gas and multiphasic media characterized by low specific acoustic impedance and high acoustic absorption. Different strategies have been developed to mitigate the effects of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of such ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers in order to enhance and stabilize their response at operational power conditions. This work deals with the latter advances in the mitigation of nonlinear problems found in power transducers; besides it describes two applications assisted by ultrasound developed at semi-industrial and laboratory scales and consisting in extraction via dense gases and particle agglomeration. Dense Gas Extraction (DGE) assisted by PU is a new process with a potential to enhance the extraction kinetics with supercritical CO2. Acoustic agglomeration of fine aerosol particles has a great potential for the treatment of air pollution problems generated by particulate materials. Experimental and numerical results in both processes will be shown and discussed.

  9. Advanced crew procedures development techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Mangiaracina, A. A.; Mcgavern, J. L.; Spangler, M. C.; Tatum, I. C.

    1975-01-01

    The development of an operational computer program, the Procedures and Performance Program (PPP), is reported which provides a procedures recording and crew/vehicle performance monitoring capability. The PPP provides real time CRT displays and postrun hardcopy of procedures, difference procedures, performance, performance evaluation, and training script/training status data. During post-run, the program is designed to support evaluation through the reconstruction of displays to any point in time. A permanent record of the simulation exercise can be obtained via hardcopy output of the display data, and via magnetic tape transfer to the Generalized Documentation Processor (GDP). Reference procedures data may be transferred from the GDP to the PPP.

  10. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 6, Operation of the Component Development Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the component development and laboratory binder test work at Wilsonville during Task 6. This Task included the construction and startup of the Component Development Test Facility (CDTF), coal procurement, evaluation of unit operation and dewatering performance, laboratory binder tests for diesel and heptane, production characterization, and vendor tests. Data evaluation, interpretation, and analysis are not included in this report, but will be discussed in the Task 7 report.

  11. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; J. A. Gurtler

    2004-03-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process. As a result, operators of acidic heap-leach facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of other agglomeration applications, particularly advanced primary ironmaking.

  12. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    SciTech Connect

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; C.A. Hardison; K. Lewandowski

    2004-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking.

  13. Fuel agglomerates and method of agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Wen, Wu-Wey

    1986-01-01

    Solid fuel agglomerates are prepared of particulate coal or other carbonaceous material with a binder having a high humic acid or humate salt content. The humic acid is extracted from oxidized carbonaceous material with a mild aqueous alkali solution of, for instance, ammonia. The particulate material is blended with the extract which serves as the binder for the agglomerates. The water-resistant agglomerates are formed such as by pelletizing, followed by drying to remove moisture and solidify the humic acid binder throughout the agglomerate.

  14. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a

  15. Particle Agglomeration in Bipolar Barb Agglomerator Under AC Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao; Ma, Xiuqin; Sun, Youshan; Wang, Meiyan; Zhang, Changping; Lou, Yueya

    2015-04-01

    The development of an efficient technology for removing fine particles in flue gas is essential as the haze is becoming more and more serious. To improve agglomeration effectiveness of fine particles, a dual zone electric agglomeration device consisting of a charging chamber and an agglomeration chamber with bipolar barb electrodes was developed. The bipolar barb electric agglomerator with a polar distance of 200 mm demonstrates good agglomeration effectiveness for particles with a size less than 8.0 μm under applied AC electric field. An optimal condition for achieving better agglomeration effectiveness was found to be as follows: flue gas flow velocity of 3.00 m/s, particle concentration of 2.00 g/m3, output voltage of 35 kV and length of the barb of 16 mm. In addition, 4.0-6.0 μm particles have the best effectiveness with the variation of particle volume occupancy of -3.2. supported by the Key Technology R&D Program of Hebei, China (No. 13211207D)

  16. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-12-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures that can be used for improving the energy efficiency of heap leaching, by preventing the ''ponding'' and ''channeling'' effects that currently cause reduced recovery and extended leaching cycle times. Methods have also been developed for iron ore processing which are intended to improve the

  17. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Topical report, Process analysis, FY 1983

    SciTech Connect

    1987-07-31

    KRW Energy Systems, Inc., is engaged in the continuing development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally-acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized carbonaceous feedstocks and industrial fuels. This report presents process analysis of the 24 ton-per-day Process Development Unit (PDU) operations and is a continuation of the process analysis work performed in 1980 and 1981. Included is work performed on PDU process data; gasification; char-ash separation; ash agglomeration; fines carryover, recycle, and consumption; deposit formation; materials; and environmental, health, and safety issues. 63 figs., 43 tabs.

  18. MTCI acoustic agglomeration particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Chandran, R.R.; Mansour, M.N.; Scaroni, A.W.; Koopmann, G.H.; Loth, J.L.

    1994-10-01

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate pulse combination induced acoustic enhancement of coal ash agglomeration and sulfur capture at conditions typical of direct coal-fired turbines and PFBC hot gas cleanup. MTCI has developed an advanced compact pulse combustor island for direct coal-firing in combustion gas turbines. This combustor island comprises a coal-fired pulse combustor, a combined ash agglomeration and sulfur capture chamber (CAASCC), and a hot cyclone. In the MTCI proprietary approach, the pulse combustion-induced high intensity sound waves improve sulfur capture efficiency and ash agglomeration. The resulting agglomerates allow the use of commercial cyclones and achieve very high particulate collection efficiency. In the MTCI proprietary approach, sorbent particles are injected into a gas stream subjected to an intense acoustic field. The acoustic field serves to improve sulfur capture efficiency by enhancing both gas film and intra-particle mass transfer rates. In addition, the sorbent particles act as dynamic filter foci, providing a high density of stagnant agglomerating centers for trapping the finer entrained (in the oscillating flow field) fly ash fractions. A team has been formed with MTCI as the prime contractor and Penn State University and West Virginia University as subcontractors to MTCI. MTCI is focusing on hardware development and system demonstration, PSU is investigating and modeling acoustic agglomeration and sulfur capture, and WVU is studying aerovalve fluid dynamics. Results are presented from all three studies.

  19. Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Quarterly report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.

    1996-12-01

    Further agglomeration tests were conducted in a series of tests designed to determine the effects of various parameters on the size and structure of the agglomerates formed, the rate of agglomeration, coal recovery, and ash rejection. For this series of tests, finely ground Pittsburgh No. 8 coal has been agglomerated with i-octane in a closed mixing system with a controlled amount of air present to promote particle agglomeration. The present results provide further evidence of the role played by air. As the concentration of air in the system was increased from 4.5 to 18 v/w% based on the weight of coal, coal recovery and ash rejection both increased. The results also show that coal recovery and ash rejection were improved by increasing agitator speed. On the other hand, coal recovery was not affected by a change in solids concentration from 20 to 30 w/w%.

  20. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  1. Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Technical progress report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.

    1994-10-01

    During the first year of the project two model mixing systems, which differed in size but were similar in design, were constructed and tested. The systems were equipped for measuring agitator speed and torque and for measuring the turbidity of coal particle suspensions undergoing agglomeration. Preliminary measurements of aqueous suspensions of coal particles showed that the Beer-Lambert law applies to such suspensions at least for low concentrations. Therefore, the measured turbidity can be used as an indicator of particle concentration and a means for monitoring the progress of oil agglomeration. However, the method is not applicable for large particle concentrations so a different technique was tested for monitoring the agglomeration of large concentrations. This technique involves measuring agitator torque and observing changes in torque while agitator speed is held constant. The results of preliminary tests of the technique were encouraging. In these tests significant changes in agitator torque were observed when particle agglomeration took place as long as solids concentration of 25 w/v % or more were utilized. A number of agglomeration tests were conducted using either one or the other of the two monitoring techniques. Both methods showed that even very small amounts of air can promote the oil agglomeration of coal particles suspended in water. Even the amount of air dissolved in water at room temperature and pressure can affect the process providing the air is displaced from the solution by a slightly soluble agglomerant such as heptane. The apparent rate of agglomeration was observed to increase as more air was introduced and also as agitator speed was increased.

  2. An improved theoretical model of acoustic agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Song, L. ); Koopmann, G.H. . Center for Acoustics and Vibration); Hoffmann, T.L. )

    1994-04-01

    An improved theoretical model is developed to describe the acoustic agglomeration of particles entrained in a gas medium. The improvements to the present theories are twofold: first, wave scattering is included in the orthokinetic interaction of particles and second, hydrodynamic interaction, shown to be an important agglomeration mechanism for certain operation conditions, is incorporated into the model. The influence of orthokinetic and hydrodynamic interactions introduce associated convergent velocities that cause particles to approach each other and collide. The convergent velocities are related with an acoustic agglomeration frequency function (AAFF) through a semi-statistical method. This function is the key parameter for the theoretical simulation of acoustic agglomeration.

  3. Formulation Development of Spherical Crystal Agglomerates of Itraconazole for Preparation of Directly Compressible Tablets with Enhanced Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Fadke, Janki; Desai, Jagruti; Thakkar, Hetal

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the present work was to formulate tablet dosage form of itraconazole with enhanced bioavailability. Spherical crystal agglomerates (SCA) of itraconazole prepared by quasi emulsification solvent diffusion method using Soluplus and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000) showed increased solubility (540 μg/ml) in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid as compared to pure drug (12 μg/ml). A Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study indicated compatibility of drug with the excipients. The developed SCA were spherical with smooth surface having an average size of 412 μm. The significantly improved micromeritic properties compared to the plain drug suggested its suitability for direct compression. The antifungal activity of itraconazole was retained in the SCA form as evidenced from the results of the disc diffusion method. The optimized SCA formulation could be easily compressed into tablet with desirable characteristics of hardness (5 kg/cm(2)) and disintegration time (6.3 min). The in vitro dissolution studies showed significant difference in the dissolution profiles of pure drug (21%) and SCA formulation (85%) which was even greater than that of marketed preparation (75%). In vivo pharmacokinetic showed significant enhancement in C max and AUC0-t with relative bioavailability of 225%. The SCA formulation seems to be promising for enhancement of oral bioavailability of itraconazole.

  4. Development of preventive maintenance procedures.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zvi, S

    1984-01-01

    A large number of in-house preventive maintenance (PM) programs, which call for varying degrees of thoroughness in the checkout of patient care instrumentation, are currently in existence throughout the country. This paper discusses the types of preventive maintenance, or PM procedures, which can be used by a clinical engineering department; the rationale for drafting different types of PM procedures in-house; and some long-term considerations affecting hospital-based inspection programs. Three types of PM procedures are described and compared: general checks; generic procedures; and, specific procedures. An outline is provided for writing a PM procedure; and, a call is made for a national guideline for writing preventive maintenance procedures.

  5. Soft- and hard-agglomerate aerosols made at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tsantilis, Stavros; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2004-07-06

    Criteria for aerosol synthesis of soft-agglomerate, hard-agglomerate, or even nonagglomerate particles are developed on the basis of particle sintering and coalescence. Agglomerate (or aggregate) particles are held together by weak, physical van der Waals forces (soft agglomerates) or by stronger chemical or sintering bonds (hard agglomerates). Accounting for simultaneous gas phase chemical reaction, coagulation, and sintering during the formation and growth of silica (SiO2) nanoparticles by silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) oxidation and neglecting the spread of particle size distribution, the onset of hard-agglomerate formation is identified at the end of full coalescence, while the onset of soft-agglomerate formation is identified at the end of sintering. Process conditions such as the precursor initial volume fraction, maximum temperature, residence time, and cooling rate are explored, identifying regions for the synthesis of particles with a controlled degree of agglomeration (ratio of collision to primary particle diameters).

  6. Agglomeration of Dust

    SciTech Connect

    Annaratone, B. M.; Arnas, C.; Elskens, Y.

    2008-09-07

    The agglomeration of the matter in plasma, from the atomic level up to millimetre size particles, is here considered. In general we identify a continuous growth, due to deposition, and two agglomeration steps, the first at the level of tens of nanometres and the second above the micron. The agglomeration of nano-particles is attributed to electrostatic forces in presence of charge polarity fluctuations. Here we present a model based on discrete currents. With increasing grain size the positive charge permanence decreases, tending to zero. This effect is only important in the range of nanometre for dust of highly dispersed size. When the inter-particle distance is of the order of the screening length another agglomeration mechanism dominates. It is based on attractive forces, shadow forces or dipole-dipole interaction, overcoming the electrostatic repulsion. In bright plasma radiation pressure also plays a role.

  7. Developing Flexible Procedural Knowledge in Undergraduate Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maciejewski, Wes; Star, Jon R.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics experts often choose appropriate procedures to produce an efficient or elegant solution to a mathematical task. This "flexible procedural knowledge" distinguishes novice and expert procedural performances. This article reports on an intervention intended to aid the development of undergraduate calculus students' flexible use…

  8. Agglomeration rate and action forces between atomized particles of agglomerator and inhaled-particles from coal combustion.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feng; Zhang, Jun-ying; Zheng, Chu-guang

    2005-01-01

    In order to remove efficiently haled-particles emissions from coal combustions, a new way was used to put forward the process of agglomeration and the atomization was produced by the nozzle and then sprayed into the flue before precipitation devices of power station boiler in order to make inhaled-particles agglomerate into bigger particles, which can be easily removed but not change existing running conditions of boiler. According to this idea, a model is set up to study agglomeration rate and effect forces between fly ash inhaled-particles and atomized agglomerator particles. The developed agglomeration rate was expressed by relative particle number decreasing speed per unit volume. The result showed that viscosity force and flow resistance force give main influences on agglomeration effect of inhaled-particles, while springiness force and gravity have little effect on agglomeration effect of theirs. Factors influencing the agglomeration rate and effect forces are studied, including agglomerator concentration, agglomerator flux and agglomerator density, atomized-particles diameters and inhaled-particles diameter and so on.

  9. Continuation of advanced crew procedures development techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Evans, M. E.; Mangiaracina, A. A.; Mcgavern, J. L.; Spangler, M. C.; Tatum, I. C.

    1976-01-01

    An operational computer program, the Procedures and Performance Program (PPP) which operates in conjunction with the Phase I Shuttle Procedures Simulator to provide a procedures recording and crew/vehicle performance monitoring capability was developed. A technical synopsis of each task resulting in the development of the Procedures and Performance Program is provided. Conclusions and recommendations for action leading to the improvements in production of crew procedures development and crew training support are included. The PPP provides real-time CRT displays and post-run hardcopy output of procedures, difference procedures, performance data, parametric analysis data, and training script/training status data. During post-run, the program is designed to support evaluation through the reconstruction of displays to any point in time. A permanent record of the simulation exercise can be obtained via hardcopy output of the display data and via transfer to the Generalized Documentation Processor (GDP). Reference procedures data may be transferred from the GDP to the PPP. Interface is provided with the all digital trajectory program, the Space Vehicle Dynamics Simulator (SVDS) to support initial procedures timeline development.

  10. Analysis and synthesis of solutions for the agglomeration process modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babuk, V. A.; Dolotkazin, I. N.; Nizyaev, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    The present work is devoted development of model of agglomerating process for propellants based on ammonium perchlorate (AP), ammonium dinitramide (ADN), HMX, inactive binder, and nanoaluminum. Generalization of experimental data, development of physical picture of agglomeration for listed propellants, development and analysis of mathematical models are carried out. Synthesis of models of various phenomena taking place at agglomeration implementation allows predicting of size and quantity, chemical composition, structure of forming agglomerates and its fraction in set of condensed combustion products. It became possible in many respects due to development of new model of agglomerating particle evolution on the surface of burning propellant. Obtained results correspond to available experimental data. It is supposed that analogical method based on analysis of mathematical models of particular phenomena and their synthesis will allow implementing of the agglomerating process modeling for other types of metalized solid propellants.

  11. The Development of an Academic Grievance Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logsdon, Jann B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses and describes the development of academic grievance procedures at the University of Louisville, Kentucky, to provide a formal mechanism within the educational institution to ensure that students' rights are not abridged. Presents procedural stages, the hearing, deliberation phase, rehearing and appeals, and the ombudsman role. (MF)

  12. Health Code Number (HCN) Development Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Petrocchi, Rocky; Craig, Douglas K.; Bond, Jayne-Anne; Trott, Donna M.; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2013-09-01

    This report provides the detailed description of health code numbers (HCNs) and the procedure of how each HCN is assigned. It contains many guidelines and rationales of HCNs. HCNs are used in the chemical mixture methodology (CMM), a method recommended by the department of energy (DOE) for assessing health effects as a result of exposures to airborne aerosols in an emergency. The procedure is a useful tool for proficient HCN code developers. Intense training and quality assurance with qualified HCN developers are required before an individual comprehends the procedure to develop HCNs for DOE.

  13. Backscattering of agglomerate particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubko, Evgenij; Ovcharenko, Andrey; Bondarenko, Sergey; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Scotto, Cathy S.; Merritt, Charles; Hart, Matthew B.; Eversole, Jay D.; Videen, Gorden W.

    2004-12-01

    We examine how aggregation affects the light-scattering signatures, especially the polarization in the near-backward-scattering direction. We use the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) to study the backscatter of agglomerate particles consisting of oblong monomers. We examine the effects of monomer number and packing structure on the resulting negative polarization branch at small phase angle. We find large a dependence on the orientation of the monomers within the agglomerate and a smaller dependence on the number of monomers, suggesting that the mechanism producing the negative polarization minimum depends strongly on the interactions between the individual monomers. We also examine experimental measurements of substrates composed of biological cells. We find that the light-scattering signatures in the backward direction are not only different for different spore species, but for spores that have been prepared using different methodologies. These signatures are reproducible in different substrates composed of the spores from the same batches.

  14. In vitro dosimetry of agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, V.; Kinnear, C.; Rodriguez-Lorenzo, L.; Monnier, C. A.; Rothen-Rutishauser, B.; Balog, S.; Petri-Fink, A.

    2014-06-01

    Agglomeration of nanoparticles in biological fluids is a pervasive phenomenon that leads to difficulty in the interpretation of results from in vitro exposure, primarily due to differing particokinetics of agglomerates to nanoparticles. Therefore, well-defined small agglomerates were designed that possessed different particokinetic profiles, and their cellular uptake was compared to a computational model of dosimetry. The approach used here paves the way for a better understanding of the impact of agglomeration on the nanoparticle-cell interaction.Agglomeration of nanoparticles in biological fluids is a pervasive phenomenon that leads to difficulty in the interpretation of results from in vitro exposure, primarily due to differing particokinetics of agglomerates to nanoparticles. Therefore, well-defined small agglomerates were designed that possessed different particokinetic profiles, and their cellular uptake was compared to a computational model of dosimetry. The approach used here paves the way for a better understanding of the impact of agglomeration on the nanoparticle-cell interaction. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: ITC data for tiopronin/Au-NP interactions, agglomeration kinetics at different pHs for tiopronin-coated Au-NPs, UV-Vis spectra in water, PBS and DMEM and temporal correlation functions for single Au-NPs and corresponding agglomerates, calculation of diffusion and sedimentation parameters, modelling of relative cell uptake based on the ISDD model and cytotoxicity of single Au-NPs and their agglomerates, and synthesis and cell uptake of large spherical Au-NPs. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00460d

  15. LEVEL OF SOMATIC DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN AGED SIX YEARS FROM AN URBAN AGGLOMERATION IN POLAND WITH RESPECT TO SELECTED ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS.

    PubMed

    Trzcińska, Dorota; Tabor, Piotr; Olszewska, Elżbieta

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the somatic development of children from an urban agglomeration in Poland at the end of preschool education and the beginning of primary education with respect to selected socioeconomic and educational conditions. Data were collected for 742 children from selected Warsaw kindergartens in spring 2011 and 2012. Their mean age was 5.84±0.31 years. The sex categories were equal: 371 boys and 371 girls. Kindergartens chosen for the study constituted a representative sample. The diagnostic survey method (questionnaire technique) was used to assess the selected environmental conditions of development in the participating children. Body height and the sum of six skin folds (over the biceps, over the triceps, under the scapula, on the abdomen, over the wing of ilium and on the calf) were chosen from the assessed anthropometric parameters for the purpose of determining somatic development of study participants. The obtained data were analysed using selected descriptive statistics methods (including cluster analysis), data standardization (normalization by mean values and SD) and the chi-squared test. The results showed certain relationships between the selected parameters of somatic development and family living conditions. These relationships involved differences between individual clusters depending on given living conditions and were most prominent for mother's education, for which variable differences between clusters were found for both sexes. The somatic build of boys (including body height and body adiposity) also differed depending on the number of offspring in the family, while the somatic build of girls differed depending on father's employment and father's education. Furthermore, the obtained results lead to the conclusion that the total number of differences between the analysed clusters was relatively low. This indicates that the biological effects of social stratification tend to diminish in the environment of an urban

  16. Contact mechanics of highly porous oxide nanoparticle agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabre, Andrea; Salameh, Samir; Ciacchi, Lucio Colombi; Kreutzer, Michiel T.; van Ommen, J. Ruud

    2016-07-01

    Efficient nanopowder processing requires knowledge of the powder's mechanical properties. Due to the large surface area to volume ratio, nanoparticles experience relatively strong attractive interactions, leading to the formation of micron-size porous structures called agglomerates. Significant effort has been directed towards the development of models and experimental procedures to estimate the elasticity of porous objects such as nanoparticle agglomerates; however, none of the existing models has been validated for solid fractions below 0.1. Here, we measure the elasticity of titania (TiO_2, 22 nm), alumina (Al_2O_3, 8 nm), and silica (SiO_2, 16 nm) nanopowder agglomerates by Atomic Force Microscopy, using a 3.75 μm glass colloid for the stress-strain experiments. Three sample preparations with varying degree of powder manipulation are assessed. The measured Young's moduli are in the same order of magnitude as those predicted by the model of Kendall et al., thus validating it for the estimation of the Young's modulus of structures with porosity above 90 %.

  17. Selective oil agglomeration of lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Halime Abakay Temel; Volkan Bozkurt; Arun Kumar Majumder

    2009-01-15

    In this study, desulfurization and deashing of Adiyaman-Glbai lignite by the agglomeration method were studied. For this purpose, three groups of agglomeration experiments were made. The effects of solid concentration, bridging liquid type and dosage, pH, and screen size on the agglomeration after desliming were investigated in the first group of experiments. The effects of lake water and sea water (the Mediterranean Sea water, the Aegean Sea water, and the Black Sea water) on the agglomeration were investigated in the second group of experiments. The effects of different salts (NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3}) on the agglomeration were investigated in the third group of experiments. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of sea waters and soda lake water in the agglomeration medium had a positive effect on the reduction of total sulfur content of agglomerates. In addition, the usage of NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and FeCl{sub 3} in the agglomeration medium had a positive effect on the ash content reduction of the agglomerates. 27 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Advanced crew procedures development techniques: Procedures and performance program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Mangiaracina, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Procedures and Performance Program (PPP) for operation in conjunction with the Shuttle Procedures Simulator (SPS) is described. The PPP user interface, the SPS/PPP interface, and the PPP applications software are discussed.

  19. Rapid determination of plasmonic nanoparticle agglomeration status in blood.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Samir V; Qu, Haiou; Mudalige, Thilak; Ingle, Taylor M; Wang, Rongrong; Wang, Feng; Howard, Paul C; Chen, Jingyi; Zhang, Yongbin

    2015-05-01

    Plasmonic nanomaterials as drug delivery or bio-imaging agents are typically introduced to biological systems through intravenous administration. However, the potential for agglomeration of nanoparticles in biological systems could dramatically affect their pharmacokinetic profile and toxic potential. Development of rapid screening methods to evaluate agglomeration is urgently needed to monitor the physical nature of nanoparticles as they are introduced into blood. Here, we establish novel methods using darkfield microscopy with hyperspectral detection (hsDFM), single particle inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS), and confocal Raman microscopy (cRM) to discriminate gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and their agglomerates in blood. Rich information about nanoparticle agglomeration in situ is provided by hsDFM monitoring of the plasmon resonance of primary nanoparticles and their agglomerates in whole blood; cRM is an effective complement to hsDFM to detect AuNP agglomerates in minimally manipulated samples. The AuNPs and the particle agglomerates were further distinguished in blood for the first time by quantification of particle mass using spICP-MS with excellent sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, the agglomeration status of synthesized and commercial NPs incubated in blood was successfully assessed using the developed methods. Together, these complementary methods enable rapid determination of the agglomeration status of plasmonic nanomaterials in biological systems, specifically blood.

  20. Rapid Determination of Plasmonic Nanoparticle Agglomeration Status in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Samir V.; Qu, Haiou; Mudalige, Thilak; Ingle, Taylor; Wang, RongRong; Wang, Feng; Howard, Paul C.; Chen, Jingyi; Zhang, Yongbin

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic nanomaterials as drug delivery or bio-imaging agents are typically introduced to biological systems through intravenous administration. However, the potential for agglomeration of nanoparticles in biological systems could dramatically affect their pharmacokinetic profile and toxic potential. Development of rapid screening methods to evaluate agglomeration is urgently needed to monitor the physical nature of nanoparticles as they are introduced into blood. Here, we establish novel methods using darkfield microscopy with hyperspectral detection (hsDFM), single particle inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS), and confocal Raman microscopy (cRM) to discriminate gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and their agglomerates in blood. Rich information about nanoparticle agglomeration in situ is provided by hsDFM monitoring of the plasmon resonance of primary nanoparticles and their agglomerates in whole blood; cRM is an effective complement to hsDFM to detect AuNP agglomerates in minimally manipulated samples. The AuNPs and the particle agglomerates were further distinguished in blood for the first time by quantification of particle mass using spICP-MS with excellent sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, the agglomeration status of synthesized and commercial NPs incubated in blood was successfully assessed using the developed methods. Together, these complementary methods enable rapid determination of the agglomeration status of plasmonic nanomaterials in biological systems, specifically blood. PMID:25771013

  1. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-09-30

    Heap leaching is one of the methods being used to recover metal from low grade ore deposits. The main problem faced during heap leaching is the migration of fine grained particles through the heap, forming impermeable beds which result in poor solution flow. The poor solution flow leads to less contact between the leach solution and the ore, resulting in low recovery rates. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses prevents fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Currently, there is one facility in the United States which uses agglomeration. This operation agglomerates their ore using leach solution (raffinate), but is still experiencing undesirable metal recovery from the heaps due to agglomerate breakdown. The use of a binder, in addition to the leach solution, during agglomeration would help to produce stronger agglomerates that did not break down during processing. However, there are no known binders that will work satisfactorily in the acidic environment of a heap, at a reasonable cost. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. Increasing copper recovery in heap leaching by the use of binders and agglomeration would result in a significant decrease in the amount of energy consumed. Assuming that 70% of all the leaching heaps would convert to using agglomeration technology, as much as 1.64*10{sup 12} BTU per year would be able to be saved if a 25% increase in copper recovery was experienced, which is equivalent to saving approximately 18% of the energy currently being used in leaching heaps. For every week a leach cycle was decreased, a savings of as much as 1.23*10{sup 11} BTU per week would result. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures. These binders and experimental procedures will be able to be used for use in improving the energy efficiency of

  2. Overpopulated, Underdeveloped Urban Agglomerations: Tomorrow’s Unstable Operating Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-08

    DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Overpopulated , Underdeveloped Urban Agglomerations: Tomorrow’s 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...ABSTRACT This paper asserts that a unique future operational environment is developing: overpopulated , underdeveloped urban agglomerations. A...proposed definition for this operating environment is (or would be) an overpopulated urban area which is located within a developing or underdeveloped

  3. Developing Lifelong Readers: Policies, Procedures, and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Bernard L., Ed.; Camperell, Kay, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Selected papers from the 1991 annual conference of the American Reading Forum are presented in this yearbook. The papers, which deal with issues regarding ways to develop and strengthen a society of active readers, address policies, procedures, and programs for the beginning child reader, the beginning adult reader, and a range of readers in…

  4. Controlling Agglomeration of Protein Aggregates for Structure Formation in Liquid Oil: A Sticky Business

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Proteins are known to be effective building blocks when it comes to structure formation in aqueous environments. Recently, we have shown that submicron colloidal protein particles can also be used to provide structure to liquid oil and form so-called oleogels (de VriesA.J. Colloid Interface Sci.2017, 486, 75−83)27693552. To prevent particle agglomeration, a solvent exchange procedure was used to transfer the aggregates from water to the oil phase. The aim of the current paper was to elucidate on the enhanced stability against agglomeration of heat-set whey protein isolate (WPI) aggregates to develop an alternative for the solvent exchange procedure. Protein aggregates were transferred from water to several solvents differing in polarity to investigate the effect on agglomeration and changes in protein composition. We show that after drying protein aggregates by evaporation from solvents with a low polarity (e.g., hexane), the protein powder shows good dispersibility in liquid oil compared to powders dried from solvents with a high polarity. This difference in dispersibility could not be related to changes in protein composition or conformation but was instead related to the reduction of attractive capillary forces between the protein aggregates during drying. Following another route, agglomeration was also prevented by applying high freezing rates prior to freeze-drying. The rheological properties of the oleogels prepared with such freeze-dried protein aggregates were shown to be similar to that of oleogels prepared using a solvent exchange procedure. This Research Article provides valuable insights in how to tune the drying process to control protein agglomeration to allow for subsequent structure formation of proteins in liquid oil. PMID:28225592

  5. Controlling Agglomeration of Protein Aggregates for Structure Formation in Liquid Oil: A Sticky Business.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Auke; Lopez Gomez, Yuly; Jansen, Bas; van der Linden, Erik; Scholten, Elke

    2017-03-22

    Proteins are known to be effective building blocks when it comes to structure formation in aqueous environments. Recently, we have shown that submicron colloidal protein particles can also be used to provide structure to liquid oil and form so-called oleogels ( de Vries , A. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2017 , 486 , 75 - 83 ) . To prevent particle agglomeration, a solvent exchange procedure was used to transfer the aggregates from water to the oil phase. The aim of the current paper was to elucidate on the enhanced stability against agglomeration of heat-set whey protein isolate (WPI) aggregates to develop an alternative for the solvent exchange procedure. Protein aggregates were transferred from water to several solvents differing in polarity to investigate the effect on agglomeration and changes in protein composition. We show that after drying protein aggregates by evaporation from solvents with a low polarity (e.g., hexane), the protein powder shows good dispersibility in liquid oil compared to powders dried from solvents with a high polarity. This difference in dispersibility could not be related to changes in protein composition or conformation but was instead related to the reduction of attractive capillary forces between the protein aggregates during drying. Following another route, agglomeration was also prevented by applying high freezing rates prior to freeze-drying. The rheological properties of the oleogels prepared with such freeze-dried protein aggregates were shown to be similar to that of oleogels prepared using a solvent exchange procedure. This Research Article provides valuable insights in how to tune the drying process to control protein agglomeration to allow for subsequent structure formation of proteins in liquid oil.

  6. Development of fireside performance indices, Task 7.33, Development of methods to predict agglomeration and deposition in FBCS, Task 7.36, Enhanced air toxics control, Task 7.45

    SciTech Connect

    Zygarlicke, C.J.; Mann, M.D.; Laudal, D.L.; Miller, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been developing advanced indices that rank coals according to their fouling and slagging propensity in utility boilers. The indices are based on sophisticated analytical techniques for identifying and quantifying coal inorganics and are useful in predicting the effects of proposed operational changes on ash deposition in coal-fired boilers. These indices are intended to provide an economical way to reduce the amount of full-scale testing needed to determine the best means of minimizing ash-related problems. The successful design and operation of the fluidized-bed combustor requires the ability to control and mitigate ash-related problems. The major ash-related problems in FBC are agglomeration of bed material, ash deposition on heat-transfer surfaces, ash deposition on refractory and uncooled surfaces, corrosion, and erosion. The focus of the Development of Methods to Predict Agglomeration and Deposition in FBCs is on the agglomeration and deposition problems in atmospheric bubbling and circulating beds. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require study of air toxic emissions from coal combustion systems. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine-particle control appears to be the best approach to achieving a high level of air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and are not typically collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, the goal of this project is to develop methods that capture the vapor-phase metals while simultaneously achieving ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxics.

  7. Process development for production of coal/sorbent agglomerates. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    The goal of this work was to develop a process flow diagram to economically produce a clean-burning fuel from fine Illinois coal. To accomplish this, the process of pelletizing fine coal with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur capturing sorbent, was investigated. Carbonation, which is the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide (in the presence of moisture) to produce a bonding matrix of calcium carbonate, was investigated as a method for improving pellet quality and reducing binder costs. Proper moisture level is critical to allow the reaction to occur. If too much moisture is present in a pellet, the pore spaces are filled and carbon dioxide must diffuse through the water to reach the calcium hydroxide and react. This severely slows or stops the reaction. The ideal situation is when there is just enough moisture to coat the calcium hydroxide allowing for the reaction to proceed. The process has been successfully demonstrated on a pilot-scale as a method of hardening iron ore pellets (Imperato, 1966). Two potential combustion options are being considered for the coal/calcium hydroxide pellets: fluidized bed combustors and industrial stoker boilers.

  8. Recent Advances in Agglomerated Multigrid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.; Hammond, Dana P.

    2013-01-01

    We report recent advancements of the agglomerated multigrid methodology for complex flow simulations on fully unstructured grids. An agglomerated multigrid solver is applied to a wide range of test problems from simple two-dimensional geometries to realistic three- dimensional configurations. The solver is evaluated against a single-grid solver and, in some cases, against a structured-grid multigrid solver. Grid and solver issues are identified and overcome, leading to significant improvements over single-grid solvers.

  9. Microbial effects on colloidal agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Hersman, L.

    1995-11-01

    Colloidal particles are known to enhance the transport of radioactive metals through soil and rock systems. This study was performed to determine if a soil microorganism, isolated from the surface samples collected at Yucca Mountain, NV, could affect the colloidal properties of day particles. The agglomeration of a Wyoming bentonite clay in a sterile uninoculated microbial growth medium was compared to the agglomeration in the medium inoculated with a Pseudomonas sp. In a second experiment, microorganisms were cultured in the succinate medium for 50 h and removed by centrifugation. The agglomeration of the clay in this spent was compared to sterile uninoculated medium. In both experiments, the agglomeration of the clay was greater than that of the sterile, uninoculated control. Based on these results, which indicate that this microorganism enhanced the agglomeration of the bentonite clay, it is possible to say that in the presence of microorganisms colloidal movement through a rock matrix could be reduced because of an overall increase in the size of colloidal particle agglomerates. 32 refs.

  10. Manual for developing EOC standard operating procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Paxton, K.F.

    1980-08-01

    This Emergency Operating Center (EOC) Procedure Manual is designed to provide guidelines on establishing, readying, and operating EOCs, and to serve as a model for locally developed procedure manuals or SOPs. The manual is also intended to be used as a training device for EOC staffs. EOCs and EOC staffs must be prepared to function in a wide range of operating situations. This manual reflects that requirement for EOC flexibility and adaptability, particularly in community shelter (CSP) and crisis relocation (CRP) operating modes. Some of the more common events that could require the central information-gathering and decision-making of an EOC are listed. The list does not cover all of the contingencies that might require a central control point. In addition, many of the disasters listed can be compounded by ensuing threats. Earthquakes, for instance, can cause landslides or dam failures. Blackouts can lead to civil disturbances. A train derailment can result in a hazardous materials incident. A resource boycott of the United States can escalate to conventional war and then to nuclear war. The emergency situation will determine, to a large extent, the direction and control function that the EOC will perform, and the human and material resources required to perform it. This manual reflects the differing requirements of the various disaster agents and emergency situations.

  11. Preparation of norfloxacin spherical agglomerates using the ammonia diffusion system.

    PubMed

    Puechagut, H G; Bianchotti, J; Chiale, C A

    1998-04-01

    Agglomerated crystals of norfloxacin were prepared by a spherical crystallization technique using the ammonia diffusion system (ADS). This technique makes it possible to agglomerate amphoteric drugs like norfloxacin, which cannot be agglomerated by conventional procedures. When an ammonia-water solution of norfloxacin is poured into an acetone dichloromethane mixture under agitation, a small amount of ammonia is liberated in the system. The ammonia-water solution plays a role both as a good solvent for norfloxacin and as a bridging liquid, allowing the crystals' collection to take place in one step. It has been proven that the agglomeration mechanism follows three steps: first acetone enters into the droplets of ammonia-water (this emulsion is formed because of the system characteristics); dissolved norfloxacin is consequently precipitated while the droplets collect the crystals; simultaneously, a part of the ammonia contained in the agglomerates diffuses to the outer organic solvent phase, thereby forming the norfloxacin spherical agglomerates. The correct selection of solvents has enabled us to obtain a suitable stable crystalline shape.

  12. Apollo experience report: Systems and flight procedures development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, P. C.

    1973-01-01

    This report describes the process of crew procedures development used in the Apollo Program. The two major categories, Systems Procedures and Flight Procedures, are defined, as are the forms of documentation required. A description is provided of the operation of the procedures change control process, which includes the roles of man-in-the-loop simulations and the Crew Procedures Change Board. Brief discussions of significant aspects of the attitude control, computer, electrical power, environmental control, and propulsion subsystems procedures development are presented. Flight procedures are subdivided by mission phase: launch and translunar injection, rendezvous, lunar descent and ascent, and entry. Procedures used for each mission phase are summarized.

  13. Acoustic agglomeration methods and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Methods are described for using acoustic energy to agglomerate fine particles on the order of one micron diameter that are suspended in gas, to provide agglomerates large enough for efficient removal by other techniques. The gas with suspended particles, is passed through the length of a chamber while acoustic energy at a resonant chamber mode is applied to set up one or more acoustic standing wave patterns that vibrate the suspended particles to bring them together so they agglomerate. Several widely different frequencies can be applied to efficiently vibrate particles of widely differing sizes. The standing wave pattern can be applied along directions transversed to the flow of the gas. The particles can be made to move in circles by applying acoustic energy in perpendicular directions with the energy in both directions being of the same wavelength but 90 deg out of phase.

  14. Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates

    SciTech Connect

    Guloy, A.

    1992-01-28

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising.

  15. Acoustic agglomeration of power plant fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reethof, G.; McDaniel, O.H.

    1982-01-01

    The work has shown that acoustic agglomeration at practical acoustic intensities and frequencies is technically and most likely economically viable. The following studies were performed with the listed results: The physics of acoustic agglomeration is complex particularly at the needed high acoustic intensities in the range of 150 to 160 dB and frequencies in the 2500 Hz range. The analytical model which we developed, although not including nonlinear acoustic efforts, agreed with the trends observed. We concentrated our efforts on clarifying the impact of high acoustic intensities on the generation of turbulence. Results from a special set of tests show that although some acoustically generated turbulence of sorts exists in the 150 to 170 dB range with acoustic streaming present, such turbulence will not be a significant factor in acoustic agglomeration compared to the dominant effect of the acoustic velocities at the fundamental frequency and its harmonics. Studies of the robustness of the agglomerated particles using the Anderson Mark III impactor as the source of the shear stresses on the particles show that the agglomerates should be able to withstand the rigors of flow through commercial cyclones without significant break-up. We designed and developed a 700/sup 0/F tubular agglomerator of 8'' internal diameter. The electrically heated system functioned well and provided very encouraging agglomeration results at acoustic levels in the 150 to 160 dB and 2000 to 3000 Hz ranges. We confirmed earlier results that an optimum frequency exists at about 2500 Hz and that larger dust loadings will give better results. Studies of the absorption of acoustic energy by various common gases as a function of temperature and humidity showed the need to pursue such an investigation for flue gas constituents in order to provide necessary data for the design of agglomerators. 65 references, 56 figures, 4 tables.

  16. Thread-compound test procedures being developed

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, F.; Dairymple, D. ); McKown, K.; Matthews, B. )

    1990-09-10

    API is planning to issue a new bulletin that will outline standardization test procedures and set minimum performance for thread compounds used on OCTG (oil country tubular goods) connections with API thread forms. These performance standards will replace the recommended compound described in API Bulletin 5A2. This paper discusses how the proposed bulletin will detail test equipment, procedures, and performance requirements for thread compounds.

  17. The Development of Classroom Observation Procedures for Evaluating Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Ralph; And Others

    This report describes the procedures followed in developing classroom observation procedures for use in evaluating the First Year Communication Skills Program (FYCSP) and Instructional Concepts Program (ICP) training systems. The procedures cover the identification of the variables to be measured, development of scales to measure these variables,…

  18. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  19. Antimicrobial Testing Methods & Procedures Developed by EPA's Microbiology Laboratory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We develop antimicrobial testing methods and standard operating procedures to measure the effectiveness of hard surface disinfectants against a variety of microorganisms. Find methods and procedures for antimicrobial testing.

  20. Motor Development: Manual of Alternative Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, James E.

    The manual of alternative procedures for teaching handicapped children focuses on programming, planning, and implementing training in the gross motor (posture, limb control, locomotion) and fine motor (facial, digital) skills. The manual consists of the following sections: specific teaching tactics commonly used in motor training stiuations…

  1. Influence of the pan pelletizer rotational velocity and the particles size on the agglomeration of alumina oxide granules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radeva, Zheni; Müller, Peter; Tomas, Juergen

    2013-06-01

    High fraction of agglomerates and better agglomerate strength are main purpose for every agglomeration process. For optimizing the agglomeration process of industrial produced granules, using liquid binders, it is necessary to understand the microinteractions between primary particles and binder and the marcointeractions between the agglomerates themselves. In order to investigate the influence of the rotational velocity of the pan pelletizer and the primary particle size on the fraction of agglomerates and the mechanical properties of the produced agglomerates, the obtained structures have to be basically analyzed. Agglomeration of industrial produced Alumina Oxide (γ-Al2O3) granules is carried out in a rotating pan pelletizer. A 6 mass-% solution of viscoelastic polymer - hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) is used as binder. The rotational velocity of the pelletizer pan is previously measured and calibrated. By changing the rotational velocity of the process chamber it was found that there are critical speed limits for the pan. The minimum critical velocity of the pelletizer plate does not provide enough contact collisions between the particles and the necessary kinetic level for agglomeration cannot be reached. The maximum critical velocity leads to higher rotational kinetic energy and this causes breakages of the agglomerates. It was also proven that the breakage strength of the agglomerates decreases with the reduction of the agglomerate size. The conclusions from the experimental work help us to understand the basics of agglomeration process and tend to develop and facilitate the operating with particle collectives in science and industry.

  2. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  3. Agglomeration of food powder and applications.

    PubMed

    Dhanalakshmi, K; Ghosal, S; Bhattacharya, S

    2011-05-01

    Agglomeration has many applications in food processing and major applications include easy flow table salt, dispersible milk powder and soup mix, instant chocolate mix, beverage powder, compacted cubes for nutritional-intervention program, health bars using expanded/puffed cereals, etc. The main purpose of agglomeration is to improve certain physical properties of food powders such as bulk density, flowability, dispersability, and stability. Agglomerated products are easy to use by the consumers and hence are preferred over the traditional non-agglomerated products that are usually non-flowable in nature. The properties of food agglomerates and the process of agglomeration like employing pressure, extrusion, rewetting, spray-bed drying, steam jet, heat/sintering, and binders have been reviewed. The physical and instant properties of agglomerated food products have also been discussed.

  4. Agglomeration tendency in dry pharmaceutical granular systems.

    PubMed

    Lachiver, Emilie DesRosiers; Abatzoglou, Nicolas; Cartilier, Louis; Simard, Jean-Sébastien

    2006-10-01

    The agglomeration tendency of dry pharmaceutical mixtures containing various concentrations of Xylitab 100 (Xylitol), calcium carbonate precipitated (CCP) and magnesium stearate (MgSt) was evaluated statistically as a function of mixing time. A Ro-Tap tester was employed to mix the three pharmaceutical components, and the agglomerates formed were measured with respect to their weight and size. An experimental design was devised and applied to structure and then statistically analyze the results. Xylitab was found not to be influential in the formation of agglomerates, but aided in deagglomeration when mixed with other components. CCP and MgSt formed agglomerates over time and showed positive interactions favouring agglomeration. The agglomerates started to fracture when they reached a critical size, at which stage the particles' attraction forces (cohesion forces) were weaker than both gravity and inertia. It has been shown and quantitatively demonstrated that the mixing time and ingredient concentrations of a three-component pharmaceutical mixture can affect agglomeration tendency.

  5. Developing written inspection procedures for thermal/infrared thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, J.

    1996-12-31

    Written inspection procedures are essential to acquiring valid data on a repeatable basis. They are also vital to the safety of the thermographer, and may, for that reason alone, be required by a company. Many thermographers are working with no written procedures. To date only a few of the necessary procedures have been developed by recognized standards organizations. The lack of procedures is limiting the use of thermography. Where thermography is being used without them, results are often less than optimum. This paper will (1) survey existing procedures and standards; (2) discuss current efforts by standards organizations to develop standards and procedures; and (3) present a general methodology from which written inspection procedures can be developed for many thermographic inspections.

  6. Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.; Hayashi, Kanetoshi

    1999-08-01

    A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

  7. Colloidal stability of coal-simulated suspensions in selective agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Schurger, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    A coal suspension was simulated by using graphite to simulate the carbonaceous fraction and kaolinite clay to simulate the ash fraction. Separate studies on each material established their response to additions of oxidized pyrite (ferrous sulfate) and a humic acid simulate (salicylic acid) in terms of zeta potentials profiles with pH and Ionic strength. Concentrations of iron and salicylic acid evaluated were 4.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M and 2.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M, respectively. The zeta potentials profiles of graphite, clay and hexadecane were negative throughout the pH ranges studied. The addition of iron lowered the zeta potentials all of the suspensions under all pH and ionic strength conditions. Salicylic acid decreased the graphite and hexadecane zeta potentials but had no effect on the clay zeta potential profiles. Agglomeration of graphite with bridging liquid shows distinct time dependent rate mechanisms, a initial growth of graphite agglomerates followed by consolidation phase. Graphite agglomeration was rapid with the maximum amount of agglomerate volume growth occurring in under 2-4 minutes. Agglomeration in the first two minutes was characterized by a 1st order rate mechanism. The presence of either Iron and salicylic acid generally improved the first order rates. The addition of clay also improved the first order rates except in the presence of salicylic acid. Heteroagglomeration of graphite with clay was found by hydrodynamic arguments to be unfavored. A multicomponent population balance model which had been developed for evaluating collision efficiencies of coal, ash and pyrite selective agglomeration was evaluated to explain these results. The growth and consolidation characteristics of graphite agglomeration for the experimental conditions examined herein revealed the limitations of such as model for this application.

  8. Developing Procedural Flexibility: Are Novices Prepared to Learn from Comparing Procedures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Star, Jon R.; Durkin, Kelley

    2012-01-01

    Background: A key learning outcome in problem-solving domains is the development of procedural flexibility, where learners know multiple procedures and use them appropriately to solve a range of problems (e.g., Verschaffel, Luwel, Torbeyns, & Van Dooren, 2009). However, students often fail to become flexible problem solvers in mathematics. To…

  9. Mechanisms for selective agglomeration of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.-C.; Tyson, D.; Xiaoping, Qiu; Lessa, A.

    1989-05-01

    Work continued on the basic mechanisms which underlie various processes for beneficiating aqueous suspensions of coal by selective agglomeration with oil. A new method was demonstrated for characterizing the agglomerability of coal suspensions. This method utilizes a photometric dispersion analyzer to monitor changes in the turbidity of a particle suspension as increasing amounts of oil are added to the suspension in a batch agglomeration test. Agglomeration of the particles leads to a marked decrease in the turbidity of the suspension. Another experimental technique was also demonstrated for characterizing oil agglomeration. This technique involves measuring the rate of growth of agglomerates in a continuous flow system operating under stead-state conditions. The data are analyzed by means of a population balance. The results of a preliminary set of experiments in which Indiana V seam coal was agglomerated with tetralin seemed to fit a particular growth model very well. Equipment was also constructed for studying the kinetics of agglomeration in a batch process. While earlier work showed that quebracho (a commercially available dispersant) is a strong agglomeration depressant for pyrite, recent experiments with mixtures of Upper Freeport coal and mineral pyrite showed that quebracho does not appear to be sufficiently selective. Further consideration was given to the separation of mixtures of coal and pyrite agglomeration with heptane. 2 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  10. 25 CFR 33.9 - Development of procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Development of procedures. 33.9 Section 33.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION TRANSFER OF INDIAN EDUCATION FUNCTIONS § 33.9 Development of procedures. The Director, Office of Indian Education Programs shall prepare...

  11. Key Procedures in User Interface Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, E. Vance; Connolly, James R.

    Information systems (IS) professionals are called on to produce increasingly sophisticated user interfaces as a part of software development. Although IS education includes coverage of user interface (UI) development, classroom presentation of this topic frequently is cursory and does not provide any particular methodology for the task. In this…

  12. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  13. Powder agglomeration in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, James D.

    1994-01-01

    This is the final report for NASA Grant NAG3-755 entitled 'Powder Agglomeration in a Microgravity Environment.' The research program included both two types of numerical models and two types of experiments. The numerical modeling included the use of Monte Carlo type simulations of agglomerate growth including hydrodynamic screening and molecular dynamics type simulations of the rearrangement of particles within an agglomerate under a gravitational field. Experiments included direct observation of the agglomeration of submicron alumina and indirect observation, using small angle light scattering, of the agglomeration of colloidal silica and aluminum monohydroxide. In the former class of experiments, the powders were constrained to move on a two-dimensional surface oriented to minimize the effect of gravity. In the latter, some experiments involved mixture of suspensions containing particles of opposite charge which resulted in agglomeration on a very short time scale relative to settling under gravity.

  14. Guidelines for the Development of Procedural Schematics for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolim, Michael P.

    To aid the student or researcher in the development of an effective procedural schematic (a graphic description of a research plan showing the steps needed to reach a stated objective), guidelines are presented under three topic headings: Compositional elements, taxonomy of research terms, and examples of procedural schematics. An introduction…

  15. 25 CFR 33.9 - Development of procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... education function. These procedures shall be consistent with existing laws, regulations, Executive Orders... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Development of procedures. 33.9 Section 33.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION TRANSFER OF INDIAN EDUCATION...

  16. A MODEL FOR FINE PARTICLE AGGLOMERATION IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED ABSORBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model for fine particle agglomeration in circulating fluidized bed absorbers (CFBAS) has been developed. It can model the influence of different factors on agglomeration, such as the geometry of CFBAs, superficial gas velocity, initial particle size distribution, and type of ag...

  17. Acoustic agglomeration of power-plant fly ash. A comprehensive semi-annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Reethof, G.

    1980-02-01

    Results obtained during the reporting period are presented. The agglomeration of submicron fly ash particles has been studied as a function of sound pressure level, sound frequency, loading, and exposure time. A second generation model of the agglomeration process is being developed. A high-frequency, high-intensity variable speed siren delivering at least 600 W at frequencies up to 4000 Hz has been developed and tested. Details on the design and operation are presented. The agglomeration chamber has been completely cleaned and the aerosol generating system has been rebuilt. A mathematical model of the acoustics of agglomeration is being developed. Preliminary results of computerized electron microscopic scanning of fly ash particles during agglomeration are presented. (DMC)

  18. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  19. Agglomeration multigrid for viscous turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, D. J.; Venkatakrishnan, V.

    1994-01-01

    Agglomeration multigrid, which has been demonstrated as an efficient and automatic technique for the solution of the Euler equations on unstructured meshes, is extended to viscous turbulent flows. For diffusion terms, coarse grid discretizations are not possible, and more accurate grid transfer operators are required as well. A Galerkin coarse grid operator construction and an implicit prolongation operator are proposed. Their suitability is evaluated by examining their effect on the solution of Laplace's equation. The resulting strategy is employed to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for aerodynamic flows. Convergence rates comparable to those obtained by a previously developed non-nested mesh multigrid approach are demonstrated, and suggestions for further improvements are given.

