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Sample records for agglutination test antibodies

  1. A rapid latex agglutination test for detection of leptospiral antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ramadass, P; Samuel, B; Nachimuthu, K

    1999-10-01

    A rapid semi-quantitative latex agglutination test (LAT) has been standardized for the detection of leptospiral antibodies in serum samples of man and animals. The efficacy of the LAT was compared with the plate enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 276 human serum samples were analyzed by both LAT and ELISA and percentage positives were 84.8 and 85.9%, respectively. Similarly, of 65 animal samples tested, 63.1 and 69.2% positivity were observed in LAT and ELISA, respectively. Even though the ELISA test was slightly more sensitive than LAT, the rapidity, simplicity and economics of the LAT were found to fulfill the requirements of a screening test for leptospiral antibodies.

  2. Evaluation of Pyloriset Dry, a new rapid agglutination test for Helicobacter pylori antibody detection.

    PubMed Central

    Lozniewski, A; De Korwin, J D; Conroy, M C; Plenat, F; Weber, M

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of a new latex agglutination test, Pyloriset Dry (Orion Diagnostica, Espoo, Finland), in the simultaneous detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM antibodies to Helicobacter pylori and compared it with that of the Pyloristat test (BioWhittaker, Fontenay-sous-Bois, France), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detecting IgG to H. pylori, for 96 untreated dyspeptic patients who had undergone gastroduodenal endoscopy. Infection was diagnosed in 56 cases by positive culture and/or positive Giemsa stain and rapid urease test (antral biopsies) and was associated with chronic gastritis in 52 patients. Forty noninfected patients did not have chronic gastritis. The sensitivity of Pyloriset Dry was 91.1%. The sensitivity of Pyloristat was 91.1 or 82.1%, depending on whether equivocal results were considered positive or negative, respectively. Both tests had a specificity of 87.5%. Their performances were not statistically different. Thus, Pyloriset Dry is an alternative to serological tests for adults, particularly when a small number of serum samples has to be tested. PMID:8784587

  3. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Anju; Saxena, Hari Mohan; Malhotra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT), microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT), indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (p<0.0001). The mean MAT titers were 2.244±0.727 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was very significant (p<0.005). The mean IHA titers in infected cattle were 2.284±0.574, and those in healthy vaccinated cattle were 1.200±0.155. The difference was extremely significant (p=0.0002). However, the difference in mean iELISA titers of infected cattle (1.3678±0.014) and healthy vaccinated cattle (1.367±0.014) was non-significant. The infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. However, it cannot be ascertained whether these antibodies are due to vaccine or response to infection. Since the infected animals had been vaccinated earlier, the current infection may suggest that vaccination was unable to induce protective levels of antibody. The heightened antibody response after infection may also indicate a secondary immune response to the antigens common to the vaccine strain and wild Brucella organisms. Conclusion: The brucellosis infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. PMID:27536032

  4. Rapid detection of infectious mononucleosis-associated heterophile antibodies by a novel immunochromatographic assay and a latex agglutination test.

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, S E; Finn, S; Chua, R; Smith, B; Simor, A E; George, P; Diena, B B; Diena, D; Skulnick, M

    1993-01-01

    A novel immunochromatographic assay, the CARDS O.S. MONO test (Pacific Biotech, San Diego, Calif.), and a latex agglutination test, the Infectious Mononucleosis Kit (Unipath Ltd., Hampshire, United Kingdom) were compared with the Paul-Bunnell-Davidsohn test. Of the 957 serum specimens studied, 78 were positive and 879 were negative by the Paul-Bunnell-Davidsohn test. After discrepancies were resolved by determining Epstein-Barr virus serology, the sensitivities of the CARDS O.S. MONO test and the Infectious Mononucleosis Kit were 91.0 and 96.2%, respectively, and both tests had a specificity and a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value and overall agreement of greater than 99%. The results show that both tests can accurately detect infectious mononucleosis-associated heterophile antibodies. PMID:8315001

  5. Rapid detection of human group C rotaviruses by reverse passive hemagglutination and latex agglutination tests using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Kuzuya, M; Fujii, R; Hamano, M; Nagabayashi, T; Tsunemitsu, H; Yamada, M; Nii, S; Mori, T

    1993-01-01

    Reverse passive hemagglutination (RPHA) tests and a latex agglutination test with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were developed for the rapid detection of noncultivatable human group C rotaviruses. For RPHA tests, two MAbs, MAb 5A12 recognizing the outer capsid and MAb 13A3 recognizing the inner capsid, were separately used for the coating of sheep erythrocytes (SRBCs). Forty-six fecal samples were examined to confirm the practicality of the tests. As a result, there was concordance between the RPHA test with SRBCs coated with MAb 5A12 and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of viral RNA (RNA-PAGE) in 44 (95.6%) of 46 samples, while the diagnoses by the RPHA test with SRBCs coated with MAb 13A3 were in complete agreement with those by RNA-PAGE. Furthermore, a latex agglutination test with MAb 13A3 was also developed, and this test was fast enough and sensitive enough to successfully detect the viruses from most fecal samples within 2 min. The present procedures would be useful for the diagnosis of human group C rotavirus infections in clinical laboratories which are not well equipped. Images PMID:8388891

  6. Direct agglutination test for serologic diagnosis of Neospora caninum infection.

    PubMed

    Romand, S; Thulliez, P; Dubey, J P

    1998-01-01

    A direct agglutination test was evaluated for the detection and quantitation of IgG antibodies to Neospora caninum in both experimental and natural infections in various animal species. As compared with results obtained by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, the direct agglutination test appeared reliable for the serologic diagnosis of neosporosis in a variety of animal species. The direct agglutination test should provide easily available and inexpensive tools for serologic testing for antibodies to N. caninum in many host species.

  7. Comparison of indirect fluorescent antibody test and the modified agglutination test for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in stray dogs from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Jonatas Campos; Frehse, Michelle Salmon; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Garcia, João Luis; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Freire, Roberta Lemos

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by two serological techniques in sera of 364 stray dogs from Brazil by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT, cut off point 1:16) and to the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off points 1:25 and 1:50). A total of 175/364 (48.07%) sera were positive by IFAT, and 108/364 (29.67%) and 85/364 (23.35%) were positive by MAT with cutoff points 1:25 and 1:50, respectively were positive by MAT. Cohen's Kappa Coefficient between IFAT and MAT was 0.81 (excellent) and 0.66 (substantial) with cutoff points 1:25 and 1:50, respectively. Using IFAT as gold standard, MAT sensitivity and specificity were 78% and 99% for 1:25 and 61% and 99% for 1:50, respectively. The results document of the usefulness of MAT for serological diagnosis because it does not require species-specific conjugate.

  8. Nationwide survey of leptospira antibodies in dogs in Japan: results from microscopic agglutination test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Emiko; Wada, Yuko; Fujisaki, Yuka; Umeki, Saori; Jones, Miyuki Y; Mizuno, Takuya; Itamoto, Kazuhito; Maeda, Ken; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Okuda, Masaru

    2009-09-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by Leptospira interrogans sensu lato and is common in both humans and animals. In the present study, serum samples were collected from 801 dogs across all 47 prefectures in Japan, and evaluated with a microscopic agglutination test (MAT), using 5 major L. interrogans serovars (Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, Autumnalis, Hebdomadis, and Australis) as antigens, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant OmpL1 protein as the antigen. Across all dogs tested, 217 (27.0%) and 29 (3.6%) were MAT- and ELISA-positive, respectively. However, evidence strongly suggests that MAT also detected antibodies produced by vaccination. Of 243 dogs never inoculated with any canine vaccine, 41 (16.9%) from 23 prefectures were MAT and/or ELISA positive. The most commonly detected serovar was Icterohaemorrhagiae (22 dogs, 19 prefectures). Our results suggest that there are dogs with subclinical Leptospira infection throughout Japan. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first nationwide survey of Leptospira infection in dogs, and the findings are relevant not only for clinical veterinary medicine but also for public health.

  9. [The evaluation of different agglutination and adhesion tests with erythrocytic reagents in determining antibodies to the O and H antigens of Salmonella typhimurium in comparison with immunoenzyme analysis (IEA)].

    PubMed

    Karal'nik, B V; Denisova, T G

    1996-01-01

    The comparison of the effectiveness of EIA with that of a number of agglutination and adhesion tests with erythrocyte diagnostica in the determination of antibodies to different S.typhimurium antigens demonstrated higher sensitivity of EIA. The relative specificity of the determination of O- and H-antibodies in EIA and in agglutination and adhesion tests depended on the isotype of antibodies to be determined and the specificity of sensitins used in the production of immunoreagents.

  10. Latex agglutination test

    MedlinePlus

    ... the results of this test. Normal Results Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider ...

  11. Ultrasensitive Antibody Detection by Agglutination-PCR (ADAP)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies are widely used biomarkers for the diagnosis of many diseases. Assays based on solid-phase immobilization of antigens comprise the majority of clinical platforms for antibody detection, but can be undermined by antigen denaturation and epitope masking. These technological hurdles are especially troublesome in detecting antibodies that bind nonlinear or conformational epitopes, such as anti-insulin antibodies in type 1 diabetes patients and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies associated with thyroid cancers. Radioimmunoassay remains the gold standard for these challenging antibody biomarkers, but the limited multiplexability and reliance on hazardous radioactive reagents have prevented their use outside specialized testing facilities. Here we present an ultrasensitive solution-phase method for detecting antibodies, termed antibody detection by agglutination-PCR (ADAP). Antibodies bind to and agglutinate synthetic antigen–DNA conjugates, enabling ligation of the DNA strands and subsequent quantification by qPCR. ADAP detects zepto- to attomoles of antibodies in 2 μL of sample with a dynamic range spanning 5–6 orders of magnitude. Using ADAP, we detected anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies from human patient plasma with a 1000-fold increased sensitivity over an FDA-approved radioimmunoassay. Finally, we demonstrate the multiplexability of ADAP by simultaneously detecting multiple antibodies in one experiment. ADAP’s combination of simplicity, sensitivity, broad dynamic range, multiplexability, and use of standard PCR protocols creates new opportunities for the discovery and detection of antibody biomarkers. PMID:27064772

  12. Comparative assessment of the leprosy antibody absorption test, Mycobacterium leprae extract enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and gelatin particle agglutination test for serodiagnosis of lepromatous leprosy.

    PubMed Central

    Escobar-Gutiérrez, A; Amezcua, M E; Pastén, S; Pallares, F; Cázares, J V; Pulido, R M; Flores, O; Castro, E; Rodríguez, O

    1993-01-01

    A comparative assessment of three serological methods for leprosy diagnosis (the fluorescent leprosy antibody absorption [FLA-ABS] test, the Mycobacterium leprae soluble-extract enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], and the M. leprae particle agglutination [MLPA] test) was carried out. The objective was to identify their performance in clinical and epidemiological diagnosis of leprosy. The study group included 45 lepromatous leprosy patients under treatment. Specificity was > 95% for all three assays, and sensitivity was 95, 58, and 74% for the FLA-ABS test, the MLPA test, and the ELISA, respectively. The only cross-reactivity for M. tuberculosis-infected patients was with the soluble-extract ELISA. Although the FLA-ABS test displayed the highest specificity and sensitivity values, it can only be used in well-developed laboratories, and the patient's clinical and epidemiological background must be considered when results are interpreted because the test remains positive after therapeutic success and could be positive for some household contacts. The MLPA test is easier to perform and interpret, and it is adequate for small laboratories and epidemiological studies intended to detect active untreated or irregularly treated leprosy cases. Therefore, the FLA-ABS and MLPA tests are complementary, and both should be used for serodiagnosis of leprosy. PMID:8501238

  13. Development and assessment of a latex agglutination test based on recombinant MSP5 to detect antibodies against Anaplasma marginale in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Carlos A.N.; Araújo, Flábio R.; Santos, Rafaelle C.; Melo, Elaine S.P.; Sousa, Letícia C.; Vidal, Carlos E.S.; Guerra, Neurisvan R.; Ramos, Rafael A.N.

    2014-01-01

    The recombinant protein MSP5 has been established as an important antigen for serological diagnosis of Anaplasma marginale by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, due to the high cost of specialized equipment, this technique is not accessible to all laboratories, especially in developing countries in areas where the disease is endemic. The present study describes the standardization of a latex agglutination test (LAT) to detect antibodies against A. marginale based on recombinant MSP5. Compared with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA), the relative sensitivity and specificity of the LAT were 95.21% and 91.86% respectively, with an almost perfect agreement between tests (kappa index = 0.863). These results can be considered important for the serological diagnosis of A. marginale, as they indicate that the test represents a rapid and low cost alternative to ELISA. PMID:24948931

  14. Development and assessment of a latex agglutination test based on recombinant MSP5 to detect antibodies against Anaplasma marginale in cattle.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Carlos A N; Araújo, Flábio R; Santos, Rafaelle C; Melo, Elaine S P; Sousa, Letícia C; Vidal, Carlos E S; Guerra, Neurisvan R; Ramos, Rafael A N

    2014-01-01

    The recombinant protein MSP5 has been established as an important antigen for serological diagnosis of Anaplasma marginale by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, due to the high cost of specialized equipment, this technique is not accessible to all laboratories, especially in developing countries in areas where the disease is endemic. The present study describes the standardization of a latex agglutination test (LAT) to detect antibodies against A. marginale based on recombinant MSP5. Compared with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA), the relative sensitivity and specificity of the LAT were 95.21% and 91.86% respectively, with an almost perfect agreement between tests (kappa index = 0.863). These results can be considered important for the serological diagnosis of A. marginale, as they indicate that the test represents a rapid and low cost alternative to ELISA.

  15. Stable suspension for Vi-agglutination tests

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Koji; Shimojo, Hiroto

    1953-01-01

    Two methods of preparing a stable suspension for Vi-agglutination tests are discussed. Both maintain Vi-agglutinability and O-inagglutinability after storage at 37°C for 6 months, and the second also maintains the Vi-capsule-staining property. The first method involves the addition of 0.5% CaCl2 to a heavy saline Vi-suspension, while in the second a similar suspension is treated with an 0.2% solution of chrome alum. PMID:20603972

  16. MEMS reagent and sample handling procedure: Feasibility of viral antibody detection by passive immune agglutination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, G. D.; Tenoso, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to develop a test requiring no preadsorption steps for the assessment of antibodies to rubella and mumps viruses using the passive immune agglutination (PIA) method. Both rubella and mumps antigens and antibodies were prepared. Direct PIA tests, using rubella antigen-coated beads, and indirect PIA tests, using rubella antibody-coated beads, were investigated. Attempts, using either method, were unsuccessful. Serum interference along with nonspecific agglutination of beads by the rubella antigen resulted in no specific response under the test conditions investigated. A new, highly sensitive approach, the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test system, is recommended to overcome the nonspecificity. This system is a logical outgrowth of some of the solid phase work done on MEMS and represents the next generation tests system that can be directly applied to early disease detection and monitoring.

  17. The interaction of antigen and antibody in agglutination

    PubMed Central

    Elek, S. D.; Smith, B. V. Kingsley; Highman, Wilma

    1964-01-01

    Flagellar fragments are thin cylinders that are particularly suitable for the study of agglutination by electron microscopy. Their shape leads to a characteristic pattern of agglutination and thus the early stages can be studied. Measurement of interflagellar distances under conditions of negative staining, suggest that the minimum length of the rabbit antibody molecules is about 180 Å. The molecules carry the specific sites at the ends of the long axis, and become attached radially to the surface of the flagella, resembling the bristles of a bottle-brush. To explain this orientation it is postulated that the antibody is inserted into the surface of the flagellum in such a manner that surrounding molecules give it a fixed direction. Geometrically this hypothesis corresponds to an insertion into pits. Pepsin-treated (5S) rabbit antibody behaves in a like manner, but the molecule appears to be shorter. No information could be obtained about the thickness and actual shape of antibody molecules by the techniques employed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 9FIG. 11FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15 PMID:14210767

  18. Comparison of the dot-immunobinding assay with the serum agglutination test, the rose bengal plate test and the milk ring test for the detection of Brucella antibodies in bovine sera and milk.

    PubMed

    Gürtürk, K; Boynukara, B; Ilhan, Z; Hakki Ekin, I; Gülhan, T

    1999-05-01

    In this study, Brucella antibodies in bovine sera and milk were detected using the dot-immunobinding assay (DIA), the serum agglutination test (SAT), the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and the milk ring test (MRT). For this purpose, a total of 116 paired blood and milk samples collected at the same time from 56 aborted and from 60 healthy dairy cows was examined. In DIA, a nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) was used as the solid phase. Antigen adsorbed on the NCM was extracted from Brucella abortus S99 by heat treatment. The results obtained by DIA were compared with those of SAT, RBPT and MRT. Of the 116 paired blood and milk samples, 24 were positive and 72 were negative by all tests used. Serum samples of six aborted cows were positive by DIA, SAT and RBPT but the milk samples were negative by DIA and MRT. Serum and milk samples of four aborted cows gave positive reaction only by DIA tests. The remaining six aborted cows were negative only by MRT and two of them were negative by both RBPT and MRT. Four sera of healthy cows were found to be positive only by SAT.

  19. Latex agglutination test (LAT) for the diagnosis of typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Gopal Shankar

    2013-06-01

    The efficacy of latex agglutination test in the rapid diagnosis of typhoid fever was studied and the result compared with that of blood culture. This study included 80 children suffering from typhoid fever, among which 40 were confirmed by blood culture isolation and 40 had possible typhoid fever based on high Widal's titre (a four-fold rise in the titre of antibody to typhi "O" and "H" antigen was considered as a positive Widal's test result). Eighty children, 40 with febrile illness confirmed to be other than typhoid and 40 normal healthy children were used as negative controls. The various groups were: (i) Study group ie, group I had 40 children confirmed by culture isolation of Salmonella typhi(confirmed typhoid cases). (ii) Control groups ie, (a) group II with 40 febrile controls selected from paediatrics ward where cause other than S typhi has been established, (b) group III with 40 afebrile healthy controls that were siblings of the children admitted in paediatric ward for any reason with no history of fever and TAB vaccination in the last one year, and (c) group IV with 40 children with high Widal's titre in paired sera sample. Widal's test with paired sera with a one week interval between collections were done in all 40 patients. Latex aggtutination test which could detect 900 ng/ml of antigen as observed in checker board titration, was positive in all 40 children from group I who had positive blood culture and in 30 children from group IV who had culture negative and had high Widal's titre positive. Latex agglutination test was positive in 4 children in group II and none in group III. Using blood culture positive cases as true positive and children in groups II and III as true negative, the test had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 96%. Latex agglutination test was found to be significantly sensitive (100%) and specific (96%) and could detect 75% more cases in group IV (possible typhoid cases). Thus latex agglutination test can be used for rapid

  20. A novel flow cytometry-based assay for the quantification of antibody-dependent pneumococcal agglutination

    PubMed Central

    van der Gaast—de Jongh, Christa E.; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A.; de Jonge, Marien I.

    2017-01-01

    The respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of diseases such as otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis. The first step towards infection is colonization of the nasopharynx. Recently, it was shown that agglutinating antibodies play an important role in the prevention of mucosal colonization with S. pneumoniae. Here, we present a novel method to quantify antibody-dependent pneumococcal agglutination in a high-throughput manner using flow cytometry. We found that the concentration of agglutinating antibodies against pneumococcal capsule are directly correlated with changes in the size and complexity of bacterial aggregates, as measured by flow cytometry and confirmed by light microscopy. Using the increase in size, we determined the agglutination index. The cutoff value was set by measuring a series of non-agglutinating antibodies. With this method, we show that not only anti-polysaccharide capsule antibodies are able to induce agglutination but that also anti-PspA protein antibodies have agglutinating capabilities. In conclusion, we have described and validated a novel method to quantify pneumococcal agglutination, which can be used to screen sera from murine or human vaccination studies, in a high-throughput manner. PMID:28288168

  1. Sperm-agglutinating antibodies and testicular morphology in fifty-nine men with azoospermia or cryptozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Friberg, J; Kjessler, B

    1975-04-01

    The relationship between the state of the germinal epithelium and the type and titer of circulating sperm-agglutinating antibodies has been investigated in a series of 59 azoospermic or occasionally cryptozoospermic men. The patients were grouped according to the condition of the germinal epithelium as observed from testicular biopsy specimens, as well as to type and titer of circulating sperm-agglutinating antibodies investigated by a previously described microagglutination technique. Evidence is presented to suggest that the presence of mature spermatozoa in the testicular structures may be a prerequisite for the spontaneous production of circulating sperm-agglutinating antibodies, at least of the head-to-tail (H-T) agglutinating type. Furthermore, these circulating H-T sperm-agglutinating antibodies, once they are formed, do not seem to interfere adversely with the germinal epithelium of the carrier.

  2. Evaluation of the one-point microcapsule agglutination test for diagnosis of leptospirosis.

    PubMed Central

    Arimitsu, Y.; Kmety, E.; Ananyina, Y.; Baranton, G.; Ferguson, I. R.; Smythe, L.; Terpstra, W. J.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a one-point microcapsule agglutination test (MCAT) for the serodiagnosis of leptospirosis. The MCAT kit was evaluated for use in humans by six WHO Collaborating Centres for Reference and Research on Leptospirosis. The laboratories classified their serum samples on the basis of the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and the following screening tests: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), macroscopic (slide) agglutination test, or the complement fixation test. The MCAT may in some instances give a positive result earlier in the course of the disease than MAT or the ELISA IgM; on the other hand, it did not detect antibodies against some serovars, for example, those of the Sejroe or Australis serogroup in Slovakia. In contrast, however, the MCAT detected antibodies to serovar hardjo (the same serogroup as Sejroe) in patients from the United Kingdom and the Russian Federation. PMID:8062397

  3. Comparison of agglutinating and neutralizing antibodies to serovar hardjo in sows immunized with two commercial whole culture polivalent anti-leptospira bacterins

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Francisco Rafael Martins; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; Morais, Zenaide Maria; Gonçales, Amane Paldês; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Bernardi, Fernanda; Camargo, Sebastião Rodrigues; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda

    2008-01-01

    It was performed the comparison of the intensity and duration of agglutinating and neutralizing antibodies to serovar Hardjo in swines vaccinated with two commercial anti-leptospira bacterins. Sows no reactive to 24 Leptospira sp serovars in the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) were divided in three groups: Group A (n=08): received two vaccine A doses with 30 days interval, Group B (n=08) two vaccine B doses with 30 days interval and Group C (n=08): control no vaccinated against leptospirosis.Blood samples were collected each 30 days during six months following the first vaccination. The sera were tested by MAT and growth inhibition test (GIT) to serovar Hardjo in order to evaluate respectively agglutinating and neutralizing antibodies. It was found that neutralizing antibodies persisted for a longer time than the agglutinating ones and that the absence of agglutinating antibodies does not means in the absence of the neutralizing. The peaks of agglutinating antibodies was obtained at least 30 days earlier than that produced by neutralizing. The duration of both kinds of antibodies measured differed between the two bacterines tested. The period for inducing neutralizing antibodies against serovar Hardjo indicated that gilts must be immunized with two doses of whole culture anti-leptospira bacterines applied 30 days each other at least 90 days before the first mating. For the maintenance of hight levels of neutralizing antibodies the revaccinations must be performed every six months after the first vaccination. PMID:24031250

  4. A comparison of tests for thyroglobulin antibody

    PubMed Central

    Rawstron, J. R.; Farthing, C. P.

    1962-01-01

    A comparison is made of tests for thyroglobulin antibody, using gel diffusion, electroprecipitin, bentonite flocculation, tanned red cell agglutination, and latex slide agglutination techniques on sera from cases of Hashimoto's disease and other thyroid disorders. Any increase in γ globulin was also noted from the serum electrophoretic pattern. The gel diffusion and electroprecipitin tests are shown to be comparable in their sensitivity, as are the bentonite flocculation and tanned red cell agglutination tests. The flocculation and agglutination tests were oversensitive. The latex slide test in conjunction with the electro-precipitin test is recommended for routine use in the detection of Hashimoto's disease. Images PMID:14490690

  5. Antibodies to spermatozoa. I. A new macroscopic agglutination technique for their detection, using immotile sperm

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, S.; Hekman, Annemarie

    1971-01-01

    An agglutination procedure, especially useful for guinea-pig sperm, has been developed. The preferred conditions are as follows: epididymal spermatozoa, in an immotile condition, unwashed or diluted and centrifuged once, at a concentration of 10×106 per ml diluted in phosphate-buffered saline, are incubated with antiserum samples in capillary tubes at 4°C for 1 or 2 hr of observation. This procedure has readily allowed us to detect the presence of antibodies against epididymal spermatozoa. The test has given results that are quite parallel to those obtained by the conventional Kibrick method. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5570676

  6. Improving agglutination tests by working in microfluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Degré, G; Brunet, E; Dodge, A; Tabeling, P

    2005-06-01

    Latex agglutination tests are used for the diagnosis of diseases in man and animals. They are generally simple, cheap, and do not require sophisticated equipment, nor highly specialized skills. In this Technical Note, we put latex agglutination tests in a microfluidic format. The experiment is performed in PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) microchannels, using streptavidin-coated superparamagnetic beads and a magnetic field. The target molecule is biotinylated protein A. By taking full advantage of the microfluidic conditions (scaling down of the detection volume and controlled action of the shear flow), we achieved an analytical sensitivity of 10 fmol l(-1)(several hundreds of fg ml(-1)) and a fast response (a few minutes) ; the test is also quantitative. Performances of agglutination tests can thus be improved by orders of magnitude by adapting them to a microfluidic format; this comes in addition to the usual advantages offered by this technology (integration, high throughput etc.).

  7. Agglutination by anti-capsular polysaccharide antibody is associated with protection against experimental human pneumococcal carriage

    PubMed Central

    Reiné, J; Zangari, T; Owugha, JT; Pennington, SH; Gritzfeld, JF; Wright, AD; Collins, AM; van Selm, S; de Jonge, MI; Gordon, SB; Weiser, JN; Ferreira, DM

    2016-01-01

    The ability of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) to decrease transmission by blocking the acquisition of colonization has been attributed to herd immunity. We describe the role of mucosal IgG to capsular polysaccharide (CPS) in mediating protection from carriage, translating our findings from a murine model to humans. We used a flow-cytometric assay to quantify antibody-mediated agglutination demonstrating that hyperimmune sera generated against an unencapsulated mutant was poorly agglutinating. Passive immunization with this antiserum was ineffective to block acquisition of colonization compared to agglutinating antisera raised against the encapsulated parent strain. In the human challenge model samples were collected from PCV and control vaccinated adults. In PCV-vaccinated subjects IgG levels to CPS were increased in serum and nasal wash (NW). IgG to the inoculated strain CPS dropped in NW samples after inoculation suggesting its sequestration by colonizing pneumococci. In post-vaccination NW samples pneumococci were heavily agglutinated compared to pre-vaccination samples in subjects protected against carriage. Our results indicate that pneumococcal agglutination mediated by CPS specific antibodies is a key mechanism of protection against acquisition of carriage. Capsule may be the only vaccine target that can elicit strong agglutinating antibody responses, leading to protection against carriage acquisition and generation of herd immunity. PMID:27579859

  8. Performance of commercial ELISA and agglutination test kits for the detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in serum and muscle fluid of swine infected with 100, 300, 500 or 1000 oocysts.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Lorry B; Parker, Sarah E; Gajadhar, Alvin A

    2012-12-21

    Serum and tissue fluid samples from experimentally infected swine were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using both an indirect ELISA and a modified agglutination test (MAT) available commercially in kit form. Ten 8-9 week-old swine were fed meatballs containing 100, 300, 500 or 1000 T. gondii oocysts and three control animals were fed meatballs with no oocysts. Post-inoculation blood samples were collected weekly until euthanasia at 35-63 days post inoculation (DPI). Tissue fluid was obtained from diaphragm, heart and sternomastoideus muscles post-mortem. By 16 DPI, nine of 10 inoculated pigs were detected serologically using ELISA at a pre-test serum dilution of 1:50 and all ten pigs were detected by the MAT at a serum dilution of 1:25. The last pig became positive on ELISA by 21 DPI and the 10 pigs maintained their serological status for the duration of the experiment. Heart muscle was the best overall source of tissue fluid for ELISA and all six pigs inoculated with either 500 or 1000 oocysts were positive using either diaphragm or heart tissue fluid samples. However, 10 of 18 fluid samples from pigs receiving ≤ 300 oocysts were not detected using ELISA, including 5 of 6 from sternomastoideus muscle. The MAT used at a 1:10 pre-test dilution of tissue fluid correctly identified all 10 inoculated pigs regardless of the source muscle. Based on these data, we conclude that either assay would be useful for herd evaluation or surveillance testing using sera, and the MAT would be a good candidate assay for testing tissue fluid for the same purposes.

  9. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in beavers (Castor canadensis) from Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Carly N; Kaur, Taranjit; Koenen, Kiana; DeStefano, Stephen; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S

    2005-10-01

    The present study examined the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in a population of beavers (Castor canadensis) from Massachusetts. Sixty-two blood samples were collected during the field seasons over 3 consecutive years from different animals. Blood was collected onto filter paper and shipped to the Department of Biomedical Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, for parasite testing. The samples were tested at dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:100 against each parasite antigen by modified agglutination tests to determine whether antibodies to either parasite were present in the blood. Six of 62 samples (10%) were positive for T. gondii, with 2 samples having titers of 1:25 and 4 having titers of 1:50. Four of 62 samples (6%) were positive for S. neurona, with 2 samples having titers of 1:25 and 2 having titers of 1:50.

  10. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in beavers (Castor canadensis) from Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, C.N.; Kaur, T.; Koenen, K.; DeStefano, S.; Zajac, A.M.; Lindsay, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystls neurona in a population of beavers (Castor canadensis) from Massachusetts. Sixty-two blood samples were collected during the field seasons over 3 consecutive years from different animals. Blood was collected onto filter paper and shipped to the Department of Biomedical Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, for parasite testing. The samples were tested at dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:100 against each parasite antigen by modified agglutination tests to determine whether antibodies to either parasite were present in the blood. Six of 62 samples (10%) were positive for T. gondii, with 2 samples having titers of 1:25 and 4 having titers of 1:50. Four of 62 samples (6%) were positive for S. neurona, with 2 samples having titers of 1:25 and 2 having titers of 1:50. ?? American Society of Pathologists 2005.

  11. [The pretransfusion bedside agglutination test is not a "Gold Standard"].

    PubMed

    Levy, G

    2008-11-01

    ABO-incompatible transfusions remain frequent in Europe despite the technological progresses in relation with the potential number of human errors during the control procedures of the transfusion chain. The agglutination bedside-test is only one step of this chain and the amelioration of the security will be achieved by its replacement by an electronical check.

  12. Characterization of two different agglutinators in the latex fixation test, occurring in normal human sera

    PubMed Central

    Klein, F.; Valkenburg, H. A.; Van Zwet, Theda L.; Lafeber, Geertruida J. M.

    1966-01-01

    Using a sensitive modification of the latex fixation test it is possible to detect a small agglutinating effect in about 60 per cent of normal human sera, after these have been heated for 30 minutes at 56°. This was shown to be caused by an IgM globulin with the properties of a rheumatoid factor. The factor is able to react with human IgG globulin and may represent an antibody to the IgG part of circulating antigen—antibody complexes. The heat treatment probably inactivates an inhibitor of the latex fixation reaction. In addition all normal human sera give an agglutination reaction with IgG coated latex at incubation temperatures of 37° or lower. It was shown that these reactions are caused by a thermolabile, non-reducible component with a sedimentation constant of about 10. This component is probably identical with the complement component C'1q. The agglutinating activity was found in the α2—β1 region after electrophoresis of untreated serum, but in the slow γ region after treatment of the serum with EDTA. This kind of agglutination may cause false positive reactions in latex tests which are carried out at 37° or less. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 3 PMID:4160336

  13. Rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains not identified by slide agglutination tests.

    PubMed Central

    Kuusela, P; Hildén, P; Savolainen, K; Vuento, M; Lyytikäinen, O; Vuopio-Varkila, J

    1994-01-01

    Seventy-nine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, isolated during 1980 to 1990, were classified as MRSA Aggl- (14 strains) and MRSA Aggl+ (65 strains) strains on the basis of test results in slide agglutination assays designed to detect fibrinogen-binding protein (clumping factor) and protein A on the staphylococcal surface. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that lysostaphin digests of MRSA Aggl- strains contained a high-molecular-weight protein which was not detected in digests of MRSA Aggl+ strains. Immunization of rabbits with an MRSA Aggl- strain produced an antiserum which agglutinated all MRSA Aggl- strains and also 64 of 65 MRSA Aggl+ strains. Only 1 of 68 coagulase-negative staphylococci showed agglutination in this assay. The anti-MRSA Aggl- antiserum reacted mainly with a 230-kDa staphylococcal surface protein but also with a 175-kDa protein, probably formed by proteolysis of the former and a few slightly smaller proteins. These could not be immunologically detected in lysostaphin digests of MRSA Aggl+ strains. Purified antibodies reacting with the 230-kDa protein agglutinated all MRSA Aggl- strains, indicating that the protein is located on the surfaces of staphylococci. The results suggest a tentative role for the 230-kDa protein or its fragments as a novel target to develop more efficient rapid identification methods for S. aureus, including MRSA. Images PMID:8126170

  14. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in skunks (Mephitis Mephitis), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and opossums (Didelphis Virginiana) from Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sheila M; Richardson, Dennis J; Cheadle, M Andy; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S

    2002-10-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is the most important protozoan disease of horses in North America and is usually caused by Sarcocystis neurona. Natural cases of encephalitis caused by S. neurona have been reported in skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor). Opossums (Didelphis spp.) are the only known definitive host. Sera from 24 striped skunks, 12 raccoons, and 7 opossums (D. virginiana) from Connecticut were examined for agglutinating antibodies to S. neurona using the S. neurona agglutination test (SAT) employing formalin-fixed merozoites as antigen. The SAT was validated for skunk sera using pre- and postinfection serum samples from 2 experimentally infected skunks. Of the 24 (46%) skunks 11 were positive, and all 12 raccoons were positive for S. neurona antibodies. None of the 7 opossums was positive for antibodies to S. neurona. These results suggest that exposure to sporocysts of S. neurona by intermediate hosts is high in Connecticut. The absence of antibodies in opossums collected from the same areas is most likely because of the absence of systemic infection in the definitive host.

  15. Macroscopic Agglutination Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Human Leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Angela P.; Camargo, Eide D.; da Silva, Emilson D.; Silva, Marcos V.; Abrão, Rui V.

    1998-01-01

    A commercially available slide agglutination test (SAT) for the diagnosis of human leptospirosis was evaluated by comparing it to an immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and to the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). For all 108 patients, leptospirosis was diagnosed on the basis of a fourfold or greater increase in titer by MAT (seroconversion), and all but 1 of 245 controls were MAT negative (titers, <1:100). Both SAT and the IgM ELISA failed to detect one case of infection (sensitivity, 99%). Only 3 of 145 blood donors and none of the 100 patients with other illnesses were SAT positive (specificity, 99%). The overall results were similar for the three tests; however, SAT and ELISA were statistically more sensitive as initial screening tests. For 22% of the patients, the diagnosis of leptospirosis was made earlier by SAT than by MAT. SAT detected 27 (44%) of 62 MAT-negative patients with the first serum sample. ELISA and SAT had very similar results. Follow-up of patients for 1 year after the onset of symptoms showed a decreasing rate of positivity by SAT from the third month on. The rate of positivity by ELISA decreased more slowly, to about 67% by the end of the study. By MAT all patients were persistently reactive. SAT and ELISA seem to be convenient methods for the rapid and early screening for leptospirosis and could replace the less sensitive MAT. ELISA gives less subjective results than SAT and provides information on IgM kinetics, but it can be performed only by the more sophisticated laboratories. SAT is inexpensive, can be performed more quickly and more easily than ELISA, and could be used by the less well equipped laboratories. PMID:9774553

  16. 9 CFR 147.1 - The standard tube agglutination test. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The standard tube agglutination test... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.1 The standard tube agglutination test. 1 1 The procedure described is a... containers provided by the laboratory. The containers should be stout-walled test tubes, preferably 3/8 by...

  17. 9 CFR 147.1 - The standard tube agglutination test. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The standard tube agglutination test... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.1 The standard tube agglutination test. 1 1 The procedure described is a... containers provided by the laboratory. The containers should be stout-walled test tubes, preferably 3/8 by...

  18. 9 CFR 147.1 - The standard tube agglutination test. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The standard tube agglutination test... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.1 The standard tube agglutination test. 1 1 The procedure described is a... containers provided by the laboratory. The containers should be stout-walled test tubes, preferably 3/8 by...

  19. Latex agglutination: diagnose the early cryptococcus neoformans test of capsular polysaccharide antigen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huanrong; Yuan, Xueqian; Zhang, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the early diagnosis value of latex agglutination test in Cryptococcal meningitis. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 112 patients with definite Cryptococcal meningitis and 26 patients with tubercular meningitis and virus meningitis were collected, latex agglutination test is adopted to detect Cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen. Then it was compared with fungal culture and direct microscopy method for evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis. The sensitivity of three methods including latex agglutination test, fungal culture and direct microscopy was 91.1%,69.6% and 73.2% respectively. The specificity of latex agglutination test was 96.0%, 100% and 100% respectively. That latex agglutination test to detect Cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen could be taken as the early diagnostic method of Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis.

  20. [Relationship between the sensitivity of the delayed agglutination test and synthetic detergents].

    PubMed

    Iovchev, E; Vodas, K

    1977-01-01

    Residual amounts of detergents (Losk, Bio-73, Alka-lux, Bourgas, Bourgaslux, and Vero) in a concentration of 10-5 to 10-7 in physiologic saline can inhibit the agglutination titers by 3 to 5 degrees. This could mislead in the assessment of the reaction with regard to its diagnostic value. It is admitted that the inhibition produced is due to changes in the antibodies--drop in the total protein and light variations in all protein fractions as well as in the probable surface deterioration of the antigen, leading to its defective agglutinability. It is suggested to rinse more than five times all glassware that has been cleaned with detergents.

  1. Agglutination of Histoplasma capsulatum by IgG Monoclonal Antibodies against Hsp60 Impacts Macrophage Effector Functions▿

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Allan Jefferson; Frases, Susana; Pontes, Bruno; de Cerqueira, Mariana Duarte; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Viana, Nathan Bessa; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Nosanchuk, Joshua Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum can efficiently survive within macrophages, facilitating H. capsulatum translocation from the lung into the lymphatics and bloodstream. We have recently generated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to an H. capsulatum surface-expressed heat shock protein of 60 kDa (Hsp60) that modify disease in a murine histoplasmosis model. Interestingly, the MAbs induced different degrees of yeast cell agglutination in vitro. In the present study, we characterized the agglutination effects of the antibodies to Hsp60 on H. capsulatum yeast cells by light microscopy, flow cytometry, dynamic light scattering, measuring zeta potential, and using optical tweezers. We found that immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) to Hsp60 cause H. capsulatum aggregation dependent on the (i) concentration of MAbs, (ii) MAb binding constant, and (iii) IgG subclass. Furthermore, infection of macrophages using agglutinates of various sizes after incubation with different Hsp60-binding MAbs induced association to macrophages through distinct cellular receptors and differentially affected macrophage antifungal functions. Hence, the capacity of IgG MAbs to agglutinate H. capsulatum significantly impacted pathogenic mechanisms of H. capsulatum during macrophage infection, and the effect was dependent on the antibody subclass and antigen epitope. PMID:21134968

  2. Serogrouping of Bacteroides fragilis subsp. fragilis by the agglutination test.

    PubMed Central

    Lambe, D W; Moroz, D A

    1976-01-01

    The agglutination technique was used to establish a serological classification scheme for 98 strains of Bacteroides fragilis subsp. fragilis isolated from clinical specimens and normal human feces. Absorbed antisera were prepared to seven strains of B. fragilis subsp. fragilis. These seven absorbed antisera were species as well as subspecies specific and provided the basis of the serological classification scheme. This scheme was composed of 21 serogroups; seven of these serogroups contained only one group component. There was a total of 45 serological patterns. This serological scheme may be used for the serological classification of strains of B. fragilis subsp. fragilis and to study the epidemiology of this organism. PMID:950378

  3. Slide Agglutination Method for the Serological Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with Anti-Gonococcal Antibodies Adsorbed to Protein A-Containing Staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, Dan; Kronvall, Göran

    1974-01-01

    A rapid slide agglutination test has been developed for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that are primarily detected as oxidase-positive colonies in gonococcal cultures. The technique is based on the specific nonimmune reactivity between the Fc portion of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and staphylococcal protein A. IgG molecules adsorbed to stabilized staphylococci will thereby become oriented with their antigen-reactive sites that are directed outwards. Protein A-containing staphylococci with unabsorbed anti-gonococcal antibodies gave positive co-agglutination reactions with gonococci but also with meningococci, some Moraxella, Haemophilus, and Pseudomonas strains. These crossreactions were eliminated by absorption of the anti-gonococcal antiserum with meningococcal and Moraxella organisms prior to the coating of reagent staphylococci. In the routine culture diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae the use of specific gonococcal reagent staphylococci gave concordant results with fermentation procedures and immunofluorescent techniques. Images PMID:4207280

  4. Prozone effects in microscopic agglutination tests for leptospirosis in the sera of mice infected with the pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola

    PubMed Central

    Shimabukuro, Fabio Hiroto; da Costa, Veruska Maia; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Langoni, Hélio; da Silva, Aristeu Vieira; de Carvalho, Lídia Raquel; Domingues, Paulo Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Mice experimentally infected with a pathogenic strain of Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola produced false negative results (prozone effect) in a microscopic agglutination test (MAT). This prozone effect occurred in several serum samples collected at different post-infection times, but it was more prominent in samples collected from seven-42 days post-infection and for 1:50 and 1:100 sample dilutions. This phenomenon was correlated with increased antibody titres in the early post-infection phase. While prozone effects are often observed in serological agglutination assays for the diagnosis of animal brucellosis and human syphilis, they are not widely reported in leptospirosis MATs. PMID:23903987

  5. Human African trypanosomiasis: a latex agglutination field test for quantifying IgM in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Lejon, V.; Büscher, P.; Sema, N. H.; Magnus, E.; Van Meirvenne, N.

    1998-01-01

    LATEX/IgM, a rapid agglutination test for the semi-quantitative detection of IgM in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with African trypanosomiasis, is described in this article. The lyophilized reagent has been designed for field use and remains stable at 45 degrees C for one year. The test has been evaluated on cerebrospinal fluid samples from trypanosome-infected and non-infected patients, by comparison with commercial latex agglutination, radial immunodiffusion, and nephelometry. All test systems yielded similar results. PMID:10191550

  6. Detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) Antibodies in Serum Using A Polystyrene Bead/SE Flagella Agglutination Assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serologic screening of flocks can be an important method to detect Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infections but can be labor intensive or lack specificity. Our goal was to develop a rapid agglutination assay using SE flagella adsorbed to polystyrene beads as a simple, relatively specific test to dete...

  7. Cross-reactivity in Cryptococcus antigen latex agglutination test in two commercial kits.

    PubMed

    Tone, Kazuya; Umeda, Yoshiko; Makimura, Koichi

    2016-05-01

    This article presents an examination of the cross-reactivity of pathogenic fungi with Cryptococcus neoformans in two commercial Cryptococcus antigen latex agglutination tests performed across 39 fungal strains. Some fungi were newly indicated as Cryptococcus cross-reactive, and the two kits showed differences in cross-reactive fungi.

  8. Antiparietal cell antibody test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gastric ulcer - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Pernicious anemia - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Vitamin B12 - anti- ... may use this test to help diagnose pernicious anemia. Pernicious anemia is a decrease in red blood ...

  9. Commercial latex agglutination test for rapid diagnosis of group B streptococcal infection in infants.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, B J; Baker, C J

    1980-01-01

    Although latex agglutination assays for detection of a variety of bacterial antigens in body fluids from patients with systemic infection have been shown to be useful as rapid diagnostic techniques, lack of commercial availability has restricted their application. The Streptex latex test kit for the detection of group B streptococcal (GBS) antigen in admission body fluid specimens was evaluated for sensitivity and specificity in 54 infants with meningitis and in 10 infants with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters. GBS antigen was detected in 22 of 28 (78.6%) CSF specimens by latex agglutination and in 23 of 28 (82.1%) by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis. Antigen was present in 21 of 28 (latex agglutination) and 19 of 26 (countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis) CSF specimens after the initiation of antimicrobial therapy. Heat-labile factors accounted for nonspecific agglutination reactions with latex suspensions other than group B in 3 of 28 CSF samples from patients with GBS meningitis. These nonspecific reactions were readily eliminated by heating specimens for 10 min at 100 degrees C. Fifteen patients with GBS meningitis had admission serum and urine samples collected in addition to CSF. Antigen was detected by latex agglutination and countercurrent immunoelelectrophoresis in 14 of 15 (93.3%) and 13 of 15 (86.7%) concentrated urine specimens, respectively, and in 12 of 15 (80%) CSF specimens and 4 of 15 (27%) sera by each method. These findings indicate that the Streptex latex test is a rapid, sensitive, and readily available method for detection of GBS antigen in admission body fluid specimens from infants with meningitis. PMID:7012177

  10. Immunoreactions involving platelets. III. Quantitative aspects of platelet agglutination, inhibition of clot retraction, and other reactions caused by the antibody of quinidine purpura.

    PubMed

    SHULMAN, N R

    1958-05-01

    Quantitative aspects of platelet agglutination and inhibition of clot retraction by the antibody of quinidine purpura were described. The reactions appeared to depend on formation of types of antibody-quinidine-platelet complexes which could fix complement but complement was not necessary for these reactions. Complement fixation was at least 10 times more sensitive than platelet agglutination or inhibition of clot retraction for measurement and detection of antibody activity. Although it has been considered that antibodies of drug purpura act as platelet lysins in the presence of complement and that direct lysis of platelets accounts for development of thrombocytopenia in drug purpura, the present study suggests that attachment of antibody produces a change in platelets which is manifested in vitro only by increased susceptibility to non-specific factors which can alter the stability of platelets in the absence of antibody. The attachment of antibody to platelets in vivo may only indirectly affect platelet survival. In contrast to human platelets, dog, rabbit, and guinea pig platelets, and normal or trypsin-treated human red cells did not agglutinate, fix complement, or adsorb antibody; and intact human endothelial cells did not fix complement or adsorb antibody. Rhesus monkey platelets were not agglutinated by the antibody but did adsorb antibody and fix complement although their activity in these reactions differed quantitatively from that of human platelets. Cinchonine could be substituted for quinidine in agglutination and inhibition of clot retraction reactions but quinine and cinchonidine could not. Attempts to cause passive anaphylaxis in guinea pigs with the antibody of quinidine purpura were not successful.

  11. A critical review of published methods for analysis of red cell antigen-antibody reactions by flow cytometry, and approaches for resolving problems with red cell agglutination.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Patricia A; Garratty, George

    2010-07-01

    Flow cytometry operators often apply familiar white blood cell (WBC) methods when studying red blood cell (RBC) antigens and antibodies. Some WBC methods are not appropriate for RBCs, as the analysis of RBCs requires special considerations, for example, avoidance of agglutination. One hundred seventy-six published articles from 88 groups studying RBC interactions were reviewed. Three fourths of groups used at least one unnecessary WBC procedure for RBCs, and about one fourth did not use any method to prevent/disperse RBC agglutination. Flow cytometric studies were performed to determine the effect of RBC agglutination on results and compare different methods of preventing and/or dispersing agglutination. The presence of RBC agglutinates have been shown to be affected by the type of pipette tip used for mixing RBC suspensions, the number of antigen sites/RBC, the type and concentration of primary antibody, and the type of secondary antibody. For quantitation methods, for example, fetal maternal hemorrhage, the presence of agglutinates have been shown to adversely affect results (fewer fetal D+ RBCs detected).

  12. Comparison of genomic and antimicrobial resistance features of latex agglutination test-positive and latex agglutination test-negative Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Moser, A; Stephan, R; Corti, S; Johler, S

    2013-01-01

    The dairy industry suffers massive economic losses due to staphylococcal mastitis in cattle. The Staphaureux latex agglutination test (Oxoid, Basel, Switzerland) was reported to lead to negative results in 54% of bovine Staphylococcus aureus strains, and latex-negative strains are thought to be less virulent than Staphaurex latex-positive strains. However, comparative information on virulence and resistance profiles of these 2 groups of Staph. aureus is scarce. Our objective was to associate the latex agglutination phenotype of Staph. aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis milk with data on clonal complexes, virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance to (1) determine the virulence profiles of the Staphaureux test positive and Staphaurex test negative groups, and (2) provide data needed to improve treatment of bovine mastitis and to identify potential vaccine targets. Seventy-eight Staph. aureus strains isolated from 78 cows on 57 Swiss farms were characterized. Latex agglutination was tested by Staphaureux kit, and resistance profiles were generated by disk diffusion. A DNA microarray was used to assign clonal complexes (CC) and to determine virulence and resistance gene profiles. By the Staphaureux test, 49% of the isolates were latex-positive and 51% were latex-negative. All latex-negative strains were assigned to CC151, whereas latex-positive strains were assigned to various clonal complexes, including CC97 (n=16), CC8 (n=10), CC479 (n=5), CC20 (n=4), CC7 (n=1), CC9 (n=1), and CC45 (n=1). Although the latex-negative isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested, 24% of latex-positive isolates were classified as intermediate with regard to cefalexin-kanamycin and 13% were resistant to both ampicillin and penicillin. Microarray profiles of latex-negative isolates were highly similar, but differed largely from those of latex-positive isolates. Although the latex-negative group lacked several enterotoxin genes and sak, it exhibited significantly

  13. Elemental X-ray mapping of agglutinated foraminifer tests: a non- destructive technique for determining compositional characteristics.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Commeau, R.F.; Reynolds, Leslie A.; Poag, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    The composition of agglutinated foraminiferal tests vary remarkably in response to local substrate characteristics, physiochemical properties of the water column and species- dependant selectivity of test components. We have employed a technique that combines a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer system to identify major and minor elemental constituents of agglutinated foraminiferal walls. As a sample is bombarded with a beam of high energy electrons, X-rays are generated that are characteristic of the elements present. As a result, X- ray density maps can be produced for each of several elements present in the tests of agglutinated foraminifers. -Authors

  14. [Evaluation of the usefulness of the agglutination test with Mangifera indica extract for the identification of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains].

    PubMed

    Kałuzewski, S; Gierczyński, R; Szych, J; Jagielski, M

    1997-01-01

    The study was performed on 137 Y. enterocolitica strains belonging to various serological groups, including 75 03 group strains isolated form human clinical material. The agglutination test on slides was carried out on this strains using Mangifera indica extract of own production. Agglutinating preparation obtained from the seeds of M. indica agglutinated Y. enterocolitica organisms possessing the pVY plasmid and CRMOX+ phenotype in dilutions to 1.56 micrograms/ml. In identification tests conducted parallelly agglutination solution was used in concentrations of 100 and 10 micrograms/ml. All clones of Y. enterocolitica from O3 group from cultures at 37 degrees C and with CRMOX+ phenotype possessing the pVY plasmid were agglutinated by the extract. Agglutination failed to develop in the cultures of these clones incubated at 25 degrees C. Yersinia clones not containing the pVY plasmid with CRMOX- phenotype were resistant to agglutination. The virulence plasmid was found in 44 out of 75 strains of Y. enterocolitica O3 and was identified by restriction analysis after plasmid DNA digestion with Eco RI enzyme. The obtained results agreed with those of Wauters et al. in 1995 and confirmed the opinion of these authors on the usefulness of the test with M. indica agglutinin for the identification of virulent Y. enterocolitica strains.

  15. Anti-insulin antibody test

    MedlinePlus

    Insulin antibodies - serum; Insulin Ab test; Insulin resistance - insulin antibodies; Diabetes - insulin antibodies ... Normally, there are no antibodies against insulin in your blood. ... different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or ...

  16. Rapid Detection of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia Using a Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae Capsular Polysaccharide-Specific Antigen Detection Latex Agglutination Test

    PubMed Central

    March, J. B.; Gammack, C.; Nicholas, R.

    2000-01-01

    Latex microspheres (diameter, 8 μm) were coated with anti-Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) antiserum (anti-F38 biotype). The coated microspheres, when used in a latex agglutination test (LAT), detected M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae antigen in the serum of goats with contagious caprine pleuropneumoniae (CCPP). Beads also agglutinated strongly in the presence of purified M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Preabsorption of CPS-specific antibodies prior to coating of the beads removed agglutinating activity in the presence of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, strongly suggesting that CPS is the likely soluble antigen recognized by the test. In addition, the specificity of the LAT exactly mirrored that of an M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (WM25): of the 8 other mycoplasma species tested, agglutination was observed only with bovine serogroup 7. The LAT detected all 11 strains of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae examined in this study, with a sensitivity level of 2 ng of CPS, or the equivalent of 1.7 × 104 CFU, in a reaction volume of 0.03 ml of serum. With field sera from goats with CCPP, the results of the LAT exhibited a 67% correlation with the results of the currently used complement fixation test (CFT), with the main discrepancy in diagnosis resulting from the increased sensitivity of the LAT compared to that of CFT. This antigen-detection LAT should prove particularly useful in identifying animals in the earliest stages of CCPP and combines sensitivity and low cost with ease of application in the field, without the need for any specialist training or equipment. PMID:11060083

  17. Comparison of Total and IgG ABO Antibody Titers in Healthy Individuals by Using Tube and Column Agglutination Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Su; Jo, Kyung Il; Park, Rojin; Choi, Tae Yoon; Bang, Hae In; Chai, Gum Ran; Yun, Soon Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Background Most immune reactions related to transfusion and transplantation are caused by IgM ABO antibodies. However, IgG also plays an important role in these reactions. Therefore, a method to measure antibodies, including IgG, is necessary. We investigated ABO antibody titers of healthy individuals using a column agglutination technique (CAT) with or without dithiothreitol (DTT) and compared them with titers obtained using a conventional tube method. Methods Among healthy adults who underwent a medical examination, 180 individuals (60 with blood group A, 60 with group B, and 60 with group O) were selected. Antibody titrations were performed using the immediate spin (IS) tube, anti-human globulin (AHG) tube, and CAT with or without DTT methods. Results Higher median values of anti-B and anti-A titers in groups A and B individuals, respectively, were obtained using the IS method than using the AHG method. Higher values for group O individuals were obtained using the AHG method. Higher median titers of anti-B and anti-A in group O individuals were obtained using CAT without DTT than using the AHG method. Median titers of anti-B and anti-A in all blood groups were higher in CAT without DTT than in CAT with DTT, especially for group O individuals. Conclusions We recommend CAT with and without DTT for titration of anti-A and anti-B, especially in group O individuals, to provide more sensitive results that include IgG data. Adjustment of insurance coverage of fees associated with antibody titration might be necessary, considering the actual cost of reagents and personnel. PMID:24790910

  18. Comparison of PCR, Wright agglutination test and blood culture for diagnosis of brucellosis in suspected patients.

    PubMed

    Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhosssein; Sadeh, Maryam; Khalili, Mohammad Bagher; Mollaabedin, Mansour; Sazmand, Alireza

    2013-11-15

    Brucellosis has long been prevalent in Iran, with considerable medical and economic importance. Timely diagnosis is needed for early management and effective prevention of its consequences in human beings and animals. Current diagnostic methods impose peculiar challenges in terms of analytical method performance. This study compares diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, predictive Value of Positive (PVP) and Predictive Value of Negative (PVN) for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Wright agglutination test and blood culture used for patients suspected of brucellosis. In 120 patients clinically suspected of brucellosis and referred by physicians to the Yazd central Medical Laboratory, some relevant demographic, occupational, nutritional and clinical data were collected. Also, venous blood samples were drawn for diagnosis of brucellosis using PCR, Wright agglutination test and blood culture techniques. The most frequent symptom of patients was arthralgia (82 cases, 68.3%). PCR was positive in 25 cases (20.8%), wright test in 21 patients (17.5%) and blood culture in 6 cases (5%). In 20 out of 21 wright-positive cases, PCR was positive and all of the culture-positive patients had positive PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, PVP and PVN of blood culture compared to PCR (as the gold standard test) were 24, 100, 100 and 86%, respectively, but the above parameters when PCR is compared with blood culture (as gold standard) were 100, 83, 24 and 95%, respectively. PCR has better analytical performances than blood culture for diagnosis of brucellosis and is suitable for confirmation of Wright-positive cases.

  19. Latex agglutination test for detecting feline panleukopenia virus, canine parvovirus, and parvoviruses of fur animals.

    PubMed Central

    Veijalainen, P M; Neuvonen, E; Niskanen, A; Juokslahti, T

    1986-01-01

    A latex agglutination (LA) test for the detection of parvoviruses of fur animals, cats, and dogs was developed, and its sensitivity and specificity were compared with those of hemagglutination (HA) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Tissue culture isolation was used to confirm the specificity results. Fecal samples from various sources were tested, including specimens from raccoon dogs and mink which were experimentally infected with parvoviruses by oral exposure. LA compared favorably with the other tests. The ELISA was the most sensitive. When it was considered as a reference test, the corresponding sensitivities for HA and LA were 96 and 91%, respectively. The specificities were 93% for the ELISA, 95% for the HA test, and 92% for the LA test. LA seems to be a suitable technique for screening animals in the field and in laboratories in which sophisticated techniques are not available. PMID:3007568

  20. Evaluation of a commercial latex agglutination test for rapid detection of Salmonella in fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Bänffer, J R; van Zwol-Saarloos, J A; Broere, L J

    1993-08-01

    A latex agglutination test for the detection of salmonella in feces was evaluated in comparison to direct culture and enriched culture using both artificially inoculated samples and clinical samples. In the samples inoculated artificially with different concentrations of salmonella (10(1) to 10(5) per gram) the enriched culture performed better only at the 10(2) level in 0.4 g samples, whereas the latex test performed as well as the enriched culture at all levels in 4 g samples. In the tests using clinical samples, there was no significant difference between results of the latex test performed in 2283 samples and the enriched culture performed in 2072 samples. The sensitivity, specificity and negative and positive predictive values of the latex test were 88.2%, 98%, 97.5% and 63% respectively. The test provided results rapidly but yielded a number of false positive results.

  1. Reverse-Transcriptase PCR Detection of Leptospira: Absence of Agreement with Single-Specimen Microscopic Agglutination Testing

    PubMed Central

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Balassiano, Ilana; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Vital-Brazil, Juliana Magalhães; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Reference diagnostic tests for leptospirosis include nucleic acid amplification tests, bacterial culture, and microscopic agglutination testing (MAT) of acute and convalescent serum. However, clinical laboratories often do not receive paired specimens. In the current study, we tested serum samples using a highly sensitive real-time nucleic acid amplification test for Leptospira and compared results to MAT performed on the same specimens. Methods/Principal Findings 478 serum samples from suspected leptospirosis cases in Rio de Janeiro were tested using a real-time RT-PCR for the diagnosis of leptospirosis, malaria and dengue (the Lepto-MD assay). The Lepto-MD assay detects all species of Leptospira (saprophytic, intermediate, and pathogenic), and in the current study, we demonstrate that this assay amplifies both Leptospira RNA and DNA. Dengue virus RNA was identified in 10 patients, and no cases of malaria were detected. A total of 65 samples (13.6%) were positive for Leptospira: 35 samples (7.3%) in the Lepto-MD assay, 33 samples (6.9%) by MAT, and 3 samples tested positive by both (kappa statistic 0.02). Poor agreement between methods was consistent regardless of the titer used to define positive MAT results or the day of disease at sample collection. Leptospira nucleic acids were detected in the Lepto-MD assay as late as day 22, and cycle threshold values did not differ based on the day of disease. When Lepto-MD assay results were added to the MAT results for all patients in 2008 (n=818), the number of detected leptospirosis cases increased by 30.4%, from 102 (12.5%) to 133 (16.3%). Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates a lack of agreement between nucleic acid detection of Leptospira and single-specimen MAT, which may result from the clearance of bacteremia coinciding with the appearance of agglutinating antibodies. A combined testing strategy for acute leptospirosis, including molecular and serologic testing, appears necessary to maximize

  2. Case report: false negative serum cryptococcal latex agglutination test in a patient with disseminated cryptococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Navabi, Nazlee; Montebatsi, Milton; Scott, Michelle; Gluckman, Stephen J; Reid, Michael J A

    2015-01-01

    A case of false-negative serum latex agglutination cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) test in a 45-year-old HIV-positive male with Cryptococcus-positive culture is described. The patient was presented to a hospital in Botswana, with breathlessness and a diffuse papular rash. His CD4 count was 25 cells/μL. Despite the suspicion for disseminated cryptococcal disease, an initial serum CRAG latex test was negative. Results of subsequent Indian ink staining, culture of cerebrospinal fluid and skin scrapings, and serum lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) were all positive for Cryptococcus neoformans. There are several possible explanations for the false-negative CRAG latex test. Given the positive LFA result, we speculate that disease may have been caused by Cryptococcus gattii, which is estimated to be responsible for between 15% and 30% of all cryptococcal diseases in Botswana. Reduced sensitivity of CRAG latex assays for detecting C gattii may lead to underdiagnosis of cryptococcal infection.

  3. Preliminary observations on the use of latex agglutination test for the detection of mastitis due to Streptococcus agalactiae in cows.

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, R C; Barnum, D A

    1986-01-01

    A commercial latex agglutination test for the detection of Group B streptococcal antigens was used to detect infection due to Streptococcus agalactiae in whey of bovine milk samples. Fifteen out of 17 known infections were detected, but it was necessary to incubate the wheys at 37 degrees C for 18 hours in nine of the samples. It was found that the latex agglutination test could detect Group streptococcal carbohydrate antigens in whey samples from artificially infected quarters from one to four days after failure to detect the organism on culture or after antibiotic therapy of the affected quarter. PMID:3527389

  4. Blood stained cerebrospinal fluid responsible for false positive reactions of latex particle agglutination tests.

    PubMed Central

    Camargos, P A; Almeida, M S; Filho, G L; Batista, K W; Carvalho, A G; Pereira, C L

    1994-01-01

    The accuracy of the latex particle agglutination test (LPAT) was assessed in blood stained cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 166 paediatric patients, aged from three months to 13 years. A commercial LPAT kit was used to detect Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis A, B, and C soluble antigens. Culture of CSF specimens was used as the standard and all laboratory procedures were performed blind. The mean CSF erythrocyte count was 66,406 cells/mm3 in the cases and 11,560 cells/mm3 in the controls. The sensitivity and the specificity of LPAT were 83.8 and 94.0%, respectively, suggesting that LPAT is a useful diagnostic tool even in blood stained CSF specimens. PMID:7876387

  5. The relationship of the lunar regolith less than 10-microns fraction and agglutinates. II - Chemical composition of agglutinate glass as a test of the 'fusion of the finest fraction' /F3/ model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. J.; Papike, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Agglutinate glasses from nine Apollo soils have been studied using an automated electron microprobe technique in order to test the fusion of the finest fraction model proposed by Papike (1981). The nine average agglutinate glass compositions are compared with the calculated fused-soil-free compositions, the bulk compositions and the 90-20 micron fraction compositions of the soils in which they are found. It is found that the agglutinate glass data are consistent with the composition of most of the fractions finer than 10 microns, allowing for the volatile loss of K2O and Na2O; some inconsistencies that do arise may result from the degree of soil maturity and the amount of material finer than 10 microns. It is concluded that the fusion of the finest fraction model is a good first approximation of mechanisms affecting the formation of agglutinate glass.