  20. Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Implementing Procedures Document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    This implementing procedures document (IPD) was prepared for use in implementing tasks under the standard review plan update and development program (SRP-UDP). The IPD provides comprehensive guidance and detailed procedures for SRP-UDP tasks. The IPD is mandatory for contractors performing work for the SRP-UDP. It is guidance for the staff. At the completion of the SRP-UDP, the IPD will be revised (to remove the UDP aspects) and will replace NRR Office Letter No. 800 as long-term maintenance procedures.

  1. Modeling of particle agglomeration in nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, K. Hari; Neti, S.; Oztekin, A.; Mohapatra, S.

    2015-03-01

    Agglomeration strongly influences the stability or shelf life of nanofluid. The present computational and experimental study investigates the rate of agglomeration quantitatively. Agglomeration in nanofluids is attributed to the net effect of various inter-particle interaction forces. For the nanofluid considered here, a net inter-particle force depends on the particle size, volume fraction, pH, and electrolyte concentration. A solution of the discretized and coupled population balance equations can yield particle sizes as a function of time. Nanofluid prepared here consists of alumina nanoparticles with the average particle size of 150 nm dispersed in de-ionized water. As the pH of the colloid was moved towards the isoelectric point of alumina nanofluids, the rate of increase of average particle size increased with time due to lower net positive charge on particles. The rate at which the average particle size is increased is predicted and measured for different electrolyte concentration and volume fraction. The higher rate of agglomeration is attributed to the decrease in the electrostatic double layer repulsion forces. The rate of agglomeration decreases due to increase in the size of nano-particle clusters thus approaching zero rate of agglomeration when all the clusters are nearly uniform in size. Predicted rates of agglomeration agree adequate enough with the measured values; validating the mathematical model and numerical approach is employed.

  2. Modeling of particle agglomeration in nanofluids

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, K. Hari; Neti, S.; Oztekin, A.; Mohapatra, S.

    2015-03-07

    Agglomeration strongly influences the stability or shelf life of nanofluid. The present computational and experimental study investigates the rate of agglomeration quantitatively. Agglomeration in nanofluids is attributed to the net effect of various inter-particle interaction forces. For the nanofluid considered here, a net inter-particle force depends on the particle size, volume fraction, pH, and electrolyte concentration. A solution of the discretized and coupled population balance equations can yield particle sizes as a function of time. Nanofluid prepared here consists of alumina nanoparticles with the average particle size of 150 nm dispersed in de-ionized water. As the pH of the colloid was moved towards the isoelectric point of alumina nanofluids, the rate of increase of average particle size increased with time due to lower net positive charge on particles. The rate at which the average particle size is increased is predicted and measured for different electrolyte concentration and volume fraction. The higher rate of agglomeration is attributed to the decrease in the electrostatic double layer repulsion forces. The rate of agglomeration decreases due to increase in the size of nano-particle clusters thus approaching zero rate of agglomeration when all the clusters are nearly uniform in size. Predicted rates of agglomeration agree adequate enough with the measured values; validating the mathematical model and numerical approach is employed.

  3. Product assurance policies and procedures for flight dynamics software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Sandra; Jordan, Leon; Decker, William; Page, Gerald; Mcgarry, Frank E.; Valett, Jon

    1987-01-01

    The product assurance policies and procedures necessary to support flight dynamics software development projects for Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. The quality assurance and configuration management methods and tools for each phase of the software development life cycles are described, from requirements analysis through acceptance testing; maintenance and operation are not addressed.

  4. Job Placement and Development. Procedures Manual and Bibliography of Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilford Technical Community Coll., Jamestown, NC.

    This combination procedures manual and annotated bibliography is intended to assist faculty and staff at community colleges in North Carolina in developing centralized job placement and development services. The first section describes the project to establish centralized employment services at Guilford Technical Community College during which the…

  5. Library Collections Development and Maintenance Policies and Procedures Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubesing, Richard

    This manual for the College of the Southwest (New Mexico) library delineates collection development policies and procedures for library and teaching faculty. The first section deals with collection development and maintenance responsibilities: knowledge of the collection; knowledge of college and course needs; library materials budget allocations;…

  6. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Developing Departmental Safety Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.; Palladino, George F.

    1980-01-01

    Presents rationale and guidelines for development of Safety Standard Operating Procedures (Safety SOP) specific for local conditions. Includes an outline of a Safety SOP developed for a department primarily focused on undergraduate education with a wide variety of expertise from common laborer to PhD with 20 years experience. (Author/JN)

  7. Estimating Costs for Development of Candidate Performance Evaluation Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, David A.

    This paper contains cost unit tables and instructions for their use in estimating the total cost of evaluating a given instructional objective or group of objectives. Included is a list of analytical procedures to be followed in the development of any device to evaluate student performance, (e.g., a unit exam in child development or an attitude…

  8. NICU procedures are getting sweeter: development of a sucrose protocol for neonatal procedural pain.

    PubMed

    Mokhnach, Larisa; Anderson, Marilyn; Glorioso, Rachelle; Loeffler, Katie; Shinabarger, Kelly; Thorngate, Lauren; Yates, Marna; Diercks, Kristi; Berkan, Maureen; Hou, Shwu-Shin; Millar, April; Thomas, Karen A; Walker, Wendy; Zbirun, Ilona

    2010-01-01

    Neonates in the neonatal intensive care nursery experience multiple, painful, tissue-damaging procedures daily. Pain among neonates is often underestimated and untreated, producing untoward consequences. A literature review established strong evidence supporting the use of sucrose as an analgesic for minor procedural pain among neonates. A review of unit practices and nurses' experiential evidence initiated the production of a standardized protocol in our unit at the University of Washington Medical Center NICU in Seattle.Nursing practices surrounding sucrose use differed widely in dose, timing, and patient application. We carefully evaluated evidence documenting the effectiveness as well as the safety of sucrose administration and wrote a protocol and practice standards for our primarily premature patient population. This article describes the development and execution of a standardized, nurse-implemented, sucrose protocol to reduce procedural pain.

  9. Percolative fragmentation and spontaneous agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, R.; Davis, K.

    1999-03-01

    Captive particle imaging experiments were performed on over 200 coal and char particles in the pulverized size range from four coals of various rank at oxygen concentration from 3--19 mol% and at gas temperatures of about 1250 K. Despite wide variations in single-particle behavior, the data set reveals two clear trends that provide new information on the nature of char combustion. First, the low-rank coal chars are observed to maintain their high reactivity through the late stages of combustion, thus avoiding the near-extinction events and long burnout tails observed for bituminous coal chars. Secondly, percolative fragmentation in the late stages of combustion is a rare event under these conditions. Some particles reach a percolation threshold rate in combustion, but typically undergo spontaneous agglomeration rather than liberation of the incipient fragments. It is concluded that percolative fragmentation behavior in the pulverized size range is determined not only by solid-phase connectivity, but also by a real competition between disruptive and cohesive forces present at the time of formation of the colloidal-sized incipient fragments.

  10. Impact assessment procedures for sustainable development: A complexity theory perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Nooteboom, Sibout

    2007-10-15

    The author assumes that effective Impact Assessment procedures should somehow contribute to sustainable development. There is no widely agreed framework for evaluating such effectiveness. The author suggests that complexity theories may offer criteria. The relevant question is 'do Impact Assessment Procedures contribute to the 'requisite variety' of a social system for it to deal with changing circumstances?' Requisite variety theoretically relates to the capability of a system to deal with changes in its environment. The author reconstructs how thinking about achieving sustainable development has developed in a sequence of discourses in The Netherlands since the 1970s. Each new discourse built on the previous ones, and is supposed to have added to 'requisite variety'. The author asserts that Impact Assessment procedures may be a necessary component in such sequences and derives possible criteria for effectiveness.

  11. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  12. Agglomeration of microparticles in complex plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Cheng-Ran; Thomas, Hubertus M.; Ivlev, Alexei V.; Konopka, Uwe; Morfill, Gregor E.

    2010-11-15

    Agglomeration of highly charged microparticles was observed and studied in complex plasma experiments carried out in a capacitively coupled rf discharge. The agglomeration was caused by strong waves triggered in a particle cloud by decreasing neutral gas pressure. Using a high-speed camera during this unstable regime, it was possible to resolve the motion of individual microparticles and to show that the relative velocities of some particles were sufficiently high to overcome the mutual Coulomb repulsion and hence to result in agglomeration. After stabilizing the cloud again through the increase of the pressure, we were able to observe the aggregates directly with a long-distance microscope. We show that the agglomeration rate deduced from our experiments is in good agreement with theoretical estimates. In addition, we briefly discuss the mechanisms that can provide binding of highly charged microparticles in a plasma.

  13. Advances in food powder agglomeration engineering.

    PubMed

    Cuq, B; Gaiani, C; Turchiuli, C; Galet, L; Scher, J; Jeantet, R; Mandato, S; Petit, J; Murrieta-Pazos, I; Barkouti, A; Schuck, P; Rondet, E; Delalonde, M; Dumoulin, E; Delaplace, G; Ruiz, T

    2013-01-01

    Food powders are used in everyday life in many ways and offer technological solutions to the problem of food production. The natural origin of food powders, diversity in their chemical composition, variability of the raw materials, heterogeneity of the native structures, and physicochemical reactivity under hydrothermal stresses contribute to the complexity in their behavior. Food powder agglomeration has recently been considered according to a multiscale approach, which is followed in the chapter layout: (i) at the particle scale, by a presentation of particle properties and surface reactivity in connection with the agglomeration mechanisms, (ii) at the mechanisms scale, by describing the structuration dynamics of agglomerates, (iii) at the process scale, by a presentation of agglomeration technologies and sensors and by studying the stress transmission mode in the powder bed, and finally (iv) by an integration of the acquired knowledge, thanks to a dimensional analysis carried out at each scale.

  14. 40 CFR 790.22 - Procedures for developing consent agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedures for developing consent agreements. 790.22 Section 790.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... other respects. (9) Where a consensus exists, as described in paragraph (b)(8) of this...

  15. Issues and Procedures in the Development of Criterion Referenced Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.; Kosecoff, Jacqueline

    The basic steps and procedures in the development of criterion referenced tests (CRT), as well as the issues and problems associated with these activities are discussed. In the first section of the paper, the discussions focus upon the purpose and defining characteristics of CRTs, item construction and selection, improving item quality, content…

  16. Diffusion and reaction in microbead agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Nunes Kirchner, Carolina; Träuble, Markus; Wittstock, Gunther

    2010-04-01

    Scanning electrochemical microscopy has been used to analyze the flux of p-aminonophenol (PAP) produced by agglomerates of polymeric microbeads modified with galactosidase as a model system for the bead-based heterogeneous immunoassays. With the use of mixtures of enzyme-modified and bare beads in defined ratio, agglomerates with different saturation levels of the enzyme modification were produced. The PAP flux depends on the intrinsic kinetics of the galactosidase, the local availability of the substrate p-aminophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (PAPG), and the external mass transport conditions in the surrounding of the agglomerate and the internal mass transport within the bead agglomerate. The internal mass transport is influenced by the diffusional shielding of the modified beads by unmodified beads. SECM in combination with optical microscopy was used to determine experimentally the external flux. These data are in quantitative agreement with boundary element simulation considering the SECM microelectrode as an interacting probe and treating the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the enzyme as nonlinear boundary conditions with two independent concentration variables [PAP] and [PAPG]. The PAPG concentration at the surface of the bead agglomerate was taken as a boundary condition for the analysis of the internal mass transport condition as a function of the enzyme saturation in the bead agglomerate. The results of this analysis are represented as PAP flux per contributing modified bead and the flux from freely suspended galactosidase-modified beads. These numbers are compared to the same number from the SECM experiments. It is shown that depending on the enzyme saturation level a different situation can arise where either beads located at the outer surface of the agglomerate dominate the contribution to the measured external flux or where the contribution of buried beads cannot be neglected for explaining the measured external flux.

  17. POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-12

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale oil agglomeration technology capable of increasing the recovery and improving the quality of fine coal strearrts. Two distinct agglomeration devices will be tested, namely, a conventional high shear mixer and a jet processor. To meet the overall objective an eleven task work plan has been designed. The work ranges from batch and continuous bench-scale testing through the design, commissioning and field testing of POC-scale agglomeration equipment.

  18. Agglomeration multigrid methods with implicit Runge-Kutta smoothers applied to aerodynamic simulations on unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    For unstructured finite volume methods an agglomeration multigrid with an implicit multistage Runge-Kutta method as a smoother is developed for solving the compressible Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The implicit Runge-Kutta method is interpreted as a preconditioned explicit Runge-Kutta method. The construction of the preconditioner is based on an approximate derivative. The linear systems are solved approximately with a symmetric Gauss-Seidel method. To significantly improve this solution method grid anisotropy is treated within the Gauss-Seidel iteration in such a way that the strong couplings in the linear system are resolved by tridiagonal systems constructed along these directions of strong coupling. The agglomeration strategy is adapted to this procedure by taking into account exactly these anisotropies in such a way that a directional coarsening is applied along these directions of strong coupling. Turbulence effects are included by a Spalart-Allmaras model, and the additional transport-type equation is approximately solved in a loosely coupled manner with the same method. For two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical examples and a variety of differently generated meshes we show the wide range of applicability of the solution method. Finally, we exploit the GMRES method to determine approximate spectral information of the linearized RANS equations. This approximate spectral information is used to discuss and compare characteristics of multistage Runge-Kutta methods.

  19. Kinetic energy density and agglomerate abrasion rate during blending of agglomerates into powders.

    PubMed

    Willemsz, Tofan A; Hooijmaijers, Ricardo; Rubingh, Carina M; Tran, Thanh N; Frijlink, Henderik W; Vromans, Herman; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    2012-01-23

    Problems related to the blending of a cohesive powder with a free flowing bulk powder are frequently encountered in the pharmaceutical industry. The cohesive powder often forms lumps or agglomerates which are not dispersed during the mixing process and are therefore detrimental to blend uniformity. Achieving sufficient blend uniformity requires that the blending conditions are able to break up agglomerates, which is often an abrasion process. This study was based on the assumption that the abrasion rate of agglomerates determines the required blending time. It is shown that the kinetic energy density of the moving powder bed is a relevant parameter which correlates with the abrasion rate of agglomerates. However, aspects related to the strength of agglomerates should also be considered. For this reason the Stokes abrasion number (St(Abr)) has been defined. This parameter describes the ratio between the kinetic energy density of the moving powder bed and the work of fracture of the agglomerate. The St(Abr) number is shown to predict the abrasion potential of agglomerates in the dry-mixing process. It appeared possible to include effects of filler particle size and impeller rotational rate into this concept. A clear relationship between abrasion rate of agglomerates and the value of St(Abr) was demonstrated.

  20. Handling Qualities Influences on Civil Tiltrotor Terminal Operating Procedure Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William A.; Simmons, Rickey C.; Tucker, George E.; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The potential for tiltrotor aircraft as civil transports has been well recognized. Realization of that potential requires development of operating procedures tailored to take advantage of the tiltrotor's capabilities, including thrust vectoring independent of body pitch attitude and good low-speed control. While the tiltrotor shares flight characteristics with both fixed wing airplanes and helicopters, it must convert between those flight modes, typically within the context of precise terminal operations. A series of piloted simulation experiments has been conducted on the NASA Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) to investigate the influence of tiltrotor cockpit design features on developing certification and operating criteria for civil tiltrotor transports. Handling qualities evaluations have shaped cockpit design guidelines and operating procedure development for a civil tiltrotor. In particular, four topics demonstrate the interplay of handling qualities and operations profile in the development of terminal operating procedures and cockpit or control equipment for a civil tiltrotor: conversion (airplane to helicopter mode), final approach path angle, operating profile speeds and speed changes (particularly under instrument conditions), and one engine inoperative operational considerations.

  1. National Economic Development Procedures Manual Deep Draft Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    the P&G, but apply to all commercial navigation projects not a part of the "Inland Water- ways System". The manual covers theoretical and practical...DEVELOPMENT PROCEDURES MANUAL DEEP DRAFT NAVIGATION ( Commercial Navigation Other Than Inland Waterway System) by James G. Crew Kevin H. HOrn Richard L. Schultz...promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products. PREFACE

  2. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Quarterly progress report, October 1-December 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1983-04-21

    The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) process analysis; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) process component engineering and design; and (5) laboratory support studies involving gas solids flow modeling and coal/ash behavior. 9 figures, 19 tables.

  3. A uHPLC-MS mathematical modeling approach to dry powder inhaler single agglomerate analysis.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Justin; Lena, John; Medendorp, Joseph; Ewing, Gary

    2011-10-01

    Demonstration of content uniformity (CU) is critical toward the successful development of dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Methods for unit dose CU determination for DPI products are well-established within the field of respiratory science. Recent advances in the area include a uHPLC-MS method for high-throughput uniformity analysis, which allows for a greater understanding of blending operations as the industry transitions to a quality-by-design approach to development. Further enhancements to this uHPLC-MS method now enable it to determine CU and sample weight at the single agglomerate level, which is roughly 50× smaller than a unit dose. When coupled with optical microscopy-based agglomerate sizing, the enhanced uHPLC-MS method can also predict the density and porosity of individual agglomerates. Expanding analytical capabilities to the single agglomerate level provides greater insights and confidence in the DPI manufacturing process.

  4. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Phase 2, Final report, May 1, 1983-July 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    1987-09-15

    KRW Energy Systems Inc. is engaged in the development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed, gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized, carbonaceous feedstocks for electrical power generation, substitute natural gas, chemical feedstocks, and industrial fuels. This report covers Phase II of the contract period (May 1, 1983 to July 31, 1984) and is a continuation of the work performed in 1983 and reported in the Phase I final report, FE-19122-30. Included is work performed in fiscal 1983 to 1984 on PDU testing, process analysis, cold flow scaleup facility, process and component engineering and design, and laboratory support studies.

  5. Development and Applications of a Stage Stacking Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Sameer; Celestina, Mark L.; Adamczyk, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The preliminary design of multistage axial compressors in gas turbine engines is typically accomplished with mean-line methods. These methods, which rely on empirical correlations, estimate compressor performance well near the design point, but may become less reliable off-design. For land-based applications of gas turbine engines, off-design performance estimates are becoming increasingly important, as turbine plant operators desire peaking or load-following capabilities and hot-day operability. The current work develops a one-dimensional stage stacking procedure, including a newly defined blockage term, which is used to estimate the off-design performance and operability range of a 13-stage axial compressor used in a power generating gas turbine engine. The new blockage term is defined to give mathematical closure on static pressure, and values of blockage are shown to collapse to curves as a function of stage inlet flow coefficient and corrected shaft speed. In addition to these blockage curves, the stage stacking procedure utilizes stage characteristics of ideal work coefficient and adiabatic efficiency. These curves are constructed using flow information extracted from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of groups of stages within the compressor. Performance estimates resulting from the stage stacking procedure are shown to match the results of CFD simulations of the entire compressor to within 1.6% in overall total pressure ratio and within 0.3 points in overall adiabatic efficiency. Utility of the stage stacking procedure is demonstrated by estimation of the minimum corrected speed which allows stable operation of the compressor. Further utility of the stage stacking procedure is demonstrated with a bleed sensitivity study, which estimates a bleed schedule to expand the compressors operating range.

  6. Potential effects of environmental regulatory procedures on geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Beeland, G.V.; Boies, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    The potential effects of several types of applicable environmental regulatory procedures on geothermal development were assessed, and particular problem areas were identified. The possible impact of procedures adopted pursuant to the following Federal statutes were analyzed: Clean Air Act; Clean Water Act; Safe Drinking Water Act; and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. State regulations applicable, or potentially applicable, to geothermal facilities were also reviewed to determine: permit information requirements; pre-permit air or water quality monitoring requirements; effect of mandated time frames for permit approval; and potential for exemption of small facilities. The regulations of the following states were covered in the review: Alaska; Arizona; California; Colorado; Hawaii; Idaho; Montana; Nevada; New Mexico; Oregon; Utah; Washington; and Wyoming. (MHR)

  7. Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhimin

    In coal preparation plant circuits, fine coal particles are aggregated either by oil agglomeration or by flocculation. In a new hydrophobic agglomeration process, recently developed hydrophobic latices are utilized. While the selectivity of such aggregation processes determines the beneficiation results, the degree of aggregation has a strong effect on fine coal filtration. The aim of this research was to study the fundamentals and analyze the common grounds for these processes, including the potential effect of the coal surface properties. The selective flocculation tests, in which three types of coal, which differed widely in surface wettability, and three additives (hydrophobic latices, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte) were utilized, showed that coal wettability plays a very important role in selective flocculation. The abstraction of a hydrophobic latex on coal and silica revealed that the latex had a much higher affinity towards hydrophobic coal than to hydrophilic mineral matter. As a result, the UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated only hydrophobic coal particles while the polyelectrolyte (PAM) flocculated all the tested coal samples and minerals, showing no selectivity in the fine coal beneficiation. The oil agglomeration was tested using kerosene emulsified with various surfactants (e.g. cationic, anionic and non-ionic). Surfactants enhance not only oil emulsification, hence reducing oil consumption (down to 0.25--0.5%), but also entirely change the electrokinetic properties of the droplets and affect the interaction energy between oil droplets and coal particles. Consequently, the results found in the course of the experimental work strongly indicate that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. Oil agglomeration of the Ford-4 ultrafine coal showed that even at extremely low oil consumption (0.25 to 0.5%), a clean coal product with an ash content around 5% at over

  8. Development of a composite tailoring procedure for airplane wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Zhang, Sen

    1995-01-01

    The development of a composite wing box section using a higher order-theory is proposed for accurate and efficient estimation of both static and dynamic responses. The theory includes the effect of through-the-thickness transverse shear deformations which is important in laminated composites and is ignored in the classical approach. The box beam analysis is integrated with an aeroelastic analysis to investigate the effect of composite tailoring using a formal design optimization technique. A hybrid optimization procedure is proposed for addressing both continuous and discrete design variables.

  9. Cell agglomeration in the wells of a 24-well plate using acoustic streaming.

    PubMed

    Kurashina, Yuta; Takemura, Kenjiro; Friend, James

    2017-02-28

    Cell agglomeration is essential both to the success of drug testing and to the development of tissue engineering. Here, a MHz-order acoustic wave is used to generate acoustic streaming in the wells of a 24-well plate to drive particle and cell agglomeration. Acoustic streaming is known to manipulate particles in microfluidic devices, and even provide concentration in sessile droplets, but concentration of particles or cells in individual wells has never been shown, principally due to the drag present along the periphery of the fluid in such a well. The agglomeration time for a range of particle sizes suggests that shear-induced migration plays an important role in the agglomeration process. Particles with a diameter of 45 μm agglomerated into a suspended pellet under exposure to 2.134 MHz acoustic waves at 1.5 W in 30 s. Additionally, BT-474 cells also agglomerated as adherent masses at the center bottom of the wells of tissue-culture treated 24-well plates. By switching to low cell binding 24-well plates, the BT-474 cells formed suspended agglomerations that appeared to be spheroids, fully fifteen times larger than any cell agglomerates without the acoustic streaming. In either case, the viability and proliferation of the cells were maintained despite acoustic irradiation and streaming. Intermittent excitation was effective in avoiding temperature excursions, consuming only 75 mW per well on average, presenting a convenient means to form fully three-dimensional cellular masses potentially useful for tissue, cancer, and drug research.

  10. Centrifugal air-assisted melt agglomeration for fast-release "granulet" design.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tin Wui; Musa, Nafisah

    2012-07-01

    Conventional melt pelletization and granulation processes produce round and dense, and irregularly shaped but porous agglomerates respectively. This study aimed to design centrifugal air-assisted melt agglomeration technology for manufacture of spherical and yet porous "granulets" for ease of downstream manufacturing and enhancing drug release. A bladeless agglomerator, which utilized shear-free air stream to mass the powder mixture of lactose filler, polyethylene glycol binder and poorly water-soluble tolbutamide drug into "granulets", was developed. The inclination angle and number of vane, air-impermeable surface area of air guide, processing temperature, binder content and molecular weight were investigated with reference to "granulet" size, shape, texture and drug release properties. Unlike fluid-bed melt agglomeration with vertical processing air flow, the air stream in the present technology moved centrifugally to roll the processing mass into spherical but porous "granulets" with a drug release propensity higher than physical powder mixture, unprocessed drug and dense pellets prepared using high shear mixer. The fast-release attribute of "granulets" was ascribed to porous matrix formed with a high level of polyethylene glycol as solubilizer. The agglomeration and drug release outcomes of centrifugal air-assisted technology are unmet by the existing high shear and fluid-bed melt agglomeration techniques.

  11. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Quarterly progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1993-07-01

    The goals of this research program are to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of a micro-agglomerate flotation process and to establish the essential criteria for reagent selection and system design and operation. The development of practical technologies for the deep cleaning of coal has been seriously hampered by the problems of carrying out efficient coal/mineral separations at the very fine sizes (often finer than 10 {mu}m) needed to achieve adequate liberation of the mineral matter from the coal matrix. It is generally recognized that surface-based separation processes such as froth flotation or selective agglomeration offer considerable potential for such applications but there remain many problems in obtaining the required selectivity with acceptable recovery of combustible matter. In froth flotation, selectivity is substantially reduced at fine sizes due, primarily, to overloading of the froth phase which leads to excessive carryover of water and entrained mineral matter. Oil agglomeration, on the other hand, can provide good selectivity at low levels of oil addition but the agglomerates tend to be too fragile for separation by the screening methods normally used. The addition of larger amounts of oil can yield large, strong agglomerates which are easily separated but the selectivity is reduced and reagent costs can become excessive. We are investigating the use of a hybrid process -- Micro-agglomerate flotation -- which is a combination of oil agglomeration and froth flotation. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates.

  12. Method for providing improved solid fuels from agglomerated subbituminous coal

    DOEpatents

    Janiak, Jerzy S.; Turak, Ali A.; Pawlak, Wanda; Ignasiak, Boleslaw L.

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for separating agglomerated subbituminous coal and the heavy bridging liquid used to form the agglomerates. The separation is performed by contacting the agglomerates with inert gas or steam at a temperature in the range of 250.degree. to 350.degree. C. at substantially atmospheric pressure.

  13. Development of a Composite Tailoring Procedure for Airplane Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi

    2000-01-01

    The quest for finding optimum solutions to engineering problems has existed for a long time. In modern times, the development of optimization as a branch of applied mathematics is regarded to have originated in the works of Newton, Bernoulli and Euler. Venkayya has presented a historical perspective on optimization in [1]. The term 'optimization' is defined by Ashley [2] as a procedure "...which attempts to choose the variables in a design process so as formally to achieve the best value of some performance index while not violating any of the associated conditions or constraints". Ashley presented an extensive review of practical applications of optimization in the aeronautical field till about 1980 [2]. It was noted that there existed an enormous amount of published literature in the field of optimization, but its practical applications in industry were very limited. Over the past 15 years, though, optimization has been widely applied to address practical problems in aerospace design [3-5]. The design of high performance aerospace systems is a complex task. It involves the integration of several disciplines such as aerodynamics, structural analysis, dynamics, and aeroelasticity. The problem involves multiple objectives and constraints pertaining to the design criteria associated with each of these disciplines. Many important trade-offs exist between the parameters involved which are used to define the different disciplines. Therefore, the development of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) techniques, in which different disciplines and design parameters are coupled into a closed loop numerical procedure, seems appropriate to address such a complex problem. The importance of MDO in successful design of aerospace systems has been long recognized. Recent developments in this field have been surveyed by Sobieszczanski-Sobieski and Haftka [6].

  14. Development of an Expert System for Representing Procedural Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, Michael P.; Lansky, Amy L.

    1985-01-01

    A high level of automation is of paramount importance in most space operations. It is critical for unmanned missions and greatly increases the effectiveness of manned missions. However, although many functions can be automated by using advanced engineering techniques, others require complex reasoning, sensing, and manipulatory capabilities that go beyond this technology. Automation of fault diagnosis and malfunction handling is a case in point. The military have long been interested in this problem, and have developed automatic test equipment to aid in the maintenance of complex military hardware. These systems are all based on conventional software and engineering techniques. However, the effectiveness of such test equipment is severely limited. The equipment is inflexible and unresponsive to the skill level of the technicians using it. The diagnostic procedures cannot be matched to the exigencies of the current situation nor can they cope with reconfiguration or modification of the items under test. The diagnosis cannot be guided by useful advice from technicians and, when a fault cannot be isolated, no explanation is given as to the cause of failure. Because these systems perform a prescribed sequence of tests, they cannot utilize knowledge of a particular situation to focus attention on more likely trouble spots. Consequently, real-time performance is highly unsatisfactory. Furthermore, the cost of developing test software is substantial and time to maturation is excessive. Significant advances in artificial intelligence (AI) have recently led to the development of powerful and flexible reasoning systems, known as expert or knowledge-based systems. We have devised a powerful and theoretically sound scheme for representing and reasoning about procedural knowledge.

  15. Developing Physiologic Models for Emergency Medical Procedures Under Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Nigel; OQuinn, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Several technological enhancements have been made to METI's commercial Emergency Care Simulator (ECS) with regard to how microgravity affects human physiology. The ECS uses both a software-only lung simulation, and an integrated mannequin lung that uses a physical lung bag for creating chest excursions, and a digital simulation of lung mechanics and gas exchange. METI's patient simulators incorporate models of human physiology that simulate lung and chest wall mechanics, as well as pulmonary gas exchange. Microgravity affects how O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the lungs. Procedures were also developed to take into affect the Glasgow Coma Scale for determining levels of consciousness by varying the ECS eye-blinking function to partially indicate the level of consciousness of the patient. In addition, the ECS was modified to provide various levels of pulses from weak and thready to hyper-dynamic to assist in assessing patient conditions from the femoral, carotid, brachial, and pedal pulse locations.

  16. Developing Physiologic Models for Emergency Medical Procedures Under Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Nigel; O'Quinn, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Several technological enhancements have been made to METI's commercial Emergency Care Simulator (ECS) with regard to how microgravity affects human physiology. The ECS uses both a software-only lung simulation, and an integrated mannequin lung that uses a physical lung bag for creating chest excursions, and a digital simulation of lung mechanics and gas exchange. METI s patient simulators incorporate models of human physiology that simulate lung and chest wall mechanics, as well as pulmonary gas exchange. Microgravity affects how O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the lungs. Procedures were also developed to take into affect the Glasgow Coma Scale for determining levels of consciousness by varying the ECS eye-blinking function to partially indicate the level of consciousness of the patient. In addition, the ECS was modified to provide various levels of pulses from weak and thready to hyper-dynamic to assist in assessing patient conditions from the femoral, carotid, brachial, and pedal pulse locations.

  17. Development of test procedures for hybrid/electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, A. F.

    1992-07-01

    This report is concerned with the development of procedures for testing of hybrid/electric vehicles to determine their energy consumption and emissions characteristics. Special emphasis is given to hybrid vehicles, which can be operated above some minimum battery state-of-charge in an all-electric mode for all types of driving (city and highway). When the all-electric range of these vehicles is exceeded, the vehicles are operated in the hybrid mode, in which an engine/generator is turned on to generate electricity on-board the vehicle. Key issues in testing hybrid vehicles are identified and discussed. These issues include the test cycles to be used, the instrumentation required, the effect of battery state-of-charge and control strategy in the hybrid mode on the need for repeated test cycles, and the data to be collected and how that data from repeated cycles is interpreted to determine the vehicle energy consumption and emissions characteristics.

  18. Development of test procedures for hybrid/electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, A. F.

    1992-07-01

    The development of procedures for testing of hybrid/electric vehicles to determine their energy consumption and emissions characteristics is addressed. Special emphasis is given to hybrid vehicles, which can be operated above some minimum battery state-of-charge in an all-electric mode for all types of driving (city and highway). When the all-electric range of these vehicles is exceeded, the vehicles are operated in the hybrid mode, in which an engine/generator is turned on to generate electricity on-board the vehicle. Key issues in testing hybrid vehicles are identified and discussed. These issues include the test cycles to be used, the instrumentation required, the effect of battery state-of-charge and control strategy in the hybrid mode on the need for repeated test cycles, and the data to be collected and how that data from repeated cycles is interpreted to determine the vehicle energy consumption and emissions characteristics.

  19. Development of a simplified procedure for cyclic structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.

    1984-01-01

    Development was extended of a simplified inelastic analysis computer program (ANSYMP) for predicting the stress-strain history at the critical location of a thermomechanically cycled structure from an elastic solution. The program uses an iterative and incremental procedure to estimate the plastic strains from the material stress-strain properties and a plasticity hardening model. Creep effects can be calculated on the basis of stress relaxation at constant strain, creep at constant stress, or a combination of stress relaxation and creep accumulation. The simplified method was exercised on a number of problems involving uniaxial and multiaxial loading, isothermal and nonisothermal conditions, dwell times at various points in the cycles, different materials, and kinematic hardening. Good agreement was found between these analytical results and nonlinear finite-element solutions for these problems. The simplified analysis program used less than 1 percent of the CPU time required for a nonlinear finite-element analysis.

  20. Agglomeration and Sedimentation of MWCNTS in Chloroform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, Yu. S.; Kolesnikova, A. A.; Grekhov, A. M.

    The kinetics of agglomeration of multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersed in chloroform has been studied by the methods of optical spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. With the use of the models of the diffusion of cylindrical particles, the sizes of particles obtained by this method can be recalculated to the DLS data and the concentration at which the dispersion of individual МWCNTs occurs can be determined.

  1. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1995-01-01

    The development of practical technologies for the deep cleaning of coal has been seriously hampered by the problems of carrying out efficient coal/mineral separations at the very fine sizes (often finer than 10 mm) needed to achieve adequate liberation of the mineral matter from the coal matrix. It is generally recognized that surface-based separation processes such as froth flotation or selective agglomeration offer considerable potential for such applications but there remain many problems in obtaining the required selectivity with acceptable recovery of combustible matter. In froth flotation, selectivity is substantially reduced at fine sizes due, primarily, to overloading of the froth phase which leads to excessive carryover of water and entrained mineral matter. Oil agglomeration, on the other hand, can provide good selectivity at low levels of oil addition but the agglomerates tend to be too fragile for separation by the screening methods normally used. The addition of larger amounts of oil can yield large, strong agglomerates which are easily separated but the selectivity is reduced and reagent costs can become excessive. We are investigating the use of a hybrid process - micro-agglomerate flotation - which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles, and to use froth flotation to extract these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units are agglomerates (about 30-50 mm in size) rather than individual coal particles (1-10 mm) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated. Micro-agglomerate flotation has considerable potential for the practical deep cleaning of coal on a commercial scale.

  2. Combustion of single and agglomerated aluminum particles in solid rocket motor flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melcher, John Charles, IV

    2001-07-01

    Single and agglomerated aluminum droplets were studied in a solid rocket motor (SRM) test chamber with optical access to the internal flow at 6--22 atm and 2300 K. The chamber was pressurized by burning a main grain AP/HTPB propellant, and the burning aluminum droplets were generated by a smaller aluminized solid propellant sample, center-mounted in the flow. A 35 mm camera was used with a chopper wheel to give droplet flame diameter vs. time measurements of the burning droplets in flight, from which bum-rate laws were developed. A high-speed video CCD was used with high-magnification optics in order to image the flame/smoke cloud surrounding the burning liquid droplets. The intensity profiles of the droplet images were de-convoluted using an Abel inversion to give true intensity profiles. Both single and agglomerated droplets were studied, where agglomerates are comprised of hundreds of parent particles or more. The Abel inversion results show that the relative smoke cloud size is not constant with diameter, but instead grows as the droplet shrinks, by ˜D -0.5, for both the single and agglomerated droplets. Measured diameter trajectories show that for single droplets, the diameter law is D 0.75 = DO0.75 = 8·t [mu m, msec], and for agglomerated droplets, D 1.0 = Do1.0 - 20·t, such that the single droplets burn faster than the agglomerates. For both single and agglomerated droplets, the burning rate slope k did not change significantly over the chamber pressure studied. Lastly, a model was developed to describe the oxide cap accumulation on the droplet surface from the oxide smoke cloud surrounding the droplet. Results suggest that less oxide accumulates in high-pressure SRMs when considering mass burning rates for different relative cap sizes. The thermophoretic force, which can control oxide transport only over the cap, decreases with pressure.

  3. Development of controlled deposition repair welding procedures at Ontario Hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, T.W.; Lau, M.L.; Poon, G.C.

    1996-06-01

    Ontario Hydro, one of the largest utilities in North America, has an installed generating capacity in excess of 28,000 MW. The generating facilities include a mix of nuclear, fossil-fired, and hydroelectric units. Not unlike other utilities, advanced maintenance welding technology is crucial to maintain the equipment in the most reliable, safe, and economic manner. Since the late 1970s, one focus at Ontario Hydro has been the ability to weld repair heavy section components without postweld heat treatment (PWHT). Temper-bead procedures developed by Ontario Hydro have been used successfully for over a decade to repair carbon steel components. Recently, considerable efforts have been spent to expand the scope of the temper-bead techniques and other self-tempering welding techniques for low-alloy steel, P4 (1.25Cr-0.5Mo) and P5A (2.25Cr-1Mo) materials. To perform successful repairs in these components, it is essential to understand the welding metallurgy of these materials and welding process variables. This paper summarizes the work by Ontario Hydro in non-PWHT weld repair technology with special emphasis on recent developments for Cr-Mo materials.

  4. On the development of a new fracture toughness procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, M.; Provan, J. W.

    1989-05-01

    The present ASTM test procedure for plane strain fracture toughness is time consuming, expensive, includes specimen thickness requirements, and provides no assurance of a valid K(sub IC). An attempt to circumvent the thickness limitations and to develop a simple, inexpensive method to determine plane strain fracture toughness is reported. A novel disc-shaped specimen geometry was investigated for the determination of the plane strain fracture toughness of metallic materials. The specimen has an axisymmetric notch on its upper face, is clamped on its periphery and is uniformly and perpendicularly loaded around the notch. The frozen stress photoelasticity method was applied to Araldite specimens with fatigue precracked notches to determine the stress intensity factors and the fracture mode. One configuration was retained and using the crack profile from the test, a finite element study was performed to determine the compliance of the specimen geometry. Finally, the fracture toughness of aluminium Al7075-T651 was determined by applying the critical load obtained from rupture tests.

  5. Development of an efficient Procedure for Resist Wall Space Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Shouhei; Kumasaki, Saori; Higuchi, Sayoko; Kirihata, Kuniaki; Inoue, Yasue; Fujie, Miho; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hoson, Takayuki

    The Resist Wall space experiment aims to examine the role of the cortical microtubule-plasma membrane-cell wall continuum in plant resistance to the gravitational force, thereby clarifying the mechanism of gravity resistance. For this purpose, we will cultivate Arabidopsis mutants defective in organization of cortical microtubules (tua6 ) or synthesis of membrane sterols (hmg1 ) as well as the wild type under microgravity and 1 g conditions in the European Modular Cultivation System on the International Space Station up to reproductive stage, and compare phenotypes on growth and development. We will also analyze cell wall properties and gene expression levels using collected materials. However, the amounts of materials collected will be severely limited, and we should develop an efficient procedure for this space experiment. In the present study, we examined the possibility of analyzing various parameters successively using the identical material. On orbit, plant materials will be fixed with RNAlater solution, kept at 4° C for several days and then frozen in a freezer at -20° C. We first examined whether the cell wall extensibility of inflorescence stems can be measured after RNAlater fixation. The gradient of the cell wall extensibility along inflorescence stems was detected in RNAlater-fixed materials as in methanol-killed ones. The sufficient amounts of RNA to analyze the gene expression were also obtained from the materials after measurement of the cell wall extensibility. Furthermore, the levels and composition of cell wall polysaccharides could be measured using the materials after extraction of RNA. These results show that we can analyze the physical and chemical properties of the cell wall as well as gene expression using the identical material obtained in the space experiments.

  6. Operation of dry-cleaned and agglomerated precompaction system (DAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Shigemi; Okanishi, Kazuya; Kikuchi, Akio; Yamamura, Yuichi

    1997-12-31

    In order to reduce the manufacturing cost of coke, it is necessary to reduce mainly (1) the material cost and (2) operating cost. Both of these costs can be reduced by lowering the moisture of charging coal. Because dust generation increases with decreasing moisture of charging coal, however, the lower limit of charging coal moisture in the existing coke-oven equipment was about 5%, which yielded good results in coal moisture control (CMC) equipment. Nippon Steel has furthered the development of techniques for lowering the moisture of charging coal as far as possible in the existing coke ovens and has recently succeeded in developing a dry-cleaned and agglomerated precompaction system (DAPS) and incorporating this system in commercial production equipment. In this system, a coal preparation process is undertaken that involves separating coal fines, which cause dust generation, from dried charging coal and agglomerating them. The equipment incorporating this system was installed in the No. 3 and No. 4 coke batteries at Oita Works and brought into full-scale operation in September 1992. The equipment has since been operating smoothly.

  7. [A network of oncologists develop procedures for outpatient chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Jubé, Claire

    2012-04-01

    In 2007, a network of health professionals in Loire-Atlantique put in place procedures for administering chemotherapy treatment at home in which the nurse plays a central role, in particular concerning coordination.

  8. CEL Working procedures for WRAP 2A formulation development test

    SciTech Connect

    Duchsherer, M.J.

    1994-08-02

    The WRAP 2A facility will encapsulate retrieved, stored, and newly generated contact-handled mixed low level waste (MLLW) into 55-500 gal cementitous forms. Standardized test procedures will be required to facilitate this process. Cementitous specimens will be prepared from simulated drum wastes and will be tested in the Chemical Engineering Laboratory using the laboratory operating/working procedures encorporated into this document.

  9. Chemiluminescence in the Agglomeration of Metal Clusters

    PubMed

    König; Rabin; Schulze; Ertl

    1996-11-22

    The agglomeration of copper or silver atoms in a matrix of noble gas atoms to form small clusters may be accompanied by the emission of visible light. Spectral analysis reveals the intermediate formation of electronically excited atoms and dimers as the source of the chemiluminescence. A mechanism is proposed, according to which the gain in binding energy upon cluster formation may even lead to the ejection of excited fragments as a result of unstable intermediate configurations. A similar concept was introduced in the field of nuclear reactions by Niels Bohr 60 years ago.

  10. Stable nanoparticle aggregates/agglomerates of different sizes and the effect of their size on hemolytic cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zook, Justin M; Maccuspie, Robert I; Locascio, Laurie E; Halter, Melissa D; Elliott, John T

    2011-12-01

    To study the toxicity of nanoparticles under relevant conditions, it is critical to disperse nanoparticles reproducibly in different agglomeration states in aqueous solutions compatible with cell-based assays. Here, we disperse gold, silver, cerium oxide, and positively-charged polystyrene nanoparticles in cell culture media, using the timing between mixing steps to control agglomerate size in otherwise identical media. These protein-stabilized dispersions are generally stable for at least two days, with mean agglomerate sizes of ∼23 nm silver nanoparticles ranging from 43-1400 nm and average relative standard deviations of less than 10%. Mixing rate, timing between mixing steps and nanoparticle concentration are shown to be critical for achieving reproducible dispersions. We characterize the size distributions of agglomerated nanoparticles by further developing dynamic light scattering theory and diffusion limited colloidal aggregation theory. These theories frequently affect the estimated size by a factor of two or more. Finally, we demonstrate the importance of controlling agglomeration by showing that large agglomerates of silver nanoparticles cause significantly less hemolytic toxicity than small agglomerates.

  11. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1997-01-15

    The development of practical technologies for the deep cleaning of coal has been seriously hampered by the problems of carrying out efficient coal/mineral separations at the very fine sizes (often finer than 10 {micro}m) needed to achieve adequate liberation of the mineral matter from the coal matrix. In this investigation a hybrid process--Micro-agglomerate flotation--which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation was studied. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles and to use froth flotation to separate these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units will be relatively large agglomerates (30--50 {micro}m in size) rather than fine coal particles (1--10 {micro}m) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated. There are, however, complications. The process involves at least five phases: two or more solids (coal and mineral), two liquids (oil and water) and one gas (air). It is demonstrated in this study that the process is very sensitive to fluctuations in operating parameters. It is necessary to maintain precise control over the chemistry of the liquid phases as well as the agitation conditions in order to promote selectivity. Both kinetics as well as thermodynamic factors play a critical role in determining overall system response.

  12. Acoustic agglomeration of power plant fly ash: Quarterly technical report, November 5, 1986--February 5, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Reethof, G.

    1987-03-20

    The objective of this project is to complete the investigations on the use of high intensity acoustic energy to agglomerate micron and submicron sized particulates in fly ash aerosols in order to provide the necessary scientific knowledge and design criteria for the specification of technically and economically viable intermediate flue gas treatment of coal fired power plants. The results of the project are to provide technical and economic information for the better development and evaluation of potential fine particulate control systems. The goals of the proposed work are to further the understanding of certain fundamental processes by means of theoretical and experimental investigations, to include this knowledge in an advanced computerized model of the agglomeration processes. Tests with the two acoustic agglomerators available in Penn State's new High Intensity Acoustics Laboratory will be used to verify the results from the agglomeration simulation. Research work will continue on high power, high efficiency sirens with special emphasis on the nonlinear acoustic phenomena and novel means of significantly increasing siren efficiency. A study will be carried out to evaluate the economics of conventional coal fired power plant clean-up systems using acoustic agglomerators as intermediate flue gas treatment.

  13. Thermal conductivity and particle agglomeration in alumina nanofluids: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeeva, Elena V.; Gavrilov, Alexei N.; McCloskey, James M.; Tolmachev, Yuriy V.; Sprunt, Samuel; Lopatina, Lena M.; Selinger, Jonathan V.

    2007-12-01

    In recent years many experimentalists have reported an anomalously enhanced thermal conductivity in liquid suspensions of nanoparticles. Despite the importance of this effect for heat transfer applications, no agreement has emerged about the mechanism of this phenomenon, or even about the experimentally observed magnitude of the enhancement. To address these issues, this paper presents a combined experimental and theoretical study of heat conduction and particle agglomeration in nanofluids. On the experimental side, nanofluids of alumina particles in water and ethylene glycol are characterized using thermal conductivity measurements, viscosity measurements, dynamic light scattering, and other techniques. The results show that the particles are agglomerated, with an agglomeration state that evolves in time. The data also show that the thermal conductivity enhancement is within the range predicted by effective medium theory. On the theoretical side, a model is developed for heat conduction through a fluid containing nanoparticles and agglomerates of various geometries. The calculations show that elongated and dendritic structures are more efficient in enhancing the thermal conductivity than compact spherical structures of the same volume fraction, and that surface (Kapitza) resistance is the major factor resulting in the lower than effective medium conductivities measured in our experiments. Together, these results imply that the geometry, agglomeration state, and surface resistance of nanoparticles are the main variables controlling thermal conductivity enhancement in nanofluids.

  14. Apparatus and method for compacting, degassing and carbonizing carbonaceous agglomerates

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore, F.W.

    1980-08-19

    An apparatus for compacting, degassing and carbonizing carbonaceous agglomerates is described. The apparatus comprises a rotary kiln having an agglomerate inlet means for introducing green agglomerates into the kiln near the inlet of the kiln and a heating medium inlet for introducing a heating medium comprising a finely divided solid into the kiln at a preselected location intermediate the inlet end of the kiln and the outlet end of the kiln to produce a mixture at a temperature above the carbonizing temperature of the agglomerates and a sieve positioned to receive the products from the rotary kiln and separate the heating medium and the compacted, degassed, carbonized agglomerate product. A method for producing compacted, degassed, carbonized carbonaceous agglomerates by the use of the apparatus is also disclosed.

  15. Multifrequency scanning probe microscopy study of nanodiamond agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravind, Vasudeva; Lippold, Stephen; Li, Qian; Strelcov, Evgheny; Okatan, Baris; Legum, Benjamin; Kalinin, Sergei; Clarion University Team; Oak Ridge National Laboratory Team

    Due to their rich surface chemistry and excellent mechanical properties and non-toxic nature, nanodiamond particles have found applications such as biomedicine, tribology and lubrication, targeted drug delivery systems, tissue scaffolds and surgical implants. Although single nanodiamond particles have diameters about 4-5nm, they tend to form agglomerates. While these agglomerates can be useful for some purposes, many applications of nanodiamonds require single particle, disaggregated nanodiamonds. This work is oriented towards studying forces and interactions that contribute to agglomeration in nanodiamonds. In this work, using multifrequency scanning probe microscopy techniques, we show that agglomerate sizes can vary between 50-100nm in raw nanodiamonds. Extremeties of particles and Interfaces between agglomerates show dissipative forces with scanning probe microscope tip, indicating agglomerates could act as points of increased adhesion, thus reducing lubricating efficiency when nanodiamonds are used as lubricant additives. This research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  16. Developing operating procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, A.A.; Miner, G.L.; Grahn, K.F.; Pollard, C.G.

    1993-10-01

    This document is intended to assist persons who are developing operating and emergency procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It provides 25 procedures that are considered to be relatively independent of the characteristics of a disposal facility site, the facility design, and operations at the facility. These generic procedures should form a good starting point for final procedures on their subjects for the disposal facility. In addition, this document provides 55 annotated outlines of other procedures that are common to disposal facilities. The annotated outlines are meant as checklists to assist the developer of new procedures.

  17. The impact of agglomeration and storage on flavor and flavor stability of whey protein concentrate 80% and whey protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Wright, B J; Zevchak, S E; Wright, J M; Drake, M A

    2009-01-01

    The impact of agglomeration on flavor and flavor stability of whey protein concentrates 80% (WPC80) and whey protein isolates (WPI) has not been widely addressed. This study examined the impact of agglomeration on the flavor and flavor stability of commercial WPC80 and WPI across 18 mo of storage. Duplicate agglomerated and nonagglomerated WPC80 and WPI were collected from 4 facilities and stored at 21 degrees C, 50% relative humidity. Volatile analysis using solid phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and descriptive sensory analysis were conducted every 2 mo. Solubility index, bulk volume, dispersibility, moisture, and color (L, a, b) were tested every 3 or 6 mo. Consumer acceptance testing with protein beverages was conducted with fresh and stored whey proteins. Higher intensities and more rapid development of lipid oxidation flavors (cardboard, raisin/brothy, cucumber, and fatty) were noted in agglomerated powders compared to nonagglomerated powders (P < 0.05). Volatile analysis results confirmed sensory results, which indicated increased formation of aldehydes and ketones in agglomerated products compared to nonagglomerated powders (P < 0.05). Consumer acceptance scores for protein beverages were lower for beverages made with agglomerated WPC80 stored for 12 mo and agglomerated or nonagglomerated WPI stored for 18 mo compared to fresh products while trained panelists detected differences among beverages and rehydrated proteins earlier. Agglomeration with or without lecithin decreased the storage stability of whey proteins. These results indicate that the optimum shelf life at 21 degrees C for nonagglomerated whey proteins is 12 to 15 mo and 8 to 12 mo for agglomerated whey proteins.