  6. Rapid latex particle agglutination test for Escherichia coli strains of porcine origin producing heat-labile enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, R A; Yang, Z S; Moseley, S L; Moon, H W

    1983-01-01

    A latex particle agglutination test previously shown to be suitable for the rapid identification of Escherichia coli strains of human origin producing heat-labile enterotoxin (R. A. Finkelstein and Z. Yang, J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:23-28) is equally applicable to strains of porcine origin. PMID:6361056

  7. The latex agglutination test versus counterimmunoelectrophoresis for rapid diagnosis of bacterial meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Bortolussi, Robert; Wort, Arthur J.; Casey, Stephanie

    1982-01-01

    A modified latex agglutination (LA) test was compared with Gram-staining and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) for the rapid detection in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of antigen to Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis groups A, B and C, Escherichia coli K1, Streptococcus pneumoniae and group B streptococci, seven frequent causes of bacterial meningitis in children. Of 50 CSF samples from patients with culture-proven bacterial meningitis 90% were correctly shown by the LA test to contain antigen of the responsible organism. Gram-staining revealed organisms in 80% of 45 of these samples. In 75% of the 40 samples that were of sufficient volume for CIE, positive results for the appropriate antigen were obtained. The concentration of antigen detected in the CSF by the LA test varied from undetectable to 800 000 ng/ml. Patients with a high concentration (more than 2000 ng/ml or a positive result at dilutions of CSF over 1/8) were significantly more likely to have a poor response to therapy (two died and two had persistent pleocytosis or bacteria in the CSF) than patients with a lower concentration (4/16 v. 0/18, P < 0.05). After appropriate therapy was begun the concentration of antigen fell dramatically, but measurable amounts of antigen persisted in the CSF for up to 6 days. The LA test detected bacterial antigen at concentrations 2 to 70 times below the lower limit detected by CIE. In seven additional patients who had received antibiotics before lumbar puncture was performed the LA test detected antigen from meningitis-causing bacteria even though cultures of the CSF were sterile. In another 145 patients who did not have meningitis the results of the LA test were negative. The LA test, done as described in this article, is easier to perform than CIE and should be a useful addition to the diagnostic tests carried out on the CSF of any patient suspected of having meningitis. PMID:6749272

  8. A systematic review on the microscopic agglutination test seroepidemiology of bovine leptospirosis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Priscila da Silva; Libonati, Hugo; Penna, Bruno; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2016-02-01

    The diagnosis of leptospirosis commonly relies on serology, which has three issues that are referred: the sampling, the antigen panel, and the cutoff point. We propose a systematic review of the bovine leptospirosis in Latin America, in order to provide a better understanding of the evolution of the research and of the seroepidemiology of bovine leptospirosis in that region. Internet databases were consulted over the year of 2014. Inclusion criteria for analysis included serosurvey using microscopic agglutination test (MAT), a relevant number of animals, the presence in the antigen panel of at least one representant of serogroup Sejroe, and a cutoff point of ≥100. A total of 242 articles that referred to cattle, leptospir*, and one region of Latin America was found. Only 105 articles regarding to serosurveys using MAT were found in several countries, and 61 (58.1 %) met all the inclusion criteria. In conclusion, this systematic review demonstrated a high prevalence of the infection (75.0 % at herd level and 44.2 % at animal level), with predominance of strains of serogroup Sejroe (80.3 %). It was evident that there is the necessity of more studies in several countries, as well as the need for greater standardization in studies, especially with regard to the adopted cutoff point at serological tests.

  9. Validation studies of the latex agglutination test for the detection of Trichinella larvae in meat products.

    PubMed

    Gayda, Jennifer; Reckinger, Sabine; Thaben, Nora; Nöckler, Karsten; Mayer-Scholl, Anne

    2016-11-15

    Human trichinellosis is a foodborne disease caused by ingestion of meat infected with Trichinella muscle larvae. To control Trichinella spp. infection in the European Union, all slaughtered pigs from holdings that are not officially recognized as applying controlled housing conditions and other animals susceptible to Trichinella infection and intended for human consumption should be examined by one of the approved digestion methods described in Regulation (EU) No. 2015/1375. In the past, Trichinella outbreaks due to the consumption of cured wild boar or pork products have been described in several European countries, making the identification of the larvae from these products relevant for Trichinella control. Therefore, this study aimed to validate the newly approved latex agglutination test (Trichin-L) for routine testing of cured meat products. The test was validated based on the OIE Guidelines using pork products spiked with Trichinella larvae. The sensitivity of the method varied greatly depending on the investigated meat product and was usually lower than for the gold standard, the magnetic stirrer method. The detection rate reached 80% for three larvae and 60% for one larva in cured pork sausages. A detection rate of 100% for three larvae and 50% for one larva was found in bacon. For frozen samples (-20°C) the Trichin-L kit is similarly sensitive as for cured samples. Further, to determine the performance of the test under field conditions, pork products from regions with known high Trichinella prevalences confiscated by customs authorities at two German international airports were analyzed. Problems associated with the Trichin-L test were incomplete digestion due to fatty ingredients, spices and very dry meat products, resulting in data which could not be evaluated. Therefore, the test is currently not suitable for the detection of Trichinella larvae in cured meat products and needs further adaptation steps to increase both usability and sensitivity.

  10. Quantitative capillary reversed passive latex agglutination test for C-reactive protein (CRP) in the dog.

    PubMed

    Tagata, K; Yokoyama, S; Ginbo, T; Honda, M; Okimura, T; Odakura, M; Nomura, M; Yamamoto, S

    1996-01-01

    A capillary reversed passive latex agglutination test (capillary RPLA) was developed which allows quantification of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) within approximately 15 min. The logarithmic regression line (calibration curve) obtained after measuring each CRP concentration three times in twofold dilutions of a standard canine serum containing 222 micrograms/ml of CRP was y = 6.394 + 0.030x (r = 0.995). Capillary RPLA permitted quantification of CRP in the range 6.9-222 micrograms/ml. The coefficients of variation ranged from 10.28% to 12.40%. The recovery rates (percentage recovery) of CRP by capillary RPLA were within the range 87% to 106%. On measuring the CRP concentrations in sera from 78 dogs by capillary RPLA, single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), close correlations were demonstrated between SRID and capillary RPLA (y = 7.250 + 1.109x, r = 0.978), between SRID and ELISA (y = 3.042 + 1.059x, r = 0.967), and between capillary RPLA and ELISA (y = 1.778 + 0.929x, r = 0.962). Capillary RPLA may be considered useful as a routine biochemical technique for measurement of serum CRP concentration in the dog.

  11. Usefulness of PCR and Antigen Latex Agglutination Test with Samples Obtained by Transthoracic Needle Aspiration for Diagnosis of Pneumococcal Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    García, Amparo; Rosón, Beatriz; Pérez, José Luis; Verdaguer, Ricard; Dorca, Jordi; Carratalà, Jordi; Casanova, Aurora; Manresa, Frederic; Gudiol, Francesc

    1999-01-01

    In a large number of cases, the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not established. Some cases are probably caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Transthoracic needle aspiration (TNA) culture has a limited sensitivity which might be improved by antigen detection or gene amplification techniques. We evaluated the capacity of a PCR assay and a latex agglutination test to detect S. pneumoniae in samples obtained by TNA from 95 patients with moderate-to-severe CAP. Latex agglutination and PCR had sensitivities of 52.2 and 91.3%, specificities of 88.7 and 83.3%, positive predictive values of 62.3 and 65.6%, and negative predictive values of 83.3 and 96.5%, respectively, when culture techniques were used as the “gold standard.” When we considered expanded criteria for the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia as a standard for our calculations, latex agglutination and PCR had sensitivities of 53.6 and 89.7%, specificities of 93.0 and 90.0%, positive predictive values of 78.9 and 81.3%, and negative predictive values of 80.3 and 94.7%, respectively. The additional diagnosis provided by the PCR assay compared to latex agglutination was 12.2% (95% confidence interval of the difference from 0.4 to 20.1%). PCR was more sensitive than TNA culture, particularly in patients who had received prior antibiotic therapy (83.3 versus 33.3%). Although PCR is a very sensitive and specific technique, it has not proved to be cost-effective in clinical practice. Conversely, latex agglutination is a fast and simple method whose results might have significant implications for initial antibiotic therapy. PMID:9986837

  12. Serological evidence of Leishmania donovani infection in apparently healthy dogs using direct agglutination test (DAT) and rk39 dipstick tests in Kafta Humera, north-west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kalayou, S; Tadelle, H; Bsrat, A; Abebe, N; Haileselassie, M; Schallig, H D F H

    2011-06-01

    Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) are protozoan parasites of significant medical and veterinary importance. Over the last decade, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has emerged as a major opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS in North Western Ethiopia. This paper reports on serological evidence of possible Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) infection in dogs using two serological tests: direct agglutination test (DAT) and Kalazar detect rapid test (KDRT). Two hundred and seventeen asymptomatic local breed dogs were examined for L. donovani antibodies. Performance of the DAT and KDRT was assessed in 162 matching samples of blood collected on filter paper and serum, respectively. Using DAT and KDRT testing in parallel, the overall seroprevalence of L. donovani infection was 27.7% and 14.8%, respectively. The degree of agreement was found to be fair (68.8%, k = 0.234). Univariable logistic regression analysis of some risk factors for L. donovani infection in dogs using DAT indicates that place of residence, sex, age, dog keeping purpose and dog housing condition were not significantly associated with seropositivity. The high proportion of positive dogs suggests the exposure of these animals to L. donovani infection and needs further investigation. Isolation and typing of the parasite aiming at confirming the role of these animals in maintenance and transmission of kala-azar is advocated.

  13. The usefulness of direct agglutination test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Kornacka, Aleksandra; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Bień, Justyna; Goździk, Katarzyna; Moskwa, Bożena

    2016-09-15

    The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of two antibody-based methods, the direct agglutination test (DAT) and enzyme linked immuosorbent assay (ELISA), with that of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting anti-Toxoplasma gondii in samples derived from naturally-infected wild animals. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in meat juice samples collected from 129 free- living carnivores and omnivores. T. gondii seroprevalence was confirmed in 73,6% of examined samples when DAT and ELISA were used separately, but in only 88,4% samples when both immunological tests were used in parallel. PCR results confirmed the presence of DNA of the parasite in 24 of all the 129 samples. Sixteen samples were classified as positive when all three tests were used. A moderate degree of agreement was found between DAT and ELISA (κ=0.55). However, no agreement was found between the molecular and serological tests: κ=-1.75 for DAT versus PCR; κ=-1.67 ELISA versus PCR. By using both serological tests, antibodies against T. gondii were found in 77.5% of red foxes, 12.5% of badgers, 40% of martens and 8.3% of raccoon dogs. Antibodies against the parasite were detected also in one mink, but not in the sample derived from a polecat. T.gondii DNA was found in the brain tissue of 20 red foxes, three badgers and one raccoon dog. Our studies confirm that ELISA and DAT are suitable and reliable techniques for T. gondii antibody detection in meat juice from wild animals when serum samples are unavailable. Positive results obtained by immunological tests do not always reflect that the host was infected by T. gondii. They indicate only a contact with parasite. PCR should be used to confirm te presence of DNA from T. gondii.

  14. 9 CFR 147.1 - The standard tube agglutination test. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., high agglutinability, but are not sensitive to negative and nonspecific sera. The stock cultures may be... hours at 37 °C. The antigenic composition and purity of the stock cultures should be checked... cultures prepared from the stock cultures of the selected strains. The antigen-growing tubes or...

  15. 9 CFR 147.1 - The standard tube agglutination test. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., high agglutinability, but are not sensitive to negative and nonspecific sera. The stock cultures may be... hours at 37 °C. The antigenic composition and purity of the stock cultures should be checked... cultures prepared from the stock cultures of the selected strains. The antigen-growing tubes or...

  16. Evaluation of a C-reactive protein latex agglutination detection test with sera from patients with sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Schalla, W O; Arko, R J; Thompson, S E

    1984-01-01

    A total of 149 sera, including 79 pre- and posttreatment sera from 33 patients with disseminated gonococcal infections, 18 from patients with uncomplicated gonococcal infections, 6 from patients with pelvic inflammatory disease, 4 from patients with genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections, and 42 from normal volunteers, were examined for C-reactive protein with a latex agglutination C-reactive protein detection kit (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.). Results were quantitated with LC-Partigen C-reactive protein radial immuno-diffusion plates (Calbiochem-Behring, La Jolla, Calif.). Positive latex agglutination results were observed in all of the pretreatment sera and some of the posttreatment sera of patients with disseminated gonococcal infections and in two sera from patients with pelvic inflammatory disease, which corresponded to quantitative C-reactive protein levels in the radial immunodiffusion plates. C-reactive protein levels were not detectable in the serum samples from normal volunteers or patients with uncomplicated gonococcal infections or genital chlamydial infections. Positive latex agglutination occurred as early as 20 s in sera with high C-reactive protein levels, and all positive results were observed within 90 s of the 3-min test limit. Positive latex test results were obtained with C-reactive protein levels as low as 1 mg/dl (10 micrograms/ml). PMID:6440907

  17. Mononucleosis spot test

    MedlinePlus

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  18. HIV Antibody Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... test is performed that detects the genetic material ( RNA ) of the virus. An HIV RNA test will detect HIV in most people by ... next test to perform is an HIV-1 RNA test (nucleic acid amplification test, NAAT). If the ...

  19. Validation of the modified agglutination test for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens by using cat and mouse bioassay.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Laurin, E; Kwowk, O C H

    2016-03-01

    The modified agglutination test (MAT) is one of the most commonly used tests for the detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in animal and human sera. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the MAT and bioassay in free-range/backyard (FR) chickens (Gallus domesticus). Previously-published T. gondii test results from 2066 chickens from 19 countries were compiled for the present study. The frequency of isolation of T. gondii increased for MAT titres between 1:5 and 1:160, and ranged from 61 to 75% for antibody titres of 1:160, 1:320, and ⩾1:640. Twenty-three cats fed pooled hearts from a total of 802 FR seronegative (MAT, <1:5) chickens from several countries did not excrete oocysts, indicating a high negative predictive value of MAT because FR chickens would have been exposed to many microbes; cats are the most sensitive indicators of T. gondii infection in tissues and can excrete millions of oocysts after ingesting even a few bradyzoites. Of the 29 cats in this study, six cats, fed hearts pooled from 15-122 FR chickens, excreted oocysts; but these identifications were likely related to misidentification or prozone. Results of the present study support the validity of MAT for the detection of T. gondii infection in chickens.

  20. Antibody Blood Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Tests Researchers have discovered that people with celiac disease who eat gluten have higher than normal ... in the case of an autoimmune disorder like celiac disease, the warning signal sounds for something that ...

  1. Evaluation of the MycoAKT latex agglutination test for rapid diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium complex infections.

    PubMed

    Olano, J P; Holmes, H; Woods, G L

    1998-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia is important for management of patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who have disseminated MAC. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the MycoAKT latex agglutination test for direct detection of MAC in positive mycobacterial blood cultures. First, colonies of isolates of previously identified mycobacteria, including 35 MAC, were tested. Of the 55 isolates evaluated, 33 were identified as MAC by the latex test, including 31 of the known MAC and 2 M. chelonae (sensitivity, 88.6%; specificity, 90.0%). Second, broth from 20 ESP II and 20 BACTEC 12B bottles seeded with isolates of MAC were tested. Aliquots from 19 (95%) ESP II cultures and 16 (80%) 12B cultures were positive by the latex test. In phase 3, broth from 115 signal-positive ESP II blood cultures were tested by latex agglutination. Forty-three subcultures from these bottles grew mycobacteria (41 MAC and 2 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex); the remainder grew no organisms. Broth from 40 of the blood cultures (39 that grew MAC and 1 from which no organisms were recovered) were latex positive; thus, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the latex test for direct identification of MAC in ESP II blood cultures were 95.1, 98.6, 97.5, and 97.3%, respectively. The mean time to detection of MAC was 14.6 days (range, 6-34 days) with the direct latex test, compared with 18.3 days (range, 9-36 days) with subculture and probe (p < 0.05).

  2. A prototype of the direct agglutination test kit (DAT-Canis) for the serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Edward; Saliba, Juliana Wilke; Oliveira, Diana; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Paz, Gustavo Fontes

    2016-05-15

    This report describes the stege I/II development of a new direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) using freeze-dried antigen produced Coomassie blue-stained Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum promastigotes. In stage I, 16 canine serum samples, collected from eight dogs carrying CVL and eight healthy dogs, were assessed with the DAT using 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), kaolin or NAC plus urea (NAC+U) to improve the assay conditions. Stage II assessed the diagnostic accuracy with 100 serum samples collected from dogs with symptomatic CVL and clinically healthy dogs, comparing the four different sample diluents. The CVL-DAT prototype kit showed equivalent performances when 2-ME, NAC or NAC+U were used: 97.1% sensitivity (CI: 83-99.8%), 97% specificity (CI: 88.5-99.5%) and a 97% diagnostic accuracy (CI: 90.8-99.2). With kaolin, a 94.1% sensitivity (CI: 79-99%), 97% specificity (CI: 88.5-99.5%) and 96% diagnostic accuracy were observed (CI: 89.5-98.7), with no statistically significant differences among the four reagents (p=1.0). The NAC plus urea in sample diluent decreased non-specific agglutination, promoted a better defined sharp-edged blue spot and was thus chosen as a component for the new DAT prototype to diagnose canine VL, designated DAT-Canis.

  3. Bayesian estimation of sensitivity and specificity of the modified agglutination test and bioassay for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded animals worldwide. Serological tests, including the modified agglutination test (MAT), are often used to determine exposure to the parasite. The MAT can be used for all hosts because it does not need species-specific reagents and has been shown to...

  4. Testing for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Savige, J

    2001-09-01

    The most common reason to request a test for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) is to diagnose Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis and to monitor inflammatory activity in these diseases. Several retrospective and prospective studies have suggested that the demonstration of ANCA lacks sensitivity and specificity, but these series have detected ANCA with neutrophil-indirect immunofluorescence alone, have used a disease classification that did not describe microscopic polyangiitis and have included patients with inactive disease. The 'International Consensus Statement on Testing and Reporting ANCA' has been developed to optimize the clinical relevance of ANCA testing by the adoption of standardized testing and reporting procedures. International collaborative efforts continue to focus on improving the tests for ANCA.

  5. Latex agglutination using the periplasmic proteins antigen of Brucella melitensis is a successful, rapid, and specific serodiagnostic test for ovine brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Ismael, Alaa Bassuny; Swelum, Ayman Abdel-Aziz; Mostafa, Salama A-H; Alhumiany, Abdel-Rahman A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis, especially caused by Brucella melitensis, is considered the most-widespread zoonosis in the world, particularly in developing countries. This study was planned to develop an accurate test for diagnosis of ovine brucellosis using a specific hot saline extracted soluble Brucella melitensis periplasmic proteins (SBPPs). The efficacy of the latex agglutination test (LAT) using SBPPs compared to the Rose Bengal test (RBT), buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT), serum agglutination test (SAT), and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) was evaluated in the field diagnosis of ovine brucellosis. The test performance was evaluated by estimating sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), disease prevalence (DP), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) using test agreement and bacteriological culture in 1777 samples. The false-positive result was significantly (P ⩽0.05) lower in LAT than RBT, BPAT, SAT, and i-ELISA. With reference to test agreement, the Se, Sp, PPV, and PLR were highest (P ⩽0.05) in LAT 99.33%, 99.88%, 98.68%, and 827.25%, respectively. With reference to bacteriological culture, the LAT and i-ELISA tests showed a significant difference in Se with SAT. However, no significant difference in specificity was detected. The DP was 8.44% in the five tests. In conclusion, LAT using SBPPs of B. melitensis could be a suitable serodiagnostic field test for ovine brucellosis, with high sensitivity and specificity.

  6. Interaction forces between red cells agglutinated by antibody. IV. Time and force dependence of break-up.

    PubMed

    Tees, D F; Coenen, O; Goldsmith, H L

    1993-09-01

    We report on an extension of a previously described method to measure the hydrodynamic force to separate doublets of fixed, sphered and swollen red cells cross-linked by antibody (S. P. Tha, J. Shuster, and H. L. Goldsmith. 1986. Biophys. J. 50:1117-1126). With a traveling microtube apparatus, doublets are tracked and videotaped in a slowly accelerating Poiseuille flow in 150-microns-diameter tubes, and the hydrodynamic normal force at break-up, Fn, is computed from the measured doublet velocity and radial position. Previous results showed a large range of Fn, the mean of which increased with [antiserum], and an absence of clustering at discrete values of Fn. Since it was assumed that the cells separate the instant a critical force to break all crossbridges was reached, lack of clustering could have been due to the use of a polyclonal antiserum. We therefore studied the effect of monoclonal IgM or IgA antibody on the distribution of Fn. The results showed that the data are as scattered as ever, with Fn varying from 2 to 200 pN, and exhibit no evidence of clustering. However, the scatter in Fn could be due to the stochastic nature of intercellular bonds (E. Evans, D. Berk, and A. Leung. 1991a. Biophys. J. 59:838-848). We therefore studied the force dependence of the time to break-up under constant shear stress (Fn from 30 to 200 pN), both in Poiseuille and Couette flow, the latter by using a counter-rotating cone and plate rheoscope. When 280 doublets were rapidly accelerated in the traveling microtube and then allowed to coast in steady flow for up to 180 s, 91% survived into the constant force region; 16% of these broke up after time intervals, tP, of 2-30s. Of 340 doublets immediately exposed to constant shear in the rheoscope, 37% broke after time intervals, tc, from < 1 to 10 s. Thus, doublets do indeed break up under a constant shear stress, if given time. The average time to break-up decreased significantly with increasing force, while the fraction of

  7. Collaborative evaluation of antigen detection by a commercial latex agglutination test and enzyme immunoassay in the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, C; St-Germain, G; Vincelette, J; Kaufman, L; de Repentigny, L

    1990-01-01

    The Cand-Tec Candida detection system and enzyme immunoassay for serum mannan were retrospectively compared in a controlled collaborative evaluation of antigen detection in 32 patients with candidiasis proven by biopsy or culture from a normally sterile site and with sera drawn within 7 days of inclusion. With a threshold titer of 1/8, which excluded false-positive results in 17 hospitalized patients without candidiasis, sensitivities for all 32 patients with candidiasis were 44% for the Cand-Tec assay and 17% for the enzyme immunoassay. Both assays provided greater sensitivity when sera were drawn within 24 h of inclusion in the study and in the category of patients with invasive candidiasis (57% by Cand-Tec and 33% by enzyme immunoassay). The Cand-Tec assay gave false-positive results (titer, greater than or equal to 1/8) in 4 of 6 patients with transient candidemia, in 1 of 20 otherwise healthy patients with rheumatoid factor, and in 1 patient with a positive cryptococcal latex agglutination test. Three serum specimens from 3 of 32 patients with candidiasis contained rheumatoid factor and gave titers of greater than or equal to 1/8 by the Cand-Tec assay. Detection of serum mannan by enzyme immunoassay was less sensitive but more specific than the Cand-Tec Candida detection system for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis. PMID:2179258

  8. Selective mineral composition, functional test morphology and paleoecology of the agglutinated foraminiferal genus Colominella Popescu, 1998 in the Mediterranean Pliocene (Liguria, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoletta, Mancin; Elena, Basso; Camilla, Pirini; Michael A., Kaminski

    2012-12-01

    Specimens of Colominella (agglutinated Foraminifera) from a Pliocene Mediterranean succession were analysed through a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) to document their test microstructure. Colominella develops a complex large test with a mostly biserial chamber arrangement, but with the internal chamber lumens partitioned by vertical and horizontal plates that form a labyrinthine structure of alcoves. This internal partition occurs from the first chambers but is completely masked from the outside by the thick wall. The test-wall microstructure is characterized by canaliculi (parapores) that are externally covered by a pavement of agglutinated grains. The mineralogical characterization of the agglutinated grains and the secreted cement shows that the grains are strongly selected as regards to size, arrangement and composition, with the coarse grains placed close to the outer wall. Moreover, these coarse grains, forming a pavement, are made of monocrystalline quartz, whereas the inner part of the skeleton is mostly composed of dolomite. The carbonate cement is less abundant and appears as cloudy light grey areas among the detrital grains. These shell features can be interpreted as functional adaptations to perform kleptoplastidy and/or to house functional photosymbionts, probably induced by stable environmental conditions as in warm shallow waters characterized by low nutrient flux.

  9. Traces of dissolved particles, including coccoliths, in the tests of agglutinated foraminifera from the Challenger Deep (10,897 m water depth, western equatorial Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooday, A. J.; Uematsu, K.; Kitazato, H.; Toyofuku, T.; Young, J. R.

    2010-02-01

    We examined four multilocular agglutinated foraminiferan tests from the Challenger Deep, the deepest point in the world's oceans and well below the depth at which biogenic and most detrital minerals disappear from the sediment. The specimens represent undescribed species. Three are trochamminaceans in which imprints and other traces of dissolved agglutinated particles are visible in the orange or yellowish organic test lining. In Trochamminacean sp. A, a delicate meshwork of organic cement forms ridges between the grain impressions. The remnants of test particles include organic structures identifiable as moulds of coccoliths produced by the genus Helicosphaera. Their random alignment suggests that they were agglutinated individually rather than as fragments of a coccosphere. Trochamminacean sp. C incorporates discoidal structures with a central hole; these probably represent the proximal sides of isolated distal shields of another coccolith species, possibly Hayaster perplexus. Imprints of planktonic foraminiferan test fragments are also present in both these trochamminaceans. In Trochamminacean sp. B, the test surface is densely pitted with deep, often angular imprints ranging from roughly equidimensional to rod-shaped. The surfaces are either smooth, or have prominent longitudinal striations, probably made by cleavage traces. We presume these imprints represent mineral grains of various types that subsequently dissolved. X-ray microanalyses reveal strong peaks for Ca associated with grain impressions and coccolith remains in Trochamminacean sp. C. Minor peaks for this element are associated with coccolith remains and planktonic foraminiferan imprints in Trochamminacean sp. A. These Ca peaks possibly originate from traces of calcite remaining on the test surfaces. Agglutinated particles, presumably clay minerals, survive only in the fourth specimen (' Textularia' sp.). Here, the final 4-5 chambers comprise a pavement of small, irregularly shaped grains with flat

  10. Evaluation of the usefulness of six commercial agglutination assays for serologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Villard, Odile; Cimon, Bernard; Franck, Jacqueline; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Godineau, Nadine; Houze, Sandrine; Paris, Luc; Pelloux, Hervé; Villena, Isabelle; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2012-07-01

    Six agglutination tests for detecting Toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies (immunoglobulin G or M) in serum were performed and compared. In total, 599 sera were examined using direct and indirect agglutination assays. Sensitivity varied from 93.7% to 100% and specificity from 97.1% to 99.2%. In a selected population with interfering diseases, the percentage of false positives ranged from 4.3% to 10.9%. Although an overall agreement of 100% was found for chronic toxoplasmosis, sensitivity for the detection of confirmed acute toxoplasmosis ranged from 86.4% to 97.3%. Regarding the large variability in terms of the performance of the 6 assays, tests based on the hemagglutination principle were found to be better than the other agglutination tests for all the panels evaluated, meaning that they could be used as qualitative or semiquantitative low-cost screening assays.

  11. Agglutination of Helicobacter pylori coccoids by lectins

    PubMed Central

    Khin, Mar Mar; Hua, Jie Song; Ng, Han Cong; Wadström, Torkel; Ho, Bow

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To study the agglutination pattern of Helicobacter pylori coccoid and spiral forms. METHODS: Assays of agglutination and agglutination inhibition were applied using fifteen commercial lectins. RESULTS: Strong agglutination was observed with mannose-specific Concanavalin A (Con A), fucose-specific Tetragonolobus purpureas (Lotus A) and N-acetyl glucosamine-specific Triticum vulgaris (WGA) lectins. Mannose and fucose specific lectins were reactive with all strains of H. pylori coccoids as compared to the spirals. Specific carbohydrates, glycoproteins and mucin were shown to inhibit H. pylori lectin-agglutination reactions. Pre-treatment of the bacterial cells with formalin and sulphuric acid did not alter the agglutination patterns with lectins. However, sodium periodate treatment of bacterial cells were shown to inhibit agglutination reaction with Con A, Lotus A and WGA lectins. On the contrary, enzymatic treatment of coccoids and spirals did not show marked inhibition of H. pylori lectin agglutination. Interes tingly, heating of H. pylori cells at 60 °C for 1 h was shown to augment the agglutination with all of the lectins tested. CONCLUSION: The considerable differences in lectin agglutination patterns seen among the two differentiated forms of H. pylori might be attributable to the structural changes during the events of morphological transformation, resulting in exposing or masking some of the sugar residues on the cell surface. Possibility of various sugar residues on the cell wall of the coccoids may allow them to bind to different carbohydrate receptors on gastric mucus and epithelial cells. The coccoids with adherence characteristics like the spirals could aid in the pathogenic process of Helicobacter infection. This may probably lead to different clinical outcome of H. pylori associated gastroduodenal disease. PMID:11819557

  12. Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Antibody Tests Share this page: Was this ... EA-D IgG Ab Formal name: Epstein-Barr Virus Antibody to Viral Capsid Antigen, IgM, IgG; Epstein- ...

  13. Sensitive neutralization test for rubella antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, H; Albrecht, P; Krugman, S; Ennis, F A

    1979-01-01

    A modified rubella virus plaque neutralization test for measuring rubella antibody was developed based on the potentiation of the virus-antibody complex by heterologous anti-immunoglobulin. The test is highly sensitive, yielding titers on the average 50 to 100 times higher than the haemagglutination inhibition test or the conventional plaque neutralization test. The sensitivity of this enhanced neutralization test is somewhat limited by the existence of a prozone phenomenon which precludes testing of low-titered sera below a dilution of 1:16. No prozone effect was observed with cerebrospinal fluids. The specificity of the enhanced neutralization test was determined by seroconversion of individuals receiving rubella vaccine. Although the rubella hemagglutination inhibition test remains the test of choice in routine diagnostic and surveillance work, the enhanced rubella neutralization test is particularly useful in monitoring low-level antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid in patients with neurological disorders and in certain instances of vaccine failure. PMID:107192

  14. 21 CFR 866.3290 - Gonococcal antibody test (GAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gonococcal antibody test (GAT). 866.3290 Section... antibody test (GAT). (a) Identification. A gonococcal antibody test (GAT) is an in vitro device that..., indirect fluorescent antibody, or radioimmunoassay, antibodies to Neisseria gonorrhoeae in sera...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3290 - Gonococcal antibody test (GAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gonococcal antibody test (GAT). 866.3290 Section... antibody test (GAT). (a) Identification. A gonococcal antibody test (GAT) is an in vitro device that..., indirect fluorescent antibody, or radioimmunoassay, antibodies to Neisseria gonorrhoeae in sera...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3290 - Gonococcal antibody test (GAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gonococcal antibody test (GAT). 866.3290 Section... antibody test (GAT). (a) Identification. A gonococcal antibody test (GAT) is an in vitro device that..., indirect fluorescent antibody, or radioimmunoassay, antibodies to Neisseria gonorrhoeae in sera...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3290 - Gonococcal antibody test (GAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gonococcal antibody test (GAT). 866.3290 Section... antibody test (GAT). (a) Identification. A gonococcal antibody test (GAT) is an in vitro device that..., indirect fluorescent antibody, or radioimmunoassay, antibodies to Neisseria gonorrhoeae in sera...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3290 - Gonococcal antibody test (GAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gonococcal antibody test (GAT). 866.3290 Section... antibody test (GAT). (a) Identification. A gonococcal antibody test (GAT) is an in vitro device that..., indirect fluorescent antibody, or radioimmunoassay, antibodies to Neisseria gonorrhoeae in sera...

  19. Utility of feline coronavirus antibody tests.

    PubMed

    Addie, Diane D; le Poder, Sophie; Burr, Paul; Decaro, Nicola; Graham, Elizabeth; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Jarrett, Oswald; McDonald, Michael; Meli, Marina L

    2015-02-01

    Eight different tests for antibodies to feline coronavirus (FCoV) were evaluated for attributes that are important in situations in veterinary practice. We compared four indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (IFAT), one enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (FCoV Immunocomb; Biogal) and three rapid immunochromatographic (RIM) tests against a panel of samples designated by consensus as positive or negative. Specificity was 100% for all but the two IFATs based on transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), at 83.3% and 97.5%. The IFAT and ELISA tests were best for obtaining an antibody titre and for working in the presence of virus. The RIM tests were the best for obtaining a result quickly (10-15 mins); of these, the Speed F-Corona was the most sensitive, at 92.4%, followed by FASTest feline infectious peritonitis (FIP; 84.6%) and Anigen Rapid FCoV antibody test (64.1%). Sensitivity was 100% for the ELISA, one FCoV IFAT and one TGEV IFAT; and 98.2% for a second TGEV IFA and 96.1% for a second FCoV IFAT. All tests worked with effusions, even when only blood products were stipulated in the instruction manual. The ELISA and Anigen RIM tests were best for small quantities of sample. The most appropriate FCoV antibody test to use depends on the reason for testing: in excluding a diagnosis of FIP, sensitivity, specificity, small sample quantity, rapidity and ability to work in the presence of virus all matter. For FCoV screening, speed and sensitivity are important, and for FCoV elimination antibody titre is essential.

  20. Usefulness of the rK39-Immunochromatographic Test, Direct Agglutination Test, and Leishmanin Skin Test for Detecting Asymptomatic Leishmania Infection in Children in a New Visceral Leishmaniasis Focus in Amhara State, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefanía; Cañavate, Carmen; Sordo, Luis; Abebe, Zelalem; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Aseffa, Abraham; Yamuah, Lawrence; Engers, Howard; Moreno, Javier; Cruz, Israel

    2012-01-01

    In areas where visceral leishmaniasis is anthroponotic, asymptomatically infected patients may play a role in transmission. Additionally, the number of asymptomatic patients in a disease-endemic area will also provide information on transmission dynamics. Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts (Amhara State, Ethiopia) are now considered newly established areas to which visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In selected villages in these districts, we conducted a study to assess the usefulness of different approaches to estimate the asymptomatic infection rate. Of 605 participants, the rK39 immunochromatographic test was able to detect asymptomatic infection in 1.5% (9 of 605), direct agglutination test in 5.3% (32 of 605), and leishmanin skin test in 5.6% (33 of 589); the combined use of serologic methods and leishmanin skin test enabled detecting asymptomatic infection in 10.1% (61 of 605). We conclude that the best option to detect asymptomatic infection in this new visceral leishmaniasis–endemic focus is the combined use of the direct agglutination test and the leishmanin skin test. PMID:22556076

  1. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a serological test for detecting antibodies against Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in sheep.

    PubMed

    Adler, B; Faine, S; Gordon, L M

    1981-09-01

    The enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was compared with the standard microscopic agglutination test (MAT) as a method for detecting antibodies against Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in sheep. Peak antibody levels detected by the 2 tests occurred at different times following experimental infection of sheep. In serums from flocks of sheep with naturally acquired infection there was a 95% correlation between MAT and ELISA with respect to the presence or absence of antibody to serovar hardjo, although the levels of correlation of the titres of the 2 tests was low. The 2 tests appeared to measure different antigen-antibody systems. The ELISA would be a useful test for screening large numbers of serums for antibodies to L. interrogans serovar hardjo.

  2. Antinuclear antibody testing in systemic autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Evans, J

    1998-12-01

    This article discusses the use and interpretation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing in connective tissue diseases. Methods of ANA detection are discussed and analyzed in detail as is the role of ANAs in systemic lupus, scleroderma, and polymyositis, connective tissue diseases with prominent pulmonary involvement.

  3. Short report: Seroprevalence of human leptospirosis in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) assessed by microscopic agglutination test on paper disc-absorbed whole blood.

    PubMed

    Desvars, Amélie; Gigan, Jimmy; Hoarau, Géraldine; Gérardin, Patrick; Favier, François; Michault, Alain

    2011-12-01

    In the last decade, leptospirosis has emerged as a globally important infectious disease. Humans most commonly become infected through occupational, recreational, or domestic contact with the urine of carrier animals, either directly or through contaminated water or soil. The disease occurs in urban areas of industrialized and developing countries as well as rural regions worldwide. We present a retrospective study conducted in 2006 on 2,269 randomly selected Reunion Island inhabitants. Blood sampling was performed on individual blotting papers, and microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was conducted on paper disc-absorbed (PDA) blood. We showed that seroprevalence of leptospirosis was 0.66% ± 0.34 in the global population of Reunion Island, which is 1.78 lower than the seroprevalence estimated 20 years before. The serological method is described, and the results discussion focuses on methodology and socio-economic factors.

  4. 21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antinuclear antibody immunological test system....5100 Antinuclear antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An antinuclear antibody... the autoimmune antibodies in serum, other body fluids, and tissues that react with cellular...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antinuclear antibody immunological test system....5100 Antinuclear antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An antinuclear antibody... the autoimmune antibodies in serum, other body fluids, and tissues that react with cellular...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antinuclear antibody immunological test system....5100 Antinuclear antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An antinuclear antibody... the autoimmune antibodies in serum, other body fluids, and tissues that react with cellular...

  7. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in small ruminants of the Madrid region, Spain, and identification of factors influencing seropositivity by multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Mainar, R C; de la Cruz, C; Asensio, A; Domínguez, L; Vázquez-Boland, J A

    1996-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and goats was conducted in the Madrid region of Spain. Sera were collected from 60 herds, for which farming management information and other relevant data for their characterization were also obtained through a questionnaire. The seroprevalence was 11.8% (64 out of 541), using the modified (2-mercaptoethanol) direct agglutination technique with a 1:64 cut-off titre. The relationship between seropositivity and the variables in the questionnaire was assessed by multivariate analysis. Four variables were found to be significantly associated with seroprevalence. Two of them, the presence of cats and a previous history of abortion outbreaks in the farm, were factors known to be linked with toxoplasmosis, indicating the validity of the serological data. Seropositivity was also related to a lack of replacements in the preceding year. Proximity to other farms appeared to be a protective factor negatively associated with seropositivity, probably because it was an indicator of proximity to an urban area and the availability of local sanitary facilities.

  8. Comparison of the H7 latex agglutination test with a fliCh7 real-time PCR assay for confirmation of the H type of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a food-borne pathogen that causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Positive identification of E. coli O157:H7 is made using biochemical tests and latex agglutination using specific antisera. However, under certain conditions, some E. coli O157:H7 isolate...

  9. NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN WILD CARNIVORES FROM SPAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples from 251 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum by the commercial competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) and confirmed by Neospora agglutination test (NAT) and/or by indirect fluorescent antibody test (I...

  10. Simulation of Mechanical Behavior of Agglutinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakagawa, Masami; Moon, Tae-Hyun

    2005-01-01

    Due to lack of "real" lunar soil or even lunar simulant, it is difficult to characterize the interaction between lunar soil (or simulant) with different surfaces that are involved in excavation and processing machinery. One unique feature possessed by lunar soil is the agglutinates produced by repeated high-speed micrometeoroid impacts and subsequent pulverization[l and 2]. The large particles are impacted by micrometeoroids [Fig.l] and pulverized to produce finer particles. This process continues until there are no more "large" particles left on the surface of the moon. Due to high impact speed, the impact melting process fuses fines to make agglutinates such as shown in Fig. 2. We will present a series of simulation results and movies will be shown to indicate brittle behavior of each individual agglutinate and also similar compressibility charts shown by Carrier et al. [3]. Fig. 3 shows our preliminary result of the simulated oedometer tests.

  11. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  12. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  13. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  14. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  15. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  16. 21 CFR 866.5090 - Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test... Systems § 866.5090 Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure...

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild carnivores from Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples from 282 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using a cut-off value of 1:25. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 22 of 27 (81.5%) of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), three of six European wildc...

  18. HIV antibody testing in young, urban adults.

    PubMed

    Berrios, D C; Hearst, N; Perkins, L L; Burke, G L; Sidney, S; McCreath, H E; Hulley, S B

    1992-02-01

    We surveyed men and women aged 21 to 34 years to determine the rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing in blacks and whites of diverse education levels in four US cities. Responses to the anonymous, mailed questionnaire were received from 90% of 777 white women, 64% of 734 black women, 79% of 677 white men, and 48% of 541 black men. The percentages reporting HIV testing for these four race-gender groups were 29%, 22%, 30%, and 38%, respectively. The percentages reporting testing that was voluntarily sought (ie, not in connection with blood donation, military service) were 16%, 14%, 18%, and 22%, respectively. In each race-gender group, roughly half of those who had not been tested said they "might have a blood test for the AIDS virus in the future". Education level was not correlated with HIV-testing frequency. Blacks were significantly less likely than whites to be aware of "a blood test that can detect the AIDS virus infection" (58% vs 77%), but blacks who knew of the test were more likely than whites to have been tested (47% vs 37%). Eleven percent of subjects reported at least one major risk factor for HIV infection. In these people, HIV testing was most common among homosexually active men (56% tested; 52% voluntarily sought), intermediate among injection drug users (40% tested; 31% voluntarily sought), and least common among the sexual partners of injection-drug users (21% tested; 11% voluntarily sought). Health education programs need to communicate the availability of, and need for, anonymous HIV testing.

  19. Direct appraisal of latex agglutination testing, a convenient alternative to enzyme immunoassay for the detection of rotavirus in childhood gastroenteritis, by comparison of two enzyme immunoassays and two latex tests.

    PubMed Central

    Sambourg, M; Goudeau, A; Courant, C; Pinon, G; Denis, F

    1985-01-01

    During February and March 1984, 207 fecal samples from infants and children with gastroenteritis were tested for rotavirus with four techniques: two enzyme immunoassays (Rotazyme; Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill., and Enzygnost-Rotavirus; Calbiochem-Behring, La Jolla, Calif.) and two latex agglutination tests (Rotalex; Orion Research, Inc., Cambridge, Mass., and Slidex Rota-Kit; Biomérieux). All stool samples were also tested for yeasts and bacterial pathogens. Electron microscopy was used to investigate discrepant results. We found 47% positive samples with Enzygnost-Rotavirus, 38% with Rotazyme, 37% with Slidex Rota-Kit, and 34% with Rotalex. No specimen was found positive by Rotazyme only or Slidex Rota-Kit only. On the contrary, 12 samples which were positive with Enzygnost-Rotavirus only and 3 which were positive with Rotalex only were not confirmed as positive by electron microscopy. Both enzyme immunoassays gave 6% equivocal results; Slidex Rota-Kit gave significantly fewer equivocal results than did Rotalex: 2.9% versus 9.7% (P less than 0.01). The sensitivity and specificity of latex tests compared favorably with that of enzyme immunoassays. Latex agglutination tests can be performed by unskilled personnel and are rapid and relatively cheap. They appear to be very suitable for routine laboratory work and may prove useful for large-scale screening in developing countries. PMID:2985650

  20. Direct appraisal of latex agglutination testing, a convenient alternative to enzyme immunoassay for the detection of rotavirus in childhood gastroenteritis, by comparison of two enzyme immunoassays and two latex tests.

    PubMed

    Sambourg, M; Goudeau, A; Courant, C; Pinon, G; Denis, F

    1985-04-01

    During February and March 1984, 207 fecal samples from infants and children with gastroenteritis were tested for rotavirus with four techniques: two enzyme immunoassays (Rotazyme; Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill., and Enzygnost-Rotavirus; Calbiochem-Behring, La Jolla, Calif.) and two latex agglutination tests (Rotalex; Orion Research, Inc., Cambridge, Mass., and Slidex Rota-Kit; Biomérieux). All stool samples were also tested for yeasts and bacterial pathogens. Electron microscopy was used to investigate discrepant results. We found 47% positive samples with Enzygnost-Rotavirus, 38% with Rotazyme, 37% with Slidex Rota-Kit, and 34% with Rotalex. No specimen was found positive by Rotazyme only or Slidex Rota-Kit only. On the contrary, 12 samples which were positive with Enzygnost-Rotavirus only and 3 which were positive with Rotalex only were not confirmed as positive by electron microscopy. Both enzyme immunoassays gave 6% equivocal results; Slidex Rota-Kit gave significantly fewer equivocal results than did Rotalex: 2.9% versus 9.7% (P less than 0.01). The sensitivity and specificity of latex tests compared favorably with that of enzyme immunoassays. Latex agglutination tests can be performed by unskilled personnel and are rapid and relatively cheap. They appear to be very suitable for routine laboratory work and may prove useful for large-scale screening in developing countries.

  1. Behavioral and Psychological Responses to HIV Antibody Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Paul B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Considers effects of informing individuals of their antibody status as determined by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing. Reviews research examining changes in psychological distress and in behaviors associated with HIV infections among individuals who have undergone antibody testing. Identifies methodological issues in studying…

  2. Evaluation of antigen detection and antibody detection tests for Trypanosoma evansi infections of buffaloes in Indonesia.

    PubMed Central

    Davison, H. C.; Thrusfield, M. V.; Muharsini, S.; Husein, A.; Partoutomo, S.; Rae, P. F.; Masake, R.; Luckins, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    Two Ag-ELISAs, an IgG-specific antibody detection ELISA (IgG ELISA) and a card agglutination test (CATT) for the detection of Trypanasoma evansi infections in buffaloes in Indonesia, were compared. Diagnostic sensitivity estimates were obtained by testing sera from 139 Indonesian buffaloes which had been found to be infected by parasitological tests. Diagnostic specificity was estimated by testing sera from 263 buffaloes living in Australia. Response-operating characteristic curves were constructed, and optimal ELISA cut-off values, which minimized the number of false-negative and false-positive results, were chosen. The IgG ELISA had the highest sensitivity (89%) and the CATT had the highest specificity (100%). There was a significant difference between the sensitivities (71 and 81%), but not between the specificities (75 and 78%), of the two Ag-ELISAs. The four tests were further compared by calculation of post-test probabilities of infection for positive and negative test results using a range of prevalence values, and likelihood ratios. The results suggested that the CATT was the best test to 'rule-in' infection (i.e. the highest probability of infection in test-positive animals) and the IgG ELISA was the best test to 'rule-out' infection (i.e. the lowest probability of infection in test-negative animals). PMID:10487651

  3. Evaluation of antigen detection and antibody detection tests for Trypanosoma evansi infections of buffaloes in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Davison, H C; Thrusfield, M V; Muharsini, S; Husein, A; Partoutomo, S; Rae, P F; Masake, R; Luckins, A G

    1999-08-01

    Two Ag-ELISAs, an IgG-specific antibody detection ELISA (IgG ELISA) and a card agglutination test (CATT) for the detection of Trypanasoma evansi infections in buffaloes in Indonesia, were compared. Diagnostic sensitivity estimates were obtained by testing sera from 139 Indonesian buffaloes which had been found to be infected by parasitological tests. Diagnostic specificity was estimated by testing sera from 263 buffaloes living in Australia. Response-operating characteristic curves were constructed, and optimal ELISA cut-off values, which minimized the number of false-negative and false-positive results, were chosen. The IgG ELISA had the highest sensitivity (89%) and the CATT had the highest specificity (100%). There was a significant difference between the sensitivities (71 and 81%), but not between the specificities (75 and 78%), of the two Ag-ELISAs. The four tests were further compared by calculation of post-test probabilities of infection for positive and negative test results using a range of prevalence values, and likelihood ratios. The results suggested that the CATT was the best test to 'rule-in' infection (i.e. the highest probability of infection in test-positive animals) and the IgG ELISA was the best test to 'rule-out' infection (i.e. the lowest probability of infection in test-negative animals).

  4. [Improved IgG Antibody Diagnostics of Feather Duvet Lung by an Antibody Screening Test].

    PubMed

    Sennekamp, J; Lehmann, E

    2015-11-01

    The underdiagnosed feather duvet lung, an extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis) caused by duck and goose feathers, can be more frequently diagnosed, if duck and goose feather antibodies are included in the panel of the routinely applied IgG antibody screening test. This does not necessarily require extending the screening test to include duck and goose feather antigens. By analysing 100 sera with duck and goose antibodies we found that the commonly used pigeon and budgerigar antibodies can also screen for feather duvet antibodies. All examined sera lacking pigeon and budgerigar antibodies also lacked clear-cut duck and goose feather antibodies. The examined sera with strong pigeon or budgerigar antibodies always also contained feather duvet antibodies. However, sera with medium or low concentrated pigeon or budgerigar antibodies are not always associated with feather duvet antibodies. In the light of these observations, we find that 71% of the duck and goose antibody analyses would be dispensable without essential loss of quality, if the results of screening for pigeon and budgerigar antibodies were incorporated into the procedure of a step-by- step diagnostics.

  5. Antinuclear antibody testing: discordance between commercial laboratories.

    PubMed

    Abeles, Aryeh M; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Abeles, Micha; Honiden, Shyoko

    2016-07-01

    Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test results frequently affect the course of patients' evaluations, diagnosis, and treatment, but different laboratory centers may yield conflicting results. This study investigated the degree of agreement between laboratory results in a group of subjects who had ANA testing performed at two commercial laboratories. This was a chart review study, in which all ANA tests ordered by the authors from one commercial laboratory over a 4-year period were queried. Corresponding patient charts were reviewed, and if ANA testing had also been performed at the second commercial laboratory, subjects were entered into the study. The primary measurement was agreement between paired ANA results, and we performed sensitivity analysis using varying criteria defining agreement (criteria A to criteria D [strictest to most lenient definition of agreement]). Other data captured included relevant data obtained through the course of evaluation (e.g., presenting complaints, exam findings, other laboratory data) and final diagnoses. Of 101 paired ANA tests, there was 18 % agreement according to the strictest criteria and 42 % according to the most lenient. Of the seven subjects with ANA-associated rheumatic disease, none of the paired tests were in agreement according to criteria A (two agreed according to criteria D). Our findings demonstrate poor agreement between paired ANA tests performed at two commercial laboratories. The low level of agreement may have far-reaching clinical implications. Specifically, this finding calls into question the reliability of ANA testing as it is currently performed and suggests that results may in part depend upon the laboratory center to which patients are referred.

  6. Validation of Serological Tests for the Detection of Antibodies Against Treponema pallidum in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Knauf, Sascha; Dahlmann, Franziska; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K.; Frischmann, Sieghard; Liu, Hsi

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that the yaws bacterium (Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue) may exist in non-human primate populations residing in regions where yaws is endemic in humans. Especially in light of the fact that the World Health Organizaiton (WHO) recently launched its second yaws eradication campaign, there is a considerable need for reliable tools to identify treponemal infection in our closest relatives, African monkeys and great apes. It was hypothesized that commercially available serological tests detect simian anti-T. pallidum antibody in serum samples of baboons, with comparable sensitivity and specificity to their results on human sera. Test performances of five different treponemal tests (TTs) and two non-treponemal tests (NTTs) were evaluated using serum samples of 57 naturally T. pallidum-infected olive baboons (Papio anubis) from Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. The T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA) was used as a gold standard for comparison. In addition, the overall infection status of the animals was used to further validate test performances. For most accurate results, only samples that originated from baboons of known infection status, as verified in a previous study by clinical inspection, PCR and immunohistochemistry, were included. All tests, TTs and NTTs, used in this study were able to reliably detect antibodies against T. pallidum in serum samples of infected baboons. The sensitivity of TTs ranged from 97.7-100%, while specificity was between 88.0-100.0%. The two NTTs detected anti-lipoidal antibodies in serum samples of infected baboons with a sensitivity of 83.3% whereas specificity was 100%. For screening purposes, the TT Espline TP provided the highest sensitivity and specificity and at the same time provided the most suitable format for use in the field. The enzyme immune assay Mastblot TP (IgG), however, could be considered as a confirmatory test. PMID:25803295

  7. Validation of serological tests for the detection of antibodies against Treponema pallidum in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Knauf, Sascha; Dahlmann, Franziska; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K; Frischmann, Sieghard; Liu, Hsi

    2015-03-01

    There is evidence to suggest that the yaws bacterium (Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue) may exist in non-human primate populations residing in regions where yaws is endemic in humans. Especially in light of the fact that the World Health Organizaiton (WHO) recently launched its second yaws eradication campaign, there is a considerable need for reliable tools to identify treponemal infection in our closest relatives, African monkeys and great apes. It was hypothesized that commercially available serological tests detect simian anti-T. pallidum antibody in serum samples of baboons, with comparable sensitivity and specificity to their results on human sera. Test performances of five different treponemal tests (TTs) and two non-treponemal tests (NTTs) were evaluated using serum samples of 57 naturally T. pallidum-infected olive baboons (Papio anubis) from Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. The T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA) was used as a gold standard for comparison. In addition, the overall infection status of the animals was used to further validate test performances. For most accurate results, only samples that originated from baboons of known infection status, as verified in a previous study by clinical inspection, PCR and immunohistochemistry, were included. All tests, TTs and NTTs, used in this study were able to reliably detect antibodies against T. pallidum in serum samples of infected baboons. The sensitivity of TTs ranged from 97.7-100%, while specificity was between 88.0-100.0%. The two NTTs detected anti-lipoidal antibodies in serum samples of infected baboons with a sensitivity of 83.3% whereas specificity was 100%. For screening purposes, the TT Espline TP provided the highest sensitivity and specificity and at the same time provided the most suitable format for use in the field. The enzyme immune assay Mastblot TP (IgG), however, could be considered as a confirmatory test.

  8. Mass-based readout for agglutination assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunara, Rumi; Godin, Michel; Knudsen, Scott M.; Manalis, Scott R.

    2007-11-01

    We present a mass-based readout for agglutination assays. The suspended microchannel resonator (SMR) is used to classify monomers and dimers that are formed during early stage aggregation, and to relate the total count to the analyte concentration. Using a model system of streptavidin functionalized microspheres and biotinylated antibody as the analyte, we obtain a dose-response curve over a concentration range of 0.63-630nM and show that the results are comparable to what has been previously achieved by image analysis and conventional flow cytometry.

  9. Evaluation of chromogenic medium and direct latex agglutination test for detection of group B streptococcus in vaginal specimens from pregnant women in Lebanon and Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Ghaddar, Nahed; Alfouzan, Wadha; Anastasiadis, Elie; Al Jiser, Tamima; Itani, Saad Eddine; Dernaika, Racha; Eid, Toufic; Ghaddar, Ali; Charafeddine, Adib; Dhar, Rita; El Hajj, Hiba

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate chromogenic medium and a direct latex agglutination test (DLA) for detection of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the vaginal specimens of pregnant women, and to ascertain the prevalence of GBS in this population in Kuwait and Lebanon. Vaginal swabs, collected from women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, were cultured on 5 % sheep blood agar (SBA), colistin nalidixic acid agar (CNA), Strept B Select chromogenic agar (SBS) as well as Lim enrichment broth in 168 cases in Lebanon while only SBA was used for 1391 samples in Kuwait. In addition, vaginal samples from 102 GBS-positive and 20 GBS-negative women near the time of delivery were collected in Kuwait for evaluation of the DLA test. During the study period, the prevalence of GBS colonization was determined to be 20.7 % (288/1391) in Kuwait while 18.4 % (31) of 168 pregnant women in Lebanon had vaginal cultures positive for GBS. By direct plating of vaginal swabs on the three media used, the isolation rates of GBS were 51.6, 64.5 and 77.4 % on SBA, CNA and SBS, respectively, which increased to 90.35, 93.1 and 96.8 %, respectively, following subculture in Lim broth after 18 h of incubation. The sensitivity of the DLA test was found to be dependent on the density of GBS colonization, resulting in 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for heavy (>10(2) c.f.u. per swab) and moderately heavy (50-100 c.f.u. per swab) growth of GBS. However, for vaginal specimens yielding <50 c.f.u. per swab, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the DLA test were 100, 55.5, 63.6 and 100 %, respectively. In conclusion, a chromogenic agar, such as SBS, and a DLA test can be used for rapid detection of GBS in pregnant women. The DLA test, in particular, could prove to be a useful tool for immediate detection of GBS in women near delivery so that intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis can be initiated.

  10. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ANTIBODIES IN CATS FROM PENNSLYVANIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined in sera from 122 domestic cats from Bensalem, Pennsylvania. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to this parasite were found in 25 (20.4%) of the 122 cats with titers of 1:25 in 1, 1:50 in 4, 1:100 in 6, 1:200 in 3, 1:400...

  11. Comparison of different commercial serological tests for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in serum of naturally exposed pigs.

    PubMed

    Steinparzer, R; Reisp, K; Grünberger, B; Köfer, J; Schmoll, F; Sattler, T

    2015-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the aetiological agent of the zoonotic disease toxoplasmosis and transmitted among other ways by chemically and physically untreated, that is, raw pork to humans. The detection of Toxoplasma gondii is impossible by currently practiced meat inspection, but serological tests can be used to detect Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in pig herds and can consequently be helpful to identify potentially contaminated pork. Therefore, appropriate serological tests are required. In this study, serum samples of 1368 naturally exposed slaughter pigs from 73 Austrian farms were collected. Serum samples of at least 16 slaughter pigs per farm were tested. The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in serum was measured by a commercial available modified agglutination test (MAT) and compared to three different commercial available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The MAT detected 6.5%, ELISA I 6.7%, ELISA II 4.8% and ELISA III 4.3% of the pigs as Toxoplasma gondii antibody positive. The agreement, according to the kappa coefficient (κ), was substantial between the MAT and ELISA I (κ = 0.62), II (κ = 0.64) and III (κ = 0.67). A better agreement was determined between ELISA I and II (κ = 0.715), ELISA I and III (κ = 0.747) and ELISA II and III (κ = 0.865). At least one pig per farm was detected Toxoplasma gondii antibody positive in 17 (23.3%) farms by the MAT, 26 (35.6%) farms by ELISA I, 16 (21.9%) farms by ELISA II and 11 (15.1%) farms by ELISA III. Pig farms with a high number of Toxoplasma gondii antibody-positive pigs or high antibody titres were identified by all of the four used serological tests. Concerning the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Austrian pig farms, a monitoring and surveillance programme would be reasonable to find high-risk farms.

  12. Spatial and spatio-temporal clustering of overall and serovar-specific Leptospira microscopic agglutination test (MAT) seropositivity among dogs in the United States from 2000 through 2007.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Raju; Guptill, Lynn F; Wu, Ching Ching; Potter, Adam; Moore, George E

    2010-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a re-emerging disease of dogs in the United States (U.S.). This paper reports the findings of a retrospective study conducted to determine if seroreactivity to Leptospira microscopic agglutination test (MAT) among dogs in the U.S. clustered in space and time. The study utilized canine sera submitted to a commercial laboratory for leptospiral MAT from January 2000 through December 2007. There were 31,869 serum samples submitted by veterinarians from 3156 zip code locations across the U.S. Results of MAT were considered positive at titers of > or = 1:1600. Spatial and spatial-temporal scan statistics were used to identify statistically significant clusters of seroreactivity to Leptospira (overall and individual serovars) using recorded test request dates and locations of the centroid of the zip code reported for each serum sample. There were 2469 positive MAT results with a titer > or = 1:1600 to at least one of seven Leptospira serovars. Two relevant spatial clusters of 26.3 and 246.5 km radius were identified (P=0.001). The primary cluster was located in the northeastern part of Illinois including Chicago and surrounding areas (232 [14.4%] of 1612 MAT positive; RR=1.95). The secondary cluster covered the central part of Texas (292 [12.62%] of 2314 MAT positive; RR=1.71). Eight space-time clusters of overall MAT positivity were identified (29-335 km radius; P=0.001-0.048 and RR=3.98-24.69) that covered different geographic locations for different time points. Spatial and space-time clusters for individual serovars were also identified for six serovars: eight each of Grippotyphosa and Pomona, seven of Bratislava, five of Autumnalis, and three each of Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola. In conclusion Leptospira seropositivity in dogs tended to have distinctive clusters in space and space-time. Most of the space-time clusters of overall Leptospira MAT seropositivity were associated with cluster events for individual serovars. Further investigation is

  13. Sensitivity and specificity of typhoid fever rapid antibody tests for laboratory diagnosis at two sub-Saharan African sites

    PubMed Central

    Keddy, Karen H; Sooka, Arvinda; Letsoalo, Maupi E; Hoyland, Greta; Chaignat, Claire Lise; Morrissey, Anne B; Crump, John A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate three commercial typhoid rapid antibody tests for Salmonella Typhi antibodies in patients suspected of having typhoid fever in Mpumalanga, South Africa, and Moshi, United Republic of Tanzania. Methods The diagnostic accuracy of Cromotest® (semiquantitative slide agglutination and single tube Widal test), TUBEX® and Typhidot® was assessed against that of blood culture. Performance was modelled for scenarios with pretest probabilities of 5% and 50%. Findings In total 92 patients enrolled: 53 (57.6%) from South Africa and 39 (42.4%) from the United Republic of Tanzania. Salmonella Typhi was isolated from the blood of 28 (30.4%) patients. The semiquantitative slide agglutination and single-tube Widal tests had positive predictive values (PPVs) of 25.0% (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.6–80.6) and 20.0% (95% CI: 2.5–55.6), respectively. The newer typhoid rapid antibody tests had comparable PPVs: TUBEX®, 54.1% (95% CI: 36.9–70.5); Typhidot® IgM, 56.7% (95% CI: 37.4–74.5); and Typhidot® IgG, 54.3% (95% CI: 36.6–71.2). For a pretest probability of 5%, PPVs were: TUBEX®, 11.0% (95% CI: 6.6–17.9); Typhidot® IgM, 9.1% (95% CI: 5.8–14.0); and Typhidot® IgG, 11.0% (6.3–18.4). For a pretest probability of 50%, PPVs were: TUBEX®, 70.2% (95% CI: 57.3–80.5); Typhidot® IgM, 65.6% (95% CI: 54.0–75.6); and Typhidot® IgG, 70.0% (95% CI: 56.0–81.1). Conclusion Semiquantitative slide agglutination and single-tube Widal tests performed poorly. TUBEX® and Typhidot® may be suitable when pretest probability is high and blood cultures are unavailable, but their performance does not justify deployment in routine care settings in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21897484

  14. Bayesian estimation of true prevalence, sensitivity and specificity of indirect ELISA, Rose Bengal Test and Slow Agglutination Test for the diagnosis of brucellosis in sheep and goats in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, A K M Anisur; Saegerman, Claude; Berkvens, Dirk; Fretin, David; Gani, Md Osman; Ershaduzzaman, Md; Ahmed, Muzahed Uddin; Emmanuel, Abatih

    2013-06-01

    The true prevalence of brucellosis and diagnostic test characteristics of three conditionally dependent serological tests were estimated using the Bayesian approach in goats and sheep populations of Bangladesh. Serum samples from a random selection of 636 goats and 1044 sheep were tested in parallel by indirect ELISA (iELISA), Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and Slow Agglutination Test (SAT). The true prevalence of brucellosis in goats and sheep were estimated as 1% (95% credibility interval (CrI): 0.7-1.8) and 1.2% (95% CrI: 0.6-2.2) respectively. The sensitivity of iELISA was 92.9% in goats and 92.0% in sheep with corresponding specificities of 96.5% and 99.5% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity estimates of RBT were 80.2% and 99.6% in goats and 82.8% and 98.3% in sheep. The sensitivity and specificity of SAT were 57.1% and 99.3% in goats and 72.0% and 98.6% in sheep. In this study, three conditionally dependent serological tests for the diagnosis of small ruminant brucellosis in Bangladesh were validated. Considerable conditional dependence between IELISA and RBT and between RBT and SAT was observed among sheep. The influence of the priors on the model fit and estimated parameter values was checked using sensitivity analysis. In multiple test validation, conditional dependence should not be ignored when the tests are in fact conditionally dependent.