  18. Method for producing ceramic particles and agglomerates

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Gleiman, Seth S.; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2001-01-01

    A method for generating spherical and irregularly shaped dense particles of ceramic oxides having a controlled particle size and particle size distribution. An aerosol containing precursor particles of oxide ceramics is directed into a plasma. As the particles flow through the hot zone of the plasma, they melt, collide, and join to form larger particles. If these larger particles remain in the hot zone, they continue melting and acquire a spherical shape that is retained after they exit the hot zone, cool down, and solidify. If they exit the hot zone before melting completely, their irregular shape persists and agglomerates are produced. The size and size distribution of the dense product particles can be controlled by adjusting several parameters, the most important in the case of powder precursors appears to be the density of powder in the aerosol stream that enters the plasma hot zone. This suggests that particle collision rate is responsible for determining ultimate size of the resulting sphere or agglomerate. Other parameters, particularly the gas flow rates and the microwave power, are also adjusted to control the particle size distribution.

  19. Directional Agglomeration Multigrid Techniques for High-Reynolds Number Viscous Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri J.

    1998-01-01

    A preconditioned directional-implicit agglomeration algorithm is developed for solving two- and three-dimensional viscous flows on highly anisotropic unstructured meshes of mixed-element types. The multigrid smoother consists of a pre-conditioned point- or line-implicit solver which operates on lines constructed in the unstructured mesh using a weighted graph algorithm. Directional coarsening or agglomeration is achieved using a similar weighted graph algorithm. A tight coupling of the line construction and directional agglomeration algorithms enables the use of aggressive coarsening ratios in the multigrid algorithm, which in turn reduces the cost of a multigrid cycle. Convergence rates which are independent of the degree of grid stretching are demonstrated in both two and three dimensions. Further improvement of the three-dimensional convergence rates through a GMRES technique is also demonstrated.

  20. Effect of whey protein agglomeration on spray dried microcapsules containing Saccharomyces boulardii.

    PubMed

    Duongthingoc, Diep; George, Paul; Katopo, Lita; Gorczyca, Elizabeth; Kasapis, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    This work investigates the effect of whey protein agglomeration on the survivability of Saccharomyces boulardii within spray dried microcapsules. It attempts to go beyond phenomenological observations by establishing a relationship between physicochemical characteristics of the polymeric matrix and its effect on probiotic endurance upon spray drying. It is well known that this type of thermal shock has lethal consequences on the yeast cells. To avoid such undesirable outcome, we take advantage of the early agglomeration phenomenon observed for whey protein by adjusting the pH value of preparations close to isoelectric point (pH 4-5). During the subsequent process of spray drying, development of whey protein agglomerates induces formation of an early crust, and the protein in this molten globular state creates a cohesive network encapsulating the yeast cells. It appears that the early crust formation at a given sample pH and temperature regime during spray drying benefits the survivability of S. boulardii within microcapsules.

  1. Method for recovering light hydrocarbons from coal agglomerates

    DOEpatents

    Huettenhain, Horst; Benz, August D.; Getsoian, John

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing light hydrocarbons, such as heptane, from coal agglomerates includes an enclosed chamber having a substantially horizontal perforate surface therein. The coal agglomerates are introduced into a water bath within the chamber. The agglomerates are advanced over the surface while steam is substantially continuously introduced through the surface into the water bath. Steam heats the water and causes volatilization of the light hydrocarbons, which may be collected from the overhead of the chamber. The resulting agglomerates may be collected at the opposite end from the surface and subjected to final draining processes prior to transportation or use.

  2. Modeling of crushed ore agglomeration for heap leach operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhawan, Nikhil

    The focus of this dissertation is modeling of the evolution of size distribution in batch agglomeration drum. There has been no successful work on modeling of crushed ore agglomeration although the framework for population balance modeling of pelletization and granulation is readily available. In this study three different batch agglomeration drums were used to study the agglomeration kinetics of copper, gold and nickel ores. The agglomerate size distribution is inherently subject to random fluctuation due the very nature of the process. Yet, with careful experimentation and size analysis the evolution of size distribution can be followed. The population balance model employing the random coalesce model with a constant rate kernel was shown to work well in a micro and lab scale agglomerator experiments. In small drums agglomerates begin to break in a short time, whereas the growth is uniform in the lab scale drum. The experimental agglomerate size distributions exhibit self-preserving size spectra which confirms the applicability of coalescence rate based model. The same spectra became a useful fact for predicting the size distribution with an empirical model. Since moisture is a principal variable, the absolute deviation from optimum moisture was used as the primary variable in the empirical model. Having established a model for the size distribution, the next step was to delve into the internal constituents of each agglomerate size class. To this end, an experimental scheme known as dip test was devised. The outcome of the test was the size distribution of progeny particles which make up a given size class of agglomerate. The progeny size distribution was analyzed with a model that partitions the particles into a host and guest category. The ensuing partition coefficient is a valuable in determining how a particle in a size class participates in larger agglomerates. This dissertation lays out the fundamentals for applying the population balance concept to batch

  3. Two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating incinerator. Technology spotlight report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating incinerator combines and improves upon the fluidized-bed, agglomeration/ incineration-technology and the cyclonic-combustion technology developed at Institute of Gas Technolgy (IGT) over many years. The result is a unique and extremely flexible incinerator for solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes. The system can operate over a wide range of conditions and has a destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) greater than 99.99%. Solid inorganic contaminants are contained within aglassy matrix, rendering them benign and suitable for disposal in an ordinary landfill.

  4. Recent Developments in Assessment Procedures in England and Wales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harvey; Nuttall, Desmond

    Focusing on technical issues, this paper critiques proposed changes in assessment procedures at the further educational level (ages 16 through 18) in England and Wales. Major structural changes are taking place at this educational level, partly because of large scale youth unemployment. The two current examination systems for the final year of…

  5. Multiservice Procedures for Joint Theater Missile Target Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    Distribution is in accordance with MCPDS . ii d. Navy. The Navy will incorporate these procedures in US Navy training and doctrinal publications...collaboration manager (JDISS) MCPDS Marine Corps Publication Distribution System MIIDB Military Intelligence Integrated Data Base MILSTRIP military standard

  6. Procedure developed for reporting fast-neutron exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossin, A. D.

    1968-01-01

    Procedure for reporting fast-neutron exposure involves determination of the spectrum shape and absolute magnitude, selection of an energy weighting for the neutrons, and definition of a unit for reporting exposure. Using this method, comparisons of irradiation data from different reactors will be free from errors resulting from differences between the spectra.

  7. Development of Career Motivational Prediction and Selection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culclasure, David F.

    The report constitutes a comprehensive review of the literature related to career motivation and selection procedures. It surveyed the reported techniques for measuring career motivation and interest which were used by 24 industrial firms, 14 personnel and management consulting organizations, 8 marketing research firms, and various governmental…

  8. Processing of PZT ceramics: aqueous mixing procedures for powder consolidation

    SciTech Connect

    Bunker, B.C.; Lamppa, D.L.; Moore, R.H.

    1986-02-01

    Inhomogeneities in chemical compositions and microstructures can result in lot-to-lot variations in the charge release characteristics of ferroelectric lead-zirconate-titanate ceramics. One source of inhomogeneity is agglomeration and selective sedimentation which occurs during aqueous mixing of the constituent oxides. Procedures using electrostatic and steric stabilization of oxide powders were developed for fabricating homogeneous powder compacts. Use of lead carbonate instead of lead oxide minimizes problems encountered using various slurry stabilization techniques.

  9. Development of electrical test procedures for qualification of spacecraft against EID. Volume 2: Review and specification of test procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkenfeld, J. M.; Harlacher, B. L.; Mathews, D.

    1982-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical program to develop system electrical test procedures for the qualification of spacecraft against damage produced by space-electron-induced discharges (EID) occurring on spacecraft dielectric outer surfaces is described. A review and critical evaluation of possible approaches to qualify spacecraft against space electron-induced discharges (EID) is presented. A variety of possible schemes to simulate EID electromagnetic effects produced in spacecraft was studied. These techniques form the principal element of a provisional, recommended set of test procedures for the EID qualification spacecraft. Significant gaps in our knowledge about EID which impact the final specification of an electrical test to qualify spacecraft against EID are also identified.

  10. Developing a Procedures Manual for Using the Innovacq 100 System Effectively and Efficiently.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubberley, Carol

    The installation of an automated acquisitions system, the Innovacq 100, demanded a review and revision of procedures in the Acquisitions Department of the University of Central Florida Library. This practicum report describes the process involved in developing the new procedures. Prior to installation, the old departmental procedures manual and…

  11. Development of use of an Operational Procedure Information System (OPIS) for future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Illmer, N.; Mies, L.; Schoen, A.; Jain, A.

    1994-01-01

    A MS-Windows based electronic procedure system, called OPIS (Operational Procedure Information System), was developed. The system consists of two parts, the editor, for 'writing' the procedure and the notepad application, for the usage of the procedures by the crew during training and flight. The system is based on standardized, structured procedure format and language. It allows the embedding of sketches, photos, animated graphics and video sequences and the access to off-nominal procedures by linkage to an appropriate database. The system facilitates the work with procedures of different degrees of detail, depending on the training status of the crew. The development of a 'language module' for the automatic translation of the procedures, for example into Russian, is planned.

  12. Novel endovascular procedures and new developments in aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S W K

    2016-09-01

    Endovascular repair has evolved to become a viable mainstream treatment for aortic pathology in both acute and elective settings. As technology advanced, traditional anatomical barriers were progressively tackled using new devices and novel procedures, and there are now multiple options available to the vascular surgeon. In the abdominal aorta, advances in endovascular aneurysm repair have been in the treatment of hostile aortic necks using new sealing concepts and ancillary procedures, and in branch preservation using fenestrations and snorkels. Access challenges have been met with a percutaneous approach and low-profile devices, and standard protocols have improved mortality for ruptured aneurysms. In the thoracic aorta, more invasive hybrid procedures have given way gradually to branched endografts. Particular challenges to the anaesthetist include blood pressure control and the prevention of stroke and paraplegia. Current focus in the thoracic aorta is in treating aortic arch pathology and in optimal management of acute and chronic dissections. This review describes the latest trends in the endovascular treatment of aortic diseases and examines the current evidence for different modalities of management.

  13. Development of a new field-test procedure for cocaine.

    PubMed

    Tsujikawa, Kenji; Iwata, Yuko T; Segawa, Hiroki; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Kuwayama, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    The Scott test, widely used as the field test for cocaine, is performed in three steps. If a sample contains cocaine, blue precipitates appear in step 1, the precipitates are dissolved and the solution turns pink in step 2, and the lower layer turns blue in step 3. However, some pyrrolidine-type cathinones produce cocaine-like results when tested, necessitating modification of the test procedure. Filtration of the second-step mixture weakened the blue color in step 3; however, the blue color did not completely disappear. Adding the Chen-Kao reagent to the test procedure enhanced the differentiation: when the reagent was added to cocaine, the solution was initially turbid, but then became clear over time; its addition to cathinones resulted in turquoise or light sky-blue precipitation. These results indicated that the Chen-Kao test was useful for exclusion of cathinones. A combination of the modified Scott test and the Chen-Kao test was successfully applied to the forensic samples containing cocaine or pyrrolidine-type cathinones. In conclusion, a combination of these tests will be the useful field-test procedure for cocaine.

  14. Characterization of size, surface charge, and agglomeration state of nanoparticle dispersions for toxicological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingkun; Oberdörster, Günter; Biswas, Pratim

    2009-01-01

    Characterizing the state of nanoparticles (such as size, surface charge, and degree of agglomeration) in aqueous suspensions and understanding the parameters that affect this state are imperative for toxicity investigations. In this study, the role of important factors such as solution ionic strength, pH, and particle surface chemistry that control nanoparticle dispersion was examined. The size and zeta potential of four TiO2 and three quantum dot samples dispersed in different solutions (including one physiological medium) were characterized. For 15 nm TiO2 dispersions, the increase of ionic strength from 0.001 M to 0.1 M led to a 50-fold increase in the hydrodynamic diameter, and the variation of pH resulted in significant change of particle surface charge and the hydrodynamic size. It was shown that both adsorbing multiply charged ions (e.g., pyrophosphate ions) onto the TiO2 nanoparticle surface and coating quantum dot nanocrystals with polymers (e.g., polyethylene glycol) suppressed agglomeration and stabilized the dispersions. DLVO theory was used to qualitatively understand nanoparticle dispersion stability. A methodology using different ultrasonication techniques (bath and probe) was developed to distinguish agglomerates from aggregates (strong bonds), and to estimate the extent of particle agglomeration. Probe ultrasonication performed better than bath ultrasonication in dispersing TiO2 agglomerates when the stabilizing agent sodium pyrophosphate was used. Commercially available Degussa P25 and in-house synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles were used to demonstrate identification of aggregated and agglomerated samples.

  15. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1995-07-01

    The development, of practical technologies for the deep cleaning of coal has been seriously hampered by the problems of carrying out efficient coal/mineral separations at the very fine sizes (often finer than 10 mm) needed to achieve adequate liberation of the mineral matter from the coal matrix. In froth flotation, selectivity is substantially reduced at fine sizes due, primarily, to overloading of the froth phase which leads to excessive carryover of water and entrained mineral matter. Oil agglomeration, on the other hand, can provide good selectivity at low levels of oil addition but the agglomerates tend to be too fragile for separation by the screening methods normally used. This project is concerned with a hydrid process, micro-agglomerate flotation, which is a combination of oil agglomeration and froth flotation.

  16. Pulse combusted acoustic agglomeration apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Mansour, Momtaz N.; Chandran, Ravi

    1994-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for removal of particulates entrained in a gas stream are provided. The removal process employs a pulse combustor to provide an acoustic pressure wave to acoustically enhance agglomeration of particulates which may be collected and removed using a conventional separation apparatus. The apparatus may be employed as a direct fired system for improved operation of gas-operated equipment such as a gas turbine, or may, alternatively, be employed as an add-on subsystem for combustion exhaust clean-up. Additionally, added particulates may include a sorbent for effecting sorption of other contaminants such as sulfur. Various other particulates for contaminant removal may also be introduced into the system as exemplified by alkali-gettering agents.

  17. Pulse combusted acoustic agglomeration apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Mansour, Momtaz N.

    1993-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for removal of particulates entrained in a gas stream are provided. The removal process employs a pulse combustor to provide an acoustic pressure wave to acoustically enhance bimodal agglomeration of particulates which may be collected and removed using a conventional separation apparatus. A particulate having a size different from the size of the particulate in the gas stream to be cleaned is introduced into the system to effectuate the bimodal process. The apparatus may be employed as a direct fired system for improved operation of gas-operated equipment such as a gas turbine, or may, alternatively, be employed as an add-on subsystem for combustion exhaust clean-up. Additionally, the added particulate may be a sorbent for effecting sorption of other contaminants such as sulfur. Various other particulates for contaminant removal may also be introduced into the system as exemplified by alkali-gettering agents.

  18. Soot agglomeration in isolated, free droplet combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, M. Y.; Dryer, F. L.; Green, G. J.; Sangiovanni, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Under the conditions of an isolated, free droplet experiment, hollow, carbonaceous structures, called soot spheres, were observed to form during the atmospheric pressure, low Reynolds number combustion of 1-methylnaphthalene. These structures which are agglomerates composed of smaller spheroidal units result from both thermophoretic effects induced by the envelope flame surrounding each drop and aerodynamic effects caused by changes in the relative gas/drop velocities. A chemically reacting flow model was used to analyze the process of sootshell formation during microgravity droplet combustion. The time-dependent temperature and gas property field surrounding the droplet was determined, and the soot cloud location for microgravity combustion of n-heptane droplets was predicted. Experiments showed that the sooting propensity of n-alkane fuel droplets can be varied through diluent substitution, oxygen-index variations, and ambient pressure reductions.

  19. Development of a Rational Design Procedure for Overland Flow Systems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    precipitation and evaporation. TSS is 40 minutes. Since BOD removal is the limiting The land area calculated by this procedure is parameter, the design is based...0.078 (50) volume of 667,750 m3 which includes 567,750 m3 (0.04)1/3 60 for storing wastewater and 100,000 m3 for storing precipitation during winter...loading rate. For example, it the precipitation minus evaporation volume from would be reasonable to assume that the designer the holding pond is 0.15

  20. A guide to developing a laser standard operating procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K.

    1996-10-01

    The American National Standard Institute standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers calls for the preparation of a standard operating procedure (SOP) with the use of class 3b and class 4 lasers. However, the ANSI Z 136.1 standard does not recommend or suggest a format for the SOP. The goal of this article is to outline, explain and suggest an SOP format that could be applied by a laser safety officer to a varied number of situations and laser uses.

  1. Informed consent procedures: responsibilities of researchers in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, S; Salazar, G; Tijero, M; Diaz, S

    2001-10-01

    We describe the informed consent procedures in a research clinic in Santiago, Chile, and a qualitative study that evaluated these procedures. The recruitment process involves information, counseling and screening of volunteers, and three or four visits to the clinic. The study explored the decision-making process of women participating in contraceptive trials through 36 interviews. Women understood the research as experimentation or progress. The decision to participate was facilitated by the information provided; time to consider it and to discuss it with partners or relatives; and perceived benefits such as quality of care, non-cost provision of methods and medical care. For some women, participation was an opportunity to express altruism. The main obstacles for participation were perceived side effects or risks. The final risk-benefit balance was strongly influenced by women's needs. Women perceived that the consent form benefited the clinic, proving that participants had made a free decision, and benefited the volunteers by warranting their right to free medical care. The most important problem detected was occasional misunderstanding of the information given on the form. We concluded that a full decision-making process enhances women's ability to exercise their right to choose, and assures research institutions that trials are conducted without coercion and that the participants are committed to the study. Researchers have the responsibility of conducting this process.

  2. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Smeenk, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which lead to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion of coal and to relate these reactions to specific causes. A survey of agglomeration and deposit formation in industrial fluidized bed combustors (FBCs) indicate that at least five boilers were experiencing some form of bed material agglomeration. Deposit formation was reported at nine sites with deposits most commonly at coal feed locations and in cyclones. Other deposit locations included side walls and return loops. Three general types of mineralogic reactions were observed to occur in the agglomerates and deposits. Although alkalies may play a role with some {open_quotes}high alkali{close_quotes} lignites, we found agglomeration was initiated due to fluxing reactions between iron (II) from pyrites and aluminosilicates from clays. This is indicated by the high amounts of iron, silica, and alumina in the agglomerates and the mineralogy of the agglomerates. Agglomeration likely originated in the dense phase of the FBC bed within the volatile plume which forms when coal is introduced to the boiler. Secondary mineral reactions appear to occur after the agglomerates have formed and tend to strengthen the agglomerates. When calcium is present in high amounts, most of the minerals in the resulting deposits are in the melilite group (gehlenite, melilite, and akermanite) and pyroxene group (diopside and augite). During these solid-phase reactions, the temperature of formation of the melilite minerals can be lowered by a reduction of the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (Diopside + Calcite {r_arrow}Akermanite).

  3. Development of Policies, Institutions and Procedures for Water Reuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demouche, L.; Pfiefer, J.; Hanson, A.; Skaggs, R.

    2009-12-01

    In the arid, water scarce region of New Mexico and West Texas there is growing interest in the potential for water reuse to extend existing supplies and mitigate drought shortage impacts. There are no new sources of water in New Mexico, except reclaimed water. Communities and individuals are uncertain about and have many unanswered questions about polices, institutions involved (agencies), legal and regulatory requirements, and procedures governing water reuse. Issues to be addressed by this project include: the legal ability to reuse water, ownership of water rights, downstream or third party impacts, regulatory and procedural requirements, water quality concerns, state and local agency involvement, and cost effectiveness of water reuse compared to alternative sources. Presently, there is very little implementation or directives in New Mexico policy that addresses reuse, reclamation, or recycled water. The only regulations pertaining to reuse is New Mexico Environmental Department currently allows the use of reclaimed domestic wastewater for irrigation of golf courses and green spaces, which is listed in the Policy for the Above Ground Use of Reclaimed Domestic Wastewater (NMED, 2003). This document identifies the various reclaimed quality classifications that are required for specific applications and the permits required for application. This document does not identify or address policy applications on the distribution, ownership, or trading of reclaimed water. Even though reclaimed water reuse projects are currently being implemented in many cities in the U.S., mainly for commercial and municipal irrigation (golf courses and green space), its potential has not yet been exploited. A policy analysis matrix (PAM) is being designed to identify and examine the policy framework and consequences of non-policy implementation for decision makers and interest groups and assist them in understanding the consequences of policy actions and project outcomes if no laws or

  4. Intensive drying and the related microstructure features in agglomerate spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudlyk, Rostyslav

    Most metal ore concentrates are fine particulates with a wide particle-size distribution. Industrially they are pelletized by tumbling in balling discs or drums into spheres, an operation which requires the addition of typically up to 10% by weight of water. Further processing of these agglomerates involves first drying and then induration by heating up to 1250°C. The main objective of this thesis was the study of the interrelationship between the microstructure of the agglomerates with, on the one hand, the mechanical and physical properties of the pellets and their behaviour during intensive drying, on the other. The previously developed model of the drying process identified the loss of capillarity, resulting from the vapour lock, to be a critical component of the mechanism of intense as opposed to 'classical' drying. It was shown that the absence of the constant-rate drying period is a natural consequence of this effect. Several significant shortcomings of the previous model have been identified. This model treats the period of transition between surface- and shrinking-core drying as an instantaneous event. The new extended model, which overcomes the original model limitations, was developed in this project. In its formalism, the new model includes the pore-size distribution and thus simulates a gradual surface/shrinking-core transition. It was shown that the nature of the transition between the surface- and shrinking-core drying regimes during intensive drying is fundamentally different from that of classical drying, i.e. carried out at mild temperatures. In the latter case, liquid is being delivered to the surface through the network of interconnected small pores reaching the surface. The transition occurs when the larger pores, also reaching the surface, are being drained. On the other hand, under intense-drying conditions, the rate-limiting factor is the vapour lock. The latter phenomenon will occur in the smaller pores first, as they have smaller liquid

  5. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1995-04-01

    The development of practical technologies for the deep cleaning of coal has been seriously hampered by the problems of carrying out efficient coal/mineral separations at the very fine sizes (often finer than 10 mm) needed to achieve adequate liberation of the mineral matter from the coal matrix. In froth flotation, selectivity is substantially reduced at fine sizes due, primarily, to overloading of the froth phase which leads to excessive carryover of water and entrained mineral matter. Oil agglomeration, on the other hand, can provide good selectivity at low levels of oil addition but the agglomerates tend to be too fragile for separation by the screening methods normally used. The addition of larger amounts of oil can yield large, strong agglomerates which are easily separated but the selectivity is reduced and reagent costs can become excessive. We are investigating the use of a hybrid process - Micro-agglomerate flotation which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles, and to use froth flotation to extract these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units are agglomerates (about 30-50 mm in size) rather than individual coal particles (1-10 mm) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated. There are, however, complications. The process involves at least five phases: two or more solids (coal and mineral), two liquids (oil and water) and one gas (air). It is necessary to maintain precise control over the chemistry of the liquid phases in order to promote the interfacial reactions and interactions between phases necessary to ensure selectivity. Kinetics as well as thermodynamic factors may be critical in determining overall system response.

  6. Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Quarterly report, January 1996--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    A major concern with the utilization of coal in directly fired gas turbines is the control of particulate emissions and reduction of sulfur dioxide, and alkali vapor from combustion of coal, upstream of the gas turbine. Much research and development has been sponsored on methods for particulate emissions control and the direct injection of calcium-based sorbents to reduce SO{sub 2} emission levels. The results of this research and development indicate that both acoustic agglomeration of particulates and direct injection of sorbents have the potential to become a significant emissions control strategy. The Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture program focuses upon the application of an MTCI proprietary invention (Patent No. 5,197,399) for simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration of the combustor effluent. This application can be adapted as either a {open_quotes}hot flue gas cleanup{close_quotes} subsystem for the current concepts for combustor islands or as an alternative primary pulse combustor island in which stagging, sulfur capture, particulate agglomeration and control, and alkali gettering as well as NO{sub x} control processes become an integral part of the pulse combustion process.

  7. Prediction of Agglomeration, Fouling, and Corrosion Tendency of Fuels in CFB Co-Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barišć, Vesna; Zabetta, Edgardo Coda; Sarkki, Juha

    Prediction of agglomeration, fouling, and corrosion tendency of fuels is essential to the design of any CFB boiler. During the years, tools have been successfully developed at Foster Wheeler to help with such predictions for the most commercial fuels. However, changes in fuel market and the ever-growing demand for co-combustion capabilities pose a continuous need for development. This paper presents results from recently upgraded models used at Foster Wheeler to predict agglomeration, fouling, and corrosion tendency of a variety of fuels and mixtures. The models, subject of this paper, are semi-empirical computer tools that combine the theoretical basics of agglomeration/fouling/corrosion phenomena with empirical correlations. Correlations are derived from Foster Wheeler's experience in fluidized beds, including nearly 10,000 fuel samples and over 1,000 tests in about 150 CFB units. In these models, fuels are evaluated based on their classification, their chemical and physical properties by standard analyses (proximate, ultimate, fuel ash composition, etc.;.) alongside with Foster Wheeler own characterization methods. Mixtures are then evaluated taking into account the component fuels. This paper presents the predictive capabilities of the agglomeration/fouling/corrosion probability models for selected fuels and mixtures fired in full-scale. The selected fuels include coals and different types of biomass. The models are capable to predict the behavior of most fuels and mixtures, but also offer possibilities for further improvements.

  8. The self-preserving size distribution theory. I. Effects of the Knudsen number on aerosol agglomerate growth.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Petrus J; Friedlander, Sheldon K

    2002-04-15

    Gas-phase synthesis of fine solid particles leads to fractal-like structures whose transport and light scattering properties differ from those of their spherical counterparts. Self-preserving size distribution theory provides a useful methodology for analyzing the asymptotic behavior of such systems. Apparent inconsistencies in previous treatments of the self-preserving size distributions in the free molecule regime are resolved. Integro-differential equations for fractal-like particles in the continuum and near continuum regimes are derived and used to calculate the self-preserving and quasi-self-preserving size distributions for agglomerates formed by Brownian coagulation. The results for the limiting case (the continuum regime) were compared with the results of other authors. For these cases the finite difference method was in good in agreement with previous calculations in the continuum regime. A new analysis of aerosol agglomeration for the entire Knudsen number range was developed and compared with a monodisperse model; Higher agglomeration rates were found for lower fractal dimensions, as expected from previous studies. Effects of fractal dimension, pressure, volume loading and temperature on agglomerate growth were investigated. The agglomeration rate can be reduced by decreasing volumetric loading or by increasing the pressure. In laminar flow, an increase in pressure can be used to control particle growth and polydispersity. For D(f)=2, an increase in pressure from 1 to 4 bar reduces the collision radius by about 30%. Varying the temperature has a much smaller effect on agglomerate coagulation.

  9. Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    A major concern with the utilization of coal in directly fired gas turbines is the control of particulate emissions and reduction of sulfur dioxide, and alkali vapor from combustion of coal, upstream of the gas turbine. Much research and development has been sponsored on methods for particulate emissions control and the direct injection of calcium-based sorbents to reduce SO{sub 2} emission levels. The results of this research and development indicate that both acoustic agglomeration of particulates and direct injection of sorbents have the potential to become a significant emissions control strategy. The Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture program focuses upon the application of an MTCI proprietary invention (Patent No. 5,197,399) for simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration of the combustor effluent. This application can be adapted as either a {open_quotes}hot flue gas cleanup{close_quotes} subsystem for the current concepts for combustor islands or as an alternative primary pulse combustor island in which slagging, sulfur capture, particulate agglomeration and control, and alkali gettering as well as NO{sub x} control processes become an integral part of the pulse combustion process. The goal of the program is to support the DOE mission in developing coal-fired combustion gas turbines. In particular, the MTCI proprietary process for bimodal ash agglomeration and simultaneous sulfur capture will be evaluated and developed. The technology embodiment of the invention provides for the use of standard grind, moderately beneficiated coal and WEM for firing the gas turbine with efficient sulfur capture and particulate emission control upstream of the turbine. The process also accommodates injection of alkali gettering material if necessary. The proposed technology provides for practical, reliable, and capital (and O&M) cost-effective means of protection for the gas turbine from impurities in the coal combustor effluent.

  10. Operational source receptor calculations for large agglomerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauss, Michael; Shamsudheen, Semeena V.; Valdebenito, Alvaro; Pommier, Matthieu; Schulz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    For Air quality policy an important question is how much of the air pollution within an urbanized region can be attributed to local sources and how much of it is imported through long-range transport. This is critical information for a correct assessment of the effectiveness of potential emission measures. The ratio between indigenous and long-range transported air pollution for a given region depends on its geographic location, the size of its area, the strength and spatial distribution of emission sources, the time of the year, but also - very strongly - on the current meteorological conditions, which change from day to day and thus make it important to provide such calculations in near-real-time to support short-term legislation. Similarly, long-term analysis over longer periods (e.g. one year), or of specific air quality episodes in the past, can help to scientifically underpin multi-regional agreements and long-term legislation. Within the European MACC projects (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and the transition to the operational CAMS service (Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service) the computationally efficient EMEP MSC-W air quality model has been applied with detailed emission data, comprehensive calculations of chemistry and microphysics, driven by high quality meteorological forecast data (up to 96-hour forecasts), to provide source-receptor calculations on a regular basis in forecast mode. In its current state, the product allows the user to choose among different regions and regulatory pollutants (e.g. ozone and PM) to assess the effectiveness of fictive emission reductions in air pollutant emissions that are implemented immediately, either within the agglomeration or outside. The effects are visualized as bar charts, showing resulting changes in air pollution levels within the agglomeration as a function of time (hourly resolution, 0 to 4 days into the future). The bar charts not only allow assessing the effects of emission

  11. The Development of Procedural Knowledge in Adults Engaged in a Tractor-Trailer Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Nelson

    1994-01-01

    Studied development of procedural knowledge in 14 adults, aged 18 to 35 years, engaged in a novel task using a toy tractor-trailer rig. Results revealed three phases of development in subjects' knowledge of steering procedures and the rig's movement patterns, and their use of feedback information. Subjects also manifested different levels of…

  12. Suggestions and Procedures for Developing Teaching-Learning Stations. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendren, Travis E.; Bryant, C. Douglas

    This booklet is a collection of outlines for various teaching-learning stations which were developed by 21 teachers during a three-week institute held in 1972 at Barnardsville, North Carolina. The purposes for such stations, which can be developed inexpensively by students and teachers on school property, are: (1) to create outdoor and…

  13. Developments in the diagnostic procedures for von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    De Jong, A; Eikenboom, J

    2016-03-01

    Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder but its diagnosis can be challenging due to the heterogeneity of the disease. VWD is mainly associated with mild mucocutaneous bleeding, although there are more severe phenotypes with bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract or even the joints. Also, surgical interventions and trauma may lead to critical bleeding events. These bleeding episodes are all related to quantitative or qualitative defects of von Willebrand factor (VWF), a multimeric glycoprotein produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, which mediates platelet adhesion and aggregation and binds factor VIII (FVIII) in the circulation. This review describes the diagnostic procedures required for correct diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis and classification is required for proper treatment and counseling. Assessment of bleeding starts with the medical history. After a positive bleeding or family history, subsequent laboratory investigations will start with a panel of standard screening tests for hemostatic defects. Patients suspected of having VWD will be tested for plasma VWF antigen levels, the ability of VWF to bind platelets and FVIII activity. When VWD is confirmed, a set of subtyping tests can classify the patients as VWD types 1, 2 (A, B, M or N) or 3. The performance of some additional assays and analyses, such as VWF propeptide measurement or genetic analysis, may help in identifying the pathological mechanism behind certain defects or can guide in the choice of treatment.

  14. Preliminary characterization of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process

    SciTech Connect

    Drzymala, J.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1996-12-31

    The agglomeration of aqueous suspensions of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal particles with i-octane was studied by employing a scale model mixing system which measured both agitator speed and torque. The progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque and was confirmed by examining samples of the suspension with an optical microscope. When a suspension containing 30 w/w% solids was degassed and then conditioned with 20 v/w% i-octane (20 ml i-octane/100 g coal), no agglomeration took place until a small amount of air (e.g., 9 v/w%) was introduced. Subsequent changes in agitator torque indicated that the ensuing process of agglomeration was complex and consisted of several stages involving various interactions between coal particles, oil drops, and gas bubbles. The time required to produce spherical agglomerates was determined for different experimental conditions by conducting a number of agglomeration tests involving different mixing tank sizes and different impeller sizes and speeds. The results indicate that agglomeration time decreases with increasing power input per unit volume and increasing gas concentration.

  15. Crystal growth and agglomeration of calcium sulfite hemihydrate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, C.Y.; Chen, P.C.

    1995-04-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes are most commonly utilized to remove sulfur dioxide from stack gases of coal- or oil-fired plants. In the simple slurry technology, SO{sub 2} is absorbed by a slurry of lime/limestone to form calcium sulfite crystals of acicular habit and its strong agglomeration, requiring large clarifiers and filters to dewater the sludge to make an acceptable landfill. Crystal growth and agglomeration of calcium sulfite hemihydrate crystals from solution were studied by reacting Ca(OH){sub 2} with NaHSO{sub 3} in a pH-stat semibatch crystallizer. Single platelet crystals and agglomerates of platelet crystals were produced in the pH range from 5.80 to 6.80. The crystallization mechanism changed from primary nucleation to crystal growth in the progressive precipitation. Using the titration curves, the growth rate was calculated from the titration rate at the final stage of operation. The crystal growth rates of calcium sulfate hemihydrate crystals were found to obey the parabolic rate law in the low supersaturation range. Another point to be noted is that the precipitates of calcium sulfite hemihydrate in agitated suspensions have a tendency to form agglomerates. It was found that the degree of agglomeration is a weak function of relative supersaturation and magma density, while the pH value is a key factor that affects the degree of agglomeration. Addition of EDTA also has an effect on the agglomeration of calcium sulfite hemihydrates.

  16. Pilot plant testing of IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Rehmat, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Richardson, T.L.

    1993-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting a multi-year experimental program to develop and test, through pilot-scale operation, IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor (AGGCOM). The AGGCOM process is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration and gasification technology with the cyclonic combustion technology, both of which have been developed at IGT over many years. AGGCOM is a unique and extremely flexible combustor that can operate over a wide range of conditions in the fluidized-bed first stage from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration), including gasification of high-energy-content wastes. The ACCCOM combustor can easily and efficiently destroy solid, liquid, and gaseous organic wastes, while isolating solid inorganic contaminants within an essentially non-leachable glassy matrix, suitable for disposal in ordinary landfills. Fines elutriated from the first stage are captured by a high-efficiency cyclone and returned to the fluidized bed for ultimate incorporation into the agglomerates. Intense mixing in the second-stage cyclonic combustor ensures high destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) for organic compounds that may be present in the feed material. This paper presents an overview of the experimental development of the AGGCOM process and progress made to date in designing, constructing, and operating the 6-ton/day AGGCOM pilot plant. Results of the bench-scale tests conducted to determine the operating conditions necessary to agglomerate a soil were presented at the 1991 Incineration Conference. On-site construction of the AGGCOM pilot plant was initiated in August 1992 and completed at the end of March 1993, with shakedown testing following immediately thereafter. The initial tests in the AGGCOM pilot plant will focus on the integrated operation of both stages of the combustor and will be conducted with ``clean`` topsoil.

  17. APPLICATION OF SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE CONCEPTS AND PROCEDURES TO ENVIORNMENTAL RESEARCH INVOLVING SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    As EPA’s environmental research expands into new areas that involve the development of software, quality assurance concepts and procedures that were originally developed for environmental data collection may not be appropriate. Fortunately, software quality assurance is a ...

  18. Interservice Procedures for Instructional Systems Development. Phase 1. Analyze

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    must find out about the job in order to develop adequate training are: 1. 𔃾hat kinds of people will be doing this job? How many will be doing the job...completed?) 7. To what standard of proficiency must each task be performed? Requirements for trained people originate from a number of sources- 1...Measures (JPM) will be developed to determine whether someone is capable of doing the job. This step may require inputs from some of the same people who

  19. Physical properties of soils in Rostov agglomeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbov, S. N.; Bezuglova, O. S.; Abrosimov, K. N.; Skvortsova, E. B.; Tagiverdiev, S. S.; Morozov, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    Physical properties of natural and anthropogenically transformed soils of Rostov agglomeration were examined. The data obtained by conventional methods and new approaches to the study of soil physical properties (in particular, tomographic study of soil monoliths) were used for comparing the soils of different functional zones of the urban area. For urban territories in the steppe zone, a comparison of humus-accumulative horizons (A, Asod, Ap, and buried [A] horizons) made it possible to trace tendencies of changes in surface soils under different anthropogenic impacts and in the buried and sealed soils. The microtomographic study demonstrated differences in the bulk density and aggregation of urban soils from different functional zones. The A horizon in the forest-park zone is characterized by good aggregation and high porosity, whereas buried humus-accumulative horizons of anthropogenically transformed soils are characterized by poor aggregation and low porosity. The traditional parameters of soil structure and texture also proved to be informative for the identification of urban pedogenesis.

  20. Gravitational Agglomeration of Post-HCDA LMFBR Nonspherical Aerosols.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    AD-AIO6 766 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH F/B 13/7 GRAVITATIONAL AGGLOMERATION OF POST- HCDA LMF8R NONSPHFRICAL AER--ETC(U) DEC 80 R...OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED i Gravitational Agglomeration of Post- HCDA TfIfM/DISSERTATION LMFBR Nonspherical Aerosols . ________O____O______________ S...it to: AFIT/NR Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433 RESEARCH TITLE: Gravitational Agglomeration of Post- HCDA LMFBR Nonspherical Aerosols AUTHOR: Ronald

  1. A discrete element and ray framework for rapid simulation of acoustical dispersion of microscale particulate agglomerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohdi, T. I.

    2016-03-01

    In industry, particle-laden fluids, such as particle-functionalized inks, are constructed by adding fine-scale particles to a liquid solution, in order to achieve desired overall properties in both liquid and (cured) solid states. However, oftentimes undesirable particulate agglomerations arise due to some form of mutual-attraction stemming from near-field forces, stray electrostatic charges, process ionization and mechanical adhesion. For proper operation of industrial processes involving particle-laden fluids, it is important to carefully breakup and disperse these agglomerations. One approach is to target high-frequency acoustical pressure-pulses to breakup such agglomerations. The objective of this paper is to develop a computational model and corresponding solution algorithm to enable rapid simulation of the effect of acoustical pulses on an agglomeration composed of a collection of discrete particles. Because of the complex agglomeration microstructure, containing gaps and interfaces, this type of system is extremely difficult to mesh and simulate using continuum-based methods, such as the finite difference time domain or the finite element method. Accordingly, a computationally-amenable discrete element/discrete ray model is developed which captures the primary physical events in this process, such as the reflection and absorption of acoustical energy, and the induced forces on the particulate microstructure. The approach utilizes a staggered, iterative solution scheme to calculate the power transfer from the acoustical pulse to the particles and the subsequent changes (breakup) of the pulse due to the particles. Three-dimensional examples are provided to illustrate the approach.

  2. 32 CFR 202.7 - Developing operating procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and co-chair length of service, (j) Review of public comments and responses, (k) Participation of the general public, (l) Keeping the public informed about proceedings of the RAB, (m) Discussing the agenda... announcements, (c) Attendance requirements of members at meetings, (d) Development, approval and...

  3. Developing a Procedure for Accountability of Student Absenteeism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernan, James L.

    Educators must take into account the changing social, cultural, and economic trends contributing to high absenteeism and dropout rates. No curriculum can succeed if students are not in attendance to learn, develop, and advance in society. This paper evaluates the researcher's computerized system to track student attendance and prevent unexcused…

  4. Meteoroid/Orbital Debris Shield Engineering Development Practice and Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwitter, James G.; Adams, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    A document describes a series of models created for the determination of the probability of survival of critical spacecraft components from particle strike damage caused by hypervelocity impact of meteoroids and/or orbital debris. These models were integrated with both shield design and hypervelocity impact testing to develop adequate protection of said components to meet mission survivability requirements.

  5. Image 100 procedures manual development: Applications system library definition and Image 100 software definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr.; Decell, H. P., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An outline for an Image 100 procedures manual for Earth Resources Program image analysis was developed which sets forth guidelines that provide a basis for the preparation and updating of an Image 100 Procedures Manual. The scope of the outline was limited to definition of general features of a procedures manual together with special features of an interactive system. Computer programs were identified which should be implemented as part of an applications oriented library for the system.

  6. Computer-Based Procedures for Field Workers in Nuclear Power Plants: Development of a Model of Procedure Usage and Identification of Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Katya Le Blanc; Johanna Oxstrand

    2012-04-01

    The nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease the human error rate, especially the human errors associated with procedure use. As a step toward the goal of improving procedure use performance, researchers, together with the nuclear industry, have been looking at replacing the current paper-based procedures with computer-based procedure systems. The concept of computer-based procedures is not new by any means; however most research has focused on procedures used in the main control room. Procedures reviewed in these efforts are mainly emergency operating procedures and normal operating procedures. Based on lessons learned for these previous efforts we are now exploring a more unknown application for computer based procedures - field procedures, i.e. procedures used by nuclear equipment operators and maintenance technicians. The Idaho National Laboratory and participants from the U.S. commercial nuclear industry are collaborating in an applied research effort with the objective of developing requirements and specifications for a computer-based procedure system to be used by field workers. The goal is to identify the types of human errors that can be mitigated by using computer-based procedures and how to best design the computer-based procedures to do so. This paper describes the development of a Model of Procedure Use and the qualitative study on which the model is based. The study was conducted in collaboration with four nuclear utilities and five research institutes. During the qualitative study and the model development requirements and for computer-based procedures were identified.

  7. National Economic Development Procedures Manual - Agricultural Flood Damage,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    the data used in developing these composite indices can be found in the Survey of Current Business . Since benefits accrue over a long period of time...related subjects in its AGRICOLA data base. Entries in this data base can be accessed using - the Information Retrieval Service available to Corps offices...review and interviews with farmers and other agricultural-related business persons. The functions were derived from investment costs, profits, and

  8. Development of analytical procedures for coprocessing. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.P.; Green, J.B.; Vogh, J.W.

    1991-07-01

    One phase of improving understanding of the fundamental chemistry of coprocessing involves development of the ability to distinguish between products originating from coal versus those originating from petroleum resid. A primary objective of this project was to develop analytical techniques to determine the source (coal versus resid) of the various compound types found in coprocessing products. A corollary objective was to develop an expanded knowledge of the detailed composition of coprocessing products. Two approaches were evaluated for distinguishing between products originating from coal and those originating from petroleum resid. One was based on the use of carbon isotope ratios and the other was based on variations in compound classes in response to changes in the ratio of coal to resid in the coprocessing feed. Other researchers using carbon isotope ratios to determine the origin of products have typically examined distillation fractions. This project involved determination of the origin of chemical classes (e.g., saturates, neutral aromatics, phenols, indoles, etc.) rather than distillate classes. Maya resid and Illinois No. 6 coal (with coal feed varying from 2 to 40 percent) were coprocessed in a batch autoclave to obtain products for detailed analysis.

  9. Development of a Sampling Collection Device with Diagnostic Procedures.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jhih-Yan; Feng, Mow-Jung; Wu, Chia-Chi; Wang, Jane; Chang, Ting-Chang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-08-02

    Cervicovaginal fluid plays an important role in the detection of many female genital diseases, but the lack of suitable collection devices in the market severely challenges test success rate. Appropriate clinical sampling devices for cervicovaginal fluid collection would help physicians detect diseases and disease states more rapidly, efficiently, and accurately. The objective of this study was to develop a readily usable sampling collection device that would eliminate macromolecular interference and accurately provide specimens for further studies. This study was designed to develop an effective device to collect cervicovaginal fluid from women with symptoms of endometrial lesions, women appearing in the clinic for a routine Papanicolaou smear, and/or women seeking a routine gynecologic checkup. Paper-based assay, ELISA, and qNano were used to provide accurate diagnoses. A total of 103 patients successfully used the developed device to collect cervicovaginal fluid. Some of the collected specimens were used to detect glycogen, lactate, and pH for determining pathogen infection. Other specimen samples were tested for the presence of female genital cancer by comparing interleukin 6 concentration and microvesicle concentration. We proposed a noninvasive screening test for the diagnosis of female genital diseases using a dual-material collection device. The outer, nonwoven fabric portion of this device was designed to filter macromolecules, and the inner cotton portion was designed to absorb cervicovaginal fluid.

  10. Leukocyte Agglomeration Reaction in Diagnosis of Allergy Reactions from Antibiotics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    tested in a clinic on 80 patients with serious allergic anamnesis . The results of the studies indicate that the leukocyte agglomeration reaction is a highly sensitive immunological indicator of hypersensitivity to antibiotics.

  11. Development of AM 1.5 global measurement procedures and international cell measurement round robin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the capability for measurement under global irradiance spectral distribution is reported. The airmass 1.5 global measurement procedure is given. Also given is the procedure and justification for using the large area pulsed solar simulator (LAPSS). The status of the international round robin of reference cell measurements managed by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) is described.

  12. Quality-control standard operating procedures-an essential tool for developing quality preparations.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Lisa D

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining quality in compounded preparations must be a top priority of top management, and it must involve all pharmacy employees. Pharmacy compounding requires the development and maintenance of standard operating procedures to ensure quality and minimize compounding errors. Standard operating procedures are detailed instructions initiated by the pharmacist-in-charge or the quality control officer for the purpose of assuring the reliable, consistent performance of routine tasks involved in formulation development, purchasing, compounding, testing, maintenance, materials handling, quality assurance, and dispensing. Maintaining written standard operation procedures is an important step in assuring that a phamacy has developed a quality compounding practice that meets and/or exceeds United States Pharmacopeial standards.

  13. In-Situ Agglomeration and De-agglomeration by Milling of Nano-Engineered Lubricant Particulate Composites for Cold Spray Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neshastehriz, M.; Smid, I.; Segall, A. E.

    2014-10-01

    Nano-engineered self-lubricating particles comprised of hexagonal-boron-nitride powder (hBN) encapsulated in nickel have been developed for cold spray coating of aluminum components. The nickel encapsulant consists of several nano-sized layers, which are deposited on the hBN particles by electroless plating. In the cold spray deposition, the nickel becomes the matrix in which hBN acts as the lubricant. The coating demonstrated a very promising performance by reducing the coefficient of friction by almost 50% and increasing the wear resistance more than tenfold. The coatings also exhibited higher bond strength, which was directly related to the hardenability of the particles. During the encapsulation process, the hBN particles agglomerate and form large clusters. De-agglomeration has been studied through low- and high-energy ball milling to create more uniform and consistent particle sizes and to improve the cold spray deposition efficiency. The unmilled and milled particles were characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, BET, and hardness tests. It was found that in low-energy ball milling, the clusters were compacted to a noticeable extent. However, the high-energy ball milling resulted in breakup of agglomerations and destroyed the nickel encapsulant.

  14. Development of toxicant identification procedures for whole sediment toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, D.R.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Besser, J.M.; Ankley, G.T.; Norberg-King, T.J.; West, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    To effectively assess and manage contaminated sediments, identifying the specific contaminants responsible for sediment toxicity is highly desirable. Though effective toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods are well established for water column toxicity, new TIE methodologies are needed that address the special characteristics of whole sediment toxicity tests. Much of the effort to date has focused on the assessment of ammonia toxicity. Whereas pH manipulation is a key tool used to characterize ammonia toxicity in water column TIE, control of pH in interstitial water is much more challenging. Direct addition of hard acid has shown undesirable side effects (e.g., liberation and oxidation of iron), while CO{sub 2}-enrichment is limited in penetration of fine-grained sediments. Biological buffers (MES and POPSO) incorporated into the sediment are effective at altering interstitial pH without causing direct toxicity to Chironomus tentans, Lumbriculus variegatus, and to a lesser extent Hyalella azteca, but the range of pH control achieved has been small ({+-} 0.5 units). Introduction of aquatic plants reduces ammonia concentrations in the water column, but may not provide sufficient control of interstitial water. To date, the most promising results have been achieved using zeolite; adding zeolite to sediment produces moderate reductions in interstitial ammonia concentrations and is non-toxic to the organisms referenced above. Attempts to induce microbial removal of ammonia have been unsuccessful thus far. This presentation will review these and other sediment TIE methods currently under development in laboratories.

  15. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1993-04-01

    We are investigating the use of a hybrid process, Micro-agglomerate flotation, which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles, and to use froth flotation to extract these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units are agglomerates (about 30--50 [mu]m in size) rather than individual coal particles (1--10 [mu]m) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated.Micro-agglomerate flotation has considerable potential for the practical deep cleaning of coal on a commercial scale. In principle, it should be possible to achieve both high selectivity and high yield at reasonable cost. The process requires only conventional, off-the-shelf equipment and reagent usage (oil, surfactants, etc.) should be small. There are, however, complications. The process involves at least five phases: two or more solids (coal and mineral), two liquids (oil and water) and one gas (air). It is necessary to maintain precise control over the chemistry of the liquid phases in order to promote the interfacial reactions and interactions between phases necessary to ensure selectivity. Kinetics as well as thermodynamic factors may be critical in determining overall system response.

  16. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1993-01-01

    We are investigating the use of a hybrid process - Micro-agglomerate flotation - which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles, and to use froth flotation to extract these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units are agglomerates (about 30--50 [mu]m in size) rather than individual coal particles (1--10 [mu]m) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated. Micro-agglomerate flotation has considerable potential for the practical deep cleaning of coal on a commercial scale. In principle, it should be possible to achieve both high selectivity and high yield at reasonable cost. The process requires only conventional, off-the-shelf equipment and reagent usage (oil, surfactants, etc.) should be small. There are, however, complications. The process involves at least five phases: two or more solids (coal and mineral), two liquids (oil and water) and one gas (air). It is necessary to maintain precise control over the chemistry of the liquid phases in order to promote the interfacial reactions and interactions between phases necessary to ensure selectivity. Kinetics as well as thermodynamic factors may be critical in determining overall system response.

  17. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.; Potas, Todd A.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Musich, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-decrepitating, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  18. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.; Potas, T.A.; DeWall, R.A.; Musich, M.A.

    1992-11-10

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-degradable, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  19. Evaluation of water security: an integrated approach applied in Wuhan urban agglomeration, China.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dongguo; Yang, Fengshun; Xiao, Chun; Tan, Xuezhi

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate water security, the Water Resources Sustainability Evaluation Model has been developed. The model employs four criteria (economic development, flood control security, water supply security, and water environment security) and has 22 indicators, integrating them using their relative weights. The model is applied to evaluate the water security of Wuhan urban agglomeration, China. The values of the indicators are normalized using the exponential efficacy functions based on the law of diminishing marginal utility. The evaluation results show that, overall, the state of water security in Wuhan urban agglomeration is good, which is in good agreement with the true situation. The comparison between the results of the model and other three evaluation methods by the Spearman coefficient of rank correlation verifies the science and reliability of the developed model. Consequently, it is concluded that the model can be an effective tool for evaluating the states of water security and provide a basis on which to create policies for improving inadequacies in water security.

  20. Development of a standard operating procedure for the collection of pyrethroids in water and sediment matrices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Through a Regional Applied Research Effort grant to the United States Geological Survey, Region 9 collaborated with ORD on this project to develop a standard operating procedure for collection of water and sediment samples for pyrethroid analysis.

  1. Gravitational agglomeration of post-HCDA LMFBR nonspherical aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, R. F.