  15. INACTIVATION OF SEXUAL AGGLUTINATION IN HANSENULA WINGEI AND SACCHAROMYCES KLUYVERI BY DISULFIDE-CLEAVING AGENTS.

    PubMed

    TAYLOR, N W

    1964-10-01

    Taylor, Neil W. (Northern Regional Research Laboratory, Peoria, Ill.). Inactivation of sexual agglutination in Hansenula wingei and Saccharomyces kluyveri by disulfide-cleaving agents. J. Bacteriol. 88:929-936. 1964.-Mating types of both Hansenula wingei and Saccharomyces kluyveri can be activated to produce uniformly strong sexual agglutination by treatments with various solvents, such as 8 m LiBr. The strongly agglutinative mating-type preparations were irreversibly inactivated for sexual agglutination by various chemical treatments. Type 5 of H. wingei was inactivated by disulfide-cleaving reagents, but type 21 of H. wingei was not. Type 3 of S. kluyveri was more sensitive than type 26 of S. kluyveri to inactivation by disulfide-cleaving reagents. Comparison of sensitivities to these and other treatments, plus a moderately strong cross-agglutination between type 3 and type 21, indicated that the sexually agglutinative elements on type 3 are similar to type 5, and those of type 21 are similar to those of type 26. Inactivation-rate experiments showed a loss of agglutinative ability according to a sigmoid decrement with time for both types 5 and 21. The apparent extent of inactivation depended markedly on agglutination test conditions. Results of these experiments were interpreted to indicate tentatively, first, that the agglutinative elements of both types of a species are proteins and, second, that several agglutinating linkages are formed between any two cells in sexual agglutination.

  16. Simplified spectraphotometric method for the detection of red blood cell agglutination.

    PubMed

    Ramasubramanian, Melur; Anthony, Steven; Lambert, Jeremy

    2008-08-01

    Human error is the most significant factor attributed to incompatible blood transfusions. A spectrophotometric approach to blood typing has been developed by examining the spectral slopes of dilute red blood cell (RBC) suspensions in saline, in the presence and absence of various antibodies, offering a technique for the quantitative determination of agglutination intensity [Transfusion39, 1051, 1999TRANAT0041-113210.1046/j.1537-2995.1999.39101051.x]. We offer direct theoretical prediction of the observed change in slope in the 660-1000 nm range through the use of the T-matrix approach and Lorenz-Mie theory for light scattering by dilute RBC suspensions. Following a numerical simulation using the T-matrix code, we present a simplified sensing method for detecting agglutination. The sensor design has been prototyped, fully characterized, and evaluated through a complete set of tests with over 60 RBC samples and compared with the full spectrophotometric method. The LED and photodiode pairs are found to successfully reproduce the spectroscopic determination of red blood cell agglutination.

  17. TOXOPLASMA GONDII AND NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN DOGS FROM GRENADA, WEST INDIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are structurally similar parasites with many common hosts. The prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum was determined in sera from dogs in Grenada, West Indies. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 52 (48.5%) o...

  18. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN POLAR BEARS (URSUS MARITIMUS) FROM SVALBARD AND EAST GREENLAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples from 419 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard and the Barents Sea (collected 1990 - 2000) and 108 polar bears from East Greenland (collected 1999 - 2004) were assayed for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibody prevalences were ...

  19. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from northeastern Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in 673 domestic dogs from northeastern Portugal, by using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with 1:20 as cut-off for seropositivity; antibodies were found in 256 dogs (38.0%). Differences between seroprevalence levels in males (36.7%...

  20. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from the north of Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoa with zoonotic and economic importance. Prevalences of antibodies to these agents were assessed in 173 horses from the north of Portugal. Findings Antibodies to L. infantum were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT); seven (...

  1. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN WOLVERINES FROM NUNAVUT, CANADA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined in blood and tissue exudates recovered from the spleens of 41 wolverines (Gulo gulo) collected in Nunavut, Canada using a modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 17 (41.5%) of the 41 wolverines with MAT...

  2. Comparison of Buffered, Acidified Plate Antigen to Standard Serologic Tests for the Detection of Serum Antibodies to Brucella abortus in Elk (Cervus canadensis).

    PubMed

    Clarke, P Ryan; Edwards, William H; Hennager, Steven G; Block, Jean F; Yates, Angela M; Ebel, Eric; Knopp, Douglas J; Fuentes-Sanchez, Antonio; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Kientz, Rebecca L; Simunich, Marilyn

    2015-07-01

    Brucellosis (caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus) is a zoonotic disease endemic in wild elk (Cervus canadensis) of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, US. Because livestock and humans working with elk or livestock are at risk, validated tests to detect the B. abortus antibody in elk are needed. Using the κ-statistic, we evaluated the buffered, acidified plate antigen (BAPA) assay for agreement with the results of the four serologic tests (card test [card], complement fixation test [CF], rivanol precipitation plate agglutination test [RIV], standard plate agglutination test [SPT]) that are approved by the US Department of Agriculture for the detection of the B. abortus antibody in elk. From 2006 to 2010, serum samples collected from elk within B. abortus-endemic areas (n = 604) and nonendemic areas (n = 707) and from elk culture-positive for B. abortus (n = 36) were split and blind tested by four elk serum diagnostic laboratories. κ-Values showed a high degree of agreement for the card (0.876), RIV (0.84), and CF (0.774) test pairings and moderate agreement for the SPT (0.578). Sensitivities for the BAPA, card, RIV, CF, and SPT were 0.859, 0.839, 0.899, 1.00, and 0.813, whereas specificities were 0.986, 0.993, 0.986, 0.98, and 0.968, respectively. The positive predictive values and the negative predictive values were calculated for 2.6%, 8.8%, and 16.2% prevalence levels. These findings suggest the BAPA test is a suitable screening test for the B. abortus antibodies in elk.

  3. Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Thulliez, P

    2005-10-01

    Antibodies to Neospora caninum were determined in several species of wild animals in the United States by the Neospora agglutination test (NAT). Antibodies (NAT 1:40 or higher) were found in 5 of 249 bison (Bison bison), 5 of 160 caribou (Rangifer tarandus), 4 of 162 moose (Alces alces), 4 of 122 wolves (Canis lupus), and 1 of 224 musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) but not in 197 black bears (Ursus americanus). To our knowledge, this is the first report of antibodies to N. caninum in bison and caribou. The total absence of N. caninum antibodies in black bears indicates that bears are not a host for N. caninum and that there is no cross-reactivity between the NAT and the modified agglutination test (MAT) for Toxoplasma gondii, because more than 80% of black bears in eastern United States have MAT antibodies at a 1:25 serum solution.

  4. Comparison of commercial ELISA tests for the detection of Toxoplasma antibodies in the meat juice of naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Felin, Elina; Näreaho, Anu; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria

    2017-03-12

    Toxoplasmosis is a globally distributed protozoal zoonosis. Pigs are considered an important reservoir of Toxoplasma gondii and pork a major infection source of human toxoplasmosis. ELISA methods are commonly used diagnostic tools for detecting Toxoplasma infections. They are also used for slaughterhouse-based serological monitoring of toxoplasmosis in pigs to identify positive farms. The methods used are non-standardised with varying sensitivity and specificity. In our study, four commercial ELISA tests for the detection of Toxoplasma antibodies in the meat juice of slaughter pigs were compared with a modified agglutination test (MAT) as a reference. The cut-off values of the ELISA tests provided by the manufacturer varied between 0.20 and 0.50, and clearly influenced prevalence. The sensitivity of tests I, II and III varied between 96.4 and 78.6. Sensitivity was unacceptably low (3.6) for test IV (cut-off=0.30). Tests I, II and III had the highest accuracy and the best agreement with the reference test when a cut-off of 0.30 was used. Test II and III showed very good agreement (K=0.92 and 0.84, respectively) with the MAT. A very strong correlation (Pearson correlation >0.89) was observed between the S/P values of tests I, II and III. Our results demonstrate that the test and cut-off value used influence the results of the apparent seroprevalence studies.

  5. Diagnosis of myocardial infarction based on lectin-induced erythrocyte agglutination: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocsi, József; Nieschke, Kathleen; Mittag, Anja; Reichert, Thomas; Laffers, Wiebke; Marecka, Monika; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Piltz, Joachim; Esche, Hans-Jürgen; Wolf, Günther; Dähnert, Ingo; Baumgartner, Adolf; Tarnok, Attila

    2014-03-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is an acute life-threatening disease with a high incidence worldwide. Aim of this study was to test lectin-carbohydrate binding-induced red blood cell (RBC) agglutination as an innovative tool for fast, precise and cost effective diagnosis of MI. Five lectins (Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA), Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin (PHA), Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA), Artocarpus agglutinin (ArA), Triticum agglutinin (TA)) were tested for ability to differentiate between agglutination characteristics in patients with MI (n = 101) or angina pectoris without MI (AP) (n = 34) and healthy volunteers (HV) as control (n =68) . RBC agglutination was analyzed by light absorbance of a stirred RBC suspension in the green to red light spectrum in an agglutimeter (amtec, Leipzig, Germany) for 15 min after lectin addition. Mean cell count in aggregates was estimated from light absorbance by a mathematical model. Each lectin induced RBC agglutination. RCA led to the strongest RBC agglutination (~500 RBCs/aggregate), while the others induced substantially slower agglutination and lead to smaller aggregate sizes (5-150 RBCs/aggregate). For all analyzed lectins the lectin-induced RBC agglutination of MI or AP patients was generally higher than for HV. However, only PHA induced agglutination that clearly distinguished MI from HV. Variance analysis showed that aggregate size after 15 min. agglutination induced by PHA was significantly higher in the MI group (143 RBCs/ aggregate) than in the HV (29 RBC-s/aggregate, p = 0.000). We hypothesize that pathological changes during MI induce modification of the carbohydrate composition on the RBC membrane and thus modify RBC agglutination. Occurrence of carbohydrate-lectin binding sites on RBC membranes provides evidence about MI. Due to significant difference in the rate of agglutination between MI > HV the differentiation between these groups is possible based on PHA-induced RBC-agglutination. This novel assay

  6. 21 CFR 866.5090 - Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... system. 866.5090 Section 866.5090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5090 Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification....

  7. 21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antinuclear antibody immunological test system. 866.5100 Section 866.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5090 - Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... system. 866.5090 Section 866.5090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5090 Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification....

  9. 21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Antinuclear antibody immunological test system. 866.5100 Section 866.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  10. 21 CFR 866.5090 - Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... system. 866.5090 Section 866.5090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5090 Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification....

  11. SUPPRESSION OF BLOOD GROUP AGGLUTINABILITY OF HUMAN ERYTHROCYTES BY CERTAIN BACTERIAL POLYSACCHARIDES

    PubMed Central

    Ceppellini, Ruggero; Landy, Maurice

    1963-01-01

    Erythrocytes coated with bacterial capsular polysaccharides, notably the Vi antigen, were no longer agglutinated by antibodies directed against the various antigens native to the red cell surface. These effects could not be attributed to prevention of antibody uptake even though in some systems the uptake of antibody was diminished. In fact, agglutination by Rh-incomplete antibody was brought back to the original titer only after the sensitized Vi-coated cells had been subjected to ten alternating exposures to globulin and antiglobulin. Hemagglutination by Newcastle, mumps, and influenza viruses was also suppressed. Erythrocytes coated with Vi polysaccharide assumed the distinctive physicochemical attributes of this acidic polymer which results in a stabilization of the erythrocyte suspension as manifested by increased electrophoretic mobility and a striking decrease in the rate of sedimentation. Among the possible models for explaining the nature of the Vi effect on immune agglutination, the data favor interference with lattice formation. PMID:14019651

  12. Utility of HLA Antibody Testing in Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Konvalinka, Ana

    2015-01-01

    HLA antigens are polymorphic proteins expressed on donor kidney allograft endothelium and are critical targets for recipient immune recognition. HLA antibodies are risk factors for acute and chronic rejection and allograft loss. Solid-phase immunoassays for HLA antibody detection represent a major advance in sensitivity and specificity over cell-based methods and are widely used in organ allocation and pretransplant risk assessment. Post-transplant, development of de novo donor–specific HLA antibodies and/or increase in donor-specific antibodies from pretransplant levels are associated with adverse outcomes. Although single antigen bead assays have allowed sensitive detection of recipient HLA antibodies and their specificities, a number of interpretive considerations must be appreciated to understand test results in clinical and research contexts. This review, which is especially relevant for clinicians caring for transplant patients, discusses the technical aspects of single antigen bead assays, emphasizes their quantitative limitations, and explores the utility of HLA antibody testing in identifying and managing important pre- and post-transplant clinical outcomes. PMID:25804279

  13. Mannanoligosaccharide agglutination by Salmonella enterica strains isolated from carrier pigs

    PubMed Central

    Borowsky, Luciane; Corção, Gertrudes; Cardoso, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    Type-1 fimbriae are associated with most Salmonella enterica serovars and are an essential factor for host colonization. Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), a prebiotic that is agglutinated by type-1 fimbriae, are proposed for the control of enterobacteria colonization and may be an alternative to Salmonella control in pigs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of porcine Salmonella strains to adhere to MOS in vitro. A total of 108 strains of Salmonella sp. isolated from carrier pigs were evaluated for the amplification of fimA and fimH genes, agglutination of MOS and hemagglutination. In all tested strains, amplicons of expected size were detected for both fimA and fimH gene. In the hemagglutination assays, 31 (28.7%) strains presented mannose–sensitive agglutination of erythrocytes, indicating that the strains were expressing type-1 fimbriae. Considering only strains expressing the type-1 fimbriae, 23 (74.2%) presented a strong agglutination of MOS, 3 (9.6%) a weak reaction and 5 (16.2%) none. The results indicate that Salmonella enterica strains expressing type-1 fimbriae can agglutinate effectively in vitro to MOS. PMID:24031388

  14. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Antibody Test

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  15. Use of the protective antigen of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and latex agglutination.

    PubMed

    Sato, H; Yamazaki, Y; Tsuchiya, K; Aoyama, T; Akaba, N; Suzuki, T; Yokoyama, A; Saito, H; Maehara, N

    1998-09-01

    To establish a safe and convenient serodiagnostic method for swine erysipelas, a purified protective protein antigen of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, which included a large amount of protective protein (64 kDa protein), was used for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the latex agglutination (LA) test. In the ELISA, the antisera to four different serovars (1a, 2, 5 and 20) of E. rhusiopathiae exhibit a positive reaction, while antisera to other species of bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus suis, Rhodococcus equi and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis) exhibit a negative reaction. In the LA test, the antisera to three different serovars (1a, 2 and 5) of E. rhusiopathiae reacted with P64-sensitized latex beads, while the antiserum to serovar 20 (2553 strain) did not. Moreover, the antisera to other species of bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus suis, Rhodococcus equi and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis) did not in this test. Comparing the results of the growth agglutination (GA), ELISA and LA tests of 284 swine sera, there was a high degree of correlation among the results. The detection of anti-E. rhusiopathiae antibodies in the GA, ELISA and LA tests were compared using sera from pigs immunized with P64, alkaline extract (AE) and live-cell vaccine (LV). In all three tests, anti-E. rhusiopathiae antibodies could be detected 1 week after immunization. The serum antibody titre as determined by the LA test increased moderately, as did that by the GA test, while that determined by ELISA increased rapidly. These results suggested that ELISA could be used to monitor changes in anti-E. rhusiopathiae antibody titre and the LA test could be used in the screening test for swine erysipelas.

  16. Studying red blood cell agglutination by measuring electrical and mechanical properties with a double optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Adriana; Fernandes, Heloise P.; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Barjas-Castro, Maria L.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2007-07-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) viscoelastic membrane contains proteins and glycolproteins embedded in, or attached, to a fluid lipid bilayer and are negatively charged, which creates a repulsive electric (zeta) potential between the cells and prevents their aggregation in the blood stream. The basis of the immunohematologic tests is the interaction between antigens and antibodies that causes hemagglutination. The identification of antibodies and antigens is of fundamental importance for the transfusional routine. This agglutination is induced by decreasing the zeta-potential through the introduction of artificial potential substances. This report proposes the use of the optical tweezers to measure the membrane viscosity, the cell adhesion, the zeta-potential and the size of the double layer of charges (CLC) formed around the cell in an electrolytic solution. The adhesion was quantified by slowly displacing two RBCs apart until the disagglutination. The CLC was measured using the force on the bead attached to a single RBC in response to an applied voltage. The zeta-potential was obtained by measuring the terminal velocity after releasing the RBC from the optical trap at the last applied voltage. For the membrane viscosity experiment, we trapped a bead attached to RBCs and measured the force to slide one RBC over the other as a function of the relative velocity. After we tested the methodology, we performed measurements using antibody and potential substances. We observed that this experiment can provide information about cell agglutination that helps to improve the tests usually performed in blood banks. We also believe that this methodology can be applied for measurements of zeta-potentials in other kind of samples.

  17. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibody Testing and the Right of Privacy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-30

    test, the Western blot is done. Western blot is more specific than ELISA for antibodies but it is more expensive and complicated to run. Unfortunately...the error rates or the reliability of the ELISA test varies from laboratory to laboratory. The S interpretation of the Western blot also can vary...Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV (formerly known as Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type III, HTLV III and Lymphadenopathy Associated Virus, LAV or a combination of those

  18. Inter-assay variation in antiphospholipid antibody testing.

    PubMed

    Robert, Judith M; Macara, Lena M; Chalmers, Elizabeth A; Smith, Gordon C S

    2002-03-01

    We evaluated inter-assay variation in anticardiolipin antibody status, comparing three centres, and using different assays among 36 women with recurrent miscarriage and 26 controls. There was no more agreement between the laboratories than would be predicted on the basis of chance for IgM and only fair agreement among the laboratories for IgG. None of the tests were significantly more likely to be positive in the cases compared with the controls.

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the rodent capybara (Hidrochoeris hidrochoeris) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cañon-Franco, W A; Yai, L E O; Joppert, A M; Souza, C E; D'Auria, S R N; Dubey, J P; Gennari, S M

    2003-08-01

    Capybaras (Hidrochoeris hidrochoeris) are 1 of the largest rodents used for meat in South and Central America. Prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in 149 feral H. hidrochoeris from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, was evaluated using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and the modified agglutination test (MAT). Using IFAT, antibodies (>1:16) were found in 104 (69.8%) and with the MAT, antibodies (>1:25) were found in 63 (42.3%) capybaras. This is the first report of prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in this host.

  20. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) antibody (ASCA) test systems. 866.5785 Section 866.5785 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) antibody (ASCA) test systems. 866.5785 Section 866.5785 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  2. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) antibody (ASCA) test systems. 866.5785 Section 866.5785 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  3. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) antibody (ASCA) test systems. 866.5785 Section 866.5785 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  4. Clinical interpretation of antinuclear antibody tests in systemic rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Monica Vázquez-Del; Chan, Edward K. L.

    2010-01-01

    Autoantibody tests have been used extensively in diagnosis and follow-up of patients in rheumatology clinics. Immunofluorescent antinuclear antibody test using HEp-2 cells is still considered the gold standard for screening of autoantibodies, and most of specific autoantibodies are currently tested by ELISA as a next step. Among the many autoantibody specificities described, some have been established as clinically useful diagnostic markers and are included in the classification criteria of diseases. Despite a long history of routine tests and attempts to standardize such assays, there are still limitations and problems that clinicians need to be aware of. Clinicians should be able to use autoantibody tests more efficiently and effectively with a basic knowledge on the significance of and potential problems in autoantibody tests. PMID:19277826

  5. Clinical interpretation of antinuclear antibody tests in systemic rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Minoru; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Monica; Chan, Edward K L

    2009-01-01

    Autoantibody tests have been used extensively in diagnosis and follow-up of patients in rheumatology clinics. Immunofluorescent antinuclear antibody test using HEp-2 cells is still considered the gold standard for screening of autoantibodies, and most of specific autoantibodies are currently tested by ELISA as a next step. Among the many autoantibody specificities described, some have been established as clinically useful diagnostic markers and are included in the classification criteria of diseases. Despite a long history of routine tests and attempts to standardize such assays, there are still limitations and problems that clinicians need to be aware of. Clinicians should be able to use autoantibody tests more efficiently and effectively with a basic knowledge on the significance of and potential problems in autoantibody tests.

  6. Detection of staphylococcal exfoliative toxin by slide latex agglutination.

    PubMed Central

    Murono, K; Fujita, K; Yoshioka, H

    1988-01-01

    A simple and rapid method in which slide latex agglutination was used was developed to detect the exfoliative toxin (ET) elaborated by clinical isolates. ET types A and B (ET-A and ET-B) were purified by plate gel isoelectrofocusing, and anti-ET sera were obtained by immunizing rabbits. A specific immunoglobulin G antitoxin was then prepared from the immunized rabbit sera by fast protein liquid chromatography, and latex particles were coated with the antitoxin. Of 74 staphylococcal strains isolated from patients with staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, 61 strains were found to produce ET by the newborn mouse bioassay. All 61 strains were shown to be positive for ET-A and ET-B production by the slide latex agglutination method. The lowest concentration of ETs detected by the latex agglutination method was 0.5 microgram/ml, which was much lower than that detected by the double immunodiffusion method, with a sensitivity of 50 micrograms/ml. It is crucial to prove ET production by clinical isolates for the diagnosis and surveillance of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. The latex agglutination method is a sensitive, simple, and rapid test which can be used as an alternative to the newborn mouse bioassay. Images PMID:3343322

  7. Calculated globulin (CG) as a screening test for antibody deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jolles, S; Borrell, R; Zouwail, S; Heaps, A; Sharp, H; Moody, M; Selwood, C; Williams, P; Phillips, C; Hood, K; Holding, S; El Shanawany, T

    2014-09-01

    Calculated globulin (total protein - albumin) is usually tested as part of a liver function test profile in both primary and secondary care and determines the serum globulin concentration, of which immunoglobulins are a major component. The main use hitherto of calculated globulin is to detect paraproteins when the level is high. This study investigated the potential to use low levels of calculated globulin to detect antibody deficiency. Serum samples with calculated globulin cut-off < 18 g/l based on results of a pilot study were collected from nine hospitals in Wales over a 12-month period. Anonymized request information was obtained and the samples tested for immunoglobulin levels, serum electrophoresis and, if appropriate, immunofixation. A method comparison for albumin measurement using bromocresol green and bromocresol purple was undertaken. Eighty-nine per cent (737 of 826) samples had an immunoglobulin (Ig)G level of < 6 g/l using the bromocresol green methodology with a cut-off of < 18 g/l, and 56% (459) had an IgG of < 4 g/l. Patients with both secondary and primary antibody deficiency were discovered and serum electrophoresis and immunofixation showed that 1·2% (10) had previously undetected small paraproteins associated with immune-paresis. Using bromocresol purple, 74% of samples had an IgG of < 6 g/l using a cut-off of < 23 g/l. Screening using calculated globulin with defined cut-off values detects both primary and secondary antibody deficiency and new paraproteins associated with immune-paresis. It is cheap, widely available and under-utilized. Antibody-deficient patients have been discovered using information from calculated globulin values, shortening diagnostic delay and time to treatment with immunoglobulin replacement therapy.

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus antibody test and seroprevalence in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Naber, D; Pajonk, F G; Perro, C; Löhmer, B

    1994-05-01

    Psychiatric inpatients are at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Investigations in the United States revealed seroprevalence rates of 5.5-8.9%. Therefore, inclusion of HIV antibody testing in routine laboratory screening is sometimes suggested. To investigate this issue for inpatients in the Department of Psychiatry, University of Munich, the incidence, reason for HIV testing and results were analyzed. Of 12,603 patients, hospitalized from 1985 to 1993, 4.9% (623 patients, 265 in risk groups) underwent the HIV test after informed consent. Thirty patients (4.8% of those tested) were found to be positive, but only in 5 cases (all of risk groups) was infection newly detected. Data indicate that, in psychiatry, HIV testing is reasonable only in patients in risk groups or if clinical variables suggest HIV infection.

  9. 21 CFR 866.5090 - Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the antimitochondrial antibodies in human serum. The measurements aid in the diagnosis of diseases that produce a spectrum of autoantibodies (antibodies produced against the body's...

  10. 21 CFR 866.5120 - Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test... Systems § 866.5120 Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure...

  11. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  12. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  13. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  14. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5120 - Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test... Systems § 866.5120 Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure...

  16. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  17. Sensitive test for antibody type I to intrinsic factor

    PubMed Central

    Gullberg, R.

    1971-01-01

    The disturbing effect of vitamin B12 binding to test serum in assay of type I antibody to intrinsic factor was reduced by pre-treatment of the serum. The B12-binding sites of serum proteins were blocked by adding unlabelled cyanocobalamin, the unbound excess of which was adsorbed to albumin-coated charcoal. Using an earlier described sensitive small-scale gel filtration technique for antibody assay, it was possible to decrease the smallest amount of antibody demonstrable from 2 to 0·5 ng B12 units per ml of serum by the pre-treatment of serum. This four-fold increase in sensitivity implied that the positive results rose from 60% to 76% in a material of twenty-five pernicious-anaemia patients. No positive results were obtained in thirty-four control subjects or in a serum pool from twenty blood donors. The pre-treatment, including charcoal adsorption of unbound B12, also eliminated the risk of false-positive results because of recent B12 injection. PMID:5158273

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in captive wild mammals and birds in Brazil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study serum samples of 203 animals from different locations from zoos and breeding facilities from the north and northeast region of Brazil were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT) with a cutoff of 1:25. Of the sampled anima...

  19. Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in roe deer from Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is an important game animal in Spain. Sera from 278 roe deer sera from eight areas in mainland Spain were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT). Titers of 1:25 or higher were found in 109 (39.2%) of 278 deer. No significant difference...

  20. Duration of maternally derived antibodies in Toxoplasma gondii naturally infected piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A longitudinal study was performed to analyze the dynamics of T. gondii antibodies in naturally infected piglets from 1 to 25 weeks of age. Seventy three piglets from 20 seronegative sows (modified agglutination test, MAT <1:25) and 20 naturally infected T. gondii seropositive sows (MAT>/=1:25) were...

  1. High prevalance of Toxoplasma Gondii antibodies in domestic pigs in Oaxaca State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in North America. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 525 domestic pigs (337 backyard raised, 188 farm raised) in Oaxaca state, Mexico was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondi...

  2. Antibody

    MedlinePlus

    An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples ... microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produced when the immune system mistakenly ...

  3. Removal of Lipid from Serum Increases Coherence between Brucellosis Rapid Agglutination Test and Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay in Bears in Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Godfroid, Jacques; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Helena Nymo, Ingebjørg

    2016-10-01

    In cases of chronic Brucella spp. infection, results of the rose bengal plate test (RBPT) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) should be coherent, as reported in controlled conditions in the literature. We compared RBPT and ELISA results in 58 Alaska grizzly bears ( Ursus arctos horribilis), eight Kodiak brown bears ( Ursus arctos middendorffi), and six Alaska Peninsula brown bears ( Ursus arctos gyas). Of the 72 bears tested, 42 (58%) were ELISA positive and 53 (73%) were RBPT positive. However, the coherence between the tests was only fair (K=0.37, SE=0.11), suggesting that either the serologic results were not compatible with Brucella spp. infection or that there was a technical problem with the tests. To address a potential technical problem, we performed a 30-min chloroform/centrifugation cleanup. Following cleanup, the ELISA identified 43 positives (59%) and the RBPT identified 47 (65%), and the coherence between the tests was much improved (K=0.80, SE=0.07). We recommend cleaning wildlife sera with a high lipid content before performing RBPT and performing RBPT and ELISA in parallel to assess coherence. Our results suggest that Alaskan brown bears have been exposed to Brucella spp.

  4. Circulating antibodies to cow's milk proteins in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, D. P.; Truelove, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    Sera from patients with ulcerative colitis (51), Crohn's disease (30), hypolactasia (13), untreated adult coeliac disease (11), irritable colon syndrome (24), and sera from 38 healthy control subjects were tested for antibodies to the principal cow's milk proteins—casein, α-lactalbumin, and β-lactoglobulin. The red-cell-linked antigen-antiglobulin reaction was used to determine the titres of direct agglutinating antibodies and IgA and IgG incomplete antibodies. Apart from patients with coeliac disease, direct agglutinating antibodies were found infrequently and then in low titres. Approximately 50% of subjects had low titres of IgA and IgG antibodies. However, the titres found in sera from patients with ulcerative colitis did not differ from those found in the control subjects or in patients with Crohn's disease, hypolactasia, or irritable colon syndrome. Patients with untreated coeliac disease frequently had high antibody titres to the milk proteins. In all subjects tested, incomplete antibodies of IgA or IgG immunoglobulin class occurred with equal frequency. The frequent occurrence in adults of low titres of antibodies to the milk proteins may be due to continued absorption of minute amounts of protein. Absorption of allergens may be facilitated by mucosal damage, such as that of coeliac disease, with stimulation of antibody production. At the present time, however, there is little evidence to suggest that milk allergy is a factor in the aetiology of ulcerative colitis. PMID:5087069

  5. Overall evaluation of an immunological latex agglutination system for fecal occult blood testing in the colorectal cancer screening program of Florence.

    PubMed

    Rubeca, Tiziana; Peruzzi, Benedetta; Confortini, Massimo; Rapi, Stefano

    2012-10-08

    Several immunological fecal occult blood tests (FOBT) are currently available for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We compared the HM Jack (Jack) (Kiowa, Japan), with the OC-Hemodia (OC) (Eiken, Japan) in use in the Florence screening program. Aims of the study were: (i) to investigate the diagnostic performance and the best cutoff value for Jack; (ii) to evaluate the handiness of sampling tubes; (iii) to compare costs. A total of 5,044 subjects were screened with both tests. Sampling tube investigation was performed running each sample on both instruments. A number of 352 subjects positive for at least one test (175 OC, 310 Jack) were selected for further investigations, while 46 subjects refused further assessments. Analysis of costs related to the assessment phase was performed on the basis of Tuscany region's fares. Amongst the 306 subjects investigated, 9 CRC and 67 advanced adenomas (AdA) were detected. Detection rates (DR) were 1.4‰ for CRC and 9.6‰ for AdA. After Jack cutoff optimization, DR for CRC+AdA resulted in 11.1‰ for OC and 13.3‰ for Jack (p=0.041). Sensitivity of the methods was 73.7 for OC and 88.2 for Jack; specificity was 97.6 for OC and 96.0 for Jack, resulting in an increase of the required assessments from 3.5% to 5.1%. No differences were observed between sampling methods. Despite the lower specificity of Jack, its greater sensitivity makes the method attractive for screening programs. An increase of the costs of 30% for every subject investigated for pathological lesion (CRC+AdA) may be thus foreseen.

  6. Interim Guidance for Interpretation of Zika Virus Antibody Test Results.

    PubMed

    Rabe, Ingrid B; Staples, J Erin; Villanueva, Julie; Hummel, Kimberly B; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Rose, Laura; Hills, Susan; Wasley, Annemarie; Fischer, Marc; Powers, Ann M

    2016-06-03

    Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus in the genus Flavivirus and is closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and yellow fever viruses (1,2). Among flaviviruses, Zika and dengue virus share similar symptoms of infection, transmission cycles, and geographic distribution. Diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection can be accomplished using both molecular and serologic methods. For persons with suspected Zika virus disease, a positive real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) result confirms Zika virus infection, but a negative rRT-PCR result does not exclude infection (3-7). In these cases, immunoglobulin (Ig) M and neutralizing antibody testing can identify additional recent Zika virus infections (6,7). However, Zika virus antibody test results can be difficult to interpret because of cross-reactivity with other flaviviruses, which can preclude identification of the specific infecting virus, especially when the person previously was infected with or vaccinated against a related flavivirus (8). This is important because the results of Zika and dengue virus testing will guide clinical management. Pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection should be evaluated and managed for possible adverse pregnancy outcomes and be reported to the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry or the Puerto Rico Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System for clinical follow-up (9,10). All patients with clinically suspected dengue should have proper management to reduce the risk for hemorrhage and shock (11). If serologic testing indicates recent flavivirus infection that could be caused by either Zika or dengue virus, patients should be clinically managed for both infections because they might have been infected with either virus.

  7. Aeromonas hydrophila typing scheme based on patterns of agglutination with erythrocytes and yeast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, D; Atkinson, H M; Woods, W H

    1983-01-01

    An agglutination typing scheme has been developed for strains of Aeromonas hydrophila. Primary agglutination typing is based on testing agar-grown A. hydrophila cells with human, horse, rat, and guinea pig erythrocytes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Further subdivision of primary groups is based firstly on whether yeast cell agglutination is inhibited by a D-mannose polymer, yeast mannan, and secondly on patterns of inhibition of hemagglutination by yeast mannan and the monomeric sugars L-fucose, D-galactose, and D-mannose. A total of 320 isolates were tested, and these were divisible into 39 distinct types on the basis of this scheme. Application of this typing scheme in the future to isolates of A. hydrophila known to be associated with human infection may enable correlations to be made between particular agglutination types and human pathogenicity. PMID:6841579

  8. A protein-conjugate approach to develop a monoclonal antibody-based antigen detection test for the diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Patra, Kailash P; Saito, Mayuko; Atluri, Vidya L; Rolán, Hortensia G; Young, Briana; Kerrinnes, Tobias; Smits, Henk; Ricaldi, Jessica N; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gilman, Robert H; Tsolis, Renee M; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2014-06-01

    Human brucellosis is most commonly diagnosed by serology based on agglutination of fixed Brucella abortus as antigen. Nucleic acid amplification techniques have not proven capable of reproducibly and sensitively demonstrating the presence of Brucella DNA in clinical specimens. We sought to optimize a monoclonal antibody-based assay to detect Brucella melitensis lipopolysaccharide in blood by conjugating B. melitensis LPS to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, an immunogenic protein carrier to maximize IgG affinity of monoclonal antibodies. A panel of specific of monoclonal antibodies was obtained that recognized both B. melitensis and B. abortus lipopolysaccharide epitopes. An antigen capture assay was developed that detected B. melitensis in the blood of experimentally infected mice and, in a pilot study, in naturally infected Peruvian subjects. As a proof of principle, a majority (7/10) of the patients with positive blood cultures had B. melitensis lipopolysaccharide detected in the initial blood specimen obtained. One of 10 patients with relapsed brucellosis and negative blood culture had a positive serum antigen test. No seronegative/blood culture negative patients had a positive serum antigen test. Analysis of the pair of monoclonal antibodies (2D1, 2E8) used in the capture ELISA for potential cross-reactivity in the detection of lipopolysaccharides of E. coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica O9 showed specificity for Brucella lipopolysaccharide. This new approach to develop antigen-detection monoclonal antibodies against a T cell-independent polysaccharide antigen based on immunogenic protein conjugation may lead to the production of improved rapid point-of-care-deployable assays for the diagnosis of brucellosis and other infectious diseases.

  9. Establishment of serological test to detect antibody against ferret coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    MINAMI, Shohei; TERADA, Yutaka; SHIMODA, Hiroshi; TAKIZAWA, Masaki; ONUMA, Mamoru; OTA, Akihiko; OTA, Yuichi; AKABANE, Yoshihito; TAMUKAI, Kenichi; WATANABE, Keiichiro; NAGANUMA, Yumiko; KANAGAWA, Eiichi; NAKAMURA, Kaneichi; OHASHI, Masanari; TAKAMI, Yoshinori; MIWA, Yasutsugu; TANOUE, Tomoaki; OHWAKI, Masao; OHTA, Jouji; UNE, Yumi; MAEDA, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Since there is no available serological methods to detect antibodies to ferret coronavirus (FRCoV), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant partial nucleocapsid (N) proteins of the ferret coronavirus (FRCoV) Yamaguchi-1 strain was developed to establish a serological method for detection of FRCoV infection. Many serum samples collected from ferrets recognized both a.a. 1–179 and a.a. 180–374 of the N protein, but two serum samples did not a.a. 180–374 of the N protein. This different reactivity was also confirmed by immunoblot analysis using the serum from the ferret.Therefore, the a.a. 1–179 of the N protein was used as an ELISA antigen. Serological test was carried out using sera or plasma of ferrets in Japan. Surprisingly, 89% ferrets in Japan had been infected with FRCoV. These results indicated that our established ELISA using a.a. 1–179 of the N protein is useful for detection of antibody to FRCoV for diagnosis and seroepidemiology of FRCoV infection. PMID:26935842

  10. Prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sport horses from Qazvin, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hajialilo, Elham; Ziaali, Naser; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; Saraei, Mehrzad; Hajialilo, Mohammad

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, the prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in sport horses of Qazvin was examined using modified agglutination test (MAT). On 52 horse sera totally examined for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies, 37 horses (71.2%) were seropositive by MAT. Results of the present study showed a high rate of Toxoplasma infection in horses in Qazvin area. More comprehensive study on equine toxoplasmosis is recommended.

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma Gondii antibodies in cats from Durango City, Mexico.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined in sera from 105 domestic cats from Durango City, Mexico. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to this parasite were found in (21%) of the 105 cats with titers of 1:25 in 3, 1:50 in 4, 1:200 in 5, 1:400 in 2, 1:800 in 2, 1...

  12. Light-scattering analysis of ultrasonic wave's influence on the RBC agglutination in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubrovski, Valeri A.; Dvoretski, Costanten N.

    1999-04-01

    Elastic light scattering is one of the most often used optical methods to analyze the cells agglutination reaction - the base of a great number of medical diagnostic test and biomedical investigations. The increase of the resolution of methods and apparatus towards the induced cells aggregation - the foundation of the reaction of agglutination, is quite an actual problem. The solution of this problem increases the reliability of the diagnostic test and gives an opportunity to achieve the diagnostic information in the cases when the traditional approaches do not lead to the diagnostic results. The attempt to increase the resolution of the immune reaction analyzer by means of ultrasonic waves action on the reagent mixture in vitro is taken in this paper. The RBC agglutination reaction which is usually used for the blood group type examination is chosen as an example of an object of the investigation. Different laser optical trains of the devices based on the turbidimetric and nephelometric methods and their combination are analyzed here. The influence of the ultrasonic wave time interval action and of the features of the sample preparation procedure on the resolution towards the agglutination process was investigated in this work. It is shown that the ultrasonic wave action on the reagent mixture leads to a large gain in the resolution of the device towards the RBC agglutination process. The experiments showed that the resolution of the device was enough to register the agglutination process even for the erythrocytes with weak agglutination ability when the reaction was invisible without ultrasonic action. It occurred that the diagnostic test time was more than by an order shortened due to the ultrasonic wave action. The optimal ultrasonic time interval action, the sample preparation technology and experimental technique were defined. The principle of the ultrasonic wave action on the cells agglutination process suggested here can be spread out on the immune

  13. Comparison of serological tests for the detection of ovine and caprine antibody to Brucella melitensis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K; Gall, D; Smith, P; Balsevicius, S; Garrido, F; Ferrer, M Durán; Biancifiori, F; Dajer, A; Luna, E; Samartino, L; Bermudez, R; Moreno, F; Renteria, T; Corral, A

    2004-12-01

    The indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IELISA), the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA) and the fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA) were evaluated with sera from sheep experimentally infected with Brucella melitensis and negative Canadian sheep. The sensitivity and specificity of the assays were as follows: IELISA: 91.7% and 97.6%, CELISA: 75.0% and 99.8% and FPA: 91.7% and 89.5%. Sera from the same experimental population were divided according to serological reaction in the rose bengal agglutination test (RBT) and the complement fixation test (CFT). Reactivity relative to the RBT positive and CFT positive sera were as follows: IELISA: 99.7%, CELISA: 93.2% and FPA: 99.1%. Since sera from goats with proven B. melitensis infection were not available, 699 sera from goats judged positive in the buffered antigen plate agglutination test (BPAT) and CFT and 982 BPAT/CFT negative Canadian goats were used. The sensitivity and specificity of the assays relative to the BPAT and CFT positive sera were: IELISA: 99.4% and 98.0%, CELISA: 95.4% and 97.1% and FPA: 92.7% and 99.8%.

  14. 21 CFR 866.5110 - Antiparietal antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...), atrophic gastritis (inflammation of the stomach), and autoimmune connective tissue diseases (diseases resulting when the body produces antibodies against its own tissues). (b) Classification. Class...

  15. Development of a slide agglutination assay for detection of blastomycosis.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Wayne O; Scalarone, Gene M

    2013-11-01

    Blastomycosis, caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitides, which is endemic to eastern regions of the USA, is commonly misdiagnosed as a viral or bacterial infection and therefore treated improperly. Over the years, many immunodiagnostic assays to aid in the diagnosis of blastomycosis have been developed; however, a reliable assay for use in local clinics still remains elusive. Procedures for a slide agglutination assay for detection of antibody in serum from rabbits immunized with B. dermatitidis were evaluated with antigenic preparations from B. dermatitidis adsorbed to polystyrene microparticles. Yeast-phase lysates from five isolates of B. dermatitides: namely ER-593 (Eagle River, WI, USA), ER-598 (Eagle River, WI, USA), 48938 (India), B5896 (Mt. Iron, MN, USA), and T-58 (TN, USA) were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivities of the lysates ranged from 29% to 83% whereas specificities ranged from 13% to 100%. Lysate ER-593 provided the most promising results with a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 100%. This study provides suggests that a simple rapid slide agglutination assay for detecting blastomycosis may be used for screening patients with suspected B. dermatitidis infection.

  16. Comparison of latex agglutination, wet preparation, and culture for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Adu-Sarkodie, Y; Opoku, B; Danso, K; Weiss, H; Mabey, D

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the performance of three diagnostic methods for Trichomonas vaginalis infection—latex agglutination, saline wet mount, and culture. Methods: Vaginal swabs from 3807 women attending antenatal clinics were tested for the presence of T vaginalis by latex agglutination. All positives and the following two negatives were tested by wet preparation and culture. Results: The prevalence of infection by latex agglutination was 5.4%. Using an expanded gold standard based on the wet mount and culture results, the sensitivity of the latex agglutination test was 98.8% (95% CI 95.9 to 99.9) and specificity was 92.1 (89.2 to 94.5). The kappa index for test agreement was 0.93 for latex and culture and 0.88 for latex and wet preparation. Conclusion: The latex agglutination test is a highly sensitive test for detecting T vaginalis infection. It is a simple rapid test and has the potential for use in screening and diagnostic settings. PMID:15170003

  17. A particle agglutination assay for rapid identification of heparin binding to coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Pascu, C; Hirmo, S; Ljungh, A; Wadström, T

    1996-10-01

    The heparin-binding properties of six different species of coagulase-negative staphylococci were examined by a particle agglutination assay. Heparin (mol. wt 4000-6000), mildly treated with sodium periodate, was covalently coupled to amino-modified latex beads (0.72 micron diameter). The particle agglutination assay was validated by comparing results with the adhesion (percentage binding of adherent cells) of coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains to heparinised microtitration plates. Of 38 different coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains tested, 30 showed agglutination reactivity with heparin-coated latex beads. Strains of different coagulase-negative staphylococcal species agglutinated heparin-coated latex beads to various extents (e.g., cells of Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains reacted more strongly than cells of S. epidermidis strains). The agglutination reaction was significantly inhibited by fucoidan, suramin, lambda-carrageenan and other sulphated compounds, but not by non-sulphated carbohydrate polymers such as hyaluronic acid. Agglutination of staphylococcal cells with heparin-coated latex beads was completely blocked by a cell-surface extract. These results suggest that structures responsible for heparin binding are exposed on the cell surface.

  18. Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Lepstospira spp. in manatees (Trichechus inunguis) of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Patrick D; da Silva, Vera M F; Rosas, Fernando C W; d'Affonseca Neto, José A; Lazzarini, Stella M; Ribeiro, Daniella C; Dubey, Jitender P; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Gennari, Solange M

    2012-03-01

    The presence of Toxoplasma gondii and Leptospira spp. antibodies was investigated in 74 manatees (Trichechus inunguis [Mammalia: Sirenia]) kept in captivity in two rescue units in the northern region of Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 29 (39.2%) of 74 animals by using the modified agglutination test (titer, 1:25). For antibodies against Leptospira spp., sera were diluted 1:50 and tested against 24 strains ofleptospires by microscopic agglutination microtechnique, and positive samples were end titrated. Twenty-three (31.1%) of 74 animals were reactive to four serovars (Patoc 21/23, Castellonis 2/23, Icterohaemorrhagiae 1/23, and Butembo 1/ 23), with titers ranging from 100 to 1,600. This is the first report of antibodies against T. gondii and Leptospira spp. in T. inunguis from the Brazilian Amazon.

  19. Red blood cell membrane viscoelasticity, agglutination and zeta potential measurements with double optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Adriana; Fernandes, Heloise P.; Barjas-Castro, Maria L.; de Thomaz, André A.; de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2006-02-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) viscoelastic membrane contains proteins and glycolproteins embedded in, or attached, to a fluid lipid bilayer and are negatively charged, which creates a repulsive electric (zeta) potential between the cells and prevents their aggregation in the blood stream. There are techniques, however, to decrease the zeta potential to allow cell agglutination which are the basis of most of the tests of antigen-antibody interactions in blood banks. This report shows the use of a double optical tweezers to measure RBC membrane viscosity, agglutination and zeta potential. In our technique one of the optical tweezers trap a silica bead that binds strongly to a RBC at the end of a RBCs rouleaux and, at the same time, acts as a pico-Newton force transducer, after calibration through its displacement from the equilibrium position. The other optical tweezers trap the RBC at the other end. To measure the membrane viscosity the optical force is measured as a function of the velocity between the RBCs. To measure the adhesion the tweezers are slowly displaced apart until the RBCs disagglutination happens. The RBC zeta potential is measured in two complimentary ways, by the force on the silica bead attached to a single RBC in response to an applied electric field, and the conventional way, by the measurement of terminal velocity of the RBC after released from the optical trap. These two measurements provide information about the RBC charges and, also, electrolytic solution properties. We believe this can improve the methods of diagnosis in blood banks.

  20. Are the Major Agglutinative Languages Genetically Related?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakola, H. P. A.

    1989-01-01

    Examination of accidental CVC and CV correspondences among languages representing 5 large families of agglutinative languages found that comparison pairs had much more similarity between basic 100-word vocabularies than would have been possible by mere chance, supporting the hypothesis that those 5 language families were mutually related.…

  1. Process to create simulated lunar agglutinate particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, Robert J. (Inventor); Gustafson, Marty A. (Inventor); White, Brant C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of creating simulated agglutinate particles by applying a heat source sufficient to partially melt a raw material is provided. The raw material is preferably any lunar soil simulant, crushed mineral, mixture of crushed minerals, or similar material, and the heat source creates localized heating of the raw material.

  2. Use of SRBC antibody responses for immunotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Ladics, Gregory S

    2007-01-01

    The production of antigen-specific antibodies represents a major defense mechanism of humoral immune responses and involves the cooperation and interaction of several immune cell types: antigen presenting cells, T helper cells, and B cells. Thus, there are several cells or cell products (e.g., interleukins) that may be altered following xenobiotic exposure, making assays that evaluate the production of antigen specific antibody a relatively comprehensive and sensitive assessment of immune function. Data suggest that the primary antibody response to SRBC may be one of the most sensitive endpoints available to assess chemical-induced alterations to the immune system. As a result, this endpoint has become the cornerstone of several recently established guidelines for assessing the potential immunotoxicity of xenobiotics. Five types of antibody may be produced in a humoral immune response (i.e., IgGs of various subtypes, IgM, IgD, IgA, or IgE). For immunotoxicity assessment, the focus has primarily been on assays that assess production of IgM antibodies. Although a number of assays have been developed to evaluate antibody production, the antibody forming cell (AFC) assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are the two most frequently employed to evaluate the potential immunotoxicity of a xenobiotic. In this manuscript, background information, as well as the pros and cons of each of these assays are discussed and detailed methods on conducting each assay are provided.

  3. Extracellular calcium is involved in egg yolk-induced head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm.

    PubMed

    Yang, D H; McMillan, A G; Standley, N T; Shannon, P; Xu, Z Z

    2012-10-15

    Head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm occurs when semen is highly diluted in an egg yolk-citrate diluent without streptomycin. The objectives were to investigate causes of sperm agglutination and the underlying mechanism. Aliquots of bull semen were diluted in a base diluent (BD) supplemented with various test components and the percentage of agglutinated sperm (% AggSp) was quantified at 1, 5, 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation. When sperm were incubated at 22 °C, no agglutination was observed in BD for up to 72 h, whereas the % AggSp was 5.0, 41.7, 72.2, 91.1, and 92.8% in BD + 5% egg yolk (BD + EY) at 1, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. However, no sperm agglutination was observed in BD + EY if incubation temperature was 37 °C. Addition of 5 or 10 mM ethylenebis (oxyethyleneni-trilo) tetra-acetic acid to BD + EY reduced the % AggSp from 95% to <5% at 72 h (P < 0.001), but addition of 5 mM CaCl(2) to BD failed to induce sperm agglutination in the absence of egg yolk, implicating calcium and other factors in egg yolk. Addition of the citrate-soluble fraction (CSF) of egg yolk to BD induced sperm agglutination similar to whole egg yolk, whereas water- and saline-soluble fractions of egg yolk were ineffective. The sperm-agglutinating efficacy of CSF (the % AggSp = 95% at 72 h) was reduced by dialysis (20%; P < 0.05), partially restored by addition of 5 mM CaCl2 (70%; P < 0.05), but the calcium effect was neutralized by addition of 5 mM ethylenebis (oxyethyleneni-trilo) tetra-acetic acid (1.7%; P < 0.05), again implicating calcium. Addition of 30 μM of a protein kinase A inhibitor (H-89) to an agglutinating diluent failed to inhibit sperm agglutination, whereas addition of 2 mM of a cAMP analogue, dbcAMP, to a nonagglutinating diluent failed to induce sperm agglutination. Agglutination status had no effect on sperm plasma membrane/acrosome status and mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, calcium and other component(s) in the CSF of egg yolk induced head

  4. Gelatin particle indirect agglutination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis using Strongyloides venezuelensis antigen.

    PubMed

    Huaman, Maria Cecilia; Sato, Yoshiya; Aguilar, Jose Luis; Terashima, Angelica; Guerra, Humberto; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Kanbara, Hiroji

    2003-01-01

    Routine microscopical examination of stool specimens for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is insensitive and serological methods using Strongyloides stercoralis antigen are at present not available for field studies. We evaluated 2 techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gelatin particle indirect agglutination (GPIA), using an antigen obtained from the rodent parasite, S. venezuelensis. Fifty-four Peruvian patients with different clinical forms of strongyloidiasis were studied: 12 asymptomatic, 31 symptomatic, and 11 hyperinfection cases. Our results demonstrate that both ELISA and GPIA using S. venezuelensis antigen are useful for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis, with sensitivities of 74.1% and 98.2%, respectively and a specificity of 100% for both techniques. We found that GPIA is a highly sensitive test for patients with suspected chronic infection and/or hyperinfection. In the hyperinfection cases, significantly lower concentrations of specific immunoglobulin antibodies and eosinophils (P < 0.001) were found compared with the asymptomatic and symptomatic cases.

  5. [Diagnosis of some yeasts in Metschnikowia genus with the aid of Salmonella cholerae-suis O agglutinating serum (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Aksoycan, N

    1980-04-01

    In this paper a common antigenic factor among Salmonella choleraesuis 0 antigen and standard Metschnikowia bicuspidata var. bicuspidata and M. pulcherrima strains is shown. This common factor was not present in M. bicuspidata var. australis, M. bicuspidata var. california, M. krissii and M. reukaufii strains. M. bicuspidata var. chathamia and M. zobellii showed agglutination in the previous experiments. According to these results, the use of S. choleraesuis 0:6,7 agglutinating serum for slide and tube agglutination tests can be a diagnostic aid for typing above mentioned Metschnikowia strains along with the other tests.

  6. An indirect hemagglutination test for the detection of antibodies to Clostridium chauvoei.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Y; Makie, H; Tanaka, S

    1985-06-01

    An indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test using sonicated extract as the antigen was developed for the detection of antibodies to Clostridium chauvoei. This antigen can be adsorbed onto glutaraldehyde-fixed sheep red blood cells treated with tannic acid and can be destroyed by trypsin and heat treatment. It corresponded well with the flagella of the organism, when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the gel diffusion test. No serological cross-reactivity was found in the IHA test when the antigen was tested against 4 species of clostridial antibodies. Our results suggest that the IHA test mainly detects antibodies against the flagella of C. chauvoei.

  7. Functional Characterization of Antibodies against Neisseria gonorrhoeae Opacity Protein Loops

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Jessica G.; Jerse, Ann E.

    2009-01-01

    Background The development of a gonorrhea vaccine is challenged by the lack of correlates of protection. The antigenically variable neisserial opacity (Opa) proteins are expressed during infection and have a semivariable (SV) and highly conserved (4L) loop that could be targeted in a vaccine. Here we compared antibodies to linear (Ablinear) and cyclic (Abcyclic) peptides that correspond to the SV and 4L loops and selected hypervariable (HV2) loops for surface-binding and protective activity in vitro and in vivo. Methods/Findings AbSV cyclic bound a greater number of different Opa variants than AbSV linear, including variants that differed by seven amino acids. Antibodies to the 4L peptide did not bind Opa-expressing bacteria. AbSV cyclic and AbHV2 cyclic, but not AbSV linear or AbHV2 linear agglutinated homologous Opa variants, and AbHV2BD cyclic but not AbHV2BD linear blocked the association of OpaB variants with human endocervical cells. Only AbHV2BD linear were bactericidal against the serum resistant parent strain. Consistent with host restrictions in the complement cascade, the bactericidal activity of AbHV2BD linear was increased 8-fold when rabbit complement was used. None of the antibodies was protective when administered vaginally to mice. Antibody duration in the vagina was short-lived, however, with <50% of the antibodies recovered 3 hrs post-administration. Conclusions We conclude that an SV loop-specific cyclic peptide can be used to induce antibodies that recognize a broad spectrum of antigenically distinct Opa variants and have agglutination abilities. HV2 loop-specific cyclic peptides elicited antibodies with agglutination and adherence blocking abilities. The use of human complement when testing the bactericidal activity of vaccine-induced antibodies against serum resistant gonococci is also important. PMID:19956622

  8. Heterophilic antibodies interfering with radioimmunoassay. A false-positive pregnancy test

    SciTech Connect

    Vladutiu, A.O.; Sulewski, J.M.; Pudlak, K.A.; Stull, C.G.

    1982-11-19

    A young woman with amenorrhea had a consistently positive pregnancy test result (serum radioimmunoassay measurement of ..beta..-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone). No fetal or placental tissue was found after uterine curettage and exploratory laparotomy. The false-positive pregnancy test result was due to heterophilic antibovine and antigoat antibodies in the patient's serum. These antibodies interfered with radioimmunoassays using goat antibodies. This case shows that serum heterophilic antibodies can interfere with immunoassays and result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or unnecessary treatment.

  9. Antibody testing for brain immunohistochemistry: brain immunolabeling for the cannabinoid CB₂ receptor.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jean-Ha; Darlington, Cynthia L; Smith, Paul F; Ashton, John C

    2013-06-15

    The question of whether cannabinoid CB₂ receptors are expressed on neurons in the brain and under what circumstances they are expressed is controversial in cannabinoid neuropharmacology. While some studies have reported that CB₂ receptors are not detectable on neurons under normal circumstances, other studies have reported abundant neuronal expression. One reason for these apparent discrepancies is the reliance on incompletely validated CB₂ receptor antibodies and immunohistochemical procedures. In this study, we demonstrate some of the methodological problems encountered using three different commercial CB₂ receptor antibodies. We show that (1) the commonly used antibodies that were confirmed by many of the tests used for antibody validation still failed when examined using the knockout control test; (2) the coherence between the labeling patterns provided by two antibodies for the same protein at different epitopes may be misleading and must be validated using both low- and high-magnification microscopy; and (3) although CB₂ receptor antibodies may label neurons in the brain, the protein that the antibodies are labeling is not necessarily CB₂. These results showed that great caution needs to be exercised when interpreting the results of brain immunohistochemistry using CB₂ receptor antibodies and that, in general, none of the tests for antibody validity that have been proposed, apart from the knockout control test, are reliable.

  10. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in dogs from Spain.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, Anna; Castellà, Joaquim; Almería, Sonia

    2002-12-01

    The prevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies was determined in sera of 139 dogs from Catalonia (northeastern Spain) using the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Antibodies in the IFAT were found in 17 of 139 dogs (12.2%) with titers ranging from 1:50 to 1: 1,600. Seroprevalence was higher in dogs over 1 yr old compared with dogs younger than 1 yr (P < 0.05). No statistical difference was observed when sex, breed, purpose, or modus vivendi was compared with seropositivity. Most dogs had low antibody titers, which indicated subclinical infection in the area studied. No neosporosis-related disease was reported from any dog, although a German shepherd with an antibody titer of 1:800 showed pododermatitis. All sera were also screened using a commercial direct agglutination test (DAT). The DAT showed a similar specificity but a lower sensitivity when compared with IFAT as a reference technique.

  11. Comparative testing of monoclonal antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites for ELISA development*

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, R. A.; Zavala, F.; Charoenvit, Y.; Campbell, G. H.; Burkot, T. R.; Schneider, I.; Esser, K. M.; Beaudoin, R. L.; Andre, R. G.

    1987-01-01

    Ten monoclonal antibodies developed against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites at four institutions were evaluated for use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Four of the antibodies were eliminated because of their low sensitivity or requirement for high concentrations of capture antibody, while an additional four were rejected because they exhibited cross-reactivity with P. berghei sporozoites. Of the two remaining monoclonal antibodies, that designated 2A10 had the highest sensitivity, a requirement for lower concentrations of capture antibody, and had been tested successfully against sporozoites from a wider range of geographical areas than the others. Use of this monoclonal antibody in a standardized ELISA method gave a test ten times more sensitive than previously reported for P. falciparum sporozoites and its detection limit was less than 100 sporozoites per mosquito. PMID:3555879

  12. Interfacial structure of immobilized antibodies and perdeuterated HSA in model pregnancy tests measured with neutron reflectivity.

    PubMed

    Cowsill, Benjamin J; Zhao, Xiubo; Waigh, Thomas A; Eapen, Saji; Davies, Robert; Laux, Valerie; Haertlein, Michael; Forsyth, V Trevor; Lu, Jian R

    2014-05-27

    Experimental studies of antibody adsorption and antigen binding that mimicked pregnancy test immunoassays have been performed using neutron reflectivity studies of a model antibody/antigen system immobilized on the silica/water interface. The study revealed the nature of the antibody/antigen interaction and also the importance of a blocking protein, in this case human serum albumin (HSA), that enhances the immunoassay's specificity and efficiency. Of central importance to this study has been the use of a perdeuterated human serum albumin (d-HSA), providing contrast that highlights the orientation and position of the blocking agent within the adsorbed layer. It was found that the adsorbed HSA filled the gaps between the preadsorbed antibodies on the substrate, with decreased adsorption occurring as a function of increased antibody surface coverage. In addition, the antigen binding capacity of the adsorbed antibodies was investigated as a function of antibody surface coverage. The amount of specifically bound antigen was found to saturate at approximately 0.17 mg/m(2) and became independent of the antibody surface coverage. The ratio of bound antigen to immobilized antibody decreased with increased antibody surface coverage. These results are of importance for a full understanding of immunoassay systems that are widely used in clinical tests and in the detection of environmental contaminants.

  13. Hughes syndrome and epilepsy: when to test for antiphospholipid antibodies?

    PubMed

    Noureldine, M H A; Harifi, G; Berjawi, A; Haydar, A A; Nader, M; Elnawar, R; Sweid, A; Al Saleh, J; Khamashta, M A; Uthman, I

    2016-11-01

    Epilepsy and seizures are reported among the neurological manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) at a prevalence rate of approximately 8%, which is nearly 10 times the prevalence of epilepsy in the general population. The association of seizures with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) is even more significant in the presence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this review, we discuss the epidemiological, pathophysiological, laboratory, clinical, and radiological aspects of this association, and derive suggestions on when to consider testing for aPL in epileptic patients and how to manage seizures secondary to APS based on literature data. Epilepsy due to APS should be considered in young patients presenting with seizures of unknown origin. Temporal lobe epilepsy seems to be particularly prevalent in APS patients. The pathogenesis is complex and may not only involve micro-thrombosis, but also a possible immune-mediated neuronal damage. Patients with seizures and positive aPL tend to develop thrombocytopenia and livedo racemosa more frequently compared with those without aPL. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains the imaging modality of choice in these patients. The presence of SLE and the presence of neurological symptoms significantly correlate with the presence of white matter changes on MRI. In contrast, the correlation between aPL positivity and the presence of white matter changes is very weak. Furthermore, MRI can be normal in more than 30-40% of neuropsychiatric lupus patients with or without aPL. aPL testing is recommended in young patients presenting with atypical seizures and multiple hyper-intensity lesions on brain MRI in the absence of other possible conditions. New MRI techniques can better understand the pathology of brain damage in neuro-APS. The therapeutic management of epileptic APS patients relies on anti-epileptic treatment and anticoagulant agents when there is evidence of a thrombotic event. In the absence of consensual

  14. Analysis of HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) and antibody detected with various kinds of tests in Japanese blood donors to understand the relationship between PVL and antibody level and to gain insights toward better antibody testing.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Chieko; Sagara, Yasuko; Sobata, Rieko; Inoue, Yukiko; Morita, Maiko; Uchida, Shigeharu; Kiyokawa, Hiroyuki; Satake, Masahiro; Tadokoro, Kenji

    2017-03-02

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) occurs in approximately 5% of individuals infected with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). A high proviral load (PVL; more than four copies per 100 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or 1.6 copies per 100 blood leukocytes) and being male are risk factors for ATL development. Whether anti-HTLV-1 antibody level is related to such risk is unknown. Here, PVL and antibody levels were examined using real-time PCR and other tests in 600 HTLV-1 positive screened Japanese blood donors to understand the relationship between PVL and antibody level in asymptomatic carriers and to gain insights toward better antibody testing for HTLV-1 infection. The 430 donors in whom proviral DNA was detected were considered as true positives for HTLV-1 infection. Among donors aged 40 years or older, more males than females had a PVL corresponding to more than 1.6% infected leukocytes, and an antibody titer below the median (P = 0.0018). In antibody tests using an HTLV-1 positive cell line or Env antigens there was a large discrepancy in antibody titer among 13 provirus-positive samples, probably suggesting that antibody-based screening tests should incorporate multiple HTLV-1 antigens, such as Gag and Env antigens.

  15. A proficiency testing method for detecting antibodies against Brucella abortus in quantitative and qualitative serological tests.

    PubMed

    Gall, D; Nielsen, K; Nicola, A; Renteria, T

    2008-12-01

    A proficiency testing panel for detecting antibodies against Brucella abortus was developed and evaluated by both primary binding and conventional serological tests, using the guidelines of the World Organisation for Animal Health and the International Organization for Standardization Guide 43-1. All serological tests were judged satisfactory. Among the primary binding tests, the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA 2) and the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA 1), with standard deviation indices (z-scores) of -0.06 and 0.10, respectively, performed best. Similarly, E(n) numbers (i.e. a way of comparing different measurements of performance) of 0 for both the competitive ELISA 2 and the indirect ELISA 1 indicated that these tests performed best in the initial round of proficiency testing. The conventional serological tests all passed the panel. Comparing data from both the quantitative and qualitative tests demonstrated that this proficiency testing scheme was fit for the purpose for which it was designed.

  16. Neuronal autoantigens—pathogenesis, associated disorders and antibody testing

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Eric; Dalmau, Josep

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of disorders that are associated with antibodies to neuronal cell-surface proteins has led to a paradigm shift in our understanding of CNS autoimmunity. These disorders can occur in patients with or without cancer—often children or young adults who develop psychosis, catatonic or autistic features, memory problems, abnormal movements, or seizures that were previously considered idiopathic. The autoantigens in such cases have crucial roles in synaptic transmission, plasticity and peripheral nerve excitability. Patients can be comatose or encephalopathic for months and yet fully recover with supportive care and immunotherapy. By contrast, disorders in which the antibodies target intracellular antigens, and in which T-cell-mediated irreversible neuronal degeneration occurs, show a considerably poorer response to treatment. In this article, we review the various targets of neuronal antibodies, focusing predominantly on autoantigens located on the cell surface or synapses—namely, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors, γ-aminobutyric acid receptors, leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1, contactin-associated protein-like 2, and metabotropic glutamate receptors. We also provide an algorithm to identify and assess antibodies that bind to cell-surface and synaptic antigens. PMID:22710628

  17. Effect of skin test on serum antibody responses to Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, several serologic tests designed to detect immunodominant antibodies to M. bovis antigens (e.g., MPB83, MPB70, ESAT-6, and CFP10) have emerged for potential use with samples from cattle. Of these, a commercial ELISA to MPB83/MPB70 (M. bovis antibody ELISA) has gained approval for use in ca...

  18. The generation of monoclonal antibodies and their use in rapid diagnostic tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibodies are the most important component of an immunoassay. In these proceedings we outline novel methods used to generate and select monoclonal antibodies that meet performance criteria for use in rapid lateral flow and microfluidic immunoassay tests for the detection of agricultural pathogens ...

  19. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the sexual binding site of Chlamydomonas eugametos gametes

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were raised against the mt- sexual agglutinin of Chlamydomonas eugametos gametes. Those that blocked the agglutination site were selected. They were divided into two classes dependent upon whether they gave a weak (class A) or clear positive (class B) reaction with mt- flagellar membranes in an ELISA and an indirect immunofluorescence test using glutaraldehyde-fixed mt- gametes. Class A antibodies were shown to be specific for the agglutinin in an extract of mt- gametes, based on results from immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, affinity chromatography, and the absence of a reaction with nonagglutinable cells. Surprisingly, class A mAbs also recognized two mt+ glycoproteins, one of which is the mt+ agglutinin. Class B antibodies were shown to bind to several glycoproteins in both mt- and mt+ gametes, including the mt- agglutinin. Fab fragments from class A mAbs blocked the sexual agglutination process, but those from class B did not, even though the parent antibody did. We conclude that the class A epitope lies in or close to the agglutination site of the mt- agglutinin, whereas the class B epitope lies elsewhere on the molecule. We also conclude that the mt- agglutinin is the only component on the mt- flagellar surface directly involved in agglutination. Class A mAbs were found to elicit several reactions displayed by the mt+ agglutinin. They bound to the mt- agglutinin on gamete flagella and induced most of the reactions typical of sexual agglutination, with the exception of flagellar tip activation. None of these reactions was induced by Fab fragments. High concentrations of class A mAbs completely repressed the sexual competence of live mt- gametes, but low concentrations stimulated cell fusion. PMID:3292540

  20. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in exotic wild felids from Brazilian zoos.

    PubMed

    Silva, J C; Ogassawara, S; Marvulo, M F; Ferreira-Neto, J S; Dubey, J P

    2001-09-01

    Serum samples from 37 captive exotic felids in 12 zoos from six Brazilian states were assayed for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using formalin-fixed whole tachyzoites. Titers greater than or equal to 1:20 were considered positive. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 24 of 37 (64.9%) felids, including one European lynx (Lynx lynx), two jungle cats (Felis chaus), two servals (Leptailurus serval), two tigers (Panthera tigris), three leopards (Panthera pardus), and 14 of 27 lions (Panthera leo). This is the first serologic analysis for T. gondii infection in exotic wild felids from Brazilian zoos.

  1. Internal radiation dosimetry for clinical testing of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Durham, J.S.; Hui, T.E.; Hill, R.L.

    1990-11-01

    In gauging the efficacy of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies in cancer treatment, it is important to know the amount of radiation energy absorbed by tumors and normal tissue per unit administered activity. This paper describes methods for estimating absorbed doses to human tumors and normal tissues, including intraperitoneal tissue surfaces, red marrow, and the intestinal tract from incorporated radionuclides. These methods use the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) scheme; however, they also incorporate enhancements designed to solve specific dosimetry problems encountered during clinical studies, such as patient-specific organ masses obtained from computerized tomography (CT) volumetrics, estimates of the dose to tumor masses within normal organs, and multicellular dosimetry for studying dose inhomogeneities in solid tumors. Realistic estimates of absorbed dose are provided within the short time requirements of physicians so that decisions can be made with regard to patient treatment and procurement of radiolabeled antibodies. Some areas in which further research could improve dose assessment are also discussed. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Development and Testing of Recombinant Single Domain Antibodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-31

    critical insights to the basis of the sdAb-target interaction and sdAb properties. (a) Papers published in peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) Structures...Goldman E.R. 2010 Binding Kinetics of anti-Ricin Single Domain Antibodies and Improved Detection Using a B-chain Specific Binder. Analytical...Library. Anal. Chem. 78:8245-55 List of papers submitted or published that acknowledge ARO support during this reporting period. List the papers

  3. HIV Antibody Testing among Adults in the United States: Data from 1988 NHIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ann M.; Dawson, Deborah A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes statistical data from 1988 National Health Interview Survey to determine adult awareness of and experience with HIV antibody testing. Following findings reported: most knew of test; 17 percent had been tested; Blacks and Hispanics were more likely than Whites to have been voluntarily tested; and high-risk group members were more likely…

  4. A Peer Counselling Program for Persons Testing H.I.V. Antibody Positive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baiss, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Describes need for and development of a peer counseling program for persons who have tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies. Discusses selection of peer counselors, training, and confidentiality. Includes discussion of future plans. (ABL)

  5. Interaction of bacterial endotoxine (lipopolysaccharide) with latex particles: application to latex agglutination immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Peula-García, J M; Molina-Bolivar, J A; Velasco, J; Rojas, A; Galisteo-González, F

    2002-01-15

    The latex agglutination immunoassay technique uses polymer colloids as carriers for antibodies or antigens to enhance the immunological reaction. In this work, the interaction of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Brucella Melitensis with two conventional latexes has been studied. Some experiments on the physical adsorption of the LPS onto these polystyrene beads have been performed and several complexes with different coverage degrees were obtained by modifying the incubation conditions. Regarding the application in the development of diagnostic test systems, it is advisable to study the latex-LPS complexes from an electrokinetic and colloidal stability point of view. The complexes were electrokinetically characterized by measuring the electrophoretic mobility under different redispersion conditions. The colloidal stability was determined by simple turbidity measurements. Experimental and theoretical data have been employed to study the molecular disposition of the LPS in the latex particle surface to compare with the outer membrane of bacterial cells. Latex complexes covered by different LPS amounts showed high colloidal stability and adequate immunoreactivity that remains for a long time period.

  6. The chemistry of some individual lunar soil agglutinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, R. V.; Hoerz, F.; Schaal, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    The inquiry is centered on the composition of agglutinate glasses examined via microprobe techniques. The glass chemistry of the agglutinates is brought into relation with compositions of constituent detritus and bulk compositions of the parent soils, with recent reported results taken into cognizance. Electron microprobe analysis data were examined for possible chemical fractionation resulting from meteoritic impacts and formation of agglutinates in the lunar regolith; individual agglutinates from lunar soils 78222, 71061, and 60009 were probed. Differences between impact glasses and corresponding bulk soils were scrutinized. Agglutinate glass analyses tend to cluster near the bulk soil compositions. A slight enrichment in mafic elements in grand averages of the agglutinate clusters relative to the bulk soils was found. Evidence of total impact melts and minor partial shock melts is examined.

  7. Penicillamine prevents ram sperm agglutination in media that support capacitation.

    PubMed

    Leahy, T; Rickard, J P; Aitken, R J; de Graaf, S P

    2016-02-01

    Ram spermatozoa are difficult to capacitate in vitro. Here we describe a further complication, the unreported phenomenon of head-to-head agglutination of ram spermatozoa following dilution in the capacitation medium Tyrodes plus albumin, lactate and pyruvate (TALP). Sperm agglutination is immediate, specific and persistent and is not associated with a loss of motility. Agglutination impedes in vitro sperm handling and analysis. So the objectives of this study were to investigate the cause of sperm agglutination and potential agents which may reduce agglutination. The percentage of non-agglutinated, motile spermatozoa increased when bicarbonate was omitted from complete TALP suggesting that bicarbonate ions stimulate the agglutination process. d-penicillamine (PEN), a nucleophilic thiol, was highly effective at reducing agglutination. The inclusion of 250 μM PEN in TALP reduced the incidence of motile, agglutinated spermatozoa from 76.7 ± 2.7% to 2.8 ± 1.4%. It was then assessed if PEN (1 mM) could be included in existing ram sperm capacitation protocols (TALP +1 mM dibutyryl cAMP, caffeine and theophylline) to produce spermatozoa that were simultaneously capacitated and non-agglutinated. This protocol resulted in a sperm population which displayed high levels of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins and lipid disordered membranes (merocyanine-540) while remaining motile, viable, acrosome-intact and non-agglutinated. In summary, PEN (1 mM) can be included in ram sperm capacitation protocols to reduce sperm agglutination and allow for the in vitro assessment of ram sperm capacitation.

  8. Nitrogen isotopic signatures in agglutinates from breccia 79035

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerridge, John F.; Kim, Yoosook; Kim, Jin S.; Marti, Kurt

    1993-01-01

    Agglutinates in the size range 125-175 microns from regolith breccia 79035 are substantially depleted in N compared with bulk 79035. Isotopically, agglutinate N closely resembles that found previously in ilmenite separates. The minimum (delta)N-15 value found during stepwise pyrolysis of agglutinates is significantly heavier than that observed for bulk 79035. The major host phase for trapped N in 79035, and the host phase of the lightest isotopic component(s), remain unidentified.

  9. Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Toxoplasma gondii in wild horses from central Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Mitchell, S M; Morrow, J K; Rhyan, J C; Stewart, L M; Granstrom, D E; Romand, S; Thulliez, P; Saville, W J; Lindsay, D S

    2003-08-01

    Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora caninum, N. hughesi, and Toxoplasma gondii are 4 related coccidians considered to be associated with encephalomyelitis in horses. The source of infection for N. hughesi is unknown, whereas opossums, dogs, and cats are the definitive hosts for S. neurona, N. caninum, and T. gondii, respectively. Seroprevalence of these coccidians in 276 wild horses from central Wyoming outside the known range of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were found only in 1 of 276 horses tested with the modified agglutination test using 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 dilutions. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 86 (31.1%) of the 276 horses tested with the Neospora agglutination test--the titers were 1:25 in 38 horses, 1:50 in 15, 1:100 in 9, 1:200 in 8, 1:400 in 4, 1:800 in 2, 1:1,600 in 2, 1:3,200 in 2, and 1:12,800 in 1. Antibodies to S. neurona were assessed with the serum immunoblot; of 276 horses tested, 18 had antibodies considered specific for S. neurona. Antibodies to S. neurona also were assessed with the S. neurona direct agglutination test (SAT). Thirty-nine of 265 horses tested had SAT antibodies--in titers of 1:50 in 26 horses and 1:100 in 13. The presence of S. neurona antibodies in horses in central Wyoming suggests that either there is cross-reactivity between S. neurona and some other infection or a definitive host other than opossum is the source of infection. In a retrospective study, S. neurona antibodies were not found by immunoblot in the sera of 243 horses from western Canada outside the range of D. virginiana.

  10. Blood Group Typing: From Classical Strategies to the Application of Synthetic Antibodies Generated by Molecular Imprinting.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Adnan; Dickert, Franz L

    2015-12-31

    Blood transfusion requires a mandatory cross-match test to examine the compatibility between donor and recipient blood groups. Generally, in all cross-match tests, a specific chemical reaction of antibodies with erythrocyte antigens is carried out to monitor agglutination. Since the visual inspection is no longer useful for obtaining precise quantitative information, therefore there is a wide variety of different technologies reported in the literature to recognize the agglutination reactions. Despite the classical methods, modern biosensors and molecular blood typing strategies have also been considered for straightforward, accurate and precise analysis. The interfacial part of a typical sensor device could range from natural antibodies to synthetic receptor materials, as designed by molecular imprinting and which is suitably integrated with the transducer surface. Herein, we present a comprehensive overview of some selected strategies extending from traditional practices to modern procedures in blood group typing, thus to highlight the most promising approach among emerging technologies.

  11. Prevalence of antibodies against Neospora spp. and Sarcocystis neurona in donkeys from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gennari, Solange Maria; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Lindsay, David Scott; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Cabral, Aline Diniz; Vitaliano, Sérgio Netto; Amaku, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi are coccidian protozoa that can cause neurological illness in horses in America. In this study we report seroprevalence of Neospora spp. andS. neurona in sera of 333 donkeys from the northeastern region of Brazil. Antibodies to Neospora spp. were detected in 2% (7 donkeys) of 333 sera tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) with a cut-off dilution of 1:40. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 3% (10 donkeys) of the samples tested by IFAT (cut-off ≥50) and 21% (69 donkeys) by the direct agglutination test (SAT ≥50). The SAT and IFAT results for S. neurona showed a poor concordance (value of Kappa=0.051). This is the first report of Neospora spp. antibodies in Brazilian donkeys and the first detection of antibodies against S. neurona in this animal species.

  12. Belgian recommendations on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing.

    PubMed

    Van Blerk, M; Bossuyt, X; Humbel, R; Mewis, A; Servais, G; Tomasi, J P; Van Campenhout, C; Van Hoovels, L; Vercammen, M; Damoiseaux, J; Coucke, W; Van de Walle, P

    2014-04-01

    Autoantibodies to nuclear antigens, i.e. antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and extractable nuclear antigens (ENA), are useful as diagnostic markers for a variety of autoimmune diseases. In March 2010, the Belgian national External Quality Assessment Scheme sent a questionnaire on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing designed by the Dutch EASI (European Autoimmunity Standardization Initiative) team, to all clinical laboratories performing ANA testing. Virtually all laboratories completed the questionnaire (97·7%, 127/130). This paper discusses the results of this questionnaire and provides valuable information on the state-of-the-art of ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing as practiced in the Belgian laboratories. In addition, this work presents practical recommendations developed by the members of the advisory board of the scheme as a result of the outcome of this study.

  13. Inadequacy of IgM antibody tests for diagnosis of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    PubMed

    McQuiston, Jennifer H; Wiedeman, Caleb; Singleton, Joseph; Carpenter, L Rand; McElroy, Kristina; Mosites, Emily; Chung, Ida; Kato, Cecilia; Morris, Kevin; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Porter, Susan; Dunn, John

    2014-10-01

    Among 13 suspected Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) cases identified through an enhanced surveillance program in Tennessee, antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii were detected in 10 (77%) patients using a standard indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) assay. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies were observed for 6 of 13 patients (46%) without a corresponding development of IgG, and for 3 of 10 patients (30%) at least 1 year post-onset. However, recent infection with a spotted fever group rickettsiae could not be confirmed for any patient, based on a lack of rising antibody titers in properly timed acute and convalescent serologic specimens, and negative findings by polymerase chain reaction testing. Case definitions used in national surveillance programs lack specificity and may capture cases that do not represent current rickettsial infections. Use of IgM antibodies should be reconsidered as a basis for diagnosis and public health reporting of RMSF and other spotted fever group rickettsiae in the United States.

  14. The Classroom-Friendly ABO Blood Types Kit: Blood Agglutination Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Savittree Rochanasmita; Kruatong, Tussatrin; Dahsah, Chanyah; Suwanjinda, Duongdearn

    2012-01-01

    The classroom-friendly ABO blood type kit was developed by combining advantages of modelling and a simulation laboratory to teach the topics of ABO blood types and blood transfusion. Teachers can easily simulate the agglutination reaction on a blood type testing plate in the classroom, and show the students how this reaction occurs by using the…

  15. Affective and Behavioral Responses of Gay and Bisexual Men to HIV Antibody Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, James; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed 56 gay and bisexual men tested for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus. Subjects who tested positive experienced increased anxiety, depression and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome anxiety; subjects who tested negative experienced decrease in these feelings after learning results. Subjects who chose not to learn results experienced…

  16. Evaluation of toxin neutralisation in test systems for diphtheria antibody assessment.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, J; van der Gun, J W; Hendriksen, C F

    1999-01-01

    Over the past years, various authors have reported that the amount of toxin used in toxin neutralisation (TN) assays for diphtheria appears to influence the resulting relative antibody titre. Antibody affinity is thought to be an influencing factor. To confirm this observation and study the underlying mechanism of toxin neutralisation, a panel of sera was generated, differing in species of origin (mouse, guinea pig, and rabbit) and in affinity by using different immunisation schedules. The panel was then tested in relevant TN test systems for diphtheria antibody titration, namely the VERO cell test, the Toxin Binding Inhibition (ToBI) assay and the in vivo skin test in guinea pigs. A hyperimmune equine reference serum was used as the standard. Antibody affinity was measured in two different affinity ELISAs, the ammonium thiocyanate elution ELISA and the diethylamine inhibition ELISA. The VERO cell test clearly demonstrates the phenomenon; the higher the toxin dose used in the assay, the higher the resulting relative potency. The difference in relative antibody titre decreases as antibody affinity increases. This is especially evident when an equine hyperimmune reference serum is used as the standard. When a species homologous reference is used, the phenomenon is less distinct. The ToBI test, however, does not show the phenomenon. This discrepancy between these two test systems is being further investigated, and comparison will be made with the in vivo TN test. The findings confirm and support earlier observations. It is still unclear exactly which mechanisms are involved in the toxin neutralisation process. Antibody subclasses and class switching could play a role and will be further studied.

  17. Micro-indirect hemagglutination test for detection of antibody against transmissible gastroenteritis virus of pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, M; Shimizu, Y

    1977-01-01

    A micro-indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test was developed for detecting antibody against transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus of pigs. TGE virus propagated in swine kidney cell cultures was highly purified and concentrated by the combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, treatment with fluorocarbon, and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Tanned sheep erythrocytes were sensitized with purified virus for use in the IHA test. The results of testing 104 serum samples collected from pigs in the field indicated that the IHA antibody titers were approximately five times higher than those obtained by a serum neutralization test and that there was good correlation between the antibody titers determined by the two tests. High IHA antibody titers developed in pigs experimentally exposed to virulent TGE virus. Sensitized sheep erythrocytes were stable under long-term storage at 4 degrees C (at least for 50 days). The conclusions made are that the IHA test described is more sensitive than the serum neutralization test for the detection of TGE antibody and may be of value for serodiagnosis of TGE. Images PMID:197119

  18. Selecting an acceptable and safe antibody detection test can present a dilemma.

    PubMed

    Combs, M R; Bredehoeft, S J

    2001-01-01

    The Transfusion Service at Duke University Hospital has changed antibody detection methods from the use of albumin in indirect antiglobulin tests to low-ionic-strength solution (LISS), and from LISS to polyethylene glycol (PEG) in an effort to enhance the rapid detection of clinically significant antibodies. In 1996, staffing issues required the consideration of automation. Although previous studies indicated that the gel test was not as sensitive as PEG for detection of clinically significant antibodies, we chose to implement the gel test to be used with the Tecan MegaFlex-ID. We performed a retrospective analysis of identified antibodies and transfusion reactions to compare the outcomes of one year's experience with gel and PEG. We found comparable detection of potentially clinically significant antibodies by both methods and significantly fewer unwanted or clinically insignificant antibodies detected with the use of gel. Fewer delayed serologic transfusion reactions and no transfusion-associated hemolytic events occurred in the year that gel was used. Although we initially found the selection of the gel test to be a dilemma, our ultimate decision appears to have successfully protected patient safety and balanced sensitivity with specificity.

  19. Testing Eurasian wild boar piglets for serum antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Che' Amat, A; González-Barrio, D; Ortiz, J A; Díez-Delgado, I; Boadella, M; Barasona, J A; Bezos, J; Romero, B; Armenteros, J A; Lyashchenko, K P; Venteo, A; Rueda, P; Gortázar, C

    2015-09-01

    Animal tuberculosis (TB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC), is often reported in the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Tests detecting antibodies against MTC antigens are valuable tools for TB monitoring and control in suids. However, only limited knowledge exists on serology test performance in 2-6 month-old piglets. In this age-class, recent infections might cause lower antibody levels and lower test sensitivity. We examined 126 wild boar piglets from a TB-endemic site using 6 antibody detection tests in order to assess test performance. Bacterial culture (n=53) yielded a M. bovis infection prevalence of 33.9%, while serum antibody prevalence estimated by different tests ranged from 19% to 38%, reaching sensitivities between 15.4% and 46.2% for plate ELISAs and between 61.5% and 69.2% for rapid immunochromatographic tests based on dual path platform (DPP) technology. The Cohen kappa coefficient of agreement between DPP WTB (Wildlife TB) assay and culture results was moderate (0.45) and all other serological tests used had poor to fair agreements. This survey revealed the ability of several tests for detecting serum antibodies against the MTC antigens in 2-6 month-old naturally infected wild boar piglets. The best performance was demonstrated for DPP tests. The results confirmed our initial hypothesis of a lower sensitivity of serology for detecting M. bovis-infected piglets, as compared to older wild boar. Certain tests, notably the rapid animal-side tests, can contribute to TB control strategies by enabling the setup of test and cull schemes or improving pre-movement testing. However, sub-optimal test performance in piglets as compared to that in older wild boar should be taken into account.

  20. Systems, devices, and methods for agglutination assays using sedimentation

    DOEpatents

    Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sommer, Gregory J.; Singh, Anup K.

    2016-01-26

    Embodiments of the present invention include methods for conducting agglutination assays using sedimentation. Aggregates may be exposed to sedimentation forces and travel through a density medium to a detection area. Microfluidic devices, such as microfluidic disks, are described for conducting the agglutination assays, as are systems for conducting the assays.

  1. A Descriptive Analysis of Students Seeking HIV Antibody Testing at a University Health Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Marie-Christine; Sawyer, Robin G.; Pinciaro, Paul J.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated characteristics of students voluntarily seeking human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing at a university health center. Data from student surveys indicated that: 59% were women; reported rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases were low; nearly one-third had had previous HIV testing; 40% reported…

  2. Rabies direct fluorescent antibody test does not inactivate rabies or eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Jodie A; Franke, Mary A; Davis, April D

    2016-08-01

    An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure.

  3. Rapid, simple, and reliable doctor's office test for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus 1 in serum.

    PubMed

    Dafforn, A; Irvine, J D; Kurn, N; Becker, M; Bryning, Z; Ullman, E F

    1990-07-01

    This "Unit Test Method" assay for detecting anti-human immunodeficiency virus 1 antibody is suitable for nonlaboratory testing and has a sensitivity comparable with that of present enzyme immunoassay methods. The method does not require instrumentation, gives a result in less than 15 min, and incorporates a procedural control. Little technical expertise and hands-on time are required of the user.

  4. 21 CFR 866.5120 - Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... system. 866.5120 Section 866.5120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5120 Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5120 - Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... system. 866.5120 Section 866.5120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5120 Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An...

  6. Comparative efficacy of antigen and antibody detection tests for human trichinellosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanoska, D.; Cuperlovic, K.; Gamble, H.R.; Murrell, K.D.

    1989-02-01

    Sera collected from patients with suspected or confirmed exposure to Trichinella spiralis were tested for circulating parasite antigens and antiparasite antibodies. Using an immunoradiometric assay, excretory--secretory antigens from muscle-stage larvae of T. spiralis were detected in the sera of 47% of 62 patients with clinical trichinellosis and 13% of 39 patients without clinical signs but suspected of exposure to infected meat. In comparison, antibodies were detected using an indirect immunofluorescent test in the circulation of 100% of the 62 patients with clinical trichinellosis and 46% of the 39 patients with suspected exposure. The presence of antibodies specific to excretory-secretory products of T. spiralis muscle larvae was confirmed in the majority of the samples tested by a monoclonal antibody-based competitive inhibition assay. These results indicate that antibody detection is a more sensitive diagnostic method for human trichinellosis, but that antigen detection might be a useful confirmatory test because it is a direct demonstration of parasite products in the circulation.

  7. Results from an indirect fluorescent antibody test using three different strains of Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Enara; Ayllón, Tania; Sainz, Angel; Amusategui, Inmaculada; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Tesouro, Miguel A

    2009-11-01

    An indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test is usually performed to detect antibodies in dogs naturally infected by Ehrlichia canis. In this work, results obtained using three different E. canis strains as antigen (a commercial antigen, the E. canis Oklahoma strain and the E. canis Madrid strain) were compared. One hundred and forty-nine serum samples obtained from dogs living in the centre of Spain were analysed. When qualitative results were evaluated, identical results were detected in 87.2% of samples for the three antigens tested. When comparing antibody titre results, differences between the Madrid strain and the commercial antigen, and between the Madrid and Oklahoma strains were statistically significant (P<0.0001). No differences were found when comparing the Oklahoma strain with the commercial antigen (P=0.562). Subtle intra-laboratory variations shown in this study suggest a higher sensitivity of the IFA test when an autochthonous strain is used as antigen.

  8. Blood Group Typing: From Classical Strategies to the Application of Synthetic Antibodies Generated by Molecular Imprinting †

    PubMed Central

    Mujahid, Adnan; Dickert, Franz L.

    2015-01-01

    Blood transfusion requires a mandatory cross-match test to examine the compatibility between donor and recipient blood groups. Generally, in all cross-match tests, a specific chemical reaction of antibodies with erythrocyte antigens is carried out to monitor agglutination. Since the visual inspection is no longer useful for obtaining precise quantitative information, therefore there is a wide variety of different technologies reported in the literature to recognize the agglutination reactions. Despite the classical methods, modern biosensors and molecular blood typing strategies have also been considered for straightforward, accurate and precise analysis. The interfacial part of a typical sensor device could range from natural antibodies to synthetic receptor materials, as designed by molecular imprinting and which is suitably integrated with the transducer surface. Herein, we present a comprehensive overview of some selected strategies extending from traditional practices to modern procedures in blood group typing, thus to highlight the most promising approach among emerging technologies. PMID:26729127

  9. Bulk tank milk ELISA for detection of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: Correlation between repeated tests and within-herd antibody-prevalence.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Detection of bulk tank milk (BTM) antibodies using ELISA (BTM-ELISA) may constitute an inexpensive test for surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in dairy cattle herds provided that the test is accurate and consistent. The objectives of this study were to determine: (a) the correlation between repeated BTM reactions; and (b) the association between the BTM antibody ELISA-level and the within-herd prevalence of antibody-positive cows. Eight BTM samples per herd and approximately four milk samples per lactating cow per herd were collected from each of 108 Danish Holstein herds over a period of one year. All samples were tested using a commercial indirect ELISA for detection of MAP specific antibodies. The individual cow's results were dichotomised and used to estimate the within-herd antibody prevalence at each test-date. These prevalences were then combined with the ELISA reading on the BTM test-date closest to the cow-level test-date. A mixed-effect analysis of covariance with autoregressive type 1 correlation structure was carried out using the log-transformed BTM-ELISA results as outcome. This model was used to assess the correlation between repeated tests with and without correction for within-herd antibody prevalence. The repeated BTM-recordings were highly correlated with a correlation of 0.80 between samples collected 1.5 months apart. The within-herd antibody prevalence significantly influenced this estimate (p<0.0001), which dropped to 0.60 when corrected for the within-herd antibody prevalence. Although the test-results were relatively consistent and correlated with the within-herd prevalence, the magnitude of the test-values makes it difficult to use the BTM-ELISA for surveillance of MAP infections in practice.

  10. Improved immunobinding test using monoclonal antibodies for detection of Mycoplasma bovis in milk

    PubMed Central

    Infante, F.; Infante, F.; Flores-Gutiérrez, G. H.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an improved immunobinding test (IBT) using monoclonal antibodies to identify Mycoplasma bovis in naturally infected milk. The IBT and the improved IBT were highly specific and had an immunologic sensitivity of 5 × 103 colony-forming units per milliliter. The results for the 2 methods agreed in the 130 milk samples tested. However, the IBT required 158 min, whereas the improved IBT required only 110 min. In addition, the improved IBT used smaller quantities of antibodies and conjugates. PMID:12418785

  11. Leptospira and Brucella antibodies in collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) in Brazilian zoos.

    PubMed

    Sales, Indiara dos Santos; Folly, Márcio Manhães; Garcia, Luize Néli Nunes; Ramos, Tatiane Mendes Varela; da Silva, Mariana Cristina; Pereira, Martha Maria

    2012-12-01

    The presence of Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. antibodies was investigated in serum samples from 28 collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) kept in seven Brazilian zoos. Sera were tested against 19 Leptospira serovars using microscopic agglutination. Samples reacted to the following serovars: two (7.14%) to Patoc, three (10.71%) to Tarrasovi, three (10.71%) to both Patoc and Tarrasovi, two (7.14%) to Wolffi, and one (3.57%) to Australis. Two (7.14%) samples reacted to the buffered Brucella antigen test, but no confirmatory reaction occurred using the 2-mercaptoethanol slow slide agglutination test. No sample was reactive in the agar gel immunodiffusion test for rugose species of Brucella. The presence of anti-leptospira agglutinins in captive T. tetradactyla serum indicates that this species may be susceptible to infection by these bacteria.

  12. An indirect microimmunofluorescence test for detection of chlamydial antibodies in ovine fetal fluids.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, T P; Andersen, A A; Miller, L D; Andrews, J J; Janke, B H; Larson, D L; Schwartz, K J

    1994-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate an indirect microimmunofluorescence test (IMIF) for detection of chlamydial antibodies in serum and/or thoracic fluids of aborted ovine fetuses. One hundred eighty-two ovine fetuses, including 64 fetuses from 40 ewes that were experimentally infected with an ovine abortion strain of Chlamydia psittaci at gestation days 90-100, 10 fetuses from 6 normal ewes, and 108 fetuses selected from those received at the Iowa Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, were evaluated in this study. Fetuses from experimentally infected ewes were examined 4-60 days after inoculation. The IMIF findings were compared with the results of complement fixation serology for chlamydiae and concentrations of immunoglobulin (IgG). Chlamydiae-specific antibodies were detected by IMIF in 28 of 38 fetuses infected with C. psittaci. Elevated levels of IgG and IMIF titers > or = 1:8 were consistent findings in ovine fetuses infected with chlamydiae for more than 24 days. IgG levels and titers of chlamydial antibodies increased with maturity of the fetus and duration of chlamydial infection. Chlamydial antibodies were not detected with the complement fixation test. Fluids from ovine fetuses aborted as a result of other causes also were examined, and IMIF results were negative. The results of this study indicate that the IMIF is a useful and relatively rapid test for identification of chlamydial antibodies in ovine fetuses.

  13. [Comparative measurement of antithrombin III by latex agglutination and radial immunodiffusion in patients with peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Miagkova, M A; Aleshkin, A V; Abramenko, T V; Savitskaia, Iu A; Aleshkin, V A

    1997-01-01

    A highly sensitive and rapid method, based on latex agglutination, has been developed for measuring antithrombin III (AT III) in the blood serum of patients and donors. The sensitivity of analysis is 0.6 microgram/ml, time 2 to 3 min. The method is simple, requires no sophisticated equipment, and may be used under field conditions. The results are assessed visually. Immunochemical reagents have been synthesized for the method: latex conjugates and specific antibodies to AT III. The method was tried in patients with peritonitis. An additional criterion for diagnosing the respiratory distress syndrome of adults in this patient population has been developed.

  14. Rabies antibody testing and the UK Pet Travel Scheme.

    PubMed

    Fooks, A R; McElhinney, L M; Brookes, S M; Johnson, N; Keene, V; Parsons, G; Soldan, A

    2002-04-06

    The Pet Travel Scheme (PETS) commenced on February 28, 2000, allowing pet dogs and cats from named countries to enter the UK without spending six months in quarantine as long as they met specific criteria. Since the start of the scheme to the end of February 2002, more than 45,000 animals have successfully entered the UK under PETS. In this article, Dr Tony Fooks and colleagues consider the results of serological testing under the scheme at the Veterinary Laboratories Agency and look to future developments.

  15. Enhancement of Leptospira hardjo agglutination titers in sheep and goat serum by heat inactivation.

    PubMed

    Malkin, K

    1984-04-01

    Heat inactivation of sheep serum samples resulted in the detection of an additional 9% reactors to Leptospira hardjo that were negative on the initial test of fresh samples. Treatment with EDTA gave results generally similar to heat inactivation suggesting that complement was responsible for the inhibition of agglutination. Tests on heat inactivated serum from experimentally infected sheep and goats revealed enhanced titers or reactions which were not detected in fresh serum.

  16. Antibody and Viral Nucleic Acid Testing of Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid for Diagnosis of Eastern Equine Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, James A; Brittain, David C; Howard, John J; Oliver, JoAnne

    2015-08-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis diagnostic serum antibody can appear 6 days after the onset of symptoms, and its numbers can increase 4-fold in 4 days, arguing for early and frequent serum testing. In populations where cerebrospinal fluid viral nucleic acid testing sensitivity and specificity remain undetermined, cerebrospinal antibody testing should also be performed.

  17. Protective antibody titres and antigenic competition in multivalent Dichelobacter nodosus fimbrial vaccines using characterised rDNA antigens.

    PubMed

    Raadsma, H W; O'Meara, T J; Egerton, J R; Lehrbach, P R; Schwartzkoff, C L

    1994-03-01

    The relationship between K-agglutination antibody titres and protection against experimental challenge with Dichelobacter nodosus, the effect of increasing the number of D. nodosus fimbrial antigens, and the importance of the nature of additional antigens in multivalent vaccines on antibody response and protection against experimental challenge with D. nodosus were examined in Merino sheep. A total of 204 Merino sheep were allocated to one of 12 groups, and vaccinated with preparations containing a variable number of rDNA D. nodosus fimbrial antigens. The most complex vaccine contained ten fimbrial antigens from all major D. nodosus serogroups, while the least complex contained a single fimbrial antigen. In addition to D. nodosus fimbrial antigens, other bacterial rDNA fimbrial antigens (Moraxella bovis Da12d and Escherichia coli K99), and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used in some vaccines. Antibody titres to fimbrial antigens and BSA were measured by agglutination and ELISA tests, respectively. Antibody titres were determined on five occasions (Weeks 0, 3, 6, 8, and 11 after primary vaccination). All sheep were exposed to an experimental challenge with virulent isolates of D. nodosus from either serogroup A or B, 8 weeks after primary vaccination. For D. nodosus K-agglutinating antibody titres, a strong negative correlation between antibody titre and footrot lesion score was observed. This relationship was influenced by the virulence of the challenge strain. Increasing the number of fimbrial antigens in experimental rDNA D. nodosus fimbrial vaccines resulted in a linear decrease in K-agglutinating antibody titres to individual D. nodosus serogroups. Similarly, a linear decrease in protection to challenge with homologous serogroups was observed as the number of D. nodosus fimbrial antigens represented in the vaccine increased. The reduction in antibody titres in multicomponent vaccines is thought to be due to antigenic competition. The level of competition

  18. BrucELISA: an enzyme-antibody immunoassay for detection of Brucella abortus antibodies in milk: correlation with the Brucella ring test and with shedding of viable organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Boraker, D K; Stinebring, W R; Kunkel, J R

    1981-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-antibody immunosorbent assay (BrucELISA) is described for the detection of antibody to Brucella abortus in cow's milk. Three series of milk samples were obtained from an adult-vaccinated dairy herd infected with B. abortus. The BrucELISA system was used as a screening test for individual milks diluted 1:200 (BE 200 test), for undiluted bulk milks, and to determine antibody titer (BrucELISA titration assay). The BrucELISA results correlated highly with positive Brucella ring test reactions and culture positivity, eliminated false-positive Brucella ring test reactions, detected antibody in some samples which were Brucella ring test negative, and distinguished between vaccinated and infected animals. BrucELISA titration assay titers of greater than 1:800 were correlated with shedding, or were prognostic for animals which eventually became shedders. Binding of the enzyme-antibody conjugate to bovine immunoglobulin in the absence of rabbit anti-bovine immunoglobulin occurred with culture-positive or -negative milks showing titers of greater than 1:1,600 (the beta effect); the effect was also of predictive value in identifying eventual shedders. The BrucELISA system is a sensitive, specific, and inexpensive method for screening large numbers of individual or bulk milk samples for the presence of antibody to B. abortus. PMID:6793622

  19. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in the Pennsylvania bobcat (Lynx rufus rufus).

    PubMed

    Mucker, Eric M; Dubey, J P; Lovallo, Matthew J; Humphreys, Jan G

    2006-01-01

    From 2000 to 2002 bobcat blood samples were collected, in association with the Pennsylvania Game Commission, during the recently reactivated bobcat hunting and trapping season. Sex, age, and county/township data were recorded for each animal. Blood was tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the modified agglutination test. In the 2-yr study, 131 bobcat samples were collected in 14 Pennsylvania counties and 109 (83%) of these had antibodies to T. gondii (titer>or=25). A two-way Chi-Square test (95% confidence interval) yielded no significance differences in antibody prevalence between males (83%) and females (88%) or adults (83%) and juveniles (77%). All 14 counties had at least one bobcat with antibodies to T. gondii.

  20. On detecting interference from endogenous antibodies in immunoassays by doubling dilutions test.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Adel A A

    2007-01-01

    The clinical laboratory may perform additional test or tests to ascertain the integrity of immunoassay analyses when the results are in doubt. Doubling serial dilutions is one of these confirmatory tests. Doubling dilutions is a useful and informative test for detecting inaccuracy and potential interference from endogenous antibodies in immunoassays. Despite its technical simplicity, the science underpinning this test is highly complex. Appreciating such complexities could help in understanding the various outcomes of such tests from misleadingly inaccurate but virtually linear/parallel results, despite the presence of interfering antibodies in some immunoassays, to an array of non-linearity/non-parallelism synonymous with interference in others. A lack of parallelism/linearity could identify some 60% of samples with inaccurate and potentially misleading results caused by endogenous interfering antibodies. Assessing real-time binding kinetics using techniques such as non-linear regression analysis or linearised transformations such as the Scatchard plot could help in identifying more samples in which the doubling dilutions test remains linear and parallel.

  1. Is there evidence to support serum antinuclear antibodies testing in women with recurrent implantation failure undergoing in vitro fertilization?

    PubMed

    Na, Yuuki Charlie Barke; Asif, Sonia; Raine-Fenning, Nicholas J

    2017-03-30

    One of the most challenging aspects of reproductive medicine is the management of recurrent implantation failure. Various investigations, including antinuclear antibodies testing, are performed to seek an explanation and guide treatment. However, is there sufficient evidence or available therapeutic options to support antinuclear antibodies testing? We present a short review on the current literature and an attempt at a systematic review evaluating the association between antinuclear antibodies and recurrent implantation failure to address this question.

  2. ABO blood-typing using an antibody array technique based on surface plasmon resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Houngkamhang, Nongluck; Vongsakulyanon, Apirom; Peungthum, Patjaree; Sudprasert, Krisda; Kitpoka, Pimpun; Kunakorn, Mongkol; Sutapun, Boonsong; Amarit, Ratthasart; Somboonkaew, Armote; Srikhirin, Toemsak

    2013-09-09

    In this study, readily available antibodies that are used in standard agglutination tests were evaluated for their use in ABO blood typing by a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPR imaging) technique. Five groups of antibodies, including mixed clones of anti-A, anti-B, and anti-AB, and single clones of anti-A and anti-B, were used to construct the five-line detection arrays using a multichannel flow cell in the SPR imager. The red blood cell (RBC) samples were applied to a multichannel flow cell that was orthogonal to the detection line arrays for blood group typing. We found that the blood samples were correctly grouped in less than 12 min by the SPR imaging technique, and the results were consistent with those of the standard agglutination technique for all 60 samples. We found that mixed clones of antibodies provided 33%-68% greater change in the SPR signal than the single-clone antibodies. Applying the SPR imaging technique using readily available antibodies may reduce the costs of the antibodies, shorten the measurement time, and increase the throughput.

  3. Seroprevalence of Leptospiral Antibodies in Canine Population in and around Namakkal.

    PubMed

    Senthil, N R; Palanivel, K M; Rishikesavan, R

    2013-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a reemerging and a complex zoonotic bacterial disease, caused by pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans. A total of 124 sera samples of dogs belonging to different categories like vaccinated, unvaccinated-semiowned, and stray dogs were subjected to sampling. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was conducted by using Leptospira culture. Out of 42 vaccinated dogs, 24 (57%) were positive to one or more serovars. Of the 24, 22 (52.3%), 11 (26.19%), 4 (9.5%), 1 (3%), and 2 (4.7%) were positive to icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, pomona, grippotyphosa, and autumnalis, respectively. Of the 48 unvaccinated semiowned dogs, 10 (28.8%) showed positive agglutination to one or more serovars. Of the 10 samples, 7 (14.5%), 2 (4.1%), 3 (6.2%), 3 (6.2%), and 5 (10.2%) were positive to icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, pomona, grippotyphosa, and autumnalis, respectively. Among the 34 stray dogs, 12 showed positive agglutination to one or more leptospiral antibodies. Of the 12 samples, 6 (17.6%) showed positive agglutination to icterohaemorrhagiae, 2 (5.8%) to canicola, 5 (14.7%) to pomona, 7 (20.5%) to grippotyphosa, and 5 (4.7%) to autumnalis. This study emphasized the changing trends in the epidemiology of leptospirosis with higher prevalence of serovar L. grippotyphosa in street dogs.

  4. The diagnostic value of the gliadin antibody test in celiac disease in children: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bodé, S; Weile, B; Krasilnikoff, P A; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1993-10-01

    Serum gliadin antibodies (IgA/IgG) were determined in 191 consecutive children (median age, 2.75 years; range, 0.33-15.5 years) admitted for a small-intestinal biopsy on suspicion of celiac disease. The test was a diffusion-in-gel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DIG-ELISA). Of these 191, 14 (7.3%) appeared to have untreated celiac disease. Depending on the choice of cut-off value of the test (combined determination of IgA and IgG), the sensitivity was 86-100%, the specificity was 97-99%, and the positive/negative predictive values were 70-92% and 99-100%, respectively. No variation according to age was found. Gliadin antibodies were determined in 47 children who had well-treated celiac disease. Fourteen of these children were also investigated when challenged with gluten. Gliadin antibodies (IgA or IgG) decreased significantly in 13 of 13 cases when the patients shifted from a gluten-containing diet to a gluten-free one. During the gluten challenge, the IgG and IgA increased in 14 of 14 and 11 of 14 cases, respectively (two patients suffered from IgA deficiency). In eight patients who later appeared to be free of celiac disease, the gliadin antibodies were determined on gluten-free diet and during gluten challenge; no significant differences in gliadin antibodies were found. We conclude that this test is useful in selecting patients with symptoms suggesting celiac disease for a small-intestinal biopsy. The test seems to be of some value in monitoring the effects of a gluten-free diet and during gluten challenge.

  5. Agglutination of human erythrocytes by the interaction of Zn(2+)ion with histidine-651 on the extracellular domain of band 3.

    PubMed

    Kiyotake, Kento; Ochiai, Hideharu; Yamaguchi, Takeo

    2016-05-01

    Clustering of band 3, chloride/bicarbonate exchanger, has been reported in Zn(2+)-treated human erythrocytes. However, the agglutination of human erythrocytes is also induced by the interaction of Zn(2+)ion with histidine on band 3. Identification of histidine that interacts with Zn(2+)ion remains to be determined. The Zn(2+)-induced agglutination of human erythrocytes was unaffected by chymotrypsin cleavage of the small loop region containing His-547 in the extracellular domain of band 3. On the other hand, papain digestion of the large loop region containing His-651 in band 3 inhibited such Zn(2+)-induced agglutination. Moreover, Zn(2+)-induced erythrocyte agglutination was inhibited by the peptide (ARGWVIHPLG) containing His-651, but not by the peptide such as ARGWVIRPLG, which His-651 was substituted by arginine. Among 10 kinds of animal erythrocytes tested, interestingly, no agglutination by Zn(2+)ions was observed in cow cells only that the forth amino acid in the upstream from His-669 on the large loop of cow band 3 is aspartate (Asp-665) instead of glycine. As expected, the agglutination of human erythrocytes by Zn(2+) ions was inhibited in the presence of aspartate. These data indicate that the interaction of Zn(2+) ion with His-651 residue of band 3 plays an important role in the Zn(2+)-induced agglutination of human erythrocytes.

  6. Comparison of four commercially available avidity tests for Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Villard, O; Breit, L; Cimon, B; Franck, J; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Godineau, N; Houze, S; Paris, L; Pelloux, H; Villena, I; Candolfi, E

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women may cause congenital toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of infection is based on serological tests aimed at detecting IgM and IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. However, IgM antibodies are not an accurate marker for discriminating between acute and latent infection. Detection of residual or persistent IgM may occur months or even years after primary infection, while the IgG avidity test is a rapid means of identifying latent infections in pregnant women who exhibit both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies on initial testing during pregnancy. In this study, we assessed and compared the performances of four commercially available Toxoplasma IgG avidity tests in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients with acute and latent toxoplasmosis. The positive predictive value of high avidity to confirm latent toxoplasmosis was 100% for all the assays, indicating that high avidity is a hallmark of latent infection. However, the negative predictive value of high avidity ranged from 99.2% (bioMérieux) to 95.3% (Abbott), indicating that acute toxoplasmosis could not be reliably diagnosed based on low IgG avidity alone. Thus, the avidity test provides a rapid means for identifying latent Toxoplasma infection in immunocompetent pregnant women presenting both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies on initial testing. In terms of cost-effectiveness, avidity testing is a powerful tool that optimizes screening and follow-up of pregnant women while minimizing the costs of screening by avoiding subsequent costly maternal and fetal investigation and unnecessary treatment. The cheapest assay, Vidas Toxo IgG Avidity, also had the best performance for the diagnosis of latent toxoplasmosis.

  7. Comparison of Four Commercially Available Avidity Tests for Toxoplasma gondii-Specific IgG Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Breit, L.; Cimon, B.; Franck, J.; Fricker-Hidalgo, H.; Godineau, N.; Houze, S.; Paris, L.; Pelloux, H.; Villena, I.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women may cause congenital toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of infection is based on serological tests aimed at detecting IgM and IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. However, IgM antibodies are not an accurate marker for discriminating between acute and latent infection. Detection of residual or persistent IgM may occur months or even years after primary infection, while the IgG avidity test is a rapid means of identifying latent infections in pregnant women who exhibit both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies on initial testing during pregnancy. In this study, we assessed and compared the performances of four commercially available Toxoplasma IgG avidity tests in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients with acute and latent toxoplasmosis. The positive predictive value of high avidity to confirm latent toxoplasmosis was 100% for all the assays, indicating that high avidity is a hallmark of latent infection. However, the negative predictive value of high avidity ranged from 99.2% (bioMérieux) to 95.3% (Abbott), indicating that acute toxoplasmosis could not be reliably diagnosed based on low IgG avidity alone. Thus, the avidity test provides a rapid means for identifying latent Toxoplasma infection in immunocompetent pregnant women presenting both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies on initial testing. In terms of cost-effectiveness, avidity testing is a powerful tool that optimizes screening and follow-up of pregnant women while minimizing the costs of screening by avoiding subsequent costly maternal and fetal investigation and unnecessary treatment. The cheapest assay, Vidas Toxo IgG Avidity, also had the best performance for the diagnosis of latent toxoplasmosis. PMID:23239801

  8. HIV antibody testing and its correlates among heterosexual attendees of sexually transmitted disease clinics in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HIV antibody testing and associated factors among heterosexual sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic attendees in China. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was administered among 823 attendees of 4 STD clinics of Zhejiang Province, China in October to December 2007. Psychosocial and behavioural factors associated with HIV antibody testing were identified in both genders using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of all 823 STD clinic attendees, 9.3% of male and 18.0% of female attendees underwent HIV antibody testing in the most recent 6 months, and 60% of the participants had gotten no educational/behavioral intervention related to HIV prevention. The correlates for HIV antibody testing in the most recent 6 months as identified by multivariate analysis were ever condom use [odds ratio (OR), 10.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.32–81.22]; ever anal/oral sex (OR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.03–9.50) during their lifetime; having ever received three to seven types of behavioural interventions in the most recent 6 months (OR, 3.70; 95% CI, 1.32–10.36) among male subjects; and ever condom use (OR, 12.50; 95% CI, 2.20–71.01), STD history (OR, 3.86; 95% CI, 1.26–11.86) over their lifetime, or having ever received three to seven types of behavioural interventions in the most recent 6 months (OR, 8.68; 95% CI, 2.39–31.46) in female subjects. A lifetime experience of casual/commercial sex partners was strongly negatively associated with HIV testing in female subjects (OR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01–0.83). Conclusion The low prevalence of HIV antibody testing and behavioural intervention among STD clinic attendees indicates a need for more targeted, intensive behavioural interventions to promote HIV antibody testing in this population. PMID:23327359

  9. Comparative tests for detection of plague antigen and antibody in experimentally infected wild rodents.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, A J; Hummitzsch, D E; Leman, P A; Swanepoel, R; Searle, L A

    1986-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was compared with other standard tests for detection of plague (Yersinia pestis) antibody and antigen in multimammate mice (Mastomys coucha and M. natalensis) which were experimentally infected and then killed at daily intervals postinoculation. For detection of antibody in sera from M. natalensis, the immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA was equivalent in sensitivity to passive hemagglutination and more sensitive than the IgM ELISA and complement fixation. Antibody was first detected on postinfection day 6 by all four tests, but IgM ELISA titers had declined to undetectable levels after 8 weeks. For detection of fraction 1 Y. pestis antigen in rodent organs, the ELISA was less sensitive than fluorescent antibody but more sensitive than complement fixation or immunodiffusion. Plague fraction 1 antigen was detected in 16 of 34 bacteremic sera from M. coucha and M. natalensis. The threshold sensitivity of the ELISA was approximately 10(5) Y. pestis per ml. PMID:3097065

  10. A comparison of the Genie and western blot assays in confirmatory testing for HIV-1 antibody.

    PubMed

    Chan, E L; Sidaway, F; Horsman, G B

    1996-03-01

    The Genie HIV-1/2 kit (Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur, Montreal, Quebec), a synthetic-peptide solid-phase enzyme immunoassay, was evaluated as a confirmatory assay for HIV-1 antibodies in comparison with Western blot (BioRad, Hercules, CA, USA) on 50 stored HIV-1 antibody-positive sera and the 137 sera yielding repeated positive results in the conventional EIA screen out of 13405 fresh patient sera from Saskatchewan in 1993. The stored HIV-1-positive sera were uniformly positive in the Genie test. Of the 137 EIA screen-positive sera, 33 were uniformly positive and 64 were uniformly negative in Genie and Western blot; 36 were Genie-negative and indeterminate by Western blot; and four were Genie indeterminate, of which one was negative and three were indeterminate by Western blot. All HIV-1 Western blot-indeterminate and Genie-interdeterminate sera were negative in radio-immunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) and Western blot for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies performed by a reference laboratory. Genie gave an accurate definitive result for 97% of EIA positive sera compared with 71% for Western blot. There was excellent correlation between Genie, Western blot and RIPA results. However, the Genie assay was faster, less costly and yielded fewer indeterminate results than Western blot in confirmatory testing for HIV-1 antibodies.

  11. Interpretation of serological tests in the diagnosis of celiac disease: Anti-deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies revisited.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Laure; Giusti, Delphine; Gatouillat, Grégory; Servettaz, Amélie; Tabary, Thierry; Barbe, Coralie; Pham, Bach-Nga

    2016-09-01

    Algorithms for celiac disease diagnosis provided by guidelines are based primarily on anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2) antibodies and/or anti-endomysium antibodies. The place of anti-deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP) antibodies is less well established. This study was designed to assess the clinical relevance of anti-DGP antibodies. Two thousand and twenty-six consecutive unselected patients systematically tested for anti-TG2, endomysium, gliadin, DGP antibodies and IgA dosage were investigated. The serological interpretation was assessed by analyzing the medical records of patients. From the 1984 newly investigated patients suspected of celiac disease, 10% had at least one celiac marker. Anti-TG2, anti-endomysium, anti-gliadin and anti-DGP antibodies were found in 1.1%, 0.6%, 6.8% and 4.1% of cases respectively, with different combinations. The diagnosis of celiac disease was retained in 0.45% of patients. When using the duodenal biopsies as a gold standard, analysis of the anti-DGP diagnosis performance showed that the specificity and the predictive positive value (PPV) were lower than that of the anti-TG2 assay. The combined detection of anti-TG2 and anti-DGP antibodies had a lower PPV than that of anti-TG2 and anti-endomysium antibodies (p = 0.04). When analyzing the contribution of anti-DGP antibodies as an additional marker to both anti-TG2 and anti-endomysium antibodies, the PPV of the three associated antibodies was shown to be significantly lower than the PPV of the both anti-TG2 and anti-endomysium antibodies (p = 0.04). As a conclusion, anti-DGP antibodies may not have the diagnosis value required as an additional screening test to anti-TG2 antibodies for identifying celiac disease patients in medical centers where anti-endomysium detection is available.

  12. DARPA Antibody Technology Program. Standardized Test Bed for Antibody Characterization: Characterization of an MS2 ScFv Antibody Produced by Illumina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    interactions. The Joint Product Management Office for Biosurveillance (JPMO BSV) Critical Reagents Program has recently instituted a quality program...provision of consistent, high- quality assays and reagents for current biodetection platforms as well as the development and validation of future systems...platforms. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Antibody Antibody Technology Program (ATP) Quality Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Biosurveillance Single-chain

  13. Evaluation of multidrug resistant phenotype by flow cytometry with monoclonal antibodies and functional tests.

    PubMed

    Lizard, G; Maynadié, M; Roignot, P; Lizard-Nacol, S; Poupon, M F

    1995-03-01

    Multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype is characterized by a defect in drug accumulation caused by overexpression of a transmembrane glycoprotein, the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). MDR phenotype can be characterized either with monoclonal antibodies raised against P-gp or with functional tests, most often based on the incorporation of fluorescent compounds. In the present study, data obtained with the monoclonal antibodies C219, JSB1 and MRK16 are compared to those of functional tests performed by flow cytometry including uptake of daunorubicin (DNR), Rhodamine 123 (Rh 123) or Hoechst 33342. Sensitive and resistant cell lines K562S, K562R, KBA1 and KB31, derived either from a human chronic myeloid leukemia or from a human epithelial carcinoma, were used. In resistant cells, P-gp expression was revealed with either the monoclonal antibodies C219, JSB1 or MRK-16. The most specific results were obtained with MRK-16. With functional tests, no matter which dyes were used, the fluorescence was always stronger in sensitive than in resistant cells. However, with DNR and Hoechst 33342, an incorporation of these dyes was exhibited in resistant cells. This phenomenon was not observed with Rh 123, which makes it possible to distinguish clearly between sensitive and resistant cells and to detect as few as 1% of resistant cells. Because of its high sensitivity, the functional test involving incorporation of Rh 123 was successfully used in acute myeloid leukemia to detect multichemoresistant cells.

  14. Detection of Babesia divergens in southern Norway by using an immunofluorescence antibody test in cow sera

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The incidence of bovine babesiosis, caused by Babesia divergens (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) has decreased markedly since the 1930 s, but may re-emerge as a consequence of climate change and changes in legislation and pasturing practices. This is a potentially serious disease, with both economical and animal welfare consequences. Therefore, there is a need to survey the distribution of B. divergens. Methods We tested sera from 306 healthy pastured cows from 24 farms along the southern Norwegian coast by using an indirect immunofluorescence IgG antibody test (IFAT). Fractions of seropositive cows were compared by calculating 95% CI. Results The results of this test showed that 27% of the sera were positive for B. divergens antibodies. The fraction of antibody-positive sera that we detected showed a two-humped distribution, with a high fraction of positives being found in municipalities in the western and eastern parts of the study area, while the municipalities between these areas had few or no positive serum samples. Conclusions Neither the farmers' observations nor the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System give an adequate picture of the distribution of bovine babesiosis. Serological testing of cows by using IFAT is a convenient way of screening for the presence of B. divergens in an area. PMID:20925923

  15. A multilaboratory peer assessment quality assurance program-based evaluation of anticardiolipin antibody, and beta2-glycoprotein I antibody testing.

    PubMed

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Wong, Richard C W; Silvestrini, Roger; McEvoy, Robert; Jovanovich, Susan; Roberts-Thomson, Peter

    2005-02-01

    We evaluated the performance of anticardiolipin (aCL) and beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2-GPI) antibody assays through a large external quality assurance program. Data from the 2002 cycle of the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPA QAP) were analyzed for variation in reported numerical values and semiquantitative results or interpretations according to method type or group and in conjunction with available clinical data. High interlaboratory variation in numerical results and notable method-based variation, combined with a general lack of consensus in semiquantitative reporting, continues to be observed. Numerical results from cross-laboratory testing of 12 serum samples (for immunoglobulin G [IgG]-aCL, IgM-aCL, and IgG-beta2-GPI) yielded interlaboratory coefficients of variation (CVs) that were higher than 50% in six of 12 (50%) specimens for IgG-aCL, and 12 of 12 (100%) specimens for IgM-aCL and IgG-beta2-GPI. Semiquantitative reporting also varied considerably, with total (100%) consensus occurring in only four of 36 (11%) occasions. General consensus (where > 90% of participating laboratories agreed that a given serum sample gave a result of either negative or positive) was only obtained on 13 of 36 (36%) occasions. Variation in results between different method types or groups were also present, resulting in potential biasing of the RCPA QAP-defined target results by the large number of laboratories using the dominant aCL assays. Finally, laboratory findings frequently did not agree with the available clinical information. In conclusion, in a large proportion of specimens from the 2002 RCPA QAP cycle, laboratories could not agree on whether a serum sample tested was aCL-positive or aCL-negative, or beta2-GPI-positive or beta2-GPI-negative. Despite prior attempts to improve the standardization of testing and reporting practices, laboratory testing for aCL and anti-beta2-GPI still demonstrates significant interlaboratory and

  16. [Diagnostic value of agglutination reaction with buffered Brucella antigen stained with rose bengal].

    PubMed

    Chenchev, I; Khristoforov, L; Peshkov, I; Kostov, G; Mineva, I

    1978-01-01

    A specific buffered antigen has been obtained, employing a method developed by the authors, stained with Bengal rose and intended for performing a fast agglutination reaction to confirm brucellosis. The antigen produces a clear and demonstrative agglutination reaction with positive sera. Practically, the test is readily carried out, and can be made a routine both in every serologic laboratory and for investigations under field conditions. The reaction produced with this antigen can determine dependably the epizootic status on a farm or in the herd. The diagnostic value of the antigen is essential, especially with swine. Besides, it shows a wide a diagnostic scope for brucellosis with all species of animals (97--98 per cent).

  17. Comparison of Rapid Point-of-Care Tests for Detection of Antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Hess, Kristen L.; Erlyana, Erlyana; Reynolds, Grace L.; Cummins, Catherine A.; Alonzo, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C is one of the most prevalent blood-borne diseases in the United States. Despite the benefits of early screening, among 3.2 million Americans who are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), 50%–70% are unaware of their infection status. Methods. Data were collected between 2011 and 2014, from 1048 clients who were in the following groups: (1) injection drug users, (2) women at sexual risk, (3) gay and bisexual men, and (4) transgender individuals. The sensitivity and specificity of point-of-care tests included (1) the MedMira rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV antibody test, (2) MedMira hepatitis B (HBV)/HIV/HCV antibody test, (3) Chembio HCV Screen Assay used with both whole blood and (4) oral specimens, (5) Chembio HIV-HCV Assay also used with both whole blood and (6) oral specimens, (7) Chembio HIV-HCV-Syphilis Assay, and (8) OraSure HCV Rapid Antibody Test used with whole blood. The gold standard for the HCV tests were HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) 2.0. Results. OraSure had the highest sensitivity at 92.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 88.8%–96.5%) followed closely by Chembio's 3 blood tests at 92.1% (95% CI = 87.7%–96.4%), 91.5% (95% CI = 87.2%–95.7%), and 92.3% (95% CI = 88.4%–96.2%). The sensitivities of MedMira HIV/HCV and MedMira HIV/HCV/HBV tests were the lowest, at 79.1% (95% CI = 72.6%–85.5%), and 81.5% (95% CI = 75.2%–87.8%), respectively. Specificity for the OraSure was 99.8% (95% CI = 99.4%–100%); specificity for the Chembio blood tests was 99.2% (95% CI = 98.6%–99.9%), 99.4% (95% CI = 98.8%–99.9%), and 99.3% (95% CI = 98.8%–99.9%); and specificity for the MedMira was100% and 100%. False-negative results were associated with HIV and hepatitis B core antibody serostatus. Conclusions. The OraSure and Chembio blood tests (including those multiplexed with HIV and syphilis) appear to good performance characteristics. This study has identified potential limitations of rapid testing in those

  18. Evaluation of the Canadian Rheumatology Association Choosing Wisely recommendation concerning anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) testing.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the Canadian Rheumatology Association Choosing Wisely recommendation concerning anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) testing. Patients with joint pain/stiffness/swelling were assessed to determine if ANA testing was indicated. An a priori threshold was set before ANA testing would be considered. Those who did not have ANA testing ordered were followed for 1 year to determine if any of them went on to have a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or other connective tissue disease. A parallel study was conducted with a similar a priori threshold for the use of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody testing in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and again, patients were followed for 1 year. A total of 866 subjects were examined, 509 females (58.8 %) and 357 males (41.2 %). The mean age of the group was 47.5 ± 16.8 years. The mean duration of symptoms was 12.0 ± 5.6 weeks. Of the 866 subjects, 68 met an a priori threshold for ordering ANA, RF, and anti-CCP testing. Of these 68, there was a newly diagnosed case of SLE, 4 newly diagnosed cases of RA, and 3 cases of polymyalgia rheumatica. The remaining 798 subjects were followed for approximately 1 year and none developed evidence of SLE, RA, or other connective tissue disease. In the evaluation of non-specific musculoskeletal symptoms, setting an a priori threshold for ordering serology in keeping with the spirit of the Canadian Rheumatology Association Choosing Wisely recommendation for antibody testing results in a very low risk of missing a case of systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. R and G color component competition of RGB image decomposition as a criterion to register RBC agglutinates for blood group typing.

    PubMed

    Doubrovski, Valeri A; Ganilova, Yuliya A; Zabenkov, Igor V

    2014-03-01

    A new approach of the criterion assignment for registration of erythrocyte agglutinates to instrumentally determine blood group type is suggested. The criterion is based on comparison of R and G components of RGB decomposition of microscopy digital image taken for the blood-serum mixture sample. For the chosen experimental conditions, the minimal size (area) of RBC agglutinate to be registered by the criterion suggested is estimated theoretically. The proposed method was tested experimentally on the example of monitoring agglutinates in flow. The encouraging experimental results were obtained for improvement of the resolving power of the method; the optimal experimental conditions were revealed for maximum resolution. Though the suggested method was realized for dynamic (flow) blood group determination, it could also be applied for diagnostics in a stationary environment. This approach increases the reliability of RBC agglutinates registration and, hence, blood group typing. The results may be used to develop the apparatus for automated determination of human blood group.