    1980-12-01

    A theoretical investigation of collisional dynamics of two particle interactions in a gravitational field is reported. This research is unique in that it is the first attempt at modeling the hydrodynamic interactions between a nonspherical particle and a spherical particle undergoing gravitational collisions in an LMFBR environment. Basic definitions and expressions are developed for nonspherical particles and related to spherical particles by means of shape factors. Using volume equivalent diameter as the defining length in the gravitational collision kernel, the aerodynamic shape factor, k, the density correction factor, alpha, and the gravitational collision shape factor, beta, are used to correct the collision kernel for the case of collisions between aerosol agglomerates. The Navier-Stokes equation in oblate spheroidal coordinates is solved to model a nonspherical particle and then the dynamic equations for two particle motions are developed. A computer program NGCEFF is constructed, the Navier-Stokes equation is solved by the finite difference method, and the dynamical equations are solved by Gear's method. It is concluded that the aerosol gravitational collision shape factor can be determined by further theoretical work based on the concepts and methods developed in this dissertation.

  2. Dynamics of nanoparticle agglomeration in a magnetic fluid in a varying magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usanov, D. A.; Postel'ga, A. E.; Bochkova, T. S.; Gavrilin, V. N.

    2016-03-01

    It is found that the dependence of the magnetic nanoparticle agglomerate length in a magnetic fluid on the applied magnetic field has three characteristic segments: a substantial increase in the agglomerate length with the magnetic field in the range of weak fields, a segment with an insignificant increase in the average length of agglomerates upon an increase in the field, and a sharp increase in the agglomerate length with a further increase in the field. It is shown that the agglomerate length increases in the range of strong magnetic fields due to a decrease in the spacing between adjacent agglomerates down to their complete coalescence. The total number of agglomerates decreases thereby.

  3. POC-SCALE TESTING OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT FOR FINE COAL PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from July 01, 1997 to September 30, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental procedures and test data for recovery of fine coal from coal fines streams generated at a commercial coal preparation plant are described. Two coal fines streams, namely Sieve Bend Effluent and Cyclone Overflow were investigated. The test results showed that ash was reduced by more than 50% at combustible matter recovery levels exceeding 95%.

  4. Determination of Carbonyl Compounds in Cork Agglomerates by GDME-HPLC-UV: Identification of the Extracted Compounds by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Pedro Francisco; Ramos, Rui Miguel; Almeida, Paulo Joaquim; Rodrigues, José António

    2017-02-08

    A new approach is proposed for the extraction and determination of carbonyl compounds in solid samples, such as wood or cork materials. Cork products are used as building materials due to their singular characteristics; however, little is known about its aldehyde emission potential and content. Sample preparation was done by using a gas-diffusion microextraction (GDME) device for the direct extraction of volatile aldehydes and derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Analytical determination of the extracts was done by HPLC-UV, with detection at 360 nm. The developed methodology proved to be a reliable tool for aldehyde determination in cork agglomerate samples with suitable method features. Mass spectrometry studies were performed for each sample, which enabled the identification, in the extracts, of the derivatization products of a total of 13 aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, furfural, propanal, 5-methylfurfural, butanal, benzaldehyde, pentanal, hexanal, trans-2-heptenal, heptanal, octanal, and trans-2-nonenal) and 4 ketones (3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetone, cyclohexanone, and acetophenone). This new analytical methodology simultaneously proved to be consistent for the identification and determination of aldehydes in cork agglomerates and a very simple and straightforward procedure.

  5. Developing a standardized test procedure for hybrid vehicles: The challenge of the SAE HEV task force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penney, Terry; Christensen, David; Poulos, Stephen

    1994-11-01

    In 1992, the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) established a task force to develop a procedure for measuring electric energy consumption, all-electric range, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions for hybrid vehicles; the procedure will be submitted to regulatory agencies as representing the automotive industry's recommendations. The draft procedure is currently being tested on hybrid vehicles. The University of Maryland's parallel hybrid was tested in September 1994, and the University of California-Davis' parallel hybrid and the University of Illinois' series hybrid will be tested in November 1994 and January 1995, respectively. The procedure is being modified to incorporate any lessons learned, and the task force hopes to recommend the final procedure to the SAE by mid 1995.

  6. Physical simulation of precipitation of radioactive element oxalates by using the harmless neodymium oxalate for studying the agglomeration phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalleman, Sophie; Bertrand, Murielle; Plasari, Edouard

    2012-03-01

    Oxalic precipitation is usually applied in nuclear industry to process radioactive wastes or to recover actinides from a multicomponent solution. This paper deals with the development of methods adapted to a nuclear environment in order to study the agglomeration phenomena during actinide oxalic precipitation. These methods are previously setup with harmless elements that simulate the actinide behaviour: the lanthanides. A parametric study is carried out to quantify the influence of operating parameters on the agglomeration kernel and to determine a kinetic law for this mechanism. The experimental study is performed in a continuous-MSMPR precipitator at steady-state. The method is based on the resolution of two population balances using the moment approach, one for elementary crystals and the other for agglomerates. Provided that the kinetic rates of nucleation and growth are known, the agglomeration kernel can be obtained from a mathematical treatment of the experimental particle size distributions. Results point out that experimental crystal sizes are consistent with an independent kernel. It appears that the agglomeration kernel is directly proportional to supersaturation, increases with temperature but is limited by ionic strength and shear rate.

  7. Gas-diffusion microextraction coupled with spectrophotometry for the determination of formaldehyde in cork agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Pedro F; Ramos, Rui M; Valente, Inês M; Almeida, Paulo J; Carro, Antonia M; Lorenzo, Rosa A; Rodrigues, José A

    2017-04-01

    In this work, a simple methodology was developed for the extraction and determination of free formaldehyde content in cork agglomerate samples. For the first time, gas-diffusion microextraction was used for the extraction of volatile formaldehyde directly from samples, with simultaneous derivatization with acetylacetone (Hantzsch reaction). The absorbance of the coloured solution was read in a spectrophotometer at 412 nm. Different extraction parameters were studied and optimized (extraction temperature, sample mass, volume of acceptor solution, extraction time and concentration of derivatization reagent) by means of an asymmetric screening. The developed methodology proved to be a reliable tool for the determination of formaldehyde in cork agglomerates with the following suitable method features: low LOD (0.14 mg kg(-1)) and LOQ (0.47 mg kg(-1)), r (2) = 0.9994, and intraday and interday precision of 3.5 and 4.9%, respectively. The developed methodology was applied to the determination of formaldehyde in different cork agglomerate samples, and contents between 1.9 and 9.4 mg kg(-1) were found. Furthermore, formaldehyde was also determined by the standard method EN 717-3 for comparison purposes; no significant differences between the results of both methods were observed. Graphical abstract Representation of the GDME system and its main components.

  8. A Critical Study of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Agglomerated multigrid techniques used in unstructured-grid methods are studied critically for a model problem representative of laminar diffusion in the incompressible limit. The studied target-grid discretizations and discretizations used on agglomerated grids are typical of current node-centered formulations. Agglomerated multigrid convergence rates are presented using a range of two- and three-dimensional randomly perturbed unstructured grids for simple geometries with isotropic and stretched grids. Two agglomeration techniques are used within an overall topology-preserving agglomeration framework. The results show that multigrid with an inconsistent coarse-grid scheme using only the edge terms (also referred to in the literature as a thin-layer formulation) provides considerable speedup over single-grid methods but its convergence deteriorates on finer grids. Multigrid with a Galerkin coarse-grid discretization using piecewise-constant prolongation and a heuristic correction factor is slower and also grid-dependent. In contrast, grid-independent convergence rates are demonstrated for multigrid with consistent coarse-grid discretizations. Convergence rates of multigrid cycles are verified with quantitative analysis methods in which parts of the two-grid cycle are replaced by their idealized counterparts.

  9. A Critical Study of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, James L.; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Agglomerated multigrid techniques used in unstructured-grid methods are studied critically for a model problem representative of laminar diffusion in the incompressible limit. The studied target-grid discretizations and discretizations used on agglomerated grids are typical of current node-centered formulations. Agglomerated multigrid convergence rates are presented using a range of two- and three-dimensional randomly perturbed unstructured grids for simple geometries with isotropic and highly stretched grids. Two agglomeration techniques are used within an overall topology-preserving agglomeration framework. The results show that multigrid with an inconsistent coarse-grid scheme using only the edge terms (also referred to in the literature as a thin-layer formulation) provides considerable speedup over single-grid methods but its convergence deteriorates on finer grids. Multigrid with a Galerkin coarse-grid discretization using piecewise-constant prolongation and a heuristic correction factor is slower and also grid-dependent. In contrast, grid-independent convergence rates are demonstrated for multigrid with consistent coarse-grid discretizations. Actual cycle results are verified using quantitative analysis methods in which parts of the cycle are replaced by their idealized counterparts.

  10. From analogue to apps--developing an app to prepare children for medical imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gigi; Greene, Siobhan

    2015-01-01

    The Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) in Melbourne has launched a world-first app for children that will help reduce anxiety and the need for anesthesia during medical imaging procedures. The free, game-based app, "Okee in Medical Imaging", helps children aged from four to eight years to prepare for all medical imaging procedures--X-ray, CT, MRI, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, and fluoroscopy. The app is designed to reduce anticipatory fear of imaging procedures, while helping to ensure that children attend imaging appointments equipped with the skills required for efficient and effective scans to be performed. This paper describes how the app was developed.

  11. Solar collector test procedures: Development of a method to refer measured efficiencies to standardized test conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, W. C.

    1984-02-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for referring collector efficiency measurements, obtained under different test conditions, to a common, or standard set of conditions. The procedure applies to flatplate liquid-type collectors of conventional tube-in-sheet design. The basic Hottel-Whillier-Bliss theory is used with appropriate extensions to account for serpentine flow configurations and glazing materials with high infrared transmittance. The procedure includes a systematic method for deriving two invariant collector parameters directly from ASHRAE Standard 93-77 test results. The two parameters selected are the plate absorptance and back loss coefficient. A set of standard conditions is recommended which corresponds to favorable test conditions.

  12. Assessment of Traffic Noise on Highway Passing from Urban Agglomeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Kori, Chandan; Kumar, Manoj; Chakrabarti, T.; Gupta, Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Assessment of traffic noise pollution in developing countries is complex due to heterogeneity in traffic conditions like traffic volume, road width, honking, etc. To analyze the impact of such variables, a research study was carried out on a national highway passing from an urban agglomeration. Traffic volume and noise levels (L10, Lmin, Lmax, Leq and L90) were measured during morning and evening peak hours. Contribution of noise by individual vehicle was estimated using passenger car noise unit. Extent of noise pollution and impact of noisy vehicles were estimated using noise pollution level and traffic noise index, respectively. Noise levels were observed to be above the prescribed Indian and International standards. As per audio spectrum analysis of traffic noise, honking contributed an additional 3-4 dB(A) noise. Based on data analysis, a positive relationship was observed between noise levels and honking while negative correlation was observed between noise levels and road width. The study suggests that proper monitoring and analysis of traffic data is required for better planning of noise abatement measures.

  13. 29 CFR 1956.23 - Procedures for certification of completion of development and determination on application of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PLANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for certification of completion of development... Approval Procedures § 1956.23 Procedures for certification of completion of development and...

  14. Development experience with a simple expert system demonstrator for pilot emergency procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannorman, M.; Mackall, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Expert system techniques, a major application area of artificial intelligence (AI), are examined in the development of pilot associate to handle aircraft emergency procedures. The term pilot associate is used to describe research involving expert systems that can assist the pilot in the cockpit. The development of expert systems for the electrical system and flight control system emergency procedures are discussed. A simple, high-level expert system provides the means to choose which knowledge domain is needed. The expert systems were developed on a low-cost, FORTH-based package, using a personal computer.

  15. A Rational Analysis of Uniformity Risk for Agglomerated Drug Substance Using NIR Chemical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Scherholz, Megerle L; Wan, Boyong; McGeorge, Gary

    2017-02-01

    Early risk detection and quick diagnosis of manufacturing challenges are necessary to support the accelerated development pace of drug product in the current competitive environment. Analytical tools, such as near-infrared (NIR) chemical imaging (CI), can be employed for alerting drug substance uniformity risks in intermediates and the final product of solid dosage forms. In this particular study, the ability to characterize the behavior of agglomerated drug substance throughout process development was enabled by NIR CI to identify uniformity risks with small sample sizes and short turnaround time. Using NIR chemical imaging, the drug substance distribution and cluster size in all intermediates were visualized throughout the drug product process. NIR CI enabled rapid identification of the key unit operations that produced the greatest reduction in cluster size for enhanced distribution of the drug substance. The comil acted as a high shear mixing step to disperse soft lumps prior to roller compaction. Shear forces or pressure during roller compaction was sufficient to break down and disperse the agglomerates further. Ultimately, the process was robust against a range of drug substance input properties such that the uniformity of the final blend was consistently achieved and the agglomerated drug substance had no risks to the drug product process.

  16. Effects of crossover hydrogen on platinum dissolution and agglomeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tommy T. H.; Rogers, Erin; Young, Alan P.; Ye, Siyu; Colbow, Vesna; Wessel, Silvia

    2011-10-01

    The durability of catalysts in the polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is identified as a critical limiting factor for wide commercialization of fuel cells. Even though much progress has been made in understanding the degradation mechanisms, the phenomena of Pt dissolution and agglomeration and their contributing factors are not fully understood. In the present investigation, the effects of crossover hydrogen on Pt degradation are studied using an accelerated stress test (AST). The end-of-test (EOT) membrane-electrode-assemblies (MEAs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning-electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The results provided mechanistic understanding of Pt dissolution and agglomeration: Pt growth and agglomeration were found to be less severe with more crossover hydrogen due likely to the chemical reduction of Pt oxides by crossover hydrogen and the subsequently decrease in the amount of Pt ions formed via the oxide pathway.

  17. Hierarchical agglomerates of carbon nanotubes as high-pressure cushions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Qian, Weizhong; Zhang, Qiang; Cao, Anyuan; Li, Zhifei; Zhou, Weiping; Ma, Yang; Wei, Fei

    2008-05-01

    We report the cushioning behavior of highly agglomerated carbon nanotubes. The nanotube agglomerates can be repeatedly compacted to achieve large volume reduction (>50%) and expanded to nearly original volume without structural failure, like a robust porous cushion. At a higher pressure range (10-125 MPa), the energy absorbed per unit volume is 1 order of magnitude higher than conventional cushion materials such as foamy polystyrene. The structure of hierarchical agglomerates can be controlled for tailoring the cushioning properties and obtaining a lower cushioning coefficient (higher energy absorption) over a wide range of pressures (1-100 MPa). The mechanism was studied in terms of morphology evolution of the nanotube aggregates and pore size distribution during compression.

  18. Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.-C.; Tyson, D.; Xiaoping, Qiu; Lessa, A.

    1990-01-01

    Numerous measurements of the heat of immersion of coal were conducting using several different particle size fractions of No. 2 Gas Seam coal from Raleigh County, West Virginia. The heat of immersion was determined in water, methanol, heptane, hexadecane and neohexane (2,2-dimethybutane). A comparison of the results with those determined previously for Illinois No. 6 coal is discussed. A number of potential pyrite depressants for use in oil agglomeration of coal were screened by testing the response of sulfidized mineral pyrite to agglomeration with heptane in the presence of the potential depressant. The following were tested; sodium dithionite, sodium thiosulfate, ferrous sulfate, ferric sulfate, titanous chloride, hydrogen peroxide, Oxone (a form of potassium monopersulfate), pyrogallol, quebracho (colloidal dispersant derived from tree bark), milk whey, and several organic thiols. Ferric chloride was applied to mixtures of Upper Freeport coal and sulfidized mineral pyrite before subjecting the mixtures to agglomeration with heptane. 7 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF PROCEDURES FOR DERIVING TRAINING OBJECTIVES FOR JUNIOR OFFICER JOBS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AMMERMAN, HARRY L.

    A SYSTEMATIC METHOD WAS DEVELOPED TO BE USED BY SERVICE SCHOOL PERSONNEL IN PREPARING JOB-ORIENTED TRAINING OBJECTIVES FOR JUNIOR OFFICERS, PRIMARILY IN THE FORM OF BEHAVIORAL STATEMENTS OF PERFORMANCE EXPECTED AFTER TRAINING. THE PROCEDURES DEVELOPED WERE (1) LISTING ALL TASKS FOR A JOB, (2) SELECTING TASKS FOR SOME FORMAL TRAINING, (3)…

  20. The Physics of Protoplanetesimal Dust Agglomerates. VIII. Microgravity Collisions between Porous SiO_2 Aggregates and Loosely Bound Agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whizin, Akbar D.; Blum, Jürgen; Colwell, Joshua E.

    2017-02-01

    We performed laboratory experiments colliding 0.8–1.0 mm and 1.0–1.6 mm SiO2 dust aggregates with loosely bound centimeter-sized agglomerates of those aggregates in microgravity. This work builds on previous microgravity laboratory experiments examining the collisional properties of porous loosely bound dust aggregates. In centimeter-sized aggregates, surface forces dominate self-gravity and may play a large role in aggregate growth beyond this size range. We characterize the properties of protoplanetary aggregate analogs to help place constraints on initial formation mechanisms and environments. We determined several important physical characteristics of these aggregates in a large number of low-velocity collisions. We observed low coefficients of restitution and fragmentation thresholds near 1 m s‑1 for 1–2 cm agglomerates, which are in good agreement with previous findings in the literature. We find the accretion efficiency for agglomerates of loosely bound aggregates to be higher than that for just aggregates themselves. We find sticking thresholds of 6.6 ± 2 cm s‑1, somewhat higher than those in similar studies, which have observed few aggregates stick at speeds of under 3 cm s‑1. Even with highly dissipative collisions, loosely bound agglomerates have difficulty accreting beyond centimeter-sized bodies at typical collision speeds in the disk. Our results indicate agglomerates of porous aggregates have slightly higher sticking thresholds than previously thought, allowing possible growth to decimeter-sized bodies if velocities are low enough.

  1. Continuous air agglomeration method for high carbon fly ash beneficiation

    DOEpatents

    Gray, McMahon L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Finseth, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carboree mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

  2. Development of interim test methods and procedures for determining the performance of small photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, P.; Kroposki, B.; Hansen, R.; Algra, K.; DeBlasio, R.

    1998-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is developing tests and procedures that will determine if the configuration of a small photovoltaic (PV) system is suitable for its intended use, and if the system will perform as specified. An overview of these procedures is presented in this paper. Development of standard test procedures will allow designers, manufacturers, system integrators, users, and independent laboratories to assess the performance of PV systems under outdoor prevailing conditions. An NREL Technical Report detailing the procedures is under way, and the IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21) has established a project on this subject. The work will be submitted to the IEEE SCC21 and International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Committee 82 (IEC TC82) for consideration as a consensus standard. Certification bodies such as PowerMark and PV Global Approval Program (PVGAP) may adopt the IEC and IEEE documents when testing systems. Developing standardized test methods and procedures at NREL to evaluate the outdoor performance of PV systems will encourage product quality and promote PV standards development. Standardized tests will assure people that PV systems will perform as specified for their intended applications. As confidence in PV systems increases, the successful commercialization of PV will grow internationally.

  3. Development of an efficient procedure for calculating the aerodynamic effects of planform variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, J. E.; Geller, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical procedures to compute gradients in aerodynamic loading due to planform shape changes using panel method codes were studied. Two procedures were investigated: one computed the aerodynamic perturbation directly; the other computed the aerodynamic loading on the perturbed planform and on the base planform and then differenced these values to obtain the perturbation in loading. It is indicated that computing the perturbed values directly can not be done satisfactorily without proper aerodynamic representation of the pressure singularity at the leading edge of a thin wing. For the alternative procedure, a technique was developed which saves most of the time-consuming computations from a panel method calculation for the base planform. Using this procedure the perturbed loading can be calculated in about one-tenth the time of that for the base solution.

  4. Documentation for a Structural Optimization Procedure Developed Using the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Carl J., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a structural optimization procedure developed for use with the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL) finite element analysis system. The procedure is written primarily in the EAL command language. Three external processors which are written in FORTRAN generate equivalent stiffnesses and evaluate stress and local buckling constraints for the sections. Several built-up structural sections were coded into the design procedures. These structural sections were selected for use in aircraft design, but are suitable for other applications. Sensitivity calculations use the semi-analytic method, and an extensive effort has been made to increase the execution speed and reduce the storage requirements. There is also an approximate sensitivity update method included which can significantly reduce computational time. The optimization is performed by an implementation of the MINOS V5.4 linear programming routine in a sequential liner programming procedure.

  5. Development of a turbomachinery design optimization procedure using a multiple-parameter nonlinear perturbation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahara, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to complete the preliminary development of a combined perturbation/optimization procedure and associated computational code for designing optimized blade-to-blade profiles of turbomachinery blades. The overall purpose of the procedures developed is to provide demonstration of a rapid nonlinear perturbation method for minimizing the computational requirements associated with parametric design studies of turbomachinery flows. The method combines the multiple parameter nonlinear perturbation method, successfully developed in previous phases of this study, with the NASA TSONIC blade-to-blade turbomachinery flow solver, and the COPES-CONMIN optimization procedure into a user's code for designing optimized blade-to-blade surface profiles of turbomachinery blades. Results of several design applications and a documented version of the code together with a user's manual are provided.

  6. Spherical agglomerates of pure drug nanoparticles for improved pulmonary delivery in dry powder inhalers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jun; Dong, Yuancai; Pastorin, Giorgia; Ng, Wai Kiong; Tan, Reginald B. H.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to produce micron-sized spherical agglomerates of pure drug nanoparticles to achieve improved aerosol performance in dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Sodium cromoglicate was chosen as the model drug. Pure drug nanoparticles were prepared through a bottom-up particle formation process, liquid antisolvent precipitation, and then rapidly agglomerated into porous spherical microparticles by immediate (on-line) spray drying. Nonporous spherical drug microparticles with similar geometric size distribution were prepared by conventional spray drying of the aqueous drug solution, which together with the mechanically micronized drug particles were used as the control samples. The three samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, density measurement, powder X-ray diffraction, and in vitro aerosol deposition measurement with a multistage liquid impinger. It was found that drug nanoparticles with a diameter of 100 nm were precipitated and agglomerated into highly porous spherical microparticles with a volume median diameter ( D 50 %) of 2.25 ± 0.08 μm and a specific surface area of 158.63 ± 3.27 m2/g. In vitro aerosol deposition studies showed the fine particle fraction of such spherical agglomerates of drug nanoparticles was increased by more than 50 % in comparison with the control samples, demonstrating significant improvements in aerosol performance. The results of this study indicated the potential of the combined particle engineering process of liquid antisolvent precipitation followed by immediate (on-line) spray drying in the development of novel DPI drug products with improved aerosol performance.

  7. Investigations on Agglomeration and Haemocompatibility of Vitamin E TPGS Surface Modified Berberine Chloride Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vuddanda, Parameswara Rao; Rajamanickam, Vijayakumar Mahalingam; Yaspal, Madhu; Singh, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the influence of surface modification on systemic stability of NPs. Vitamin E TPGS (1% w/v) was used for surface modification of berberine chloride nanoparticles. Naked and surface modified NPs were incubated in different SBFs (pH 6.8 and 7.4) with or without bile salts and human plasma. NPs were observed for particle agglomeration and morphology by particle size analyzer and TEM, respectively. The haemocompatibility studies were conducted on developed NPs to evaluate their safety profile. The surface modified NPs were stable compared to naked NPs in different SBFs due to the steric stabilization property of vitamin E TPGS. Particle agglomeration was not seen when NPs were incubated in SBF (pH 6.8) with bile salts. No agglomeration was observed in NPs after their incubation in plasma but particle size of the naked NPs increased due to adhesion of plasma proteins. The TEM images confirmed the particle size results. DSC and FT-IR studies confirmed the coexistence of TPGS in surface modified NPs. The permissible haemolysis, LDH release, and platelet aggregation revealed that NPs were compatible for systemic administration. Thus, the study illustrated that the surface modification is helpful in the maintenance of stability of NPs in systemic conditions. PMID:25162037

  8. Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture. Technical progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The shakedown testing of the system proceeded on schedule. Some of the preliminary results were ambiguous in that they indicated a higher carbon concentration in the baghouse than in the cyclone. Apparently this was due to the use of the baghouse for tests on an integrated coal-fired boiler. This was remedied by installing a separate baghouse for the bimodal agglomeration testing. The testing with coal/dolomite mixture indicated that the sulfur is captured effectively with the present system configuration and that combustion efficiencies were greater than 99 percent. The coal/dolomite test was on-line for approximately 7 hours during which it achieved steady-state operation at 3 atmospheres for about 5 1/2 hours. The agglomeration chamber catch contained agglomerates ranging in size from 1/4 to 3/4 inches. West Virginia University developed some new aerovalve designs including a vortex design for the vitiated air pulse combustor. A set of modifications resulting from the initial shakedown tests were also completed.

  9. Development of a procedure to estimate runoff and sediment transport in ephemeral streams

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    A distributed hydrologic model for application on small, semiarid watersheds is developed. The distributed model incorporates simplified routing schemes to include the influence of transmission losses on runoff. A sediment transport model, by sediment size fractions, is developed to compute transport capacity and sediment yield in noncohesive, alluvial channels. Based on available information published in soils and topographic maps and on channel and bed sediment characteristics, the procedure is used to estimate runoff rates and amounts together with sediment yields from semiarid watersheds. Example applications include flood frequency analysis and sediment yield. The procedure requires a minimum of observed data for calibration and is designed for practical applications.

  10. Universities' Entrepreneurial Performance: The Role of Agglomeration Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping Penny

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the extensive research on universities' entrepreneurship, whether research strength fosters or dampens their entrepreneurial performance remains controversial. Much research claims an influential role of research universities in regional economy, however, little has been said about what a part that the agglomeration economies may play…

  11. Spherical agglomerates of lactose with enhanced mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Lamešić, Dejan; Planinšek, Odon; Lavrič, Zoran; Ilić, Ilija

    2017-01-10

    The aim of this study was to prepare spherical agglomerates of lactose and to evaluate their physicochemical properties, flow properties, particle friability and compaction properties, and to compare them to commercially available types of lactose for direct compression (spray-dried, granulated and anhydrous β-lactose). Porous spherical agglomerates of α-lactose monohydrate with radially arranged prism-like primary particles were prepared exhibiting a high specific surface area. All types of lactose analysed had passable or better flow properties, except for anhydrous β-lactose, which had poor flowability. Particle friability was more pronounced in larger granulated lactose particles; however, particle structure was retained in all samples analysed. The mechanical properties of spherical agglomerates of lactose, in terms of compressibility, established with Walker analysis, and compactibility, established with a compactibility profile, were found to be superior to any commercially available types of lactose. Higher compactibility of spherical agglomerates of lactose is ascribed to significantly higher particle surface area due to a unique internal structure with higher susceptibility to fragmentation.

  12. Frequency comparative study of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzhong; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Guangxue; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2011-01-01

    Particulate pollution is main kind of atmospheric pollution. The fine particles are seriously harmful to human health and environment. Acoustic agglomeration is considered as a promising pretreatment technology for fine particle agglomeration. The mechanisms of acoustic agglomeration are very complex and the agglomeration efficiency is affected by many factors. The most important and controversial factor is frequency. Comparative studies between high-frequency and low-frequency sound source to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash were carried out to investigate the influence of frequency on agglomeration efficiency. Acoustic agglomeration theoretical analysis, experimental particle size distributions (PSDs) and orthogonal design were examined. The results showed that the 20 kHz high-frequency sound source was not suitable to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash. Only within the size ranging from 0.2 to 0.25 microm the particles agglomerated to adhere together, and the agglomerated particles were smaller than 2.5 microm. The application of low-frequency (1000-1800 Hz) sound source was proved as an advisable pretreatment with the highest agglomeration efficiency of 75.3%, and all the number concentrations within the measuring range decreased. Orthogonal design L16 (4)3 was introduced to determine the optimum frequency and optimize acoustic agglomeration condition. According to the results of orthogonal analysis, frequency was the dominant factor of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration and the optimum frequency was 1400 Hz.

  13. Language Learning of Children with Typical Development Using a Deductive Metalinguistic Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In the current study, the author aimed to determine whether 4- to 6-year-old typically developing children possess requisite problem-solving and language abilities to produce, generalize, and retain a novel verb inflection when taught using an explicit, deductive teaching procedure. Method: Study participants included a cross-sectional…

  14. Effectiveness of Three Feedback Procedures in Developing Set Establishing Skill. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingstedt, Joe Lars

    This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of three feedback procedures by determining the relationship between the feedback procecures and the development of competence in establishing set by the teacher-trainees as indicated by the group mean gain scores on the "Hernandez-Klingstedt Establishing Set Rating Form." The feedback…

  15. 7 CFR 1948.84 - Application procedure for site development and acquisition grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 601 Energy Impacted Area Development Assistance Program § 1948.84 Application procedure for site... architects/engineers; (6) The amount of Federal grant needed; (7) The amount and source of applicant's... analysis); (11) Assurance that the requirements set forth in title 7, subtitle A, part 21 of the Code...

  16. Development of Recommendations To Improve Minority Faculty Hiring Procedures at Kansas City Kansas Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Charles E.

    In response to the small number of minority faculty at Kansas City Kansas Community College (KCKCC), a study was conducted to develop a set of recommendations to improve minority faculty hiring procedures and provide information and guidelines useful to administrative staff for recruiting minority faculty members. Criteria for establishing policy…

  17. Development of Criteria and Procedures for Management of Classified Document Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea, Jack C.

    The report describes work done in development of criteria and procedures for management of collections of classified documents. Material is presented on philosophy of operation, concept of user service, accession and retention. Much of the discussion is based upon the concept of conversion to a microfiche-oriented library; however, hard copy…

  18. Narrative-Biographical Research on Teachers' Professional Development: Exemplifying a Methodological Research Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelchtermans, Geert

    The professional development of teachers, conceived of as the qualitative changes in teachers' professional behavior throughout their career, was studied through a procedure called "stimulated autobiographical self-thematization." Ten primary school teachers from Flemish Belgian schools were asked to reflect on their careers so as to…

  19. Development of a Readiness Evaluation Procedure for Early Admissions to Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillman, Carolyn V.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This research bulletin provides criteria and procedures for determining the readiness of children to enter kindergarten early. The first section of the bulletin reviews the results of a literature search conducted to delineate areas of development from which admissions criteria should be defined. The review of the literature disclosed the…

  20. Clustering algorithm evaluation and the development of a replacement for procedure 1. [for crop inventories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennington, R. K.; Johnson, J. K.

    1979-01-01

    An efficient procedure which clusters data using a completely unsupervised clustering algorithm and then uses labeled pixels to label the resulting clusters or perform a stratified estimate using the clusters as strata is developed. Three clustering algorithms, CLASSY, AMOEBA, and ISOCLS, are compared for efficiency. Three stratified estimation schemes and three labeling schemes are also considered and compared.

  1. A National Survey of Faculty Development Evaluation Outcome Measures and Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katrina A.; Murrell, Vicki S.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a national study of 39 higher education institutions that collected information about their evaluation procedures and outcome measures for faculty development for online teaching conducted during 2011-2012. The survey results found that over 90% of institutions used measures of the faculty person's…

  2. Reverse micelle synthesis of oxide nanopowders: mechanisms of precipitate formation and agglomeration effects.

    PubMed

    Graeve, Olivia A; Fathi, Hoorshad; Kelly, James P; Saterlie, Michael S; Sinha, Kaustav; Rojas-George, Gabriel; Kanakala, Raghunath; Brown, David R; Lopez, Enrique A

    2013-10-01

    We present an analysis of reverse micelle stability in four model systems. The first two systems, composed of unstable microemulsions of isooctane, water, and Na-AOT with additions of either iron sulfate or yttrium nitrate, were used for the synthesis of iron oxide or yttrium oxide powders. These oxide powders were of nanocrystalline character, but with some level of agglomeration that was dependent on calcination temperature and cleaning procedures. Results show that even though the reverse micellar solutions were unstable, nanocrystalline powders with very low levels of agglomeration could be obtained. This effect can be attributed to the protective action of the surfactant on the surfaces of the powders that prevents neck formation until after all the surfactant has volatilized. A striking feature of the IR spectra collected on the iron oxide powders is the absence of peaks in the ~1715 cm(-1) to 1750 cm(-1) region, where absorption due to the symmetric C=O (carbonyl) stretching occurs. The lack of such peaks strongly suggests the carbonyl group is no longer free, but is actively participating in the surfactant-precipitate interaction. The final two microemulsion systems, containing CTAB as the surfactant, showed that loss of control of the reverse micelle synthesis process can easily occur when the amount of salt in the water domains exceeds a critical concentration. Both model systems eventually resulted in agglomerated powders of broad size distributions or particles that were large compared to the sizes of the reverse micelles, consistent with the notion that the microemulsions were not stable and the powders were precipitated in an uncontrolled fashion. This has implications for the synthesis of nanopowders by reverse micelle synthesis and provides a benchmark for process control if powders of the highest quality are desired.

  3. Phosphate-enhanced cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles and agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Everett, W Neil; Chern, Christina; Sun, Dazhi; McMahon, Rebecca E; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Wei-Jung A; Hahn, Mariah S; Sue, H-J

    2014-02-10

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been found to readily react with phosphate ions to form zinc phosphate (Zn3(PO4)2) crystallites. Because phosphates are ubiquitous in physiological fluids as well as waste water streams, it is important to examine the potential effects that the formation of Zn3(PO4)2 crystallites may have on cell viability. Thus, the cytotoxic response of NIH/3T3 fibroblast cells was assessed following 24h of exposure to ZnO NPs suspended in media with and without the standard phosphate salt supplement. Both particle dosage and size have been shown to impact the cytotoxic effects of ZnO NPs, so doses ranging from 5 to 50 μg/mL were examined and agglomerate size effects were investigated by using the bioinert amphiphilic polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to generate water-soluble ZnO ranging from individually dispersed 4 nm NPs up to micron-sized agglomerates. Cell metabolic activity measures indicated that the presence of phosphate in the suspension media can led to significantly reduced cell viability at all agglomerate sizes and at lower ZnO dosages. In addition, a reduction in cell viability was observed when agglomerate size was decreased, but only in the phosphate-containing media. These metabolic activity results were reflected in separate measures of cell death via the lactate dehydrogenase assay. Our results suggest that, while higher doses of water-soluble ZnO NPs are cytotoxic, the presence of phosphates in the surrounding fluid can lead to significantly elevated levels of cell death at lower ZnO NP doses. Moreover, the extent of this death can potentially be modulated or offset by tuning the agglomerate size. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how nanoscale materials can interact with the components of surrounding fluids so that potential adverse effects of such interactions can be controlled.

  4. Improving the de-agglomeration and dissolution of a poorly water soluble drug by decreasing the agglomerate strength of the cohesive powder.

    PubMed

    Allahham, Ayman; Stewart, Peter J; Das, Shyamal C

    2013-11-30

    Influence of ternary, poorly water-soluble components on the agglomerate strength of cohesive indomethacin mixtures during dissolution was studied to explore the relationship between agglomerate strength and extent of de-agglomeration and dissolution of indomethacin (Ind). Dissolution profiles of Ind from 20% Ind-lactose binary mixtures, and ternary mixtures containing additional dibasic calcium phosphate (1% or 10%; DCP), calcium sulphate (10%) and talc (10%) were determined. Agglomerate strength distributions were estimated by Monte Carlo simulation of particle size, work of cohesion and packing fraction distributions. The agglomerate strength of Ind decreased from 1.19 MPa for the binary Ind mixture to 0.84 MPa for 1DCP:20Ind mixture and to 0.42 MPa for 1DCP:2Ind mixture. Both extent of de-agglomeration, demonstrated by the concentration of the dispersed indomethacin distribution, and extent of dispersion, demonstrated by the particle size of the dispersed indomethacin, were in descending order of 1DCP:2Ind>1DCP:20Ind>binary Ind. The addition of calcium sulphate dihydrate and talc also reduced the agglomerate strength and improved de-agglomeration and dispersion of indomethacin. While not definitively causal, the improved de-agglomeration and dispersion of a poorly water soluble drug by poorly water soluble components was related to the agglomerate strength of the cohesive matrix during dissolution.

  5. Development of a testing procedure for a guarded hot box facility

    SciTech Connect

    Orlandi, R.D.; Howanski, J.W.; Derderian, G.D.; Shu, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    ASTM Test for Thermal Conductance and Transmittance of Built-Up Sections by Means of the Guarded Hot Box (C 236) states that the net heat flow through the metering box walls should be minimized. In order to satisfy this requirement, a testing procedure was developed to experimentally define the required thermopile emf set point across the metering box walls of the W.R. Grace and Company guarded hot box (GHB). This method of calibration can be applied to any GHB. Thermal conductances of three specimens were measured using the results of the calibration procedure and were found to be within 3% of the values obtained by other independent test methods.

  6. Weather analysis and interpretation procedures developed for the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trenchard, M. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Procedures and techniques for providing analyses of meteorological conditions at segments during the growing season were developed for the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment. The main product and analysis tool is the segment-level climagraph which depicts temporally meteorological variables for the current year compared with climatological normals. The variable values for the segment are estimates derived through objective analysis of values obtained at first-order station in the region. The procedures and products documented represent a baseline for future Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting experiments.

  7. Developing technical expertise in emergency medicine--the role of simulation in procedural skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ernest E; Quinones, Joshua; Fitch, Michael T; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne; Griswold-Theodorson, Sharon; Medzon, Ron; Korley, Frederick; Laack, Torrey; Robinett, Adam; Clay, Lamont

    2008-11-01

    Developing technical expertise in medical procedures is an integral component of emergency medicine (EM) practice and training. This article is the work of an expert panel composed of members from the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) Interest Group, the SAEM Technology in Medical Education Committee, and opinions derived from the May 2008 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference, "The Science of Simulation in Healthcare." The writing group reviewed the simulation literature on procedures germane to EM training, virtual reality training, and instructional learning theory as it pertains to skill acquisition and procedural skills decay. The authors discuss the role of simulation in teaching technical expertise, identify training conditions that lead to effective learning, and provide recommendations for future foci of research.

  8. Developing a preservation policy and procedure statement for a health sciences library.

    PubMed Central

    Paulson, B A

    1989-01-01

    The preconditions for creating a preservation policy document in a health sciences library are an existing preservation policy for the institution of which it is a part and administrative support for preservation. The assumption underlying preservation activity, from the formulation of general guidelines to the detail of operating procedure, is that collection development and preservation are complementary functions. Documentation of operational procedures in some detail should be a part of the statement. Since preservation activity cuts across functional library structures, all management staff should be involved in the planning process and be made aware of their responsibilities. The creation of a preservation policy statement will highlight unaddressed issues, procedural inadequacies, and differences in staff perceptions of priorities, but a written statement provides a framework for setting priorities and making decisions. PMID:2758183

  9. [Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture]. [Quarterly technical progress report, September 27, 1993--January 2, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    A major concern with the utilization of coal in directly fired gas turbines is the control of particulate emissions and reduction of sulfur dioxide, and alkali vapor from combustion of coal, upstream of the gas turbine. The Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture program focuses upon the application of an MTCI proprietary invention (Patent No. 5,197,399) for simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration of the combustor effluent. This application can be adapted as either a ``hot flue gas cleanup`` subsystem for the current concepts for combustor islands or as an alternative primary pulse combustor island in which slagging, sulfur capture, particulate agglomeration and control, and alkali gettering as well as NO{sub x} control processes become an integral part of the pulse combustion process. The goal of the program is to support the DOE mission in developing coal-fired combustion gas turbines. In particular, the MTCI proprietary process for bimodal ash agglomeration and simultaneous sulfur capture will be evaluated and developed. The technology embodiment of the invention provides for the use of standard grind, moderately beneficiated coal and WEM for firing the gas turbine with efficient sulfur capture and particulate emission control upstream of the turbine. The process also accommodates injection of alkali gettering material if necessary. This is aimed at utilization of relatively inexpensive coal fuels, thus realizing the primary benefit being sought by direct firing of coal in such gas turbine systems.

  10. Investigation of network tree technology as a tool for developing effective fault isolation procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. E.

    The use of the Sneak Circuit Analysis (SCA) for effective fault isolation procedure development is investigated, resulting in the definition of a structured methodology for creating logic trees with development and evaluation applications. A systems point-to-point electrical continuity is encoded in a card-image format in order to accomplish data entry, which should be performed via an interactive system. The sorting process should be as batch a process as possible, and the resulting groups are plotted in forest and network tree form. These trees are then used to determine normal and abnormal system response. Finally, the fault isolation procedure logic is developed. It is noted that the resulting methodology can be used for verification purposes, and for other systems analyses.

  11. Overview of the Standing Operating Procedures (SOP) for the Development of Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs)

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Robert; Bast, Cheryl B; Wood, Carol S; Adeshina, Femi; Ross, Robert Hord

    2009-01-01

    Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) are concentrations in air and drinking water for priority toxic chemicals. This article summarizes the Standing Operating Procedures (SOPs) currently in place for the data-driven development of chemical-specific PALs. To provide consistency and transparency, and to avoid faults of arbitrariness, SOPs were developed for guidance in deriving PAL values. The SOPs for PAL development focus on: 1) data acquisition and analysis, 2) identification of a chemical-specific critical effect, 3) selection of a quantitative point-of-departure (POD), 4) uncertainty analysis and adjustments, 5) exposure duration adjustment and extrapolation, 6) identification of special concerns and issues, and 7) verification, documentation and dissemination of PALs. To avoid uncompromising rigidity in deriving PAL values and to allow for incorporation of new or refined methodologies, the overall procedure is fluid and subject to modification. The purpose of this publication is to provide a summary of these SOPs.

  12. Nano-sized Mn oxide/agglomerated silsesquioxane composite as a good catalyst for water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Madadkhani, Sepideh

    2016-12-01

    Water splitting to hydrogen and oxygen is an important reaction to store sustainable energies, and water oxidation is identified as the bottleneck for water splitting because it requires the high activation energy to perform. Herein a nano-sized Mn oxide/agglomerated silsesquioxane composite was used to synthesize an efficient catalyst for water oxidation. The composite was synthesized by a straightforward and simple procedure and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, and electrochemical methods. Silsesquioxane causes good dispersion of Mn in the composite. The water-oxidizing activity of this composite was studied in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate. The composite at the best calcination temperature (300 °C) shows a turnover frequency 0.3 (mmol O2/mol Mn.s). Regarding the low-cost, environmentally friendly precursors, simple synthesis, and efficiency for water oxidation, the composite is a promising catalyst that can be used in artificial photosynthetic systems for water splitting. We used Agglomerated silsesquioxane as a support for nano-sized Mn oxide to synthesize a good water-oxidizing catalyst.

  13. POC-SCALE TESTING OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT FOR FINE COAL PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from October 1, 1997 to December 31, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental test procedures and the results related to the processing of coal fines originating from process streams generated at the Shoal Creek Mine preparation plant, owned and operated by the Drummond Company Inc. of Alabama, are described. Two samples of coal fines, namely Cyclone Overflow and Pond Fines were investigated. The batch test results showed that by applying the Aglofloat technology a significant ash removal might be achieved at a very high combustible matter recovery: · for the Cyclone Overflow sample the ash reduction was in the range 50 to 55% at combustible matter recovery about 98% · for the Pond Fines sample the ash reduction was up to 48% at combustible matter recovery up to 85%. Additional tests were carried out with the Alberta origin Luscar Mine coal, which will be used for the parametric studies of agglomeration equipment at the 250 kg/h pilot plant. The Luscar coal is very similar to the Mary Lee Coal Group (processed at Shoal Creek Mine preparation plant) in terms of rank and chemical composition.

  14. Language Learning of Children With Typical Development Using a Deductive Metalinguistic Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In the current study, the author aimed to determine whether 4- to 6-year-old typically developing children possess requisite problem-solving and language abilities to produce, generalize, and retain a novel verb inflection when taught using an explicit, deductive teaching procedure. Method Study participants included a cross-sectional sample of 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children with typical cognitive and language development. The 66 participants were randomly assigned to either a deductive or inductive teaching condition in which they were taught a novel gender morphological inflection across 4 sessions. Learning was assessed on the basis of performance on learning, generalization, and maintenance probes. Results Across all age groups, children were more likely to successfully use the novel gender form when taught using the deductive procedure than if taught using the inductive procedure (Φ range: .33–.73). Analyses within each age group revealed a robust effect for the 5-year-old children, with less consistent effects across the other age groups. Conclusions Study results suggest that 4- to 6-year-old children with typical language and cognitive abilities are able to make use of a deductive language teaching procedure when learning a novel gender inflection. Evidence also suggests that this effect is driven by expressive and receptive language ability. PMID:24129009

  15. Language learning of children with typical development using a deductive metalinguistic procedure.

    PubMed

    Finestack, Lizbeth H

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE In the current study, the author aimed to determine whether 4- to 6-year-old typically developing children possess requisite problem-solving and language abilities to produce, generalize, and retain a novel verb inflection when taught using an explicit, deductive teaching procedure. METHOD Study participants included a cross-sectional sample of 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children with typical cognitive and language development. The 66 participants were randomly assigned to either a deductive or inductive teaching condition in which they were taught a novel gender morphological inflection across 4 sessions. Learning was assessed on the basis of performance on learning, generalization, and maintenance probes. RESULTS Across all age groups, children were more likely to successfully use the novel gender form when taught using the deductive procedure than if taught using the inductive procedure (Φ range: .33-.73). Analyses within each age group revealed a robust effect for the 5-year-old children, with less consistent effects across the other age groups. CONCLUSIONS Study results suggest that 4- to 6-year-old children with typical language and cognitive abilities are able to make use of a deductive language teaching procedure when learning a novel gender inflection. Evidence also suggests that this effect is driven by expressive and receptive language ability.

  16. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1995-07-01

    The development of practical technologies for the deep cleaning of coal has been seriously hampered by the problems of carrying out efficient coal/mineral separations at the very fine sizes (often finer than 10 mm) needed to achieve adequate liberation of the mineral matter from the coal matrix. It is generally recognized that surface-based separation processes such as froth flotation or selective agglomeration offer considerable potential for such applications but there remain many problems in obtaining the required selectivity with acceptable recovery of combustible matter. In froth flotation, selectivity is substantially reduced at fine sizes due, primarily, to overloading of the froth phase which leads to excessive carryover of water and entrained mineral matter. Oil agglomeration, on the other hand, can provide good selectivity at low levels of oil addition but the agglomerates tend to be too fragile for separation by the screening methods normally used. The addition of larger amounts of oil can yield large, strong agglomerates which are easily separated but the selectivity is reduced and reagent costs can become excessive.

  17. Dry powder inhalation of antibiotics in cystic fibrosis therapy, part 1: development of a powder formulation with colistin sulfate for a special test inhaler with an air classifier as de-agglomeration principle.

    PubMed

    de Boer, A H; Le Brun, P P H; van der Woude, H G; Hagedoorn, P; Heijerman, H G M; Frijlink, H W

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pulmonary administration of antibiotics as dry powder to patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), as an alternative for nebulization. This part of the study describes the development of a powder formulation with colistin sulfate as model substance. The aim of the new dosage form was to increase pulmonary deposition, therapeutic efficiency and, by that, compliance by the CF patients. A physical powder mixture of colistin and a size fraction of lactose (106-150 microm) was prepared and the mixture was optimized with respect to colistin content (83.3%) for use in a special test inhaler. A laser diffraction apparatus with special inhaler adapter was applied for analysis of the size distribution of the aerosol cloud from the inhaler. The size distributions of the aerosol clouds from the test inhaler at flow rates between 30 and 60 l/min for the optimized formulation showed nearly the same median diameter as that for the primary drug particles. But the X(100)-value was much lower, because of an effective large particle separation from the inspiratory air by an air classifier in the test inhaler. The results suggest that dry powder inhalation might be a suitable and highly efficient alternative for nebulization of antibiotic drugs in CF therapy.

  18. Network tree technology: As applied to development of fault isolation procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. E.

    1982-09-01

    This paper describes the activities and conclusions of the Air Force study contract designed to investigate the application of network tree technology to the development of Fault Isolation Procedures. Network tree technology, which was initiated as a formal electrical analysis technique known as Sneak Circuit Analysis, requires that the exact electrical configuration of a system be resident in a computerized data base. This study was to determine how this data base can be used to aid the fault isolation process. Through the analysis of a specific test case, the details of a formal Fault Isolation Procedure development methodology were developed along with the definition of key areas in which automation could be used to make this methodology more cost effective. The results of this study show that the task of developing Fault Isolation Procedure is greatly aided by the use of a computerized data base that depicts te exact electrical continuity of the target system. This data base is selectively sorted to produce plots of system continuity at various levels of detail, and each plot is then used as a tool to create the fault isolation logic.

  19. Effect of the Nuss Procedure on the Physical Development of Patients with Pectus Excavatum

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jee Young; Han, Kook Nam; Choi, Young Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed physical development of patients with pectus excavatum and evaluated the effect of the Nuss procedure on physical development. Methods: A total of 146 patients underwent the Nuss procedure; of these, at the time of the study, the bar had been removed from 123 patients (84.9%; male 93, female 30) who were eligible for participation in this study. Heights and body weights of patients were measured prior to surgery and immediately before bar removal. Chest computed tomography (CT) was performed preoperatively and immediately before bar removal. The associations between physical development and chest CT indices were evaluated. Results: The height standard deviation score (SDS) was − 0.66 ± 2.23 preoperatively and 0.04 ± 1.34 immediately before bar removal (p <0.01). The weight SDS was − 0.02 ± 2.59 preoperatively; it increased significantly to 0.56 ± 1.56 immediately before bar removal (p <0.01). The Haller index (3.85 ± 1.18 to 2.99 ± 0.54; p <0.01) and asymmetric index (9.75 ± 6.63 to 7.01 ± 4.77; p <0.01) also showed improvements. Conclusions: The Nuss procedure may contribute positively to the physical development of patients with pectus excavatum. PMID:27629820

  20. An Overview of Models of Speaking Performance and Its Implications for the Development of Procedural Framework for Diagnostic Speaking Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Zhongbao

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at developing a procedural framework for the development and validation of diagnostic speaking tests. The researcher reviews the current available models of speaking performance, analyzes the distinctive features and then points out the implications for the development of a procedural framework for diagnostic speaking tests. On…

  1. Research approach and first results on agglomerate compaction in protoplanetary dust simulation in the Cloud Manipulation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedernikov, Andrei; Blum, Jurgen; Ingo Von Borstel, Olaf; Schraepler, Rainer; Balapanov, Daniyar; Cecere, Anselmo

    2016-07-01

    Nanometre and micrometre-sized solid particles are ubiquitous in space and on Earth - from galaxies, interstellar space, protoplanetary and debris disks to planetary rings and atmospheres, planetary surfaces, comets, interplanetary space, Earth's atmosphere. Apparently, the most intriguing problem in the picture of the formation of planets is the transition from individual microscopic dust grains to kilometre-sized planetesimals. Revealing the mechanisms of this transition is one of the main tasks of the European Space Agency's project Interaction in Cosmic and Atmospheric Particle Systems (ICAPS). It was found that Brownian motion driven agglomeration could not provide the transition within reasonable time scale. As a result, at this stage top scientific goals shifted towards forced agglomeration and concentration of particles, targeting revealing the onset of compaction, experimental study of the evolution of fractal dimensions, size and mass distribution, occurrence of bouncing. The main tasks comprise 1) development of the rapid agglomeration model 2) development of the experimental facilities creating big fractal-type agglomerates from 10 to 1000 μm from a cloud of micrometre-size grains; 3) experimental realization of the rapid agglomeration in microgravity and ground conditions; and 4) in situ investigation of the morphology, mobility, mechanical and optical properties of the free-floating agglomerates, including investigation of thermophoresis, photophoresis of the agglomerates and of the two-phase flow phenomena. To solve the experimental part of the tasks we developed a Cloud Manipulation System, realized as a breadboard (CMS BB) for long duration microgravity platforms and a simplified laboratory version (CMS LV) mostly oriented on short duration microgravity and ground tests. The new system is based on the use of thermophoresis, most favourable for cloud manipulation without creating additional particle-particle forces in the cloud with a possibility

  2. The impact of agglomeration economies on hospital input prices.

    PubMed

    Friedson, Andrew I; Li, Jing

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines the extent to which agglomeration of the hospital service industry enhances the productivity of producing health care. Specifically, we use a large set of private insurance claims from the FAIR Health database to show that an increasing spatial concentration of hospital services results in a decreased cost of obtaining intermediate medical services. We explicitly test whether the reduced cost at concentrated locations arises from the ability to share intermediate service providers. The identification relies on state variation in medical lab technician licensure requirements, which influence the cost of intermediate services only through the cost of running a lab. Our findings suggest that agglomeration of the hospital service industry attracts specialized medical labs, which in turn help to reduce the cost of producing laboratory tests.