  20. Antithyroglobulin antibody

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Hypothyroidism - thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Graves disease - thyroglobulin antibody; Underactive thyroid - thyroglobulin antibody

  1. Assessment of Rapid Tests for Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific Antibodies in Recently Infected Individuals▿

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Brian; Wong, Ernest; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Liska, Sally; Hecht, Frederick; Dowling, Terri; Obeso, Martha; Phillips, Susan S.; Pandori, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    We have evaluated four current Food and Drug Administration-cleared rapid tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibodies with a panel of specimens from recently infected individuals. Recent infection was detected by RNA-based screening coupled with enzyme immunoassay-based testing. We found that the sensitivities of the various rapid tests vary greatly with regard to their ability to detect HIV-specific antibodies in recently infected individuals. PMID:18234875

  2. Effects of heat inactivation on HIV antibody screening and confirmatory test systems.

    PubMed

    Fipps, D R; Damato, J J; Burke, D S

    1988-06-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of heat inactivation on serum undergoing testing for HIV antibody, 100 heat-inactivated and nonheat-inactivated serum samples were tested by two modifications of Abbott's screening assays for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-III (lot numbers 1037 and 3036) and by two confirmatory assays (Cambridge BioScience CBre3-EIA; Damon Corporation Western blot). The samples consisted of 75 HIV antibody-negative and 25 HIV antibody-positive sera. The specimens were divided into two equal aliquots. One set was not subjected to heat inactivation, while the others were subjected to heat inactivation at 56 degrees C for 30 min. Heat inactivation had no significant effect on the HIV-position sera; however, heat-inactivated, negative sera evaluated by Abbott lot numbers 1037 and 3036 resulted in false-positive rates of 8% and 7%, respectively. No false positives were generated by the two confirmatory assays; however, the CBre3-EIA recombinant envelope protein assay had a significantly increased optical density reading following heat inactivation of the negative sera. The Western blot procedure used in the study was not affected by heat inactivation.

  3. Human anti-immunoglobulin antibodies with specificity for native and pepsin-digested IgD

    PubMed Central

    Mellbye, O. J.; Høyeraal, H. M.; Michaelsen, T.; Natvig, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    When human sera were tested against red cells coated with IgD by the CrCl3 technique, agglutinating activity was found in a high proportion of sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, while sera from normals and patients with non-rheumatoid diseases contained only trace activity. Haemagglutination inhibition experiments indicated that the activity was directed against the Fc part of IgD, and reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol, sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, and absorption experiments all indicated that the agglutinating activity was due to IgM antibodies. In some sera a very weak activity was also found against antigens revealed by pepsin digestion of IgD. After density gradient ultracentrifugation of sera at pH 3·0, the 19S fractions showed higher antibody activity against IgD than fractions obtained at pH 7·2, indicating that the sera contained complexes of IgD and anti-IgD. Agglutination inhibition experiments with different IgD myeloma proteins or whole myeloma sera did not give evidence for subclasses or genetic polymorphism of IgD.

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondhi antibodies in captive wild mammals and birds in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Minervino, Antonio Humberto Hamad; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Barrêto-Júnior, Raimundo Alves; Neves, Kedson Alessandri Lobo; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Ortolani, Enrico Lippi; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2010-09-01

    In this study, serum samples of 203 animals from different locations, from zoos and breeding facilities from the north and northeast regions of Brazil, were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT) with a cutoff of 1:25. Of the sampled animals, 184 were adult mammals of both sexes and 19 were birds. Antibodies were found in 61 of 184 mammals, and no association between sex and age of the animals and the presence of T. gondii antibodies was observed (P < 0.05). Anti-T gondii antibodies were not found in birds. Toxoplasma gondii was detected in Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris) for the first time.

  5. Modification of the fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation test--elimination of the cytotoxic effect for the detection of rabies virus neutralising antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bedeković, Tomislav; Lemo, Nina; Lojkić, Ivana; Mihaljević, Zeljko; Jungić, Andreja; Cvetnić, Zeljko; Cač, Zeljko; Hostnik, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The virus neutralisation test is used for the quantitation of specific antibodies in serum samples. However, the success of the test depends on the quality of samples. In the case of poor quality samples, a cytotoxic effect can be observed and the results of the test can be compromised. Additionally, the cytotoxic effect limits the use of different substances, such as muscle extract or liquid from thoracic cavity (thoracic liquid), as a sample for the detection of rabies virus neutralising antibodies in the follow-up of fox oral vaccination campaigns. To eliminate the cytotoxic effect, a modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation (mFAVN) test was developed and evaluated. In the mFAVN test, inocula were removed after a 1h and the cytotoxic effect was prevented. According to the results obtained, the specificity of the mFAVN test compared to the FAVN test was 88.8% and the sensitivity was 94.4%. The diagnostic validity of the test was 0.99 (CI=0.98-1.00). To evaluate the possibility of using muscle extract and thoracic liquid as samples for the virus neutralisation test, 102 sera, muscle extract and thoracic liquid samples of dog origin were tested with the mFAVN test. The correlation between sera and muscle extracts was 87.9% (r=0.88, p<0.001). The correlation between sera and thoracic liquid was 94.2% (r=0.94, p<0.001). These findings indicated that both muscle extract and thoracic liquid could be used as samples for detection of rabies virus neutralising antibodies in the follow-up of oral vaccination campaigns. To evaluate the level of elimination of the cytotoxic effect, the 102 samples of sera, muscle extracts and thoracic liquid of dog origin were also tested in parallel using the mFAVN and FAVN tests. In the mFAVN test, no instance of cytotoxic effect was observed in the cells. In the FAVN test, two sera (1.9%), 35 muscle extracts (34.3%) and 56 thoracic liquid samples (54.9%) showed cytotoxic effect. The results of this study strongly suggest that

  6. Evolution of Shock Melt Compositions in Lunar Agglutinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vance, A. M.; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.

    2015-01-01

    Lunar agglutinates are aggregates of regolith grains fused together in a glassy matrix of shock melt produced during smaller-scale (mostly micrometeorite) impacts. Agglutinate formation is a key space weathering process under which the optically-active component of nanophase metallic Fe (npFe(sup 0)) is added to the lunar regolith. Here we have used energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) compositional spectrum imaging in the SEM to quantify the chemical homogeneity of agglutinitic glass, correlate its homogeneity to its parent soil maturity, and identify the principle chemical components contributing to the shock melt compositional variations.

  7. Complement-dependent antibody cytotoxicity test of chicken antibody with duck complement used against cells of a Marek's disease lymphoma-derived cell line (MSB-1).

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, C; Kodama, H; Mikami, T

    1979-01-01

    Complement-dependent antibody cytotoxicity (CDAC) against cells of a lymphoblastoid cell line (MSB-1) derived from Marek's disease lymphoma was investigated in a chicken antibody system using complements from several animal species. Cytotoxicity was seldom observed when rabbit, guinea pig, or chicken complements were used in the presence of hyperimmune chicken serum against MSB-1. With duck complement, however, cytotoxicity was always observed. Therefore, duck complement appears to be suitable for assay of hyperimmune chicken serum against MSB-1 cells by the CDAC test.

  8. Qualification of a microfluidics-based electrophoretic method for impurity testing of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Antes, Bernhard; Oberkleiner, Philipp; Nechansky, Andreas; Szolar, Oliver H J

    2010-02-05

    In this work, we present a comprehensive evaluation of the Agilent Bioanalyzer, a microfluidics-based electrophoretic device that was used for impurity testing of a monoclonal antibody (mAb). We compared the system to SDS-PAGE, both operated under non-reducing conditions and found a significant improvement of accuracy for the Bioanalyzer. In addition, the latter exhibited a larger assay range and lower limit of quantitation (LOQ) based on a predefined total error limit of +/-30%. However, during method qualification applying a three-factor nested design with two operators performing duplicate measurements per day, each on 4 different days, we observed unpredictable recurring quantitative outliers using the chip-based system. In-depth analysis on multiple runs with various chip lots confirmed the above finding and indicated that most likely on-chip dye labeling and/or post-column background fluorescence elimination are not compatible with the large size of the intact antibody as similar findings were observed for myosin used as upper marker for time correction. Interestingly, after reducing the intact antibody into light and heavy chain, we resolved the outlier issue. Eventually, requalification of the micro-fabricated analytical device under reducing conditions revealed only 1 out of 32 quality control samples (QCs) exceeding the +/-30% total error limits.

  9. Effects of blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid on results of indirect fluorescent antibody tests for detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi.

    PubMed

    Finno, Carrie J; Packham, Andrea E; David Wilson, W; Gardner, Ian A; Conrad, Patricia A; Pusterla, Nicola

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on the results of indirect fluorescent antibody tests (IFATs) for Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi. The in vitro study used antibody-negative CSF collected from non-neurologic horses immediately after euthanasia and blood samples from 40 healthy horses that had a range of IFAT antibody titers against S. neurona and N. hughesi. Serial dilutions of whole blood were made in seronegative CSF to generate blood-contaminated CSF with red blood cell (RBC) concentrations ranging from 10 to 100,000 RBCs/microl. The blood-contaminated CSF samples were then tested for antibodies against both pathogens using IFAT. Blood contamination of CSF had no detectable effect on IFAT results for S. neurona or N. hughesi at any serologic titer when the RBC concentration in CSF was <10,000 RBCs/microl. At concentrations of 10,000-100,000 RBCs/microl of CSF, positive CSF results (IFAT titer >or=5) for S. neurona and N. hughesi were detected only when the corresponding serum titers were >or=160 and >or=80, respectively. The IFAT performed on CSF is reliable for testing horses for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis caused by S. neurona or N. hughesi, even when blood contamination causes the RBC concentration in CSF to be up to 10,000 RBCs/microl.

  10. DARPA Antibody Technology Program Standardized Test Bed for Antibody Characterization: Characterization of an MS2 sdAb Produced by U.S. Naval Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Biosurveillance (JPMO BSV), Critical Reagents Program instituted a quality program for the standardization of test methods to support more...standardization of antibody testing provides JPMO BSV with an invaluable platform for providing consistent, high- quality assays and reagents for current...Program (ATP) Quality MS2 coat protein (MS2CP) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  11. Detection of antibodies to proteases used in laundry detergents by the radioallergosorbent test.

    PubMed

    Dor, P J; Agarwal, M K; Gleich, M C; Welsh, P W; Dunnette, S L; Adolphson, C R; Gleich, G J

    1986-11-01

    Two proteases, Esperase and Alcalase, derived from Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis, respectively, are used in laundry products. In testing for the prevalence of IgE antibodies to these enzymes in sera among 300 laundry product workers, we experienced two problems in the establishment of a reliable RAST for these antigens. The first problem was the propensity of the allergen, Esperase, to undergo autolysis, suggesting that solid-phase Esperase might also lose reactivity through degradation. Treatment of Esperase with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride stabilized the enzyme and permitted the synthesis of a stable solid-phase antigen. The second problem was the finding that sera reactive with Esperase in the RAST were also reactive with Savinase, an enzyme from B. licheniformis to which the workers were not exposed. Immunochemical analyses of the three enzymes with specific rabbit antisera by gel diffusion and by two-site immunoradiometric assay demonstrated that they were not cross contaminated to any appreciable extent. RAST inhibition demonstrated that solid-phase Esperase possessed unique allergenic determinants in that the reactivity of IgE antibodies was inhibited by low concentrations of Esperase and only by very high concentrations of Alcalase and Savinase. In contrast, the reactivity of solid-phase Alcalase was occasionally inhibited equally well by Esperase and Alcalase. Most strikingly, the reaction of IgE antibodies with solid-phase Savinase was always inhibited by comparable quantities of Esperase, Alcalase, and Savinase. Thus, the establishment of the RAST for these proteases appears to require the use of phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride to retard autolysis, and the results must be interpreted with caution because IgE antibodies in certain sera demonstrate cross-reactivity with Alcalase and Savinase.

  12. The association between HIV media campaigns and number of patients coming forward for HIV antibody testing.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J D; Scott, G R

    1993-01-01

    AIM--To assess the relationship between national and local media campaigns with respect to the number of patients requesting HIV antibody tests as a surrogate marker of the effectiveness of different campaign strategies. METHODS--Analysis by month of the numbers of HIV tests performed in the regional genitourinary (GUM) clinic for Lothian over a 5 year period and in the whole of Lothian Region, Scotland over a 3 year period. Changes in testing rates were monitored with respect to media campaigns over the same time period. RESULTS--Television based media campaigns produced the greatest increase in testing rates (average 46% increase over 2 months) compared with newspapers and poster campaigns (average 6% increase over 2 months). Regional HIV testing rates correlated significantly with GUM clinic testing rates. No increase in positive HIV tests was seen following media campaigns. CONCLUSIONS--Using HIV testing rates as a surrogate marker, television based media campaigns appear to be the most effective way of increasing awareness of HIV. The effect of media campaigns is short-lived indicating a need for constant reminder of the dangers of HIV infection. The increase in HIV testing occurs largely in the "worried well" with few additional HIV positive patients being identified. PMID:8335311

  13. Antibody Fragments for On-Site Testing of Cannabinoids Generated via in Vitro Affinity Maturation.

    PubMed

    Morita, Izumi; Oyama, Hiroyuki; Yasuo, Mayumi; Matsuda, Kazuhisa; Katagi, Kengo; Ito, Aya; Tatsuda, Hiroka; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Norihiro

    2017-01-01

    Law enforcement against illicit use of cannabis and related substances requires rapid, feasible, and reliable tools for on-site testing of cannabinoids. Notably, methods based on cannabinoid-specific antibodies enable efficient screening of multiple specimens. Antibody engineering may accelerate development of modern and robust testing systems. Here, we used in vitro affinity maturation to generate a single-chain Fv fragment (scFv) that recognizes with high affinity the psychoactive cannabinoid, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A mouse monoclonal antibody against THC, Ab-THC#33, with Ka 6.2×10(7) M(-1) (as Fab fragment) was established by the hybridoma technique. Then, a "wild-type" scFv (wt-scFv) with Ka, 1.1×10(7) M(-1) was prepared by bacterial expression of a fusion gene combining the VH and VL genes for Ab-THC#33. Subsequently, random point mutations in VH and VL were generated separately, and the resulting products were assembled into mutant scFv genes, which were then phage-displayed. Repeated panning identified a mutant scFv (scFv#m1-36) with 10-fold enhanced affinity (Ka 1.1×10(8) M(-1)) for THC, in which only a single conservative substitution (Ser50Thr) was present at the N-terminus of the VH-complementarity-determining region 2 (CDR2) sequence. In competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the mutant scFv generated dose-response curves with midpoint 0.27 ng/assay THC, which was 3-fold lower than that of wt-scFv. Even higher reactivity with a major THC metabolite, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, indicated that the mutant scFv will be useful for testing not only THC in confiscated materials, but also the metabolite in urine. Indeed, the antibody fragment is potentially suitable for use in advanced on-site testing platforms for cannabinoids.

  14. Synthesis for Lunar Simulants: Glass, Agglutinate, Plagioclase, Breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Michael; Wilson, Stephen A.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Stoeser, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The video describes a process for making glass for lunar regolith simulants that was developed from a patented glass-producing technology. Glass composition can be matched to simulant design and specification. Production of glass, pseudo agglutinates, plagioclase, and breccias is demonstrated. The system is capable of producing hundreds of kilograms of high quality glass and simulants per day.

  15. Detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in fresh colostrum: a modification of the virus neutralization test.

    PubMed

    Bedekovic, Tomislav; Mihaljevic, Zeljko; Jungic, Andreja; Lemo, Nina; Lojkic, Ivana; Cvetnic, Zeljko; Cac, Zeljko

    2013-03-01

    To eliminate cytotoxic effects of colostrum on cells, a modified virus neutralization test (VNT) for the detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in colostrum was developed. The new test was compared to the World Organization for Animal Health-recommended VNT and the results evaluated. The agreement of the new test compared to the standard VNT was determined to be 98%, whereas sensitivity and specificity of the modified VNT compared to the standard VNT were 100%. Bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific antibodies were detected in 42 sera samples and 38 colostrum samples. The antibody titers in serum and colostrum showed a high correlation (n = 56, r = 0.9719, P < 0.001). The modified virus neutralization technique described herein succeeds in eliminating cytotoxic effects and can be readily applied for the detection of specific antibodies against other infectious agents in colostrum.

  16. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against putative colonization factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and their use in an epidemiological study.

    PubMed Central

    Viboud, G I; Binsztein, N; Svennerholm, A M

    1993-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against five putative colonization factors (PCFs), i.e., colonization factor antigen (CFA)/III, coli surface antigen (CS)7 and CS17, PCFO159, and PCFO166 of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), were produced. Hybridomas (one each) producing specific antibodies against the respective PCFs were selected. All the MAbs reacted with the corresponding fimbriae but not with CFA/I, CFA/II, or CFA/IV or the heterologous PCFs in bacterial agglutination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). In immunoelectron microscopy these MAbs bound along the fimbriae, and they also reacted with the corresponding subunits in immunoblots. The five MAbs were used to evaluate the prevalence of CFA/III, CS7, CS17, PCFO159, and PCFO166 in ETEC strains isolated from children with diarrhea in Argentina. One hundred five ETEC isolates negative for CFA/I, CFA/II, and CFA/IV were tested in slide agglutination or in a dot blot test for spontaneously agglutinating strains; positive results were confirmed by inhibition ELISAs. It was found that 27% of the CFA-negative ETEC strains carried one of the PCFs. The sensitivity of slide agglutination with these MAbs was similar to that with specific polyclonal antisera; however, the specificity was higher. PCFO166 was found in 9.5% of the strains tested, mainly in ETEC of serogroup O78 producing heat-stable toxin alone. CS17 and CS7 were identified in 6.7 and 5.7%, respectively, of strains producing heat-labile toxin only, most of which belonged to serogroup O114. PCFO159 was found in 3.8% of the isolates tested, whereas CFA/III was detected in only one ETEC strain. Images PMID:8096215

  17. Choosing wisely: Review and commentary on anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) testing.

    PubMed

    Fritzler, Marvin J

    2016-03-01

    Choosing Wisely®: Next Steps in Improving Healthcare Value is an initiative of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation. The driving forces for the Choosing Wisely (CW) campaign include rising and unstainable health care expenditures and evidence that there is lack of fiscal stewardship of health care resources. The American College of Rheumatology and the Canadian Rheumatology Association published their top five Choosing Wisely recommendations, the first of which pertained to antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and ANA subserology testing. Concerns about the wasteful use of these tests prompted an analysis of the expenditures attributable to ANA testing as a proportion of total health care expenditures and based on a financial model was in the range of 0.00125%. It is suggested that if the sole use of ANA testing is to add evidence to support a diagnosis when the pre-test probability is high, then the ANA test has limited clinical value. Accordingly, the goal of ANA testing needs to be reconsidered and expanded beyond an approach to simply confirming a diagnosis with 'intention to treat' to a goal of case finding of 'pre- or early disease' with an 'intent to prevent' disease. This an area where more significant inroads can be made in preventing end organ disease and thereby reducing health care expenditures HCE. One CW recommendation that bears emphasizing is that, with a few possible exceptions, repeat ANA or ANA subserology testing has little clinical value in monitoring disease activity or predicting a flare.

  18. Evaluation of the Vitros ECiQ immunodiagnostic system for detection of anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies for confirmatory testing for acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kasper, David C; Prusa, Andrea R; Hayde, Michael; Gerstl, Nicole; Pollak, Arnold; Herkner, Kurt R; Reiter-Reisacher, Rosmarie

    2009-01-01

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is often asymptomatic and, when acquired during pregnancy, may lead to connatal toxoplasmosis in the offspring. The newly introduced Vitros anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM assays, designed for the Vitros ECiQ immunodiagnostic system, a fully automated system based on chemiluminescence, were evaluated as a screening method for the serological detection of acute and chronic Toxoplasma infections in the sera of 719 pregnant women. The combination of the Vitros IgG and IgM assays demonstrated a sensitivity and a specificity of 100% for the successful detection of all acute T. gondii infections by comparison with the Sabin-Feldman dye test as the reference test. The Vitros IgG assay parameter revealed a sensitivity of 95.0%, a specificity of 100.0%, a positive predictive value of 100.0%, a negative predictive value of 86.2%, and an overall agreement of 96.2% by comparison with the dye test. Comparison of the Vitros Toxoplasma IgM assay with the immunosorbent agglutination assay yielded values of 77.1%, 99.0%, 97.7%, 88.5%, and 91.1%, respectively. Subsequent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for the accurate detection of Toxoplasma IgM in acute (n = 90) and chronic (n = 461) infections demonstrated high sensitivity (92.2%) and specificity (81.6%). The combination of a Toxoplasma-specific IgG assay with specific IgM antibody detection has improved the diagnosis of T. gondii infection by decreasing follow-up testing. Nonetheless, positive Toxoplasma IgM test results during pregnancy necessitate confirmatory testing by a reference laboratory to ensure fast and, above all, accurate test results.

  19. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) from Peru.

    PubMed

    Solorio, Mónica Romero; Gennari, Solange M; Soares, Herbert S; Dubey, J P; Hartley, Alfonso Christopher Zúñiga; Ferreira, Fernando

    2010-12-01

    In the Peruvian Amazon, the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) is a desirable game species and is important for the local rural economy. Blood samples from 101 white-lipped peccaries from Peru were collected from 3 different conservation areas located in the municipalities of Manu and Tambopata, southeastern region of the Peruvian Amazon. Antibodies were assayed using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut of value of 25). Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were found in 89.1% (90 of 101) of animals, with titers of 1 ∶ 25 in 9, 1 ∶ 50 in 25, 1 ∶ 100 in 20, 1 ∶ 200 in 14, 1 ∶ 400 in 12, 1 ∶ 800 in 9, and 1 ∶ 3,200 in 1; 87.7% and 89.2% of males and females, respectively, tested positively, and no association (P ≥ 0.05) with gender and occurrence of antibodies was observed.

  20. Comparison of optomagnetic and AC susceptibility readouts in a magnetic nanoparticle agglutination assay for detection of C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Fock, Jeppe; Parmvi, Mattias; Strömberg, Mattias; Svedlindh, Peter; Donolato, Marco; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2017-02-15

    There is an increasing need to develop biosensor methods that are highly sensitive and that can be combined with low-cost consumables. The use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is attractive because their detection is compatible with low-cost disposables and because application of a magnetic field can be used to accelerate assay kinetics. We present the first study and comparison of the performance of magnetic susceptibility measurements and a newly proposed optomagnetic method. For the comparison we use the C-reactive protein (CRP) induced agglutination of identical samples of 100nm MNPs conjugated with CRP antibodies. Both methods detect agglutination as a shift to lower frequencies in measurements of the dynamics in response to an applied oscillating magnetic field. The magnetic susceptibility method probes the magnetic response whereas the optomagnetic technique probes the modulation of laser light transmitted through the sample. The two techniques provided highly correlated results upon agglutination when they measure the decrease of the signal from the individual MNPs (turn-off detection strategy), whereas the techniques provided different results, strongly depending on the read-out frequency, when detecting the signal due to MNP agglomerates (turn-on detection strategy). These observations are considered to be caused by differences in the volume-dependence of the magnetic and optical signals from agglomerates. The highest signal from agglomerates was found in the optomagnetic signal at low frequencies.

  1. Antibodies against oxidized phospholipids in laboratory tests exploring lupus anti-coagulant activity

    PubMed Central

    Rolla, R; Vidali, M; Serino, R; Pergolini, P; Albano, E; Bellomo, G

    2007-01-01

    Lupus anti-coagulants (LA) are a variety of anti-phospholipid antibodies characterized by their capacity to interfere with phospholipid-dependent coagulation assays. LA are increasingly recognized as important predictors of thrombosis. However, the antigen specificity of LA is still poorly characterized. Growing evidence indicates that oxidized phospholipids are among the targets of anti-phospholipid antibodies. This prompted us to investigate the role of IgG directed against different oxidized phospholipids in 164 subjects without clotting factor defects that were tested for the presence of LA using a LA-sensitive activate partial thromboplastin time (aPTT-FSL) and a screening/confirmation assay based on diluted Russell's viper venom test (dRVVT-PL). The response to aPTT-FSL was significantly (P < 0·0005) associated with high titres of IgG against oxidized phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol, whereas positivity to dRVVT-PL was associated with the elevation of IgG against oxidized phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine (P < 0·0005) and phosphatidylinositol (P < 0·01). No difference in reactivity against oxidized cardiolipin was evident between the different groups. Positivity to the dRVVT-PL test was also associated significantly (P < 0·005) with the elevation of anti-cardiolipin and anti-β2-glycoprotein-1 IgG. However, stepwise logistic regression demonstrated that IgG recognizing oxidized phosphatidylethanolamine and oxidized phosphatidylcholine were the only independent predictors of the response to dRVVT-PL assay, while IgG recognizing oxidized phosphatidylethanolamine and oxidized phosphatidylinositol were independent predictors of the response to aPTT-FSL test. In conclusion, autoantibodies against defined oxidized phospholipids are independent predictors of LA detection by aPTT-FSL or dRVVT-PL assays and might contribute to the variability often observed in the responses to the functional

  2. Dengue antibodies in Polish travellers returning from the tropics. Evaluation of serological tests.

    PubMed

    Goljan, Jolanta; Myjak, Przemysław; Nahorski, Wacław; Kubica-Biernat, Beata; Felczak-Korzybska, Iwona; Kowalczyk, Danuta; Kuna, Anna; Kotłowski, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Dengue is a viral disease caused by an RNA virus of the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, occurring as four serotypes (DEN-1, -2, -3, -4). It is transmitted to humans by the Aedes mosquitoes, mainly A. aegypti. The occurrence of dengue is strictly related with their preferred breeding areas. Dengue endemic regions are inhabited by some 2.5 billion people. 50-100 million cases of dengue fever and up to 1 million cases of dengue haemorrhagic fever are noted worldwide in more than 100 countries every year. The aim of the reported examinations was to diagnose dengue virus infections in returning travellers. In the years 2006-2009 serological tests were performed in 753 persons. In the diagnostics we used ELISA to find IgM and/or IgG class of antibodies against dengue virus, rapid immunochromatographic (cassette) test, NS1 viral antigen detection by ELISA, and virus RNA detection by RT-PCR method. IgM or IgG class antibodies, and both classes simultaneously, were detected in 19.8% of the examined cases. The greatest number of infections came from India and the Far East, next from South and Central America, and the smallest number from Africa. Sixteen patients with diagnosed dengue, including three cases of dengue haemorrhagic fever, were hospitalized.

  3. Agglutinates as recorders of regolith evolution - Application to the Apollo 17 drill core

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

    1984-11-15

    Chemical data are reported for agglutinates from 26 depth intervals of the Apollo 17 deep drill core, and the compositions of the agglutinates are compared with those of the soils in which they occur. The agglutinate sequence suggests a scenario in which several closely-spaced depositional events were involved in the formation of the drill core, rather than a continuous accumulation process.

  4. Distribution of antibody against Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sawada, T; Hassanein, R; Yamamoto, T; Yoshida, T

    2001-05-01

    Serum samples collected from 854 cattle in nine prefectures of Japan, from Hokkaido to Okinawa, between 1988 and 1992 were examined for presence of antibodies against Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae by growth agglutination test. Most of the sera showed positive reactions, and the antibody titers ranged from below 4 to above 128. Seventy-six percent of the sera showed titers of 32 or above, and 34% showed titers of 128 or above. The titers had a tendency to be higher in the south and lower in the north and were clearly low in sera from areas with no swine industry. These results indicated that Japanese cattle had been infected with E. rhusiopathiae and that clinical cases of the disease were possible.

  5. Demystifying the Positive Antinuclear Antibody Test in Children: A Clinical Review.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Martha; Tesher, Melissa S; Wagner-Weiner, Linda

    2015-06-01

    A 15-year-old girl presented with knee pain, associated with a positive antinuclear antibody (ANA). She denied joint swelling or morning stiffness and remained physically active despite the pain. A physical examination was unremarkable except for articular hypermobility. Laboratory results were also unremarkable. Therefore, the positive ANA was determined to be nonspecific, and not concerning. In the evaluation of children with musculoskeletal complaints, unusual rash, or fatigue, an ANA assessment is frequently considered. When is this test most likely to be useful? What is the appropriate follow up for a positive result? Which results are concerning for an autoimmune process? This article reviews the literature to address these practical concerns. Understanding the indications for ordering an ANA, and the correct interpretation of a positive ANA, may reduce unnecessary referrals and costly tests. Moreover, the misperception that a positive ANA indicates a rheumatologic disease can cause significant patient and parental anxiety.

  6. Prevalence of antibodies against Leptospira sp. in snakes, lizards and turtles in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospiral infections in poikilothermic (cold blooded) animals have received very little attention and the literature concerning natural infections of these animals is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in reptiles, imported into Slovenia and intended to be pets in close contact with humans. A total of 297 reptiles (22 snakes, 210 lizards and 65 turtles) were tested for specific antibodies against serovars of Leptospira interrogans sensu stricto using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Live cultures of different serovars were used as antigens. MAT was performed according to standard procedures and the degree of reaction was interpreted by estimating the percentage of agglutinated leptospires. Samples showing titres of ≥ 50 against one or more serovars were considered as positive. Results Antibodies against seven pathogenic serovars of L. interrogans sensu stricto were detected in 46 of 297 reptiles. Among 22 snakes, specific antibodies against pathogenic serovars of three Leptospira species (L. interrogans, L. kirschneri and L. borgpetersenii) at titre levels from 1:50 to 1:400 were detected in 6 snakes. In 31 of 210 lizards, specific antibodies were found in titres from 1:50 to 1:1000 and, finally, among 65 turtles (terrapins and tortoises), 9 had specific antibodies at titre levels between 1:50 and 1:1600. Animals imported from non-EU countries showed significantly higher prevalence (25.0%; 95 confidence interval: 16.7–33.3%) than animals from EU member states (10.4%; confidence interval: 6.1–14.7%). Conclusions Reptiles may be considered as potential reservoirs of L. interrogans sensu stricto. Origin of the animals is a risk factor for presence of leptospiral antibodies, especially in lizards. Special attention should be focused on animals from non-EU member states. PMID:24020619

  7. Risk factors for feline immunodeficiency virus antibody test status in Cats Protection adoption centres (2004).

    PubMed

    Murray, Jane K; Roberts, Margaret A; Skillings, Elizabeth; Morrow, Lisa D; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J

    2009-06-01

    A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) within a population of cats entering 10 UK adoption centres run by Cats Protection. All cats entering the adoption centres during 2004 were tested for FIV using a rapid enzyme immunoassay antibody test. The overall prevalence of positive test results was 3.1% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 2.7-3.5%), whilst the prevalence at different adoption centres varied from 0.8% (95% CI 0.1-1.5%) to 6.7% (95% CI 4.9-8.5%). Results of the multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that male cats, stray/feral cats and cats in poor health were at a greater risk of testing positive for FIV than female cats, cats that were relinquished by an owner and cats that were in good/fair health, respectively. No evidence was found for an association between neuter status and FIV test results. This study may help to identify cats that are relinquished to rescue centres with an increased risk of FIV for routine FIV testing.

  8. Occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in Rhipidomys spp. from a forest fragment of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Gomes, D O; Ramos, G B; Alves, V B A; Ciuffa, A Z; Cuccato, L P; Dos Reis, T F M; Lima, A M C; Gonçalves, M C; Tolesano, G V; Rodrigues, V S; Szabó, M P J

    2017-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of world importance, and its transmission depends on the interaction between humans and animals. Given the necessity to investigate potential hosts of Leptospira spp., this study verified the prevalence of different serovars in the species of Rhipidomys spp., a widespread sigmodont rodent in Brazil. The studied population originates from a semi-evergreen forest located in the county of Uberlândia, in the state of Minas Gerais. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was performed with 14 serovars. Thirteen out of the 43 wild rodents captured showed a positive agglutination reaction, with a greater prevalence of the serovars Pyrogenes, Copenhageni, and Canicola. This study found a prevalence of 30.3% anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies; all positive animals were reactive to more than one serovar.

  9. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... techniques, antibodies to S. cerevisiae (baker's or brewer's yeast) in human serum or plasma. Detection of S. cerevisiae antibodies may aid in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. (b) Classification. Class II...

  10. Lack of Sarcocystis neurona antibody response in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) fed Sarcocystis neurona-infected muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Cheadle, M A; Lindsay, D S; Greiner, E C

    2006-06-01

    Serum was collected from laboratory-reared Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) to determine whether experimentally infected opossums shedding Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts develop serum antibodies to S. neurona merozoite antigens. Three opossums were fed muscles from nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), and 5 were fed muscles from striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). Serum was also collected from 26 automobile-killed opossums to determine whether antibodies to S. neurona were present in these opossums. Serum was analyzed using the S. neurona direct agglutination test (SAT). The SAT was modified for use with a filter paper collection system. Antibodies to S. neurona were not detected in any of the serum samples from opossums, indicating that infection in the opossum is localized in the small intestine. Antibodies to S. neurona were detected in filter-paper-processed serum samples from 2 armadillos naturally infected with S. neurona.

  11. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) from the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Kutz, S J; Elkin, B T; Panayi, D; Dubey, J P

    2001-04-01

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined in 147 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) from 5 herds in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, northern Canada, by the modified agglutination test (MAT). In the mainland herds (Bluenose, Bathurst, and Beverly), antibodies were found in 43 (37%) of 117 caribou, and MAT titers were 1:25 in 10, 1:50 in 24, and 1:500 in 9. In the island herds, only 1 (4.3%) of 23 animals sampled from the North Baffin Island herd was positive (titer = 1:25) and no antibodies were detected in 7 caribou from the Dolphin and Union herd. The high prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii in the mainland caribou herds indicates that caribou meat may contain viable T. gondii.

  12. Shaken, not stirred: mechanical stress testing of an IgG1 antibody.

    PubMed

    Kiese, Sylvia; Papppenberger, Astrid; Friess, Wolfgang; Mahler, Hanns-Christian

    2008-10-01

    Protein aggregation is known to occur under different stress conditions and displays a wide variety of morphologies. In this work, the aggregation behavior of a monoclonal antibody (IgG1) was investigated using two different mechanical stress methods namely stirring and shaking at two temperatures, various fill volumes and headspaces and different amounts of polysorbate present in the formulation. The detection of aggregates in terms of size and number was carried out using various analytical techniques including visible particle inspection, turbidity, sub-visible particle analysis, size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering. The data showed that shaking and stirring resulted in different species of aggregates both qualitatively and quantitatively, where stirring was found more stressful than shaking on the IgG1 formulation. Mechanical stress testing performed at 5 and 25 degrees C only showed a difference on samples stressed by shaking and not by stirring. The headspace in the vials had great influence on the stability of the protein formulation when stressed by shaking. The presence of polysorbate had a protective effect on the antibody, however certain polysorbate concentrations even resulted in increased protein aggregation. An array of analytical methods was essential in order to cover the vast aggregate morphologies, which occurred during agitation.

  13. Evaluation of the LIAISON ANA screen assay for antinuclear antibody testing in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Ghillani, P; Rouquette, A M; Desgruelles, C; Hauguel, N; Le Pendeven, C; Piette, J C; Musset, L

    2007-08-01

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are widely detected by immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells in patients with connective tissue diseases and other pathological conditions. We evaluated the first-automated chemiluminescence immunoassay for the detection of ANA (LIAISON ANA screen, DiaSorin). This study was carried out simultaneously in two laboratories by testing 327 patient samples with clinically defined connective diseases, 273 routine samples for ANA screening, and 300 blood donors. A total of 268 out of 337 IIF-positive sera were positive with LIAISON ANA screen (79.5% of agreement) and 240 out of 263 IIF-negative sera were negative with LIAISON ANA screen (91.2% of agreement). After resolution of discrepant results, the concordance reached, respectively, 94.9% and 98.8%. The specificity was 99.3% and the sensitivity was 94%. Unlike results obtained by other ANA screening assays, we observed acceptable sensitivity and specificity. Despite the presence of HEp-2 cell extract, we failed to detect some antibodies as antinucleolar, antinuclear envelope, and antiproliferating cell nuclear antigen. This automated assay allows quick process to results and exhibits satisfactory sensitivity for the detection of the main ANA specificities of connective tissue diseases.

  14. Performance Characteristics of a Rapid New Immunochromatographic Test for Detection of Antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Ferreira da Silva Pinto Neto, Lauro; Cunha, Carla B.; Cabral, Valéria P.; Dietze, Reynaldo

    2003-01-01

    A new immunochromatographic rapid test (Rapid Check HIV 1&2; Núcleo de Doenças Infecciosas) for the detection of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and type 2 in human samples (whole blood, serum, and plasma) was evaluated and compared to the commercially available Determine (Abbott Laboratories). When whole-blood samples were evaluated, the specificity and sensitivity of both tests were 100%. However, when plasma samples were used, sensitivity for the Rapid Check HIV 1&2 and the Determine tests were 100 and 98.58%, respectively. The observed specificity for plasma samples was 98.94% for the Rapid Check HIV 1&2 and 96.97% for the Determine test. The results presented here are encouraging and support the adoption of both tests as an alternative to enzyme-lined immunosorbent assay and/or Western blots in regions where laboratorial infrastructure is not available or for use in the management of occupational accidents for healthcare workers. PMID:12626458

  15. A comparison of HCV antibody testing in drug-free and methadone maintenance treatment programs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Shiela M; Astone, Janetta M; Jarlais, Don Des; Hagan, Holly

    2004-03-08

    Drug treatment programs are uniquely situated to screen patients for antibodies for hepatitis C virus (HCV), an infectious disease that has reached epidemic proportions among drug users. This paper compares the accessibility and patients' use of opportunities for HCV antibody testing in a large sample of methadone and drug-free treatment programs (N=256) in the US, and reports programs' recent changes and future plans concerning it. Results indicate that almost all methadone and about two-thirds of drug-free programs in the sample provided HCV antibody screening to at least some patients in 2001. While about two-thirds of the methadone and close to one-third of the drug-free programs offered this service to all patients, these programs report that only about 3/5 of their patients actually provided specimens for testing for HCV antibodies. Some drug treatment programs were planning to increase the availability and accessibility of HCV antibody screening, but others were planning to cut back on these services, primarily due to limited resources. These results can inform policymakers who advocate for increased HCV antibody screening in drug treatment programs about the current level and future plans for implementing these services, illuminating where resources and motivational efforts need to be targeted.

  16. Latex agglutination assays for detection and of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Latex agglutination assays were developed for the top six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups utilizing polyclonal antibodies. Rabbit antisera were affinity purified through Protein A/G columns and the isolated immunoglobulins (IgG) were covalently immobilized onto pol...

  17. Antinuclear antibody testing in pleural fluid for the diagnosis of lupus pleuritis.

    PubMed

    Porcel, J M; Ordi-Ros, J; Esquerda, A; Vives, M; Madroñero, A B; Bielsa, S; Vilardell-Tarrés, M; Light, R W

    2007-01-01

    We sought to determine whether measuring antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and their specificities [dsDNA, extractable nuclear antigens (ENA)] on pleural fluid may contribute to the differential diagnosis of pleural effusions. ANA were tested by indirect immunofluorescence on Hep-2 cells in the pleural fluid of 266 patients with effusions of different etiologies, including 15 lupus pleuritis. The cutoff value for diagnostic use was set at 1:160. Pleural fluid analysis of specific autoantibodies, such as anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA, was also performed if a positive ANA test was obtained. All patients with lupus pleurisy and 16 of 251 (6.4%) patients with pleural effusions secondary to other causes were ANA positive. Fifty-six percent of the positive ANAs in non-lupus pleural fluids were due to neoplasms. The pleural fluid ANA titers were low (< or = 1:80) or absent in two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and effusions due to other factors. Whereas ANA staining patterns in pleural fluid did not help to discriminate lupus pleuritis from non-lupus etiologies, the absence of pleural fluid anti-dsDNA or anti-ENA favored the latter. ANAs in pleural fluid provided no additional diagnostic information beyond that obtained by the measurement in serum and, therefore, these tests need not be routinely performed on pleural fluid samples. However, in patients with SLE and a pleural effusion of uncertain etiology, lack of ANAs or specific autoantibodies in pleural fluid argues against the diagnosis of lupus pleuritis.

  18. The meningococcal antibody test: how useful in the diagnosis of meningococcal disease?

    PubMed Central

    Weis, N.; Berthelsen, L.; Wachmann, H.; Lind, I.

    2005-01-01

    Based on 9257 [correction] blood samples received from 7365 patients with a request for a meningococcal antibody test (MAT) during a 10-year period (1986-1995), the usefulness of the test in the diagnosis of meningococcal disease was assessed. Of 635 patients with culture-confirmed meningococcal disease, 88% were seronegative on admittance to hospital and 90% were seropositive 10-15 days after onset of disease. The humoral immune response in children <2 years of age was weaker than in older children and adults. Among 893 MAT-positive patients without culture-confirmed meningococcal disease, 261 (29%) had been notified as cases of meningococcal disease. Among 228 patients notified as serologically confirmed the MAT results were consistent with the clinical diagnosis in 86%. MAT is a reliable tool for establishing a diagnosis in patients with suspected meningococcal disease. Key factors facilitating appropriate interpretation of negative as well as positive test results were: time(s) of sampling(s) after onset of disease, age of the patient and clinical features. PMID:15816146

  19. Neospora caninum antibodies in wild carnivores from Spain.

    PubMed

    Sobrino, R; Dubey, J P; Pabón, M; Linarez, N; Kwok, O C; Millán, J; Arnal, M C; Luco, D F; López-Gatius, F; Thulliez, P; Gortázar, C; Almería, S

    2008-08-17

    Serum samples from 251 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum by the commercial competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) and confirmed by Neospora agglutination test (NAT) and/or by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Samples with antibodies detected by at least two serological tests were considered seropositive. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 3.2% of 95 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes); in 21.4% of 28 wolves (Canis lupus); in 12.0% of 25 Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus); in 16.7% of 6 European wildcats (Felis silvestris); in 6.4% of 31 Eurasian badgers (Meles meles); in 21.4% of 14 stone martens (Martes foina); in 66.7% of 3 pine martens (M. martes) and in 50% of 2 polecats (Mustela putorius). Antibodies to N. caninum in common genets (Genetta genetta) and Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon) were only observed by c-ELISA but were not confirmed by IFAT and/or NAT. No antibodies were detected in 5 Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) by any technique. Statistically significant differences were observed among species and among geographical areas. The highest seroprevalence of N. caninum infection was observed in the Cantabric Coastal region characterized by high humidity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of antibodies to N. caninum in free ranging wild carnivores, other than wild canids, in Europe. The existence of a possible sylvatic cycle could have important implications in both sylvatic and domestic cycles since they might influence the prevalence of infection in cattle farms in those areas.

  20. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjobovis and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjoprajitno.

    PubMed Central

    Surujballi, O; Howlett, C; Henning, D

    1999-01-01

    Murine monoclonal antibodies were produced by immunizing BALB/c mice with a killed whole-cell antigen prepared from Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjobovis. Six of these antibodies recognized epitopes on the homologous antigen and on whole-cell antigen prepared from Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjoprajitno. These antibodies did not cross-react with whole-cell antigens prepared from L. borgpetersenii serovar sejroe, 10 other pathogenic Leptospira serovars, or the saprophytic Leptospira biflexa serovar patoc. Three other monoclonal antibodies reacted with antigens prepared from the 2 hardjo serovars and serovar sejroe but not with antigens from the 10 other pathogenic serovars, or serovar patoc. The epitopes recognized by all of the hardjo-specific antibodies and 2 of the 3 hardjo/sejroe-specific antibodies were susceptible to sodium meta-periodate oxidation. All of the antibodies were characterized by Western blots with the hardjobovis whole-cell antigen. Each of the 9 monoclonal antibodies was inhibited from binding to the hardjobovis antigen by bovine sera which were obtained from cattle experimentally infected with hardjobovis and from field cattle, with anti-serovar hardjo microscopic agglutination test antibody titres ranging from 100 to 12800. Some of these antibodies may be suitable for incorporation into competitive enzyme immunoassays for the specific detection of antibodies to either of the hardjo serovars. Images Figure 1. PMID:9918336

  1. The nature of the antibody response to Yersinia enterocolitica serotype IX in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Corbel, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    The nature of the antibody response of cattle to the antigen of Yersinia enterocolitica IX cross-reacting with Brucella spp. was examined. Density-gradient ultracentrifugation, ion-exchange chromatography, antibody adsorption and elution and disulphide bond reduction tests showed that both 19 S IgM and 7 S IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies were produced in response to the cross-reacting antigen. The highest titres of cross-reacting antibodies were detected by the agglutination and Coombs antiglobulin tests. Production of complement-fixing and precipitating antibodies cross-reacting with Br. abortus was transient and high titres were not attained. In contrast, although infection with Br. abortus also evoked cross-reacting antibodies of the IgM and IgG classes, much higher titres were produced in the complement fixation and precipitation tests and these persisted for long periods. At all stages of the serological response to both organisms, the two infections could be differentiated by the quantitative Rose Bengal plate test. PMID:4198202

  2. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003352.htm Serum herpes simplex antibodies To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Serum herpes simplex antibodies is a blood test that looks for antibodies ...

  3. 21 CFR 866.5120 - Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... serum. The measurements aid in the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) and autoimmune connective tissue diseases (diseases resulting from antibodies produced against the body's...

  4. Measurement of RBC agglutination with microscopic cell image analysis in a microchannel chip.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chi Hyun; Kim, Ju Yeon; Nyeck, Agnes E; Lim, Chae Seung; Hur, Dae Sung; Chung, Chanil; Chang, Jun Keun; An, Seong Soo A; Shin, Sehyun

    2014-01-01

    Since Landsteiner's discovery of ABO blood groups, RBC agglutination has been one of the most important immunohematologic techniques for ABO and RhD blood groupings. The conventional RBC agglutination grading system for RhD blood typings relies on macroscopic reading, followed by the assignment of a grade ranging from (-) to (4+) to the degree of red blood cells clumping. However, with the new scoring method introduced in this report, microscopically captured cell images of agglutinated RBCs, placed in a microchannel chip, are used for analysis. Indeed, the cell images' pixel number first allows the differentiation of agglutinated and non-agglutinated red blood cells. Finally, the ratio of agglutinated RBCs per total RBC counts (CRAT) from 90 captured images is then calculated. During the trial, it was observed that the agglutinated group's CRAT was significantly higher (3.77-0.003) than that of the normal control (0). Based on these facts, it was established that the microchannel method was more suitable for the discrimination between agglutinated RBCs and non-agglutinated RhD negative, and thus more reliable for the grading of RBCs agglutination than the conventional method.

  5. Veterans health administration hepatitis B testing and treatment with anti-CD20 antibody administration

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Christine M; Beste, Lauren A; Lowy, Elliott; Suzuki, Ayako; Moylan, Cynthia A; Tillmann, Hans L; Ioannou, George N; Lim, Joseph K; Kelley, Michael J; Provenzale, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate pretreatment hepatitis B virus (HBV) testing, vaccination, and antiviral treatment rates in Veterans Affairs patients receiving anti-CD20 Ab for quality improvement. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using a national repository of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) electronic health record data. We identified all patients receiving anti-CD20 Ab treatment (2002-2014). We ascertained patient demographics, laboratory results, HBV vaccination status (from vaccination records), pharmacy data, and vital status. The high risk period for HBV reactivation is during anti-CD20 Ab treatment and 12 mo follow up. Therefore, we analyzed those who were followed to death or for at least 12 mo after completing anti-CD20 Ab. Pretreatment serologic tests were used to categorize chronic HBV (hepatitis B surface antigen positive or HBsAg+), past HBV (HBsAg-, hepatitis B core antibody positive or HBcAb+), resolved HBV (HBsAg-, HBcAb+, hepatitis B surface antibody positive or HBsAb+), likely prior vaccination (isolated HBsAb+), HBV negative (HBsAg-, HBcAb-), or unknown. Acute hepatitis B was defined by the appearance of HBsAg+ in the high risk period in patients who were pretreatment HBV negative. We assessed HBV antiviral treatment and the incidence of hepatitis, liver failure, and death during the high risk period. Cumulative hepatitis, liver failure, and death after anti-CD20 Ab initiation were compared by HBV disease categories and differences compared using the χ2 test. Mean time to hepatitis peak alanine aminotransferase, liver failure, and death relative to anti-CD20 Ab administration and follow-up were also compared by HBV disease group. RESULTS: Among 19304 VHA patients who received anti-CD20 Ab, 10224 (53%) had pretreatment HBsAg testing during the study period, with 49% and 43% tested for HBsAg and HBcAb, respectively within 6 mo pretreatment in 2014. Of those tested, 2% (167/10224) had chronic HBV, 4% (326/7903) past HBV, 5% (427

  6. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, Besnoitia darlingi, and Neospora caninum in North American opossums, Didelphis virginiana, from southern Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Houk, Alice E; Goodwin, David G; Zajac, Anne M; Barr, Stephen C; Dubey, J P; Lindsay, David S

    2010-12-01

    We examined the prevalence of antibodies to zoonotic protozoan parasites ( Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi) and protozoans of veterinary importance ( Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Besnoitia darlingi) in a population of North American opossums ( Didelphis virginiana) from Louisiana. Samples from 30 opossums were collected as part of a survey for T. cruzi in Louisiana. Frozen sera from these 30 opossums were examined using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) against in vitro-produced antigenic stages of these protozoans. Additionally, 24 of the 30 samples were examined using hemoculture, and all 30 were examined in the modified direct agglutination test (MAT) for antibodies to To. gondii. The prevalences of reactive IFAT samples were as follows: 60% for T. cruzi, 27% for To. gondii, 23% for E. cuniculi, 17% for S. neurona, 47% for B. darlingi, and 0% for N. caninum. Hemoculture revealed that 16 (67%) of 24 samples were positive for T. cruzi, compared to 18 of 30 (60%) by IFAT. The sensitivity and specificity for the IFAT compared to hemoculture was 100% for each. The modified direct agglutination test revealed that 9 (30%) of the 30 samples from opossums had antibodies to To. gondii , compared to 8 (27%) using the IFAT. The sensitivity and specificity of the IFAT compared to the MAT was 100% and 72%, respectively.

  7. Radiometric cytolysis inhibition assay, a new rapid test for neutralizing antibodies to intact and trypsin-cleaved poliovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Hovi, T.; Roivainen, M.

    1989-04-01

    We have developed a new rapid test, the radiometric cytolysis inhibition assay (RACINA), for the determination of neutralizing poliovirus antibodies. HeLa cells prelabeled with /sup 51/Cr, (/sup 3/H)leucine, or, preferentially, with (/sup 3/H)uridine are used as sensitive quantitative indicators of residual infectious virus. Both suspensions and monolayer cultures of the indicator cells can be used. Neutralization of a fraction of a high-titer virus preparation can be scored after the first replication cycle at 8 to 10 h. By lowering the incubation temperature to 30/degree/C, the completion of the cytolysis due to the first replication cycle of poliovirus was delayed beyond 21 h. This makes it possible to use the RACINA, unlike the standard microneutralization assay, for measuring antibodies to trypsin-cleaved polioviruses. The RACINA was found to be as sensitive as and more reproducible than the standard microneutralization assay in the measurement of neutralizing poliovirus antibodies. The RACINA is a rapid and reliable test for neutralizing antibodies and in principle it may be applicable for quantitation of neutralizing antibodies to other cytolytic agents as well.

  8. EDTA dependent pseudothrombocytopenia caused by antibodies against the cytoadhesive receptor of platelet gpIIB-IIIA.

    PubMed Central

    Casonato, A; Bertomoro, A; Pontara, E; Dannhauser, D; Lazzaro, A R; Girolami, A

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To clarify the mechanisms involved in the development of EDTA dependent pseudothrombocytopenia, particularly the platelet receptors. METHODS--Platelets were measured in 33 patients with pseudothrombocytopenia, using different anticoagulants to collect blood samples (direct test). The results were compared with the counts obtained by adding patients' serum or immunoglobulins to normal blood samples (indirect test). The role of platelet function was explored using ASA, PGE1, and apyrase as platelet inhibitors. The contribution of platelet receptor/s was investigated using antigens to gpIb-IX and gpIIb-IIIa monoclonal antibodies. Immunoglobulin class was estimated by the ability of IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies to prevent platelet clumping. RESULTS--Agglutinating antibodies were IgA in 40%, IgG in 30%, and IgM in 10% of patients studied. Both patients' serum and immunoglobulins induced platelet clumping in normal samples anticoagulated with EDTA (indirect test). This was prevented by incubation of blood samples at 37 degrees C and almost completely inhibited by the platelet inhibitors ASA, PGE1, and apyrase. Pseudothrombocytopenia was also entirely prevented by an antigen to gpIIb-IIIa monoclonal antibody that recognises fibrinogen and the von Willebrand factor binding site. Pseudothrombocytopenia was almost completely abolished after the addition of RGD peptide, the recognition sequence of cytoadhesive proteins. CONCLUSIONS--These findings suggest that EDTA dependent pseudothrombocytopenia is caused by agglutinating antibodies that recognise cytoadhesive receptors on platelet gpIIb-IIIa and that an efficient platelet metabolism is required. PMID:8089218

  9. Amyloidogenic amyloid-β-peptide variants induce microbial agglutination and exert antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Philipp; Condic, Mateja; Herrmann, Martin; Oberstein, Timo Jan; Scharin-Mehlmann, Marina; Gilbert, Daniel F.; Friedrich, Oliver; Grömer, Teja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lang, Roland; Maler, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are the main components of the plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. However, Aβ peptides are also detectable in secretory compartments and peripheral blood contains a complex mixture of more than 40 different modified and/or N- and C-terminally truncated Aβ peptides. Recently, anti-infective properties of Aβ peptides have been reported. Here, we investigated the interaction of Aβ peptides of different lengths with various bacterial strains and the yeast Candida albicans. The amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-42, Aβ2-42, and Aβ3p-42 but not the non-amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-40 and Aβ2-40 bound to microbial surfaces. As observed by immunocytochemistry, scanning electron microscopy and Gram staining, treatment of several bacterial strains and Candida albicans with Aβ peptide variants ending at position 42 (Aβx-42) caused the formation of large agglutinates. These aggregates were not detected after incubation with Aβx-40. Furthermore, Aβx-42 exerted an antimicrobial activity on all tested pathogens, killing up to 80% of microorganisms within 6 h. Aβ1-40 only had a moderate antimicrobial activity against C. albicans. Agglutination of Aβ1-42 was accelerated in the presence of microorganisms. These data demonstrate that the amyloidogenic Aβx-42 variants have antimicrobial activity and may therefore act as antimicrobial peptides in the immune system. PMID:27624303

  10. Augmentation of the neutralisation test for type 1 HSV: evidence of high representation of neutralising antibody in the adult community.

    PubMed

    Holmes, P J; Hallworth, J A; Stocker, D I; Skinner, G R

    1985-01-01

    Optimal neutralisation of type 1 herpes simplex virus was obtained by reacting undiluted human serum with virus for 4 h at 37 degrees C, followed by addition of antihuman globulin for 20 min; under these conditions it was possible to detect neutralising antibody activity in 40 of 45 human sera (88%) previously adjudged to be negative by conventional neutralisation tests.

  11. DARPA Antibody Technology Program Standardized Test Bed for Antibody Characterization: Characterization of an MS2 Human IgG Antibody Produced by AnaptysBio, Inc.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Quality Testing MS2 coat protein (MS2CP) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...CRP) members instituted a quality program for the standardization of test methods to more fully characterize and compare the physical and functional...platform for providing consistent, high- quality assays and reagents, not only for use in current biodetection platforms, but also for developing and

  12. A serological survey of Australian wildlife for antibodies to Leptospires of the Hebdomadis serogroup.

    PubMed

    Durfee, P T; Presidente, P J

    1979-04-01

    A serological survey for antibodies to Leptospira interrograns serovar hardjo was conducted on 574 serum samples from 10 native and 4 introduced wildlife species in south-eastern Australia. The microscopic agglutination (MA) test was used, and titres to hardjo antigen were detected in 33.5% of 352 brushtailed possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) sampled in several areas of Victoria. Prevalence of reactors ranged from 14 to 66% in 4 populations examined intensively. Serovar balcanica was isolated from possums with hardjo antibodies from two different areas. Of 20 wombats Vombatus ursinus) examined in Victoria, antibodies to hardjo were found in sera from 4 and titres to Pyrogenes and Pomona serogroups were detected in another. Hardjo antibodies were demonstrated in sera from 13 of 19 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis). Negative MA test results to hardjo antigens were recorded in 55 mountain possums (T. caninus), 63 macropods (Macropus spp.), 17 water rats (Hydrmys chrysogaster), 39 fallow deer (Dama dama), 2 hog deer (Axis porcinus) and 2 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalus). No MA antibodies to any of 16 leptospiral serogroups were detected in 17 water rats tested. Kidneys were examined from 330 of these animals and focal interstitial nephritis suggestive of leptospirosis was found in kidneys of 63 of 169 T. vulpecula, 3 of 55 T. caninus, 12 of 18 V. ursinus, 6 of 22 Macropus spp., 9 of 16 H. chrysogaster, 5 of 11 C. timorensis and 3 of 39 D. dama. A statistical association between focal interstitial nephritis and MA antibodies to hardjo was found in T. vulpecula.

  13. Agglutination of human O erythrocytes by influenza A(H1N1) viruses freshly isolated from patients.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Seto, Y; Kimura, T; Minoshiro, S; Shibe, K

    1991-04-01

    The hemagglutinin titers of 10 influenza A (H1N1) viruses were examined using the erythrocytes of several species. Human O erythrocytes showed the highest agglutination titer to the viruses, whereas chicken erythrocytes showed a low titer. These findings were noted for at least 10 passages by serial dilutions of the viruses in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. All influenza A(H1N1) viruses, plaque-cloned directly from throat-washing specimens of patients, also agglutinated human O but not chicken erythrocytes. The results of a hemadsorption test indicated that chicken erythrocytes possess less affinity to MDCK cells infected with the A/Osaka City/2/88(H1N1) stain than to those infected with the A/Yamagata/120/86(H1N1) strain which is used as an inactivated influenza vaccine in Japan. However, there were no significant differences between the A/Osaka City/2/88 and the A/Yamagata/120/86 strains in the hemagglutination inhibition test. Since human O erythrocytes have high agglutination activity to influenza A(H1N1) and also to A(H3N2) and B viruses in MDCK cells, these erythrocytes may be useful for the serological diagnosis of influenza.

  14. Evaluation of the indirect fluorescent antibody test for diagnosis of Babesia gibsoni infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Yamane, I; Thomford, J W; Gardner, I A; Dubey, J P; Levy, M; Conrad, P A

    1993-10-01

    We determined the extent of the serologic cross-reactivity in the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test for Babesia gibsoni, and the optimal cut-off titer for seropositivity in the test. The lowest titer to B gibsoni detected in a dog with naturally acquired clinical babesiosis was 1,280, and 7 of 12 dogs had titer between 10,240 and 20,480. Two experimentally infected normosplenic dogs developed high titer (40,960 to 81,920) to B gibsoni, and the same sera reacted in IFA tests for B canis (titer < or = 640), Toxoplasma gondii (titer < or = 2,560), and Neospora caninum (titer < or = 10,240). Dogs that were experimentally infected with B canis and T gondii had titer < or = 160 to B gibsoni. Dogs that were experimentally infected with N caninum had titer (80 to 10,240) to N caninum, but failed to have serologic reactivity to B gibsoni. Serologic titer of healthy dogs from Australia, a country where B gibsoni is not known to exist, was < or = 160 to B gibsoni. On the basis of these findings, a cut-off titer of 320 was considered to be appropriate for serodiagnosis of B gibsoni in dogs with clinical signs of babesiosis. A more conservative titer of 1,280 was established as the cut-off titer for seroepidemiologic studies based on relative costs and benefits of false-positive results and failure to isolate B gibsoni parasites after splenectomy and immunosuppression from a clinically normal dog with B gibsoni titer of 640.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Formation of agglutinate-like particles in an experimental regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Horz, Friedrich

    1988-01-01

    Agglutinate-like particles composed predominantly of glass were produced from a fragmental gabbro target that was repetitively impacted by Ni-alloy projectiles. The experimental glasses are much more heterogeneous in composition than their lunar counterparts, and they are dominated by incomplete mixing of melted component minerals and by plagioclase-rich compositions. Most of the particles are found to be highly enriched in feldspar and to be sustantially fractionated relative to the initial bulk target. It is suggested that fractionation trends within lunar agglutinitic glasses may be partly due to phase-specific melting.

  16. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    MedlinePlus

    ... name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; RBC Antibody Screen ; Blood Typing ; Type ... a positive RBC antibody screen or a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) . It is used to identify ...

  17. Antibodies to Neospora caninum in European brown hare (Lepus europaeus).

    PubMed

    Ezio, Ferroglio; Anna, Trisciuoglio

    2003-07-10

    Neospora caninum antibodies in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) were reported for the first time in sera collected from hares imported in Italy from East Europe. Sera from 93 hares coming from Hungary and 44 hares coming from Slovakia were tested using a direct agglutination test (DAT). Seroprevalence was 8.0% at the 1:40 dilution and 1.5% at 1:320 dilution. Seroprevalence in females and males and in different countries of origin did not differ significantly. Our results indicate that European brown hares are exposed to N. caninum. The low prevalence observed suggests a hares minimal exposure, but, considering that hares are common prey for foxes, it could be supposed that, also with a low prevalence, hares can be an important source of N. caninum infection in foxes.

  18. Reconstructing a 3-dimensional image of the results of antinuclear antibody testing by indirect immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Murai, Ryosei; Yamada, Koji; Tanaka, Maki; Kuribayashi, Kageaki; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Tsuji, Naoki; Watanabe, Naoki

    2013-01-31

    Indirect immunofluorescence anti-nuclear antibody testing (IIF-ANAT) is an essential screening tool in the diagnosis of various autoimmune disorders. ANA titer quantification and interpretation of immunofluorescence patterns are determined subjectively, which is problematic. First, we determined the examination conditions under which IIF-ANAT fluorescence intensities are quantified. Next, IIF-ANAT was performed using homogeneous, discrete speckled, and mixed serum samples. Images were obtained using Bio Zero BZ-8000, and 3-dimensional images were reconstructed using the BZ analyzer software. In the 2-dimensional analysis, homogeneous ANAs hid the discrete speckled pattern, resulting in a diagnosis of homogeneous immunofluorescence. However, 3-dimensional analysis of the same sample showed discrete speckled-type ANA in the homogeneous background. This study strengthened the current IIF-ANAT method by providing a new approach to quantify the fluorescence intensity and enhance the resolution of IIF-ANAT fluorescence patterns. Reconstructed 3-dimensional imaging of IIF-ANAT can be a powerful tool for routine laboratory examination.

  19. Effect of leukocyte antibodies on the fate in vivo of indium-111-labeled granulocytes

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, J.; Weiblen, B.J.; Clay, M.E.; Forstrom, L.

    1981-07-01

    The effect of different leukocyte antibodies on the fate in vivo of granulocytes is not known. Thus, the optimum in vitro serologic tests to determine a safe and effective granulocyte transfusion or to diagnose immune destruction of granulocytes in other clinical situations have not been identified. We have studied the effect of granulocyte agglutinating (GA), granulocytotoxic (GC), and lymphocytotoxic (LC) antibodies on the intravascular recovery and half-life (t 1/2) and the extravascular localization of Indium-111-granulocytes in 50 patients. GA antibodies caused reduced granulocyte recovery and t 1/2 in three of three non-neutropenic patients (one with anti-NB1), increased sequestration of cells in the liver, and failure of granulocytes to localize at sites of infection in two of two patients (one with anti-NA1). In contrast, GC antibodies in five patients and LC antibodies in one patient did not cause reduced intravascular recovery or t 1/2 of granulocytes. In nine patients with GC and six patients with LC antibodies, incompatible granulocytes localized at known sites of infection. It appears that GA, but not GC nor LC, antibodies alter the fate in vivo of granulocytes.

  20. Levels of antibody to Staphylococcus epidermidis in patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Puhvel, S M; Warnick, M A; Sternberg, T H

    1965-07-01

    Sera from 23 patients with acne vulgaris of varying degrees and sera from 15 patients with skin diseases other than acne were tested for antibody levels to Staphylococcus epidermidis by use of bacterial agglutination and agar-gel immunodiffusion. Antibody levels to S epidermidis varied from 0 to 1:160 in both the patients with acne and in the control groups. There was no correlation between the antibody level to S epidermidis and the degree of acne. In a previous investigation it was found that antibody levels to Corynebacterium acnes are significantly increased in serum from patients with papulopustular and cystic acne. Both S epidermidis and C acnes can frequently be isolated from lesions in acne. The fact that antibody levels are increased to C acnes but not to S epidermidis may indicate that the mere presence of an organism in the acne lesion is not sufficient stimulation for antibody formation. The increase of antibody to C acnes which was demonstrated previously in patients with severe acne vulgaris may therefore reflect a direct involvement of the organism in the acne process.

  1. X-linked immunodeficient mice as a model for testing the protective efficacy of monoclonal antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Zweerink, H J; Gammon, M C; Hutchison, C F; Jackson, J J; Pier, G B; Puckett, J M; Sewell, T J; Sigal, N H

    1988-01-01

    (DBA/N[female] X CBA/2[male])F1 males have been reported to be deficient in producing antibodies against a number of antigens, including carbohydrates (I. Scher, Adv. Immunol. 35:1-71, 1982). We show that F1 male mice, in contrast to females, made less lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific antibodies after immunization with heat-inactivated Pseudomonas aeruginosa and had significantly less naturally occurring LPS-specific antibodies. Furthermore, neutropenic males were 50 to 1,000 times more sensitive to challenge with representative isolates belonging to the seven Fisher immunotypes. Administration to neutropenic F1 males of a human monoclonal antibody specific for the O carbohydrates of P. aeruginosa immunotype 2 LPS or administration of serum from rabbits immunized with heat-inactivated P. aeruginosa immunotype 1 raised the level of resistance to bacterial challenge close to that of females. The results show that the X-linked immunodeficient mouse is an excellent model with which to test the protective efficacy of P. aeruginosa-specific monoclonal antibodies. PMID:3128480

  2. Mechanisms of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI): anti-leukocyte antibodies.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Brian R; McFarland, Janice G

    2006-05-01

    There is abundant evidence that leukocyte antibodies in blood donor products are somehow involved in transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I, HLA class II, and neutrophil-specific antibodies in the plasma of both blood donors and recipients have been implicated in the pathogenesis of TRALI. The case for a relationship between leukocyte antibodies and TRALI is more compelling if concordance between the antigen specificity of the leukocyte antibodies in the donor plasma and the corresponding antigen on the cells of the affected recipient is demonstrated. Such antibody-antigen concordance can be investigated by typing the recipient for the cognate leukocyte antigens or by cross-matching the donor plasma against the recipient's leukocytes. Two proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms for TRALI have received the most attention: the antibody hypothesis and the two-event hypothesis. The final common pathway in all of the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of TRALI is increased pulmonary capillary permeability, which results in movement of plasma into the alveolar space causing pulmonary edema. A typical TRALI serologic workup consists of tests for HLA class I and II and neutrophil-specific antibodies. The use of flow cytometry and HLA-coated microbeads is recommended for detection of HLA antibodies in plasma of implicated blood donors and a combination of the granulocyte agglutination test and granulocyte immunofluorescence test for detection of neutrophil-specific antibodies. Genotyping for class I and II HLA and for a limited number of neutrophil antigens may also be helpful in establishing antibody-antigen concordance.

  3. [Validation of antibody screening by indirect antigloblin test and ABO blood typing by filtration and microplate techniques: assessment of robustness].

    PubMed

    Mannessier, L; Delamaire, M; Bouix, O; Krause, C; Roubinet, F

    2006-10-01

    According to requirements of the French Committee for Accreditation (Cofrac), it is essential to use validated and standardised methods in Immunohematology. This imposes first the knowledge of metrological tolerances for all the technics. Two multicenter studies were carried out to define the maximal acceptable deviations concerning incubation temperature and time, volumes of patient plasma and tests cells for antibody screening using indirect antiglobulin test on one hand and for reverse grouping on another hand. All equipment used (temperature test chamber, chronometer, pipettes) were calibrated according to Cofrac standards. The antibody screenings were performed manually using 3 different filtration systems: ID Diamed, Biovue Ortho and Scangel Biorad, the same tests cells, a standard 20 ng/mL anti RH1, a positive control anti KEL1 and a negative control; the reverse blood grouping was performed manually using the above mentionned filtration systems and microplate technic with the same A1 and B test cells. These two studies showed that all the tests from the multiples combinations of the above parameters gave the same results and allowed us to define a range of tolerance for 4 critical physical parameters involved in the antibody screening and blood typing.

  4. Quantitative determination of fibrinogen of patients with coronary heart diseases through piezoelectric agglutination sensor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qinghai; Hua, Xing; Fu, Weiling; Liu, Dongbo; Chen, Ming; Cai, Guoru

    2010-01-01

    Fibrinogen can transform fibrin through an agglutination reaction, finally forming fibrin polymer with grid structure. The density and viscosity of the reaction system changes drastically during the course of agglutination. In this research, we apply an independently-developed piezoelectric agglutination sensor to detect the fibrinogen agglutination reaction in patients with coronary heart diseases. The terminal judgment method of determining plasma agglutination reaction through piezoelectric agglutination sensor was established. In addition, the standard curve between plasma agglutination time and fibrinogen concentration was established to determinate fibrinogen content quantitatively. The results indicate the close correlation between the STAGO paramagnetic particle method and the method of piezoelectric agglutination sensor for the detection of Fibrinogen. The correlation coefficient was 0.91 (γ = 0.91). The determination can be completed within 10 minutes. The fibrinogen concentration in the coronary heart disease group was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group (P < 0.05). The results reveal that high fibrinogen concentration is closely correlated to the incurrence, development and prognosis of coronary heart diseases. Compared with other traditional methods, the method of piezoelectric agglutination sensor has some merits such as operation convenience, small size, low cost, quick detecting, good precision and the common reacting agents with paramagnetic particle method.

  5. Antibodies to H5 subtype avian influenza virus and Japanese encephalitis virus in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Spackman, Erica; Yeh, Jung-Yong; Fujita, Go; Konishi, Kan; Reed, John A.; Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Brown, Justin D.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Blood samples from 105 northern pintails (Anas acuta) captured on Hokkaido, Japan were tested for antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and West Nile virus (WNV) to assess possible involvement of this species in the spread of economically important and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Antibodies to AIV were detected in 64 of 105 samples (61%). Of the 64 positives, 95% and 81% inhibited agglutination of two different H5 AIV antigens (H5N1 and H5N9), respectively. Antibodies to JEV and WNV were detected in five (5%) and none of the samples, respectively. Results provide evidence for prior exposure of migrating northern pintails to H5 AIV which couldhave implications for viral shedding and disease occurrence. Results also provide evidence for limited involvement of this species in the transmission and spread of flaviviruses during spring migration.

  6. Serological cross-reaction between Legionella pneumophila and campylobacter in the indirect fluorescent antibody test.

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, T. C.; Kudesia, G.

    1992-01-01

    Sera from 50 patients with culture-proven campylobacter gastroenteritis were examined for the presence of antibodies to Legionella pneumophila. Ten patients (20%) had a positive titre (> or = 16) as measured by indirect immunofluorescence. Antibodies were detected in only 1 of 36 acute sera but in 10 of 14 (71%) sera obtained more than 10 days after the onset of symptoms. All positive sera contained specific IgM antibodies but specific IgG or IgA could not be detected in any sample. No legionella antibodies could be detected in sera from 42 similar patients with salmonella gastroenteritis. These results were shown to be due to serological cross-reaction between L. pneumophila and campylobacter. PMID:1397117

  7. Antibody Development and Immunoligand Assay Testing of MS2 Bacteriophage on the Light Addressable Potentiometric Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    fluoresceinated immunocomplexes are immobilized followed by reaction with an anti-fluorescein urease - conjugated antibody. Analyte quantitation is...monoclonal 5A4-1 detector antibody ..... 11 Flgurm 7. ELISA sandwich assay using LAPS assay format with the ani-fluorescem urease antbody...accomplished by placing the urease -labeled immunocomplex into a reader containing a 100-mM solution of urea. Hydrolysis of the urea produces a

  8. Negative serosurvey of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Golden-headed Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) from Niterói/RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Molina, Camila Vieira; Krawczak, Felipe da Silva; Bueno, Marina Galvão; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Genari, Solange Maria; Pissinatti, Alcides; Kierulff, Maria Cecília Martins; Silva, Tiago Ferreira da; Freitas, Danilo Gomes de; Caneli, Larissa Cristinne; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2016-12-01

    New World Nonhuman Primates are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. Serum samples from 126 recently captured Leontopithecus chrysomelas, from an exotic and invasive population, were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25); all were seronegative. The MAT is highly specific and is not species-specific. This is the first report of T. gondii survey in this tamarin in the wild. This result is consistent with prior reports that showed the high susceptibility of the species to infection by T. gondii usually with high mortality rates.

  9. Significance of serum antibody test for toxocariasis in healthy healthcare examinees with eosinophilia in Seoul and Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Seok; Jin, Yan; Choi, Min-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Young Ha; Yoon, Cheong Ha; Hwang, Eui-Hyuk; Kang, Hun; Ahn, Sang-Yong; Kim, Gi Jin; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2014-12-01

    There have been numerous reports on the relationship between eosinophilia and toxocariasis. The present study investigated seropositive rates of toxocariasis among healthy people with or without eosinophilia in urban and rural areas, and assessed risk factors for positive antibody test. A total of 610 healthy people, who visited health check-up (Medicheck®, Korea Association of Health Promotion), 310 from Seoul and 300 from Gyeongsangnam-do, were subjected for this study. Their serum samples were tested by ELISA with the crude antigen of Toxocara canis larvae. Cross-reactions with other tissue invading helminth antigens were also investigated. Total antibody positive rate of toxocariasis was 8.7% of the 610 subjects. When the subjects were grouped into 3 by their eosinophil counts, the antibody positive rates significantly differed by the groups; 5.9% (18/306) in the group<350/µL, 10.0% (11/110) in the group 350-500/µL, and 12.4% (24/194) in the group>500/µL (P=0.028). A total of 22 serum samples cross-reacted with other tissue-invading helminth antigens. A questionnaire analysis recognized drinking alcohol and smoking as significant risk factors of toxocariasis. In conclusion, toxocariasis antibody positive rate is correlated with eosinophil counts. It is recommended that healthy subjects with eosinophilia by routine health examination and risk factors undergo Toxocara serology by multiantigen ELISA to investigate etiology.

  10. Effect of haemolysis and repeated freeze-thawing cycles on wild boar serum antibody testing by ELISA

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Monitoring wildlife diseases is needed to identify changes in disease occurrence. Wildlife blood samples are valuable for this purpose but are often gathered haemolysed. To maximise information, sera often go through repeated analysis and freeze-thaw cycles. Herein, we used samples of clean and haemolysed Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) serum stored at -20°C and thawed up to five times to study the effects of both treatments on the outcome of a commercial ELISA test for the detection of antibodies against Suid Herpesvirus 1 (ADV). Results The estimated prevalence of antibodies against ADV was 50-53% for clean and haemolysed sera. Hence, haemolysis did not reduce the mean observed serum antibody prevalence. However, 10 samples changed their classification after repeated freeze-thawing. This included 3 (15%) of the clean sera and 7 (41%) of the haemolysed sera. Conclusions We recommend (1) establishing more restrictive cut-off values when testing wildlife sera, (2) recording serum quality prior to sample banking, (3) recording the number of freezing-thawing cycles and (4) store sera in various aliquots to reduce repeated usage. For instance, sera with more than 3 freeze-thaw cycles and a haemolysis of over 3 on a scale of 4 should better be discarded for serum antibody monitoring. Even clean (almost not haemolysed) sera should not go through more than 5 freeze-thaw cycles. PMID:22087883

  11. Detection and identification of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in a large and consecutive cohort of serum samples referred for ANA testing

    PubMed Central

    Peene, I; Meheus, L; Veys, E; De Keyser, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To provide data on (a) the probability of detecting antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in a large and consecutive cohort of serum samples referred for ANA testing and (b) the probability of detecting more specific antinuclear reactivities (anti-DNA and anti-extractable nuclear antigens (anti-ENA)) in serum samples with a positive screening test (indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells).
METHODS—Serum samples from 10 550 consecutive patients sent to the laboratory for ANA detection were analysed. In ANA positive serum samples (23.5% of referred serum samples), ANA were identified by indirect immunofluorescence on Crithidia, by immunodiffusion, and by line immunoassay. Because anti-SSA antibodies were the most frequently identified ANA, sensitively detected by line immunoassay, additional immunoassays were developed to confirm the specificity of the line immunoassay result.
RESULTS—At least one fine reactivity could be identified in 21.1% of ANA positive serum samples: anti-dsDNA in 3.2%; anti-ENA (anti-SSA 10.5%, anti-SSB 6.7%, anti-RNP 2.7%, anti-Sm 1.8%, anti-Scl70 1.2%, anti-Jo-1 0.2%) in 15.8%, rRNP and anti-Cenp-B in respectively 0.5% and 4.0%. Multiple reactivities were found in 7.9%. For anti-ENA antibodies, line immunoassay was more sensitive than immunodiffusion (15.4% v 7.7%; p<0.0001). The sensitive detection of anti-SSA antibodies by line immunoassay was confirmed by additional assays.
CONCLUSIONS—The data from this analysis are useful in estimating the probabilities of detecting specific ANA. Line immunoassay was shown to be a sensitive test for the detection of anti-ENA antibodies.

 PMID:11709455

  12. Activity, specificity, and titer of naturally occurring canine anti-DEA 7 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Baggiani, Luciana; Canzi, Ilaria; Perego, Roberta

    2016-11-01

    The reported prevalence of naturally occurring anti-dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 7 antibodies in DEA 7-negative dogs is as high as 50%. Characterization of these antibodies may better define their importance in canine transfusion medicine. We determined in vitro activity, specificity, and titer of anti-DEA 7 antibodies in DEA 7-negative dogs. Plasma samples from 317 DEA 7-negative dogs were cross-matched with DEA 7-positive red blood cells (RBCs) using gel column technology. Agglutination occurred with DEA 7-positive RBCs but not with DEA 7-negative RBCs in 73 samples (23%), which were hence classified as containing anti-DEA 7 antibodies. These samples were evaluated for hemolytic and agglutinating activity, strength of agglutination, and antibody specificity and titers. All samples showed agglutination but none showed hemolysis. Gel agglutination was graded as 1+ for 20 samples (27%), 2+ for 49 samples (67%), 3+ for 4 samples (6%); no samples were graded 4+. The agglutination titer was <1:2 for 51 samples (73%), 1:2 for 13 samples (19%), 1:4 for 4 samples (5%), and 1:8 for 2 samples (3%). Of 16 samples treated with 2-mercaptoethanol, 11 samples (69%) contained only IgM, 4 samples (25%) exhibited only IgG activity, and 1 sample (6%) had both IgG and IgM activity. Low titers of warm, weakly agglutinating, mostly naturally occurring IgM anti-DEA 7 antibodies were found in 23% of DEA 7-negative dogs. The presence of naturally occurring anti-DEA 7 antibodies suggests that cross-matching of canine blood recipients is advisable, even at first transfusion, to minimize delayed transfusion reactions.

  13. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Antarctic pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Rengifo-Herrera, Claudia; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Alvarez-García, Gema; Gómez-Bautista, Mercedes; García-Párraga, Daniel; García-Peña, Francisco Javier; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana

    2012-11-23

    The presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies was investigated in Antarctic marine mammals. Two hundred and eleven sera from different species of pinnipeds collected in years 2007, 2010 and 2011 from different locations in the South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula were analysed using a commercially available agglutination test kit. The presence of antibodies (titres ≥ 1:25) against T. gondii was detected in a total of 28 animals (13.3%). Amongst animal species, percentages of detection were higher in Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) (76.9%; 10/13) followed by Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) (41.9%; 13/31). Antibodies were also found in 4 of 165 (2.4%) Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 1 of 2 Crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophaga). Highest titres (1:100-1:800) were also observed in Southern elephant seals and Weddell seals. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the detection of antibodies against T. gondii in Antarctic marine mammals.

  14. [Development of new approaches to standartization of enzyme immunoassay test systems for detection of antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus using electron microscopy and monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Krivitskaia, V Z; Sirotkin, A K; Samoĭlovich, M P; Sominina, A A

    1999-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), strain Long, was purified through 20-60% sucrose gradient. The virions from different sucrose density zones were tested by ELISA for reactivity with monoclonal antibodies (MAB) to F- (MAB 9C5) and N- (MAB 8B10) proteins of RSV. Comparative study of the same patterns of RSV by electron microscopy after negative staining showed a close relationship between the virion morphology and MAB binding in ELISA. MAB 9C5 were highly reactive with the surface domains of both mature RSV virions and "empty" virion envelopes without formed inner nucleocapsid structures. MAB 8B10 reacted well only with mature virions with completely assembled nucleocapsids. These MAB failed to reorganize the N-protein epitope of immature and destroyed virions, which indicated a conformation dependence of the 8B10 binding site. For practical purposes, MAB tests can be used to determine the RSV patterns, which can be used in ELISA for serologic diagnosis of RSV infection. Testing with these MAB demonstrate the stability of RSV to extreme exposures (lyophilization, storage, heating), which is important for creation of sensitive ELISA test systems and their standardization.

  15. Quantitation of enterovirus 70 antibody by microneutralization test and comparison with standard neutralization, hemagglutination inhibition, and complement fixation tests with different virus strains.

    PubMed Central

    Hierholzer, J C; Bingham, P G; Coombs, R A; Stone, Y O; Hatch, M H

    1984-01-01

    We describe here a microneutralization procedure for conveniently testing large numbers of specimens for antibodies to enterovirus 70. The test utilized human rhabdomyosarcoma cells and was read by staining with crystal violet after 4 days of incubation. The test compares well with other serological assays, being more sensitive than the standard tube neutralization test and the complement fixation test, but less sensitive than the hemagglutination inhibition test. However, the hemagglutination inhibition test required concentrated, partially purified virus as antigen, as did the complement fixation test, and was difficult to read, so that its greater sensitivity may not be of practical significance. By all four test procedures, a recent isolate of enterovirus 70 was a more sensitive antigen than the prototype strain, as shown by greater geometric mean titers in sera of patients from various epidemics. Images PMID:6206088

  16. Development and validation of a point-of-care test for detecting hantavirus antibodies in human and rodent samples.

    PubMed

    Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Aoki, Mateus Nóbrega; Jorge, Taissa Ricciardi; Suzukawa, Andréia Akemi; Zanluca, Camila; Levis, Silvana; Duarte Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes

    2016-07-01

    Hantaviruses are etiologic agents of a zoonotic disease transmitted mainly from wild rodents to humans, causing Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Eurasia and the Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome in the Americas (HCPS), reaching a lethality rate of 40% in Brazil. Hantavirus diagnostic and seroprevalence are often based on the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies against the virus. Here we propose a rapid test assay able to identify hantavirus antibodies with sensibility and specificity similar to ELISA assays. We analyzed five groups of samples, including healthy human population and small mammals of endemic areas, suspected cases of HCPS, patients with non-related infections and a serum panel from a different geographical region. The test presented good rates of sensibility (87-100%) and specificity (97-100%) for all groups, being a promising tool suitable for both rodent and human hantavirus epidemiological surveys.

  17. Protective levels of canine distemper virus antibody in an urban dog population using plaque reduction neutralization test.

    PubMed

    Oyedele, O I; Oluwayelu, D O; Cadmus, S I B; Odemuyiwa, S O; Adu, F D

    2004-09-01

    Blood samples from 50 dogs were collected at three veterinary clinics in Ibadan and Abuja, Nigeria and the serum from each sample was evaluated serologically for neutralizing antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) by the highly sensitive plaque reduction (PRN) neutralization assay. Thirteen dogs had plaque reduction neutralization titres of 0-100, seven had titres of 100-1,000 while 30 had titres ranging from 1,000-6,000. The PRN titres of vaccinated dogs were found to be significantly higher than unvaccinated dogs. The widespread use of the highly reproducible PRN test for the evaluation of antibody response to CDV may be very important in the generation of international CDV positive serum standards that should help to improve pre-and post-vaccination testing of dogs worldwide.

  18. Evaluation of capillary zone electrophoresis for charge heterogeneity testing of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Bernd; Schnaible, Volker; Kiessig, Steffen; Heyne, Andrea; Wild, Markus; Finkler, Christof; Christians, Stefan; Mueller, Kerstin; Zhang, Li; Furuya, Kenji; Hassel, Marc; Hamm, Melissa; Rustandi, Richard; He, Yan; Solano, Oscar Salas; Whitmore, Colin; Park, Sung Ae; Hansen, Dietmar; Santos, Marcia; Lies, Mark

    2015-03-01

    with a 30cm capillary which demonstrates that an increased stability indicating potential can be combined with the increased separation velocity and high throughput capability of a shorter capillary. Separation can be performed in as little as approx. 3min allowing high throughput applications. The intercompany study delivered precise results without explicit training of the participating labs in the method prior to the study (standard deviations in the range of 1%). It was demonstrated that CZE is an alternative platform technology for the charge heterogeneity testing of antibodies in the pharmaceutical industry.

  19. An experimental investigation of agglutinate melting mechanisms - Shocked mixtures of sodium and potassium feldspars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Horz, F.; See, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an experiment designed to test the validity of the model for agglutinate formation involving fusion of the finest fraction or F3 are reported. Impact glasses were formed from various mixes of orthoclase and albite powders, which were used as analogs for soils with chemically constrasting coarse and fine fractions. The results showed that the single most important factor displacing the composition of a small-scale impact melt from the bulk composition of the source regolith is the fractionated composition of the finest soil fraction. Volatile loss and the amount of melting, which in turn are determined by the degree of shock, are also important. As predicted by the model, the lower pressure melts are the most fractionated, and higher pressure is accompanied by increased melting causing glass compositions to approach the bulk. In general, the systematics predicted by the model are observed; the model appears to be valid.

  20. [Identification of mosquitoes' human food source by using the co-agglutination technique].

    PubMed

    Castex, M; Fachado, A; Fonte, L

    1997-01-01

    The utilization of a coagglutination technique for the identification of a human source for feeding mosquitoes is described. The dilution of ingested blood samples in filter paper was performed in 2 mL of a sodium chloride solution at 0.85%. It was used a suspension of sensibilized Staphylococcus aureus with rabbit's serum, human plasmatic anti-proteins, and human anti-IgG rabbit's serum discriminated well between human and non human blood. No agglutination was observed with the negative control. This technique proved to be sensitive to identify 100% of the human blood samples taken to the paper 24 hours after the mosquitoes completed their feeding at a temperature of 26 to 28 degrees C. Among mosquitoes fed and collected in the fields the test had a satisfactory result. Therefore, it may be used in routine work in the fields. The results showed the sensitivity and specificity of this method for identifying human blood ingested by mosquitoes.

  1. Platelet associated antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003552.htm Platelet-associated antibodies blood test To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a ...

  2. Lyme disease antibody

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. The Lyme disease blood test looks for antibodies in the blood to the bacteria that causes ... needed. A laboratory specialist looks for Lyme disease antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA test . ...

  3. Clinical laboratory applications of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, W J; Marshall, D L; Shockley, R K; Martin, W J

    1988-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) technology is well recognized as a significant development for producing specific serologic reagents to a wide variety of antigens in unlimited amounts. These reagents have provided the means for developing a number of highly specific and reproducible immunological assays for rapid and accurate diagnosis of an extensive list of diseases, including infectious diseases. The impact that MAbs have had in characterizing infectious disease pathogens, as well as their current and future applications for use in clinical microbiology laboratories, is reviewed. In addition, the advantages (and disadvantages) of the use of MAbs in a number of immunoassays, such as particle agglutination, radioimmunoassays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunofluorescent-antibody assays, and immunohistology, are explored, including the use of these reagents in novel test system assays. Also, nucleic acid probe technology is compared with the use of MAbs from the perspective of their respective applications in the diagnosis of infectious disease agents. There is no question that hybridoma technology has the potential to alter significantly the methods currently used in most clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:3058298

  4. Investigation of spore surface antigens in the genus Bacillus by the use of polyclonal antibodies in immunofluorescence tests.

    PubMed

    Phillips, A P; Martin, K L

    1988-01-01

    Fluorescein-conjugated rabbit antibodies to formalized spores of Bacillus anthracis were tested against strains of B. anthracis and other Bacillus species in a subjective immunofluorescence test. The lack of reaction of B. anthracis Vollum spores with conjugated antibody raised against B. anthracis Sterne spores indicated that spores of the Vollum strain lacked a major surface antigen present in most of the other anthrax strains tested, including the non-encapsulated strains Sterne and the Soviet ST1, variants cured of the pX01 plasmid that codes for the toxin, and several virulent strains. Four other antibody preparations, raised against B. anthracis Vollum, New Hampshire, Ames and Strain 15, reacted to an approximately similar degree with spores of all four strains and of Sterne, indicating that Vollum has at least one spore antigen in common with these other strains. The anti-Sterne and anti-Vollum conjugates both displayed cross-reactions with spores of strains of B. cereus, B. coagulans, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. polymyxa, B. pumilus and B. thuringiensis. Absorption of the anti-anthrax conjugates with B. cereus NCTC 8035 and NCTC 10320 removed all these cross-reactions, demonstrating the existence of spore antigens specific for anthrax.

  5. Development of a peptide based latex agglutination assay for serotype identification of foot and mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Dilpreet; Kaur, Gurpreet; Chandra, Mudit; Saxena, Hari M; Dwivedi, Padam N

    2013-02-01

    Out of 200 serum samples collected from cattle (142) and buffaloes (58) of various ages and sexand subjected to latex agglutination test (LAT) using serotype specific peptides (O, A, Asia 1) and also with peptide for non-structural protein 2B (NSP-2B), 114 (70%) samples were positive against FMDV type 'O', 102 (51%) against serotype 'A' and 104 (52%) against serotype 'Asia 1'. With NSP-2B peptide a total of 71 (35.5%) samples were positive. The results suggest that LAT could be used for the diagnosis of foot and mouth disease virus as it is easy, cheap and effective test.

  6. An early Cambrian agglutinated tubular lophophorate with brachiopod characters

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Z.-F.; Li, G.-X.; Holmer, L. E.; Brock, G. A.; Balthasar, U.; Skovsted, C. B.; Fu, D.-J.; Zhang, X.-L.; Wang, H.-Z.; Butler, A.; Zhang, Z.-L.; Cao, C.-Q.; Han, J.; Liu, J.-N.; Shu, D.-G.

    2014-01-01

    The morphological disparity of lophotrochozoan phyla makes it difficult to predict the morphology of the last common ancestor. Only fossils of stem groups can help discover the morphological transitions that occurred along the roots of these phyla. Here, we describe a tubular fossil Yuganotheca elegans gen. et sp. nov. from the Cambrian (Stage 3) Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Yunnan, China) that exhibits an unusual combination of phoronid, brachiopod and tommotiid (Cambrian problematica) characters, notably a pair of agglutinated valves, enclosing a horseshoe-shaped lophophore, supported by a lower bipartite tubular attachment structure with a long pedicle with coelomic space. The terminal bulb of the pedicle provided anchorage in soft sediment. The discovery has important implications for the early evolution of lophotrochozoans, suggesting rooting of brachiopods into the sessile lophotrochozoans and the origination of their bivalved bauplan preceding the biomineralization of shell valves in crown brachiopods. PMID:24828016

  7. A comparison of the complement fixation, indirect fluorescent antibody, and microagglutination tests for the serological diagnosis of rickettsial diseases.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, V F; Shepard, C C; Redus, M D; Tzianabos, T; McDade, J E

    1979-03-01

    Three techniques for the serological diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever were compared by testing 417 sera from 178 patients who very probably did not have rickettsial infections and 88 sera from 41 patients who very probably had Rocky Mountain spotted fever (SF). The techniques were complement fixation (CF), indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA), and microagglutination (MA). To avoid possible degradation during unnecessary purification, the antigens were prepared by methods that were as simple as possible. In the CF tests of 417 sera from patients with nonrickettsial diseases there was only one titer of 8 and none at higher dilutions, whereas with the IFA and MA tests 4-8% of the sera reacted with SF antigens and 4-20% reacted with murine typhus (MT) antigens; the evidence indicated that these reactions were not caused by specific rickettsial antibody. With the SF sera, it could be seen that the IFA test was the most sensitive and the MA test was the least sensitive at each interval after infection. Moreover, the IFA results showed the least number of confusing cross-reactions with MT antigens and the MA test showed the most. The relative advantages of the three tests in serodiagnosis of rickettsial diseases are discussed.

  8. Human blood group typing based on digital photographs of RBC agglutination process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubrovski, V. A.; Dolmashkin, A. A.

    2010-08-01

    A method for the monitoring of the human erythrocyte agglutination reaction in vitro, which is the basis for determining the human blood type (group), is proposed. The method is based on a statistical analysis of digital photographs of the agglutination process. It is experimentally shown that this analysis of photographs makes it possible to determine the probability that the agglutination reaction of erythrocytes of the studied specimen of blood with corresponding isohemagglutinating sera does occur. To increase the rate of the agglutination reaction of erythrocytes and to improve the sensitivity of the method of monitoring, the bioobject under study is subjected to the action of ultrasonic waves, as was previously proposed by the authors, and the result of the erythrocyte agglutination reaction is read optically. It is shown that, in principle, the method of statistical processing of digital photographs can be used to develop devices for automatic human blood typing in the AB0 and Rh systems.

  9. Cysticercus antibodies and antigens in serum from blood donors from Pondicherry, India.

    PubMed

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Balamurungan, N; Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; Subbaiah, S P

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to screen the serum of blood donors, which are apparently healthy and residing in Pondicherry or its neighboring districts of Tamil Nadu State, for specific detection of Cysticercus antigens and antibodies. A total of 216 blood samples were collected from blood donors at the Central Blood Bank, JIPMER Hospital, Pondicherry, India during January and February 2004. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to demonstrate anti-Cysticercus antibodies and the Co-agglutination (CoA) was used to detect antigen in sera. 14 (6.48 %) males were positive for either anti-Cysticercus antibodies or antigens. Of these eight sera were positive for anti-Cysticercus antibodies and six were positive for antigens. Results of the present study show that serum Cysticercus antigen detection may be a useful adjunct to antibody testing for seroprevalence studies of cysticercosis in the community. The present study is the first kind of study, carried out to determine both cysticercal antibodies as well as antigens in the serum samples collected from the healthy blood donors.

  10. Serologic tests for detecting antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa).

    PubMed

    Boadella, Mariana; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Greenwald, Reena; Esfandiari, Javan; Jaroso, Raquel; Carta, Tania; Garrido, Joseba M; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2011-01-01

    New tools to detect exposure of free-range Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) to pathogenic mycobacteria would be valuable for improved disease surveillance and wildlife management. Two hundred sera from wild boar of known Mycobacterium bovis infection status were used to evaluate test suitability for the detection of antibodies against M. bovis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (or cross-reacting members of the M. avium complex). Two traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were evaluated using M. bovis purified protein derivative (bPPD) and paratuberculosis protoplasmatic antigen 3 (PPA3) as antigens, respectively, and a new point-of-care test format for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) that uses the innovative dual-path platform (DPP TB) test. The effect of individual factors (sex, age, lesions) on the diagnostic performance of the serologic tests was also determined. Although the DPP had a sensitivity of 89.6% and a specificity of 90.4%, for bPPD, the sensitivity was 79.2% and the specificity 100%. Both tests had a kappa agreement of 0.80. Sixty-five of 68 (95.6%) wild boar sera with antibodies against the PPA3 antigen corresponded to known M. bovis-infected wild boar. Significant differences were not observed in the bPPD and DPP readings among lesion categories or between age classes. A slight sex-related difference in sensitivity toward males in the DPP was found, but it was not detected in the bPPD enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results support the use of antibody-based diagnostic tests for both large-scale and individual bTB testing of Eurasian wild boar and suggest that wild boar cannot be used as sentinels for infections caused by M. avium complex members.

  11. Comparative study of immunofluorescent antinuclear antibody test and line immunoassay detecting 15 specific autoantibodies in patients with systemic rheumatic disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Ah; Kahng, Jimin; Kim, Yonggoo; Park, Yeon-Joon; Han, Kyungja; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Park, Sung-Hwan; Oh, Eun-Jee

    2012-07-01

    Based on the currently proposed algorithms, antibodies specificities (sp-ANAs) are identified mainly in samples positive for fluorescent antinuclear antibodies (FANA) screening tests. The purpose of the present study was to compare diagnostic performances of FANA and line immune assay (LIA) detecting 15 sp-ANAs in patients with systemic rheumatic diseases (SRD). In 948 sera from the patients with SRD (n = 590) and non-SRD (n = 358), we evaluated the fluorescent patterns and intensities in the FANA test, and compared the FANA results with sp-ANAs against nRNP, Sm, SS-A, Ro52, SS-B, Scl-70, PM/Scl, Jo-1, CENP B, PCNA, dsDNA, nucleosome, histone, ribosomal-P, and M2. The sensitivity and specificity was 75.9% and 52.5% of FANA test and 62.0% and 84.4% of sp-ANAs test for SRD detection. The overall agreement between FANA and sp-ANAs results was 69.2% (Kappa coefficient; 0.404). According to the clinical diagnosis, the levels of agreement varied from 33.3% to 83.1%. The positive predictive values of each FANA pattern for the detection of sp-ANAs were less than 50% except for the discrete speckled pattern (91.7%). The 1:100 intensity of FANA as well as the monoreactivity of LIA, anti-SSA(-)/anti-Ro52(+), or FANA(-)/sp-ANAs(+) was associated with non-SRD. Antibodies against ribosomal-P or PCNA were specific for systemic lupus eryhthematosus. This study highlights the need for careful interpretation of FANA test results to assess sp-ANAs and the application of sp-ANAs tests including less-common autoantibodies. In patients with clinical suspicion of SRD, screening with both FANA and sp-ANAs tests could improve diagnostic efficiency.

  12. Presence of antibodies against Leptospira serovars in Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae), La Pampa province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kin, Marta S; Brihuega, Bibiana; Fort, Marcelo; Delgado, Fernando; Bedotti, Daniel; Casanave, Emma B

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of antibodies against 21 Leptospira reactive serovars in Chaetophractus villosus in La Pampa province, Argentina, using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Pathologic changes compatible with leptospirosis and in situ detection of the agent by immunohistochemistry were studied in 24 and 3 individuals respectively. Only 35/150 (23.3%) serum samples had antibodies against Leptospira sp. Six percent of the samples reacted with serovar Canicola, 4.7% with serovar Castellonis, 1.3% with serovar Icterohemorrhagieae and 0.7% with serovar Hardjo. Sixteen (10.6%) serum samples agglutinated with Castellonis-Icterohemorrhagiae and Canicola-Castellonis serovars, both with 4.7%, and Canicola-Hardjo and Castellonis-Canicola-Icterohemorrhagiae both with 0.6%. Fourteen animals had variable degrees of lesions, which were more severe in animals with higher serological titers (3200), and Leptospira sp. was detected in 3 animals by immunohistochemistry. These results represent the first record of the presence of Leptospira in C. villosus in La Pampa.

  13. Undiagnosed leptospirosis cases in naïve and vaccinated dogs: properties of a serological test based on a synthetic peptide derived from Hap1/LipL32 (residues 154-178).

    PubMed

    Andre-Fontaine, Geneviève; Aviat, Florence; Marie, Jean-Lou; Chatrenet, Benoit

    2015-04-01

    Leptospirosis is a common disease in dogs, despite having current vaccinations. However, leptospirosis diagnosis based on the routine Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) leads to confusing conclusions, especially for infected vaccinated dogs. Indeed, both bacterin and natural infection stimulate the production of agglutinating antibodies. In experimentally infected dogs, antibodies against the peptide PP derived from Hap1/Lipl32 were raised earlier than agglutinating antibodies. The background level of these antibodies was determined in a group of 109 healthy dogs, either vaccinated or not against leptospirosis, with a specificity for IgM of 96.4% and for IgG of 95.5%. PP ELISA was subsequently performed with 118 sera from dogs with suspected leptospirosis that was not confirmed by MAT. New leptospirosis cases based on the PP ELISA results were suspected in 14 out of 102 vaccinated dogs and in two out of 16 non-vaccinated dogs. These results highlight the importance of serological diagnosis corresponding to an interesting window when it is too late for PCR detection and too early to be confirmed by MAT.

  14. Evaluation of fluorescent-antibody tests as a means of confirming infant botulism.

    PubMed Central

    Glasby, C; Hatheway, C L

    1984-01-01

    Fluorescent-antibody techniques were evaluated for confirming infant botulism. Seventy-seven stool specimens from suspected cases were examined. All 34 specimens containing viable Clostridium botulinum at time of study gave positive results (29 on direct smears and 34 on enrichments). Two false-positive reactions were observed. Images PMID:6394626

  15. Antibodies Expressed by Intratumoral B Cells as the Basis for a Diagnostic Test for Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    CD38 APC-Cy5.5, immunoglobulin M (IgM) FITC, and IgD PE (BD Biosciences, Mountain View, CA; Beckman Coulter, and Invitrogen). During the sort, we...the blot for 2 h at room temperature, washed the membrane, and detected bound antibody with goat anti-human IgGγ chain-HRP conjugate. This was

  16. [Evaluation of a Computer-Aided Microscope System and Its Anti-Nuclear Antibody Test Kit for Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Nobuhide; Saegusa, Jun; Uto, Kenichi; Oyabu, Chinami; Saito, Toshiharu; Sato, Itsuko; Kawano, Seiji; Kumagai, Shunichi

    2016-02-01

    Antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing is indispensable for diagnosing and understanding clinical conditions of autoimmune diseases. The indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is the gold standard for ANA screening, and it can detect more than 100 different antibodies, such as anti-PCNA as well as anti-cytoplasmic antibodies. However, complicated procedures of conventional IFA and visual interpretation require highly skilled laboratory staff. This study evaluates the capability, characteristics, and applicability of the recently developed ANA detection system (EUROPattern Cosmic IFA System, EPA) using HEp20-10 cells and the automated pattern recognition microscope. Findings using EPA and conventional methods were compared in 282 sera obtained from connective tissue disease patients and 250 sera from healthy individuals. The concordance of the positivity rate, antibody titer (within +/- 1 tube difference), and the accurate recognition rate of ANA patterns between the automated EPA method and the microscopic judgement of the EPA image by eye was 98.9, 97.4, and 55.3%, respectively. The EPA method showed concordance of the positivity rate as high as 93.3% and concordance of the antibody titer as high as 94.0% (within +/- 1 titer) compared with the conventional method. Regarding the four typical patterns of ANA (homogeneous, speckled, nucleolar, and centromere), large differences between the EPA and conventional methods were not observed, and the rate of concordance between the final EPA result and the conventional method was from 94.1 to 100%. The positivity rate of ANA using the EPA and conventional methods showed marked agreement among the six connective tissue diseases (SLE, MCTD, SSc, PM/DM, and SS) and healthy individuals. Although the EPA system is not considered a complete system and laboratory staff should verify the results, it is a useful system for routine ANA analysis because it contributes to ANA standardization and an efficient workflow.

  17. RBC Antibody Screen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cell Antibody Screen Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; Blood Typing ; RBC Antibody Identification ; Type and Screen; Crossmatch All content on Lab Tests Online has been reviewed and approved by our Editorial Review Board . At a ... screen is used to screen an individual's blood for antibodies directed against red blood cell (RBC) ...

  18. Antiphospholipid antibody testing for the antiphospholipid syndrome: a comprehensive practical review including a synopsis of challenges and recent guidelines.

    PubMed

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Wong, Richard C W

    2014-10-01

    The antiphospholipid (antibody) syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune condition characterised by a wide range of clinical features, but primarily identified as thrombotic and/or obstetric related adverse events. APS is associated with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), including the so-called lupus anticoagulant (LA). These aPL are heterogeneous in nature, detected with varying sensitivity and specificity by a diverse range of laboratory tests. All these tests are unfortunately imperfect, suffer from poor assay reproducibility (inter-method and inter-laboratory) and a lack of standardisation and harmonisation. Clinicians and laboratory personnel may struggle to keep abreast of these factors, as well as the expanding range of available aPL tests, and consequent result interpretation. Therefore, APS remains a significant diagnostic challenge for many clinicians across a wide range of clinical specialities, due to these issues related to laboratory testing as well as the ever-expanding range of reported clinical manifestations. This review is primarily focussed on issues related to laboratory testing for APS in regards to the currently available assays, and summarises recent international consensus guidelines for aPL testing, both for the liquid phase functional LA assays and the solid phase assays (anticardiolipin and anti-beta-2-Glycoprotein-I).

  19. Development of a Time and Cost Benefit Antibody Binding Test-Based Method for Determination of Rabies Vaccine Potency.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Vahid; Mojtabavi, Nazanin; Janani, Alireza; Mousavi, Tahereh; Hadjati, Jamshid; Khosravy, Mohammad Sadeq; Ahangari Cohan, Reza

    2017-04-01

    This study is an improvement on the antibody binding test, known as ABT method, to develop a simple and fast method in comparison with NIH for determination of rabies vaccine potency. In the current study, several commercial human and veterinary vaccines were tested using both modified ABT and NIH methods. The ED50 was calculated using the probit method and the relative potency of each vaccine was measured based on the reference vaccine. The test was repeated four times to calculate the reproducibility of the method. Statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant difference between the result obtained from NIH and modified ABT method for either human or veterinary vaccines (p > 0.05). In addition, the linearity of the method (R(2)) was calculated as 0.94 by serial dilution of a test vaccine. Coefficient variances were determined as less than and more than 10% for the human and veterinary rabies vaccines, respectively. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the modified method could be considered as an alternative approach for rabies vaccine potency determination in in-process quality control tests at industrial scale. It is a time and cost benefit method and accuracy may further be increased by employing monoclonal antibodies against trimeric form of G glycoprotein. However, the use of serum samples may be useful compared with an artificial mix of antibodies because other components from the serum samples could have a positive impact on cell sensitivity and mimic more the complexity of the immune response. Although the modified test has solved a fundamental problem, it is still not sensitive enough for veterinary vaccine assessment and needs further modifications to obtain the acceptability criteria.

  20. False positive hepatitis C antibody test results in left ventricular assist device recipients: increased risk with age and transfusions.

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Grace Y; Lee, Doreen; Colovai, Adriana; Levy, Dana; Vasovic, Ljiljana; Roach, Keith W; Shuter, Jonathan; Goldstein, Daniel; D'Alessandro, David; Jorde, Ulrich P; Muggia, Victoria A

    2017-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have been successfully used in patients with heart failure. However, LVADs may trigger immune activation, leading to higher frequencies of autoantibodies. We describe the clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics of LVAD recipients with false positive hepatitis C (FPHC) serology among 39 consecutive adult LVAD recipients who bridged to heart transplantation from January 2007 to January 2013 at Montefiore Medical Center. FPHC patients were identified as those with post-LVAD positive hepatitis C ELISA antibody tests and negative confirmatory testing with hepatitis C RNA PCR and/or radioimmunoblot assay. Ten (26%) patients previously seronegative for hepatitis C were found to have FPHC after device placement. Of the 39 patients, 32 had HeartMate II devices. The mean age at LVAD placement was 55 years. FPHC correlated with older age at the time of LVAD implantation and with receipt of packed red blood cell transfusions, but not with gender, fresh frozen plasma transfusions, panel reactive antibodies, globulin fraction, rheumatoid factor, or anticardiolipin antibodies. Clinicians should be aware of this increased risk of FPHC in older LVAD patients and those more heavily transfused in order to avoid unnecessary apprehension and possible delay in transplantation. Further studies should be done to evaluate the possible relationship between transfused blood products and immunomodulation.

  1. False positive hepatitis C antibody test results in left ventricular assist device recipients: increased risk with age and transfusions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Doreen; Colovai, Adriana; Levy, Dana; Vasovic, Ljiljana; Roach, Keith W.; Shuter, Jonathan; Goldstein, Daniel; D’Alessandro, David; Jorde, Ulrich P.; Muggia, Victoria A.

    2017-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have been successfully used in patients with heart failure. However, LVADs may trigger immune activation, leading to higher frequencies of autoantibodies. We describe the clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics of LVAD recipients with false positive hepatitis C (FPHC) serology among 39 consecutive adult LVAD recipients who bridged to heart transplantation from January 2007 to January 2013 at Montefiore Medical Center. FPHC patients were identified as those with post-LVAD positive hepatitis C ELISA antibody tests and negative confirmatory testing with hepatitis C RNA PCR and/or radioimmunoblot assay. Ten (26%) patients previously seronegative for hepatitis C were found to have FPHC after device placement. Of the 39 patients, 32 had HeartMate II devices. The mean age at LVAD placement was 55 years. FPHC correlated with older age at the time of LVAD implantation and with receipt of packed red blood cell transfusions, but not with gender, fresh frozen plasma transfusions, panel reactive antibodies, globulin fraction, rheumatoid factor, or anticardiolipin antibodies. Clinicians should be aware of this increased risk of FPHC in older LVAD patients and those more heavily transfused in order to avoid unnecessary apprehension and possible delay in transplantation. Further studies should be done to evaluate the possible relationship between transfused blood products and immunomodulation. PMID:28203425

  2. Poor sensitivity of rapid tests for the detection of antibodies to the hepatitis B virus: implications for field studies.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Helena Medina; Scalioni, Leticia de Paula; Paula, Vanessa Salete de; Miguel, Juliana Custódio; Ó, Kycia Maria Rodrigues do; Milagres, Flavio Augusto Pádua; Cruz, Marcelo Santos; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Flores, Priscila Pollo; Leal, Erotildes; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Villar, Livia Melo

    2017-03-01

    Rapid tests (RTs) can be used as an alternative method for the conventional diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV). This study aims to evaluate antibodies to HBsAg (anti-HBs) and antibodies to HBeAg (anti-HBe) RTs under different Brazilian settings. The following three groups were included: GI: viral hepatitis outpatient services; GII: low resource areas; and GIII: crack users and beauticians. Imuno-rápido anti-HBsAg™ and Imuno-rápido anti-HBeAg™ RTs were evaluated and showed specificities greater than 95% in all groups. The sensitivity values to anti-HBs were 50.38%, 51.05% and 46.73% and the sensitivity values to anti-HBe were 76.99%, 10.34% and 11.76% in the GI, GII and GIII groups, respectively. The assays had a low sensitivity and high specificity, which indicated their use for screening in regions endemic for HBV.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum antibodies in dogs from Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Stone, D; Kwok, O C H; Sharma, R N

    2008-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are structurally similar parasites with many common hosts. The prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum was determined in sera from dogs in Grenada, West Indies. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 52 (48.5%) of the 107 dogs, with titers of 1:25 in 17, 1:50 in 19, 1:100 in 7, 1:1,600 in 5, and 1:3,200 or higher in 4. Seroprevalence increased with age from 2.2% in dogs <6 mo old to 18.9% in dogs older than 2 yr, indicating postnatal transmission of T. gondii in this population of canines. There was no correlation between the health of the dogs and the seroprevalence or magnitude of the T. gondii titer. Antibodies to N. caninum were determined by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Two of the 107 dogs had N. caninum antibodies (IFAT titers 1:100 and 1:400); these dogs had T. gondii titers of 1:1,600 and 1:50, respectively. Results indicate that these 2 structurally similar protozoa are antigenically different.

  4. Detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Dangoudoubiyam, S; Oliveira, J B; Víquez, C; Gómez-García, A; González, O; Romero, J J; Kwok, O C H; Dubey, J P; Howe, D K

    2011-06-01

    Serum samples from 315 horses from Costa Rica, Central America, were examined for the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii by using the surface antigen (SAG) SnSAG2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the NhSAG1 ELISA, and the modified agglutination test, respectively. Anti- S. neurona antibodies were found in 42.2% of the horses by using the SnSAG2 ELISA. Anti- Neospora spp. antibodies were found in only 3.5% of the horses by using the NhSAG1 ELISA, and only 1 of these horses was confirmed seropositive by Western blot. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 34.0% of the horses tested, which is higher than in previous reports from North and South America. The finding of anti- S. neurona antibodies in horses from geographical areas where Didelphis marsupialis has wide distribution suggests that D. marsupialis is a potential definitive host for this parasite and a source of infection for these horses.

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV-antibody testing practices in Belgian prostitutes.

    PubMed Central

    Mak, R; Plum, J; Van Renterghem, L

    1990-01-01

    From December 1988 to April 1989, 154 female prostitutes in and around Ghent, Belgium, were interviewed about their knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to the risks for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in their profession. Thirty four women worked as window prostitutes, 120 picked up their clients in bars, clubs, and saunas. Blood samples were taken from 123 women. One (0.8%) was seropositive for HIV1, 19 (15.4%) had Hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc), eight (6.4%) showed markers of syphilis. None of them were Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers. Hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV) were present in the serum of three women (2.4%). Overall STD seroprevalence was higher in the group of window prostitutes than in the group of club prostitutes. One woman admitted intravenous drug use. Former testing for anti-HIV antibodies had been performed in 102 (66.5%) respondents, of whom 84 (82.3%) were tested in the year preceding the interview. In 74.5% of the cases, these tests were requested by the women themselves. These results suggest that HIV infection is not yet prevalent in non-intravenous drug using prostitutes in Ghent, but that this situation may change considering their higher rates of past STD. Window prostitutes are at higher risk than club prostitutes. Testing for HIV seems to be common practice, mostly at the request of the women themselves. Health education should discourage the notion of testing as an alternative to using condoms. PMID:2245981

  6. Antibodies Expressed by Intratumoral B Cells as the Basis for a Diagnostic Test for Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    we washed the ITLs in PBS and stained them with Aqua vital dye (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA ) and the following anti-human antibodies: CD3 phycoerythrin...IgM) FITC, and IgD PE (BD Biosciences, Mountain View, CA ; Beckman Coulter, and Invitrogen). During the sort, we used forward- versus side-scatter... CA ) and analyzed the data with FlowJo (Tree Star, Ashland, OR). Deep Sequencing Results Sorting of B cells from ITLs In order to use deep

  7. Validation of radioimmunoassay for human lactalbumin in the serum by testing the endogenous antibodies interference.

    PubMed

    Zangerle, P F; Franchimont, P

    1985-10-01

    For re-establishing the value of human lactalbumin as a functional marker of normal and pathological activity of the breast a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay was established with the prior important control of the interference of endogenous antibodies. The specificity of the assay was assessed by the absence of interference from other proteins in milk or in breast cyst fluid, various hormones and tumor markers. Bovine lactalbumin showed incomplete and weak cross-reactivity. By an enzymoimmunoassay method it was shown that all the 222 human sera studied contain IgG immunoglobulins which bind bovine and human lactalbumin with greater reactivity of children's serum and without relationship to the blood groups. The maximum affinity constant of these endogenous immunoglobulins determined by the radioimmunoassay method is 4.5 times greater for bovine (Kd = 18 X 4(-11) M) than for human (Kd = 4 X 10(-11) M) lactalbumin. These endogenous anti-lactalbumin immunoglobulins caused no interference in the radioimmunoassay as shown by the complete correlation between the concentrations of human lactalbumin previously incubated and added to sera containing high-affinity antibodies and those measured directly in the radioimmunoassay. This lack of interference was explained by the higher (22-fold) affinity constant of the rabbit antiserum against human lactalbumin (Kd = 9 X 10(-12) M). The study of endogenous antibodies by the two enzymes and radioimmunoassay methods is needed before assessing and using a radioimmunoassay of human lactalbumin in serum.

  8. DNA extraction for short tandem repeat typing from mixed samples using anti-human leukocyte CD45 and ABO blood group antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yano, Shizue; Honda, Katsuya; Kaminiwa, Junko; Nishi, Takeki; Iwabuchi, Yayoi; Sugano, Yukiko; Kurosu, Akira; Suzuki, Yasuhito

    2014-05-01

    DNA testing from mixed cell samples can be difficult to use successfully in criminal investigations. Here, we present a method for the extraction of DNA from mixed bloodstains involving plural contributors, after antibody-microbead captured cell separation. This method, together with the multiplex short tandem repeat typing presented, has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA profiles corresponding to the ABO blood type. Methodological steps include magnetic separation using leukocyte specific CD45 antibody-coated microbeads and centrifugal separation of leukocyte agglutination by ABO antibody. The detection results of variable mixed ratio showed that the target DNA was detected accurately as low as 1:512 mixed ratio, regardless of the large amount of the background DNA present. The method presented here is applicable to PCR-based identification for various kinds of mixed samples.

  9. Development of a multiplex lateral flow strip test for foot-and-mouth disease virus detection using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Caterer, Nigel R; Xu, Wanhong; Goolia, Melissa

    2015-09-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the world's most highly contagious animal diseases with tremendous economic consequences. A rapid and specific test for FMD diagnosis at the site of a suspected outbreak is crucial for the implementation of control measures. This project developed a multiplex lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test (multiplex-LFI) for the rapid detection and serotyping of FMD viruses. The monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against serotypes O, A, and Asia 1 were used as capture mAbs. The mAbs were conjugated with fluorescein, rhodamine or biotin for serotype O, A and Asia 1, respectively. The detection mAbs which consisted of a serotype-independent mAb in combination with one serotype A-specific mAb and one Asia 1-specific mAb, were each colloidal gold-conjugated. The strips used in this study contained one control line and three test lines, which corresponded to one of the three serotypes, O, A or Asia 1. The newly developed multiplex-LFI strip test specifically identified serotype O (n=46), A (n=45) and Asia 1 (n=17) in all tested field isolates. The sensitivity of this strip test was comparable to the double antibody sandwich ELISA for serotypes O and A, but lower than the ELISA for serotype Asia 1. The multiplex-LFI strip test identified all tissue suspensions from animals that were experimentally inoculated with serotypes O, A or Asia 1. FMD viruses were detected in 38% and 50% of the swab samples from the lesion areas of experimentally inoculated sheep for serotypes O and A, respectively. The capability of the multiplex-LFI strip tests to produce rapid results with high specificity for FMD viruses of multiple serotypes makes this test a valuable tool to detect FMD viruses at outbreak sites.

  10. Prevalence of naturally occurring antibodies against dog erythrocyte antigen 7 in a population of dog erythrocyte antigen 7-negative dogs from Spain and Italy.

    PubMed

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Viñals Flórez, Luis Miguel; Del Rosario Perlado Chamizo, Maria; Serra Y Gómez de la Serna, Blanca; Perego, Roberta; Baggiani, Luciana

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of naturally occurring anti-dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 7 antibodies in DEA 7-negative dogs from Spain and Italy. ANIMALS 252 DEA 7-negative dogs from a population of 312 dogs that were previously tested for DEA 1, DEA 4, and DEA 7. PROCEDURES A plasma sample was obtained from each dog and evaluated for anti-DEA 7 antibodies by the use of gel column agglutination. Each plasma sample underwent major crossmatching with RBCs from DEA 7-positive dogs. Samples that resulted in agglutination were then crossmatched with RBCs from DEA 1-negative, DEA 4-positive, and DEA 7-negative dogs to confirm the presence of anti-DEA 7 antibodies. Results were then used to calculate the risk for a delayed transfusion reaction in a DEA 7-negative dog with anti-DEA 7 antibodies after a transfusion with blood that was not crossmatched or typed for DEA 7. RESULTS 96 of 252 (38.1%) plasma samples contained anti-DEA 7 antibodies. A DEA 7-negative dog with anti-DEA 7 antibodies had a 5.9% chance of developing a delayed hemolytic reaction after transfusion with blood not crossmatched or typed for DEA 7. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that canine blood used for transfusion should be crossmatched with the blood or plasma of the intended recipient prior to transfusion to minimize the likelihood that the recipient will develop a hemolytic reaction associated with anti-DEA 7 antibodies. Ideal canine blood donors should be negative for both DEA 1 and DEA 7.

  11. The UK national external quality assessment scheme in blood group serology. Compatibility testing 1981-1982: performance and practice.

    PubMed

    Holburn, A M; Prior, D

    1984-01-01

    The design of exercises of compatibility testing was modified in 1981 in order better to accommodate participants' serological practices. Ten reference laboratories were also enrolled in order to determine the 'correct' results for each exercise. In 1981-1982 3.5 to 36% of participants missed incompatibilities in exercises in which undiluted antibodies were issued and this did not represent an improvement over performance obtained in 1979-1980. Surveys were undertaken of antiglobulin test procedures and revealed that serological practices continue to change, old techniques are being modified, new techniques are being employed but standardization shows little overall improvement. Surveys of quality control procedures and of cross-match procedures for agglutination in albumin and for agglutination of enzyme treated cells show equal lack of standardization.

  12. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in clinic.

    PubMed

    Wootla, Bharath; Denic, Aleksandar; Rodriguez, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies are heavy plasma proteins, with sugar chains added to amino-acid residues by N-linked glycosylation and occasionally by O-linked glycosylation. The versatility of antibodies is demonstrated by the various functions that they mediate such as neutralization, agglutination, fixation with activation of complement and activation of effector cells. Naturally occurring antibodies protect the organism against harmful pathogens, viruses and infections. In addition, almost any organic chemical induces antibody production of antibodies that would bind specifically to the chemical. These antibodies are often produced from multiple B cell clones and referred to as polyclonal antibodies. In recent years, scientists have exploited the highly evolved machinery of the immune system to produce structurally and functionally complex molecules such as antibodies from a single B clone, heralding the era of monoclonal antibodies. Most of the antibodies currently in the clinic, target components of the immune system, are not curative and seek to alleviate symptoms rather than cure disease. Our group used a novel strategy to identify reparative human monoclonal antibodies distinct from conventional antibodies. In this chapter, we discuss the therapeutic relevance of both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in clinic.

  13. Diagnostic profile on the IFA 40: HEp-20-10 - an immunofluorescence test for reliable antinuclear antibody screening.

    PubMed

    Rohwäder, Edda; Locke, Michael; Fraune, Johanna; Fechner, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence assay is the recommended gold standard to test for antinuclear antibodies (ANA), which are important biomarkers for systemic rheumatic autoimmune diseases. It is internationally accepted that indirect immunofluorescence assay ANA screening is most sensitive on human epithelial (HEp-2) cells. The cells present a multitude of antigens that display distinguishable localization patterns in interphase and mitotic cells in indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Here, we present the IFA 40: HEp-20-10 test kit (Euroimmun AG, Lübeck, Germany), which is cleared for sale on the US market by the FDA. The test has been designed for qualitative and semiquantitative screening of ANA in human sera. It uses the commonly applied 1:40 cutoff dilution and the enhanced HEp-20-10 cell line for more efficient pattern recognition and has been validated in various studies and by method comparison. The IFA 40: HEp-20-10 test fulfills the essential criteria for reliable application in autoimmune diagnostics.

  14. Optimization and proficiency testing of a pseudovirus-based assay for detection of HIV-1 neutralizing antibody in China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jianhui; Wang, Wenbo; Wen, Zhiheng; Song, Aijing; Hong, Kunxue; Lu, Shan; Zhong, Ping; Xu, Jianqing; Kong, Wei; Li, Jingyun; Shang, Hong; Ling, Hong; Ruan, Li; Wang, Youchun

    2012-11-01

    Among the neutralizing antibody evaluation assays, the single-cycle pseudovirus infection assay is high-throughput and can provide rapid, sensitive and reproducible measurements after a single cycle of infection. Cell counts, pseudovirus inoculation levels, amount of diethylaminoethyl-dextran (DEAE-dextran), and the nonspecific effects of serum and plasma were tested to identify the optimal conditions for a neutralizing antibody assay based on pseudoviruses. Optimal conditions for cell counts, pseudovirus inoculation, and amount of DEAE-dextran were 1 × 10(4)cells/well, 200TCID(50)/well, and 15 μg/ml, respectively. Compared with serum samples, high-concentration anticoagulants reduced the relative light unit (RLU) value. The RLU value increased sharply initially but then decreased slowly with dilution of the plasma sample. Test kits containing 10 HIV-1 CRF07/08_BC pseudovirus strains and 10 plasma samples from individuals infected with HIV-1 CRF07/08_BC were assembled into two packages and distributed to nine laboratories with a standard operating procedure included. For the 10 laboratories that evaluated the test, 17 of 44 (37%) laboratory pairs were considered equivalent. A statistical qualification rule was developed based on the testing results from 5 experienced laboratories, where a laboratory qualified if at least 83% of values lied within the acceptable range.

  15. Evaluation of canine and feline leishmaniasis by the association of blood culture, immunofluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. in dogs and cats from Botucatu, São Paulo state, and Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, by the association of three diagnostic tests: blood culture in liver infusion tryptose medium, immunofluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction. Fifty blood samples of dogs and cats from the Center for Zoonosis Control in Campo Grande, an area endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis, were collected randomly, as well as canine and feline blood samples from the Municipal Kennel and Animal Protection Association in Botucatu, currently considered a transmission-free, non-endemic area. Results Of the 50 dog blood cultures from Botucatu, three (6%) were positive and of the 50 cats, two (4%) were positive. In Campo Grande, 29 dog blood cultures (58%) were positive and all (100%) cats negative by this test. Polymerase chain reaction detected Leishmania spp. in 100% of dog and cat samples from Botucatu but found all the cats from Campo Grande to be negative. On the other hand, 36 dogs from Campo Grande were positive (72%) by the same technique. Immunofluorescent antibody test in Botucatu found 100% of dogs and cats non-reactive, while in Campo Grande, it detected positivity in 32 dogs (64%) and 15 cats (30%). Conclusions The results show the importance of not only continuous epidemiological surveillance in areas not endemic for leishmaniasis, but also research for accurate diagnosis of this zoonosis. PMID:24565284

  16. A neutralization test for specific detection of Nipah virus antibodies using pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus expressing green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Yoshihiro; Noguchi, Akira; Marsh, Glenn A; McEachern, Jennifer A; Okutani, Akiko; Hotta, Kozue; Bazartseren, Boldbaatar; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Broder, Christopher C; Yamada, Akio; Inoue, Satoshi; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2009-09-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a new zoonotic paramyxovirus that emerged in 1998 and is now classified in the genus Henipavirus along with the closely related Hendra virus (HeV). NiV is highly pathogenic in several vertebrate species including humans, and the lack of available vaccines or specific treatment restricts it to biosafety level 4 (BSL4) containment. A serum neutralization test was developed for measuring NiV neutralizing antibodies under BSL2 conditions using a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and bearing the F and G proteins of NiV (VSV-NiV-GFP). The neutralization titers were obtained by counting GFP-expressing cells or by measuring fluorescence. The performance of this new assay was compared against the conventional test using live NiV with panels of sera from several mammalian species, including sera from NiV outbreaks, experimental infections, as well as HeV-specific sera. The results obtained with the VSV-NiV-GFP based test correlated with those obtained using live NiV. Using a 50% reduction in VSV-NiV-GFP infected cells as the cut-off for neutralization, this new assay demonstrated its potential as an effective tool for detecting NiV neutralizing antibodies under BSL2 containment with greater speed, sensitivity and safety as compared to the conventional NiV serum neutralization test.

  17. [Methicillin resistance detection in Staphylococcus aureus: comparison between conventional methods and MRSA-Screen latex agglutination technique].

    PubMed

    Soloaga, R; Corso, A; Gagetti, P; Faccone, D; Galas, M

    2004-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant pathogen that has emerged over the last four decades, causing both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Rapid and accurate detection of methicillin resistance in S. aureus is important for the use of appropriate antimicrobial therapy and for the control of nosocomial spread of MRSA strains. We evaluated the efficiency of conventional methods for detection of methicillin resistance such as the disk diffusion, agar dilution, oxacillin agar screen test, and the latex agglutination test MRSA-Screen latex, in 100 isolates of S. aureus, 79 mecA positive and 21 mecA negative. The MRSA-Screen latex (Denka Seiken, Niigata, Japón), is a latex agglutination method that detects the presence of PLP-2a, product of mecA gene in S. aureus. The PCR of the mecA gene was used as the "gold standard" for the evaluation of the different methods tested. The percentages of sensitivity and specificity were as follows: disk difusión 97 and 100%, agar dilution 97 and 95%, oxacillin agar screen test 100 and 100%, and MRSA-Screen latex, 100 and 100 %. All methods presented high sensitivity and specificity, but MRSA-Screen latex had the advantage of giving a reliable result, equivalent to PCR, in only 15 minutes.