  3. Liquid bridge agglomeration: A fundamental approach to toner deinking

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, B.A.; Berg, J.C. . Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-05-01

    An alternative agglomeration technique for deinking toner-printed furnishes has been investigated. This technique requires only the addition of an immiscible hydrocarbon oil dispersed in water at dosages of approximately 1% by weight on fiber. The addition is made during repulping: the process appears to be effective at all temperatures of interest (23 C and 70 C are tested) and requires no surfactants or additional chemicals. The result of the oil addition is the agglomeration of the toner particles into spheres of 1 mm to 1 cm in size. These spheres contain the added oil which acts as a binder, holding the toner particles together by liquid bridges. The process is ineffective when the furnish contains highly sized fibers or starched paper, and future work seeks to address these crucial problems.

  4. Preventing ash agglomeration during gasification of high-sodium lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Dahlin; Johnny R. Dorminey; WanWang Peng; Roxann F. Leonard; Pannalal Vimalchand

    2009-01-15

    Various additives were evaluated to assess their ability to prevent ash agglomeration during the gasification of high-sodium lignite. Additives that showed promise in simple muffle furnace tests included meta-kaolin, vermiculite, two types of silica fume, and one type of bauxite. Additives that were tested and rejected included dolomite, calcite, sand flour, kaolinite, fine kaolin, and calcined bauxite. Based on the muffle furnace test results, the meta-kaolin was selected for a follow-on demonstration in a pilot-scale coal gasifier. Pilot-scale testing showed that the addition of coarse (minus 14-mesh, 920-{mu}m mean size) meta-kaolin at a feed rate roughly equivalent to the ash content of the lignite (10 wt %) successfully prevented agglomeration and deposition problems during gasification of high-sodium lignite at a maximum operating temperature of 927{sup o}C (1700{sup o}F). 13 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Fibre Laser Welding of HY-80 Steel: Procedure Development and Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    2 Welding The material used in this study was quenched and tempered martensitic HY80 steel which conforms to MIL-S-1621 [2]. The testing...Canada Fibre Laser Welding of HY-80 Steel Proceedure Development and Testing Christopher Bayley DLP Neil Aucoin DLP Xinjin Cao NRC IAR AMTC Technical...Memorandum DRDC Atlantic TM 2009-187 September 2010 This page intentionally left blank. Fibre Laser Welding of HY-80 Steel Procedure

  6. Parallel Element Agglomeration Algebraic Multigrid and Upscaling Library

    SciTech Connect

    2015-02-19

    ParFELAG is a parallel distributed memory C++ library for numerical upscaling of finite element discretizations. It provides optimal complesity algorithms ro build multilevel hierarchies and solvers that can be used for solving a wide class of partial differential equations (elliptic, hyperbolic, saddle point problems) on general unstructured mesh (under the assumption that the topology of the agglomerated entities is correct). Additionally, a novel multilevel solver for saddle point problems with divergence constraint is implemented.

  7. Aluminum Agglomeration and Trajectory in Solid Rocket Motors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-30

    cinematography data from China Lake. Task 2.2, Aluminum Agglomeration Model Selection (SEA/BYU/ATK Task) Part of the model selection task has already been... Manual . Software and Engineering Associates, Inc. 1802 N. Carson Street, Suite 200, Carson City, NV 89701. 2005. [DCF-2005b] S. S. Dunn, D. E. Coats, and J...C. French, SPP󈧈 Standard Stability Prediction Method for Solid Rocket Motors; Axial Mode Computer Program User’s Manual . Software and Engineering

  8. [Surgical treatment for aortic arch aneurysm: newly developed procedures and their outcomes].

    PubMed

    Ogino, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The surgical treatment of aortic arch aneurysm including newly developed procedures and their outcomes is reviewed. Major advances in aortic arch repair have been made by meticulous brain protection with antegrade-selective and retrograde cerebral perfusion in addition to hypothermia circulatory arrest and refinement of surgical techniques. Total arch replacement using a multibranched prosthetic graft with antegrade-selective cerebral perfusion (SCP) under hypothermia through a median sternotomy has been standardized, resulting in lower mortality and cerebral mortality rates. In particular, the impact of the use of the axillary artery for cardiopulmonary bypass and of the stepwise or elephant trunk technique for distal anastomosis has recently been assessed. In addition, arch repair under moderate hypothermia in conjunction with SCP has been attempted without any serious problems. The surgical strategy for extended aortic aneurysms is also of concern. A two-stage approach with an elephant trunk procedure is employed predominantly for high-risk patients, while one-stage repair is aggressively applied for relatively young, low-risk patients. In contrast, there has been great progress in stent graft therapy for aortic arch lesions. Arch stent graft repairs including hybrid procedures have been attempted in elderly, high-risk patients. Consequently, these comorbid procedures can be used satisfactorily.

  9. Development of a toxicity identification evaluation procedure for characterizing metal toxicity in marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.; Ho, K.T.; Serbst, J.R.; Cook, H.F.; Kuhn, A.

    2000-04-01

    A multiagency effort is underway to develop whole sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods. Whole sediment TIE methods will be critical tools for characterizing toxicity at hazardous waste sites and in the conduct of environmental risk assessments. The research approach is based on the predominance of three classes of toxicants in sediments: ammonia, nonpolar organic chemicals, and metals. Here the authors describe a procedure for characterizing acute toxicity caused by metals in whole marine sediments. The procedure involves adding a chelating resin to sediments, resulting in the sequestration of bioavailable metal while not stressing testing organisms. Within the testing chambers, the presence of resin resulted in statistically significant reductions in the overlying and interstitial water concentrations of five metals (cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc) generally by factors of 40 and 200. Toxicity to both the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and mysid Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia) of sediments spiked with the five metals was decreased by approximately a factor of four when resin was present. While very effective at reducing the concentrations and toxicity of metals, the resin has only minor ameliorative effects on the toxicity of ammonia and a representative nonpolar toxicant (Endosulfan). Resin and accumulated metal were easily isolated from the testing system following exposures allowing for the initiation of phase II TIE (identification) procedures. This procedure using the addition of a chelating resin provides an approach for determining the importance of metals to the toxicity of marine sediments. Work is continuing to validate the method with environmentally contaminated sediments.

  10. Development of a computer-aided procedure for the national program of inspection of dams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An effort was undertaken to determine the utility of ERTS-1 MSS data, together with automatic data processing (ADP) techniques, to detect and locate surface water, and transfer the related technology to the Texas Water Rights Commission (TWRC). A test site was selected, ERTS-1 MSS and ancillary data obtained, and existent ADP classification programs applied. During the course of this effort a linear discriminant function was developed. The results were evaluated for potential candidates for a transferable procedure. A computer-aided technique using a linear discriminant function was selected and recommended, for inclusion in an operational system, which met detection and location criteria. Specifically, evaluation of the selected computer-aided procedure for the test site resulted in the detection of 100 percent of areas of surface water 10 acres or greater in areal extent and the geographic location of areas classified as water to a positional accuracy of 1000 feet or closer. The procedure was recommended for inclusion in an operational computer-aided procedure for transfer to TWRC.

  11. The development of marine Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures using the unicellular alga Nitzschia closterium.

    PubMed

    Hogan, A C; Stauber, J L; Pablo, F; Adams, M S; Lim, R P

    2005-05-01

    Unicellular algae are highly sensitive to a wide range of toxicants and have been used extensively in ecotoxicological testing. This, along with their ability to grow in very small test volumes over short test durations, make them ideal test organisms for use in Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs). Despite this, microalgae have not previously been used in marine TIE studies. In this study, the marine diatom Nitzschia closterium was shown to be a highly suitable test organism after modification of the standard test protocol to reduce test volumes to 6 mL and test duration to 48 h. The alga was tolerant to the chemicals used in phase I of the standard USEPA TIE protocol, and physical TIE manipulations had no effect on algal growth. The cation exchange procedure, however, inhibited algal growth, while the anion exchange procedure stimulated growth, making these two procedures unsuitable for use with this species. Of the buffers trialed for the graduated pH procedure, 0.01 M PIPES buffer was found to be suitable for buffering at pH 7 because it maintained the required pH over the duration of the test and did not affect the growth or sensitivity of the algae to one reference toxicant (copper). A trial TIE on a secondary-treated sewage effluent for discharge into coastal waters showed that the developed protocols could successfully be used to identify ammonia as the major toxicant in the effluent.

  12. Development of SRC-I product analysis. Volume 3. Documentation of procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Schweighardt, F.K.; Kingsley, I.S.; Cooper, F.E.; Kamzelski, A.Z.; Parees, D.M.

    1983-09-01

    This section documents the BASIC computer program written to simulate Wilsonville's GC-simulated distillation (GCSD) results at APCI-CRSD Trexlertown. The GC conditions used at APCI for the Wilsonville GCSD analysis of coal-derived liquid samples were described in the SRC-I Quarterly Technical Report, April-June 1981. The approach used to simulate the Wilsonville GCSD results is also from an SRC-I Quarterly Technical Report and is reproduced in Appendix VII-A. The BASIC computer program is described in the attached Appendix VII-B. Analysis of gases produced during coal liquefaction generates key information needed to determine product yields for material balance and process control. Gas samples from the coal process development unit (CPDU) and tubing bombs are the primary samples analyzed. A Carle gas chromatographic system was used to analyze coal liquefaction gas samples. A BASIC computer program was written to calculate the gas chromatographic peak area results into mole percent results. ICRC has employed several analytical workup procedures to determine the amount of distillate, oils, asphaltenes, preasphaltenes, and residue in SRC-I process streams. The ASE procedure was developed using Conoco's liquid column fractionation (LC/F) method as a model. In developing the ASE procedure, ICRC was able to eliminate distillation, and therefore quantify the oils fraction in one extraction step. ASE results were shown to be reproducible within +- 2 wt %, and to yield acceptable material balances. Finally, the ASE method proved to be the least affected by sample composition.

  13. The role of human drug self-administration procedures in the development of medications.

    PubMed

    Comer, S D; Ashworth, J B; Foltin, R W; Johanson, C E; Zacny, J P; Walsh, S L

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this review is to illustrate the utility and value of employing human self-administration procedures in medication development, including abuse liability assessments of novel medications and evaluation of potential pharmacotherapies for substance use disorders. Traditionally, human abuse liability testing has relied primarily on subjective reports describing drug action by use of questionnaires; similarly, drug interactions between putative treatment agents and the drugs of abuse have relied on these measures. Subjective reports are highly valued because they provide qualitative and quantitative information about the characteristics of central and peripheral pharmacodynamic effects as well as safety and tolerability. However, self-administration procedures directly examine the behavior of interest-that is, drug taking. The present paper (1) reviews the most commonly used human self-administration procedures, (2) discusses the concordance of subjective reports and self-administration within the context of medications development for substance use disorders, focusing primarily on illustrative examples from development efforts with opioid and cocaine dependence, and (3) explores the utility of applying self-administration procedures to assess the abuse liability of novel compounds, including "abuse-deterrent" formulations (ADFs). The review will focus on opioid and cocaine dependence because a rich database from both clinical laboratory and clinical trial research exists for these two drug classes. The data reviewed suggest that drug-induced changes in self-administration and subjective effects are not always concordant. Therefore, assessment of self-administration in combination with subjective effects provides a more comprehensive picture that may have improved predictive validity for translating to the clinical setting.

  14. The role of human drug self-administration procedures in the development of medications

    PubMed Central

    Comer, SD; Ashworth, JB; Foltin, RW; Johanson, CE; Zacny, JP; Walsh, SL

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to illustrate the utility and value of employing human self-administration procedures in medication development, including abuse liability assessments of novel medications and evaluation of potential pharmacotherapies for substance use disorders. Traditionally, human abuse liability testing has relied primarily on subjective reports describing drug action by use of questionnaires; similarly, drug interactions between putative treatment agents and the drugs of abuse have relied on these measures. Subjective reports are highly valued because they provide qualitative and quantitative information about the characteristics of central and peripheral pharmacodynamic effects as well as safety and tolerability. However, self-administration procedures directly examine the behavior of interest – that is, drug taking. The present paper 1) reviews the most commonly used human self-administration procedures, 2) discusses the concordance of subjective reports and self-administration within the context of medications development for substance use disorders, focusing primarily on illustrative examples from development efforts with opioid and cocaine dependence, and 3) explores the utility of applying self-administration procedures to assess the abuse liability of novel compounds, including “abuse deterrent” formulations (ADFs). The review will focus on opioid and cocaine dependence because a rich database from both clinical laboratory and clinical trial research exists for these two drug classes. The data reviewed suggest that drug-induced changes in self-administration and subjective effects are not always concordant. Therefore, assessment of self-administration in combination with subjective effects provides a more comprehensive picture that may have improved predictive validity for translating to the clinical setting. PMID:18436394

  15. The role of agglomeration in the conductivity of carbon nanotube composites near percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarlton, Taylor; Sullivan, Ethan; Brown, Joshua; Derosa, Pedro A.

    2017-02-01

    A detailed study of agglomeration in composite materials containing carbon nanotubes (CNT) is presented. Three dimensional samples with different degrees of agglomeration were created in three different ways, leading to a wider range of geometries available to study. Virtual charges are injected into the computer-generated samples and move through these samples according to a Monte Carlo hopping algorithm. Results show that there is an optimal level of agglomeration that is actually beneficial for charge transport at low volume concentrations, lowering the percolation threshold. It is found that near percolation, a more uniform CNT distribution (less agglomeration) leads to more conductive paths, but with a lower mobility. The optimum level of agglomeration comes from a trade off between these two properties. Beyond this optimum agglomeration state, it is observed that conductivity tends to decrease as dispersion increases at all concentrations studied here. At high concentration (percolated samples), where CNT clumps merge, conductivity seems to be less sensitive to agglomeration.

  16. Endoscopic surgery and telemedicine in microgravity: developing contingency procedures for exploratory class spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. A.; Johnston, S.; Campbell, M.; Miles, B.; Billica, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The risk of a urinary calculus during an extended duration mission into the reduced gravity environment of space is significant. For medical operations to develop a comprehensive strategy for the spaceflight stone risk, both preventive countermeasures and contingency management (CM) plans must be included. METHODS: A feasibility study was conducted to demonstrate the potential CM technique of endoscopic ureteral stenting with ultrasound guidance for the possible in-flight urinary calculus contingency. The procedure employed the International Space Station/Human Research Facility ultrasound unit for guide wire and stent localization, a flexible cystoscope for visual guidance, and banded, biocompatible soft ureteral stents to successfully stent porcine ureters bilaterally in zero gravity (0g). RESULTS: The study demonstrated that downlinked endoscopic surgical and ultrasound images obtained in 0g are comparable in quality to 1g images, and therefore are useful for diagnostic clinical utility via telemedicine transmission. CONCLUSIONS: In order to be successful, surgical procedures in 0g require excellent positional stability of the operating surgeon, assistant, and patient, relative to one another. The technological development of medical procedures for long-duration spaceflight contingencies may lead to improved terrestrial patient care methodology and subsequently reduced morbidity.

  17. Development and evaluation of a prototype in-flight instrument flight rules (IFR) procedures trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aaron, J. B., Jr.; Morris, G. G.

    1981-01-01

    An in-flight instrument flight rules (IFR) procedures trainer capable of providing simulated indications of instrument flight in a typical general aviation aircraft independent of ground based navigation aids was developed. The IFR navaid related instruments and circuits from an ATC 610J table top simulator were installed in a Cessna 172 aircraft and connected to its electrical power and pitot static systems. The benefits expected from this hybridization concept include increased safety by reducing the number of general aviation aircraft conducting IFR training flights in congested terminal areas, and reduced fuel use and instruction costs by lessening the need to fly to and from navaid equipped airports and by increased efficiency of the required in-flight training. Technical feasibility was demonstrated and the operational feasibility of the concept was evaluated. Results indicated that the in-flight simulator is an effective training device for teaching IFR procedural skills.

  18. Procedure development study: Low strain rate and creep experiments; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.J. III; Boyd, P.J.; Noel, J.S.; Price, R.H.

    1991-10-01

    Licensing of the potential nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission would require, among other things, demonstrations of the long term usability of the underground facilities. Such a demonstration involves analysis of the mechanical response of the rock to the presence of underground openings and heat-producing waste, which in turn requires data on the mechanical properties of the rock. This document describes the experimental results from a scoping study which led to the development of procedures for performing quality-affecting rock-mechanics experiments on intact rock. The future experiments performed with these procedures will produce information on the time-dependent deformation of welded tuff and represent one aspect of the overall effort to characterize the rheology of the rock mass. 3 refs., 42 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Developing patient-specific anatomic models for validation of cardiac ablation guidance procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, David, III; Rettmann, Maryam; Cameron, Bruce; Camp, Jon; Robb, Richard

    2008-03-01

    Image-guided cardiac ablation has the potential to decrease procedure times and improve clinical outcome for patients with cardiac arrhythmias. There are several proposed methods for integrating patient-specific anatomy into the cardiac ablation procedure; however, these methods require thorough validation. One of the primary challenges in validation is determining ground truth as a standard for comparison. Some validation protocols have been developed for animals models and even in patients; however, these methods can be costly to implement and may increase the risk to patients. We have developed an approach to building realistic patient-specific anatomic models at a low-cost in order to validate the guidance procedure without introducing additional risk to the patients. Using a pre-procedural cardiac computed tomography scan, the blood pool of the left and right atria of a patient are segmented semi-manually. In addition, several anatomical landmarks are identified in the image data. The segmented atria and landmarks are converted into a polygonalized model which is used to build a thin-walled patient-specific blood pool model in a stereo-lithography system. Thumbscrews are inserted into the model at the landmarks. The entire model is embedded in a platinum silicone material which has been shown to have tissue-mimicking properties relative to ultrasound. Once the pliable mold has set, the blood pool model is extracted by dissolving the rigid material. The resulting physical model correctly mimics a specific patient anatomy with embedded fiducals which can be used for validation experiments. The patient-specific anatomic model approach may also be used for pre-surgical practice and training of new interventionalists.

  20. Development of a surgical procedure for implantation of a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Alexia L; Williams, Chris E; Heriot, Wilson; Briggs, Robert; Yeoh, Jonthan; Nayagam, David AX; McCombe, Mark; Villalobos, Joel; Burns, Owen; Luu, Chi D; Ayton, Lauren N; McPhedran, Michelle; Opie, Nicholas L; McGowan, Ceara; Shepherd, Robert K; Guymer, Robyn; Allen, Penelope J

    2014-01-01

    Background Current surgical techniques for retinal prosthetic implantation require long and complicated surgery, which can increase the risk of complications and adverse outcomes. Method The suprachoroidal position is known to be an easier location to access surgically, and so this study aimed to develop a surgical procedure for implanting a prototype suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis. The array implantation procedure was developed in 14 enucleated eyes. A full-thickness scleral incision was made parallel to the intermuscular septum and superotemporal to the lateral rectus muscle. A pocket was created in the suprachoroidal space, and the moulded electrode array was inserted. The scleral incision was closed and scleral anchor point sutured. In 9 of the 14 eyes examined, the device insertion was obstructed by the posterior ciliary neurovascular bundle. Subsequently, the position of this neurovascular bundle in 10 eyes was characterized. Implantation and lead routing procedure was then developed in six human cadavers. The array was tunnelled forward from behind the pinna to the orbit. Next, a lateral canthotomy was made. Lead fixation was established by creating an orbitotomy drilled in the frontal process of the zygomatic bone. The lateral rectus muscle was detached, and implantation was carried out. Finally, pinna to lateral canthus measurements were taken on 61 patients in order to determine optimal lead length. Results These results identified potential anatomical obstructions and informed the anatomical fitting of the suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis. Conclusion As a result of this work, a straightforward surgical approach for accurate anatomical suprachoroidal array and lead placement was developed for clinical application. PMID:24330322

  1. Overview of the Standing Operating Procedure (SOP) for the development of Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs).

    PubMed

    Young, Robert A; Bast, Cheryl B; Wood, Carol S; Adeshina, Femi

    2009-12-01

    Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) are concentrations in air and drinking water for priority toxic chemicals. This article summarizes the Standing Operating Procedure (SOP) currently in place for the data-driven development of chemical-specific PALs. To provide consistency and transparency, and to avoid faults of arbitrariness, the SOP was developed for guidance in deriving PAL values. Three levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations of potential drinking water and inhalation exposures for the general public. The SOP for PAL development focuses on (1) data acquisition and analysis, (2) identification of a chemical-specific critical effect, (3) selection of a quantitative point-of-departure (POD), (4) uncertainty analysis and adjustments, (5) exposure duration adjustment and extrapolation, (6) identification of special concerns and issues, and (7) verification, documentation, and dissemination of PALs. To avoid uncompromising rigidity in deriving PAL values and to allow for incorporation of new or refined methodologies, the overall procedure is fluid and subject to modification. The purpose of this publication is to provide a summary of this SOP.

  2. Development of an analytic procedure to calculate damage accumulation in composites during low velocity impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, E. A.; Goering, J.

    1983-01-01

    A computerized procedure was developed to model the response of a laminated composite plate subjected to low velocity impact. The methodology incorporated transient dynamics finite element analysis coupled with composite layer and interlaminar stress predictions. Damage was predicted using a stress based failure criteria and incorporated into the solution as stiffness modifications. The force-displacement relation between the impactor and plate was modelled with a nonlinear contact spring similar to Hertzian contact. Analyses performed predicted ply damage early in the impact event when the displacement fields were characteristic of high frequency flexurable response.

  3. Development of a Meso-Scale SMA-Based Torsion Actuator for Image-Guided Procedures.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jun; Gandhi, Dheeraj; Gullapalli, Rao; Simard, J Marc; Desai, Jaydev P

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling, and control of a meso-scale torsion actuator based on shape memory alloy (SMA) for image-guided surgical procedures. Developing a miniature torsion actuator is challenging, but it opens the possibility of significantly enhancing the robot agility and maneuverability. The proposed torsion actuator is bi-directionally actuated by a pair of antagonistic SMA torsion springs through alternate Joule heating and natural cooling. The torsion actuator is integrated into a surgical robot prototype to demonstrate its working performance in the humid environment under C-Arm CT image guidance.

  4. Development of a full-scale transmission testing procedure to evaluate advanced lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.; Shimski, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental tests were performed on the OH-58A helicopter main rotor transmission in the NASA Lewis 500-hp Helicopter Transmission Test Stand. The testing was part of a joint Navy/NASA/Army lubrication program. The objective of the program was to develop a separate lubricant for gearboxes and demonstrate an improved performance in life and load-carrying capacity. The goal of the experiments was to develop a testing procedure to fail certain transmission components using a MIL-L-23699 base reference oil, then run identical tests with improved lubricants and demonstrate performance. The tests were directed at failing components that the Navy has had problems with due to marginal lubrication. These failures included mast shaft bearing micropitting, sun gear and planet bearing fatigue, and spiral bevel gear scoring. A variety of tests were performed and over 900 hours of total run time accumulated for these tests. Some success was achieved in developing a testing procedure to produce sun gear and planet bearing fatigue failures. Only marginal success was achieved in producing mast shaft bearing micropitting and spiral bevel gear scoring.

  5. A micromanipulation particle tester for agglomeration contact mechanism studies in a controlled environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, C. I.; Althaus, T.; Niederreiter, G.; Hounslow, M. J.; Palzer, S.; Salman, A. D.

    2012-10-01

    Pressure agglomeration of powders is widely applied in various industries and an increasing interest lies in the identification and description of contact mechanisms between particles, which are responsible for the compaction product properties. In this paper, the design and development of a novel micromanipulation particle tester (MPT) is presented. This device makes it possible to measure the deformation kinetics and resulting adhesion of two individual particles in contact under load, which are strongly influenced by the applied process conditions. The MPT set-up is, therefore, designed to offer a unique control over the process conditions most relevant to the compaction of powders: external stress, dwell or holding time at constant deformation, compression velocity as well as relative humidity and temperature determining the physical state and mechanical characteristics of hygrosensitive amorphous particles. The latter are often part of powder formulations, e.g. in the food industry, and have been used for force and contact-zone development studies with the MPT. The experimental results on the microscale level will deliver valuable quantitative information for an improved tailoring of pressure agglomeration process conditions of bulk solids.

  6. Field observations of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalyander, Patricia (Soupy); Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Mickey, Rangley C.

    2015-01-01

    Oil that comes into the surf zone following spills, such as occurred during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, can mix with local sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs), at times in the form of mats a few centimeters thick and tens of meters long. Smaller agglomerates that form in situ or pieces that break off of larger mats, sometimes referred to as surface residual balls (SRBs), range in size from sand-sized grains to patty-shaped pieces several centimeters (cm) in diameter. These mobile SOAs can cause beach oiling for extended periods following the spill, on the scale of years as in the case of DWH. Limited research, including a prior effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigating SOA mobility, alongshore transport, and seafloor interaction using numerical model output, focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. To address this data gap, we constructed artificial sand and oil agglomerates (aSOAs) with sand and paraffin wax to mimic the size and density of genuine SOAs. These aSOAs were deployed in the nearshore off the coast of St. Petersburg, Florida, during a field experiment to investigate their movement and seafloor interaction. This report presents the methodology for constructing aSOAs and describes the field experiment. Data acquired during the field campaign, including videos and images of aSOA movement in the nearshore (1.5-meter and 0.5-meter water depth) and in the swash zone, are also presented in this report.

  7. Obtaining accreditation by the pharmacy compounding accreditation board, part 2: developing essential standard operating procedures.

    PubMed

    Cabaleiro, Joe

    2007-01-01

    A key component of qualifying for accreditation with the Pharmacy Compounding Accreditation Board is having a set of comprehensive standard operating procedures that are being used by the pharmacy staff. The three criteria in standard operating procedures for which the Pharmacy Compounding Accreditation Board looks are: (1)written standard operating procedures; (2)standard operating procedures that reflect what the organization actualy does; and (3) whether the written standard operating procedures are implemented. Following specified steps in the preparation of standard operating procedures will result in procedures that meet Pharmacy Compounding Accreditation Board Requirements, thereby placing pharmacies one step closer to qualifying for accreditation.

  8. Developing standard performance testing procedures for MC&A components at a site

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Carolynn

    2010-01-01

    The condition of a nuclear material control and accountability system (MC&A) and its individual components, as with any system combining technical elements, documentation and the human factor, may be characterized through an aggregate of values for the various parameters that determine the system's ability to perform. The MC&A system's status may be functioning effectively, marginally or not functioning based on a summary of the values of the individual parameters. This work included a review of the following elements and subsystems or components for a material control and accountability system: (1) MC&A Elements: Information subsystem, Measurement subsystem, NM access subsystem, including a tamper-indicating device (TID) program, and Automated information-gathering subsystem; and (2) Detecting NM Loses Elements: Inventory differences, Shipper/receiver differences, Confirmatory measurements and differences with accounting data, and TID or seal violations. In order to detect the absence or loss of nuclear material there must be appropriate interactions among the elements and their respective subsystems (from the list above). Additionally this work includes a review of the status of regulatory requirements for the MC&A system components and potential criteria that support the evaluation of the performance of the listed components. The listed components had performance testing algorithms and procedures developed that took into consideration the regulatory criteria. The developed MC&A performance-testing procedures were the basis for a pilot Guide for MC&A Performance Testing at the MBAs of SSC RF IPPE.

  9. Stuck fermentation: development of a synthetic stuck wine and study of a restart procedure.

    PubMed

    Maisonnave, Pierre; Sanchez, Isabelle; Moine, Virginie; Dequin, Sylvie; Galeote, Virginie

    2013-05-15

    Stuck fermentation is a major problem in winemaking, resulting in large losses in the wine industry. Specific starter yeasts are used to restart stuck fermentations in conditions determined essentially on the basis of empirical know-how. We have developed a model synthetic stuck wine and an industrial process-based procedure for restarting fermentations, for studies of the conditions required to restart stuck fermentations. We used a basic medium containing 13.5% v/v ethanol and 16 g/L fructose, pH 3.3, to test the effect of various nutrients (vitamins, amino acids, minerals, oligoelements), with the aim of developing a representative and discriminative stuck fermentation model. Cell growth appeared to be a key factor for the efficient restarting of stuck fermentations. Micronutrients, such as vitamins, also strongly affected the efficiency of the restart procedure. For the validation of this medium, we compared the performances of three wine yeast strains in the synthetic stuck fermentation and three naturally stuck wine fermentations. Strain performance was ranked similar in the synthetic medium and in the "Malbec" and "Sauvignon" natural stuck wines. However, two strains were ranked differently in the "Gros Manseng" stuck wine. Nutrient content seemed to be a crucial factor in fermentation restart conditions, generating differences between yeast strains. However, the specific sensitivity of yeast strains to the composition of the wine may also have had an effect.

  10. Reference measurement procedure development for C-reactive protein in human serum.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Eric L; Bunk, David M

    2009-10-15

    This paper describes the development of a reference measurement procedure to quantify human C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum using affinity techniques prior to tryptic digestion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the certification of reference materials in clinically relevant ranges. The absence of a suitable internal standard for the CRP measurement, necessary to eliminate potential measurement bias in both the affinity purification and trypsin digestion steps, was addressed using the method of standard addition. The standard addition quantification approach was combined with affinity purification, using an anti-CRP monoclonal antibody conjugated to polystyrene beads, trypsin digestion of the purified protein, and LC-MS/MS analysis of CRP tryptic peptides. The effectiveness of intact protein affinity purification was evaluated through the measurement of CRP in several serum-based CRP control materials, yielding levels that were comparable to their expected mean concentration values. Quantitative results were confirmed with an external calibration approach. This study demonstrates the feasibility of affinity purification with LC-MS/MS for the reference measurement procedure development of low abundance serum protein analytes.

  11. Development of quality standards of medicinal mistletoe - Helicanthes elastica (Desr.) Danser employing Pharmacopoeial procedures.

    PubMed

    Sunil Kumar, K N; Ravishankar, B; Yashovarma, B; Rajakrishnan, R; Thomas, J

    2016-11-01

    Helicanthes elastica (Desr.) Danser (Loranthaceae), commonly known as Indian mango mistletoe, is a parasitic shrub found widely growing on mango trees in southern India. Development of monographic quality standards is need of the hour for Pharmacopoeial/extra-Pharmacopoeial and folk medicinal plants. Systematic pharmacognostical evaluation of leaves of H. elastica has been carried out employing Pharmacopoeial procedures of testing herbal drugs. Macro-microscopic features of H. elastica leaf were recorded. Ethanolic extract was tested positive for alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, tannins, saponins and phenols. HPTLC fingerprint profile was developed for the identification of extracts using reference standard β-sitosterol glucoside. Results of the present investigation would serve as a source of pharmacognostical information and a document to control the quality of H. elastica (Desr.) Danser.

  12. An accelerated stochastic vortex structure method for particle collision and agglomeration in homogeneous turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dizaji, Farzad F.; Marshall, Jeffrey S.

    2016-11-01

    Modeling the response of interacting particles, droplets, or bubbles to subgrid-scale fluctuations in turbulent flows is a long-standing challenge in multiphase flow simulations using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes approach. The problem also arises for large-eddy simulation for sufficiently small values of the Kolmogorov-scale particle Stokes number. This paper expands on a recently proposed stochastic vortex structure (SVS) method for modeling of turbulence fluctuations for colliding or otherwise interacting particles. An accelerated version of the SVS method was developed using the fast multipole expansion and local Taylor expansion approach, which reduces computation speed by two orders of magnitude compared to the original SVS method. Detailed comparisons are presented showing close agreement of the energy spectrum and probability density functions of various fields between the SVS computational model, direct numerical simulation (DNS) results, and various theoretical and experimental results found in the literature. Results of the SVS method for particle collision rate and related measures of particle interaction exhibit excellent agreement with DNS predictions for homogeneous turbulent flows. The SVS method was also used with adhesive particles to simulate formation of particle agglomerates with different values of the particle Stokes and adhesion numbers, and various measures of the agglomerate structure are compared to the DNS results.

  13. Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture: Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The major objective of the Phase 1 test program is to confirm the feasibility of the MTCI bimodal particle size approach to enhance particulate control by acoustic ash agglomeration. An ancillary objective of the Phase 1 effort is to demonstrate and confirm the feasibility of an acoustic field to enhance sulfur capture by increasing sorbent reactivity. The program will demonstrate the effectiveness of a unique approach which uses a bimodal distribution composed of large sorbent particles and fine fly ash particles to enhance ash agglomeration and sulfur capture at conditions found in direct coal-fired turbines. The work will extend the concept from the demonstration of feasibility (Phase 1), through proof-of-concept (Phase 2) to the construction (Phase 3) of a coal-fired pulsed combustor with in-furnace sorbent injection. In view of the potentially large repowering market in the US, several possible configurations were formulated and evaluated for application to the repowering market. Based on discussions between the DOE/METC team members and MTCI staff; seven different configuration were proposed for further evaluation. The technical and market issues associated with each of these configurations were identified and summarized. An initial system simulation test for the system operating at inlet air temperatures of 700--800 F as for a gas turbine application was conducted, indicating that acoustic performance can be further improved by modifying gas injectors. Development of the advanced vortex aerovalve continued.

  14. Agglomeration of Luminescent Porous Silicon Nanoparticles in Colloidal Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herynková, Kateřina; Šlechta, Miroslav; Šimáková, Petra; Fučíková, Anna; Cibulka, Ondřej

    2016-08-01

    We have prepared colloidal solutions of clusters composed from porous silicon nanoparticles in methanol, water and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Even if the size of the nanoclusters is between 60 and 500 nm, due to their highly porous "cauliflower"-like structure, the porous silicon nanoparticles are composed of interconnected nanocrystals having around 2.5 nm in size and showing strong visible luminescence in the orange-red spectral region (centred at 600-700 nm). Hydrophilic behaviour and good solubility of the nanoclusters in water and water-based solutions were obtained by adding hydrogen peroxide into the etching solution during preparation and 16 min long after-bath in hydrogen peroxide. By simple filtration of the solutions with syringe filters, we have extracted smaller nanoclusters with sizes of approx. 60-70 nm; however, these nanoclusters in water and PBS solution (pH neutral) are prone to agglomeration, as was confirmed by zeta potential measurements. When the samples were left at ambient conditions for several weeks, the typical nanocluster size increased to approx. 330-400 nm and then remained stable. However, both freshly filtered and aged samples (with agglomerated porous silicon nanoparticles) of porous silicon in water and PBS solutions can be further used for biological studies or as luminescent markers in living cells.

  15. Selective agglomeration of a Pittsburgh Seam coal with isooctane

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, R.; Killmeyer, R.; Utz, B.; Richardson, A.; Sinha, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center initiated a research program in 1989 to investigate the fundamentals of selective agglomeration as applied to the cleaning of coals. The results of the initial study with Bruceton mine, Pittsburgh seam coal, using isooctane as an agglomerant, have been published. Subsequent to the successful reduction of the ash content of Bruceton coal to less than 0.9% after two cleaning stages, the study was extended to compare a coal from the same seam, but from Ohio. In the previous parameter optimization tests with Bruceton coal, particle size and slurry pH were found to be important parameters governing coal cleanability. Other researchers have obtained similar conclusions of the effects of particle size and coal slurry pH on the cleanability of various coals. In this study, the effects of these parameters on the cleanability of Powhatan coal were examined. Particle size reduction kinetics was examined first. Effects of size reduction (degree of mineral matter liberation), oil (isooctane)-to-coal ratio, and slurry pH on mineral matter rejection and combustible recovery were also examined. A petrographic comparison was conducted on the Powhatan and Bruceton coals to examine the degree of pyrite liberation as a function of particle size to elucidate why one coal from the same seam can be cleaned significantly better than another. (VC)

  16. Synthesis and agglomeration of gold nanoparticles in reverse micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Adriana P.; Resto, Oscar; Briano, Julio G.; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2005-07-01

    Reverse micelles prepared in the system water, sodium bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sulfoccinate (AOT), and isooctane were investigated as a templating system for the production of gold nanoparticles from Au(III) and the reducing agent sulfite. A core-shell Mie model was used to describe the optical properties of gold nanoparticles in the reverse micelles. Dynamic light scattering of gold colloids in aqueous media and in reverse micelle solution indicated agglomeration of micelles containing particles. This was verified theoretically with an analysis of the total interaction energy between pairs of particles as a function of particle size. The analysis indicated that particles larger than about 8 nm in diameter should reversibly flocculate. Transmission electron microscopy measurements of gold nanoparticles produced in our reverse micelles showed diameters of 8-10 nm. Evidence of cluster formation was also observed. Time-correlated UV-vis absorption measurements showed a red shift for the peak wavelength. This was interpreted as the result of multiple scattering and plasmon interaction between particles due to agglomeration of micelles with particles larger than 8 nm.

  17. Development of a Quality Assurance Procedure for Dose Volume Histogram Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, David A.

    The role of the dose-volume histogram (DVH) is rapidly expanding in radiation oncology treatment planning. DVHs are already relied upon to differentiate between two similar plans and evaluate organ-at-risk dosage. Their role will become even more important as progress continues towards implementing biologically based treatment planning systems. Therefore it is imperative that the accuracy of DVHs is evaluated and reappraised after any major software or hardware upgrades, affecting a treatment planning system (TPS). The purpose of this work is to create and implement a comprehensive quality assurance procedure evaluating dose volume histograms to insure their accuracy while satisfying American College of Radiology guidelines. Virtual phantoms of known volumes were created in Pinnacle TPS and exposed to different beam arrangements. Variables including grid size and slice thickness were varied and their effects were analyzed. The resulting DVHs were evaluated by comparison to the commissioned percent depth dose values using a custom Excel spreadsheet. After determining the uncertainty of the DVH based on these variables, multiple second check calculations were performed using MIM Maestro and Matlab software packages. The uncertainties of the DVHs were shown to be less than +/- 3%. The average uncertainty was shown to be less than +/- 1%. The second check procedures resulted in mean percent differences less than 1% which confirms the accuracy of DVH calculation in Pinnacle and the effectiveness of the quality assurance template. The importance of knowing the limits of accuracy of the DVHs, which are routinely used to assess the quality of clinical treatment plans, cannot be overestimated. The developed comprehensive QA procedure evaluating the accuracy of the DVH statistical analysis will become a part of our clinical arsenal for periodic tests of the treatment planning system. It will also be performed at the time of commissioning and after any major software

  18. How much drinking water can be saved by using rainwater harvesting on a large urban area? application to Paris agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Belmeziti, Ali; Coutard, Olivier; de Gouvello, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on a prospective scenario of development of rainwater harvesting (RWH) on a given large urban area (such as metropolitan area or region). In such a perspective, a new method is proposed to quantify the related potential of potable water savings (PPWS) indicator on this type of area by adapting the reference model usually used on the building level. The method is based on four setting-up principles: gathering (definition of buildings-types and municipalities-types), progressing (use of an intermediate level), increasing (choice of an upper estimation) and prioritizing (ranking the stakes of RWH). Its application to the Paris agglomeration shows that is possible to save up to 11% of the total current potable water through the use of RWH. It also shows that the residential sector offers the most important part because it holds two-thirds of the agglomeration PPWS.

  19. Bovine Serum Albumin Adsorption on TiO2 Colloids: The Effect of Particle Agglomeration and Surface Composition.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Augusto; Berger, Thomas; Feinle, Andrea; Hüsing, Nicola; Himly, Martin; Duschl, Albert; Diwald, Oliver

    2017-02-28

    Protein adsorption at nanostructured oxides strongly depends on the synthesis conditions and sample history of the material investigated. We measured the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to commercial Aeroxide TiO2 P25 nanoparticles in aqueous dispersions. Significant changes in the adsorption capacity were induced by mild sample washing procedures and attributed to the structural modification of adsorbed water and surface hydroxyls. Motivated by the lack of information about the sample history of commercial TiO2 nanoparticle samples, we used vapor-phase-grown TiO2 nanoparticles, a well-established model system for adsorption and photocatalysis studies, and performed on this material for the first time a systematic and quantitative BSA adsorption study. After alternating vacuum and oxygen treatment of the nanoparticle powders at elevated temperatures for surface purification, we determined size distributions covering both the size of the individualized nanoparticles and nanoparticle agglomerates using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) in an aqueous dispersion. Quantitative BSA adsorption measurements at different pH values and thus variable combinations of surface-charged proteins and TiO2 nanoparticles revealed a consistent picture: BSA adsorbs only at the outer agglomerate surfaces without penetrating the interior of the agglomerates. This process levels at coverages of single monolayers, which resist consecutive simple washing procedures. A detailed analysis of the protein-specific IR amide bands reveals that the adsorption-induced protein conformational change is associated with a decrease in the helical content. This study underlines that robust qualitative and quantitative statements about protein adsorption and corona formation require well-documented and controllable surface properties of the nanomaterials involved.

  20. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing: technical progress report no. 3--January 1, 1996-March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale oil agglomeration technology capable of increasing the recovery and improving the quality of fine coal streams. Two distinct agglomeration devices will be tested, namely, a conventional high shear mixer and a tubular (jet) processor. To meet the overall objective an 11 task work plan has been designed. The work will range from batch and continuous bench-scale testing through the design, commissioning and field testing of POC-scale agglomeration equipment. During the reporting period there were activities under the following tasks: project planning and management; host site selection and plan formulation; preliminary engineering and design of POC equipment; coal characterization and laboratory (batch) and bench-scale testing; and process evaluation. The work on the remaining tasks is scheduled for the next months.

  1. Hydrophobic Agglomeration of Mineral Fines in Aqueous Suspensions and its Application in Flotation: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bingqiao; Song, Shaoxian

    2014-05-01

    Hydrophobic agglomeration is originated from the hydrophobic attraction between particles, which is essentially different from electrolyte coagulation and polymer flocculation. It is applied to mineral processing in floc-flotation process to improve the recovery of mineral fines. In this paper, the applications of this phenomenon in mineral fines were summarized, including the origin of hydrophobic agglomeration, the main factors affect hydrophobic agglomeration (particle hydrophobicity, shear rate and duration, nonpolar oil and tank geometry), as well as hydrophobic agglomeration based separation processes (carrier flotation and floc-flotation).

  2. Developing Tsunami Evacuation Plans, Maps, And Procedures: Pilot Project in Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcos, N. P.; Kong, L. S. L.; Arcas, D.; Aliaga, B.; Coetzee, D.; Leonard, J.

    2015-12-01

    In the End-to-End tsunami warning chain, once a forecast is provided and a warning alert issued, communities must know what to do and where to go. The 'where to' answer would be reliable and practical community-level tsunami evacuation maps. Following the Exercise Pacific Wave 2011, a questionnaire was sent to the 46 Member States of Pacific Tsunami Warning System (PTWS). The results revealed over 42 percent of Member States lacked tsunami mass coastal evacuation plans. Additionally, a significant gap in mapping was exposed as over 55 percent of Member States lacked tsunami evacuation maps, routes, signs and assembly points. Thereby, a significant portion of countries in the Pacific lack appropriate tsunami planning and mapping for their at-risk coastal communities. While a variety of tools exist to establish tsunami inundation areas, these are inconsistent while a methodology has not been developed to assist countries develop tsunami evacuation maps, plans, and procedures. The International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC) and partners is leading a Pilot Project in Honduras demonstrating that globally standardized tools and methodologies can be applied by a country, with minimal tsunami warning and mitigation resources, towards the determination of tsunami inundation areas and subsequently community-owned tsunami evacuation maps and plans for at-risk communities. The Pilot involves a 1- to 2-year long process centered on a series of linked tsunami training workshops on: evacuation planning, evacuation map development, inundation modeling and map creation, tsunami warning & emergency response Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), and conducting tsunami exercises (including evacuation). The Pilot's completion is capped with a UNESCO/IOC document so that other countries can replicate the process in their tsunami-prone communities.

  3. Development of a procedure to determine odour emissions from animal farming for regulatory purposes in Flanders.

    PubMed

    Van Langenhove, H; De Bruyn, G

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the project described in this paper was to develop a procedure to determine odour emissions at existing and new intensive animal farming houses. The procedure should be scientifically valid and preferably applicable on a large scale at reasonable costs. In this project odour emissions were measured during one year at the same farm. Measurements included 20 olfactometric sampling days and 50 sniffing measurements, all spread over one year. For each olfactometric sampling day, samples were taken in duplicate for the different pig categories. The olfactometric analysis resulted in the determination of odour emission factors for growing/fattening pigs, weaned piglets, dry sows and farrowing sows. The influence of external parameters (ventilation rate, inside temperature, outside temperature, pen dirtiness, number of pigs and their weight) was examined. Good correlation between the odour emission and an external parameter could only be found for the ventilation rate (r = 0.98) and outside temperature (r = 0.87). The sniffing measurements resulted in maximal odour perception distances and odour emissions calculated with short and long term dispersion models. No significant influence of the outside temperature (season) could be found here. The results of the olfactometric and sniffing measurements will be presented, including a combination of both techniques to determine the odour emission of an agricultural construction.

  4. Development of low-cost welding procedures for thick sections of HY-150 steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, P. M.; Snow, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    Low cost welding procedures were developed for welding 6-inch thick HY-150 steel to be used in the manufacture of large diameter motor case Y rings and nozzle attachment flanges. An extensive investigation was made of the mechanical and metallurgical properties and fracture toughness of HY-150 base plate and welds made with manual shielded metal arc process and semi-automatic gas metal arc process in the flat position. Transverse tensiles, all-weld metal tensiles, Charpy V-notch specimens and edge notched bend specimens were tested in the course of the program. In addition metallographic studies and hardness tests were performed on the weld, weld HAZ and base metal. The results of the work performed indicate that both the shielded metal arc and gas metal arc processes are capable of producing consistently sound welds as determined by radiographic and ultrasonic inspection. In addition, the weld metal, deposited by each process was found to exhibit a good combination of strength and toughness such that the selection of a rolled and welded procedure for fabricating rocket motor case components would appear to be technically feasible.

  5. Haeckel or Hennig? The Gordian Knot of Characters, Development, and Procedures in Phylogeny.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Claude

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the conditions for validating customary phylogenetic procedures. Concludes that the requisites of homogeneity and completeness for proved short lineages seem satisfied by the Hennigian but not the Haeckelian procedure. The epistemological antinomy of the two procedures is emphasized for the first time. (Author/RH)

  6. Development of multidisciplinary design optimization procedures for smart composite wings and turbomachinery blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Ratneshwar

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) procedures have been developed for smart composite wings and turbomachinery blades. The analysis and optimization methods used are computationally efficient and sufficiently rigorous. Therefore, the developed MDO procedures are well suited for actual design applications. The optimization procedure for the conceptual design of composite aircraft wings with surface bonded piezoelectric actuators involves the coupling of structural mechanics, aeroelasticity, aerodynamics and controls. The load carrying member of the wing is represented as a single-celled composite box beam. Each wall of the box beam is analyzed as a composite laminate using a refined higher-order displacement field to account for the variations in transverse shear stresses through the thickness. Therefore, the model is applicable for the analysis of composite wings of arbitrary thickness. Detailed structural modeling issues associated with piezoelectric actuation of composite structures are considered. The governing equations of motion are solved using the finite element method to analyze practical wing geometries. Three-dimensional aerodynamic computations are performed using a panel code based on the constant-pressure lifting surface method to obtain steady and unsteady forces. The Laplace domain method of aeroelastic analysis produces root-loci of the system which gives an insight into the physical phenomena leading to flutter/divergence and can be efficiently integrated within an optimization procedure. The significance of the refined higher-order displacement field on the aeroelastic stability of composite wings has been established. The effect of composite ply orientations on flutter and divergence speeds has been studied. The Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser (K-S) function approach is used to efficiently integrate the objective functions and constraints into a single envelope function. The resulting unconstrained optimization problem is solved using the

  7. Development of static system procedures to study aquatic biofilms and their responses to disinfection and invading species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    The microbial ecology facility in the Analytical and Physical Chemistry Branch at Marshall Space Flight Center is tasked with anticipation of potential microbial problems (and opportunities to exploit microorganisms) which may occur in partially closed systems such as space station/vehicles habitats and in water reclamation systems therein, with particular emphasis on the degradation of materials. Within this context, procedures for microbial biofilm research are being developed. Reported here is the development of static system procedures to study aquatic biofilms and their responses to disinfection and invading species. Preliminary investigations have been completed. As procedures are refined, it will be possible to focus more closely on the elucidation of biofilm phenomena.

  8. Development and Analysis of Psychomotor Skills Metrics for Procedural Skills Decay.

    PubMed

    Parthiban, Chembian; Ray, Rebecca; Rutherford, Drew; Zinn, Mike; Pugh, Carla

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we develop and analyze the metrics associated with a force production task involving a stationary target with the help of advanced VR and Force Dimension Omega 6 haptic device. We study the effects of force magnitude and direction on the various metrics namely path length, movement smoothness, velocity and acceleration patterns, reaction time and overall error in achieving the target. Data was collected from 47 participants who were residents. Results show a positive correlation between the maximum force applied and the deflection error, velocity while reducing the path length and increasing smoothness with a force of higher magnitude showing the stabilizing characteristics of higher magnitude forces. This approach paves a way to assess and model procedural skills decay.

  9. Developing standard performance testing procedures for material control and accounting components at a site

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Carolynn P; Bushlya, Anatoly V; Efimenko, Vladimir F; Ilyanstev, Anatoly; Regoushevsky, Victor I

    2010-01-01

    The condition of a nuclear material control and accountability system (MC&A) and its individual components, as with any system combining technical elements and documentation, may be characterized through an aggregate of values for the various parameters that determine the system's ability to perform. The MC&A system's status may be functioning effectively, marginally or not functioning based on a summary of the values of the individual parameters. This work included a review of the following subsystems, MC&A and Detecting Material Losses, and their respective elements for the material control and accountability system: (a) Elements of the MC&A Subsystem - Information subsystem (Accountancy/Inventory), Measurement subsystem, Nuclear Material Access subsystem, including tamper-indicating device (TID) program, and Automated Information-gathering subsystem; (b) Elements for Detecting Nuclear Material Loses Subsystem - Inventory Differences, Shipper/receiver Differences, Confirmatory Measurements and differences with accounting data, and TID or Seal Violations. In order to detect the absence or loss of nuclear material there must be appropriate interactions among the elements and their respective subsystems from the list above. Additionally this work includes a review of regulatory requirements for the MC&A system component characteristics and criteria that support the evaluation of the performance of the listed components. The listed components had performance testing algorithms and procedures developed that took into consideration the regulatory criteria. The developed MC&A performance-testing procedures were the basis for a Guide for MC&A Performance Testing at the material balance areas (MBAs) of State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF-IPPE).

  10. Development of ecotoxicology procedures for use in assessing health of coral reefs

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, P.S.; Marubini, F.

    1995-12-31

    There is widespread concern over the apparent worldwide decline in the health of coral reefs. However, assessment methods, other than long-term monitoring, have not yet been attempted. To remedy this the authors are developing ecotoxicology procedures to assess the effects of water quality factors on the corals themselves. Because of the problems of working with large, attached organisms, the authors have concentrated on developing small clonal preparations from corals with both a branching and a massive growth-form. For branching corals, tips (`nubbins`) are removed, and the cut surface ground smooth before cementing to 30mm x 30mm acrylic squares. Cores, or `explants`, 25mm in diameter are removed from massive corals and cemented into injection-moulded plastic cups, to protect the cut surfaces of the skeleton. Trays of up to 18 nubbins and explants may then be transferred to the reef, where they are affixed to previously installed concrete breeze blocks. They may then be retrieved as required to assess the effects of water quality upon them. For laboratory ecotoxicology experiments, the authors have devised a system of artificial lighting, using halide lamps, to grow coral nubbins and explants under controlled conditions. To test the effects of pollutants, the authors use measurements of respiration, photosynthesis and skeletal growth rate. Growth is measured by a very simple buoyant weighing procedure, which requires only an analytical laboratory balance, and an easily-constructed plastic box-shaped chamber. The method is sufficiently sensitive to measure growth over a 24 hour period in some fast-growing corals. The authors will describe the results of initial experiments, carried out at the Bellairs Research Institute, Barbados, on the effects of different levels of phosphate and nitrate in the seawater. For the first time, they are able to demonstrate the concentration-related decrease in growth rate associated with nitrate eutrophication.

  11. On minimal energy dipole moment distributions in regular polygonal agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Adriano Possebon; Cunha, Francisco Ricardo; Ceniceros, Hector Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Static, regular polygonal and close-packed clusters of spherical magnetic particles and their energy-minimizing magnetic moments are investigated in a two-dimensional setting. This study focuses on a simple particle system which is solely described by the dipole-dipole interaction energy, both without and in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field. For a regular polygonal structure of n sides with n ≥ 3 , and in the absence of an external field, it is proved rigorously that the magnetic moments given by the roots of unity, i.e. tangential to the polygon, are a minimizer of the dipole-dipole interaction energy. Also, for zero external field, new multiple local minima are discovered for the regular polygonal agglomerates. The number of found local extrema is proportional to [ n / 2 ] and these critical points are characterized by the presence of a pair of magnetic moments with a large deviation from the tangential configuration and whose particles are at least three diameters apart. The changes induced by an in-plane external magnetic field on the minimal energy, tangential configurations are investigated numerically. The two critical fields, which correspond to a crossover with the linear chain minimal energy and with the break-up of the agglomerate, respectively are examined in detail. In particular, the numerical results are compared directly with the asymptotic formulas of Danilov et al. (2012) [23] and a remarkable agreement is found even for moderate to large fields. Finally, three examples of close-packed structures are investigated: a triangle, a centered hexagon, and a 19-particle close packed cluster. The numerical study reveals novel, illuminating characteristics of these compact clusters often seen in ferrofluids. The centered hexagon is energetically favorable to the regular hexagon and the minimal energy for the larger 19-particle cluster is even lower than that of the close packed hexagon. In addition, this larger close packed agglomerate has two

  12. Elbow denervation in dogs: development of an in vivo surgical procedure and pilot testing.

    PubMed

    Zamprogno, Helia; Hash, Jon; Hulse, Don A; Lascelles, B Duncan X

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a surgical technique for sensory denervation of the canine elbow joint and to assess the effects of denervation on limb function in normal dogs. Twenty cadavers (40 elbows) were used to characterize innervation and design the surgical protocol which was tested in 13 cadavers (26 normal elbows). The effect of denervation on limb function was assessed in vivo in four dogs with the elbow randomly selected for the procedure. Primary outcome measures were static bodyweight distribution and distal limb mechanical sensory thresholds; secondary outcome measures were subjectively scored lameness, neurological function and pain on manipulation. Histology was performed on all resected tissues to determine whether nerves had been resected. Denervation was achieved by separate medial and lateral surgical approaches. In testing the developed surgical protocol, 111/130 resected samples contained nerve tissue in the healthy cadaveric elbows and 18/20 in the in vivo study. Limb function and sensation were not altered by elbow joint denervation. The protocol developed for denervation of the canine elbow appears feasible and does not result in any sensory or motor deficits of the forelimb.

  13. Study on GIS Visualization in Evaluation of the Human Living Environment in Shenyang-Dalian Urban Agglomeration

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Kang; Zhou, Jieting; Li, Xuxiang; Ge, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of human living environmental quality of Shenyang-Dalian urban agglomerations has important theoretical and practical significance in rapid development region. A lot of investigations have been carried for Shenyang-Dalian urban agglomerations, including 38 counties. Based on the carrying capacity of resources, natural and socioeconomic environmental factors and regional changes of human living environmental evaluation are analyzed with the application of geographic information systems (GIS) software. By using principal component analysis (PCA) model and natural breaks classification (NBC) method, the evaluation results are divided into five categories. The results show that the human living environmental evaluation (HLEE) indexes of Dalian, Shenyang, and Liaoyang are higher than other counties. Among these counties, the human living environmental evaluation (HLEE) indexes of coastal counties are significantly higher than inland counties. The range of the human living environmental evaluation index in most of the study area is at III, IV, and V levels, accounting for 80.01%. Based on these results, it could illustrate the human living environment is in relatively suitable condition in Shenyang-Dalian urban agglomeration. PMID:27200212

  14. AC impedance modelling study on porous electrodes of proton exchange membrane fuel cells using an agglomerate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerteisen, Dietmar; Hakenjos, Alex; Schumacher, Jürgen O.

    A one-dimensional model of the PEM fuel cell cathode is developed to analyse ac impedance spectra and polarisation curves. The porous gas diffusion electrode is assumed to consist of a network of dispersed catalyst (Pt/C) forming spherically shaped agglomerated zones that are filled with electrolyte. The coupled differential equation system describes: ternary gas diffusion in the backing (O2 , N2 , water vapour), Fickian diffusion and Tafel kinetics for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) inside the agglomerates, proton migration with ohmic losses and double-layer charging in the electrode. Measurements are made of a temperature-controlled fuel cell with a geometric area of 1.4 cm × 1.4 cm. Lateral homogeneity is ensured by using a high stoichiometry of λmin . The model predicts the behaviour of measured polarisation curves and impedance spectra. It is found that a better humidification of the electrode leads to a higher volumetric double-layer capacity. The catalyst layer resistance shows the same behaviour depending on the humidification as the membrane resistance. Model parameters, e.g. Tafel slope, ionic resistance and agglomerate radius are varied. A sensitivity analysis of the model parameters is conducted.

  15. Agglomerating combustor-gasifier method and apparatus for coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Joseph L. P.; Archer, David H.

    1976-09-21

    A method and apparatus for gasifying coal wherein the gasification takes place in a spout fluid bed at a pressure of about 10 to 30 atmospheres and a temperature of about 1800.degree. to 2200.degree.F and wherein the configuration of the apparatus and the manner of introduction of gases for combustion and fluidization is such that agglomerated ash can be withdrawn from the bottom of the apparatus and gas containing very low dust loading is produced. The gasification reaction is self-sustaining through the burning of a stoichiometric amount of coal with air in the lower part of the apparatus to form the spout within the fluid bed. The method and apparatus are particularly suitable for gasifying coarse coal particles.

  16. Remediation of Sucarnoochee soil by agglomeration with fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, P.S.; Arnold, D.W.; Rahnama, M.B. )

    1994-01-01

    Fine-sized Blue Creek coal was used to remove high molecular weight hydrocarbons from Sucarnoochee soil, a fine-sized high-organic soil. Fine coal in slurry form was blended with Sucarnoochee soil contaminated with 15.0% by wt of crude oil, and agglomerates were removed in a standard flotation cell. Crude oil in the remediated soil was reduced from the original 15.0% to less than a tenth of a wt% by a two-step process. Oil removal of approx. 99.3% was obtained. An added benefit was that the low-grade coal used in the process was simultaneously upgraded. The final level of cleaning was not affected by initial oil concentration. The process compared favorably with a hot water wash technique used to recovery oils from contaminated soil.

  17. Innovations in thermoelectric materials research: Compound agglomeration, testing and preselection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez de Cardenas, Hugo Francisco Lopez

    Thermoelectric materials have the capacity to convert a temperature differential into electrical power and vice versa. They will represent the next revolution in alternative energies once their efficiencies are enhanced so they can complement other forms of green energies that depend on sources other than a temperature differential. Progress in materials science depends on the ability to discover new materials to eventually understand them and to finally improve their properties. The work presented here is aimed at dynamizing the screening of materials of thermoelectric interest. The results of this project will enable: theoretical preselection of thermoelectric compounds based on their bandgap and a rapid agglomeration method that does not require melting or sintering. A special interest will be given to Iodine-doped TiSe2 that generated extraordinary results and a new set of equations are proposed to accurately describe the dependence of the power factor and the figure of merit on the intrinsic properties of the materials.

  18. Molecular mechanisms responsible for hydrate anti-agglomerant performance.

    PubMed

    Phan, Anh; Bui, Tai; Acosta, Erick; Krishnamurthy, Pushkala; Striolo, Alberto

    2016-09-28

    Steered and equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were employed to study the coalescence of a sI hydrate particle and a water droplet within a hydrocarbon mixture. The size of both the hydrate particle and the water droplet is comparable to that of the aqueous core in reverse micelles. The simulations were repeated in the presence of various quaternary ammonium chloride surfactants. We investigated the effects due to different groups on the quaternary head group (e.g. methyl vs. butyl groups), as well as different hydrophobic tail lengths (e.g. n-hexadecyl vs. n-dodecyl tails) on the surfactants' ability to prevent coalescence. Visual inspection of sequences of simulation snapshots indicates that when the water droplet is not covered by surfactants it is more likely to approach the hydrate particle, penetrate the protective surfactant film, reach the hydrate surface, and coalesce with the hydrate than when surfactants are present on both surfaces. Force-distance profiles obtained from steered molecular dynamics simulations and free energy profiles obtained from umbrella sampling suggest that surfactants with butyl tripods on the quaternary head group and hydrophobic tails with size similar to the solvent molecules can act as effective anti-agglomerants. These results qualitatively agree with macroscopic experimental observations. The simulation results provide additional insights, which could be useful in flow assurance applications: the butyl tripod provides adhesion between surfactants and hydrates; when the length of the surfactant tail is compatible with that of the hydrocarbon in the liquid phase a protective film can form on the hydrate; however, once a molecularly thin chain of water molecules forms through the anti-agglomerant film, connecting the water droplet and the hydrate, water flows to the hydrate and coalescence is inevitable.

  19. [Further development and validation of a clinical auditing procedure for rehabilitation facilities].

    PubMed

    Meixner, K; Lubenow, B; Brückner, U; Gerdes, N

    2006-06-01

    Visitations (audits) are considered an instrument of external quality assurance by which the structural and organizational set-up of health facilities can be assessed on site by external experts. The Deutsche Rentenversicherung Bund (including the former Bundesversicherungsanstalt für Angestellte, BfA, the statutory pension insurance agency for white collar employees) is the largest body responsible for rehabilitation in Germany, and it regularly carries out visitations in the approximately 650 rehab centres it sends its patients to. The project presented in this article aimed at developing a manual with detailed descriptions of the procedures and criteria of the assessment, as well as at checking the inter-rater-reliability of the assessment. The manual was developed in cooperation with experts of the Deutsche Rentenversicherung Bund. It contains a description of the areas to be assessed during a visitation as well as leading questions and criteria for the evaluation of single features. The manual was examined in "test visitations" in 10 centres, each of which was visited by three visitation teams (1 medical and 1 administrative expert) simultaneously. When the resulting 30 assessments were compared, the criterion "overall quality of the centre" (which was assessed on a 10-point scale) showed precise agreement in 47 %, and a deviation by 1 point in 33 % of the cases. Single features assessed on a three-point scale (no improvement needed/improvement recommended/immediate improvement obligatory) resulted in precise agreement in between 80 % ("medical and therapeutic processes") and 86 % ("structural features") of the cases. Two-point scales (condition fulfilled or not fulfilled) showed an agreement between 89 % ("internal quality management") and 97 % ("single structural features"). In order to maintain and further develop this good inter-rater-reliability, the visitors of Deutsche Rentenversicherung Bund are continually trained in applying the visitation manual

  20. Development of in situ test procedures for TMI-2 axial power shaping rod-drive mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Gannon, J A

    1982-11-01

    General Public Utilities Nuclear Corporation (GPUNC), Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), and EG and G Idaho participated jointly in tests at Diamond Power Specialty Corporation, Lancaster, Ohio, to develop an in-situ dynamic test procedure for application to the TMI-2 Axial Power Shaping Rods (APSRs). An APSR drive mechanism was set up with operating controls and instrumentation. Testing took place on an air stand installation and on an autoclave which simulated conditions of a stator in a water-filled reactor. Dynamic tests established mechanism electrical transient and acoustic signature characteristics associated with mechanism response to energizing and running various modes. Static tests determined characteristics unrelated to actual motion. Analysis of data from the controlled experiments resulted in development of a set of baseline characteristics to be used as a reference for evaluating the condition and response of installed APSRs. A test was devised for use at TMI-2 to verify APSR operability, to drive the APSRs to their lower limits, and to acquire data for potential clues to condition of the reactor core.

  1. Mathematical études: embedding opportunities for developing procedural fluency within rich mathematical contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Colin

    2013-07-01

    In a high-stakes assessment culture, it is clearly important that learners of mathematics develop the necessary fluency and confidence to perform well on the specific, narrowly defined techniques that will be tested. However, an overemphasis on the training of piecemeal mathematical skills at the expense of more independent engagement with richer, multifaceted tasks risks devaluing the subject and failing to give learners an authentic and enjoyable experience of being a mathematician. Thus, there is a pressing need for mathematical tasks which embed the practice of essential techniques within a richer, exploratory and investigative context. Such tasks can be justified to school management or to more traditional mathematics teachers as vital practice of important skills; at the same time, they give scope to progressive teachers who wish to work in more exploratory ways. This paper draws on the notion of a musical étude to develop a powerful and versatile approach in which these apparently contradictory aspects of teaching mathematics can be harmoniously combined. I illustrate the tactic in three central areas of the high-school mathematics curriculum: plotting Cartesian coordinates, solving linear equations and performing enlargements. In each case, extensive practice of important procedures takes place alongside more thoughtful and mathematically creative activity.

  2. Quantitative evaluation of geodiversity: development of methodological procedures with application to territorial management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, J.; Brilha, J.; Pereira, D.; Nolasco, M.

    2012-04-01

    Although geodiversity is considered the setting for biodiversity, there is still a huge gap in the social recognition of these two concepts. The concept of geodiversity, less developed, is now making its own way as a robust and fundamental idea concerning the abiotic component of nature. From a conservationist point of view, the lack of a broader knowledge concerning the type and spatial variation of geodiversity, as well as its relationship with biodiversity, makes the protection and management of natural or semi-natural areas incomplete. There is a growing need to understand the patterns of geodiversity in different landscapes and to translate this knowledge for territorial management in a practical and effective point of view. This kind of management can also represent an important tool for the development of sustainable tourism, particularly geotourism, which can bring benefits not only for the environment, but also for social and economic purposes. The quantification of geodiversity is an important step in all this process but still few researchers are investing in the development of a proper methodology. The assessment methodologies that were published so far are mainly focused on the evaluation of geomorphological elements, sometimes complemented with information about lithology, soils, hidrology, morphometric variables, climatic surfaces and geosites. This results in very dissimilar areas at very different spatial scales, showing the complexity of the task and the need of further research. This current work aims the development of an effective methodology for the assessment of the maximum elements of geodiversity possible (rocks, minerals, fossils, landforms, soils), based on GIS routines. The main determinant factor for the quantitative assessment is scale, but other factors are also very important, such as the existence of suitable spatial data with sufficient degree of detail. It is expected to attain the proper procedures in order to assess geodiversity

  3. Development of Biocompatibility Procedures for Assessment of Plant Growth in Ground Test Hardware for the EMCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, R. N.; Steele, M. K.; Sun, S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) is an European Space Agency-developed facility designed to support plant research in microgravity on the IS NASA is responsible for providing US specific hardware to use within the EMCS. In preparation for flight, research will be developed and tested at Ames Research Center in the EMCS ground test hardware, the Experiment Reference Module (ERM) In order to determine the acceptability of the ERM for such purposes, biocompatibility tests will be performed to determine that the hardware functions as intended and successfully supports the' growth of plants. In this report, we describe the development of procedures and the collection of baseline data against which to compare ERM function, e.g. biocompatibility testing. A simple and robust system was developed to grow whole Arabidopsis thaliana plants within the confined volumes characteristic of spaceflight hardware. Our system for growing plants eliminated the necessity of a water/nutrient delivery system and allowed for quantifiable assessment of individual plants, as well as entire population dynamics. To insure uniform germination, seeds were started in small straw segments and transplanted into modified scintillation vials. Seedlings were selected prior to transplantation to decrease genetic variability. Plants were grown for a total of 24 days in standard laboratory plant growth chambers under controlled conditions. Sequential digital still images were taken on a daily basis. Analysis of these images allowed for the quantification of even minute environmental effect, on growth dynamics whole plants. The data collected provide reliable growth curves against which to compare plants grown in the ERM.

  4. Morphological characterization of diesel soot agglomerates based on the Beer-Lambert law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapuerta, Magín; Martos, Francisco J.; José Expósito, Juan

    2013-03-01

    A new method is proposed for the determination of the number of primary particles composing soot agglomerates emitted from diesel engines as well as their individual fractal dimension. The method is based on the Beer-Lambert law and it is applied to micro-photographs taken in high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Differences in the grey levels of the images lead to a more accurate estimation of the geometry of the agglomerate (in this case radius of gyration) than other methods based exclusively on the planar projections of the agglomerates. The method was validated by applying it to different images of the same agglomerate observed from different angles of incidence, and proving that the effect of the angle of incidence is minor, contrary to other methods. Finally, the comparisons with other methods showed that the size, number of primary particles and fractal dimension (the latter depending on the particle size) are usually underestimated when only planar projections of the agglomerates are considered.

  5. An Approach to the Design of a Management Information System: Development Procedure for the Indonesian Defense Logistics Staff.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    DEVELOPMENT PROCEDURE FOR THENMINDONESIAN EFENSE LOGISTICS STAFF E. Sudaryanto Wreksomindojo Major, Indonesia Army LSSR 61-83 DTICELECTE >.. NOV 8 1983 C...PROCEDURE FOR THE INDONESIAN DEFENSE LOGISTICS STAFF E. Sudaryanto Wreksomindojo -Major, Indonesia Army LSSR 61-83 Apprr ’-;,, .; e 1. . ,: ;r...PERFORMING O0G. REPORT NUMBER 1. AUTHOR(*) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) E. Sudaryanto Wreksomindojo " " Major, Indonesia Army _ -." -** PERFORMING 10

  6. Development of a Novel Continuous Processing Technology for Functionally Graded Composite Energetic Materials Using an Inverse Design Procedure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Development of a Novel Continuous Processing Technology for Functionally Graded Composite Energetic Materials using an Inverse Design Procedure...novel continuous processing technology for FGMs using an inverse design procedure that can be applied to propellants. A novel continuous... processing technology that has shown a great deal of promise for solid rocket propellants is known as Twin Screw Extrusion (TSE) [2]. TSE processing can be

  7. Assessing mobility and redistribution patterns of sand and oil agglomerates in the surf zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Long, Joesph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thompson, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates that formed in the surf zone following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill continued to cause beach re-oiling 3 years after initial stranding. To understand this phenomena and inform operational response now and for future spills, a numerical method to assess the mobility and alongshore movement of these “surface residual balls” (SRBs) was developed and applied to the Alabama and western Florida coasts. Alongshore flow and SRB mobility and potential flux were used to identify likely patterns of transport and deposition. Results indicate that under typical calm conditions, cm-size SRBs are unlikely to move alongshore, whereas mobility and transport is likely during storms. The greater mobility of sand compared to SRBs makes burial and exhumation of SRBs likely, and inlets were identified as probable SRB traps. Analysis of field data supports these model results.

  8. Megacities and large urban agglomerations in the coastal zone: interactions between atmosphere, land, and marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    von Glasow, Roland; Jickells, Tim D; Baklanov, Alexander; Carmichael, Gregory R; Church, Tom M; Gallardo, Laura; Hughes, Claire; Kanakidou, Maria; Liss, Peter S; Mee, Laurence; Raine, Robin; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Ramesh, R; Sundseth, Kyrre; Tsunogai, Urumu; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Zhu, Tong

    2013-02-01

    Megacities are not only important drivers for socio-economic development but also sources of environmental challenges. Many megacities and large urban agglomerations are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere, and ocean meet, posing multiple environmental challenges which we consider here. The atmospheric flow around megacities is complicated by urban heat island effects and topographic flows and sea breezes and influences air pollution and human health. The outflow of polluted air over the ocean perturbs biogeochemical processes. Contaminant inputs can damage downstream coastal zone ecosystem function and resources including fisheries, induce harmful algal blooms and feedback to the atmosphere via marine emissions. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is hundreds to thousands of kilometers in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometers in the ocean. We list research needs to further our understanding of coastal megacities with the ultimate aim to improve their environmental management.

  9. Trajectories of cortical thickness maturation in normal brain development – The importance of quality control procedures

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Simon; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Hudziak, James J.; Mateos-Pérez, J. M.; Labbe, Aurelie; Evans, Alan C.; Karama, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    Several reports have described cortical thickness (CTh) developmental trajectories, with conflicting results. Some studies have reported inverted-U shape curves with peaks of CTh in late childhood to adolescence, while others suggested predominant monotonic decline after age 6. In this study, we reviewed CTh developmental trajectories in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development, and in a second step evaluated the impact of post-processing quality control (QC) procedures on identified trajectories. The quality-controlled sample included 384 individual subjects with repeated scanning (1–3 per subject, total scans n=753) from 4.9 to 22.3 years of age. The best-fit model (cubic, quadratic, or first-order linear) was identified at each vertex using mixed-effects models. The majority of brain regions showed linear monotonic decline of CTh. There were few areas of cubic trajectories, mostly in bilateral temporo-parietal areas and the right prefrontal cortex, in which CTh peaks were at, or prior to, age 8. When controlling for total brain volume, CTh trajectories were even more uniformly linear. The only sex difference was faster thinning of occipital areas in boys compared to girls. The best-fit model for whole brain mean thickness was a monotonic decline of 0.027 mm per year. QC procedures had a significant impact on identified trajectories, with a clear shift toward more complex trajectories when including all scans without QC (n=954). Trajectories were almost exclusively linear when using only scans that passed the most stringent QC (n=598). The impact of QC probably relates to decreasing the inclusion of scans with CTh underestimation secondary to movement artifacts, which are more common in younger subjects. In summary, our results suggest that CTh follows a simple linear decline in most cortical areas by age 5, and all areas by age 8. This study further supports the crucial importance of implementing post-processing QC in CTh studies of development, aging

  10. Trajectories of cortical thickness maturation in normal brain development--The importance of quality control procedures.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Simon; Albaugh, Matthew D; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Hudziak, James J; Mateos-Pérez, J M; Labbe, Aurelie; Evans, Alan C; Karama, Sherif

    2016-01-15

    Several reports have described cortical thickness (CTh) developmental trajectories, with conflicting results. Some studies have reported inverted-U shape curves with peaks of CTh in late childhood to adolescence, while others suggested predominant monotonic decline after age 6. In this study, we reviewed CTh developmental trajectories in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development, and in a second step, evaluated the impact of post-processing quality control (QC) procedures on identified trajectories. The quality-controlled sample included 384 individual subjects with repeated scanning (1-3 per subject, total scans n=753) from 4.9 to 22.3years of age. The best-fit model (cubic, quadratic, or first-order linear) was identified at each vertex using mixed-effects models. The majority of brain regions showed linear monotonic decline of CTh. There were few areas of cubic trajectories, mostly in bilateral temporo-parietal areas and the right prefrontal cortex, in which CTh peaks were at, or prior to, age 8. When controlling for total brain volume, CTh trajectories were even more uniformly linear. The only sex difference was faster thinning of occipital areas in boys compared to girls. The best-fit model for whole brain mean thickness was a monotonic decline of 0.027mm per year. QC procedures had a significant impact on identified trajectories, with a clear shift toward more complex trajectories (i.e., quadratic or cubic) when including all scans without QC (n=954). Trajectories were almost exclusively linear when using only scans that passed the most stringent QC (n=598). The impact of QC probably relates to decreasing the inclusion of scans with CTh underestimation secondary to movement artifacts, which are more common in younger subjects. In summary, our results suggest that CTh follows a simple linear decline in most cortical areas by age 5, and all areas by age 8. This study further supports the crucial importance of implementing post-processing QC in CTh studies

  11. Developing Flowcharted Procedures Manuals for School District Administration within the ISO 9000 Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoch, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the School District of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, implemented a districtwide quality-management system based on the Geneva-based International Standards Organization 9001, a major component of which is the documentation of procedures. Includes sections on implementation, procedure manuals, quality management, uniformity, formatting,…

  12. Plastic bronchitis developing 5 years after Fontan procedure in a girl with Kartagener's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nawa, Tomohiro; Yokozawa, Masato; Takamuro, Motoki; Kasuga, Ai

    2012-06-01

    Although rare, plastic bronchitis (PB) is an important early complication after Fontan procedure. Kartagener's syndrome is characterized by mucociliary dysfunction of the respiratory tract and has a triad of features, including situs inversus totalis, chronic sinusitis, and bronchiectasia. We experienced PB in a patient with Kartagener's syndrome 5 years after Fontan procedure.

  13. Development of a Course of Study in FDA Drug Regulatory Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Robin Wills; King, James C.

    1977-01-01

    It is evident that more colleges of pharmacy should establish some major course of study in the area of governmental drug regulatory procedures. This study is aimed at expanding cooperative educational programs through an FDA residency for pharmacy students and preparing a didactic course in FDA procedures. (LBH)

  14. Development of fraction concepts and procedures in U.S. and Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Drew H; Zhou, Xinlin; Zhang, Yiyun; Cui, Jiaxin; Fuchs, Lynn S; Jordan, Nancy C; Gersten, Russell; Siegler, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    We compared knowledge of fraction concepts and procedures among sixth and eighth graders in China and the United States. As anticipated, Chinese middle school children had higher knowledge of fraction concepts and procedures than U.S. children in the same grades, and the difference in procedural knowledge was much larger than the difference in conceptual knowledge. Of particular interest, national differences in knowledge of fraction concepts were fully mediated by differences in knowledge of fraction procedures, and differences between the knowledge of Chinese and U.S. children were most pronounced among the lowest achieving children within each country. Based on these and previous results, a theoretical model of the mutually facilitative interaction between conceptual and procedural knowledge of fractions is proposed and discussed.

  15. Systems, methods and apparatus for pattern matching in procedure development and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Rash, James L. (Inventor); Rouff, Christopher A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which, in some embodiments, a formal specification is pattern-matched from scenarios, the formal specification is analyzed, and flaws in the formal specification are corrected. The systems, methods and apparatus may include pattern-matching an equivalent formal model from an informal specification. Such a model can be analyzed for contradictions, conflicts, use of resources before the resources are available, competition for resources, and so forth. From such a formal model, an implementation can be automatically generated in a variety of notations. The approach can improve the resulting implementation, which, in some embodiments, is provably equivalent to the procedures described at the outset, which in turn can improve confidence that the system reflects the requirements, and in turn reduces system development time and reduces the amount of testing required of a new system. Moreover, in some embodiments, two or more implementations can be "reversed" to appropriate formal models, the models can be combined, and the resulting combination checked for conflicts. Then, the combined, error-free model can be used to generate a new (single) implementation that combines the functionality of the original separate implementations, and may be more likely to be correct.

  16. Development of analytical procedures for coprocessing. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1990--September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.P.

    1991-05-01

    This is the eighth quarterly report under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88810, Development of Analytical Procedures for Coprocessing. The overall objective of the contract is to improve our understanding of the fundamental chemistry of coprocessing. This includes the evaluation of methods to distinguish between compound classes originating from coal versus those originating from petroleum resid. Techniques being evaluated include carbon isotope ratios and the variations in compound classes in response to changes in the coal/resid ratio in the feed. A final objective of this project is to provide detailed knowledge on the composition of coprocessing products. This report reviews the use of isotope ratios to determine the source of compound classes (e.g., acids, bases, neutrals, aromatics, saturates, etc.). Selective isotope fractionation is a complicating factor in the use of carbon isotope ratios to determine the source of coprocessing products. Other researchers have shown that through the use of appropriate correction factors to correct for this isotope selectivity, isotope ratios can be used to quantitatively determine the source of coprocessing fractions obtained by distillation. It is concluded in this report that although isotope ratios may provide qualitative information on the source of coprocessing compound classes, that the high degree of isotope selectivity in compound classes originating from a single feed prohibits the quantitative determination of the origin of such compound classes.

  17. Development of a procedure to determine standardized mineral availabilities in soybean meal for broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songbai; Li, Sufen; Lu, Lin; Xie, Jingjing; Zhang, Liyang; Jiang, Yong; Luo, Xugang

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a procedure for estimating the standardized mineral (calcium, Ca; phosphorus, P; copper, Cu; manganese, Mn; zinc, Zn) availabilities (SMA) in soybean meal for broilers. In experiment 1, twelve 24-day-old male chicks were used to determine the length of the pre-experimental fasting period needed to empty the total tract of feed residues. Feed was removed and excreta samples were collected for 12, 24, 36 or 48 h after feed withdrawal, respectively. The result indicated that birds were fasted for at least 24 h after feed withdrawal in order to ensure that no previous feed residues remained in the digestive tract of chicks. In a subsequent experiment, forty-eight 24-day-old male chicks were used to determine SMA in soybean meal. Chicks were fasted for 24 h and then fed mineral-free or soybean meal diet for 4 h, and excreta samples were collected until 24 or 48 h after feed withdrawal. The results showed that the extended excreta collection time of 48 h after feed withdrawal was adequate for estimating SMA. The standardized availability values of Ca, P, Cu, Mn or Zn in soybean meal were 51.14%, 50.22%, 36.28%, 30.79% or 49.66%, respectively. In experiment 3, a similar bioassay was conducted with forty-eight 36-day-old male chicks to measure SMA in the same soybean meal. The standardized availability values of P (51.59%), Cu (36.37%), Mn (31.94%) or Zn (43.37%) were similar (P > 0.12) to the results of experiment 2 except for Ca (41.49%), indicating that the age of birds had no effect on the standardized availabilities of P, Cu, Mn or Zn in soybean meal. The results from this study suggested that this simple and rapid procedure could be used to determine SMA in feedstuffs (e.g., soybean meal) for broiler chicks.

  18. Effect of antioxidants during bovine in vitro fertilization procedures on spermatozoa and embryo development.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, F S; Barretto, L S S; Arruda, R P; Perri, S H V; Mingoti, G Z

    2010-02-01

    Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during in vitro fertilization (IVF) may cause cytotoxic damage to gametes, whereas small amounts of ROS favour sperm capacitation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of antioxidants [50 microm beta-mercaptoethanol (beta-ME) and 50 microm cysteamine (Cyst)] or a pro-oxidant (5 mm buthionine sulfoximine) on the quality and penetrability of spermatozoa into bovine oocytes and on the subsequent embryo development and quality when added during IVF. Sperm quality, evaluated by the integrity of plasma and acrosomal membranes, and mitochondrial function, was diminished (p < 0.05) after 4-h culture in the presence of antioxidants. Oocyte penetration rates were similar between treatments (p > 0.05), but antioxidants adversely affected the normal pronuclear formation rates (p < 0.05). The incidence of polyspermy was high for beta-ME (p < 0.05). No differences were observed in cleavage rates between treatments (p > 0.05). However, the developmental rate to the blastocyst stage was adversely affected by Cyst treatment (p < 0.05). The quality of embryos that reached the blastocyst stage, evaluated by total, inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm cell numbers and ICM/total cell ratio was unaffected (p > 0.05) by treatments. The results indicate that ROS play a role in the fertilizing capacity in bovine spermatozoa, as well as in the interaction between the spermatozoa and the oocytes. It can be concluded that supplementation with antioxidants during IVF procedures impairs sperm quality, normal pronuclear formation and embryo development to the blastocyst stage.

  19. Development of analytical procedures for coprocessing. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1991--March 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.P.

    1991-06-01

    This is the tenth quarterly report under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88810, Development of Analytical Procedures for Coprocessing. The overall objective of the contract is to improve understanding of the fundamental chemistry of coprocessing. A primary objective is to evaluate methods to distinguish between compound classes originating from coal versus those originating from petroleum resid while a corollary objective is to provide detailed knowledge on the composition of coprocessing products. This report summarizes work conducted in support of the latter objective in which process development unit samples produced by HRI, Inc. are being subjected to detailed analysis. Coprocessing resid samples selected for detailed analysis were made under constant conditions except for variations in coal concentration or in the coal (New Mexico subbituminous or Texas lignite). The soluble material was separated into strong and weak acids, strong and weak bases, and neutrals. The predominant fraction from the ABN separations was the neutral fraction (67-81%). All of the polar fractions increase with increasing coal concentration. The concentration of saturates in the neutrals is high in a run with 33% subbituminous coal but drops substantially with either increasing coal concentration or the substitution of lignite for subbituminous coal. High temperature gas chromatography showed that both the neutral aromatics fractions and saturates fractions from all of the runs are extremely similar regardless of the coal concentration or coal type. The neutral aromatics fractions were further separated by ring number separation. Chromatograms were again very similar regardless of the initial coal concentration or coal type with most material eluting in the 3-ring to 6-ring region.

  20. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, S.; Hogg, R.

    1996-04-01

    Goals are to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of a micro-agglomerate flotation process (combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation) and to establish the essential criteria for reagent selection and system design and operation. The research program was organized into the following tasks: interfacial studies, emulsification, agglomerate growth and structure, and agglomerate flotation. Work on the first two tasks has been completed.

  1. A 3D agglomeration multigrid solver for the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvriplis, D. J.; Venkatakrishnan, V.

    1995-01-01

    An agglomeration multigrid strategy is developed and implemented for the solution of three-dimensional steady viscous flows. The method enables convergence acceleration with minimal additional memory overheads, and is completely automated, in that it can deal with grids of arbitrary construction. The multigrid technique is validated by comparing the delivered convergence rates with those obtained by a previously developed overset-mesh multigrid approach, and by demonstrating grid independent convergence rates for aerodynamic problems on very large grids. Prospects for further increases in multigrid efficiency for high-Reynolds number viscous flows on highly stretched meshes are discussed.

  2. Example Procedures for Developing Acceptance-Range Criteria for BESTEST-EX

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Polly, B.; Bianchi, M.; Neymark, J.

    2010-08-01

    This document provides an example procedure for establishing acceptance-range criteria to assess results from software undergoing BESTEST-EX. This example method for BESTEST-EX is a modified version of the method described in HERS BESTEST.

  3. Development of the quasi-procedural method for use in aircraft configuration optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, P.; Kroo, I.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of the quasi-procedural analysis system in optimization tasks is investigated. In particular, the quasi-procedural method is applied to the complete mission optimization of a medium-sized transport aircraft using a vortex-lattice aerodynamic model and finite element structural analysis of the wing and the tail. Some modifications and improvements to the system, required in order to complete this task, are described. The performance of the system is compared with that of the standard procedural system, and it is shown that the quasi-procedural approach reduces the analysis required to reach the optimum. The overall cost is shown to be strongly dependent on the analysis architecture and data structure.

  4. Development of an ICF-based eligibility procedure for education in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Starting in January 2011, Switzerland will implement a multidimensional, context-sensitive procedure to establish eligibility in education systems. This paper provides a brief overview of the different eligibility-related practices with a special focus on children with disabilities. The paper then outlines the philosophical and conceptual framework of the eligibility procedure based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability. The different components and methodology applied to organise information in the process towards establishing eligibility are also presented. Finally, some observations are made regarding transparent and just applications of the eligibility procedure, and the implementation of this new eligibility procedure. PMID:21624193

  5. Evaluation of physico-mechanical properties of drug-excipients agglomerates obtained by crystallization.

    PubMed

    Maghsoodi, M; Tajalli Bakhsh, A S

    2011-06-01

    Spherical crystallization (SC) of carbamazepine (CBZ) was carried out for preparation of the agglomerates using the solvent change method. The potential of the intraagglomerate addition of sodium starch glycolate (SSG) as a disintegrant agent and povidone (PVP) as a hydrophilic polymer was also evaluated. The process of SC involved recrystallization of CBZ and its simultaneous agglomeration with additives. An ethanol:isopropyl acetate:water system was used where isopropyl acetate acted as a bridging liquid and ethanol and water as good and bad solvents, respectively. The agglomerates were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD), and Scanning electron microscopy and were evaluated for yield, flowability, disintegration time and drug release. CBZ agglomerates exhibited significantly improved micromeritic properties as well as dissolution behavior in comparison to conventional drug crystals. The dissolution rate of drug from agglomerates was enhanced by inclusion of SSG, while addition of PVP to CBZ/SSG agglomerates led to reduction in the release rate of CBZ even below that of the conventional drug crystals. SC process can be considered as a suitable alternative to conventional granulation process to obtain agglomerates of CBZ with excipients with improved micromeritic properties and modified dissolution rate.

  6. Modifying drug release and tablet properties of starch acetate tablets by dry powder agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Mäki, Riikka; Suihko, Eero; Rost, Susanne; Heiskanen, Minna; Murtomaa, Matti; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Ketolainen, Jarkko

    2007-02-01

    In this study three model drugs (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (NAG), anhydrous caffeine, and propranolol hydrochloride) were agglomerated with starch acetate (SA) by mixing the binary powders on a stainless steel (SS) plate. Agglomeration was induced by triboelectrification of the particles during mixing, and it was evaluated as a method to achieve controlled drug release rate. These agglomerates, mixed with different amounts of a disintegrant, were compressed into tablets whose dissolution characteristics were determined. Triboelectric measurements showed that when the drugs were in contact with SS, charges of the opposite polarity were generated to SA (+) and caffeine and NAG (-) promoting adhesion. Instead, propranolol HCl was charged with the same polarity as SA. SEM micrographs showed that smaller caffeine particles, in spite of their larger negative charge, agglomerated less efficiently with SA than larger NAG particles. This emphasizes the importance of particle size in the agglomeration process. Propranolol HCl did not form agglomerates with SA since their particle sizes and charges were identical. As a result, agglomeration of powders prior to tablet compression allows for modification and control of the release rate of the drugs from the SA matrix tablets as well as the tensile strength of the tablets.

  7. Intact neurobehavioral development and dramatic impairments of procedural-like memory following neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion in rats.

    PubMed

    Lecourtier, L; Antal, M-C; Cosquer, B; Schumacher, A; Samama, B; Angst, M-J; Ferrandon, A; Koning, E; Cassel, J-C; Nehlig, A

    2012-04-05

    Neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions (NVHL) in rats are considered a potent developmental model of schizophrenia. After NVHL, rats appear normal during their preadolescent time, whereas in early adulthood, they develop behavioral deficits paralleling symptomatic aspects of schizophrenia, including hyperactivity, hypersensitivity to amphetamine (AMPH), prepulse and latent inhibition deficits, reduced social interactions, and spatial working and reference memory alterations. Surprisingly, the question of the consequences of NVHL on postnatal neurobehavioral development has not been addressed. This is of particular importance, as a defective neurobehavioral development could contribute to impairments seen in adult rats. Therefore, at several time points of the early postsurgical life of NVHL rats, we assessed behaviors accounting for neurobehavioral development, including negative geotaxis and grip strength (PD11), locomotor coordination (PD21), and open-field (PD25). At adulthood, the rats were tested for anxiety levels, locomotor activity, as well as spatial reference memory performance. Using a novel task, we also investigated the consequences of the lesions on procedural-like memory, which had never been tested following NVHL. Our results point to preserved neurobehavioral development. They also confirm the already documented locomotor hyperactivity, spatial reference memory impairment, and hyperresponsiveness to AMPH. Finally, our rseults show for the first time that NVHL disabled the development of behavioral routines, suggesting dramatic procedural memory deficits. The presence of procedural memory deficits in adult rats subjected to NHVL suggests that the lesions lead to a wider range of cognitive deficits than previously shown. Interestingly, procedural or implicit memory impairments have also been reported in schizophrenic patients.

  8. Development of transmucosal patch loaded with anesthetic and analgesic for dental procedures and in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Nidhi, Malviya; Patro, M Nagaraju; Kusumvalli, Somisetty; Kusumdevi, Vemula

    2016-01-01

    Most of the dental surgeries require preoperative anesthetic and postoperative analgesic for painless procedures. A multidrug transmucosal drug delivery system loaded with lignocaine (Lig) base for immediate release and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of diclofenac (Dic) diethylamine for prolonged release was developed. SLNs were prepared by solvent emulsion–evaporation method with Precirol ATO 5 and Geleol as lipids and Pluronic F 68 as surfactant and optimized with Box–Behnken design for particle size and entrapment efficiency. SLNs were incorporated into the transmucosal patch (TP) prepared with hydroxypropyl cellulose-LF (HPC-LF) and with a backing layer of ethyl cellulose. Optimized SLNs and TP were characterized for Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, in vitro release, ex vivo permeation through porcine buccal mucosa, Caco-2 permeability, and residual solvent analysis by gas chromatography. The TP was also evaluated for swelling index, in vitro residence time, tensile strength, and mucoadhesive strength. Preclinical pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and histopathological studies by application of TP on the gingiva of New Zealand rabbits were carried out. Particle size and entrapment efficiency of the optimized SLN “S8” were determined as 98.23 nm and 84.36%, respectively. The gingival crevicular fluid and tissue concentrations were greater than plasma concentrations with increase in Cmax and area under the curve (AUC) of Lig and Dic when compared to the control group. Pain perception by needle prick showed prolonged combined anesthetic and analgesic effect. The developed TP loaded with Lig base and Dic diethylamine-SLNs exhibited immediate and complete permeation with tissue accumulation of Lig followed by controlled prolonged release and tissue accumulation of Dic at the site of application. Thus, it could be anticipated from the in vivo studies that the

  9. Measuring nursing advocacy in procedural pain care--development and validation of an instrument.

    PubMed

    Vaartio, Heli; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Suominen, Tarja; Puukka, Pauli

    2009-12-01

    Nursing advocacy has been defined in several ways, but its structure has not been operationalized. Therefore, different theoretical aspects of advocacy have not been able to be verified empirically. Our aim was to validate the content and structure of the concept of nursing advocacy within procedural pain care from the point of view of both patients and nurses. The concept of nursing advocacy was outlined first by integrative literature review and then delineated with data of semi-structured interviews among adult internal medicine and surgical patients and nurses (phases I-II). Then, the instrument was developed with facet-design approach, and the content and construct validity of it established in two subsamples within otolaryngeal surgical care (phases III-V). These descriptive and explorative studies were conducted from 2003 to 2007 in a total of 12 Finnish hospitals. The findings supported the validity of both the concept and the instrument. Pearson correlations and Cronbach alphas supported the conceptual dimensions of advocacy operationalized in this instrument. Internal consistency validity of the instrument scales were supported by subscale CVI, which ranged from 0.97 to 0.99, and item CVI, which ranged from 0.93 to 1.00. The instrument structure was strengthened with exploratory factor analysis, which explained 65% (sample of patients) or 57% (sample of nurses) of the variance in antecedents, 75% or 74% of the variance in activities, and 60% or 56% of the variance in the consequences of advocacy. This four-part 56-item (58-item for nurses) instrument promises to measure the dimensions of nursing advocacy. However, the instrument needs further validation in different settings.

  10. Development and Optimization of a Flocculation Procedure for Improved Solid-Liquid Separation of Digested Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Caroline; Lischeske, James J.; Sievers, David A.

    2015-11-03

    One viable treatment method for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels begins with saccharification (thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis), followed by fermentation or catalytic upgrading to fuels such as ethanol, butanol, or other hydrocarbons. The post-hydrolysis slurry is typically 4-8 percent insoluble solids, predominantly consisting of lignin. Suspended solids are known to inhibit fermentation as well as poison catalysts and obstruct flow in catalyst beds. Thus a solid-liquid separation following enzymatic hydrolysis would be highly favorable for process economics, however the material is not easily separated by filtration or gravimetric methods. Use of a polyacrylamide flocculant to bind the suspended particles in a corn stover hydrolyzate slurry into larger flocs (1-2mm diameter) has been found to be extremely helpful in improving separation. Recent and ongoing research on novel pretreatment methods yields hydrolyzate material with diverse characteristics. Therefore, we need a thorough understanding of rapid and successful flocculation design in order to quickly achieve process design goals. In this study potential indicators of flocculation performance were investigated in order to develop a rapid analysis method for flocculation procedure in the context of a novel hydrolyzate material. Flocculation conditions were optimized on flocculant type and loading, pH, and mixing time. Filtration flux of the hydrolyzate slurry was improved 170-fold using a cationic polyacrylamide flocculant with a dosing of approximately 22 mg flocculant/g insoluble solids at an approximate pH of 3. With cake washing, sugar recovery exceeded 90 percent with asymptotic yield at 15 L wash water/kg insoluble solids.

  11. Reducing adhesion and agglomeration within a cloud of combustible particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D.

    1988-01-01

    The study of combustible particle clouds inside flame tubes is of fundamental scientific interest as well as a practical concern. Only the suspended concentration is important to the combustion process, so that assurances must be provided that a minimum of particles adheres to the tube wall. This paper demonstrates experimentally the ability to minimize adhesion and agglomeration of acoustically-mixed lycopodium particles within a 5-cm diameter lexan flame tube. The area density of particles (ADP) adhering to the wall of bare lexan tubes was measured at greater than 100 particles/sq mm. The nature of adhesion was found to be clearly electrostatic, with the ADP level aggravated by increased mixing time, vigor, and the concentration of particles. Increases in the conductivity of the air and the tube wall did not affect ADP levels substantially. However, the observed adhesion was reduced to less than 10 p/sq mm when the air was ionized by use of an alpha emitter mounted on the inner walls of the flame tube.

  12. Nearshore dynamics of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.; McLaughlin, Molly R.

    2015-01-01

    Weathered oil can mix with sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs) that can cause beach re-oiling for years after a spill. Few studies have focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. In this study, artificial SOAs (aSOAs) were created and deployed in the nearshore, and shear stress-based mobility formulations were assessed to predict SOA response. Prediction sensitivity to uncertainty in hydrodynamic conditions and shear stress parameterizations were explored. Critical stress estimates accounting for large particle exposure in a mixed bed gave the best predictions of mobility under shoaling and breaking waves. In the surf zone, the 10-cm aSOA was immobile and began to bury in the seafloor while smaller size classes dispersed alongshore. aSOAs up to 5 cm in diameter were frequently mobilized in the swash zone. The uncertainty in predicting aSOA dynamics reflects a broader uncertainty in applying mobility and transport formulations to cm-sized particles.

  13. Noise action plan of agglomerations: sustainable hypothesis or utopy?

    PubMed

    Magri, S L; Masera, S; Fogola, J

    2009-12-01

    European and Italian laws establish that agglomerations of more than 100 000 inhabitants must adopt an action plan in order to manage noise issues and effects. The plan aim is to reduce population exposure to environmental noise, which is defined as the outdoor sound created by human activities, including noise emitted by road traffic, rail traffic and air traffic, and noise from sites of industrial activity. Although acoustic pollution represents one of the main causes of annoyance for inhabitants of urban areas, the political agenda does not acknowledge it among the main environmental issues. Thus, acoustic reclamation is often considered a duty to be accomplished rather than a way to improve quality of life for citizens. Furthermore, financial resources are generally very poor while the acoustic critical situations are numerous and serious in terms of exceeding the limit. In this situation, what is the meaning of an urban area noise action plan? What are the concrete actions that municipalities can realise to reduce urban noise pollution? This study tries to answer these questions, starting from the analysis carried out for the action plan of the city of Turin.

  14. Agglomeration Multigrid for an Unstructured-Grid Flow Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frink, Neal; Pandya, Mohagna J.

    2004-01-01

    An agglomeration multigrid scheme has been implemented into the sequential version of the NASA code USM3Dns, tetrahedral cell-centered finite volume Euler/Navier-Stokes flow solver. Efficiency and robustness of the multigrid-enhanced flow solver have been assessed for three configurations assuming an inviscid flow and one configuration assuming a viscous fully turbulent flow. The inviscid studies include a transonic flow over the ONERA M6 wing and a generic business jet with flow-through nacelles and a low subsonic flow over a high-lift trapezoidal wing. The viscous case includes a fully turbulent flow over the RAE 2822 rectangular wing. The multigrid solutions converged with 12%-33% of the Central Processing Unit (CPU) time required by the solutions obtained without multigrid. For all of the inviscid cases, multigrid in conjunction with an explicit time-stepping scheme performed the best with regard to the run time memory and CPU time requirements. However, for the viscous case multigrid had to be used with an implicit backward Euler time-stepping scheme that increased the run time memory requirement by 22% as compared to the run made without multigrid.

  15. Monitoring of odor nuisance in the tri-city agglomeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebicki, Jacek; Dymerski, Tomasz; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-11-01

    The paper describes a principle of operation of odor nuisance monitoring network, which is being designed in the tri-city agglomeration. Moreover, it presents the preliminary results of an investigation on ambient air quality with respect to odour nuisance in a vicinity of the municipal landfill. The investigation was performed during spring-winter season using a prototype of electronic nose and the Nasal Ranger field olfactometers. The prototype was equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co. and one PID-type sensor. The field olfactometers were used to determine mean concentration of odorants, which amounted from 2.2 to 30.2 ou/m3 depending on the place of measurement. In case of the investigation with the electronic nose prototype a classification of the ambient air samples with respect to the place of sampling was performed utilizing kNN algorithm supported with a cross-validation method. Correct classification of the ambient air samples was at the level of 66.7%. Performed investigation revealed that discrimination of the ambient air samples differing in concentration of odorants and place of origin was possible.

  16. Coal beneficiation kinetics of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, F.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1996-12-31

    The kinetics of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process were investigated by monitoring the change in the turbidity of an aqueous particle suspension as the particles were agglomerated with heptane in a closed tank fitted with baffles and an agitator. Measured amounts of air and heptane were added to a suspension of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal under vigorous agitation. The subsequent rate of change of particle concentration was taken to be an indication of the rate of agglomeration. The rate was found to be proportional to the particle number concentration raised to a power and dependent on agitator speed and the amounts of air and oil added.

  17. Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Huber, Dale L.