  18. Clues to diagnosis for unusual mucosal pemphigus demonstrating undetectable anti-desmoglein 3 serum antibodies by routine tests.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Koji; Aoyama, Yumi; Yamaguchi, Mari; Ukida, Aya; Mizuno-Ikeda, Kazuko; Fujii, Kazuyasu; Hamada, Toshihisa; Tokura, Yoshiki; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2015-06-01

    Pemphigus is an autoimmune blistering disease caused by immunoglobulin (Ig)G autoantibodies against desmogleins (Dsg). In mucosal-dominant pemphigus vulgaris (PV), anti-Dsg3 antibodies play a critical role in acantholysis. We followed two mucosal-dominant PV cases who suffered from refractory oral mucosal erosions. In these cases, anti-Dsg3 serum antibodies were not detected by indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, direct immunofluorescence showed the intercellular IgG deposition in the epidermis and histopathological findings revealed suprabasal acantholysis. In order to analyze the pathomechanisms in these cases, we first examined the Dsg3 expression patterns in lesional sites and compared them with those of typical mucosal-dominant PV cases. In typical PV cases, the alteration of Dsg3 distribution was observed in lesional sites by immunostaining. The aggregation of Dsg3, which is the characteristic change in PV mucosal lesions, was observed as the initial change prior to acantholysis. In our cases, a clustering of Dsg3 was observed at mucosal lesions, and the expression levels of Dsg3 in acantholytic lesions were decreased, as observed in typical mucosal-dominant PV cases. Although anti-Dsg3 serum antibodies could not be detected by routine tests, anti-Dsg3 serum antibodies were detected by Dsg3 ELISA using 10-times more concentrated sera (highly sensitive ELISA). Moreover, purified and concentrated PV IgG showed high pathogenicity when examined by dissociation assay. In conclusion, the detection of morphological changes in Dsg3 distribution and highly sensitive ELISA method could be useful for the early diagnosis of PV recurrence.

  19. Eliminating access to anonymous HIV antibody testing in North Carolina: effects on HIV testing and partner notification.

    PubMed

    Kassler, W J; Meriwether, R A; Klimko, T B; Peterman, T A; Zaidi, A

    1997-03-01

    Anonymous HIV testing may attract persons who might otherwise not be tested but may hinder partner notification. We evaluated the effects on North Carolina's HIV testing and partner notification programs of policy changes that eliminated and later restored anonymous testing in 82 counties. We used an interrupted time-series design to compare counties eliminating with counties retaining anonymous testing. We analyzed HIV testing and partner notification data from before, during, and after elimination of anonymous testing. After elimination of anonymous testing in 82 counties, the mean monthly level of testing (+/- SE) increased by 45%, or 548 (+/- 123) tests per month, while in 18 counties that retained anonymous testing, there was a 63% increase, or 802 (+/- 162) tests per month (p > .05). Among men of all races, testing increased by 16%, or 155 (+/- 35) tests per month, in counties that eliminated anonymous testing; and by 51%, or 305 (+/- 42) tests per month (p < .05), in counties that retained anonymous testing. After elimination of anonymous testing, both county types experienced similar increases in the rate of partners notified. However, partner notification was more successful if the index patient was tested confidentially; 2.7 times as many partners per index patient were notified and counseled. There was no effect on testing or on partner notification rates following restoration of anonymous testing. Substantial community opposition to eliminating anonymous testing was encountered. The policy change appeared to result in a slight decrease in testing among men and a slight increase in partners notified. Programs considering the elimination of anonymous testing should weigh these potential gains and losses, as well as the impact on relationships between the public health and advocacy communities

  20. Perceived empathy of service providers mediates the association between perceived discrimination and behavioral intention to take up HIV antibody testing again among men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jing; Lau, Joseph T F; Wang, Zixin; Wu, Anise M S; Tan, Xuhui

    2015-01-01

    HIV antibody testing is a key measure of HIV prevention for men who have sex with men (MSM). The World Health Organization recommends sexually active and at-risk MSM to take up HIV antibody testing regularly. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of behavioral intention to take up HIV antibody testing in the next six months among Hong Kong MSM who were ever-testers. An anonymous cross-sectional survey recruited 326 MSM who had taken up HIV antibody testing from gay-friendly venues and internet in Hong Kong. Of the participants, 40.8% had had unprotected anal intercourse with regular or non-regular male sex partners in the last six months; they were at risk of HIV transmission despite experience in HIV antibody testing. Only 37.2% showed a strong intention to take up HIV antibody testing again in the next six months. Adjusted analysis showed that both perceived discrimination toward Hong Kong MSM (AOR = .60, 95% CI: .36-.98) and the CARE Measure assessing perceived empathy of service providers (AOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.08) were significantly associated with intention for retesting. Perceived discrimination, however, became statistically non-significant (AOR = .68, 95% CI: .41-1.14), when both CARE Measure and perceived discrimination entered into the adjusted model. It is warranted to increase HIV retesting rate by removing perceived discrimination and reducing the negative effect of perceived discrimination through enhancement of empathy of service providers.

  1. Ineffectiveness of AIDS education and HIV antibody testing in reducing high-risk behaviors among injection drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Calsyn, D A; Saxon, A J; Freeman, G; Whittaker, S

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of education in reducing high-risk human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission behaviors was examined in 313 injection drug users. Involvement in high-risk behaviors was assessed via structured interview at study entry and 4 months following the intervention. Subjects were randomly assigned to (1) AIDS education, (2) AIDS education with optional HIV antibody testing, or (3) a wait list. The sample as a whole decreased its involvement in high-risk behaviors, but there were no significant differences as a function of experimental group assignment. PMID:1546776

  2. Effects of Serial Skin Testing with Purified Protein Derivative on the Level and Quality of Antibodies to Complex and Defined Antigens in Mycobacterium bovis-Infected Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Mitchell V.; Stafne, Molly R.; Bass, Kristin E.; Maggioli, Mayara F.; Thacker, Tyler C.; Linscott, Rick; Lawrence, John C.; Nelson, Jeffrey T.; Esfandiari, Javan; Greenwald, Rena; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.

    2015-01-01

    Several serological tests designed to detect antibodies to immunodominant Mycobacterium bovis antigens have recently emerged as ancillary tests for the detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle, particularly when used after the injection of purified protein derivative (PPD) for skin testing, which significantly boosts M. bovis-specific antibody responses. The present findings demonstrate the onset and duration of boosted antibody responses after the injection of M. bovis PPD for the caudal fold test (CFT) and Mycobacterium avium and M. bovis PPDs for the comparative cervical test (CCT), administered in series in cattle experimentally infected with M. bovis. While skin tests boosted the responses to certain antigens (i.e., MPB83 and MPB70), they did not affect the responses to other antigens (e.g., ESAT-6, CFP10, MPB59, and MPB64). Administration of the CCT 105 days after the CFT resulted in an even greater secondary boost in antibody responses to MPB83 and MPB70 and to a proteinase K-digested whole-cell sonicate (WCS-PK) of M. bovis. Both IgM and IgG contributed to the initial boost in the MPB83/MPB70-specific antibody response after the CFT. The secondary boost after the CCT was primarily due to increased IgG levels. Also, the avidity of antibodies to MPB83 and MPB70 increased after the CCT in M. bovis-infected cattle. The avidity of antibodies to the WCS-PK antigens increased in the interval between the CFT and the CCT but did not increase further after the CCT. Together, these findings demonstrate that the administration of PPDs for skin tests results in additive enhancement (i.e., when the CFT and CCT are performed in series), both qualitative and quantitative, of MPB83/MPB70-specific antibody responses. PMID:25855555

  3. Momordica charantia seed lectin: toxicity, bacterial agglutination and antitumor properties.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Syed Rashel; Nabi, Md Mahamodun; Nurujjaman, Md; Abu Reza, Md; Alam, A H M Khurshid; Uz Zaman, Rokon; Khalid-Bin-Ferdaus, Khandaker Md; Amin, Ruhul; Khan, Md Masudul Hasan; Hossain, Md Anowar; Uddin, Md Salim; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat

    2015-03-01

    In last three decades, several studies were carried out on the D-galactose-specific lectin of Momordica charantia seeds (MCL). In the present study, in vitro growth inhibition (8-23 %) at different concentrations (6-24 μg/ml) of MCL was observed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. MCL also showed 28, 45, and 75 % growth inhibitions against EAC cells when administered 1.2, 2.0, and 2.8 mg/kg/day (i.p.), respectively for five consequent days in vivo in mice. After lectin treatment, the level of red blood cell and hemoglobin was increased significantly with the decrease of white blood cell and maintained the normal level when compared with EAC-bearing control and normal mice without EAC cells. Although MCL caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase of EAC cells, any irregular shape or apoptotic morphological alterations in the lectin-treated EAC cells was not observed by an optical and fluorescence microscope. Lectin showed toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii with an LC50 value of 49.7 μg/ml. Four out of seven pathogenic bacteria were agglutinated by MCL in the absence of inhibitory sugar D-lactose/D-galactose. In conclusion, MCL showed strong cytotoxic effect and therefore can be used as a potent anticancer chemotherapeutic agent.

  4. Identification of the immunoglobulin class active in the Rose Bengal plate test for bovine brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Corbel, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    The antibodies active in the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) for bovine brucellosis have been studied. The results of fractionation experiments showed that RBPT activity was associated with fractions containing immunoglobulin of the IgG1 class; other immunoglobulin classes were inactive in this respect although active in other tests. These results were confirmed by inhibition tests with specific antisera and by elution of the antibody from agglutinated RBPT antigen. The major proportion of the serum complement-fixing activity was also present in the IgG1 fraction and it is suggested that the RBPT and CF reactions are probably mediated by the same antibodies. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Plate 2Plate 2 PMID:4630606

  5. Bayesian estimation of sensitivity and specificity of Coxiella burnetii antibody ELISA tests in bovine blood and milk.

    PubMed

    Paul, Suman; Toft, Nils; Agerholm, Jørgen S; Christoffersen, Anna-Bodil; Agger, Jens F

    2013-05-01

    Serological tests for Coxiella burnetii (the causative agent of Q fever) antibodies are usually based on enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) although this method is not thoroughly evaluated. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an ELISA for detection of C. burnetii antibodies in milk and blood samples, using latent class models in a Bayesian analysis. Blood and milk samples of 568 lactating cows from 17 Danish dairy cattle herds collected in 2008 were used. The best combination of sensitivity and specificity estimates was revealed at a sample to positive (S/P) cut-off of 40 for both blood and milk ELISAs. At this cut-off, sensitivity of milk ELISA was 0.86 (95% posterior credibility interval [PCI] [0.76; 0.96]). This was slightly but insignificantly higher than sensitivity of blood ELISA (0.84; 95% PCI [0.75; 0.93]). The specificity estimates of the ELISA methods on milk and blood were equal at 0.99. No conditional dependence was observed between the specificity estimates of the two test methods. However, the sensitivity estimates of both tests were significantly reduced when conditional covariances ≥ 40 were used. Collection of milk samples from lactating cows is relatively easy, non-invasive and inexpensive and hence milk ELISA may be a better option for screening lactating cows. But, blood ELISA is an option for screening non-lactating cattle.

  6. The range and specificity of antinuclear antibodies in systematic lupus erythematosus*

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón-Segovia, D.; Fishbein, Eugenia; Alcalá, Hilda; Olguín-Palacios, Eugenia; Estrada-Parra, S.

    1970-01-01

    Antibodies to nine calf thymus nuclear antigens were sought by complement fixation methods in twenty-four sera from sixteen patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. These antigens included whole nuclei, native and heat denatured DNA, particulate and soluble nucleoprotein and Sm antigen. Soluble antigens were also tested by tanned red-cell agglutination tests. A wide variation in the presence and titres of antibodies to these various antigens was found in the sera studied even when from the same patient but at different times. To further test the range and specificity of antinuclear antibodies in SLE, nineteen ribonucleosides, nucleotides and monophosphoric dinucleotides were coupled to human serum albumin and used as antigens in precipitin studies. A wide variation of reactivity was also found in each serum. Exquisite specificity became apparent, capable of reacting with a nucleoside but not with the corresponding nucleotide or vice versa, with a dinucleotide but not with the nucleotides or nucleosides which it contained, with a given dinucleotide but not with the opposite sequence. Antinuclear antibodies in systemic lupus are, therefore, markedly heterogeneous. Those to a `single' antigen such as DNA may be directed to antigenic sites which may variously be at the bases, single or in sequence, at the site of union of base and sugar–phosphate moiety, at the backbone of deoxyribophosphate or actually dependent on the secondary structure. PMID:4097823

  7. Distinct reactivity of the commercially available monoclonal antibodies of D-dimer and plasma FDP testing to the molecular variants of fibrin degradation products.

    PubMed

    Madoiwa, Seiji; Kitajima, Isao; Ohmori, Tsukasa; Sakata, Yoichi; Mimuro, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Fibrin degradation products (FDP) are an important marker of coagulopathy. We assessed the reactivity of the monoclonal antibodies used in clinical laboratory testing (6 D-dimer reagents, D-dimer-1-6; 4 plasma FDP reagents, plasma FDP-1-4) to quantify FDP using in vitro-generated FDP as well as FDP in clinical samples. The monoclonal antibodies used in D-dimer-1, -2, -5, and -6 reacted poorly to the low molecular weight forms of in vitro-generated FDP. The monoclonal antibodies used in D-dimer-3 and -4 had better reactivity to the low molecular weight forms of in vitro-generated FDP. The monoclonal antibodies used in plasma FDP-2, -3, and -4 reacted well to the high and low molecular weight FDP forms, while the monoclonal antibody in plasma FDP-1 reacted poorly to the low molecular weight FDP forms. Analysis of clinical samples revealed deviations in FDP molecular weight forms in DIC samples. The reactivity of the monoclonal antibodies of laboratory FDP testing to FDP variants in clinical samples was similar to that of in vitro-generated FDP. In conclusion, the monoclonal antibodies used in clinical laboratories to detect FDP have distinct reactivity to the molecular variants of FDP generated in vitro as well as those present in clinical samples. Our findings support the consensus for the standardization of D-dimer and plasma FDP testing.

  8. [The quantitative immunochemical determination of specific antibodies against Candida albicans within the scope of immunological testing in the malignant melanoma (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schwartze, G; Friedrich, E; Kühn, G; Lübbe, D

    1980-01-01

    Precipitating antibodies against a polysaccharide antigen from Candida albicans were in the human serum determined quantitatively by the aid of a reversed radial immunodiffusion technique. The gel, therewith, contained the antigens, whilst into the gel's punching holes the serum specimens and the calibrated standards were filled in. Amplifying examinations of the course in patients suffering from malignant melanoma, the findings of the methods used hitherto were compared within the scope of an immunological status (in vivo-skin testing by dinitrochlorobenzene, Candida antigen, trichophytin, and tuberculin, precipitation test after Ouchterlony, immunofluorescence-optical evidence of Candida antibodies as well as determination of the Candida antibodies. In contrast to the hitherto available qualitative or semi-quantitative methods evidencing humoral antibodies, we consider the feasibility of simply workable quantitative determinations of antibodies to be an enrichment of the scale of methods. The reversed Mancini technique, simultaneously, is appropriate to determine specific antibodies against other diagnostically relevant antigens, so far as precipitating antigen/antibody complexes are formed. Therewith, commercially available testing kits could favour the standardization.

  9. Polysaccharides as protectants for paper-based analytical devices with antibody.

    PubMed

    Cao, Rong; Tian, Wendy; Shen, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Paper with immobilized protein can provide a low-cost platform for diagnostics, but evidence is emerging that the instability of protein on paper during shipping and storage severely limits its commercial development. Of these, paper-immobilized antibody, though widely used, is in urgent need of improvement in the shelf life. Herein we provided a detailed investigation of a simple and versatile approach for achieving stable antibody on paper to improve bioassay performance. Anti-Blood Group A IgM was chosen as the model antibody and its activity was tested via agglutination reactions. Representative polysaccharides (i.e., chitosan, sodium alginate and dextran) were used as protectants and their ability to stabilize antibody under heat and desiccation stresses was investigated. It was found that the presence of dextran with high concentration markedly stabilized paper-immobilized IgM for at least 120 days. Our results indicate that dextran with good film-forming ability could be a protectant for paper-immobilized antibody.

  10. Testing the Sexually Abused Child for the HIV Antibody: Issues for the Social Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, George A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses identifying children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through sexual abuse. Reviews testing guidelines. Sees social workers contributing to test decision making when perinatal HIV transmissions is possibility, when assailant may be tested, and when parents/legal guardians insist on testing child. Discusses family…

  11. The Cenozoic Diversity of Agglutinated Foraminifera - Evidence for a late Oligocene to early Miocene diversification event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Michael; Setoyama, Eiichi; Kender, Sev; Cetean, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The agglutinated foraminifera are among the most abundant micro-organisms in the deep marine environment and have a diversity record extending back to the late Precambrian. We present an updated diversity curve for agglutinated foraminiferal genera based on the stratigraphic ranges of all the agglutinated genera recognized as valid in the classification of Kaminski (2014). The data set for this analysis is based on the stratigraphic ranges of agglutinated genera published in Foraminiferal Genera and their Classification, which has been subsequently updated based on published studies and our new observations. The mean standing diversity of agglutinated foraminiferal genera was compiled by counting the number of boundary crossers rather than the number of genera in each stage. In this study, we report the stratigraphic and geographical occurrence of a benthic foraminiferal diversification event that has previously received little attention. In the latest Oligocene to earliest Miocene a number of trochospiral agglutinated genera with alveolar or canaliculate walls first appeared in the fossil record. Our studies of late Oligocene of the Congo fan, offshore Angola (Kender et al., 2008; Cetean and Kaminski, 2011) have revealed a diverse assemblage that includes new taxa of deep-water agglutinated foraminifera. In a biostratigraphic study of the Miocene foraminiferal assemblages Kender et al. (2008) noted steadily increasing diversity and proportions of infaunal agglutinated foraminiferal morphotypes over the lower Miocene interval. The proportion of infaunal agglutinated foraminifera assigned to the order Textularida increased dramatically in the lower mid-Miocene, suggesting expansion of the oxygen minimum zone into deeper waters. In addition to the trochospiral alveolar genera, several species of Reticulophragmium and Cyclammina display rapid diversification into numerous separate lineages that are at present not reflected in our generic diversity record owing to

  12. Detection of Leptospira-Specific Antibodies Using a Recombinant Antigen-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Zhiwen; Halsey, Eric S.; Guevara, Carolina; Canal, Enrique; Hall, Eric; Maves, Ryan; Tilley, Drake H.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2013-01-01

    We produced three highly purified recombinant antigens rLipL32, rLipL41, and rLigA-Rep (leptospiral immunoglobulin-like A repeat region) for the detection of Leptospira-specific antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The performance of these recombinant antigens was evaluated using 121 human sera. Among them, 63 sera were microscopic agglutination test (MAT)-confirmed positive sera from febrile patients in Peru, 22 sera were indigenous MAT-negative febrile patient sera, and 36 sera were from patients with other febrile diseases from Southeast Asia, where leptospirosis is also endemic. Combining the results of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG detection from these three antigens, the overall sensitivity is close to 90% based on the MAT. These results suggest that an ELISA using multiple recombinant antigens may be used as an alternative method for the detection of Leptospira-specific antibodies. PMID:24166046

  13. Developing antibodies from cholinesterase derived from prokaryotic expression and testing their feasibility for detecting immunogen content in Daphnia magna *

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-cui; Yuan, Bing-qiang; Li, Shao-nan

    2016-01-01

    To yield cholinesterase (ChE) from prokaryotic expression, the ChE gene that belongs to Daphnia magna was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using forward primer 5'-CCCYGGNGCSAT GATGTG-3' and reverse primer 5'-GYAAGTTRGCCCAATATCT-3'. To express the gene, one sequence of the amplified DNA, which was able to encode a putative protein containing two conserved carboxylesterase domains, was connected to the prokaryotic expression vector PET-29a(+). The recombinant vector was transformed into Escherichia coil BL21 (DE3). Protein expression was induced by isopropy-D-thiogalactoside. The expressed ChE was used as an immunogen to immunize BALB/c mice. The obtained antibodies were tested for their specificity towards crude enzymes from species such as Alona milleri, Macrobrachium nipponense, Bombyx mori, Chironomus kiiensis, Apis mellifera, Eisenia foetida, Brachydanio rerio, and Xenopus laevis. Results indicated that the antibodies had specificity suitable for detecting ChE in Daphnia magna. A type of indirect and non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IN-ELISA) was used to test the immunoreactive content of ChE (ChE-IR) in Daphina magna. The detection limit of the IN-ELISA was found to be 14.5 ng/ml at an antiserum dilution of 1:22 000. Results from tests on Daphnia magna exposed to sublethal concentrations of triazophos indicated a maximal induction of 57.2% in terms of ChE-IR on the second day after the animals were exposed to a concentration of 2.10 μg/L triazophos. Testing on animals acclimatized to a temperature of 16 °C indicated that ChE-IR was induced by 16.9% compared with the ChE-IR content detected at 21 °C, and the rate of induction was 25.6% at 10 °C. The IN-ELISA was also used to test the stability of ChE-IR in collected samples. Repeated freezing and thawing had no influence on the outcome of the test. All these results suggest that the polyclonal antibodies developed against the recombinant ChE are as

  14. Developing antibodies from cholinesterase derived from prokaryotic expression and testing their feasibility for detecting immunogen content in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-cui; Yuan, Bing-qiang; Li, Shao-nan

    2016-02-01

    To yield cholinesterase (ChE) from prokaryotic expression, the ChE gene that belongs to Daphnia magna was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using forward primer 5'-CCCYGGNGCSAT GATGTG-3' and reverse primer 5'-GYAAGTTRGCCCAATATCT-3'. To express the gene, one sequence of the amplified DNA, which was able to encode a putative protein containing two conserved carboxylesterase domains, was connected to the prokaryotic expression vector PET-29a(+). The recombinant vector was transformed into Escherichia coil BL21 (DE3). Protein expression was induced by isopropy-D-thiogalactoside. The expressed ChE was used as an immunogen to immunize BALB/c mice. The obtained antibodies were tested for their specificity towards crude enzymes from species such as Alona milleri, Macrobrachium nipponense, Bombyx mori, Chironomus kiiensis, Apis mellifera, Eisenia foetida, Brachydanio rerio, and Xenopus laevis. Results indicated that the antibodies had specificity suitable for detecting ChE in Daphnia magna. A type of indirect and non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IN-ELISA) was used to test the immunoreactive content of ChE (ChE-IR) in Daphina magna. The detection limit of the IN-ELISA was found to be 14.5 ng/ml at an antiserum dilution of 1:22 000. Results from tests on Daphnia magna exposed to sublethal concentrations of triazophos indicated a maximal induction of 57.2% in terms of ChE-IR on the second day after the animals were exposed to a concentration of 2.10 μg/L triazophos. Testing on animals acclimatized to a temperature of 16 °C indicated that ChE-IR was induced by 16.9% compared with the ChE-IR content detected at 21 °C, and the rate of induction was 25.6% at 10 °C. The IN-ELISA was also used to test the stability of ChE-IR in collected samples. Repeated freezing and thawing had no influence on the outcome of the test. All these results suggest that the polyclonal antibodies developed against the recombinant ChE are as

  15. Laboratory tests on the effectiveness of oral vaccination of young children against typhoid and paratyphoid A and B

    PubMed Central

    Vlădoianu, I. R.; Dimache, G.; Antohi, S.; Vlădoianu, Constanța; Zarma, Ortansa

    1965-01-01

    In Romania, pre-school children are excluded from subcutaneous inoculation with typhoid and paratyphoid A and B vaccine. The authors have therefore investigated the possibility of giving them an oral vaccine. Laboratory tests were carried out on 30 children from 3 to 7 years of age. Samples of blood serum were collected before and after vaccination and subsequently tested for (1) seroprotection in chick embryos, (2) seroprotection in white mice, (3) titration of the agglutinating antibodies, and (4) electrophoretic pattern. The results obtained showed that the oral administration of the vaccine can, under the conditions used in the test, afford a considerable degree of protection to young children. PMID:14290078

  16. The effects of serial skin testing with purified protein derivative on the level and quality of antibodies to complex and defined antigens in Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several serologic tests designed to detect antibodies to immunodominant Mycobacterium bovis antigens have recently emerged as ancillary tests for the detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle, particularly when applied after injection of purified protein derivative (PPD) for skin test that signific...

  17. Analysis of speckled fluorescent antinuclear antibody test antisera using electrofocused nuclear antigens.

    PubMed

    Okarma, T B; Krueger, J A; Holman, H R

    1982-08-01

    Antibodies to different components of the extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) have been thought to be serological markers for clinical subsets of rheumatic diseases. However, incomplete characterization and standardization of antigenic components such as ribonucleoprotein (RNP), Sm, and SS-B (Ha), and the multiplicity of autoantibodies produced by different patients have confounded correlations between autoantibody specificity and disease subsets. This study describes the preparative separation of the antigens Sm, RNP, and Ss-B (Ha) by electrofocusing and their use in a rocket electrophoretic assay that in one step identifies and quantifies the multiple reactivities of patient sera exhibiting the speckled FANA pattern. Preparative electrofocusing generates milligram quantities of these antigens with retention of their immunologic and biochemical characteristics, facilitating further study of their biological properties and relationships to disease subsets.

  18. Comparative evaluation of a field-based dot-ELISA kit with three other serological tests for the detection of Brucella antibodies in goats.

    PubMed

    Singh, S V; Gupta, V K; Singh, N

    2000-06-01

    A dot-ELISA (d-ELISA) test was evaluated and compared with the serum agglutination test (SAT), micro-complement fixation test (CFT) and a plate-ELISA (p-ELISA) for field use in screening herds of goats against brucellosis. During the standardization of the dot-ELISA kit on 1732 caprine serum samples, 1571 samples out of 1666 were found to be negative in d-ELISA, SAT and micro-CFT, while 59 were positive in different combinations. Of a further 66 serum samples, 34 were negative and 31 were positive in different combinations in d-ELISA, SAT, micro-CFT and p-ELISA. A total of 1584 goats belonging to different herds were then screened for brucellosis. Of the 694 serum samples screened in the first batch using d-ELISA, a positive reaction was observed in 26 cases. Further screening of these cases revealed 13 and 21 goats as positive reactors in SAT and CFT, respectively. In a second batch of 890 goats there were 109 positive reactors in d-ELISA. Among these 109 goats, 34, 40 and 80 goats were positive reactors in SAT, CFT and p-ELISA, respectively. The results of d-ELISA correlated well with those of p-ELISA. Dot-ELISA was found to be a more suitable and rapid test for screening large numbers of goats in the field.

  19. Modulation of ligand-mediated human red cell agglutinability by prostaglandins

    SciTech Connect

    McLawhon, R.W.; Marikovsky, Y.; Weinstein, R.S.

    1986-03-01

    Ethanol induces the transformation of human red cells from bioconcave discs to echinocytes in vitro. In addition, they have observed that ethanol can enhance the agglutination of red cells by the plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin or poly-L-lysine. Incubation of washed human red cells with 5 and 10% ethanol (v/v) in phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.3 at 25/sup 0/C produced a 30% increase in ligand-mediated agglutinability within 12 min. Simultaneous addition of ethanol and one of the following prostaglandin derivatives, PGE/sub 1/, pge/sub 2/, pgf/sub 2/-alpha, or PGl/sub 2/ (10/sup -9/ to 5 x 10/sup -7/ M) prevented the shape-associated increases in red cell agglutinability. Thromboxane-B/sub 2/ had no effect on agglutinability. Prostaglandins did not prevent ethanol-induced red cell shape transformations per se under identical experimental conditions. As intragastric administration of 100% ethanol results in the formation of spiculated red cell thrombi in postcapillary venules of rat gastric mucosa, they postulate that the cytoprotective role of prostanoids in preventing mucosal ulceration may be due in part to their capacity to inhibit intravascular ligand mediated red cell agglutination, hemostasis, and their sequelae, epithelial necrosis. Moreover, the data suggest that ethanol-induced red cell shape transformations and ligand-mediated agglutination represent two distinct and independent biological phenomena.

  20. Protection against Invasive Amebiasis by a Single Monoclonal Antibody Directed against a Lipophosphoglycan Antigen Localized on the Surface of Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Marinets, Alexandra; Zhang, Tonghai; Guillén, Nancy; Gounon, Pierre; Bohle, Barbara; Vollmann, Ute; Scheiner, Otto; Wiedermann, Gerhard; Stanley, Samuel L.; Duchêne, Michael

    1997-01-01

    A panel of monoclonal antibodies was raised from mice immunized with a membrane preparation from Entamoeba histolytica, the pathogenic species causing invasive amebiasis in humans. Antibody EH5 gave a polydisperse band in immunoblots from membrane preparations from different E. histolytica strains, and a much weaker signal from two strains of the nonpathogenic species Entamoeba dispar. Although the exact chemical structure of the EH5 antigen is not yet known, the ability of the antigen to be metabolically radiolabeled with [32P]phosphate or [3H]glucose, its sensitivity to digestion by mild acid and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, and its specific extraction from E. histolytica trophozoites by a method used to prepare lipophosphoglycans from Leishmania showed that it could be classified as an amebal lipophosphoglycan. Confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling of trophozoites localized the antigen on the outer face of the plasma membrane and on the inner face of internal vesicle membranes. Antibody EH5 strongly agglutinated amebas in a similar way to concanavalin A (Con A), and Con A bound to immunoaffinity-purified EH5 antigen. Therefore, surface lipophosphoglycans may play an important role in the preferential agglutination of pathogenic amebas by Con A. The protective ability of antibody EH5 was tested in a passive immunization experiment in a severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse model. Intrahepatic challenge of animals after administration of an isotype-matched control antibody or without treatment led to the development of a liver abscess in all cases, whereas 11 out of 12 animals immunized with the EH5 antibody developed no liver abscess. Our results demonstrate the importance and, for the first time, the protective capacity of glycan antigens on the surface of the amebas. PMID:9348313

  1. [Comparison of the indirect immunofluorescent (IFAT), ELISA test and the comercial Chagatek test for anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies detection].

    PubMed

    Enciso, Clara; Montilla, Marleny; Santacruz, María M; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago; Rodríguez, Adriana; Mercado, Marcela; Puerta, Concepción

    2004-03-01

    Chagas disease is a public health problem in Colombia, particularly in the eastern region. Because of human migration from rural areas to urban centers, the possibility of transfusional transmission becomes increasingly important. However the risk can be minimized by a careful screening of blood donors by means of serological tests. Colombian blood banks use comercial, foreign serological tests for screening for T. cruzi infection. The purpose of the current study was to compare the IFAT and ELISA tests (both use antigen obtained from Colombian strains) with the comercially available Chagatek tests. Sera of blood donors were classified in two groups on the basis of the IFAT: group I, 15 positive patients and group II, 14 negative patients. Sera from each group were tested by the ELISA and Chagatek tests. The ELISA test detected 100% of the patients as positive in group I and 7% (1/14) of patients as positive in group II. The Chagatek test detected 93% (14/15) of the patients as positive in group I and 50% (7/14) in group II. The kappa index for concordance between the ELISA and IFAT tests was 0.93 (95% C.I.: 0.80-1.00); between IFAT and Chagatek 0.43 (95% C.I.: 0.26-0.62), and between ELISA and Chagatek 0.49 (95% C.I.: 0.31-0.67). These results highlighted the importance of using autochtonous Colombian strains as antigens in screening tests for blood donors.

  2. A Quantitative Flurometric Assay for the Measurement of Antibody to Pasteurella haemolytica in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Confer, A.W.; Fox, J.C.; Newman, P.R.; Lawson, G.W.; Corstvet, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    A rapid, simple fluorometric method is described for measuring antibody to Pasteurella haemolytica in sera of cattle. Various antigen preparations were compared for the test including live, formalin-killed and phenol-killed P. haemolytica. A preparation composed of formalin-killed organisms from a 22 hour culture gave consistent results and was used in the studies. The test was reproduciable with percent coefficients of variation for fluorescent signal unit values on ten or more replicate samples ranging from 5.7 to 28.0. Sera from calves vaccinated by aerosol exposure to live P. haemolytica had up to a five-fold increase in antibody titer as measured by the flurometric method test during a 21 day period. Fluorometric method titers were comparable to those obtained by the indirect bacterial agglutination test. There was no seroconversion to P. haemolytica in calves vaccinated by aerosol exposure of P. multocida. The major advantages of the fluorometric method test over conventional methods are that the assay does not require serial dilutions of serum samples and thus limits time and effort to determine antibody titers. PMID:6339016

  3. Detection of antibodies to Neospora caninum in moose (Alces alces): the first report in Europe.

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bozena; Goździk, Katarzyna; Bień, Justyna; Kornacka, Aleksandra; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Reiterová, Katarína; Cabaj, Władysław

    2014-02-01

    Neospora caninum Dubey, Carpenter, Speer, Topper et Uggla, 1988 is a protozoan parasite originally reported as a major cause of bovine abortions worldwide. It is documented that the parasite is widely spread among non-carnivorous cervids. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of N. caninum in moose (Alces alces Linnaeus). Blood samples collected in 2010 and 2012 in the northeastern Poland were tested for antibodies to N. caninum by agglutination test (NAT), a commercial competitive screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Sera that gave a positive result were further investigated by western blot (WB) analysis to verify the presence of antibodies. Antibodies to N. caninum were detected in one of seven moose. The antibody titer was confirmed by NAT (1 : 1 280), cELISA (I = 91%) and ELISA (OD = 0.736). The main immunodominant antigens detected by WB were 120, 70, 55, 35 and 16 kDa proteins. This is the first evidence of N. caninum seropositivity in moose living in a natural environment in Europe.

  4. Evaluation of Multiplex-Based Antibody Testing for Use in Large-Scale Surveillance for Yaws: a Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Gretchen M.; Mitja, Oriol; Goodhew, Brook; Pillay, Allan; Lammie, Patrick J.; Castro, Arnold; Moses, Penias; Chen, Cheng; Ye, Tun; Ballard, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    WHO has targeted yaws for global eradication by 2020. The program goals are to interrupt the transmission in countries where yaws is endemic and to certify countries as yaws free where yaws was endemic in the past. No new rapid plasmin reagin (RPR) seroreactivity in young children is required for certification of elimination at a country level. We sought to evaluate whether antibody responses to specific treponemal antigens measured in a high-throughput multiplex bead array (MBA) assay differentiate past versus current infection and whether a nontreponemal lipoidal antigen test can be incorporated into the MBA. Serum and dried blood spot specimens collected for yaws surveillance projects in Ghana, Vanuatu, and Papua New Guinea (PNG) were run on MBA to measure antibodies against recombinant p17 (rp17) and treponemal membrane protein A (TmpA) treponemal antigens. Results were compared to standard treponemal laboratory (TPPA or TPHA [TPP(H)A]) and quantitative RPR test data. Of 589 specimens, 241 were TPP(H)A+/RPR+, 88 were TPP(H)A+/RPR−, 6 were TPP(H)A−/RPR+, and 254 were negative for both tests. Compared to TPP(H)A, reactive concordance of rp17 was 93.7%, while reactive concordance of TmpA was only 81.9%. TmpA-specific reactivity showed good correlation with RPR titers (R2 = 0.41; P < 0.0001). IgG responses to the lipoidal antigen used in RPR testing (cardiolipin) were not detected in the MBA. Our results suggest that TmpA can be used as a treponemal antigen marker for recent or active infection and potentially replace RPR in a high-throughput multiplex tool for large-scale yaws surveillance. PMID:26962086

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Different Testing Strategies that Use Antibody Levels to Detect Chronic Hepatitis C in Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Granados-García, Víctor; Contreras, Ana M.; García-Peña, Carmen; Salinas-Escudero, Guillermo; Thein, Hla-Hla; Flores, Yvonne N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of seven hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing strategies in blood donors. Methods. Three of the seven strategies were based on HCV diagnosis and reporting guidelines in Mexico and four were from previous and current recommendations outlined by the CDC. The strategies that were evaluated determine antibody levels according to the signal-to-cut-off (S/CO) ratio and use reflex Immunoblot (IMB) or HCV RNA tests to confirm true positive (TP) cases of chronic HCV infection. Costs were calculated from the perspective of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). A decision tree model was developed to estimate the expected number of true positive cases and costs for the base-case scenarios and for the sensitivity analyses. Results. Base-case findings indicate an extended dominance of the CDC-USA2 and CDC-USA4 options by the IMSS Mexico3 and IMSS-Mexico1 alternatives. The probabilistic sensitivity analyses results suggest that for a willingness-to-pay (WTP) range of $0–9,000 USD the IMSS-Mexico1 strategy is the most cost-effective of all strategies ($5,000 USD per TP). The IMSS-Mexico3, IMSS-Mexico2, and CDC-USA3 strategies are also cost-effective strategies that cost between $7,800 and $8,800 USD per TP case detected. The CDC-USA1 strategy was very expensive and not cost-effective. Conclusions. HCV antibody testing strategies based on the classification of two or three levels of the S/CO are cost-effective procedures to identify patients who require reflex IMB or HCV RNA testing to confirm chronic HCV infection. PMID:27159320

  6. Evaluation of indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for the diagnosis and screening of lumpy skin disease using Bayesian method.

    PubMed

    Gari, G; Biteau-Coroller, F; LeGoff, C; Caufour, P; Roger, F

    2008-06-22

    The performance of indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) for serological diagnosis and screening of lumpy skin disease (LSD) was evaluated using methods without gold standard. Virus neutralization test (VNT) was used as the second test and the study sites were selected from two different geographical places in Ethiopia to get different disease prevalence. The analysis of conditional dependent Bayesian model for the accuracy of IFAT showed that sensitivity, specificity, prevalence of the population Pi(1) and the population Pi(2) were 0.92 (0.89-0.95), 0.88 (0.85-0.91), 0.28 (0.25-0.32) and 0.06 (0.048-0.075), respectively. The posterior inferences obtained for VNT sensitivity, specificity and conditional correlation between the tests for sensitivity (rhoD) and specificity (rhoDc) were 0.78 (0.74-0.83), 0.97 (0.95-0.99), 0.052 (-0.03-0.15) and 0.019 (-0.01-0.06), respectively. The interval estimation of conditional correlation for both sensitivity and specificity clusters around zero and thus conditional dependence between the two tests was not significant. Although accuracy measure would not be the only basis for test selection, the result of our study demonstrated that IFAT has a reasonable high accuracy to be used for the diagnosis and sero-surveillance analysis of LSD in the target population.

  7. Antibodies for immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Newman, D J

    2000-01-01

    What is an immunoassay without an antibody? Clearly the name provides the answer to this question; without antibodies there would be no immunoassays. An immunoassay is an analytical technique, quantitative or qualitative, that relies absolutely on the specificity and affinity of the interaction between epitope and paratope for generation of a detectable response. The actual detection of this binding interaction can be via one of literally hundreds of different signal transduction mechanisms, e.g., fluorimetry, chemiluminescence, agglutination (turbidimetry or nephelometry) enzyme reactions, and so forth (1 -4), but these are simply transducing systems for the primary binding interaction. Antibodies thus provide us with an exquisitely sensitive and specific analytical technology for detecting and quantifying epitopic structures. These structures include amino-acid derivatives, e.g., thyroid hormones, peptides, e.g., vasopressin, proteins, e.g., cytokines, as well as carbohydrate structures, e.g., CA-125. Immunoassay technology has developed to such an extent that it is probably the most versatile analytical tool available able to identify and quantify epitopic structures across the milli- to zeptomolar concentration ranges (2).

  8. Antibodies against Glucan, Chitin, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mannan as New Biomarkers of Candida albicans Infection That Complement Tests Based on C. albicans Mannan▿

    PubMed Central

    Sendid, B.; Dotan, N.; Nseir, S.; Savaux, C.; Vandewalle, P.; Standaert, A.; Zerimech, F.; Guery, B. P.; Dukler, A.; Colombel, J. F.; Poulain, D.

    2008-01-01

    Antibodies against Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan (ASCA) and antibodies against synthetic disaccharide fragments of glucans (ALCA) and chitin (ACCA) are biomarkers of Crohn's disease (CD). We previously showed that Candida albicans infection generates ASCA. Here, we explored ALCA and ACCA as possible biomarkers of invasive C. albicans infection (ICI). ASCA, ALCA, ACCA, and Candida mannan antigen and antibody detection tests were performed on 69 sera obtained sequentially from 18 patients with ICIs proven by blood culture, 59 sera from CD patients, 47 sera from hospitalized subjects colonized by Candida species (CZ), and 131 sera from healthy controls (HC). ASCA, ALCA, and ACCA levels in CD and ICI patients were significantly different from those in CZ and HC subjects (P < 0.0001). In ICI patients, these levels increased as infection developed. Using ASCA, ALCA, ACCA, and Platelia Candida tests, 100% of ICIs were detected, with the kinetics of the antibody response depending on the patient during the time course of infection. A large number of sera presented with more than three positive tests. This is the first evidence that the detection of antibodies against chitin and glucans has diagnostic value in fungal infections and that these tests can complement more specific tests. Future trials are necessary to assess the value of these tests in multiparametric analysis, as well as their pathophysiological relevance. PMID:18971303

  9. Antibodies against glucan, chitin, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan as new biomarkers of Candida albicans infection that complement tests based on C. albicans mannan.

    PubMed

    Sendid, B; Dotan, N; Nseir, S; Savaux, C; Vandewalle, P; Standaert, A; Zerimech, F; Guery, B P; Dukler, A; Colombel, J F; Poulain, D

    2008-12-01

    Antibodies against Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan (ASCA) and antibodies against synthetic disaccharide fragments of glucans (ALCA) and chitin (ACCA) are biomarkers of Crohn's disease (CD). We previously showed that Candida albicans infection generates ASCA. Here, we explored ALCA and ACCA as possible biomarkers of invasive C. albicans infection (ICI). ASCA, ALCA, ACCA, and Candida mannan antigen and antibody detection tests were performed on 69 sera obtained sequentially from 18 patients with ICIs proven by blood culture, 59 sera from CD patients, 47 sera from hospitalized subjects colonized by Candida species (CZ), and 131 sera from healthy controls (HC). ASCA, ALCA, and ACCA levels in CD and ICI patients were significantly different from those in CZ and HC subjects (P<0.0001). In ICI patients, these levels increased as infection developed. Using ASCA, ALCA, ACCA, and Platelia Candida tests, 100% of ICIs were detected, with the kinetics of the antibody response depending on the patient during the time course of infection. A large number of sera presented with more than three positive tests. This is the first evidence that the detection of antibodies against chitin and glucans has diagnostic value in fungal infections and that these tests can complement more specific tests. Future trials are necessary to assess the value of these tests in multiparametric analysis, as well as their pathophysiological relevance.

  10. Systematic review of the accuracy of antibody tests used to screen asymptomatic adults for hepatitis C infection

    PubMed Central

    Cadieux, Geneviève; Campbell, Jennifer; Dendukuri, Nandini

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several expert groups, including the United States Preventive Services Task Force and the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care, have recently examined or are currently examining whether primary care physicians should screen asymptomatic adults for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To inform decision-making on HCV screening, we performed a systematic review of the accuracy of antibody tests compared with other immunoassays and RNA detection for screening asymptomatic adults for HCV infection in Canada. Methods: MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched from 1990 to 2016; resulting citations were uploaded into DistillerSR and independently screened by 2 reviewers. Original research studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses were eligible for inclusion. At least 80% of the study population had to be asymptomatic, nonpregnant, treatment-naïve adults with unknown liver enzyme values and unknown HCV status. Risk of bias was assessed with the use of the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies version 2 (QUADAS-2) tool; the quality of the body of evidence was assessed by means of GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology. Results: Of 1537 articles identified, 81 underwent full-text review, and 9 studies met the inclusion criteria. Compared with RNA detection, the sensitivity of the third-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was variable (61.0%-81.8%), and its specificity was high (97.5%-99.7%). As expected, there were more false-positive results when comparing antibody tests to RNA detection than to other immunoassays. Our GRADE assessment suggested that there was a high concern for risk of bias, particularly verification bias, and substantial inconsistency between studies in terms of their design. Interpretation: More research is needed to better characterize the accuracy of antibody tests used to screen for HCV infection in the general population. Jurisdictions that recently adopted

  11. Prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira serovars in sheep and goats in Alto Adige-South Tyrol.

    PubMed

    Ciceroni, L; Lombardo, D; Pinto, A; Ciarrocchi, S; Simeoni, J

    2000-04-01

    Serum samples from 313 sheep and 95 goats were collected during November 1993 in 26 localities in Alto Adige-South Tyrol and tested by microscopic agglutination test for antibodies to 28 serovars of the genus Leptospira. At the time of blood collection all the animals appeared healthy with no clinical sign suggestive of leptospirosis. The observed seroprevalence in sheep was 6.1%, whereas the seropositivity rate for goat serum samples was 2.1%. The highest serological prevalence in sheep was recorded for serovar castellonis, followed by poi, sejroe, hardjo subtype hardjobovis, copenhageni, and cynopteri. Titres to poi were the only ones found in goats. These findings, which are proof of Leptospira infection in Alto Adige-South Tyrol, indicate that foci of several serovars exist in this region.

  12. Comparison of antibodies in marine fish from clean and polluted waters of the New York Bight: relative levels against 36 bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Robohm, R A; Brown, C; Murchelano, R A

    1979-01-01

    Fish from polluted waters are subject to increased prevalence of disease. Because they respond to bacterial pathogens by producing serum antibodies, it was possible to construct a seasonal serological record in three fish species from clean and polluted waters of the New York Bight. Antibody levels were determined by testing sera for agglutinating activity against 36 strains of bacteria. Evaluation of 5,100 antibody titrations showed the following. During warm months, summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) from the polluted area had significantly higher antibody levels and antibody to a greater diversity of bacteria than fish from the unpolluted area. Weakfish (Cynoscion regalis) from the same polluted area shared with summer flounder raised titers to many bacteria. The greatest proportion of raised titers was against Vibrio species, although prominent titers were also seen against Aeromonas salmonicida and Haemophilus piscium, bacteria usually associated with diseases in freshwater but not marine fish. Differences between polluted and clean waters were not as evident in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) during cold months. This could be due, in part, to reduced antibody production at colder temperatures. The data illustrate the usefulness of the serum antibody record in identifying environmental exposure to bacteria in marine fish and indicate that the polluted New York Bight apex has increased levels and diversity of bacteria during warm months. PMID:518084

  13. Detection of antibodies to Neospora caninum in two species of wild canids, Lycalopex gymnocercus and Cerdocyon thous from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cañón-Franco, W A; Yai, L E O; Souza, S L P; Santos, L C; Farias, N A R; Ruas, J; Rossi, F W; Gomes, A A B; Dubey, J P; Gennari, S M

    2004-09-02

    Domestic dog (Canis domesticus) and the coyote (Canis latrans) are the only known definitive hosts for the protozoan Neospora caninum that causes abortion in dairy cattle. In the present study, antibodies to N. caninum were sought in three species of wild canids, Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex gymnocercus and Dusicyon vetulus from Brazil. Antibodies to N. caninum were assayed by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and the Neospora agglutination test (NAT). N. caninum antibodies were found in five of 12 L. gymnocercus with IFAT titers of 1:50 in three, 1:100 in one, and 1:1600 in one, and NAT titers of 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, 1:320, and 1:640 in five animals. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in four of 15 C. thous with IFAT titers of 1:50 in one, and 1:100 in three, and NAT titer of 1:40 in one animal. All 30 D. ventulus were seronegative by IFAT and NAT.

  14. DETECTION OF Leptospira spp. AND Brucella abortus ANTIBODIES IN FREE-LIVING JAGUARS (Panthera onca) IN TWO PROTECTED AREAS OF NORTHERN PANTANAL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    ONUMA, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; KANTEK, Daniel Luis Zanella; CRAWSHAW, Peter Gransden; MORATO, Ronaldo Gonçalves; MAY-JÚNIOR, Joares Adenilson; de MORAIS, Zenaide Maria; FERREIRA, José Soares; de AGUIAR, Daniel Moura

    2015-01-01

     This study aimed to assess the exposure of free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) to Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus in two conservation units in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of antibodies in blood samples of eleven jaguars was investigated using autochthonous antigens isolated in Brazil added to reference antigen collection applied to diagnosis of leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The Rose Bengal test was applied for B. abortus antibodies. Two (18.2%) jaguars were seroreactive for the Leptospira spp. antigen and the serovar considered as most infective in both animals was a Brazilian isolate of serovar Canicola (L01). All jaguars were seronegative for B. abortus. These data indicate that the inclusion of autochthonous antigens in serological studies can significantly increase the number of reactive animals, as well as modify the epidemiological profile of Leptospira spp. infection. PMID:25923900

  15. Detection of Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus antibodies in free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in two protected areas of northern Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Crawshaw Júnior, Peter Gransden; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; May-Júnior, Joares Adenilson; Morais, Zenaide Maria de; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the exposure of free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) to Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus in two conservation units in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of antibodies in blood samples of eleven jaguars was investigated using autochthonous antigens isolated in Brazil added to reference antigen collection applied to diagnosis of leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The Rose Bengal test was applied for B. abortus antibodies. Two (18.2%) jaguars were seroreactive for the Leptospira spp. antigen and the serovar considered as most infective in both animals was a Brazilian isolate of serovar Canicola (L01). All jaguars were seronegative for B. abortus. These data indicate that the inclusion of autochthonous antigens in serological studies can significantly increase the number of reactive animals, as well as modify the epidemiological profile of Leptospira spp. infection.

  16. The World Health Organization Recommendations for Trachoma Surveillance, Experience in Nepal and Added Benefit of Testing for Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis pgp3 Protein: NESTS Study

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano, Andrea I.; Sharma, Shekhar; Crowley, Kathryn; Dize, Laura; Muñoz, Beatriz E.; Mishra, Sailesh K.; Rotondo, Lisa A.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; West, Sheila K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) now requires a second surveillance survey for trachoma after an impact assessment has found follicular trachoma (TF) <5% to determine if re-emergence has occurred. Using new WHO guidelines, we undertook surveillance surveys, and determined the prevalence of infection and antibody positivity, in two districts in Nepal. Methods 20 clusters were randomly selected within each district, 15 were randomly selected for antibody testing. In each cluster, we randomly selected 50 children ages 1–9 years and 100 adults ≥15 years. TF and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) were evaluated. Conjunctival swabs to test for chlamydial infection using GenXpert platform were obtained, and dried blood spots were collected to test for antibodies to Chlamydia Trachomatis pgp3 using the Luminex platform. Findings 3 cases of TF were found in the two districts, and one case of infection. Pgp3 antibody positivity was 2·4% (95% confidence interval: 1·4%, 3·7%), and did not increase with age (P = 0.24). No clustering of antibody positivity within communities was found. TT prevalence was <1/1,000 population. Interpretation The surveillance surveys, as proposed by WHO, showed no evidence for re-emergence of trachoma in two districts of Nepal. The low level and no significant increase by age in seroprevalence of antibodies to C trachomatis pgp3 antigen deserve further investigation as a marker of interruption of transmission. PMID:27654497

  17. Poor sensitivity of rapid tests for the detection of antibodies to the hepatitis B virus: implications for field studies

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Helena Medina; Scalioni, Leticia de Paula; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Miguel, Juliana Custódio; do Ó, Kycia Maria Rodrigues; Milagres, Flavio Augusto Pádua; Cruz, Marcelo Santos; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Flores, Priscila Pollo; Leal, Erotildes; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Villar, Livia Melo

    2017-01-01

    Rapid tests (RTs) can be used as an alternative method for the conventional diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV). This study aims to evaluate antibodies to HBsAg (anti-HBs) and antibodies to HBeAg (anti-HBe) RTs under different Brazilian settings. The following three groups were included: GI: viral hepatitis outpatient services; GII: low resource areas; and GIII: crack users and beauticians. Imuno-rápido anti-HBsAg™ and Imuno-rápido anti-HBeAg™ RTs were evaluated and showed specificities greater than 95% in all groups. The sensitivity values to anti-HBs were 50.38%, 51.05% and 46.73% and the sensitivity values to anti-HBe were 76.99%, 10.34% and 11.76% in the GI, GII and GIII groups, respectively. The assays had a low sensitivity and high specificity, which indicated their use for screening in regions endemic for HBV. PMID:28146158

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild carnivores from Spain.

    PubMed

    Sobrino, R; Cabezón, O; Millán, J; Pabón, M; Arnal, M C; Luco, D F; Gortázar, C; Dubey, J P; Almeria, S

    2007-09-30

    Serum samples from 282 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using a cut-off value of 1:25. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 22 of 27 (81.5%) of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), 3 of 6 European wildcats (Felis silvestris), 66 of 102 (64.7%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 15 of 32 (46.9%) wolves (Canis lupus), 26 of 37 (70.3%) Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 17 of 20 (85.0%) stone martens (Martes foina), 4 of 4 pine martens (Martes martes), 6 of 6 Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra), 4 of 4 polecats (Mustela putorius), 1 of 1 ferret (Mustela putorius furo), 13 of 21 (61.9%) European genets (Genetta genetta), and 13 of 22 (59.1%) Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon). Serological results indicated a widespread exposure to T. gondii among wild carnivores in Spain. The high T. gondii seroprevalence in Iberian lynx and the European wildcat reported here may be of epidemiologic significance because seropositive cats might have shed oocysts.

  19. Developing Guidelines for HIV Antibody Testing among Victims of Pediatric Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, George A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    An interim set of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing guidelines for victims of pediatric sexual abuse (PSA) is proposed. Guidelines are based on responses of 63 practitioners of PSA assessment to 7 hypothetical clinical profiles with 12 testing criteria. (Author/DB)

  20. [Study of measles history, vaccination, antibody status, and vaccination effectiveress for school teachers].

    PubMed

    Ichinohe, Sadato; Ogawa, Tomoko

    2011-05-01

    To determine an efficient measles vaccination program for school teachers, we studied knowledge about measles history, immunization, and immunity status among 269 school teachers in Ichihara City in 2009. We found that (1) many are uncertain about disease and immunization history, with neither history related to the immunity status of neutralizing antibody titer (NT), (2) particle agglutination (PA) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) testing have replaced NT in commercial laboratories, but persons having antibodies fewer than 8-fold of the NT titer as a sensitivity desigration for measles, and 11 false-positive immunity results are indicated in PA testing (cutoff: 256-fold) and 140 false-positive sensitivity results in EIA testing (cutoff: 16.0 EIA), and (3) sensitivity cases are 7.1% in the naturally infected generation born before 1977 and 23.7% in the vaccinated generation born after 1978. Given "herd" immunity, we concluded that all vaccinated-generation persons should be administered additional vaccination regardless of sensitivity due to history, immunization, and PA or EIA antibody testing.

  1. Leptospiral antibodies in flying foxes in Australia.

    PubMed

    Smythe, L D; Field, H E; Barnett, L J; Smith, C S; Dohnt, M F; Symonds, M L; Moore, M R; Rolfe, P F

    2002-01-01

    The sera of 271 pteropid bats (or flying foxes) collected from Queensland, New South Wales, Western Australia, and the Northern Territory were screened against a reference panel of 21 Leptospira spp. using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Sera were collected from December 1997 through August 1999. The MAT panel represented those serovars previously isolated in Australia, as well as exotic serovars found in neighboring countries. Leptospiral antibodies were detected in 75 (28%) of the sera and represented seven serovars, one of which, L. interrogans serovar cynopteri has been regarded as exotic to Australia. Sixty sera were reactive to one serovar, 12 sera were reactive to two serovars, and three sera were reactive to three serovars. The L. kirschneri serovar australis was most frequently identified (60.2%). The findings suggest a previously unrecognized role of pteropid bats in the natural history of leptospirosis. The potential exists for establishment of infection in new host species, the transmission of new serovars to known host species, and for changes in virulence of leptospires as a result of passage through these species.

  2. Cell adhesion molecules: detection with univalent second antibody

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Identification of cell surface molecules that play a role in cell-cell adhesion (here called cell adhesion molecules) has been achieved by demonstrating the inhibitory effect of univalent antibodies that bind these molecules in an in vitro assay of cell-cell adhesion. A more convenient reagent, intact (divalent) antibody, has been avoided because it might agglutinate the cells rather than blocking cell-cell adhesion. In this report, we show that intact rabbit immunoglobulin directed against certain cell surface molecules of Dictyostelium discoideum blocks cell-cell adhesion when the in vitro assay is performed in the presence of univalent goat anti-rabbit antibody. Under appropriate experimental conditions, the univalent second antibody blocks agglutination induced by the rabbit antibody without significantly interfering with its effect on cell-cell adhesion. This method promises to be useful for screening monoclonal antibodies raised against potential cell adhesion molecules because: (a) it allows for the screening of large numbers of antibody samples without preparation of univalent fragments; and (b) it requires much less antibody because of the greater affinity of divalent antibodies for antigens. PMID:6970200

  3. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibody prevalence in Alaska wildlife.

    PubMed

    Stieve, Erica; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Kania, Stephen A; Widner, Amanda; Patton, Sharon

    2010-04-01

    Free-ranging caribou and moose populations in some regions of Alaska undergo periodic declines in numbers. Caribou and moose are managed by the state as valuable resources for not only sustenance and subsistence, but also for cultural heritage. Incidence and prevalence of diseases that may impact herd health and recruitment from year to year are relevant to management decisions aimed to protect the long-term viability of these herds. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are two apicomplexan parasites that can cause neurologic disease and abortions in their intermediate hosts and less frequently cause disease in their definitive hosts. The definitive hosts of N. caninum and T. gondii are canids and felids, respectively, and prevalence in the environment is in part dependent on maintenance of the life cycle through the definitive hosts. Serum samples from caribou (Rangifer tarandus, n=453), wolf (Canis lupus, n=324), moose (Alces alces, n=201), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus, n=55), coyote (Canis latrans, n=12), and fox (Vulpes vulpes, n=9) collected in Alaska were assayed for N. caninum- and T. gondii-reactive antibodies with an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and a modified agglutination test (MAT), respectively. Seroprevalence of N. caninum was greater in caribou (11.5%) than in wolves (9.0%), moose (0.5%), or black-tailed deer (0%). Seroprevalence of T. gondii was greater in wolves (17.8%) than in caribou (0.4%), moose (0%), or black-tailed deer (0%). Seroprevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii were 16.7% and 0.0% in coyotes and 0.0% and 12.5% in fox, but small sample sizes prevented further analysis. Antibodies to N. caninum in young caribou compared to adult caribou suggest that vertical transmission may be an important component of new infections in Alaskan caribou. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive individuals across Alaska may reflect differences in frequency of definitive hosts and alteration of predation patterns among regions.

  4. [Serodiagnosis of chlamydiosis: "Chlamy-IgG-DS-Tr"-- the first domestic immunoenzyme recombinant test-system for determination of anti-Chlamydia trachomatis class G antibodies].

    PubMed

    Manzeniuk, I N; Vorob'eva, M S; Nikitiuk, N M; Fedosov, S A; Gorbunov, M A; Gnedoĭ, S N; Losev, V I; Krivenchuk, N A

    2000-01-01

    The first Native test-system for determination of class G antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis with chlamydia recombinant antigen was elaborated Test-system efficacy was demonstrated in clinical trials. The sensibility, specific activity and suitability of the "Chlamy-IgG-DS-Tr" were the same as for import analogous.

  5. Development and evaluation of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for a screening test to detect antibodies against classical swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Wakamoto, Hiroaki; Tamura, Tehpin; Nomura, Takushi; Naito, Michiko; Aoki, Hiroshi; Morita, Hiroshi; Kida, Hiroshi; Fukusho, Akio

    2012-08-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for a screening test to detect antibodies against classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Viral glycoproteins, which were purified from swine kidney cells infected with CSFV ALD/A76 strain by the immunoaffinity purification using monoclonal antibody against E2 protein, were adsorbed on a microtiter plate as the antigen for the antibody detection. Each antibody titer of serum sample was expressed as a sample per positive value calculated with optical absorbance of each sample and that of a positive control. The advantage of this ELISA is its higher sensitivity: most sera containing more than 4 neutralization titers were determined to be positive. This ELISA is unable to discriminate between antibodies against CSFV and those against other ruminant pestiviruses, therefore positive sera in this ELISA should be evaluated by a cross-neutralization test using CSFV, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and border disease virus. Taken together, the indirect ELISA developed in this study is useful screening tool to detect antibodies against CSFV for the large-scale monitoring of classical swine fever.

  6. Detection of anti-U3-RNP/fibrillarin IgG antibodies by line immunoblot assay has comparable clinical significance to immunoprecipitation testing in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Lisa K; Jaskowski, Troy D; Mayes, Maureen D; Tebo, Anne E

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and clinical relevance of a commercially available line immunoblot assay (LIA) for detecting anti-U3-RNP/fibrillarin (anti-U3-RNP), against immunoprecipitation (gold standard). This study involved a multi-ethnic cohort of 1000 American systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients and 50 healthy controls. Antinuclear antibodies and centromere antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, anti-topo I by immunodiffusion and anti-RNAP III by ELISA. The presence of anti-U3-RNP in select serum samples was detected by immunoprecipitation (IP) and LIA. By IP, U3-RNP antibody was detected in 75 (7.5 %) patients with SSc. Overall agreement between LIA and IP was very good (κ = 0.966). Analytic sensitivity and specificity of the U3-RNP LIA was 100 and 94.7 %, respectively. Clinical features associated with positivity for the anti-U3-RNP antibody include diffuse cutaneous SSc and increased prevalence of renal crisis, consistent with previous studies that used IP. Testing for U3-RNP antibodies is only performed by a small number of laboratories due to the complexity of both performance and interpretation of the IP. LIA is faster and less complex than IP. Excellent agreement between IP and LIA demonstrates that LIA is an acceptable and attractive alternative to IP for anti-U3-RNP detection.

  7. Improving national surveillance of Lyme neuroborreliosis in Denmark through electronic reporting of specific antibody index testing from 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Dessau, R B; Espenhain, L; Mølbak, K; Krause, T G; Voldstedlund, M

    2015-07-16

    Our aim was to evaluate the results of automated surveillance of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in Denmark using the national microbiology database (MiBa), and to describe the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed LNB at a national level. MiBa-based surveillance includes electronic transfer of laboratory results, in contrast to the statutory surveillance based on manually processed notifications. Antibody index (AI) testing is the recommend laboratory test to support the diagnosis of LNB in Denmark. In the period from 2010 to 2012, 217 clinical cases of LNB were notified to the statutory surveillance system, while 533 cases were reported AI positive by the MiBa system. Thirty-five unconfirmed cases (29 AI-negative and 6 not tested) were notified, but not captured by MiBa. Using MiBa, the number of reported cases was increased almost 2.5 times. Furthermore, the reporting was timelier (median lag time: 6 vs 58 days). Average annual incidence of AI-confirmed LNB in Denmark was 3.2/100,000 population and incidences stratified by municipality ranged from none to above 10/100,000. This is the first study reporting nationwide incidence of LNB using objective laboratory criteria. Laboratory-based surveillance with electronic data-transfer was more accurate, complete and timely compared to the surveillance based on manually processed notifications. We propose using AI test results for LNB surveillance instead of clinical reporting.