    2011-07-05

    A method for controlling the size of chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles that employs magnetic interaction between particles to control particle size and does not rely on conventional kinetic control of the reaction to control particle size. The particles are caused to reversibly agglomerate and precipitate from solution; the size at which this occurs can be well controlled to provide a very narrow particle size distribution. The size of particles is controllable by the size of the surfactant employed in the process; controlling the size of the surfactant allows magnetic control of the agglomeration and precipitation processes. Agglomeration is used to effectively stop particle growth to provide a very narrow range of particle sizes.

  18. Development of an analytical procedure to study linear alkylbenzenesulphonate (LAS) degradation in sewage sludge-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Comellas, L; Portillo, J L; Vaquero, M T

    1993-12-24

    A procedure for determining linear alkylbenzenesulphonates (LASs) in sewage sludge and amended soils has been developed. Extraction by sample treatment with 0.5 M potassium hydroxide in methanol and reflux was compared with a previously described extraction procedure in Soxhlet with methanol and solid sodium hydroxide in the sample. Repeatability results were similar with savings in extraction time, solvents and evaporation time. A clean-up method involving a C18 cartridge has been developed. Analytes were quantified by a reversed-phase HPLC method with UV and fluorescence detectors. Recoveries obtained were higher than 84%. The standing procedure was applied to high doses of sewage sludge-amended soils (15%) with increasing quantities of added LASs. Degradation data for a 116-day period are presented.

  19. The Physics of Protoplanetesimal Dust Agglomerates. V. Multiple Impacts of Dusty Agglomerates at Velocities Above the Fragmentation Threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothe, Stefan; Güttler, Carsten; Blum, Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, a number of new experiments have advanced our knowledge on the early growth phases of protoplanetary dust aggregates. Some of these experiments have shown that collisions between porous and compacted agglomerates at velocities above the fragmentation threshold velocity can lead to growth of the compact body, when the porous collision partner fragments upon impact and transfers mass to the compact agglomerate. To obtain a deeper understanding of this potentially important growth process, we performed laboratory and drop tower experiments to study multiple impacts of small, highly porous dust-aggregate projectiles onto sintered dust targets. The projectile and target consisted of 1.5 μm monodisperse, spherical SiO2 monomers with volume filling factors of 0.15 ± 0.01 and 0.45 ± 0.05, respectively. The fragile projectiles were accelerated by a solenoid magnet and combined with a projectile magazine with which 25 impacts onto the same spot on the target could be performed in vacuum. We measured the mass-accretion efficiency and the volume filling factor for different impact velocities between 1.5 and 6.0 m s^{-1}. The experiments at the lowest impact speeds were performed in the Bremen drop tower under microgravity conditions to allow partial mass transfer also for the lowest adhesion case. Within this velocity range, we found a linear increase of the accretion efficiency with increasing velocity. In the laboratory experiments, the accretion efficiency increases from 0.12 to 0.21 in units of the projectile mass. The recorded images of the impacts showed that the mass transfer from the projectile to the target leads to the growth of a conical structure on the target after less than 100 impacts. From the images, we also measured the volume filling factors of the grown structures, which ranged from 0.15 (uncompacted) to 0.40 (significantly compacted) with increasing impact speed. The velocity dependency of the mass-transfer efficiency and the packing

  20. [Development of educational hypermedia to teach an arterial blood pressure measurement procedure].

    PubMed

    Alavarce, Debora Cristina; Pierin, Angela Maria Geraldo

    2011-08-01

    Arterial blood pressure measurement is an essential conduct to evaluate the condition of the cardiovascular system. Digital teaching environment is a powerful tool for the teaching-learning process, because it adds meaning and concreteness to the content to be learned, and it can be useful to instruct this procedure. The objective of this study was to create educational hypermedia for teaching arterial blood pressure measurement, and to describe the steps of that creation process. The pedagogical framework of Robert Gagné was used; and the construction followed the model proposed by Price. The final product presents videos, photos, animations and simulations that demonstrate and teach the procedure. Although hypermedia construction has been difficult to use, it can positively enhance the teaching of nursing procedures.

  1. Analyzing Methods. A Procedural Guide for the Method Specialist. Research & Development Series No. 119-G. Career Planning Support System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhardt, Carolyn M.; And Others

    Information in this brief guide, one of a set of twelve documents describing the Career Planning Support System (CPSS) and its use, is directed to the method specialist (a member of the CPSS steering committee) and provides procedures and a list of questions to aid in analyzing career development methods that may be appropriate for use in career…

  2. The U.S. Agency-Level Bid Protest Mechanism: A Model for Bid Challenge Procedures in Developing Nations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-31

    35 V. Bid Protest Procedures in the UNCITRAL Model Procurement Law and World Bank Development...Program...................................................................... 39 A. UNCITRAL Model Procurement Law...government procurement,5 and the assistance offered by the United Nations Committee on International Trade Law ( UNCITRAL )6 in the form of its Model Law

  3. What Counts as Knowing? The Development of Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Counting from Kindergarten through Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Smith-Chant, Brenda L.; Fast, Lisa; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sargla, Erin; Arnup, Jesse S.; Penner-Wilger, Marcie; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Kamawar, Deepthi

    2006-01-01

    The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge about counting was explored for children in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 (N = 255). Conceptual knowledge was assessed by asking children to make judgments about three types of counts modeled by an animated frog: standard (correct) left-to-right counts, incorrect counts, and unusual…

  4. THE PHYSICS OF PROTOPLANETESIMAL DUST AGGLOMERATES. VII. THE LOW-VELOCITY COLLISION BEHAVIOR OF LARGE DUST AGGLOMERATES

    SciTech Connect

    Schraepler, Rainer; Blum, Juergen; Seizinger, Alexander; Kley, Wilhelm

    2012-10-10

    We performed micro-gravity collision experiments in our laboratory drop tower using 5 cm sized dust agglomerates with volume filling factors of 0.3 and 0.4, respectively. This work is an extension of our previous experiments reported in Beitz et al. to aggregates of more than one order of magnitude higher masses. The dust aggregates consisted of micrometer-sized silica particles and were macroscopically homogeneous. We measured the coefficient of restitution for collision velocities ranging from 1 cm s{sup -1} to 0.5 m s{sup -1}, and determined the fragmentation velocity. For low velocities, the coefficient of restitution decreases with increasing impact velocity, in contrast to findings by Beitz et al. At higher velocities, the value of the coefficient of restitution becomes constant, before the aggregates break at the onset of fragmentation. We interpret the qualitative change in the coefficient of restitution as the transition from a solid-body-dominated to a granular-medium-dominated behavior. We complement our experiments by molecular-dynamics simulations of porous aggregates and obtain a reasonable match to the experimental data. We discuss the importance of our experiments for protoplanetary disks, debris disks, and planetary rings. This work is an extension to the previous work of our group and gives new insight into the velocity dependency of the coefficient of restitution due to improved measurements, better statistics, and a theoretical approach.

  5. Powertrain Test Procedure Development for EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Paul H.; Deter, Dean D.

    2016-07-01

    xiii ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to develop and evaluate powertrain test procedures that can accurately simulate real-world operating conditions, and to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of advanced medium- and heavy-duty engine and vehicle technologies. ORNL used their Vehicle System Integration Laboratory to evaluate test procedures on a stand-alone engine as well as two powertrains. Those components where subjected to various drive cycles and vehicle conditions to evaluate the validity of the results over a broad range of test conditions. Overall, more than 1000 tests were performed. The data are compiled and analyzed in this report.

  6. Treatment of control data in lunar phototriangulation. [application of statistical procedures and development of mathematical and computer techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, K. W.

    1974-01-01

    In lunar phototriangulation, there is a complete lack of accurate ground control points. The accuracy analysis of the results of lunar phototriangulation must, therefore, be completely dependent on statistical procedure. It was the objective of this investigation to examine the validity of the commonly used statistical procedures, and to develop both mathematical techniques and computer softwares for evaluating (1) the accuracy of lunar phototriangulation; (2) the contribution of the different types of photo support data on the accuracy of lunar phototriangulation; (3) accuracy of absolute orientation as a function of the accuracy and distribution of both the ground and model points; and (4) the relative slope accuracy between any triangulated pass points.

  7. Strategies and Procedures Used in Developing Goals for an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Charles H.; Coleman, Daniel R.

    1975-01-01

    Basic issues involved in planning and implementation of a equal employment opportunity plan are outlined: leadership, constraints, data requirements, administrative responsibilities, policies and procedures (recruitment, selection, employment, promotion-termination, remuneration, assignment, grievance, subcontractor-supplier, leave, and benefits),…

  8. Don't Be a Slave to Seniority When Developing RIF Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ralph M., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A reduction in force (RIF) policy not exclusively based on seniority includes appeal procedures and provisions for teachers nearing retirement. A point system determines RIF order: supervisors assess teachers' planning and organization, instructional techniques, classroom and school environment, and professional attitude. Education, teaching…

  9. Development of a School Bus Fuel System Integrity Compliance Procedure. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, G. W.; Johnson, N. B.

    This report presents a program that derived a compliance test procedure for school buses with a gross vehicle weight of 10,000 pounds or greater. The objective of this program was to evaluate Fuel System Integrity (FMVSS 301) in relation to school buses, conduct a limited state-of-the-art survey and run full-scale dynamic tests to produce an…

  10. Complex Problem Exercises in Developing Engineering Students' Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Electromagnetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppavirta, J.; Kettunen, H.; Sihvola, A.

    2011-01-01

    Complex multistep problem exercises are one way to enhance engineering students' learning of electromagnetics (EM). This study investigates whether exposure to complex problem exercises during an introductory EM course improves students' conceptual and procedural knowledge. The performance in complex problem exercises is compared to prior success…

  11. The Psychology Department Model Advisement Procedure: A Comprehensive, Systematic Approach to Career Development Advisement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell-Carter, Marya; Nieman-Gonder, Jennifer; Pellegrino, Jennifer; Catapano, Brittani; Hutzel, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    The MAP (Model Advisement Procedure) is a comprehensive, systematic approach to developmental student advisement. The MAP was implemented to improve advisement consistency, improve student preparation for internships/senior projects, increase career exploration, reduce career uncertainty, and, ultimately, improve student satisfaction with the…

  12. Procedures for Developing Policy for Nursery Schools and Day Care Centers: Educational Policy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Roberta L.

    This investigation of educational policy for child care facilities identifies 18 areas of school operation that would benefit from written policy statements and suggests 6 procedures to use in formulating policy. Interviews with 6 child care center directors, a review of the literature, and a review of federal and state standards for child care,…

  13. Zirconia nanoceramic via redispersion of highly agglomerated nanopowder and spark plasma sintering.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Gustavo; Borodianska, Hanna; Sakka, Yoshio; Aglietti, Esteban F; Vasylkiv, Oleg

    2010-10-01

    A 2.7 mol% yttria stabilizing tetragonal zirconia (2.7Y-TZP) nanopowder was synthesized and stored for five years. Humidity and unsatisfactory storage conditions gradually caused heavy agglomeration. Within a few months, 2.7Y-TZP nanopowder became useless for any technological application. A bead-milling deagglomeration technique was applied to recover the heavily agglomerated yttria-stabilized zirconia nanopowder. Low-temperature sintering and spark plasma sintering (SPS) were performed, resulting in fully dense nanostructured ceramics. Compacts formed with heavily agglomerated powder present low sinterability and poor mechanical properties. Bead-milling suspension formed compacts exhibit mechanical properties in the range of the values reported for nanostructured zirconia. This observation confirms the effectiveness of bead-milling in the deagglomeration of highly agglomerated nanopowders. The high value of Vickers hardness of 13.6 GPa demonstrates the success of the processing technique for recovering long-time-stored oxide nanopowders.

  14. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, September 30, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  15. Dynamic forces on agglomerated particles caused by high-intensity ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Knoop, Claas; Fritsching, Udo

    2014-03-01

    In this paper the acoustic forces on particles and agglomerates caused by high-intensity ultrasound in gaseous atmosphere are derived by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Sound induced forces cause an oscillating stress scenario where the primary particles of an agglomerate are alternatingly pressed together and torn apart with the frequency of the applied wave. A comparison of the calculated acoustic forces with respect to the inter particle adhesion forces from Van-der-Waals and liquid bridge interactions reveals that the separation forces may reach the same order of magnitude for 80 μm sized SiO2-particles. Hence, with finite probability acoustically agitated gases may de-agglomerate/disperse solid agglomerate structures. This effect is confirmed by dispersion experiments in an acoustic particle levitation setup.

  16. Development of SCR Aircraft takeoff and landing procedures for community noise abatement and their impact on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Smith, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    Piloted simulator studies to determine takeoff and landing procedures for a supersonic cruise transport concept that result in predicted community noise levels which meet current Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standards are discussed. The results indicate that with the use of advanced procedures, the subject simulated aircraft meets the FAA traded noise levels during takeoff and landing utilizing average flight crew skills. The advanced takeoff procedures developed involved violating three of the current Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) noise test conditions. These were: (1) thrust cutbacks at altitudes below 214 meters (700 ft); (2) thrust cutback level below those presently allowed; and (3) configuration change, other than raising the landing gear. It was not necessary to violate any FAR noise test conditions during landing approach. It was determined that the advanced procedures developed do not compromise flight safety. Automation of some of the aircraft functions reduced pilot workload, and the development of a simple head-up display to assist in the takeoff flight mode proved to be adequate.

  17. Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Technical progress report, January 1992--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This program will demonstrate the effectiveness of a unique approach which uses a bimodal distribution composed of large sorbent particles and fine fly ash particles to enhance ash agglomeration and sulfur capture at conditions found in direct coal-fired turbines. Under the impact of high-intensity sound waves, sorbent reactivity and utilization, it is theorized, will increase while agglomerates of fly ash and sorbents are formed which are readily collected in commercial cyclones.

  18. Reduced bed agglomeration by co-combustion biomass with peat fuels in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Karin Lundholm; Anders Nordin; Marcus Oehman; Dan Bostroem

    2005-12-01

    Fluidized bed combustion is an energy conversion technology that is very suitable for biomass combustion because of its fuel flexibility and low process temperatures. However, agglomeration of bed material may cause severe operating problems. To prevent or at least reduce this, peat has been suggested as an additive to the main fuels. Nevertheless, the characteristics of peat fuels vary and there is limited information of the effect of different peat fuels and of the mechanisms behind the agglomeration prevention. The objectives of the present work were therefore to: (I) quantify the potential positive effect by co-combustion peat with forest fuels in terms of initial agglomeration temperatures; (ii) determine the amount of peat fuel that is needed to significantly reduce the agglomeration tendencies; and, if possible, (iii) elucidate the governing mechanisms. The results showed that all peat fuels prevented agglomeration in the studied interval of 760-1020{sup o}C and even as little as 5% peat fuel was found to have significant effects. The results also indicated that the mechanism of the agglomeration prevention varies between different peat fuels. Possible mechanisms are the minerals in the peat fuel retain alkali, which then is either elutriated up from the bed or captured in the bed; calcium and other refractory elements increase the melting temperature and thereby counteract the melting of alkali; and sulfur reacts with alkali metals and the alkali sulfates is either elutriated up from the bed or prevents agglomeration by increased melting temperature and lowered viscosity. Results from elemental analysis of the coating on bed particles showed that all mixtures with peat fuel resulted in a decreased or unchanged fraction of potassium and an increased fraction of aluminum in the coatings. The results also indicated a complex relationship between the fuel inorganic contents and the agglomeration process. 21 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. What counts as knowing? The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge of counting from kindergarten through Grade 2.

    PubMed

    LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Smith-Chant, Brenda L; Fast, Lisa; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sargla, Erin; Arnup, Jesse S; Penner-Wilger, Marcie; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Kamawar, Deepthi

    2006-04-01

    The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge about counting was explored for children in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 (N = 255). Conceptual knowledge was assessed by asking children to make judgments about three types of counts modeled by an animated frog: standard (correct) left-to-right counts, incorrect counts, and unusual counts. On incorrect counts, the frog violated the word-object correspondence principle. On unusual counts, the frog violated a conventional but inessential feature of counting, for example, starting in the middle of the array of objects. Procedural knowledge was assessed using speed and accuracy in counting objects. The patterns of change for procedural knowledge and conceptual knowledge were different. Counting speed and accuracy (procedural knowledge) improved with grade. In contrast, there was a curvilinear relation between conceptual knowledge and grade that was further moderated by children's numeration skills (as measured by a standardized test); the most skilled children gradually increased their acceptance of unusual counts over grade, whereas the least skilled children decreased their acceptance of these counts. These results have implications for studying conceptual and procedural knowledge about mathematics.

  20. Combined deterministic-stochastic framework for modeling the agglomeration of colloidal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortuza, S. M.; Kariyawasam, Lahiru K.; Banerjee, Soumik

    2015-07-01

    We present a multiscale model, based on molecular dynamics (MD) and kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC), to study the aggregation driven growth of colloidal particles. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulations are employed to detect key agglomeration events and calculate the corresponding rate constants. The kMC simulations employ these rate constants in a stochastic framework to track the growth of the agglomerates over longer time scales and length scales. One of the hallmarks of the model is a unique methodology to detect and characterize agglomeration events. The model accounts for individual cluster-scale effects such as change in size due to aggregation as well as local molecular-scale effects such as changes in the number of neighbors of each molecule in a colloidal cluster. Such definition of agglomeration events allows us to grow the cluster to sizes that are inaccessible to molecular simulations as well as track the shape of the growing cluster. A well-studied system, comprising fullerenes in NaCl electrolyte solution, was simulated to validate the model. Under the simulated conditions, the agglomeration process evolves from a diffusion limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) regime to percolating cluster in transition and finally to a gelation regime. Overall the data from the multiscale numerical model shows good agreement with existing theory of colloidal particle growth. Although in the present study we validated our model by specifically simulating fullerene agglomeration in electrolyte solution, the model is versatile and can be applied to a wide range of colloidal systems.

  1. Preparation of submicron-sized gold particles using laser-induced agglomeration-fusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, T.; Higashi, Y.; Tsuji, M.; Ishikawa, Y.; Koshizaki, N.

    2014-03-01

    Recently, laser irradiation (LI) of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) using a non-focused laser beam at moderate fluence attracts much attention as a novel and simple technique to obtain submicron-sized spherical particles. In the present study, we applied this technique to prepare gold SMPs. It was revealed that agglomeration of the source nanoparticles prior to laser irradiation is necessary to produce SMPs. However, when the agglomeration occurred in too much extent, significant amount of the source particles remained as the sediment after LI, leading to the lowering of the formation efficiency of SMPs. Therefore, the control of the agglomeration conditions of the source NPs is necessary to obtain SMPs efficiently. In the present study, we tried to adjust the agglomeration conditions of the source NPs by adjusting the concentration of citrate that was used as the stabilizing reagent of the source NPs. It was revealed that SMPs were obtained efficiently while the sedimentation of the source NPs were suppressed when the concentration of citrate was adjusted around 0.01-0.005 mM. In addition, observation of the temporal change in the shape of the colloidal particles during LI revealed that there is an induction period in which no formation of SMPs is brought about by LI. This finding suggested that LI removes the citrate ligands from the source NPs and induces the agglomeration of the source NPs, i.e. the agglomeration condition of the source NPs is also controlled by LI.

  2. Quantitative characterization of agglomerate abrasion in a tumbling blender by using the Stokes number approach.

    PubMed

    Willemsz, Tofan A; Nguyen, Tien Thanh; Hooijmaijers, Ricardo; Frijlink, Henderik W; Vromans, Herman; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    2013-03-01

    Removal of microcrystalline cellulose agglomerates in a dry-mixing system (lactose, 100 M) predominantly occurs via abrasion. The agglomerate abrasion rate potential is estimated by the Stokes abrasion (StAbr) number of the system. The StAbr number equals the ratio between the kinetic energy density of the moving powder bed and the work of fracture of the agglomerate. Basically, the StAbr number concept describes the blending condition of the dry-mixing system. The concept has been applied to investigate the relevance of process parameters on agglomerate abrasion in tumbling blenders. Here, process parameters such as blender rotational speed and relative fill volumes were investigated. In this study, the StAbr approach revealed a transition point between abrasion rate behaviors. Below this transition point, a blending condition exists where agglomerate abrasion is dominated by the kinetic energy density of the powder blend. Above this transition point, a blending condition exists where agglomerates show (undesirable) slow abrasion rates. In this situation, the blending condition is mainly determined by the high fill volume of the filler.

  3. Effect of the Additives on the Desulphurization Rate of Flash Hydrated and Agglomerated CFB Fly Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D. X.; Li, H. L.; Xu, M.; Lu, J. F.; Liu, Q.; Zhang, J. S.; Yue, G. X.

    CFB fly ash from separators was mixed with water or the mixture of water and additives under the temperature of 363K by use of a blender. Then, this compound of fly ash and water or additives was pumped into a CFB combustion chamber by a sludge pump. Because the temperature of flue gas was high in CFB, the fly ash was hydrated fast and agglomerated in the same time. Through this process, the size of agglomerating fly ash is larger than the original particle and the relative residence time of agglomerated fly ash in CFB becomes longer. Therefore, the rate of utility of calcium in fly ash improves and the content of carbon in fly ash decreases. This results in a low Ca/S and low operational cost for CFB boiler. The additive is one key factor, which affects the rate of desulfurization of agglomerated fly ash. Effect of different additives on rate of desulfurization is not same. Cement and limestone are beneficiated to sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash, but sodium silicate does not devote to the rate of sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash.

  4. Factors affecting the oil agglomeration of Sivas-Divrigi Ulucayir lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, I.; Gorgun Ersan, M.

    2007-07-01

    In the coal industry, the coal particles need to be decreased to a very fine size because of the need of removing inorganic materials from coal. Oil agglomeration is a kind of coal cleaning technique that is used for separation of organic and inorganic parts of fine sized coal. In this study, the oil agglomeration of Sivas-Divrigi (S-D) Ulucayir lignite was carried out by using kerosene, diesel oil, fuel oil, poppy oil, and sunflower oil. The amount of bridging oil was varied from 5% to 25% of the amount of lignite. The effect of oil amount, oil type, solid content, agitation rate and time, pH on agglomeration performance was investigated. Maximum recovery value of 98.18% was observed by using poppy oil. In order to investigate the effect of pH on agglomeration NaOH and HCl is added to the slurry in various amounts. It is decided that the best agglomeration condition is obtained at low pH values. The effect of nonionic surface active agent (Igepal-CA 630) on agglomeration is investigated by adding to the slurry and it is observed that the grade is increased with the amount of surface active agent.

  5. Experimental validation of light scattering and absorption theories of fractal-like carbonaceous aerosol agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, R.; Moosmuller, H.; Arnott, W. P.; Garro, M.; Slowik, J.; Cross, E.; Han, J.; Davidovits, P.; Onasch, T.; Worsnop, D.

    2007-12-01

    The optical coefficients of size-selected carbonaceous aerosol agglomerates measured at a wavelength of 870 nm are compared with those predicted by three theories, namely Rayleigh-Debye-Gans (RDG) approximation, volume-equivalent Mie theory, and integral equation formulation for scattering (IEFS). Carbonaceous agglomerates, produced via flame synthesis, were size-selected using two differential mobility analyzers (DMAs) in series, and their scattering and absorption coefficients were measured with nephelometry and photoacoustic spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy, along with image processing techniques, were used for the parameterization of the structural properties of the fractal-like agglomerates. The agglomerate structural parameters were used to evaluate the predictions of the optical coefficients based on the three light scattering and absorption theories. The results indicate that the RDG approximation agrees within 10% of the experimental results and the exact electromagnetic calculations of the IEFS theory. The experimental scattering coefficient is over predicted by the volume-equivalent Mie theory by a factor of ~3.2. Also, the RDG approximation-predicted optical coefficients showed pronounced sensitivity to changes in monomer mean diameter, the count median diameter of the agglomerates, and the geometric standard deviation of the agglomerate number size distribution.

  6. Catalytic soot oxidation in microscale experiments: Simulation of interactions between co-deposited graphitic nanoparticle agglomerates and platinum nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seipenbusch, Martin; Friedlander, Sheldon K.

    2004-12-01

    Continuously regenerating catalytic soot traps are under development to reduce particulate emissions from diesel exhaust. A good understanding of the processes that take place during soot oxidation is needed to optimize diesel soot trap performance. To gain insight into these processes from the perspective of nanoparticle technology, the effects of catalyst particle size and the interparticle distance between soot and catalyst particles were measured. A model catalyst was prepared by depositing Pt nanoparticles on a SiO/SiO2-coated transmission electron microscope (TEM) grid. A soot surrogate composed of graphitic nanoparticle agglomerates generated by laser ablation was deposited on the same surface. This system simulates, morphologically, catalytic soot traps used in practice. The reaction was carried out in a tubular flow reactor in which the gas phase simulated diesel exhaust gas, composed of a mixture of 10% O2 and 1000 ppm NO with the remainder N2. The progress of the carbon nanoparticle oxidation was monitored off-line by analysis of electron microscopy images of the agglomerates before and after reaction. This experimental method permitted the correlation of reaction rate with particle sizes and separation distances as well as catalyst surface area in the direct environs of the soot particles. The experimental results revealed no effect of Pt catalyst particle size in the range 7-31 nm on the rate of reaction. Also observed were a decrease in the rate of reaction with increasing distance between carbon agglomerates and catalyst particles and a linear dependence of the reaction rate on the fractional catalyst surface area coverage.

  7. Developing best practices teaching procedures for skinfold assessment: observational examination using the Think Aloud method.

    PubMed

    Holmstrup, Michael E; Verba, Steven D; Lynn, Jeffrey S

    2015-12-01

    Skinfold assessment is valid and economical; however, it has a steep learning curve, and many programs only include one exposure to the technique. Increasing the number of exposures to skinfold assessment within an undergraduate curriculum would likely increase skill proficiency. The present study combined observational and Think Aloud methodologies to quantify procedural and cognitive characteristics of skinfold assessment. It was hypothesized that 1) increased curricular exposure to skinfold assessment would improve proficiency and 2) the combination of an observational and Think Aloud analysis would provide quantifiable areas of emphasis for instructing skinfold assessment. Seventy-five undergraduates with varied curricular exposure performed a seven-site skinfold assessment on a test subject while expressing their thoughts aloud. A trained practitioner recorded procedural observations, with transcripts generated from audio recordings to capture cognitive information. Skinfold measurements were compared with a criterion value, and bias scores were generated. Participants whose total bias fell within ±3.5% of the criterion value were proficient, with the remainder nonproficient. An independent-samples t-test was used to compare procedural and cognitive observations across experience and proficiency groups. Additional curricular exposure improved performance of skinfold assessment in areas such as the measurement of specific sites (e.g., chest, abdomen, and thigh) and procedural (e.g., landmark identification) and cognitive skills (e.g., complete site explanation). Furthermore, the Think Aloud method is a valuable tool for determining curricular strengths and weaknesses with skinfold assessment and as a pedagogical tool for individual instruction and feedback in the classroom.

  8. Development of a drift-correction procedure for a direct-reading spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, G. B., II; Gordon, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    A procedure which provides automatic correction for drifts in the radiometric sensitivity of each detector channel in a direct-reading emission spectrometer is described. Such drifts are customarily controlled by the regular analyses of standards, which provide corrections for changes in the excitational, optical, and electronic components of the instrument. This standardization procedure, however, corrects for the optical and electronic drifts. It is a step that must be taken if the time, effort, and cost of processing standards is to be minimized. This method of radiometric drift correction uses a 1,000-W tungsten-halogen reference lamp to illuminate each detector through the same optical path as that traversed during sample analysis. The responses of the detector channels to this reference light are regularly compared with channel response to the same light intensity at the time of analytical calibration in order to determine and correct for drift. Except for placing the lamp in position, the procedure is fully automated and compensates for changes in spectral intensity due to variations in lamp current. A discussion of the implementation of this drift-correction system is included.

  9. Development of an analytical procedure for quantifying the underivatized neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine in brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Combes, Audrey; El Abdellaoui, Saïda; Vial, Jérome; Lagrange, Emmeline; Pichon, Valérie

    2014-07-01

    The cyanotoxin β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has received renewed attention as an environmental risk factor for sporadic cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (Nunn et al., Brain Res 410:375-379, 1987). The aim of the present study was to develop and to validate an analytical procedure that allows the quantification of native BMAA and of its natural isomer, 2,4 diaminobutyric acid (DAB), in brain tissues. An analytical procedure was previously reported by our group for the determination of underivatized BMAA in environmental samples. It included a step of sample clean-up by solid phase extraction (SPE) with a mixed-mode sorbent and the analyses were performed by LC/MS-MS using hydrophilic interaction chromatography and multiple reactions monitoring scan mode. As brain tissues have a higher lipid content, the crucial step of sample clean-up had been optimized by evaluating the efficiency of the addition of a liquid/liquid extraction step prior to the SPE procedure or alternatively, of washing steps to the SPE extraction procedure. The efficiency was checked by visualizing the complexity of the resulting chromatograms in LC/MS and their performance by using spiked brain samples. The optimized analytical procedure, including a washing step with cyclohexane to the SPE with a recovery yield close to 100%, was validated using the total error approach and allowed the quantification of BMAA in a concentration level ranging from 20 to 1,500 ng/g in brain samples. Finally, the feasibility of implementation of this procedure was verified in human brain samples from two patients who died of ALS.

  10. Development of a new illumination procedure for photodynamic therapy of the abdominal cavity.

    PubMed

    Guyon, Laurie; Lesage, Jean Claude; Betrouni, Nacim; Mordon, Serge

    2012-03-01

    A homogeneous illumination of intra-abdominal organs is essential for successful photodynamic therapy of the abdominal cavity. Considering the current lack of outstanding light-delivery systems, a new illumination procedure was assessed. A rat model of peritoneal carcinomatosis was used. Four hours after intraperitoneal injection of hexaminolevulinate, a square illuminating panel connected to a 635-nm laser source was inserted vertically into the abdominal cavity. The abdominal incision was sutured and a pneumoperitoneum created prior to illumination. Light dosimetry was based on the calculation of the peritoneal surface by MRI. The rats were treated with a light dose of 20, 10, 5 or 2.5 J/cm(2) administered continuously with an irradiance of 7 mW/cm(2). The homogeneity of the cavity illumination was assessed by quantification of the photobleaching of the tumor lesions according to their localization and by scoring of that of the liver and of the bowel immediately after treatment. Photobleaching quantification for tumor lesions relied on the calculation of the fluorescence intensity ratio (after/before treatment) after recording of the lesions during blue-light laparoscopy and determination of their fluorescence intensity with Sigmascan Pro software. The procedure led to a homogeneous treatment of the abdominal cavity. No statistical difference was observed for the photobleaching values according to the localization of the lesions on the peritoneum (p=0.59) and photobleaching of the liver and of the intestine was homogeneous. We conclude that this procedure can successfully treat the major sites involved in peritoneal carcinomatosis.

  11. Development of a new illumination procedure for photodynamic therapy of the abdominal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyon, Laurie; Claude Lesage, Jean; Betrouni, Nacim; Mordon, Serge

    2012-03-01

    A homogeneous illumination of intra-abdominal organs is essential for successful photodynamic therapy of the abdominal cavity. Considering the current lack of outstanding light-delivery systems, a new illumination procedure was assessed. A rat model of peritoneal carcinomatosis was used. Four hours after intraperitoneal injection of hexaminolevulinate, a square illuminating panel connected to a 635-nm laser source was inserted vertically into the abdominal cavity. The abdominal incision was sutured and a pneumoperitoneum created prior to illumination. Light dosimetry was based on the calculation of the peritoneal surface by MRI. The rats were treated with a light dose of 20, 10, 5 or 2.5 J/cm2 administered continuously with an irradiance of 7 mW/cm2. The homogeneity of the cavity illumination was assessed by quantification of the photobleaching of the tumor lesions according to their localization and by scoring of that of the liver and of the bowel immediately after treatment. Photobleaching quantification for tumor lesions relied on the calculation of the fluorescence intensity ratio (after/before treatment) after recording of the lesions during blue-light laparoscopy and determination of their fluorescence intensity with Sigmascan Pro software. The procedure led to a homogeneous treatment of the abdominal cavity. No statistical difference was observed for the photobleaching values according to the localization of the lesions on the peritoneum (p=0.59) and photobleaching of the liver and of the intestine was homogeneous. We conclude that this procedure can successfully treat the major sites involved in peritoneal carcinomatosis.

  12. Development of a multiple-parameter nonlinear perturbation procedure for transonic turbomachinery flows: Preliminary application to design/optimization problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahara, S. S.; Elliott, J. P.; Spreiter, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to continue the development of perturbation procedures and associated computational codes for rapidly determining approximations to nonlinear flow solutions, with the purpose of establishing a method for minimizing computational requirements associated with parametric design studies of transonic flows in turbomachines. The results reported here concern the extension of the previously developed successful method for single parameter perturbations to simultaneous multiple-parameter perturbations, and the preliminary application of the multiple-parameter procedure in combination with an optimization method to blade design/optimization problem. In order to provide as severe a test as possible of the method, attention is focused in particular on transonic flows which are highly supercritical. Flows past both isolated blades and compressor cascades, involving simultaneous changes in both flow and geometric parameters, are considered. Comparisons with the corresponding exact nonlinear solutions display remarkable accuracy and range of validity, in direct correspondence with previous results for single-parameter perturbations.

  13. Development of Procedures for Assessing the Impact of Vocational Education Research and Development on Vocational Education (Project IMPACT). Volume 4--A Case Study of Illinois Projects in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Colin; Ethridge, James

    As part of Project IMPACT's efforts to identify and develop procedures for complying with the impact requirements of Public Law 94-482, a case study was made of Illinois Projects in Horticulture. Fourteen horticulture projects in high schools and junior colleges were discovered through a previous study, personal interviews with two University of…

  14. Spontaneous Absorption of Cerebral Air Embolus Developed Accidentally during an Intra-arterial Procedure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral arterial air embolism (CAAE), although infrequent, is a complication that can occur at any time during an invasive medical procedure. We experienced two cases of CAAE during cerebral angiography accidentally. The author reports the two cases of CAAE wherein air emboli dissolved spontaneously and immediately under normal atmospheric pressure, not under therapeutic hyperbaric environment. One of the cases shows entire dissolution of the air embolus on the moving image. This report shows that arterial air embolus can be absorbed spontaneously, and air embolus size is one of the factors that influence air embolus dissolution besides hyperbaric oxygen condition. PMID:28184351

  15. Procedure for developing biological input for the design, location, or modification of water-intake structures

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    To minimize adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems resulting from the operation of water intake structures, design engineers must have relevant information on the behavior, physiology and ecology of local fish and shellfish. Identification of stimulus/response relationships and the environmental factors that influence them is the first step in incorporating biological information in the design, location or modification of water intake structures. A procedure is presented in this document for providing biological input to engineers who are designing, locating or modifying a water intake structure. The authors discuss sources of stimuli at water intakes, historical approaches in assessing potential/actual impact and review biological information needed for intake design.

  16. Development of Alternating Current Potential Drop (ACPD) procedures for crack detection in aluminum aircraft panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, D. A.

    1993-12-01

    The Alternating Current Potential Drop (ACPD) method is investigated as a means of making measurements in laboratory experiments on the initiation and growth of multiple site damage (MSD) cracks in a common aluminum alloy used for aircraft construction. Procedures for instrumenting MSD test specimens are recommended. The ACPD method is found to be capable of the following: (1) detecting crack initiation at a crack length of the order of 1 mm; (2) monitoring crack propagation at a resolution of the order of 5 micrometers; and (3) providing an indirect measurement of crack extension in R-curve type tests of fastener hole details.

  17. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.

    1997-12-31

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from July 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental procedures and test data for recovery of fine coal from coal fines streams generated at a commercial coal preparation plant are described. Two coal fines streams, namely Sieve Bend Effluent and Cyclone Overflow were investigated. The test results showed that ash was reduced by more than 50% at combustible matter recovery levels exceeding 95%.

  18. Development and Execution of Autonomous Procedures Onboard the International Space Station to Support the Next Phase of Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beisert, Susan; Rodriggs, Michael; Moreno, Francisco; Korth, David; Gibson, Stephen; Lee, Young H.; Eagles, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Now that major assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) is complete, NASA's focus has turned to using this high fidelity in-space research testbed to not only advance fundamental science research, but also demonstrate and mature technologies and develop operational concepts that will enable future human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The ISS as a Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR) project was established to reduce risks for manned missions to exploration destinations by utilizing ISS as a high fidelity micro-g laboratory to demonstrate technologies, operations concepts, and techniques associated with crew autonomous operations. One of these focus areas is the development and execution of ISS Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR) autonomous flight crew procedures intended to increase crew autonomy that will be required for long duration human exploration missions. Due to increasing communications delays and reduced logistics resupply, autonomous procedures are expected to help reduce crew reliance on the ground flight control team, increase crew performance, and enable the crew to become more subject-matter experts on both the exploration space vehicle systems and the scientific investigation operations that will be conducted on a long duration human space exploration mission. These tests make use of previous or ongoing projects tested in ground analogs such as Research and Technology Studies (RATS) and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO). Since the latter half of 2012, selected non-critical ISS systems crew procedures have been used to develop techniques for building ISTAR autonomous procedures, and ISS flight crews have successfully executed them without flight controller involvement. Although the main focus has been preparing for exploration, the ISS has been a beneficiary of this synergistic effort and is considering modifying additional standard ISS procedures that may increase crew efficiency, reduce operational costs, and

  19. A variational approach to environmental and climatic problems of urban agglomerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penenko, V. V.; Tsvetova, E. A.

    2016-11-01

    We discuss some aspects of the development of a variational approach to study the dynamics of climatic and ecological systems under intensive actions of natural and anthropogenic origin. The variational principle essentially represents a versatile tool to create a consistent modeling technology based on models of processes coupled with available observational data. The basic entities included in the formulation of the variational principle are models of processes; data and models of observations; target criteria for forecasting; a priori information about all the required elements of the system. We develop a set of mathematical models combined within the framework of the variational principle. They describe the dynamics of the atmosphere and water bodies in conjunction with a thermally and dynamically heterogeneous surface of the Earth; the hydrological cycle, moisture in the atmosphere and the soil; radiation transfer in the system of the atmosphere and the underlying surface; and transport and transformation of various substances in gaseous and aerosol states in the atmosphere. As an example, we demonstrate the results of calculations performed with a set of numerical models adapted to the conditions of a Novosibirsk city agglomeration. The results of scenario calculations on the formation of mesoclimates and quality of the atmosphere for the typical conditions of Siberian cities are presented.

  20. Selection of feed coals for production of premium fuel using column flotation and selective agglomeration processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.

    1995-10-01

    Column flotation and selective agglomeration are promising advanced physical cleaning processes that can be developed for preparing premium quality coal-water slurry fuel from coal fines. Such a fuel could either replace oil or natural gas in certain industrial and utility boilers or else could be burned in advanced combustors currently under development. These applications require coal cleaned to sulfur and ash contents below 258 g/GJ and 430--860 g/GJ (0.6 lb/million Btu and 1--2 lb/million Btu), respectively, to meet clean air emission requirements. A highly loaded slurry must be produced in order to avoid derating the boilers, and the total cost of the fuel must be below $2.37/GJ ($2.50/million Btu) in order to penetrate the market by the turn of the century. Achieving these technical and economic goals depend critically on the selection of suitable feed coals. This paper describes the identification and evaluation of 18 coals and final selection of six coals from different regions of the United States as potential feedstock for preparation of premium fuel. The work is being performed under a cost-shared DOE project.

  1. Coal-gold agglomeration: an alternative separation process in gold recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Akcil, A.; Wu, X.Q.; Aksay, E.K.

    2009-07-01

    Considering the increasing environmental concerns and the potential for small gold deposits to be exploited in the future, the uses of environmentally friendly processes are essential. Recent developments point to the potential for greatly increased plant performance through a separation process that combines the cyanide and flotation processes. In addition, this kind of alternative treatment processes to the traditional gold recovery processes may reduce the environmental risks of present small-scale gold mining. Gold recovery processes that applied to different types of gold bearing ore deposits show that the type of deposits plays an important role for the selection of mineral processing technologies in the production of gold and other precious metals. In the last 25 years, different alternative processes have been investigated on gold deposits located in areas where environmental issues are a great concern. In 1988, gold particles were first recovered by successful pilot trial of coal-gold agglomeration (CGA) process in Australia. The current paper reviews the importance of CGA in the production of gold ore and identifies areas for further development work.

  2. Development of extraction procedure for determination of mercury species using SPME-assisted dispersive derivative agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Md Pauzi; Khalik, Wan Mohd Afiq Wan Mohd; Othman, Mohamed Rozali

    2016-11-01

    The extraction procedure for determination of low level mercury using solid phase microextraction was successfully carried out. Design of experimental works using factorial design and central composite design were applied to screen and predict the optimum condition for extraction step. In this study, variables namely concentration level (5 % m/v) and volume of derivatization solution (150 µL) has depicted as main effect for controlling the suitability of derivative reagent condition. Maximum of signal response (account as total peak areas for mercury species) was obtained when extraction procedure was set up at pH of water sample (5.8), extraction time (14 min), extraction temperature (43 °C) and stirring rate (450 rpm). Reducing time required to reach equilibrium is new improvement achieved in this study. Detection limit for each species (MeHg 26.17 ngL-1; EtHg 48.84 ngL-1 and IHg 14.11 ngL-1) was calculated lower than our previous work. Recovery, repeatability and reproducibility trial were recorded varied at acceptable range and relative standard deviation was calculated below than 10 %.

  3. A kinetic study of the mechanism of radiation induced agglomeration of ovalbumin in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuce, Zorana; Janata, Eberhard; Radojcic, Marija; Milosavljevic, Bratoljub H.

    2001-10-01

    The effect of concentration on the protein radiolytic damage resulting in a change in molecular mass was measured in the concentration range from 0.2 to 2 mmol×dm -3 ovalbumin in phosphate buffered solutions saturated with N 2O. The electrophoretic analysis of samples on discontinuous SDS-polyacrylamide gels in the presence or absence of 5% β-mercaptoethanol showed an expected result, i.e. that the protein scission did not take place in the absence of oxygen. Only ovalbumin agglomerates, bonded by covalent bonds other than S-S bridges, were observed. The G-value for the formation of ovalbumin agglomerates increased linearly from 1.1 to 2.4 by increasing the ovalbumin concentration from 0.2 to 2 mmol×dm -3. The result is interpreted as to be owing to the competition between ovalbumin agglomeration and some intramolecular reactions which did not lead to the change in the molecular mass. It was also found that the G-value is independent of irradiation dose rate. The result was rationalized as a kinetic evidence that the agglomeration is not a cross-linking process, i.e. it does not occur via recombination of the protein radicals produced in the interaction of ovalbumin and rad OH radical. The result suggested that the agglomeration takes place via the process of grafting, i.e. it occurs in the reaction of ovalbumin radical and an intact ovalbumin molecule. The time-resolved light scattering experiments provided an additional proof, supporting the reaction scheme of radiation-induced protein agglomeration. The biological consequences of the proposed mechanism of protein agglomeration are also discussed.

  4. Transport and Deposition of Welding Fume Agglomerates in a Realistic Human Nasal Airway.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lin; Inthavong, Kiao; Lidén, Göran; Shang, Yidan; Tu, Jiyuan

    2016-07-01

    Welding fume is a complex mixture containing ultra-fine particles in the nanometer range. Rather than being in the form of a singular sphere, due to the high particle concentration, welding fume particles agglomerate into long straight chains, branches, or other forms of compact shapes. Understanding the transport and deposition of these nano-agglomerates in human respiratory systems is of great interest as welding fumes are a known health hazard. The neurotoxin manganese (Mn) is a common element in welding fumes. Particulate Mn, either as soluble salts or oxides, that has deposited on the olfactory mucosa in human nasal airway is transported along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb within the brain. If this Mn is further transported to the basal ganglia of the brain, it could accumulate at the part of the brain that is the focal point of its neurotoxicity. Accounting for various dynamic shape factors due to particle agglomeration, the current computational study is focused on the exposure route, the deposition pattern, and the deposition efficiency of the inhaled welding fume particles in a realistic human nasal cavity. Particular attention is given to the deposition pattern and deposition efficiency of inhaled welding fume agglomerates in the nasal olfactory region. For particles in the nanoscale, molecular diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism. Therefore, Brownian diffusion, hydrodynamic drag, Saffman lift force, and gravitational force are included in the model study. The deposition efficiencies for single spherical particles, two kinds of agglomerates of primary particles, two-dimensional planar and straight chains, are investigated for a range of primary particle sizes and a range of number of primary particles per agglomerate. A small fraction of the inhaled welding fume agglomerates is deposited on the olfactory mucosa, approximately in the range 0.1-1%, and depends on particle size and morphology. The strong size dependence of the deposition

  5. [Ocra Method: development of a new procedure for analysis of multiple tasks subject to infrequent rotation].

    PubMed

    Occhipinti, E; Colombini, Daniela; Occhipinti, M

    2008-01-01

    In the Ocra methods (Ocra index and Ocra Checklist), when computing the final indices (Ocra index or checklist score), in the case of more than one repetitive task a "traditional" procedure was already proposed, the results of which could be defined as "time-weighted average". This approach appears to be appropriate when considering rotations among tasks that are performed very frequently, for instance almost once every hour (or for shorter periods). However, when rotation among repetitive tasks is less frequent (i.e. once every 1 1/2 or more hours), the "time-weighted average" approach could result in an underestimation of the exposure level (as it practically flattens peaks of high exposures). For those scenarios an alternative approach based on the "most stressful task as minimum" might be more realistic. This latter approach has already been included in the NIOSH approach for multiple sequential lifting tasks and, given the recent availability in the Ocra method of more detailed duration multipliers (practically one different Du(M) for each different step of one hour of duration of the repetitive task), it is now possible to define a particular procedure to compute the complex Ocra Multitask Index (cOCRA) and the complex Checklist Score (cCHESCO) for the analysis of two or more repetitive tasks when rotations are infrequent (rotations every 1 1/2 hours or more). The result of this approach will be at least equal to the index of the most stressful task considered for its individual daily duration and at the most equal to the index of the most stressful task when it is (only theoretically) considered as lasting for the overall daily duration of all examined repetitive tasks. The procedure is based on the following formula: Complex Ocra Multitask Index = Ocra(1(Dum1) + (Delta ocra1xK) where 1,2,3,...,N = repetitive tasks ordered by ocra index values (1 = highest; N = lowest) computed considering respective real duration multipliers (Dum(i)). ocra1 = ocra index of

  6. Development of a rational design procedure for a pressure recovery system for HPCL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sehoon; Jin, Jungkun; Kwon, Hyuckmo; Kwon, Sejin

    2005-03-01

    From the geometric parameter study, an optimal ejector design procedure of pressure recovery system for chemical lasers was acquired. For given primary flow reservoir conditions, an up-scaled ejector was designed and manufactured. In the performance test, secondary mass flow rate of 200g/s air was entrained satisfying the design secondary pressure, 40 ~ 50torr. Performance validation of a supersonic ejector system along with an investigation of effects of supersonic diffuser was conducted. Placement of the diffuser at the secondary inlet further reduced diffuser upstream pressure to 7torr. Lastly, the duplicate of apparatus (air 100 g/s secondary mass flow rate each) was built and connected in parallel to assess proportionality behavior on a system to handle larger mass flow rate. Test and comparison of the parallel unit demonstrated the secondary mass flow rate was proportional to the number of individual units that were brought together maintaining the lasing pressure.

  7. Towards developing an analytical procedure of defining the equatorial electrojet for correcting satellite magnetic anomaly data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravat, Dhananjay; Hinze, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of the total magnetic intensity MAGSAT data has identified and characterized the variability of ionospheric current effects as reflected in the geomagnetic field as a function of longitude, elevation, and time (daily as well as monthly variations). This analysis verifies previous observations in POGO data and provides important boundary conditions for theoretical studies of ionospheric currents. Furthermore, the observations have led to a procedure to remove these temporal perturbations from lithospheric MAGSAT magnetic anomaly data based on 'along-the-dip-latitude' averages from dawn and dusk data sets grouped according to longitudes, time (months), and elevation. Using this method, high-resolution lithospheric magnetic anomaly maps have been prepared of the earth over a plus or minus 50 deg latitude band. These maps have proven useful in the study of the structures, nature, and processes of the lithosphere.

  8. Development of autoclavable polyimides. [fabrication procedures of high temperature resistant/fiber composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orell, M. K.; Sheppard, C. H.; Vaughan, R. W.; Jones, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A poly(Diels-Alder) (PDA) resin approach was investigated as a means to achieve autoclavability of high temperature resistant resin/fiber composites under mild fabrication procedures. Low void content Type A-S graphite reinforced composites were autoclave fabricated from a PDA resin/fiber prepared from an acetone:methanol:dioxane varnish. Autoclave conditions were 477K (400F) and 0.7 MN/sq m (100 psi) for up to two hours duration. After postcure at temperatures up to 589K (600F), the composites demonstrated high initial mechanical properties at temperatures up to 561K (550F). The results from isothermal aging studies in air for 1000 hours indicated potential for long-term ( 1000 hours) use at 533K (500F) and shorter-term (up to 1000 hours) at 561K (550F).

  9. 24 CFR 5.380 - Public housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for development of pet rules. 5.380 Section 5.380 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Public...

  10. 24 CFR 5.353 - Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... development of pet rules. 5.353 Section 5.353 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing Programs § 5.353...

  11. 24 CFR 5.353 - Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... development of pet rules. 5.353 Section 5.353 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing Programs § 5.353...

  12. 24 CFR 5.380 - Public housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for development of pet rules. 5.380 Section 5.380 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Public...

  13. 24 CFR 5.353 - Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... development of pet rules. 5.353 Section 5.353 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing Programs § 5.353...

  14. 24 CFR 5.380 - Public housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for development of pet rules. 5.380 Section 5.380 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Public...

  15. 24 CFR 5.353 - Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... development of pet rules. 5.353 Section 5.353 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing Programs § 5.353...

  16. 24 CFR 5.380 - Public housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for development of pet rules. 5.380 Section 5.380 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Public...

  17. 24 CFR 5.353 - Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... development of pet rules. 5.353 Section 5.353 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing Programs § 5.353...

  18. 24 CFR 5.380 - Public housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for development of pet rules. 5.380 Section 5.380 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Public...

  19. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Quarterly progress report, July 1-September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1996-12-01

    The goals of this research program are to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of a micro-agglomerate flotation process and to establish the essential criteria for reagent selection and system design and operation. We are investigating the use of a hybrid process - Micro-agglomerate flotation - which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro- agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles, and to use froth flotation to extract these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units are agglomerates (about 30-50 mm in size) rather than individual coal particles (1-10 mm) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated.

  20. Development of procedures to ensure quality and integrity in Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) diagnostics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, G.W.; Coon, M.L.; Hinz, A.F.; Hornady, R.S.; Lang, D.D.; Lund, N.P.

    1983-11-30

    The diagnostic systems for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) have grown from eleven initial systems to more than twenty systems. During operation, diagnostic system modifications are sometimes required to complete experimental objectives. Also, during operations new diagnostic systems are being developed and implemented. To ensure and maintain the quality and integrity of the data signals, a set of plans and systematic actions are being developed. This paper reviews the procedures set in place to maintain the integrity of existing data systems and ensure the performance objectives of new diagnostics being added.

  1. Agglomeration and defluidization in fluidized beds due to thermally induced sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Compo, P.; Pfeffer, R.; Tardos, G.I.

    1987-01-01

    The surfaces of fluidizable particles often soften at temperatures well below the material's bulk solid melting point. When particles come into contact at elevated temperatures, there is a tendency for material bridges to form resulting in an interparticle adhesive force. This phenomenon, known as sintering, is driven by the reduction of excess surface energy and for each material is dependent on factors such as particle size and morphology, the interparticle compression force and most importantly, temperature. High temperature fluidization of cohesive powders results in agglomeration, thereby increasing the effective diameter and changing the hydrodynamic properties of the particles. If interparticle forces become significantly greater than forces generated by particle motion, defluidization will occur. In industrial practice, agglomeration is usually undesirable and must be avoided, although there are cases where controlled agglomeration is useful as in fluid-bed coal gasification where the mineral matter agglomerates and is removed from the reactor. The experimental work reported here consists of dilatometry to determine the sintering behavior of a powder as a function of temperature and high temperature fluidization in a pilot size unit to measure the minimum fluidization velocity (defluidization limit) and the voidage at minimum fluidization in the cohesive temperature range of the material. A wide variety of particles have been studied ranging from pure substances including polymers, salts and glass beads to ores and cracking catalysts obtained from industrial reactors where problematic agglomeration at high temperature fluidization was encountered.

  2. Acoustic agglomeration of power plant fly ash for environmental and hot gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Reethof, G.; Koopmann, G.H.

    1989-12-01

    This two year research program has the objectives of completing the several investigations associated with the use of high intensity acoustic energy to agglomerate micron and submicron sized particles in fly ash aerosols in order to provide the necessary scientific knowledge and design criteria for the specification of technically and economically viable intermediate flue gas treatment of coal fired power plants. Goals are to further the understanding of certain fundamental processes by means of theoretical and experimental investigations to include this knowledge in an advanced computerized model of the agglomeration processes. Tests with the acoustic agglomeration facilities available in Penn State's new High Intensity Acoustic Laboratory were to be used to verify the results from the acoustic agglomeration simulations. Research work continued on high power, high efficiency sirens with special emphasis on the nonlinear acoustic phenomena and novel means of significantly increasing siren efficiency. A study was carried out to evaluate the economics of conventional coal fired power plant clean-up systems using acoustic agglomeration as an intermediate flue gas treatment. 154 refs., 152 figs., 30 tabs.

  3. Hydrodynamic chromatography coupled with single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for investigating nanoparticles agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Rakcheev, Denis; Philippe, Allan; Schaumann, Gabriele E

    2013-11-19

    Studying the environmental fate of engineered or natural colloids requires efficient methods for measuring their size and quantifying them in the environment. For example, an ideal method should maintain its correctness, accuracy, reproducibility, and robustness when applied to samples contained in complex matrixes and distinguish the target particles from the natural colloidal background signals. Since it is expected that a large portion of nanoparticles will form homo- or heteroagglomerates when released into environmental media, it is necessary to differentiate agglomerates from primary particles. At present, most sizing techniques do not fulfill these requirements. In this study, we used online coupling of two promising complementary sizing techniques: hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) and single-particle ICPMS analysis to analyze gold nanoparticles agglomerated under controlled conditions. We used the single-particle mode of the ICPMS detector to detect single particles eluted from an HDC-column and determine a mass and an effective diameter for each particle using a double calibration approach. The average agglomerate relative density and fractal dimension were calculated using these data and used to follow the morphological evolution of agglomerates over time during the agglomeration process. The results demonstrate the ability of HDC coupled to single-particle analysis to identify and characterize nanoparticle homoagglomerates and is a very promising technique for the analysis of colloids in complex media.

  4. Development and application of procedures to evaluate air quality and visibility impacts of low-altitude flying operations

    SciTech Connect

    Liebsch, E.J.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the development and application of procedures to evaluate the effects of low-altitude aircraft flights on air quality and visibility. The work summarized in this report was undertaken as part of the larger task of assessing the various potential environmental impacts associated with low-altitude military airspaces. Accomplishing the air quality/visibility analysis for the GEIS included (1) development and application of an integrated air quality model and aircraft emissions database specifically for Military Training Route (MTR) or similar flight operations, (2) selection and application of an existing air quality model to analyze the more widespread and less concentrated aircraft emissions from military Operations Areas (MOAs) and Restricted Areas (RAs), and (3) development and application of procedures to assess impacts of aircraft emissions on visibility. Existing air quality models were considered to be inadequate for predicting ground-level concentrations of pollutants emitted by aircraft along MTRs; therefore, the Single-Aircraft Instantaneous Line Source (SAILS) and Multiple-Aircraft Instantaneous Line Source (MAILS) models were developed to estimate potential impacts along MTRs. Furthermore, a protocol was developed and then applied in the field to determine the degree of visibility impairment caused by aircraft engine exhaust plumes. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Development of electrical test procedures for qualification of spacecraft against EID. Volume 1: The CAN test and other relevant data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkenfeld, J. M.; Judge, R. J. R.; Harlacher, B. L.

    1982-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical program to develop system electrical test procedures for the qualification of spacecraft against damage produced by space-electron-induced discharges (EID) occurring on spacecraft dielectric outer surfaces is described. The data on the response of a simple satellite model, called CAN, to electron-induced discharges is presented. The experimental results were compared to predicted behavior and to the response of the CAN to electrical injection techniques simulating blowoff and arc discharges. Also included is a review of significant results from other ground tests and the P78-2 program to form a data base from which is specified those test procedures which optimally simulate the response of spacecraft to EID. The electrical and electron spraying test data were evaluated to provide a first-cut determination of the best methods for performance of electrical excitation qualification tests from the point of view of simulation fidelity.

  6. An agglomeration induced glassy magnetic state in a carbon nanotube/NiO nanocomposite system.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, S; Jana, S; Giri, S; Majumdar, S

    2012-10-31

    A series of nanocomposite materials were synthesized using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and NiO nanoparticles by varying the concentration of NiO in the MWCNT host matrix. Such an increment in the NiO particle density actually tunes the degree of isolation among the magnetic nanoparticles. Careful investigation by transmission electron microscopy shows that particle agglomeration increases substantially with NiO particle density. Field dependence of magnetization measurements depict a gradual enhancement of coercivity with increasing NiO concentration, signifying the enhancement of magnetic anisotropy in this nanocomposite system. Furthermore, field cooled and zero field cooled memory effect as well as magnetization relaxation measurements show that a glassy magnetic state gradually develops when the concentration increases. Analysis based on the result of high resolution transmission electron microscopy along with the magnetization data reveals that interparticle magnetic exchange interaction in the presence of interfacial disorders plays the major role in the emergence of the glassy magnetic state in this nanocomposite system.

  7. Oscillatory Dynamics of Single Bubbles and Agglomeration in a Sound Field in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Philip L.; Trinh, Eugene H.; Depew, Jon; Asaki, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    A dual-frequency acoustic levitator containing water was developed for studying bubble and drop dynamics in low gravity. It was flown on USML-1 where it was used in the Glovebox facility. High frequency (21 or 63 kHz) ultrasonic waves were modulated by low frequencies to excite shape oscillations on bubbles and oil drops ultrasonically trapped in the water. Bubble diameters were typically close to 1 cm or larger. When such large bubbles are acoustically trapped on the Earth, the acoustic radiation pressure needed to overcome buoyancy tends to shift the natural frequency for quadrupole (n = 2) oscillations above the prediction of Lamb's equation. In low gravity, a much weaker trapping force was used and measurements of n = 2 and 3 mode frequencies were closer to the ideal case. Other video observations in low gravity include: (i) the transient reappearance of a bulge where a small bubble has coalesced with a large one, (ii) observations of the dynamics of bubbles coated by oil indicating that shape oscillations can shift a coated bubble away from the oil-water interface of the coating giving a centering of the core, and (iii) the agglomeration of bubbles induced by the sound field.

  8. "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures" - Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Nikendei, C; Ganschow, P; Groener, J B; Huwendiek, S; Köchel, A; Köhl-Hackert, N; Pjontek, R; Rodrian, J; Scheibe, F; Stadler, A-K; Steiner, T; Stiepak, J; Tabatabai, J; Utz, A; Kadmon, M

    2016-01-01

    The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures", which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties.

  9. Space shuttle: Structural integrity and assessment study. [development of nondestructive test procedures for space shuttle vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pless, W. M.; Lewis, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    A study program was conducted to determine the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) requirements and to develop a preliminary nondestructive evaluation manual for the entire space shuttle vehicle. The rationale and guidelines for structural analysis and NDE requirements development are discussed. Recommendations for development of NDE technology for the orbiter thermal protection system and certain structural components are included. Recommendations to accomplish additional goals toward space shuttle inspection are presented.

  10. A Single Step Lapping and Polishing Process for Achieving Surfaces of Compound Semiconductors with Atomic Flatness using a Sub-micron Agglomerate-free Alumina Slurry

    SciTech Connect

    P.S. Dutta; G. Rajagopalan; J.J. Gutmann; D. Keller; L. Sweet

    2002-08-29

    A novel approach for a single step lapping and final polishing of III-V and II-VI compounds using agglomerate-free alumina slurries has been developed. The agglomerate-free nature of the sub-micron slurry leads to removal rates comparable to conventional slurries (with larger particles of tens of microns) used for semiconductor lapping. Surfaces with minimal surface damage and extremely low surface roughness have been obtained using the sub-micron slurries and a soft pad. Strategies for post polishing surface cleaning have been discussed. The new methodology has been experimented on GaSb, InAs, GaAs, InP, InSb, CdTe, GaInSb, GaInAs, AlGaAsSb, GaInAsSb and HgCdTe. Selected results of surface analyses of GaSb and GaInSb using atomic force microscopy will be presented.

  11. Individually Guided Motivation: Goal-Setting Procedures to Develop Student Self-Direction and Prosocial Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Herbert J.; And Others

    This paper describes research and development activities dealing with a system of individually guided motivation at a Wisconsin elementary school. Four general objectives for the project are stated. These deal with motivation for learning subject matter knowledge and skills, developing independence, assuming increasing self direction, and…

  12. Algorithms for Zonal Methods and Development of Three Dimensional Mesh Generation Procedures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    of three dimensional grid generation both elliptic and hyper- bolic methods were developed. A chimera grid scheme, that is, the use of overset multiple...were developed. A chimera grid scheme, that is, the use of overset multiple grid systems, was also tested in two dimensions. In our study of zonal...Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. Grid Generation ............................... 2 3. Overset Grids

  13. Development of a corn and soybean labeling procedure for use with profile parameter classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magness, E. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Some essential processes for the development of a green-number-based logic for identifying (labeling) crops in LANDSAT imagery are documented. The supporting data and subsequent conclusions that resulted from development of a specific labeling logic for corn and soybean crops in the United States are recorded.

  14. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE IN ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY METHODS DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) is engaged in the development, demonstration, and validation of new or newly adapted methods of analysis for environmentally related samples. Recognizing that a "one size fits all" approach to qu...

  15. Beyond Satisfaction: Toward an Outcomes-Based, Procedural Model of Faculty Development Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, D. Christopher; Marsh, Lauren; Wilcox, Kimerly; Cohen, Brad

    2011-01-01

    In response to the well-documented need for rigorous evaluations of faculty development programs and increasing demands for institutional accountability, University of Minnesota's Office of Information Technology (OIT) researchers have developed an approach to program evaluation that assesses individual level changes to participants' attitudes,…

  16. Development of a Simple and Rapid Fluorogenic Procedure for Identification of Vibrionaceae Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.; Parveen, Salina

    2005-01-01

    We describe a simple colony overlay procedure for peptidases (COPP) for the rapid fluorogenic detection and quantification of Vibrionaceae from seawater, shellfish, sewage, and clinical samples. The assay detects phosphoglucose isomerase with a lysyl aminopeptidase activity that is produced by Vibrionaceae family members. Overnight cultures are overlaid for 10 min with membranes containing a synthetic substrate, and the membranes are examined for fluorescent foci under UV illumination. Fluorescent foci were produced by all the Vibrionaceae tested, including Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Plesiomonas spp. Fluorescence was not produced by non-Vibrionaceae pathogens. Vibrio cholerae strains O1, O139, O22, and O155 were strongly positive. Seawater and oysters were assayed, and 87 of 93 (93.5%) of the positive isolates were identified biochemically as Vibrionaceae, principally Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Photobacterium damselae, and Shewanella putrefaciens. None of 50 nonfluorescent isolates were Vibrionaceae. No Vibrionaceae were detected in soil, and only A. hydrophila was detected in sewage. The COPP technique may be particularly valuable in environmental and food-testing laboratories and for monitoring water quality in the aquaculture industry. PMID:16000757

  17. Development of the QA/QC Procedures for a Neutron Interrogation System

    SciTech Connect

    Obhodas, Jasmina; Sudac, Davorin; Valkovic, Vladivoj

    2015-07-01

    In order to perform QA/QC procedures for a system dedicated to the neutron interrogation of objects for the presence of threat materials one needs to perform measurements of reference materials (RM) having the same (or similar) atomic ratios as real materials. It is well known that explosives, drugs, and various other benign materials, contain chemical elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen in distinctly different quantities. For example, a high carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) is characteristic of drugs. Explosives can be differentiated by measurement of both C/O and nitrogen-to-oxygen (N/O) ratios. The C/N ratio of the chemical warfare agents, coupled with the measurement of elements such as fluorine and phosphorus, clearly differentiate them from the conventional explosives. Correlations between theoretical values and experimental results obtained in laboratory conditions for C/O and N/C ratios of simulants of hexogen (RDX), TNT, DLM2, TATP, cocaine, heroin, yperite, tetranitromethane, peroxide methylethyl-ketone, nitromethane and ethyleneglycol dinitrate are presented. (authors)

  18. On the Mechanism of Ultrasound-Driven Deagglomeration of Nanoparticle Agglomerates in Aluminum Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashova, Olga; Vorozhtsov, Sergey

    2016-05-01

    One of the promising directions in the technology of composite alloys with improved mechanical properties is reinforcement of the metallic matrix with nanopowders introduced in the liquid metal. Ultrasonic processing is known to significantly improve the introduction of submicrone particles to the metallic melt. This study focuses on the mechanisms of deagglomeration and wettability of such particles by the melt under the action of ultrasound. The suggested mechanism involves the penetration of the liquid metal into the pores and cracks of the agglomerates under the excess pressure created by imploding cavitation bubbles and further destruction of the agglomerate by the sound wave. The main dependences connecting the acoustic parameters and processing time with the physical and chemical properties of particles and the melt are obtained through analytical modeling. The mathematical description of the ultrasonic deagglomeration in liquid metal is presented; a dependence of the threshold intensity of ultrasound for the break-up of agglomerates on their size is reported.

  19. Reasons and remedies for the agglomeration of multilayered graphene and carbon nanotubes in polymers.

    PubMed

    Atif, Rasheed; Inam, Fawad

    2016-01-01

    One of the main issues in the production of polymer nanocomposites is the dispersion state of filler as multilayered graphene (MLG) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) tend to agglomerate due to van der Waals forces. The agglomeration can be avoided by using organic solvents, selecting suitable dispersion and production methods, and functionalizing the fillers. Another proposed method is the use of hybrid fillers as synergistic effects can cause an improvement in the dispersion state of the fillers. In this review article, various aspects of each process that can help avoid filler agglomeration and improve dispersion state are discussed in detail. This review article would be helpful for both current and prospective researchers in the field of MLG- and CNT-based polymer nanocomposites to achieve maximum enhancement in mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of produced polymer nanocomposites.

  20. A Novel Equivalent Agglomeration Model for Heat Conduction Enhancement in Nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Jize; Zheng, Liancun; Zhang, Xinxin; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2016-01-01

    We propose a multilevel equivalent agglomeration (MEA) model in which all particles in an irregular cluster are treated as a new particle with equivalent volume, the liquid molecules wrapping the cluster and in the gaps are considered to assemble on the surface of new particle as mixing nanolayer (MNL), the thermal conductivity in MNL is assumed to satisfy exponential distribution. Theoretical predictions for thermal conductivity enhancement are highly in agreement with the classical experimental data. Also, we first try to employ TEM information quantitatively to offer probable reference agglomeration ratio (not necessary a very precise value) to just test rational estimations range by present model. The comparison results indicate the satisfactory priori agglomeration ratio estimations range from renovated model.

  1. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Smeenk, J.L.

    1995-04-01

    Experiments performed support the hypothesis that a reducing atmosphere during fluidized bed coal combustion contributes to the formation of agglomerates. Reducing conditions are imposed by controlling the amount of combustion air supplied to the combustor, 50% of theoretical in these experiments. These localized reducing conditions may arise from either poor lateral bed mixing or oxygen-starved conditions due to the coal feed locations. Deviations from steady-state operating conditions in bed pressure drop may be used to detect agglomerate formation. Interpretation of the bed pressure drop was made more straightforward by employing a moving average difference method. During steady-state operation, the difference between the moving point averages should be close to zero, within {plus_minus}0.03 inches of water. Instability within the combustor, experienced once agglomerates begin to form, can be recognized as larger deviations from zero, on the magnitude of {plus_minus}0.15 inches of water.

  2. Reasons and remedies for the agglomeration of multilayered graphene and carbon nanotubes in polymers

    PubMed Central

    Atif, Rasheed

    2016-01-01

    Summary One of the main issues in the production of polymer nanocomposites is the dispersion state of filler as multilayered graphene (MLG) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) tend to agglomerate due to van der Waals forces. The agglomeration can be avoided by using organic solvents, selecting suitable dispersion and production methods, and functionalizing the fillers. Another proposed method is the use of hybrid fillers as synergistic effects can cause an improvement in the dispersion state of the fillers. In this review article, various aspects of each process that can help avoid filler agglomeration and improve dispersion state are discussed in detail. This review article would be helpful for both current and prospective researchers in the field of MLG- and CNT-based polymer nanocomposites to achieve maximum enhancement in mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of produced polymer nanocomposites. PMID:27826492

  3. A Novel Equivalent Agglomeration Model for Heat Conduction Enhancement in Nanofluids

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Jize; Zheng, Liancun; Zhang, Xinxin; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2016-01-01

    We propose a multilevel equivalent agglomeration (MEA) model in which all particles in an irregular cluster are treated as a new particle with equivalent volume, the liquid molecules wrapping the cluster and in the gaps are considered to assemble on the surface of new particle as mixing nanolayer (MNL), the thermal conductivity in MNL is assumed to satisfy exponential distribution. Theoretical predictions for thermal conductivity enhancement are highly in agreement with the classical experimental data. Also, we first try to employ TEM information quantitatively to offer probable reference agglomeration ratio (not necessary a very precise value) to just test rational estimations range by present model. The comparison results indicate the satisfactory priori agglomeration ratio estimations range from renovated model. PMID:26777389

  4. Water resources management in the urban agglomeration of the Lake Biwa region, Japan: An ecosystem services-based sustainability assessment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochen; Chen, Yuqing; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Niu, Jia; Nakagami, Ken'ichi; Qian, Xuepeng; Jia, Baoju; Nakajima, Jun; Han, Ji; Li, Jianhua

    2017-05-15

    An innovative ecosystem services-based sustainability assessment was conducted in the important urban agglomeration of the Lake Biwa region, Japan, covering the time period from 1950 to 2014. A 22-indicator system was established that was based on the major ecosystem services of Lake Biwa and its water courses, i.e., provisioning services regarding aquatic products and water; regulating services regarding floods and water quality; cultural services regarding recreation and tourism, scientific research, and environmental education; and supporting services regarding biodiversity. First, changes in the eight ecosystem services were discussed together with the considerable experience and difficult lessons that can be drawn from the development trajectory. Next, with the indicators rearranged according to sustainability principles, the regional sustainability over the past six-plus decades was assessed. In general, this urban agglomeration has been progressing in terms of its sustainability, although economic and social development was achieved at the cost of environmental degradation in the past, and the current economic downturn is hurting the balanced development and integrated benefits. The results lead directly to recommendations for regional development, especially in terms of economic rejuvenation, from the perspective of improving management of Lake Biwa's water resources. Moreover, the relevant knowledge is educational and inspirational for other places in the world that are facing similar development issues. For example, the effective and even pioneering countermeasures that have been taken against environmental degradation, as well as the participation and collaboration of multiple stakeholders, could be useful as a model. Moreover, the study invites increased understanding of ecosystem vulnerability to anthropogenic devastation and emphasizes the priority of precautionary measures over countermeasures in the context of holistic urban planning and sustainable

  5. The cumulative effect of assisted reproduction procedures on placental development and epigenetic perturbations in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    de Waal, Eric; Vrooman, Lisa A; Fischer, Erin; Ord, Teri; Mainigi, Monica A; Coutifaris, Christos; Schultz, Richard M; Bartolomei, Marisa S

    2015-12-15

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are associated with several complications including low birth weight, abnormal placentation and increased risk for rare imprinting disorders. Indeed, experimental studies demonstrate ART procedures independent of existing infertility induce epigenetic perturbations in the embryo and extraembryonic tissues. To test the hypothesis that these epigenetic perturbations persist and result in adverse outcomes at term, we assessed placental morphology and methylation profiles in E18.5 mouse concepti generated by in vitro fertilization (IVF) in two different genetic backgrounds. We also examined embryo transfer (ET) and superovulation procedures to ascertain if they contribute to developmental and epigenetic effects. Increased placental weight and reduced fetal-to-placental weight ratio were observed in all ART groups when compared with naturally conceived controls, demonstrating that non-surgical embryo transfer alone can impact placental development. Furthermore, superovulation further induced overgrowth of the placental junctional zone. Embryo transfer and superovulation defects were limited to these morphological changes, as we did not observe any differences in epigenetic profiles. IVF placentae, however, displayed hypomethylation of imprinting control regions of select imprinted genes and a global reduction in DNA methylation levels. Although we did not detect significant differences in DNA methylation in fetal brain or liver samples, rare IVF concepti displayed very low methylation and abnormal gene expression from the normally repressed allele. Our findings suggest that individual ART procedures cumulatively increase placental morphological abnormalities and epigenetic perturbations, potentially causing adverse neonatal and long-term health outcomes in offspring.

  6. The cumulative effect of assisted reproduction procedures on placental development and epigenetic perturbations in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    de Waal, Eric; Vrooman, Lisa A.; Fischer, Erin; Ord, Teri; Mainigi, Monica A.; Coutifaris, Christos; Schultz, Richard M.; Bartolomei, Marisa S.

    2015-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are associated with several complications including low birth weight, abnormal placentation and increased risk for rare imprinting disorders. Indeed, experimental studies demonstrate ART procedures independent of existing infertility induce epigenetic perturbations in the embryo and extraembryonic tissues. To test the hypothesis that these epigenetic perturbations persist and result in adverse outcomes at term, we assessed placental morphology and methylation profiles in E18.5 mouse concepti generated by in vitro fertilization (IVF) in two different genetic backgrounds. We also examined embryo transfer (ET) and superovulation procedures to ascertain if they contribute to developmental and epigenetic effects. Increased placental weight and reduced fetal-to-placental weight ratio were observed in all ART groups when compared with naturally conceived controls, demonstrating that non-surgical embryo transfer alone can impact placental development. Furthermore, superovulation further induced overgrowth of the placental junctional zone. Embryo transfer and superovulation defects were limited to these morphological changes, as we did not observe any differences in epigenetic profiles. IVF placentae, however, displayed hypomethylation of imprinting control regions of select imprinted genes and a global reduction in DNA methylation levels. Although we did not detect significant differences in DNA methylation in fetal brain or liver samples, rare IVF concepti displayed very low methylation and abnormal gene expression from the normally repressed allele. Our findings suggest that individual ART procedures cumulatively increase placental morphological abnormalities and epigenetic perturbations, potentially causing adverse neonatal and long-term health outcomes in offspring. PMID:26401051

  7. Development of a direct isolation procedure for free-living diazotrophs under controlled hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Babur S; Rodrigues, Jorge L M

    2012-08-01

    Free-living diazotrophs are diverse and ubiquitous in soil, contributing the nitrogen pool in natural ecosystems. The isolation of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms has relied on semisolid nitrogen-free medium enrichment, followed by multiple subculturing steps. These procedures limit the diversity of recovered isolates. In the current study, we investigated three different isolation strategies for free-living diazotrophs using a soil sample from the Amazon forest. The methods were (i) direct plating on solid nitrogen-free medium under a 2% O(2) concentration, (ii) enrichment in semisolid nitrogen-free medium before plating on solid nitrogen-free medium under 2% O(2), and (iii) enrichment followed by subculturing in the semisolid nitrogen-free medium before plating on nitrogen containing medium under a 21% O(2) concentration. A total of 794 isolates were differentiated by their genomic fingerprinting patterns, and strains with unique profiles were identified on the basis of sequencing of their 16S rRNA gene. Isolates belonged to four bacterial phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteriodetes. The novel strategy of combining a solid N-free medium and hypoxic conditions showed an increase of 62.6% in the diversity of diazotrophs in comparison to that obtained by the conventional semisolid medium-based methods. All isolates grew on the nitrogen-free medium under a 2% O(2) concentration, 78% of them showed the presence of the nifH gene, and 39% tested positive for acetylene reduction activity. Our results suggest that direct plating of soil dilutions on nitrogen-free solid medium under a 2% O(2) concentration is a useful strategy for the isolation of the diverse diazotrophic communities.

  8. Collection of Pyrethroids in Water and Sediment Matrices: Development and Validation of a Standard Operating Procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle; Orlando, James L.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Loss of pyrethroid insecticides onto surfaces during sample collection can confound the interpretation of analytical and toxicity test results. Sample collection devices, container materials, and water matrix composition have a significant influence on the association of pyrethroids to container walls, which can be as high as 50 percent. Any sample collection method involving transfer through multiple containers or pieces of equipment increases the potential for pyrethroid loss. This loose 'surface-association' with container walls can be reversed through agitation. When sampling water matrices with pumps or autosamplers, no pyrethroids were lost as long as the water was moving continuously through the system. When collecting water matrices in containers, the material with the least amount of pyrethroid sorption is as follows: glass less than (<) plastic less than (<) Teflon. Additionally, pyrethroids were easier to re-suspend from the glass container walls. Since the amount of surface-association is proportional to the ratio of volume-to-contact-area of the sample, taking larger-volume field samples (greater than 3 liters) reduced pyrethroid losses to less than 10 percent. The amount of surface-association cannot be predicted easily because of the dependence on water matrix composition; samples with higher dissolved organic carbon or suspended-sediment concentrations were observed to have lower percent loss. Sediment samples were not affected by glass-container sorption (the only containers tested). Standardized sample-collection protocols are critical to yield accurate pyrethroid concentrations for assessment of potential effects, and have been summarized in an accompanying standard operating procedure.

  9. Development of an NMR microprobe procedure for high-throughput environmental metabolomics of Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Nagato, Edward G; Lankadurai, Brian P; Soong, Ronald; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2015-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is the primary platform used in high-throughput environmental metabolomics studies because its non-selectivity is well suited for non-targeted approaches. However, standard NMR probes may limit the use of NMR-based metabolomics for tiny organisms because of the sample volumes required for routine metabolic profiling. Because of this, keystone ecological species, such as the water flea Daphnia magna, are not commonly studied because of the analytical challenges associated with NMR-based approaches. Here, the use of a 1.7-mm NMR microprobe in analyzing tissue extracts from D. magna is tested. Three different extraction procedures (D2O-based buffer, Bligh and Dyer, and acetonitrile : methanol : water) were compared in terms of the yields and breadth of polar metabolites. The D2O buffer extraction yielded the most metabolites and resulted in the best reproducibility. Varying amounts of D. magna dry mass were extracted to optimize metabolite isolation from D. magna tissues. A ratio of 1-1.5-mg dry mass to 40 µl of extraction solvent provided excellent signal-to-noise and spectral resolution using (1)H NMR. The metabolite profile of a single daphnid was also investigated (approximately 0.2 mg). However, the signal-to-noise of the (1)H NMR was considerably lower, and while feasible for select applications would likely not be appropriate for high-throughput NMR-based metabolomics. Two-dimensional NMR experiments on D. magna extracts were also performed using the 1.7-mm NMR probe to confirm (1)H NMR metabolite assignments. This study provides an NMR-based analytical framework for future metabolomics studies that use D. magna in ecological and ecotoxicity studies.

  10. Agglomeration in Stripper Ash Coolers and Its Possible Remedial Solutions: a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ravi Inder

    2016-04-01

    The bottom ash of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler contains large amounts of physical heat. When low quality coals are used in these types of boilers, the ash content is normally more than 40 % and the physical heat loss is approximately 3 % if the bottom ash is discharged without cooling. Bottom ash cooler (BAC) is often used to treat the high temperature bottom ash to reclaim heat, and to facilitate the easily handling and transportation of ash. The CFB boiler at BLA Power, Newari, MP (India) is facing problems of clinker formation in strip ash coolers of plant since the installation of unit. These clinkers are basically agglomerates, which leads to defluidization of stripper ash cooler (BAC) units. There are two strip ash coolers in unit. Each strip ash cooler is capable of working independently. The proper functioning of both strip coolers is very important as it is going to increase the combustion efficiency of boiler by stripping of fine unburnt coal particles from ash, which are injected into the furnace. In this paper causes, characterization of agglomerates, thermo gravimetric analysis of fuel used, particular size distribution of coal and sand and possible remedial solution to overcome these agglomerates in strip ash coolers has also been presented. High temperature in compact separators, non uniform supply of coal and not removing small agglomerates from stripper ash cooler are among main causes of agglomeration in stripper ash cooler. Control of compact separator temperature, replacing 10-12 % of bed material and cleaning stripper ash cooler periodically will decrease agglomeration in stripper ash cooler of unit.

  11. Development and Evaluation of a Multiplex Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Procedure to Clinically Type Prevalent Salmonella enterica Serovars

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Nélida; Diaz-Osorio, Miguel; Moreno, Jaime; Sánchez-Jiménez, Miryan; Cardona-Castro, Nora

    2010-01-01

    A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction procedure was developed to identify the most prevalent clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. Genes from the rfb, fliC, fljB, and viaB groups that encode the O, H, and Vi antigens were used to design 15 primer pairs and TaqMan probes specific for the genes rfbJ, wzx, fliC, fljB, wcdB, the sdf-l sequence, and invA, which was used as an internal amplification control. The primers and probes were variously combined into six sets. The first round of reactions used two of these sets to detect Salmonella O:4, O:9, O:7, O:8, and O:3,10 serogroups. Once the serogroups were identified, the results of a second round of reactions that used primers and probes for the flagellar antigen l genes, 1,2; e,h; g,m; d; e,n,x; and z10, and the Vi gene were used to identify individual serovars. The procedure was standardized using 18 Salmonella reference strains and other enterobacteria. The procedure's reliability and sensitivity was evaluated using 267 randomly chosen serotyped Salmonella clinical isolates. The procedure had a sensitivity of 95.5% and was 100% specific. Thus, our technique is a quick, sensitive, reliable, and specific means of identifying S. enterica serovars and can be used in conjunction with traditional serotyping. Other primer and probe combinations could be used to increase the number of identifiable serovars. PMID:20110454

  12. A prospective study on the effectiveness of newly developed autogenous tooth bone graft material for sinus bone graft procedure

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Sang-Ho; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Lee, Jae-Il; Ahn, Kyo-Jin; Yun, Pil-Young

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the effectiveness of newly developed autogenous tooth bone graft material (AutoBT)application for sinus bone graft procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS The patients with less than 5.0 mm of residual bone height in maxillary posterior area were enrolled. For the sinus bone graft procedure, Bio-Oss was grafted in control group and AutoBT powder was grafted in experimental group. Clinical and radiographic examination were done for the comparison of grafted materials in sinus cavity between groups. At 4 months after sinus bone graft procedure, biopsy specimens were analyzed by microcomputed tomography and histomorphometric examination for the evaluation of healing state of bone graft site. RESULTS In CT evaluation, there was no difference in bone density, bone height and sinus membrane thickness between groups. In microCT analysis, there was no difference in total bone volume, new bone volume, bone mineral density of new bone between groups. There was significant difference trabecular thickness (0.07 µm in Bio-Oss group Vs. 0.08 µm in AutoBT group) (P=.006). In histomorphometric analysis, there was no difference in new bone formation, residual graft material, bone marrow space between groups. There was significant difference osteoid thickness (8.35 µm in Bio-Oss group Vs. 13.12 µm in AutoBT group) (P=.025). CONCLUSION AutoBT could be considered a viable alternative to the autogenous bone or other bone graft materials in sinus bone graft procedure. PMID:25551014

  13. Revisiting the destination ranking procedure in development of an Intervening Opportunities Model for public transit trip distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazem, Mohsen; Trépanier, Martin; Morency, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    An Enhanced Intervening Opportunities Model (EIOM) is developed for Public Transit (PT). This is a distribution supply dependent model, with single constraints on trip production for work trips during morning peak hours (6:00 a.m.-9:00 a.m.) within the Island of Montreal, Canada. Different data sets, including the 2008 Origin-Destination (OD) survey of the Greater Montreal Area, the 2006 Census of Canada, GTFS network data, along with the geographical data of the study area, are used. EIOM is a nonlinear model composed of socio-demographics, PT supply data and work location attributes. An enhanced destination ranking procedure is used to calculate the number of spatially cumulative opportunities, the basic variable of EIOM. For comparison, a Basic Intervening Opportunities Model (BIOM) is developed by using the basic destination ranking procedure. The main difference between EIOM and BIOM is in the destination ranking procedure: EIOM considers the maximization of a utility function composed of PT Level Of Service and number of opportunities at the destination, along with the OD trip duration, whereas BIOM is based on a destination ranking derived only from OD trip durations. Analysis confirmed that EIOM is more accurate than BIOM. This study presents a new tool for PT analysts, planners and policy makers to study the potential changes in PT trip patterns due to changes in socio-demographic characteristics, PT supply, and other factors. Also it opens new opportunities for the development of more accurate PT demand models with new emergent data such as smart card validations.

  14. Emergency evacuation/transportation plan update: Traffic model development and evaluation of early closure procedures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-28

    Prolonged delays in traffic experienced by Laboratory personnel during a recent early dismissal in inclement weather, coupled with reconstruction efforts along NM 502 east of the White Rock Wye for the next 1 to 2 years, has prompted Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to re-evaluate and improve the present transportation plan and its integration with contingency plans maintained in other organizations. Facilities planners and emergency operations staff need to evaluate the transportation system`s capability to inefficiently and safely evacuate LANL under different low-level emergency conditions. A variety of potential procedures governing the release of employees from the different technical areas (TAs) requires evaluation, perhaps with regard to multiple emergency-condition scenarios, with one or more optimal procedures ultimately presented for adoption by Lab Management. The work undertaken in this project will hopefully lay a foundation for an on-going, progressive transportation system analysis capability. It utilizes microscale simulation techniques to affirm, reassess and validate the Laboratory`s Early Dismissal/Closure/Delayed Opening Plan. The Laboratory is required by Federal guidelines, and compelled by prudent practice and conscientious regard for the welfare of employees and nearby residents, to maintain plans and operating procedures for evacuation if the need arises. The tools developed during this process can be used outside of contingency planning. It is anticipated that the traffic models developed will allow site planners to evaluate changes to the traffic network which could better serve the normal traffic levels. Changes in roadway configuration, control strategies (signalization and signing), response strategies to traffic accidents, and patterns of demand can be modelled using the analysis tools developed during this project. Such scenarios typically are important considerations in master planning and facilities programming.

  15. Detailed analysis of a quench bomb for the study of aluminum agglomeration in solid propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallier, S.; Kratz, J.-G.; Quaglia, N.; Fouin, G.

    2016-07-01

    A standard quench bomb (QB) - widely used to characterize condensed phase from metalized solid propellant combustion - is studied in detail. Experimental and numerical investigations proved that collected particles are mostly unburned aluminum (Al) agglomerates despite large quenching distances. Particles are actually found to quench early as propellant surface is swept by inert pressurant. Further improvements of the QB are proposed which allow measuring both Al agglomerates and alumina residue with the same setup. Finally, the results obtained on a typical aluminized ammonium perchlorate (AP) / hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant are briefly discussed.

  16. General procedure to aid the development of continuous pharmaceutical processes using multivariate statistical modeling - an industrial case study.

    PubMed

    Tomba, Emanuele; De Martin, Marialuisa; Facco, Pierantonio; Robertson, John; Zomer, Simeone; Bezzo, Fabrizio; Barolo, Massimiliano

    2013-02-28

    Streamlining the manufacturing process has been recognized as a key issue to reduce production costs and improve safety in pharmaceutical manufacturing. Although data available from earlier developmental stages are often sparse and unstructured, they can be very useful to improve the understanding about the process under development. In this paper, a general procedure is proposed for the application of latent variable statistical methods to support the development of new continuous processes in the presence of limited experimental data. The proposed procedure is tested on an industrial case study concerning the development of a continuous line for the manufacturing of paracetamol tablets. The main driving forces acting on the process are identified and ranked according to their importance in explaining the variability in the available data. This improves the understanding about the process by elucidating how different active pharmaceutical ingredient pretreatments, different formulation modes and different settings on the processing units affect the overall operation as well as the properties of the intermediate and final products. The results can be used as a starting point to perform a comprehensive and science-based quality risk assessment that help to define a robust control strategy, possibly enhanced with the integration of a design space for the continuous process at a later stage.

  17. [Cognitive behavior therapy for depression in children and adolescents - procedure, effects, and developments].

    PubMed

    Groen, Gunter; Petermann, Franz

    2012-11-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy offers a theoretically and empirically valid therapeutic approach for children and adolescents suffering from depression. It can be recommended according to present guidelines and efficacy studies. Further research and conceptual development, however, is necessary especially regarding the small to moderate effect sizes as well as the lack of long-term efficacy and effect factors. This article gives a short overview of the basics and contents of cognitive behavior therapy for depressive children and adolescents. It furthermore presents the latest findings and an assessment of its efficacy and relevant developments and perspectives.

  18. Development and validation of a novel data analysis procedure for spherical nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Siddhartha

    This dissertation presents a novel approach for converting the raw load-displacement data measured in spherical nanoindentation into much more meaningful indentation stress-strain curves. This new method entails a novel definition of the indentation strain and a new procedure for establishing the effective zero point in the raw dataset---both with and without the use of the continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) data. The concepts presented here have been validated by simulations and experiments on isotropic metallic samples of aluminum and tungsten. It is demonstrated that these new indentation stress-strain curves accurately capture the loading and unloading elastic moduli, the indentation yield points, as well as the post-yield characteristics in the tested samples. Subsequently this approach has been applied on a wide range of material systems including metals, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), ceramics and bone. In metals, these data analysis techniques have been highly successful in explaining several of the surface preparation artifacts typically encountered during nanoindentation measurements. This approach has also been extended to anisotropic polycrystalline samples, where a judicious combination of Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) and nanoindentation were used to estimate, for the first time, the changes in slip resistance in deformed grains of Fe-3%Si steel. Similar studies on dense CNT brushes, with ˜10 times higher density than CNT brushes produced by other methods, demonstrate the higher modulus (˜17-20 GPa) and orders of magnitude higher resistance to buckling in these brushes than vapor phase deposited CNT brushes or carbon walls, showing their promise for energy-absorbing coatings. Even for a complex hierarchical material system like bone, these techniques have elucidated trends in the elastic and yield behavior at the lamellar level in the femora (thigh bone) of different inbred mouse strains. Thus bone with a higher mineral-to-matrix ratio

  19. The Devil Is in the Details: Development of Policy and Procedure in the Battle River Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleddie, Doug L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Guidelines from a variety of jurisdictions for the health-promoting schools (HPS) approach include healthy school policy as a critical element. Research also supports the importance of policy; however, there seems to be a lack of information on how to develop and implement policy. The article examines the processes involved in one…

  20. Instructional Systems Development Model for Interactive Videodisc Training Delivery Systems. Volume I: Hardware, Software and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunderson, C. Victor; And Others

    Developed for use by army authors, this report provides information to assist in the step-by-step production of interactive videodisc training delivery systems (VTDS). The first of three volumes describes the hardware and software for VTDS, as well as videodisc authoring and production systems (VAPS). The range of capabilities of consumer-model…

  1. Instrument Development Procedures for Maze Measures. Technical Report # 08-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Kimy; Sundstrom-Hebert, Krystal; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Tindal, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the instrument development of maze measures for grades 3-8. Each maze passage contained twelve omitted words that students filled in by choosing the best-fit word from among the provided options. In this technical report, we describe the process of creating, reviewing, and pilot testing the maze measures.…

  2. A Taxonomy of Care for Youth: Results of an Empirical Development Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenboer, K. Els; Huyghen, Anne-Marie N.; Tuinstra, Jolanda; Knorth, Erik J.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Statements about potentially effective components of interventions in child and youth care are hard to make because of a lack of a standardized instruments for classifying the most salient care characteristics. The aim of this study is to present an empirically developed taxonomy of care for youth (Tocfy) which is feasible for use in…

  3. Development of methods and procedures for high rate low energy expenditure fabrication of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, A. R.; Minnucci, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop high rate, energy efficient solar cell processing techniques based around ion implantation and elimination of all conventional thermal operations. Cells have been fabricated using an abbreviated series of vacuum process operations performed at room temperature.

  4. Developing and Improving Modified Achievement Level Descriptors: Rationale, Procedures, and Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quenemoen, Rachel; Albus, Debra; Rogers, Chris; Lazarus, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    Some states are developing alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) to measure the academic achievement of some students with disabilities (Albus, Lazarus, Thurlow, & Cormier, 2009; Lazarus, Thurlow, Christensen, & Cormier, 2007). These assessments measure the same content as the general assessment for a given…

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A TOXICITY INDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) PROCEDURE FOR CHARACTERIZING METAL TOXICITY IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-Agency effort is underway to develop whole sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods. Whole sediment TIE methods will be critical tools for characterizing toxicity at hazardous waste sites (e.g., Superfund sites) and in the conduct of environmental risk as...

  6. Instructional Systems Development Model for Interactive Videodisc Training Delivery Systems. Volume I. Hardware, Software, and Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    and production, as well as the relative merit of videotaae versus film -based production. Each of the steps involved in disc develop- ment is outlined...VAP Systems . . . . . . . . . . 86 Film -Based Videodisc Authoring and Production Systems . . 86 Authoring . . . .. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. 86...65 13. Media flow chart-- film ............ 66 14. Major steps of videodisc production . . . . .. 67 15. An example of a format grid for a

  7. The Same Procedure as Every Time? School Inspections and School Development in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedering, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    The article focuses on school inspections as an instrument for school development and aims to clarify how schools cope with the results which are generated by it. It is based on the assumption that the specific situation of a school has an impact on how and in what way the results are received and dealt with in schools. In order to support this…

  8. Peer Interaction and Corrective Feedback for Accuracy and Fluency Development: Monitoring, Practice, and Proceduralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Masatoshi; Lyster, Roy

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study is aimed at (a) teaching learners how to provide corrective feedback (CF) during peer interaction and (b) assessing the effects of peer interaction and CF on second language (L2) development. Four university-level English classes in Japan participated (N = 167), each assigned to one of four treatment conditions. Of…

  9. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Development of procedure M for multicrop inventory, with tests of a spring-wheat configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, R. (Principal Investigator); Cicone, R.; Crist, E.; Kauth, R. J.; Lambeck, P.; Malila, W. A.; Richardson, W.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An outgrowth of research and development activities in support of LACIE was a multicrop area estimation procedure, Procedure M. This procedure was a flexible, modular system that could be operated within the LACIE framework. Its distinctive features were refined preprocessing (including spatially varying correction for atmospheric haze), definition of field like spatial features for labeling, spectral stratification, and unbiased selection of samples to label and crop area estimation without conventional maximum likelihood classification.

  10. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Pump Station Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perley, Gordon F.

    This is a guide for standard operating job procedures for the pump station process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up inspection, start-up procedures, continuous routine operation procedures, and shut-down procedures. A general description of the equipment used in the process is given. Two…

  11. Modified MODFLOW-based model for simulating the agglomeration and transport of polymer-modified Fe(0) nanoparticles in saturated porous media.

    PubMed

    Babakhani, Peyman; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Shamsai, Abolfazl; Lowry, Gregory V; Phenrat, Tanapon

    2015-08-25

    The solute transport model MODFLOW has become a standard tool in risk assessment and remediation design. However, particle transport models that take into account both particle agglomeration and deposition phenomena are far less developed. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of adapting the standard code MODFLOW/MT3D to simulate the agglomeration and transport of three different types of polymer-modified nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) in one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) saturated porous media. A first-order decay of the particle population was used to account for the agglomeration of particles. An iterative technique was used to optimize the model parameters. The model provided good matches to 1-D NZVI-breakthrough data sets, with R (2) values ranging from 0.96 to 0.99, and mass recovery differences between the experimental results and simulations ranged from 0.1 to 1.8 %. Similarly, simulations of NZVI transport in the heterogeneous 2-D model demonstrated that the model can be applied to more complicated heterogeneous domains. However, the fits were less good, with the R (2) values in the 2-D modeling cases ranging from 0.75 to 0.95, while the mass recovery differences ranged from 0.7 to 6.5 %. Nevertheless, the predicted NZVI concentration contours during transport were in good agreement with the 2-D experimental observations. The model provides insights into NZVI transport in porous media by mathematically decoupling agglomeration, attachment, and detachment, and it illustrates the importance of each phenomenon in various situations. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  12. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing. Technical report number 2, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale oil agglomeration technology capable of increasing the recovery and improving the quality of fine coal streams. Two distinct agglomeration devices will be tested, namely, a conventional high shear mixer and a tubular (jet) processor. To meet the overall objective an 11 task work plan has been designed. The work will range from batch and continuous bench-scale testing through the design, commissioning and field testing of POC-scale agglomeration equipment. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning and management; host site selection and plan formulation; preliminary engineering and design of POC equipment; coal characterization and laboratory (batch) and bench-scale testing; final engineering and design of POC equipment; proof-of-concept (POC) equipment procurement and fabrication; POC equipment inspection; POC equipment installation, shakedown and operation; process evaluation; dismantling of the system; final report. Accomplishments to date are described on the site selection, a work plan for bench-scale testing, preliminary engineering and design of POC equipment, and coal characterization.

  13. Development of a comprehensive analysis for rotorcraft. II - Aircraft model, solution procedure and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive analytical model of rotorcraft aerodynamics and dynamics is described. Particular emphasis is given to describing the reasons behind the choices and decisions involved in constructing the model. The analysis is designed to calculate rotor performance, loads and noise; helicopter vibration and gust response; flight dynamics and handling qualities; and system aeroelastic stability. It is intended for use in the design, testing and evaluation of a wide class of rotors and rotorcraft and to be the basis for further development of rotary wing theories. The general characteristics of the geometric, structural, inertial and aerodynamic models used for the rotorcraft components are described, including the assumptions introduced by the chosen models and the resulting capabilities and limitations. Finally, some examples from recent applications of the analysis are given.

  14. Training Aids for Basic Combat Skills: A Procedure for Training-Aid Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    of PowerPoint slides developed and assembled by IET units. During interviews and group discussions, DSs provided links to web sites they accessed to...gain additional training materials.3 Some web sites included map-reading training materials. In addition, map reading training material previously...what error might have 3 Some of the web sites suggested by DSs include: www.550cord.com

  15. Welding filler metal and procedure development for EPRI`s NOREM hardfacing alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.K.; Findlan, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    Iron-based wear-resistant alloys, designated NOREM, have been developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to address radiation exposure concerns to maintenance personnel in nuclear power plants. The often used cobalt-base alloys have been shown to be a major contributor to radiation field buildup as a result of cobalt wear particles passing through the reactor vessel and becoming ted, These ted particles are then transported throughout the primary nuclear system. This paper summarizes the results of the EPRI sponsored project which focused on the development of consumables and welding parameters for in-situ application. The development of hardfacing rod and wire product forms which yield multi-layer, crack-free deposits on both carbon and stainless steel substrates without the need for preheat, presented some unique challenges. This paper discusses the effect of various alloying and impurity elements on weldability. Results of galling wear, corrosion resistance, mechanical testing, as compared with the more traditional materials, will also be reported. Finally, material specifications and welding parameters will be provided, along with an overview of current nuclear utility applications.

  16. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released Bactrocera Philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) for sterile insect technique programs

    SciTech Connect

    Resilva, S.; Obra, G.; Zamora, N.; Gaitan, E.

    2007-03-15

    Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author) [Spanish] Los procedimientos de control de calidad para Bactrocera philippinensis Drew y Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) usados en programas de la tecnica de insecto esteril (TIE) fueron establecidos en la facilidad de cria en masa del Instituto Filipino de Investigacion Nuclear. Estudios basicos sobre la irradiacion de las pupas, sistemas de almacenaje/empaque, procedimientos del envio, longevidad, estudios de esterilidad y la determinacion del color de ojo de la pupa en relacion con el desarrollo fisiologico en regimenes diferentes de temperatura fueron investigados. Estos estudios proveeran una linea de informacion basica para el desarrollo de protocolos de control de calidad para una expansion de los programas de campo para B. philippinensis con un componente de TIS en el futuro. (author)

  17. Development of mixed time partition procedures for thermal analysis of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    The computational methods used to predict and optimize the thermal-structural behavior of aerospace vehicle structures are reviewed. In general, two classes of algorithms, implicit and explicit, are used in transient thermal analysis of structures. Each of these two methods has its own merits. Due to the different time scales of the mechanical and thermal responses, the selection of a time integration method can be a difficult yet critical factor in the efficient solution of such problems. Therefore mixed time integration methods for transient thermal analysis of structures are being developed. This proposed methodology would be readily adaptable to existing computer programs for structural thermal analysis.

  18. Development of apparatus and procedures for evaluating radon-resistant construction materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, T.D.; Greenfield, M.B.; MacKenzie, J.; Meijer, R.J. de

    1992-12-31

    Laboratory facilities and apparatus have been constructed to measure radon exhalation from, and radon permeability through, various construction materials. This phase of the project has focused on development of test apparatus and evaluation of instrumentation. Results indicate significant spatial variability in the radon permeability of polyethylene, even when all test samples were selected from the same roll of material, and when no visible differentiation could be made regarding sample quality. Implications for code enforcement are described, and recommendations are offered for refinement of equipment and the measurement process, prioritization of future materials testing, and specific building code provisions, based on our results.

  19. A program continuation to develop processing procedures for advanced silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, J. E.; Scott-Monck, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Shallow junctions, aluminum back surface fields and tantalum pentoxide (Ta205) antireflection coatings coupled with the development of a chromium-palladium-silver contact system, were used to produce a 2 x 4 cm wraparound contact silicon solar cell. One thousand cells were successfully fabricated using batch processing techniques. These cells were 0.020 mm thick, with the majority (800) made from nominal ten ohm-cm silicon and the remainder from nominal 30 ohm-cm material. Unfiltered, these cells delivered a minimum AMO efficiency at 25 C of 11.5 percent and successfully passed all the normal in-process and acceptance tests required for space flight cells.

  20. Development of procedures for the identification of human papilloma virus DNA fragments in laser plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woellmer, Wolfgang; Meder, Tom; Jappe, Uta; Gross, Gerd; Riethdorf, Sabine; Riethdorf, Lutz; Kuhler-Obbarius, Christina; Loening, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    For the investigation of laser plume for the existence of HPV DNA fragments, which possibly occur during laser treatment of virus infected tissue, human papillomas and condylomas were treated in vitro with the CO2-laser. For the sampling of the laser plume a new method for the trapping of the material was developed by use of water-soluble gelatine filters. These samples were analyzed with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, which was optimized in regard of the gelatine filters and the specific primers. Positive PCR results for HPV DNA fragments up to the size of a complete oncogene were obtained and are discussed regarding infectiousity.