  8. Reading development in agglutinative languages: evidence from beginning, intermediate, and adult Basque readers.

    PubMed

    Acha, Joana; Laka, Itziar; Perea, Manuel

    2010-04-01

    Do typological properties of language, such as agglutination (i.e., the morphological process of adding affixes to the lexeme of a word), have an impact on the development of visual word recognition? To answer this question, we carried out an experiment in which beginning, intermediate, and adult Basque readers (n=32 each, average age=7, 11, and 22 years, respectively) needed to read correctly versus incorrectly inflected words embedded in sentences. Half of the targets contained high-frequency stems, and the other half contained low-frequency stems. To each stem, four inflections of different lengths were attached (-a, -ari, -aren, and -arentzat, i.e., inflectional sequences). To test whether the process of word recognition was modulated by the knowledge of word structure in the language, half of the participants' native language was Basque and the other half's native language was Spanish. Children showed robust effects of frequency and length of inflection that diminished with age. In addition, the effect of length of inflection was modulated by the frequency of the stem and by the native language. Taken together, these results suggest that word recognition develops from a decoding strategy to a direct lexical access strategy and that this process is modulated by children's knowledge of the inflectional structure of words from the beginning of their reading experience.

  9. Cellular impedance measurement as a new tool for poxvirus titration, antibody neutralization testing and evaluation of antiviral substances

    SciTech Connect

    Witkowski, Peter T.; Schuenadel, Livia; Wiethaus, Julia; Bourquain, Daniel R.; Kurth, Andreas; Nitsche, Andreas

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Real-time data acquisition by RT-CES requires low operative effort. {yields} Time to result is reduced by using RT-CES instead of conventional methods. {yields} RT-CES enables quantification of virus titers in unknown samples. {yields} RT-CES is a useful tool for high-throughput characterization of antiviral agents. {yields} An RT-CES-based virus neutralization test was established. -- Abstract: Impedance-based biosensing known as real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) belongs to an emerging technology for analyzing the status of cells in vitro. In the present study protocols were developed for an RT-CES-based system (xCELLigence{sup TM}, Roche Applied Science, ACEA Biosciences Inc.) to supplement conventional techniques in pox virology. First, proliferation of cells susceptible to orthopoxviruses was monitored. For virus titration cells were infected with vaccinia virus and cell status, represented by the dimensionless impedance-based cell index (CI), was monitored. A virus-dose dependent decrease in electrical impedance could be shown. Calculation of calibration curves at a suitable CI covering a dynamic range of 4 log enabled the quantification of virus titers in unknown samples. Similarly, antiviral effects could be determined as shown for anti-poxviral agents ST-246 and Cidofovir. Published values for the in vitro concentration that inhibited virus replication by 50% (IC{sub 50}) could be confirmed while cytotoxicity in effective concentrations was excluded in long-term incubation experiments. Finally, an RT-CES-based virus neutralization test was established. Various poxvirus-specific antibodies were examined for their neutralizing activity and a calculation mode for the neutralizing antibody titer was introduced. In summary, the presented RT-CES-based methods outmatch end-point assays by observing the cell population throughout the entire experiment while workload and time to result are reduced.

  10. Risk factors for HIV seropositivity among people consulting for HIV antibody testing: a pilot surveillance study in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Alary, M; Castel, J

    1990-01-01

    The surveillance of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) through case reporting only reflects the epidemiologic features of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) transmission a few years earlier and not the prevalence of HIV seropositivity. HIV infection is not a notifiable condition in Quebec. We were asked by the ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux du Québec to perform a pilot project for the surveillance of HIV seropositivity using a network of sentinel physicians. From May 15, 1988, to Sept. 30, 1989, physicians from four collaborating centres collected data on the serologic status, demographic characteristics and risk factors for 4209 patients who underwent HIV antibody testing. Of the 3899 subjects included in the study 7.9% were HIV positive. Through logistic regression analysis the following variables were found to be significantly associated with HIV seropositivity: presence of HIV-related symptoms (prevalence odds ratio [POR] 36.5), origin from an endemic area (POR 9.1), homosexuality or bisexuality (POR 8.4), intravenous drug use (POR 4.2), male sex (POR 2.8), previous HIV antibody testing (POR 2.5) and previous sexually transmitted disease (POR 1.8). Over the study period we found a large increase in HIV seroprevalence among intravenous drug users (4.2% in 1988 to 19.0% in 1989) (p = 0.02). This increase might reflect a recent change in the epidemiologic pattern of HIV transmission in Quebec. Surveillance of HIV seropositivity through a network of sentinel physicians may be a reasonable alternative to mandatory reporting. PMID:2357678

  11. Twenty-eight years with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA): how to test for ANCA - evidence-based immunology?

    PubMed

    Csernok, Elena; Holle, Julia U

    2010-05-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and primary pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis are associated with circulating antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) (collectively called ANCA-associated vasculitides, AAV). Two types of ANCA, one with a cytoplasmic fluorescence pattern (C-ANCA) and specificity for proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA) and the other with a perinuclear pattern (P-ANCA) and specificity for myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA), account for this association and are highly specific markers for these vasculitides. AAV most often require therapy with cytotoxic and antiinflammatory agents, and hence a well-established diagnosis is mandatory to avoid unnecessary and risky treatment. The widespread use of ANCA screening in the past decade has resulted in the occurrence of greater numbers of false-positive results and has led to greater difficulty in test interpretation. Methods for ANCA detection have been standardized internationally in large multicentre studies and an international consensus statement on testing and reporting of ANCA has been pub lished (1999 and 2003). Despite these advances, problems with the extended use of ANCA testing in daily clinical practice remain. They may be summarized as follows: (1) the basic standards for ANCA testing are not uniformly met; (2) there is still controversy over the value of formalin fixation of neutrophils in differentiating P-ANCA from antinuclear antibodies (what is the place of this substrate in ANCA testing?); (3) the new generation of PR3-ANCA and MPO-ANCA ELISAs are more sensitive and specific than immunofluorescence testing (should ELISAs replace the immunofluorescence test?); and (4) should alternative methods for ANCA detection such as image analysis and/or multiplex immunoassays be used for screening? In this paper, we review these issues, identify areas of uncertainty, and provide practical guidelines where possible.

  12. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and associated abortion in dairy cattle from central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suteeraparp, P; Pholpark, S; Pholpark, M; Charoenchai, A; Chompoochan, T; Yamane, I; Kashiwazaki, Y

    1999-09-15

    A total of 904 sera from dairy cattle in 11 provinces of central Thailand were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum employing the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Fifty four (6%) cattle were positive in IFAT, titres of 1:200 (16 cattle), 1:400 (9 cattle), 1:800 (14 cattle), 1:1600 (7 cattle), 1:3200 (6 cattle) and two positives. No significant difference was observed among the provinces. The seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii by a commercial latex agglutination test was 4% (2 out of 50) in positive sera, 2.9% (2 out of 69) in negative sera for anti-Neospora antibodies and 3.4% (4 out of 119) in total. The results of the IFAT were not associated with the presence of antibodies to T. gondii in bovine sera. Furthermore, the cause of abortions experienced in neighbouring three areas in the northeast, where pregnant heifers were newly introduced into small-scale farms from the central region, was investigated. The positive rates for anti-N. caninum antibody were 12, 28 and 44% at a cut-off titre of 1:200, and cattle were suspected to be infected after the introduction. In the area with the highest rate, seven out of eight aborting cattle were positive for antibodies to N. caninum while other two areas had similar abortion rates in both negative and positive cattle. However, in the latter two areas, positive rates for Trypanosoma evansi antigen along with parasitaemic animals were observed by an antigen-detection ELISA, but not for the former area. Considering the endemic diseases of the areas, Neospora was presumed to be responsible for the abortions in the former area while the examination results pointed out T. evansi as the most probable cause in the latter two areas. This is the first report of Neospora-associated abortion in Southeast Asia.

  13. Viral hepatitis and tests for the Australia (hepatitis-associated) antigen and antibody*

    PubMed Central

    1970-01-01

    ”Australia” antigen has been shown to be closely associated with serum hepatitis. The presence of the antigen and its corresponding antiserum can be detected in human beings (and in certain primates) by a number of laboratory tests. This is of great potential importance to blood transfusion and similar services because detection and exclusion of blood donors carrying the antigen might significantly reduce the risk of hepatitis from transfusions and other procedures. In this paper the present state of knowledge of ”Australia” or ”hepatitis-associated” antigen is reviewed. The currently employed tests are described in detail and their use, interpretation and limitations are discussed. Though it appears from early studies that the application of routine screening tests to blood donors would only reduce the risk to recipients by less than 25%, the more sensitive tests becoming available may increase this percentage and it is recommended that where competent laboratory services are available steps should be taken to set up a scheme for testing donors—provided that the current limitations of such a scheme are clearly recognized. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 1FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:4991606

  14. Clinical factors associated with a Candida albicans Germ Tube Antibody positive test in Intensive Care Unit patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Poor outcomes of invasive candidiasis (IC) are associated with the difficulty in establishing the microbiological diagnosis at an early stage. New scores and laboratory tests have been developed in order to make an early therapeutic intervention in an attempt to reduce the high mortality associated with invasive fungal infections. Candida albicans IFA IgG has been recently commercialized for germ tube antibody detection (CAGTA). This test provides a rapid and simple diagnosis of IC (84.4% sensitivity and 94.7% specificity). The aim of this study is to identify the patients who could be benefited by the use of CAGTA test in critical care setting. Methods A prospective, cohort, observational multicentre study was carried out in six medical/surgical Intensive care units (ICU) of tertiary-care Spanish hospitals. Candida albicans Germ Tube Antibody test was performed twice a week if predetermined risk factors were present, and serologically demonstrated candidiasis was considered if the testing serum dilution was ≥ 1:160 in at least one sample and no other microbiological evidence of invasive candidiasis was found. Results Fifty-three critically ill non-neutropenic patients (37.7% post surgery) were included. Twenty-two patients (41.5%) had CAGTA-positive results, none of them with positive blood culture for Candida. Neither corrected colonization index nor antifungal treatment had influence on CAGTA results. This finding could corroborate that the CAGTA may be an important biomarker to distinguish between colonization and infection in these patients. The presence of acute renal failure at the beginning of the study was more frequent in CAGTA-negative patients. Previous surgery was statistically more frequent in CAGTA-positive patients. Conclusions This study identified previous surgery as the principal clinical factor associated with CAGTA-positive results and emphasises the utility of this promising technique, which was not influenced by high Candida

  15. Perceived Empathy of Service Providers Mediates the Association between Perceived Discrimination and Behavioral Intention to Take Up HIV Antibody Testing Again among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jing; Lau, Joseph T. F.; Wang, Zixin; Wu, Anise M. S.; Tan, Xuhui

    2015-01-01

    HIV antibody testing is a key measure of HIV prevention for men who have sex with men (MSM). The World Health Organization recommends sexually active and at-risk MSM to take up HIV antibody testing regularly. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of behavioral intention to take up HIV antibody testing in the next six months among Hong Kong MSM who were ever-testers. An anonymous cross-sectional survey recruited 326 MSM who had taken up HIV antibody testing from gay-friendly venues and internet in Hong Kong. Of the participants, 40.8% had had unprotected anal intercourse with regular or non-regular male sex partners in the last six months; they were at risk of HIV transmission despite experience in HIV antibody testing. Only 37.2% showed a strong intention to take up HIV antibody testing again in the next six months. Adjusted analysis showed that both perceived discrimination toward Hong Kong MSM (AOR = .60, 95% CI: .36–.98) and the CARE Measure assessing perceived empathy of service providers (AOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02–1.08) were significantly associated with intention for retesting. Perceived discrimination, however, became statistically non-significant (AOR = .68, 95% CI: .41–1.14), when both CARE Measure and perceived discrimination entered into the adjusted model. It is warranted to increase HIV retesting rate by removing perceived discrimination and reducing the negative effect of perceived discrimination through enhancement of empathy of service providers. PMID:25693179

  16. Comparison of Biotinylated Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies in an Evaluation of a Direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Test for the Routine Diagnosis of Rabies in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Coetzer, Andre; Sabeta, Claude T.; Markotter, Wanda; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Nel, Louis H.

    2014-01-01

    The major etiological agent of rabies, rabies virus (RABV), accounts for tens of thousands of human deaths per annum. The majority of these deaths are associated with rabies cycles in dogs in resource-limited countries of Africa and Asia. Although routine rabies diagnosis plays an integral role in disease surveillance and management, the application of the currently recommended direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test in countries on the African and Asian continents remains quite limited. A novel diagnostic assay, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT), has been reported to have a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity equal to that of the DFA test while offering advantages in cost, time and interpretation. Prior studies used the dRIT utilized monoclonal antibody (MAb) cocktails. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that a biotinylated polyclonal antibody (PAb) preparation, applied in the dRIT protocol, would yield equal or improved results compared to the use of dRIT with MAbs. We also wanted to compare the PAb dRIT with the DFA test, utilizing the same PAb preparation with a fluorescent label. The PAb dRIT had a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%, which was shown to be marginally higher than the diagnostic efficacy observed for the PAb DFA test. The classical dRIT, relying on two-biotinylated MAbs, was applied to the same panel of samples and a reduced diagnostic sensitivity (83.50% and 90.78% respectively) was observed. Antigenic typing of the false negative samples indicated all of these to be mongoose RABV variants. Our results provided evidence that a dRIT with alternative antibody preparations, conjugated to a biotin moiety, has a diagnostic efficacy equal to that of a DFA relying on the same antibody and that the antibody preparation should be optimized for virus variants specific to the geographical area of focus. PMID:25254652

  17. Development and characterization of a human antibody reference panel against erythropoietin suitable for the standardization of ESA immunogenicity testing.

    PubMed

    Mytych, Daniel T; Barger, Troy E; King, Chadwick; Grauer, Stephanie; Haldankar, Raj; Hsu, Eric; Wu, Michelle Min; Shiwalkar, Mukta; Sanchez, Sergio; Kuck, Andrew; Civoli, Francesca; Sun, Jilin; Swanson, Steven J

    2012-08-31

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) has been used therapeutically for more than two decades in the treatment of anemia. Although EPO is generally well tolerated, in rare cases, patients have developed anti-EPO antibodies that can negatively impact safety and efficacy. Therefore, the detection of antibodies against EPO is a regulatory requirement during clinical development and post-approval. Although it is a rare phenomenon, antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a serious complication than can result from antibodies that develop and neutralize EPO as well as endogenous erythropoietin. Currently, there are no universally accepted analytical methods to detect the full repertoire of binding and neutralizing anti-EPO antibodies. A number of different methods that differ in terms of antibodies detected and assay sensitivities are used by different manufacturers. There is also a lack of antibody reference reagents, and therefore no consistent basis for detecting and measuring anti-EPO antibodies. Reference reagents, with established ranges, are essential to monitor the safety and efficacy of all erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) structurally related to human erythropoietin. This is the first report of the development and characterization of a panel of fully human antibodies against EPO suitable as reference reagents. The characteristics of antibodies within the panel were selected based on the prevalence of non-neutralizing IgG and IgM antibodies in non-PRCA patients and neutralizing IgG antibodies, including IgG1 and IgG4, in antibody-mediated PRCA subjects. The reference panel includes antibodies of high- and low-affinity with binding specificity to neutralizing and non-neutralizing erythropoietin epitopes. The subclass of human antibodies in this reference panel includes an IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4, as well as an IgM isotype. This antibody panel could help select appropriate immunogenicity assays, guide validation, and monitor assay performance

  18. Polymeric antigen BLSOmp31 in aluminium hydroxide induces serum bactericidal and opsonic antibodies against Brucella canis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Clausse, Maria; Díaz, Alejandra G; Pardo, Romina P; Zylberman, Vanesa; Goldbaum, Fernando A; Estein, Silvia M

    2017-02-01

    Polymeric antigen BLSOmp31 is an immunogenic vaccine candidate that confers protection against Brucella canis in mice. In this preliminary study, the immunogenicity and safety of BLSOmp31 adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide gel (BLSOmp31-AH) were evaluated in Beagle dogs. In addition, the potential to elicit serum antibodies with complement-dependent bactericidal activity and/or to enhance phagocytosis by neutrophils were analyzed. Dogs were immunized three times with BLSOmp31-AH by subcutaneous route, followed by an annual booster. The vaccine elicited specific antibodies 3 weeks after the first immunization. Annual booster induced comparable antibody response as the primary series. Humoral immune response stimulated by BLSOmp31-AH did not interfere with routine agglutination test for canine brucellosis. Antibodies demonstrated a high complement-dependent bactericidal activity against B. canis. Moreover, opsonization by immune serum not only stimulated binding and uptake of the bacteria by neutrophils but effectively enhanced the destruction of B. canis. Specific IgG was detected in 3/4 immunized dogs in preputial secretions. The antibody profile corresponded to a marked Th2 response, since IgG1 prevailed over IgG2 and cellular immune response was not detected in vitro or in vivo. These results require further evaluation in larger field studies to establish the full prophylactic activity of BLSOmp31 against canine brucellosis.

  19. Prevention of nonspecific reactions on reversed passive latex agglutination assay (RPLA) for detecting low amounts of staphylococcal enterotoxins.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M L; Heneine, L G; Santos, E J; Carmo, L S; Pereira, J L; Bergdoll, M S

    1997-01-01

    The SET-RPLA, from Denka Seiken Co. Ltd., Tokio, a commercial reversed passive latex agglutination test kit, has been recommended to establish the enterotoxicity capacity of some staphylococcal strains, implicated in food poisoning outbreaks that produce low levels of enterotoxins (SE). Despite the RPLA specificity, the occurrence of nonspecific reactions when testing low-SE-producing is common. In order to control these nonspecific reactions the addition of purified normal rabbit IgG purified was applied on approximately 350 staphylococcal isolates from human milk and anatomic sites of healthy dental student carriers. The results indicated that addition of 5% (v/v) of purified normal rabbit IgG (0.74 mg/mL) to the culture supernatant fluid is a simple and reliable tool for the controlling of nonspecific reactions in the RPLA assay.

  20. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in Crotalus durissus collilineatus kept in captivity and its zoonotic relevance.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, T C S; Santos, A L Q; Lima, A M C; Gomes, D O; Brites, V L C

    2016-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide spread zoonosis that can affect all groups of vertebrates, including reptiles. Because it has been little studied in snakes, this study focused on determining the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in 64 Crotalus durissus collilineatus kept in captivity and on identifying the most common serovars in these animals, using the microscopic agglutination test. Of these, almost 90% were positive and there were reactions to the 22 serovars used in the study. The most common serovar in these snakes was Javanica, Andamana and Patoc. Most frequent titers were 25 and 50, although high titers (such as 1600) were also recorded, despite the absence of clinical symptoms. The possibility should be considered of captive snakes serving as a serious source of leptospiral infection in humans, which is why it is essential to study, prevent and control the disease in breeding centers and serpentariums.

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild birds in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ju-Chi; Tsai, Yu-Jen; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoon which is well known for infecting humans and wild animals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were evaluated in 394 wild birds, belonging to 37 species, from 15 different administrative regions in Taiwan. Using modified agglutination test (MAT), the overall seroprevalence of infection was 23.35% (CI 95% = 19.17%-27.53%). Antibodies were detected in birds of prey (25.73%, CI 95% = 19.76%-31.70%), birds living in freshwater or marine systems (34.29%, CI 95% = 18.56%-50.01%) and ground-feeding birds (18.12%, CI 95% = 11.94%-24.31%). Adult birds showed higher seroprevalence than that in juvenile birds, and the presence of clinical abnormalities was associated with T. gondii seropositivity. The results showed that this pathogen has spread widely in Taiwan. This suggests the zoonotic potential of the disease, with transmission from urban to rural regions, and from terrestrial to aquatic systems. The pathogenicity of T. gondii infection in wild birds in Taiwan needs further investigation. This is the first study of the seroprevalence of T. gondii in wild birds in Taiwan.

  2. Evaluation of phosphatidylserine-dependent antiprothrombin antibody testing for the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome: results of an international multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Amengual, O; Forastiero, R; Sugiura-Ogasawara, M; Otomo, K; Oku, K; Favas, C; Delgado Alves, J; Žigon, P; Ambrožič, A; Tomšič, M; Ruiz-Arruza, I; Ruiz-Irastorza, G; Bertolaccini, M L; Norman, G L; Shums, Z; Arai, J; Murashima, A; Tebo, A E; Gerosa, M; Meroni, P L; Rodriguez-Pintó, I; Cervera, R; Swadzba, J; Musial, J; Atsumi, T

    2017-03-01

    Objective A task force of scientists at the International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies recognized that phosphatidylserine-dependent antiprothrombin antibodies (aPS/PT) might contribute to a better identification of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Accordingly, initial and replication retrospective, cross-sectional multicentre studies were conducted to ascertain the value of aPS/PT for APS diagnosis. Methods In the initial study (eight centres, seven countries), clinical/laboratory data were retrospectively collected. Serum/plasma samples were tested for IgG aPS/PT at Inova Diagnostics (Inova) using two ELISA kits. A replication study (five centres, five countries) was carried out afterwards. Results In the initial study ( n = 247), a moderate agreement between the IgG aPS/PT Inova and MBL ELISA kits was observed ( k = 0.598). IgG aPS/PT were more prevalent in APS patients (51%) than in those without (9%), OR 10.8, 95% CI (4.0-29.3), p < 0.0001. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) likelihood ratio of IgG aPS/PT for APS diagnosis were 51%, 91%, 5.9 and 0.5, respectively. In the replication study ( n = 214), a moderate/substantial agreement between the IgG aPS/PT results obtained with both ELISA kits was observed ( k = 0.630). IgG aPS/PT were more prevalent in APS patients (47%) than in those without (12%), OR 6.4, 95% CI (2.6-16), p < 0.0001. Sensitivity, specificity, LR + and LR- for APS diagnosis were 47%, 88%, 3.9 and 0.6, respectively. Conclusions IgG aPS/PT detection is an easily performed laboratory parameter that might contribute to a better and more complete identification of patients with APS.

  3. Development of Monoclonal Antibody and Diagnostic Test for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Using Cell-Free Synthesized Nucleocapsid Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Yutaro; Matsuyama, Shutoku; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Matsunaga, Satoko; Matsushima, Yuki; Kuroyama, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Takeda, Makoto; Chimuro, Tomoyuki; Ryo, Akihide

    2016-01-01

    Protein nativity is one of the most critical factors for the quality of antigens used as immunogens and the reactivities of the resultant antibodies. The preparation and purification of native viral antigens in conventional cell-based protein expression systems are often accompanied by technical hardships. These challenges are attributable mainly to protein aggregation and insolubility during expression and purification, as well as to very low expression levels associated with the toxicity of some viral proteins. Here, we describe a novel approach for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against nucleocapsid protein (NP) of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Using a wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system, we successfully prepared large amounts of MERS-CoV NP antigen in a state that was highly soluble and intact for immunization. Following mouse immunization and hybridoma generation, we selected seven hybridoma clones that produced mAbs with exclusive reactivity against MERS-CoV NP. Epitope mapping and subsequent bioinformatic analysis revealed that these mAbs recognized epitopes located within relatively highly conserved regions of the MERS-CoV amino-acid sequence. Consistently, the mAbs exhibited no obvious cross-reactivity with NPs derived from other related viruses, including SARS coronavirus. After determining the optimal combinations of these mAbs, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a rapid immunochromatographic antigen detection test that can be reliably used for laboratory diagnosis of MERS-CoV. Thus, this study provides strong evidence that the wheat germ cell-free system is useful for the production of diagnostic mAbs against emerging pathogens. PMID:27148198

  4. Helicobacter pylori TlyA agglutinates liposomes and induces fusion and permeabilization of the liposome membranes.

    PubMed

    Lata, Kusum; Chattopadhyay, Kausik

    2014-06-10

    Helicobacter pylori TlyA is a pore-forming hemolysin with potent cytotoxic activity. To explore the potential membrane-damaging activity of H. pylori TlyA, we have studied its interaction with the synthetic liposome vesicles. In our study, H. pylori TlyA shows a prominent ability to associate with the liposome vesicles without displaying an obligatory requirement for any protein receptor on the liposome membranes. Interaction of TlyA triggers agglutination of the liposome vesicles. Such agglutinating activity of TlyA could also be observed with erythrocytes before the induction of its pore-forming hemolytic activity. In addition to its agglutinating activity against liposomes, TlyA also induces fusion and disruption of the liposome membranes. Altogether, our study highlights novel membrane-damaging properties of H. pylori TlyA that have not been documented previously with any other TlyA family protein.

  5. Field evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test to detect antibodies in human toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Lim, P K C; Yamasaki, H; Mak, J W; Wong, S F; Chong, C W; Yap, I K S; Ambu, S; Kumarasamy, V

    2015-08-01

    Human toxocariasis which is caused mainly by the larvae of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, is a worldwide zoonotic disease that can be a potentially serious human infection. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using T. canis excretory-secretory (TES) antigens harvested from T. canis larvae is currently the serological test for confirming toxocariasis. An alternative to producing large amounts of Toxocara TES and improved diagnosis for toxocariasis is through the development of highly specific recombinant antigens such as the T. canis second stage larva excretory-secretory 30 kDa protein (recTES-30). The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a rapid diagnostic kit (RDT, named as iToxocara kit) in comparison to recTES-30 ELISA in Serendah Orang Asli village in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 133 subjects were included in the study. The overall prevalence rates by ELISA and RDT were 29.3% and 33.1%, respectively, with more positive cases detected in males than females. However, no association was found between toxocariasis and gender or age. The percentage sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of RDT were 85.7%, 90.1%, 80% and 93.2%, respectively. The prevalence for toxocariasis in this population using both ELISA and RDT was 27.1% (36/133) and the K-concordance test suggested good agreement of the two tests with a Cohen's kappa of 0.722, P<0.01. In addition, the followed-up Spearman rank correlation showed a moderately high correlation at R=0.704 and P<0.01. In conclusion, the RDT kit was faster and easier to use than an ELISA and is useful for the laboratory diagnosis of hospitalized cases of toxocariasis.

  6. Rapid Identification of Dengue Virus Serotypes Using Monoclonal Antibodies in an Indirect Immunofluorescence Test.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-18

    encephalitis(TBH-28), West Nile(E-101), Yellow fever(French neurotropic and 17D strains), and Zika. Two Sandfly Fever viruses (213452 and Candiru) were...thaw at room temperature for 5 minutes,. washed with PBS and drained. The cells were first incubated at 35°C wit an appropriate dilution of hybridoma...include IB8, IB10, ICl0, 4G2, 2C4, 1B6, 4BI0, and ID7 which generally reacted with all of the flaviviruses tested and did not recognize the sandfly

  7. Analysis of negative result in serum anti-H. pylori IgG antibody test in cases with gastric mucosal atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Kyoichi; Mishiro, Tomoko; Tanaka, Shino; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose is to elucidate factors related to negative results of anti-H. pylori antibody test in cases with gastric mucosal atrophy. A total of 859 individuals without past history of eradication therapy for H. pylori (545 males, 314 females; mean age 52.4 years) who underwent an upper GI endoscopy examination and serological test were enrolled as subjects. Serological testing was performed using SphereLight H. pylori antibody J®, and endoscopic findings of gastric mucosal atrophy by the classification of Kimura and Takemoto and post-eradication findings were analyzed. The positive rates for the anti-H. pylori antibody test in subjects with and without gastric mucosal atrophy were 85.6% and 0.9%, respectively. In analysis of subjects with gastric mucosal atrophy, a low positive rate and serum titer was observed in subjects with C1, C2 and O3 atrophy. When the analysis was performed separately in male and female subjects, low positive rate was observed in males with O3 atrophy and females with C2 atrophy. Suspected post-eradication endoscopic findings were more frequently observed in cases with C2 atrophy. In conclusion, negative result of anti-H. pylori antibody test was frequently observed in middle-aged subjects with C1, C2 and O3 gastric mucosal atrophy. PMID:27698543

  8. Validation of a competitive ELISA and a virus neutralization test for the detection and confirmation of antibodies to Senecavirus A in swine sera.

    PubMed

    Goolia, Melissa; Vannucci, Fabio; Yang, Ming; Patnayak, Devi; Babiuk, Shawn; Nfon, Charles K

    2017-03-01

    Senecavirus A (SVA; family Picornaviridae) is a nonenveloped, single-stranded RNA virus associated with idiopathic vesicular disease (IVD) in swine. SVA was detected in pigs with IVD in Brazil, United States, Canada, and China in 2015, triggering the need to develop and/or validate serologic assays for SVA. Our objective was to fully validate a previously developed competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) as a screening test for antibodies to SVA. Additional objectives included the development and validation of a virus neutralization test (VNT) as a confirmatory test for SVA antibody detection, and the comparison of the cELISA, VNT, and an existing immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for the detection of SVA antibodies in serial bleeds from SVA outbreaks. The diagnostic specificity and sensitivity were 98.2% (97.2-98.9%) and 96.9% (94.5-98.4%) for the cELISA, and 99.6% (99.0-99.9%) and 98.2% (95.8-99.4%) for the VNT, respectively. There was strong agreement among cELISA, VNT, and IFAT when compared based on kappa coefficient. Based on these performance characteristics, these tests are considered suitable for serologic detection of SVA in pigs.

  9. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies testing in a large cohort of unselected greek patients.

    PubMed

    Tsiveriotis, Konstantinos; Tsirogianni, Alexandra; Pipi, Elena; Soufleros, Konstantinos; Papasteriades, Chryssa

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To retrospectively evaluate ANCA testing in a cohort of unselected Greek in- and outpatients. Methods. In 10803 consecutive serum samples, ANCA were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and ELISA. ELISA in inpatients was performed only on IIF positive sera. Results. Low prevalence (6.0%) of IIF positive samples was observed. Among these samples, 63.5% presented perinuclear (p-ANCA), 9.3% cytoplasmic (c-ANCA) and 27.2% atypical (x-ANCA) pattern. 16.1% of p-ANCA were antimyeloperoxidase (anti-MPO) positive, whereas 68.3% of c-ANCA were antiproteinase-3 (anti-PR3) positive. Only 17 IIF negative outpatients' samples were ELISA positive. ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV), connective tissue disorders and gastrointestinal disorders represented 20.5%, 23.9%, and 21.2% of positive results, respectively. AAV patients exhibited higher rates of MPO/PR3 specificity compared to non-AAV (93.8% versus 8%). Conclusions. This first paper on Greek patients supports that screening for ANCA by IIF and confirming positive results by ELISA minimize laboratory charges without sacrificing diagnostic accuracy.

  10. Determination of serum antibodies against swine-origin influenza A virus H1N1/09 by immunofluorescence, haemagglutination inhibition, and by neutralization tests: how is the prevalence rate of protecting antibodies in humans?

    PubMed

    Allwinn, Regina; Geiler, Janina; Berger, Annemarie; Cinatl, J; Doerr, H W

    2010-05-01

    In April 2009, a new variant of influenza A virus, subtype H1N1v emerged in Mexico and spread all over the world producing the H1N1 pandemic in mankind after 1918-1920 and 1978/1979. Obviously there was no herd immunity against this new virus variant. Mainly young people, but less elderly were affected and presented severe and even lethal courses of disease. Since virus-specific antibodies are commonly regarded as markers of partial or complete immunoprotection, we performed antibody determinations in serum samples obtained from people before and after the pandemic has arrived in our region (Frankfurt/M., Germany). The assays were done by indirect immunofluorescence, by neutralization test, and by a haemagglutination inhibition test (HI), which was established in a practical modification for general and easy use. Among 145 individuals, of whom serum specimens had been drawn before the onset of pandemic, 19 revealed humoral immunity, i.e. titres of H1N1v neutralizing antibodies (at least 1:64). Eleven were older than 60 years, one belonged to the age group 40-59 years, three to the age group 20-39 years, and two to the age group 15-19 years. After the onset of pandemic in Frankfurt, serum specimens drawn from n = 225 randomly selected patients of our local university hospital were investigated for antibodies against H1N1v by HI, which is generally recommended for routine check of immunity. Twenty-eight individuals revealed the protecting antibody titre of at least 1:40. The age distribution had moved to mean age groups. The results fit to the incidence of influenza A/H1N1(09) disease, as confirmed by RT-PCR in patients admitted to our hospital, peaking in the younger age groups up to 30 years (second affected group: 30-40 years). While commonly used solid-phase antibody tests (like immunofluorescence) are not suitable to diagnose passed H1N1(09) infection and acquired immunity, this can be easily done by HI. Expecting the next waves of influenza A/H1N1v infections

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test for Diagnosis of Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Vrushali; Bhalla, Preena; Rawat, Deepti; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Sardana, Kabir; Sethi, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare laboratory tests that can simultaneously detect and type herpes simplex virus (HSV) directly from the genital ulcer specimens in clinically suspected cases of genital herpes. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted over 10 months and 44 adult male and female patients clinically suspected with genital herpes were recruited. Genital ulcer swab specimens were subjected to glycoprotein-G gene-based conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and commercially available direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test and the results were compared. Results: PCR for HSV was positive in 82% (36/44) cases. DFA was positive in 68.2% (30/44) cases. There was 100% agreement between HSV types detected by DFA and PCR. The strength of agreement between the results was better in primary genital herpes than recurrent cases. Conclusion: PCR was found to be better in the detection of HSV in recurrent genital herpes patients. It is a better modality, especially when genital herpes clinically presents with ulcerative or crusted lesions, and is also a cheaper alternative as compared to DFA. PMID:28042218

  12. Quantitative Assessment of the Effects of Oxidants on Antigen-Antibody Binding In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shuang; Wang, Guanyu; Xu, Naijin; Liu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We quantitatively assessed the influence of oxidants on antigen-antibody-binding activity. Methods. We used several immunological detection methods, including precipitation reactions, agglutination reactions, and enzyme immunoassays, to determine antibody activity. The oxidation-reduction potential was measured in order to determine total serum antioxidant capacity. Results. Certain concentrations of oxidants resulted in significant inhibition of antibody activity but had little influence on total serum antioxidant capacity. Conclusions. Oxidants had a significant influence on interactions between antigen and antibody, but minimal effect on the peptide of the antibody molecule. PMID:27313823

  13. Agglutinates as recorders of fossil soil compositions. [of Apollo 17 lunar probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. J.; Wentworth, S.; Warner, R. D.; Keil, K.

    1978-01-01

    The composition of agglutinates in polished sections of the Apollo 17 drill core was studied in an attempt to deduce the nature of the Taurus-Littrow valley regolith prior to the formation of the Camelot and Central Cluster craters. The agglutinate compositions in the soils differed from the host soil compositions except for samples from the North Massif. Local materials from the valley floor and the massifs appear to form the pre-Central Cluster regolith. It is also shown that chemical mixing models for bulk soil compositions can be misleading unless the petrologic characteristics of each soil are taken into account.

  14. [Significance of the control serum measurement in infectious disease tests--a case of lot-to-lot variation of anti-HIV antibody assay kit].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Miho; Sasaki, Kenji

    2002-07-01

    We are using infectious disease test kits consisting of positive serum diluted with negative pooled serum (P-S) and positive control (P-C). In two anti-HIV antibody tests the results for both P-S and P-C fluctuated between positive and negative depending on the lot No. of the reagent. In Western blot tests carried out to confirm the tests, the P-C was found to be positive and the P-S tests were both inconclusive. We speculated that the P-S had very weak antibodies that reacted differently from patient samples. Manufacturers of such kits, however, must supply reagents with appropriate reactivity, so it is important that they be informed of inconsistencies that could invalidate cut-off values and lead to false-positives and false-negatives.

  15. Outbreak of Uncommon O4 Non-Agglutinating Salmonella Typhimurium Linked to Minced Pork, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, January to April 2013

    PubMed Central

    Helmeke, Carina; Kohlstock, Claudia; Prager, Rita; Tietze, Erhard; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Karagiannis, Ioannis; Werber, Dirk; Frank, Christina; Fruth, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In January 2013, the National Reference Centre for Salmonella (NRC) detected a salmonellosis cluster in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, caused by uncommon O4 non-agglutinating, monophasic Salmonella (S.) Typhimurium DT193. Circulating predominant monophasic S. Typhimurium DT193 clones typically display resistance phenotype ASSuT. We investigated common exposures to control the outbreak, and conducted microbiological investigations to assess the strains’ phenotype. Methods We conducted a case-control study defining cases as persons living or working in Saxony-Anhalt diagnosed with the O4 non-agglutinating strain between January and March 2013. We selected two controls contemporarily reported with norovirus infection, frequency-matched on residence and age group, per case. We interviewed regarding food consumption, especially pork and its place of purchase. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using logistic regression. The NRC investigated human and food isolates by PCR, SDS-PAGE, MLST, PFGE, MLVA and susceptibility testing. Results Altogether, 68 O4 non-agglutinating human isolates were confirmed between January and April 2013. Of those, 61 were assigned to the outbreak (median age 57 years, 44% female); 83% cases ≥ 60 years were hospitalized. Eating raw minced pork from butcheries within 3 days was associated with disease (31 cases, 28 controls; OR adjusted for sex: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.0-13). Phage type DT193 and MLST ST34 were assigned, and isolates’ lipopolysaccharide (LPS) matched control strains. Isolates linked to Saxony-Anhalt exhibited PFGE type 5. ASSuT- and ACSSuT phenotype proportions were 34 and 39% respectively; 54% were resistant to chloramphenicol. Three pork isolates matched the outbreak strain. Discussion Raw minced pork was the most likely infection vehicle in this first reported outbreak caused by O4 non-agglutinating, mostly chloramphenicol-resistant S. Typhimurium DT193. High hospitalization proportions

  16. SURVEY OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ANTIBODIES IN MAGELLANIC PENGUINS (SPHENISCUS MAGELLANICUS FORSTER, 1781).

    PubMed

    Gennari, Solange M; Niemeyer, Cláudia; Catão-Dias, José L; Soares, Herbert S; Acosta, Igor C L; Dias, Ricardo A; Ribeiro, Jéssica D; Lassalvia, Cristiane; Maracini, Pryscilla; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K M; Mayorga, Luis F S P; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-03-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) breed on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the southernmost parts of South America and migrate northward as far as Peru and Brazil. Serum samples (n = 100) from Magellanic penguins from three zoos and two rehabilitation centers (RCs) in Brazil were assayed for the presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by means of the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off ≥ 20). The penguins were categorized as young (≤4 yr old) or adults (≥4 yr old) and sexed (male, female, or not identified), and data were analyzed using the chi-square test (P ≤ 0.05). Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were found in 28% of penguins: 25.8% males, 27.8% females, 30.3% unknown sex, 25.4% young, and 31.1% adults. Statistical analyses did not find any difference (P > 0.05) with respect to age, sex, or source of birds. This is the first report of T. gondii antibodies in S. magellanicus.

  17. Prevalence of Leptospira antibodies in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from Northern Portugal: risk factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Vale-Gonçalves, H M; Cabral, J A; Faria, M C; Nunes-Pereira, M; Faria, A S; Veloso, O; Vieira, M L; Paiva-Cardoso, Md N

    2015-07-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, caused by infection with pathogenic spirochaetes of the genus Leptospira. The wild boar (Sus scrofa), an important hunting species in Europe, seems to play a significant role in the epidemiological cycle of leptospirosis. A total of 101 serum samples from wild boar hunted in Northern Portugal were analysed for leptospiral antibodies detection by microscopic agglutination test. Sera were collected during hunting seasons (2011-2013) and tested with 17 different pathogenic serovars of Leptospira. Antibodies against nine serovars were detected in 66 (65·4%) of these sera. Serovars Tarassovi and Altodouro exhibited the highest seroreactivity rates (23·8% and 16·8%, respectively), followed by Autumnalis (7·9%) and Bratislava (6·9%). Age and district of origin were found to be risk factors for the presence of leptospiral antibodies in contrast to gender. From a One Health perspective, this study revealed that wild boar should be considered as a potential source of leptospirosis dissemination for humans and animal species (domestic and wild) in shared environments, particularly in the Trás-os-Montes region.

  18. An ultra-sensitive monoclonal antibody-based fluorescent microsphere immunochromatographic test strip assay for detecting aflatoxin M1 in milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid lateral flow fluorescent microspheres immunochromatography test strip (FMs-ICTS) has been developed for the detection of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) residues in milk. For this purpose, an ultra-sensitive anti-AFM1 monoclonal antibody (MAb) 1D3 was prepared and identified. The IC50 value of the MA...

  19. Comparative evaluation of novel African swine fever virus (ASF) antibody detection techniques derived from specific ASF viral genotypes with the OIE internationally prescribed serological tests.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, C; Soler, A; Nieto, R; Carrascosa, A L; De Mia, G M; Bishop, R P; Martins, C; Fasina, F O; Couacy-Hymman, E; Heath, L; Pelayo, V; Martín, E; Simón, A; Martín, R; Okurut, A R; Lekolol, I; Okoth, E; Arias, M

    2013-02-22

    The presence of antibodies against African swine fever (ASF), a complex fatal notifiable OIE disease of swine, is always indicative of previous infection, since there is no vaccine that is currently used in the field. The early appearance and subsequent long-term persistence of antibodies combined with cost-effectiveness make antibody detection techniques essential in control programmes. Recent reports appear to indicate that the serological tests recommended by the OIE for ASF monitoring are much less effective in East and Southern Africa where viral genetic and antigenic diversity is the greatest. We report herein an extensive analysis including more than 1000 field and experimental infection sera, in which the OIE recommended tests are compared with antigen-specific ELISAs and immuno-peroxidase staining of cells (IPT). The antibody detection results generated using new antigen-specific tests, developed in this study, which are based on production of antigen fractions generated by infection and virus purification from COS-1 cells, showed strong concordance with the OIE tests. We therefore conclude that the lack of success is not attributable to antigenic polymorphism and may be related to the specific characteristics of the local breeds African pigs.

  20. Enhanced performance of an innovative dengue IgG/IgM rapid diagnostic test using an anti-dengue EDI monoclonal antibody and dengue virus antigen

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jihoo; Kim, Young-Eun; Kim, Hak-Yong; Sinniah, Mangalam; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Song, Hyun-Ok

    2015-01-01

    High levels of anti-dengue IgM or IgG can be detected using numerous rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). However, the sensitivity and specificity of these tests are reduced by changes in envelope glycoprotein antigenicity that inevitably occur in limited expression systems. A novel RDT was designed to enhance diagnostic sensitivity. Dengue viruses cultured in animal cells were used as antigens to retain the native viral coat protein. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were then developed, for the first time, against domain I of envelope glycoprotein (EDI). The anti-dengue EDI mAb was employed as a capturer, and EDII and EDIII, which are mainly involved in the induction of neutralizing antibodies in patients, were fully available to bind to anti-dengue IgM or IgG in patients. A one-way automatic blood separation device prevented reverse migration of plasma and maximize the capture of anti-dengue antibodies at the test lines. A clinical evaluation in the field proved that the novel RDT (sensitivities of 96.5% and 96.7% for anti-dengue IgM and IgG) is more effective in detecting anti-dengue antibodies than two major commercial tests (sensitivities of 54.8% and 82% for SD BIOLINE; 50.4% and 75.3% for PanBio). The innovative format of RDT can be applied to other infectious viral diseases. PMID:26655854

  1. A new LDLa domain-containing C-type lectin with bacterial agglutinating and binding activity in amphioxus.

    PubMed

    Qu, Baozhen; Yang, Shuangshuang; Ma, Zengyu; Gao, Zhan; Zhang, Shicui

    2016-12-15

    Over 1200 C-type lectin gene models have been identified in amphioxus, but only a few of them have been functionally characterized. In this study, we identified a C-type lectin, BjCTL, with domain structure of LDLa-CTLD-EGF_Lam, the first such data in chordates. It was expressed mainly in the notochord and ovary in a tissue-dependent fashion. Recombinant BjCTL was characterized as a typical Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate-binding protein capable of agglutinating and binding to both Gram-negative and positive bacteria we tested. In addition, it specifically bound to insoluble lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan, which can be inhibited by galactose. We also showed that the interaction of BjCTL with the bacteria is primarily attributable to CTLD domain. Thus, BjCTL is a novel pattern recognition protein involved in lectin-mediated innate immunity.

  2. Real time observation and automated measurement of red blood cells agglutination inside a passive microfluidic biochip containing embedded reagents.

    PubMed

    Huet, Maxime; Cubizolles, Myriam; Buhot, Arnaud

    2016-09-20

    The process of agglutination is commonly used for the detection of biomarkers like proteins or viruses. The multiple bindings between micrometer sized particles, either latex beads or red blood cells (RBCs), create aggregates that are easily detectable and give qualitative information about the presence of the biomarkers. In most cases, the detection is made by simple naked-eye observation of agglutinates without any access to the kinetics of agglutination. In this study, we address the development of a real-time time observation of RBCs agglutination. Using ABO blood typing as a proof-of-concept, we developed i) an integrated biological protocol suitable for further use as point-of-care (POC) analysis and ii) two dedicated image processing algorithms for the real-time and quantitative measurement of agglutination. Anti-A or anti-B typing reagents were dried inside the microchannel of a passive microfluidic chip designed to enhance capillary flow. A blood drop deposit at the tip of the biochip established a simple biological protocol. In situ agglutination of autologous RBCs was achieved by means of embedded reagents and real time agglutination process was monitored by video recording. Using a training set of 24 experiments, two real-time indicators based on correlation and variance of gray levels were optimized and then further confirmed on a validation set. 100% correct discrimination between positive and negative agglutinations was performed within less than 2min by measuring real-time evolution of both correlation and variance indicators.

  3. Antimitochondrial antibody

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003529.htm Antimitochondrial antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are substances ( antibodies ) that form against mitochondria. ...

  4. Isolation of a Trypanosoma cruzi antigen by affinity chromatography with a monoclonal antibody. Preliminary evaluation of its possible applications in serological tests.

    PubMed Central

    Carbonetto, C H; Malchiodi, E L; Chiaramonte, M; Durante de Isola, E; Fossati, C A; Margni, R A

    1990-01-01

    By affinity chromatography with a monoclonal antibody (163B6), obtained in our laboratory, we have isolated a T. cruzi antigen which could be useful for differential diagnosis of Chagas' disease from leishmaniasis. This antigen, a 52-kD protein, reacted with all sera from Chagas' disease patients tested but not with sera from patients with leishmania, in ELISA. The 52-kD antigen is widely distributed in the Trypanosoma genus since the 163B6 monoclonal antibody reacts with T. rangeli and 8 strains and a clone of T. cruzi epimastigotes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2119921

  5. Effectiveness of three types of rapid tests for the detection of hepatitis C virus antibodies among blood donors in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Al-Tahish, Ghamdan; El-Barrawy, Mohamed A; Hashish, Mona H; Heddaya, Zeinab

    2013-05-01

    Hepatitis C is one of the most important diseases transmitted through screened improperly blood donation. The detection of HCV antibodies is performed by enzyme immunoassays (EIA) or supplementary assays (immunoblots). However, these methods are not well-suited to developing countries due to their high cost and technicality. The effectiveness of three different rapid tests for the detection of anti-HCV antibodies was evaluated compared to third-generation ELISA among blood donors attending the blood bank of Medical Research Institute in Alexandria, Egypt. The results were compared subsequently to the results of HCV RNA obtained by qualitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The three types of rapid tests showed a specificity of 100% and sensitivities of 96-98% compared to ELISA. Compared to RT-PCR, ELISA and all three types of rapid tests showed an almost equal specificity (77-78.5%). ELISA showed 100% sensitivity while all three types of rapid tests showed equal sensitivities of 97% compared to RT-PCR. The rapid tests showed good performance for detecting anti-HCV antibodies in the sera of blood donors compared to ELISA. Therefore, the present study recommends the use of the tested rapid tests to screen for anti-HCV among blood donors in resource-limited countries as an alternative for conventional ELISA.

  6. Does human proximity affect antibody prevalence in marine-foraging river otters (Lontra canadensis)?

    PubMed

    Gaydos, Joseph K; Conrad, Patricia A; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Blundell, Gail M; Ben-David, Merav

    2007-01-01

    The investigation of diseases of free-ranging river otters (Lontra canadensis) is a primary conservation priority for this species; however, very little is known about diseases of river otters that forage in marine environments. To identify and better understand pathogens that could be important to marine-foraging river otters, other wildlife species, domestic animals, and humans and to determine if proximity to human population could be a factor in disease exposure, serum samples from 55 free-ranging marine-foraging river otters were tested for antibodies to selected pathogens. Thirty-five animals were captured in Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA), an area of low human density, and 20 were captured in the San Juan Islands, Washington State (USA), an area characterized by higher human density. Of 40 river otters tested by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, 17.5% were seropositive (titer > or =320) for Toxoplasma gondii. All positive animals came from Washington. Of 35 river otters tested for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans using the microscopic agglutination test, 10 of 20 (50%) from Washington were seropositive (titer > or =200). None of the 15 tested animals from Alaska were positive. Antibodies to Neospora caninum (n=40), Sarcocystis neurona (n=40), Brucella abortus (n=55), avian influenza (n=40), canine distemper virus (n=55), phocine distemper virus (n=55), dolphin morbillivirus (n=55), porpoise morbillivirus (n=55), and Aleutian disease parvovirus (n=46) were not detected. Identifying exposure to T. gondii and L. interrogans in otters from Washington State but not in otters from Alaska suggests that living proximal to higher human density and its associated agricultural activities, domestic animals, and rodent populations could enhance river otter exposure to these pathogens.

  7. Single agglutinates: A comparative study of compositions of agglutinitic glass, whole-grain, bulk soil, and FMR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, A.; Robinson, R.; Mckay, D. S.; Blanchard, D. P.; Morris, R. V.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    1994-01-01

    Previous workers on single agglutinates have variously interpreted the composition of agglutinitic glass to represent impact melts of (1) bulk soil, (2) mixed components in finer sizes, and (3) microtargets. Separately, Papike has argued in favor of fusion of the finest fraction of bulk soils. Thirty-four single agglutinates were hand-picked from the mature Apollo 16 soil 61181 (I(sub s)/FeO = 82) and the FMR and chemical composition (INAA for Fe, Sc, Sm, Co, Ni, and Cr) of each agglutinate particle were measured. Thirteen of these single agglutinates were selected for electron beam microanalysis and imaging. Less than 1 micron spots were analyzed (for Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Ba) on pure glassy areas (approximately ten in each particle) selected on the basis of optical and BSE images (avoiding all clasts and inclusions) with an electron microprobe to obtain average glass compositions of each single agglutinate.

  8. Dengue NS1 and prM antibodies increase the sensitivity of acute dengue diagnosis test and differentiate from Japanese encephalitis infection.

    PubMed

    Gowri Sankar, S; Balaji, T; Venkatasubramani, K; Thenmozhi, V; Dhananjeyan, K J; Paramasivan, R; Tyagi, B K; John Vennison, S

    2014-05-01

    Accurate and early diagnosis of dengue infection is essential for dengue case management. In outbreak conditions, it is essential to include two different tests to diagnose dengue and the choice depends on the number of days after the onset of illness in which the sample is collected. During the laboratory diagnosis of dengue in late acute and convalescent phase by MAC-ELISA, it is necessary to rule out possible cross reactions of closely related flavivirus, such as Japanese encephalitis virus which is commonly co-circulating. In the present investigation, the usefulness of dengue virus NS1 and prM antibodies in diagnosing and differentiating dengue from Japanese encephalitis infection was assessed using samples collected during out-breaks. It was shown here that, detection of antibodies against dengue NS1 and prM proteins increases the sensitivity of dengue diagnosis until 15days. Moreover, detection of antibodies against both proteins was able to differentiate dengue from Japanese encephalitis infection.

  9. Reading Development in Agglutinative Languages: Evidence from Beginning, Intermediate, and Adult Basque Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acha, Joana; Laka, Itziar; Perea, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Do typological properties of language, such as agglutination (i.e., the morphological process of adding affixes to the lexeme of a word), have an impact on the development of visual word recognition? To answer this question, we carried out an experiment in which beginning, intermediate, and adult Basque readers (n = 32 each, average age = 7, 11,…

  10. Accuracy of a point-of-care ELISA test kit for predicting the presence of protective canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus antibody concentrations in dogs.

    PubMed

    Litster, A L; Pressler, B; Volpe, A; Dubovi, E

    2012-08-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) are highly infectious and often fatal diseases with worldwide distributions, and are important population management considerations in animal shelters. A point-of-care ELISA test kit is available to detect serum antibodies to CPV and CDV, and presumptively to predict protective status. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the test compared to CPV hemagglutination inhibition titers and CDV serum neutralization titers determined by a reference laboratory, using sera collected from dogs housed at animal shelters. The ELISA test was used under both field and laboratory conditions and duplicate specimens were processed using an extra wash step. The test kit yielded accurate results (CPV: sensitivity 92.3%, specificity 93.5%; CDV: sensitivity 75.7%, specificity 91.8%) under field conditions. CDV sensitivity was improved by performing the test under laboratory conditions and using an optical density (OD) meter (laboratory performed 94.0%; OD 88.1%). Point-of-care ELISA testing for serum CPV and CDV antibody titers was demonstrated to be a useful tool for determining antibody status when making decisions regarding the need for CPV and/or CDV vaccination and also in animal shelters for population management.

  11. The Production of Nominal and Verbal Inflection in an Agglutinative Language: Evidence from Hungarian

    PubMed Central

    Peckham, Don; Szanka, Szilvia; Gazso, Dorottya; Lovassy, Noemi; Ullman, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The contrast between regular and irregular inflectional morphology has been useful in investigating the functional and neural architecture of language. However, most studies have examined the regular/irregular distinction in non-agglutinative Indo-European languages (primarily English) with relatively simple morphology. Additionally, the majority of research has focused on verbal rather than nominal inflectional morphology. The present study attempts to address these gaps by introducing both plural and past tense production tasks in Hungarian, an agglutinative non-Indo-European language with complex morphology. Here we report results on these tasks from healthy Hungarian native-speaking adults, in whom we examine regular and irregular nominal and verbal inflection in a within-subjects design. Regular and irregular nouns and verbs were stem on frequency, word length, and phonological structure, and both accuracy and response times were acquired. The results revealed that the regular/irregular contrast yields similar patterns in Hungarian, for both nominal and verbal inflection, as in previous studies of non-agglutinative Indo-European languages: the production of irregular inflected forms was both less accurate and slower than of regular forms, both for plural and past-tense inflection. The results replicate and extend previous findings to an agglutinative language with complex morphology. Together with previous studies, the evidence suggests that the regular/irregular distinction yields a basic behavioral pattern that holds across language families and linguistic typologies. Finally, the study sets the stage for further research examining the neurocognitive substrates of regular and irregular morphology in an agglutinative non-Indo-European language. PMID:25769039

  12. Interactions with lectins and agglutination profiles of clinical, food, and environmental isolates of Listeria.

    PubMed Central

    Facinelli, B; Giovanetti, E; Casolari, C; Varaldo, P E

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of preliminary trials with 14 collection strains of Listeria, five lectins (Canavalia ensiformis, concanavalin A; Griffonia simplicifolia lectin I; Helix pomatia agglutinin; Ricinus communis agglutinin; and Triticum vulgaris wheat germ agglutinin) were selected to set up a microtiter agglutination assay. The lectin agglutination profiles of 174 clinical, food, and environmental strains of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, and Listeria seeligeri were investigated. Data on the standard determination of the antigenic structure were available for clinical strains; nonclinical isolates were assigned to serogroup 1 or 4 with commercial antisera. The listeria-lectin interaction was related to serological type rather than species; in particular, the strains assigned to serogroup 1 or belonging to serovars 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, 3a, 3b, and 7 were never agglutinated by G. simplicifolia lectin I. The five-lectin set proved to be capable of detecting differences between serologically identical isolates of L. monocytogenes. Of the 150 isolates of this species, 144 were distributed over 15 different lectin agglutination profiles and 6 autoagglutinated, the overall typeability being 96%. However, the profiles encountered among L. monocytogenes isolates were not randomly distributed. With strains assigned to serogroup 1 or belonging to serovars 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, and 3b, the clinical isolates fell into only two of the eight patterns recorded overall; with strains of serogroup 4 and serovar 4b, food and environmental isolates were distributed over eight of the nine patterns found in total, while clinical isolates were distributed over five patterns. In a comparative study of 15 epidemiologically relevant isolates of L. monocytogenes from five distinct outbreaks, strains with identical phage types and/or DNA fingerprints displayed identical lectin profiles. The heterogeneity of agglutination profiles may form the basis of a new approach to L. monocytogenes typing

  13. The production of nominal and verbal inflection in an agglutinative language: evidence from Hungarian.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Dezso; Janacsek, Karolina; Turi, Zsolt; Lukacs, Agnes; Peckham, Don; Szanka, Szilvia; Gazso, Dorottya; Lovassy, Noemi; Ullman, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The contrast between regular and irregular inflectional morphology has been useful in investigating the functional and neural architecture of language. However, most studies have examined the regular/irregular distinction in non-agglutinative Indo-European languages (primarily English) with relatively simple morphology. Additionally, the majority of research has focused on verbal rather than nominal inflectional morphology. The present study attempts to address these gaps by introducing both plural and past tense production tasks in Hungarian, an agglutinative non-Indo-European language with complex morphology. Here we report results on these tasks from healthy Hungarian native-speaking adults, in whom we examine regular and irregular nominal and verbal inflection in a within-subjects design. Regular and irregular nouns and verbs were stem on frequency, word length, and phonological structure, and both accuracy and response times were acquired. The results revealed that the regular/irregular contrast yields similar patterns in Hungarian, for both nominal and verbal inflection, as in previous studies of non-agglutinative Indo-European languages: the production of irregular inflected forms was both less accurate and slower than of regular forms, both for plural and past-tense inflection. The results replicate and extend previous findings to an agglutinative language with complex morphology. Together with previous studies, the evidence suggests that the regular/irregular distinction yields a basic behavioral pattern that holds across language families and linguistic typologies. Finally, the study sets the stage for further research examining the neurocognitive substrates of regular and irregular morphology in an agglutinative non-Indo-European language.

  14. RSV antibody test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hotez PJ. eds. Feigin and Cherry's Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ... Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, ...

  15. ANA (Antinuclear Antibody Test)

    MedlinePlus

    ... patterns include: Homogenous (diffuse)—associated with SLE , mixed connective tissue disease, and drug-induced lupus Speckled—associated with ... Sjögren syndrome , scleroderma , polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis , and ... disease Nucleolar—associated with scleroderma and polymyositis Centromere ...

  16. Combined albumin and bicarbonate induces head-to-head sperm agglutination which physically prevents equine sperm-oviduct binding.

    PubMed

    Leemans, Bart; Gadella, Bart M; Stout, Tom A E; Sostaric, Edita; De Schauwer, Catharina; Nelis, Hilde; Hoogewijs, Maarten; Van Soom, Ann

    2016-04-01

    In many species, sperm binding to oviduct epithelium is believed to be an essential step in generating a highly fertile capacitated sperm population primed for fertilization. In several mammalian species, this interaction is based on carbohydrate-lectin recognition. D-galactose has previously been characterized as a key molecule that facilitates sperm-oviduct binding in the horse. We used oviduct explant and oviduct apical plasma membrane (APM) assays to investigate the effects of various carbohydrates; glycosaminoglycans; lectins; S-S reductants; and the capacitating factors albumin, Ca(2+) and HCO3(-) on sperm-oviduct binding in the horse. Carbohydrate-specific lectin staining indicated that N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid) and D-mannose or D-glucose were the most abundant carbohydrates on equine oviduct epithelia, whereas D-galactose moieties were not detected. However, in a competitive binding assay, sperm-oviduct binding density was not influenced by any tested carbohydrates, glycosaminoglycans, lectins or D-penicillamine, nor did the glycosaminoglycans induce sperm tail-associated protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Furthermore, N-glycosidase F (PNGase) pretreatment of oviduct explants and APM did not alter sperm-oviduct binding density. By contrast, a combination of the sperm-capacitating factors albumin and HCO3(-) severely reduced (>10-fold) equine sperm-oviduct binding density by inducing rapid head-to-head agglutination, both of which events were independent of Ca(2+) and an elevated pH (7.9). Conversely, neither albumin and HCO3(-) nor any other capacitating factor could induce release of oviduct-bound sperm. In conclusion, a combination of albumin and HCO3(-) markedly induced sperm head-to-head agglutination which physically prevented stallion sperm to bind to oviduct epithelium.

  17. A serological survey of antibodies to Leptospira species in dogs in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Roach, J M; van Vuuren, M; Picard, J A

    2010-09-01

    Leptospirosis, a disease more common in the tropics, can cause a life-threatening multisystemic syndrome in humans and animals. Immunity, whether natural or vaccine-induced, is serogroup-specific with the infecting serovars varying according to geographical locality. In South Africa, in spite of the fact that the bacterin vaccine for some Leptospira serovars is often used, there is no recent information on the incidence of canine leptospirosis as well as the infecting serovar/s. The aim of this study, which was undertaken on sera collected in 2008 and 2009 from both strays and owned dogs predominantly in the coastal regions of South Africa, was to determine the presence of leptospiral antibodies to 15 serovars known to infect dogs. Of the 530 samples tested, 25 tested positive to 7 different serovars with the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Nine of the 25 samples tested positive to more than one serovar. The 2 serovars most frequently represented were Canicola, which reacted to 17 sera, and Pyrogenes, which reacted to 10 sera. Currently the only vaccines available in South Africa in different combinations contain serovars Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona and Grippotyphosa. The results showed that the use of vaccines containing serovar Canicola is still justifiable in certain regions of the country. However, the presence of antibodies to serovar Pyrogenes in several dogs, pending a broader investigation, indicates that this serovar should also be included in the range of Leptospira vaccines for use in South Africa.

  18. Development and application of a dot-ELISA test for the detection of serum antibodies to Fasciola hepatica antigens in llamas.

    PubMed

    Rickard, L G

    1995-05-01

    A microenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) was developed to detect serum antibodies against Fasciola hepatica antigens in llamas. Sera from five F. hepatica-infected and 11 non-infected llamas were used in initial test development. Nitrocellulose filter disks containing F. hepatica excretory-secretory product were placed in 96-well microtiter plates, washed, blocked with Tween-20, then incubated with four-fold serial dilutions of llama sera. After incubation with rabbit anti-llama IgG followed by peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG, addition of precipitable substrate resulted in purple dots on white background (positives) easily read by eye. The technique was further evaluated at titers of 1:512 using an additional six known positive and eight known negative llamas. Test results showed 6/6 known positive as positive and 8/8 known negative as negative. Sera were collected, at approximately weekly intervals, from three llamas experimentally infected with F. hepatica. The dot-ELISA detected antibodies to F. hepatica as early as the second week post-infection in all llamas. In a serologic survey of 256 llamas from an F. hepatica endemic area, the dot-ELISA detected antigen-specific serum antibodies to F. hepatica in 42 (16%) of the llamas. Although no difference was noted in antibody prevalence between sexes, prevalence increased in llamas over 6 months of age.

  19. Rapid detection of viral antibodies based on multifunctional Staphylococcus aureus nanobioprobes.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jinjuan; Li, Yunpeng; Wei, Cuihua; Yang, Hang; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2016-12-01

    Biosynthesis of nanoparticles inside S. aureus cells has enhanced the sensitivity of immunoassays based on the S. aureus nanoparticles. However, the current methods are limited to antigen detection by conjugating IgG antibodies on S. aureus nanoparticles. In this study, a simple way to conjugate antigens to the S. aureus nanobioparticles was developed by utilizing a cell wall binding domain (CBD) from a bacteriophage lysin PlyV12. Based on this novel design, simple agglutination tests of the IgG antibodies of Ebola virus (EBOV) nucleoprotein (NP) and Middle East Respiratory Virus (MERS) NP in rabbit sera were successfully developed by conjugating the S. aureus nanobioparticles with two fusion proteins EBOV NP- CBD and MERS NP-CBD, respectively. The conjugation was done easily by just mixing the fusion proteins with the S. aureus nanoparticles. The detection time was within 20 min without any special equipment or expertise. As far as we know, this is the first time to realize the detection of viral antibodies based on S. aureus nanoparticles.

  20. Anti-smooth muscle antibody

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003531.htm Anti-smooth muscle antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence ...