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Sample records for agglutination test antibodies

  1. Development of a blocking latex agglutination test for the detection of antibodies to chicken anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Dai Quang; Ogawa, Haruko; Bui, Vuong Nghia; Nguyen, Tham Thi Hong; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Baatartsogt, Tugsbaatar; Kizito, Mugimba Kahoza; AboElkhair, Mohammed; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Nguyen, Viet Khong; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2015-09-01

    A blocking latex agglutination test (b-LAT) developed in this study was evaluated for the detection of antibodies against chicken anemia virus (CAV) in chickens. Polystyrene latex beads were coupled with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CAV (mAb-beads). When mAb-beads were mixed with antigens prepared from the lysate of MDCC-MSB1 cells infected with CAV, agglutination occurred. A short pre-incubation of CAV antigens with CAV-specific antiserum inhibited the agglutination of mAb-beads. The test results were obtained within 5min. The specificity of b-LAT was evaluated using sera from specific pathogen-free chickens and sera containing antibodies to avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and Marek's disease virus; nonspecific agglutination and cross-reactivity with antibodies to unrelated viruses were not observed. The examination of 94 serum samples collected from commercial breeder chickens of various ages (17-63 weeks) revealed good agreement (93.6%, Kappa value=0.82) between b-LAT and a virus neutralization test, known to be most sensitive and specific in the detection of antibodies to CAV. These results indicate that b-LAT, a simple and rapid test, is a useful and reliable tool in CAV serology.

  2. [Use of a latex-agglutination test for determining anti-measles antibody titer].

    PubMed

    Aleksander, S K; Lukin, Iu V; Iuminova, N V; Krasnova, V P; Andzhaparidze, O G

    1995-01-01

    A new diagnostic agent for microtitration of antimeasles antibodies, making use of polyacrolein microspheres conjugated with purified measles virus has been developed. Parallel titration of blood sera of children and adults in latex agglutination test and in routine test (hemagglutination inhibition, passive hemagglutination, immunofluorescent tests) demonstrated a sufficient specificity of the new test, sensitivity compatible to that of hemagglutination inhibition, and correlation of the results of all tests.

  3. Development of a Specific Latex Agglutination Test to Detect Antibodies of Enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Qin, Bo; Zhang, Jianhua; Xie, Wenhao; Liu, Xuehong; He, Tingting; Chen, Jinkun; Dong, Xuejun

    2015-10-01

    A latex agglutination test (LAT) was developed for the rapid detection of antibodies against the VP1 or VP1 proteins of Enterovirus 71 (EV71). The proteins of interest including prokaryotically expressed VP1 and two strains of anti-VP1 monoclonal antibody (McAb) against EV71 were covalently linked to carboxylated latex using ethyl-dimethyl-amino-propyl carbodiimide (EDC) to prepare sensitized latex beads. LAT was evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a reference test. The VP1-LAT showed a sensitivity of 87.0%, specificity of 88.9%, and an agreement ratio of 90.0% in detecting VP1 in 100 serum samples from experimentally infected mice, whereas these values were 86.8, 96.7, and 93.3%, respectively, for 608 clinical human serum samples. The VP1-LAT has advantages over other assays in terms of low cost, rapidity, chemical stability, high sensitivity, repeatability, and specificity. The LAT established in the present study is a rapid and simple test suitable for field monitoring of antibodies against VP1-EV71. PMID:26363276

  4. Seroprevalence of bovine leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test in Southeast of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Mohammad; Sakhaee, Ehsanollah; Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Abdollahpour, Gholamreza; Tabrizi, Saeed Sattari; Damaneh, Elham Mohammadi; Hossini-nasab, Sajad

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate serological findings of bovine leptospirosis which is a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution caused by Leptospira interrogans. Methods One hundred and sixty seven sera were collected from 9 commercial dairy herds in jiroft suburbs, from July to October 2011. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was used to evaluates serological findings of bovine leptospirosis in Jiroft suburb dairy farms, Kerman province, Iran. Results Antibodies were found by MAT at least against one serovar of Leptospira interrogans in 29 samples (17.36%) among 167 sera at a dilution 1:100 or higher, and Leptospira pomona was the most prevalent serovar. Positive titers against more than one serovar were detected in 6 sera of the positive samples. Conclusion This study is the first report of leptospirosis in Southeast Iran and showed that Leptospira pomona was the most and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae the least prevalent serovars in Southeast Iran. PMID:25182718

  5. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum antibody by ELISA and serum plate agglutination test of laying chicken

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Md. Zulfekar; Rahman, Md. Mostafizer; Sultana, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is important avian pathogens responsible for chronic respiratory diseases of chicken and turkeys, which result in large economic loss for the poultry industry. The objectives of this study were determination of seroprevalence of MG antibody of commercial layer chicken at laying period in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 563 blood samples were collected randomly from selected commercial layer chickens at laying period during the period from July to December, 2013. Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) and serum plate agglutination (SPA) test were performed to detect the presence of antibodies against MG. Results: Of 563 samples, 64.47% and 56.13% showed an overall prevalence of MG antibodies in iELISA and SPA test respectively. Prevalence of MG was recorded the highest (69.63%) at 50-55 weeks of age compared with lowest (53.26%) at 56-61 weeks of age (p<0.05). Significant (p<0.05) effect of breed were observed in the seroprevalence of MG infection in layer birds in the present study. The overall, 68.77%, 63.74% and 59.37% prevalence were found respectively in sonali, ISA Brown and White leg horn. The prevalence of MG antibodies was the highest (70.13%) in December followed by November (68%), October (65.67%), August (63.46%), September (58.54%) and July (51.78%) month. The seroprevalence of MG antibodies was higher (69.63%) in most of the large flocks and lower (56.82%) in small flocks. Conclusion: Therefore, might be suggested that the commercial layer farms should be routinely checked to monitor MG infection and the reactor birds should be culled since MG organism has the potential to transmit vertically. The correlation between MG antibody in month and flock size was not significant (p=0.359 and p=0.868, respectively). PMID:27046987

  6. Comparison of fluorescent antibody and microscopic agglutination testing for Leptospira in pregnant and nonpregnant cows.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, Sreekumari; Berghaus, Roy D; Overton, Michael W; Pence, Mel E; Baldwin, Charles A

    2010-01-01

    Serum and urine samples from 30 cows (15 pregnant and 15 nonpregnant) from each of 10 Georgia dairy herds (total cows = 300) were examined by microscopic agglutination testing (MAT) and direct fluorescent antibody testing (FAT), respectively. Seven of the 10 herds had at least 1 cow with a positive FAT, and all of the herds had at least 1 cow with a reciprocal MAT titer > or =100 for 1 or more serovars. Serological testing was not helpful in identifying the infecting serovar for cows with a positive FAT result. The MAT titers for all 7 of the serovars evaluated were significantly correlated with one another, with 17 (81%) of the 21 Spearman rank correlation coefficients > or =0.4 in magnitude. Twenty (56%) of 36 FAT-positive cows did not have a titer that was highest for any particular serovar. Four of the 7 herds that reported using a Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo-bovis vaccine had one or more FAT-positive cows compared with 3 out of 3 herds that reported they were not using this type of vaccine, although this difference was not statistically significant.

  7. Comparison of indirect fluorescent antibody test and modified agglutination test for detecting Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies in dog and cat.

    PubMed

    Macrì, Gladia; Sala, Marcello; Linder, Alicia M; Pettirossi, Nadia; Scarpulla, Manuela

    2009-07-01

    The present study describes the comparison between a modified agglutination test (MAT) and the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for the detection of Toxoplasma specific IgG antibodies in dog and cat sera. MAT showed an "almost perfect" agreement with IFAT in detecting positive and negative results in cat sera, where as only a "substantial" agreement was observed in dog sera due to false negative results. Differences relative to sample dilution were recorded and serological titres obtained by MAT and IFAT are not directly comparable in cat and dog sera.

  8. Development and evaluation of a recombinant-glycoprotein-based latex agglutination test for rabies virus antibody assessment.

    PubMed

    Jemima, Ebenezer Angel; Manoharan, Seeralan; Kumanan, Kathaperumal

    2014-08-01

    The measurement of neutralizing antibodies induced by the glycoprotein of rabies virus is indispensable for assessing the level of neutralizing antibodies in animals or humans. A rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) has been approved by WHO and is the most widely used method to measure the virus-neutralizing antibody content in serum, but a rapid test system would be of great value to screen large numbers of serum samples. To develop and evaluate a latex agglutination test (LAT) for measuring rabies virus antibodies, a recombinant glycoprotein was expressed in an insect cell system and purified, and the protein was coated onto latex beads at concentrations of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 mg/ml to find out the optimal concentration for coating latex beads. It was found that 0.5 mg/ml of recombinant protein was optimal for coating latex beads, and this concentration was used to sensitize the latex beads for screening of dog serum samples. Grading of LAT results was done with standard reference serum with known antibody titers. A total of 228 serum samples were tested, out of which 145 samples were positive by both RFFIT and LAT, and the specificity was found to be 100 %. In RFFIT, 151 samples were positive, the sensitivity was found to be 96.03 %, and the accuracy/concordance was found to be 97.39 %. A rapid field test-a latex agglutination test (LAT)-was developed and evaluated for rabies virus antibody assessment using recombinant glycoprotein of rabies virus expressed in an insect cell system.

  9. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Anju; Saxena, Hari Mohan; Malhotra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT), microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT), indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (p<0.0001). The mean MAT titers were 2.244±0.727 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was very significant (p<0.005). The mean IHA titers in infected cattle were 2.284±0.574, and those in healthy vaccinated cattle were 1.200±0.155. The difference was extremely significant (p=0.0002). However, the difference in mean iELISA titers of infected cattle (1.3678±0.014) and healthy vaccinated cattle (1.367±0.014) was non-significant. The infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. However, it cannot be ascertained whether these antibodies are due to vaccine or response to infection. Since the infected animals had been vaccinated earlier, the current infection may suggest that vaccination was unable to induce protective levels of antibody. The heightened antibody response after infection may also indicate a secondary immune response to the antigens common to the vaccine strain and wild Brucella organisms. Conclusion: The brucellosis infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. PMID:27536032

  10. A novel agglutination test for antigen-specific detection of platelet antibodies.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Oliver; Agaylan, Ashraf; Borchert, Hans-Hubert; Aslan, Tunay; Bombard, Stéphane; Kiesewetter, Holger; Salama, Abdulgabar

    2006-10-15

    A simple and rapid antigen-specific assay for the identification antibodies to platelets is lacking, yet. Red-dyed polystyrene microbeads were coated with monoclonal antibodies to various platelet glycoprotein complexes, and used for the detection of platelet autoantibodies and alloantibodies. The results were largely identical with those obtained by monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigen assay (MAIPA). The new test is reliable yet less complex and time-consuming than the currently available assays, and it can be implemented in any routine laboratory. PMID:16933262

  11. Column agglutination technology: the antiglobulin test.

    PubMed

    Reis, K J; Chachowski, R; Cupido, A; Davies, D; Jakway, J; Setcavage, T M

    1993-08-01

    A new system for typing and screening blood, based on the sieving effect of glass bead microparticles, has been developed. The test is performed in a microcolumn in which the red cell agglutinates are trapped in the glass bead matrix during centrifugation, and unagglutinated cells form a pellet at the bottom of the column. Anti-human globulin reagents were incorporated in the diluent and the new test system, column agglutination technology, was compared to conventional tube tests and low-ionic-strength method. Sera and plasmas (228 samples) were screened for red cell antibodies with two anti-human globulin reagents: one containing only anti-IgG and the other containing both anti-IgG and anti-C3b, -C3d. After initial testing, there was 94-percent agreement between column agglutination technology and tube tests, and after repeat testing, there was 97-percent agreement. The column agglutination technology anti-human globulin test eliminates the need to wash red cells, which decreases the overall test time. The test is easy to perform, and the results are more objective than those with tube and microplate methods.

  12. Ultrasensitive Antibody Detection by Agglutination-PCR (ADAP)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies are widely used biomarkers for the diagnosis of many diseases. Assays based on solid-phase immobilization of antigens comprise the majority of clinical platforms for antibody detection, but can be undermined by antigen denaturation and epitope masking. These technological hurdles are especially troublesome in detecting antibodies that bind nonlinear or conformational epitopes, such as anti-insulin antibodies in type 1 diabetes patients and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies associated with thyroid cancers. Radioimmunoassay remains the gold standard for these challenging antibody biomarkers, but the limited multiplexability and reliance on hazardous radioactive reagents have prevented their use outside specialized testing facilities. Here we present an ultrasensitive solution-phase method for detecting antibodies, termed antibody detection by agglutination-PCR (ADAP). Antibodies bind to and agglutinate synthetic antigen–DNA conjugates, enabling ligation of the DNA strands and subsequent quantification by qPCR. ADAP detects zepto- to attomoles of antibodies in 2 μL of sample with a dynamic range spanning 5–6 orders of magnitude. Using ADAP, we detected anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies from human patient plasma with a 1000-fold increased sensitivity over an FDA-approved radioimmunoassay. Finally, we demonstrate the multiplexability of ADAP by simultaneously detecting multiple antibodies in one experiment. ADAP’s combination of simplicity, sensitivity, broad dynamic range, multiplexability, and use of standard PCR protocols creates new opportunities for the discovery and detection of antibody biomarkers. PMID:27064772

  13. Application of latex beads agglutination test for the detection of the antibody against virus-infection-associated (VIA) antigen of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, T; Suzuki, T; Chatchawanchonteera, A; Sinuwonkwat, P; Tsuda, T; Murakami, Y

    2000-07-01

    Latex beads agglutination (LA) for the detection of the antibody against virus infection-associated (VIA) antigen of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus was estimated using experimentally infected animals. The VIA antibody titer by the LA test were compared with the neutralization titer and the titer by agarose gel diffusion (AGD) test, which has been used as a standard method for VIA antibody titration. The latex beads were coated with VIA antigen in carbonate buffer solution (0.5 M, pH 9.6) for the test. The sensitivity of the LA test was clearly higher than that of the AGD test in the results for cattle and swine infected experimentally. The antibody was detected in the bovine serum obtained at the 13th week after inoculation by the LA but not by the AGD test. The LA test appears to be simple, rapid and sensitive for the detection of the antibody of FMD virus in the surveillance of FMD and the FMD quarantine of imported animals.

  14. Comparative assessment of the leprosy antibody absorption test, Mycobacterium leprae extract enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and gelatin particle agglutination test for serodiagnosis of lepromatous leprosy.

    PubMed Central

    Escobar-Gutiérrez, A; Amezcua, M E; Pastén, S; Pallares, F; Cázares, J V; Pulido, R M; Flores, O; Castro, E; Rodríguez, O

    1993-01-01

    A comparative assessment of three serological methods for leprosy diagnosis (the fluorescent leprosy antibody absorption [FLA-ABS] test, the Mycobacterium leprae soluble-extract enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], and the M. leprae particle agglutination [MLPA] test) was carried out. The objective was to identify their performance in clinical and epidemiological diagnosis of leprosy. The study group included 45 lepromatous leprosy patients under treatment. Specificity was > 95% for all three assays, and sensitivity was 95, 58, and 74% for the FLA-ABS test, the MLPA test, and the ELISA, respectively. The only cross-reactivity for M. tuberculosis-infected patients was with the soluble-extract ELISA. Although the FLA-ABS test displayed the highest specificity and sensitivity values, it can only be used in well-developed laboratories, and the patient's clinical and epidemiological background must be considered when results are interpreted because the test remains positive after therapeutic success and could be positive for some household contacts. The MLPA test is easier to perform and interpret, and it is adequate for small laboratories and epidemiological studies intended to detect active untreated or irregularly treated leprosy cases. Therefore, the FLA-ABS and MLPA tests are complementary, and both should be used for serodiagnosis of leprosy. PMID:8501238

  15. Antibody blocks acquisition of bacterial colonization through agglutination.

    PubMed

    Roche, A M; Richard, A L; Rahkola, J T; Janoff, E N; Weiser, J N

    2015-01-01

    Invasive infection often begins with asymptomatic colonization of mucosal surfaces. A murine model of bacterial colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae was used to study the mechanism for mucosal protection by immunoglobulin. In previously colonized immune mice, bacteria were rapidly sequestered within large aggregates in the nasal lumen. To further examine the role of bacterial agglutination in protection by specific antibodies, mice were passively immunized with immunoglobulin G (IgG) purified from antipneumococcal sera or pneumococcal type-specific monoclonal human IgA (hIgA1 or hIgA2). Systemically delivered IgG accessed the mucosal surface and blocked acquisition of colonization and transmission between littermates. Optimal protection by IgG was independent of Fc fragment and complement and, therefore, did not involve an opsonophagocytic mechanism. Enzymatic digestion or reduction of IgG before administration showed that protection required divalent binding that maintained its agglutinating effect. Divalent hIgA1 is cleaved by the pneumococcal member of a family of bacterial proteases that generate monovalent Fabα fragments. Thus, passive immunization with hIgA1 blocked colonization by an IgA1-protease-deficient mutant (agglutinated) but not the protease-producing wild-type parent (not agglutinated), whereas protease-resistant hIgA2 agglutinated and blocked colonization by both. Our findings highlight the importance of agglutinating antibodies in mucosal defense and reveal how successful pathogens evade this effect.

  16. Development of a Rapid Agglutination Latex Test for Diagnosis of Enteropathogenic and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Infection in Developing World: Defining the Biomarker, Antibody and Method

    PubMed Central

    Munhoz, Danielle D.; Cardoso, Lucas T. A.; Luz, Daniela E.; Andrade, Fernanda B.; Horton, Denise S. P. Q.; Elias, Waldir P.; Piazza, Roxane M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC/EHEC) are human intestinal pathogens responsible for diarrhea in both developing and industrialized countries. In research laboratories, EPEC and EHEC are defined on the basis of their pathogenic features; nevertheless, their identification in routine laboratories is expensive and laborious. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to develop a rapid and simple assay for EPEC/EHEC detection. Accordingly, the EPEC/EHEC-secreted proteins EspA and EspB were chosen as target antigens. Methodology First, we investigated the ideal conditions for EspA/EspB production/secretion by ELISA in a collection of EPEC/EHEC strains after cultivating bacterial isolates in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) or DMEM containing 1% tryptone or HEp-2 cells-preconditioned DMEM, employing either anti-EspA/anti-EspB polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies developed and characterized herein. Subsequently, a rapid agglutination latex test (RALT) was developed and tested with the same collection of bacterial isolates. Principal findings EspB was defined as a biomarker and its corresponding monoclonal antibody as the tool for EPEC/EHEC diagnosis; the production of EspB was better in DMEM medium. RALT assay has the sensitivity and specificity required for high-impact diagnosis of neglected diseases in the developing world. Conclusion RALT assay described herein can be considered an alternative assay for diarrhea diagnosis in low-income countries since it achieved 97% sensitivity, 98% specificity and 97% efficiency. PMID:25254981

  17. MEMS reagent and sample handling procedure: Feasibility of viral antibody detection by passive immune agglutination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, G. D.; Tenoso, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to develop a test requiring no preadsorption steps for the assessment of antibodies to rubella and mumps viruses using the passive immune agglutination (PIA) method. Both rubella and mumps antigens and antibodies were prepared. Direct PIA tests, using rubella antigen-coated beads, and indirect PIA tests, using rubella antibody-coated beads, were investigated. Attempts, using either method, were unsuccessful. Serum interference along with nonspecific agglutination of beads by the rubella antigen resulted in no specific response under the test conditions investigated. A new, highly sensitive approach, the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test system, is recommended to overcome the nonspecificity. This system is a logical outgrowth of some of the solid phase work done on MEMS and represents the next generation tests system that can be directly applied to early disease detection and monitoring.

  18. Evaluation of two rK39 dipstick tests, direct agglutination test, and indirect fluorescent antibody test for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in a new epidemic site in highland Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Cañavate, Carmen; Herrero, Merce; Nieto, Javier; Cruz, Israel; Chicharro, Carmen; Aparicio, Pilar; Mulugeta, Abate; Argaw, Daniel; Blackstock, Anna J; Alvar, Jorge; Bern, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the performance characteristics of two rK39 immunochromatographic tests, a direct agglutination test (DAT), and an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) in the site of a new epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in northwestern Ethiopia. The study population was composed of 179 patients with suspected VL and 67 controls. The sensitivities of Kalazar Detect(®), DiaMed-IT Leish(®), DAT, and IFAT in 35 polymerase chain reaction-confirmed VL cases were 94.3%, 91.4%, 91.4%, and 100%, respectively, and the specificities were 98.5%, 94%, 98.5%, and 98.5%, respectively. In a Bayesian latent class analysis of all 246 specimens, the estimated sensitivities were 90.5%, 89%, 88.8%, and 96% for Kalazar Detect(®), DiaMed-IT Leish(®), DAT, and IFAT, respectively; DAT showed the highest estimated specificity (97.4%). Both rK39 immunochromatographic tests perform as well as DAT, and are suitable for VL diagnosis in first-level health centers in this area of Ethiopia.

  19. Evaluation of Two rK39 Dipstick Tests, Direct Agglutination Test, and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test for Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in a New Epidemic Site in Highland Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Cañavate, Carmen; Herrero, Merce; Nieto, Javier; Cruz, Israel; Chicharro, Carmen; Aparicio, Pilar; Mulugeta, Abate; Argaw, Daniel; Blackstock, Anna J.; Alvar, Jorge; Bern, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the performance characteristics of two rK39 immunochromatographic tests, a direct agglutination test (DAT), and an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) in the site of a new epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in northwestern Ethiopia. The study population was composed of 179 patients with suspected VL and 67 controls. The sensitivities of Kalazar Detect®, DiaMed-IT Leish®, DAT, and IFAT in 35 polymerase chain reaction–confirmed VL cases were 94.3%, 91.4%, 91.4%, and 100%, respectively, and the specificities were 98.5%, 94%, 98.5%, and 98.5%, respectively. In a Bayesian latent class analysis of all 246 specimens, the estimated sensitivities were 90.5%, 89%, 88.8%, and 96% for Kalazar Detect®, DiaMed-IT Leish®, DAT, and IFAT, respectively; DAT showed the highest estimated specificity (97.4%). Both rK39 immunochromatographic tests perform as well as DAT, and are suitable for VL diagnosis in first-level health centers in this area of Ethiopia. PMID:21212210

  20. Human rotavirus detection by agglutination of antibody-coated erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sanekata, T; Okada, H

    1983-06-01

    We sensitized sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) with antibodies against human rotavirus strain Wa (SRBC-antiWa) and antibodies against calf rotavirus strain NCDV (SRBC-antiNCDV). These were readily agglutinated in the presence of homologous antigens, i.e., human rotavirus and calf rotavirus. By the hemagglutination of SRBC-antiWa and SRBC-antiNCDV (reverse passive hemagglutination [RPHA]), titration of rotavirus in extracts from feces of children suffering from diarrhea (61 specimens) was carried out. We found that the ratio of titers determined with SRBC-antiWa and SRBC-antiNCDV varied remarkably from specimen to specimen. This indicated that the antigenic determinants on human rotavirus in patients feces cross-react with antibodies against NCDV to varying extents. To express the cross-reactivity of human rotavirus with antibodies to NCDV, we propose a Wa/NCDV rotavirus index which can be calculated from the RPHA titer with SRBC-antiWa and SRBC-antiNCDV as follows: Wa/NCDV rotavirus index = (antiWa-RPHA titer of specimen/antiWa-RPHA titer of NCDV)/(antiNCDV-RPHA titer of specimen/antiNCDV-RPHA titer of NCDV).

  1. Development and evaluation of a latex agglutination test for the rapid serodiagnosis of tularemia.

    PubMed

    Rastawicki, Waldemar; Rokosz-Chudziak, Natalia; Chróst, Anna; Gierczyński, Rafał

    2015-05-01

    A latex agglutination test (LAT) was developed for a rapid detection of antibodies against Francisella tularensis. The assay is performed by mixing serum with antigen-coated latex beads and read within 5 min. Developed LAT has been proved to be a specific, sensitive, fast, easy-to-perform and cost-efficient tool for the routine diagnosis of tularemia.

  2. The modified card agglutination test: an accurate tool for detecting anaplasmosis in Columbian black-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Howarth, A; Hokama, Y; Amerault, T E

    1976-07-01

    Inoculation of susceptible calves confirmed that the modified card agglutination test accurately detected the anaplasmosis infection status of each of 35 Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). Anaplasma marginale, and specific antibodies, were demonstrated only in calves which received blood from deer that were positive by the card test. The modified card agglutination testing of deer serum was performed in the manner recommended for testing cattle serum with bovine-origin antigen and bovine serum factor.

  3. [Evaluation of gelatin particle agglutination method for detection of Treponema pallidum antibody].

    PubMed

    Deguchi, M; Hosotsubo, H; Yamashita, N; Ohmine, T; Asari, S

    1994-10-01

    Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (HA) is one of the most frequently used methods for the detection of Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) antibodies. Recently, an innovative agglutination method using artificial carriers was newly developed, and is now available as a routine method. In order to compare the newly developed particle agglutination (PA) method (FUJIREBIO INC.) with the conventional HA method, T. pallidum antibody titers of numerous sera were measured by respective methods. In the stability study, reconstituted reagent was stable for at least three weeks. Sample inactivation (56 degrees C/30 min) demonstrated no effect on the test results. Among 800 sera, 132 (16.6%) positives (+), 633 (79.1%) negatives (-) and (4.3%) indeterminates (+) were obtained by HA method. Meanwhile, 144 (18.0%) positives (+), 627 (78.4%) negatives (-) and 29 (3.6%) indeterminates (+) were obtained by PA method. The correlation between PA and HA method was 97.8%, and the antibody titers obtained by PA method showed good correlation with HA method. Those samples which showed discrepancy between PA and HA method in the above study were further examined with fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) method. The results obtained from FTA-ABS method were almost consistent with those obtained from PA method. For respective syphilis patients in stage I and II, antibody titer was monitored by HA, PA and RPR method. The results indicated that changes in antibody titer obtained from PA method was approximately the same as the titer changes obtained from RPR method. Namely, PA method detected the presence of IgM earlier than HA method.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Improving agglutination tests by working in microfluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Degré, G; Brunet, E; Dodge, A; Tabeling, P

    2005-06-01

    Latex agglutination tests are used for the diagnosis of diseases in man and animals. They are generally simple, cheap, and do not require sophisticated equipment, nor highly specialized skills. In this Technical Note, we put latex agglutination tests in a microfluidic format. The experiment is performed in PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) microchannels, using streptavidin-coated superparamagnetic beads and a magnetic field. The target molecule is biotinylated protein A. By taking full advantage of the microfluidic conditions (scaling down of the detection volume and controlled action of the shear flow), we achieved an analytical sensitivity of 10 fmol l(-1)(several hundreds of fg ml(-1)) and a fast response (a few minutes) ; the test is also quantitative. Performances of agglutination tests can thus be improved by orders of magnitude by adapting them to a microfluidic format; this comes in addition to the usual advantages offered by this technology (integration, high throughput etc.).

  5. Agglutinating monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize lipooligosaccharide A of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Z M; Cowell, J L; Brennan, M J; Burns, D L; Manclark, C R

    1988-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies that specifically agglutinate strains of Bordetella pertussis having serotype 1 agglutinogen were uniquely reactive with the electrophoretically slow-migrating A form of lipooligosaccharide. These monoclonal antibodies should be useful for the structural analysis of B. pertussis lipooligosaccharide and for the establishment of a better-defined serogroup for Bordetella species. Images PMID:2893776

  6. Agglutinating monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize lipooligosaccharide A of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Li, Z M; Cowell, J L; Brennan, M J; Burns, D L; Manclark, C R

    1988-03-01

    Monoclonal antibodies that specifically agglutinate strains of Bordetella pertussis having serotype 1 agglutinogen were uniquely reactive with the electrophoretically slow-migrating A form of lipooligosaccharide. These monoclonal antibodies should be useful for the structural analysis of B. pertussis lipooligosaccharide and for the establishment of a better-defined serogroup for Bordetella species. PMID:2893776

  7. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the modified agglutination test (MAT) and an indirect ELISA for the detection of serum antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in sheep through Bayesian approaches.

    PubMed

    Mainar-Jaime, R C; Barberán, M

    2007-09-01

    The diagnostic accuracies of the modified agglutination test (MAT) and indirect ELISA test for the detection of serum antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in sheep were evaluated through Bayesian approaches on two populations of sheep created from three different groups of animals (T. gondii-aborted ewes, colostrums-deprived newborn lambs, and ewe-lambs and adult ewes with unknown T. gondii infection status). Tests showed a high degree of agreement (kappa statistic = 0.93; 95% confidence interval = 0.87, 0.98) and a significant specificity (Sp) correlation (gamma(Sp) = 0.26; 95% credibility interval = 0.017, 0.61). When prior information was used for all unknown parameters the posterior medians for the sensitivity (Se) and Sp of the MAT and ELISA were, respectively, 92.6% (95% credibility interval = 85.2, 96.9), 95.5% (89.9, 98.7), 90.5% (83.4, 95.6), and 97.8% (94.2, 99.5). These estimates remained similar when uninformative priors were included. The Se estimates of the MAT and ELISA were higher than those obtained on pigs in other study using the same approach (Se = 80.6% and Sp = 89.5% for the MAT, and Se = 71.5% and Sp = 85.5% for the ELISA [Georgiadis, M.P., Wesley, O.J., Gardner, I.A., Singh, R., 2003. Correlation-adjusted estimation of sensitivity and specificity of two diagnostic tests. Appl. Stat. 52, 63-78]. This finding supported the believe that test performances may vary when applied on different animal species. Thus, if these tests are planned to be used on animal species other than sheep or pigs, their diagnostic accuracy should be re-assessed to prevent biased inferences from their results.

  8. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in beavers (Castor canadensis) from Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, C.N.; Kaur, T.; Koenen, K.; DeStefano, S.; Zajac, A.M.; Lindsay, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystls neurona in a population of beavers (Castor canadensis) from Massachusetts. Sixty-two blood samples were collected during the field seasons over 3 consecutive years from different animals. Blood was collected onto filter paper and shipped to the Department of Biomedical Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, for parasite testing. The samples were tested at dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:100 against each parasite antigen by modified agglutination tests to determine whether antibodies to either parasite were present in the blood. Six of 62 samples (10%) were positive for T. gondii, with 2 samples having titers of 1:25 and 4 having titers of 1:50. Four of 62 samples (6%) were positive for S. neurona, with 2 samples having titers of 1:25 and 2 having titers of 1:50. ?? American Society of Pathologists 2005.

  9. [The pretransfusion bedside agglutination test is not a "Gold Standard"].

    PubMed

    Levy, G

    2008-11-01

    ABO-incompatible transfusions remain frequent in Europe despite the technological progresses in relation with the potential number of human errors during the control procedures of the transfusion chain. The agglutination bedside-test is only one step of this chain and the amelioration of the security will be achieved by its replacement by an electronical check.

  10. Characterization of two different agglutinators in the latex fixation test, occurring in normal human sera

    PubMed Central

    Klein, F.; Valkenburg, H. A.; Van Zwet, Theda L.; Lafeber, Geertruida J. M.

    1966-01-01

    Using a sensitive modification of the latex fixation test it is possible to detect a small agglutinating effect in about 60 per cent of normal human sera, after these have been heated for 30 minutes at 56°. This was shown to be caused by an IgM globulin with the properties of a rheumatoid factor. The factor is able to react with human IgG globulin and may represent an antibody to the IgG part of circulating antigen—antibody complexes. The heat treatment probably inactivates an inhibitor of the latex fixation reaction. In addition all normal human sera give an agglutination reaction with IgG coated latex at incubation temperatures of 37° or lower. It was shown that these reactions are caused by a thermolabile, non-reducible component with a sedimentation constant of about 10. This component is probably identical with the complement component C'1q. The agglutinating activity was found in the α2—β1 region after electrophoresis of untreated serum, but in the slow γ region after treatment of the serum with EDTA. This kind of agglutination may cause false positive reactions in latex tests which are carried out at 37° or less. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 3 PMID:4160336

  11. Comparison of type 2 and type 6 fimbriae of Bordetella pertussis by using agglutinating monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Z M; Brennan, M J; David, J L; Carter, P H; Cowell, J L; Manclark, C R

    1988-01-01

    Two types of fimbriae have been identified on the pathogenic gram-negative organism Bordetella pertussis. Monoclonal antibodies to these fimbriae were produced to better understand the role of fimbriae as serotype-specific agglutinogens and to investigate the antigenic relationship between these fimbriae. Three monoclonal antibodies were identified that specifically agglutinated B. pertussis cells containing the U.S. Reference Factor 2 agglutinogen, and six monoclonal antibodies were produced that agglutinated only those strains containing the U.S. Reference Factor 6 agglutinogen. Indirect immunofluorescence studies and immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that these monoclonal antibodies bind to an outer membrane component on serotype-specific strains of B. pertussis. All of the monoclonal antibodies reacted with native or partially assembled type-specific fimbriae but not with monomeric fimbrial subunits as indicated by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. The fimbrial agglutinogens recognized by the monoclonal antibodies were also uniquely reactive with either U.S. Reference Factor 2 or 6 antiserum (Eldering agglutinogen 2 or 6 polyclonal antiserum) in an indirect ELISA. No cross-reactivity of the monoclonal antibodies with the unrelated fimbriae was observed in any of the comparative immunological studies. Some of the monoclonal antibodies agglutinated certain strains of B. bronchiseptica, suggesting that this closely related species can contain antigenically similar fimbriae. These monoclonal antibodies should prove useful for further structural and functional analysis of Bordetella fimbriae and for studies on the role that these antigens play in prevention of infection and disease. Images PMID:2903125

  12. Comparison of type 2 and type 6 fimbriae of Bordetella pertussis by using agglutinating monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Li, Z M; Brennan, M J; David, J L; Carter, P H; Cowell, J L; Manclark, C R

    1988-12-01

    Two types of fimbriae have been identified on the pathogenic gram-negative organism Bordetella pertussis. Monoclonal antibodies to these fimbriae were produced to better understand the role of fimbriae as serotype-specific agglutinogens and to investigate the antigenic relationship between these fimbriae. Three monoclonal antibodies were identified that specifically agglutinated B. pertussis cells containing the U.S. Reference Factor 2 agglutinogen, and six monoclonal antibodies were produced that agglutinated only those strains containing the U.S. Reference Factor 6 agglutinogen. Indirect immunofluorescence studies and immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that these monoclonal antibodies bind to an outer membrane component on serotype-specific strains of B. pertussis. All of the monoclonal antibodies reacted with native or partially assembled type-specific fimbriae but not with monomeric fimbrial subunits as indicated by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. The fimbrial agglutinogens recognized by the monoclonal antibodies were also uniquely reactive with either U.S. Reference Factor 2 or 6 antiserum (Eldering agglutinogen 2 or 6 polyclonal antiserum) in an indirect ELISA. No cross-reactivity of the monoclonal antibodies with the unrelated fimbriae was observed in any of the comparative immunological studies. Some of the monoclonal antibodies agglutinated certain strains of B. bronchiseptica, suggesting that this closely related species can contain antigenically similar fimbriae. These monoclonal antibodies should prove useful for further structural and functional analysis of Bordetella fimbriae and for studies on the role that these antigens play in prevention of infection and disease. PMID:2903125

  13. The incomplete anti-Rh antibody agglutination mechanism of trypsinized ORh+ red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Margni, R A; Leoni, J; Bazzurro, M

    1977-01-01

    The capacity for binding to trypsinized and non-trypsinized ORh+ red cells, of the IgG incomplete anti-Rh antibody and its F(ab')2 and Fc fragments has been investigated. An analysis has also been made of the capacity of non-specific human IgG, aggregated non-specific human IgG, human IgM (19S) and IgM (7S), and of fragments Fcgamma, Fcmu and Fc5mu to inhibit the agglutination of trypsinized ORh+ red cells by the IgG incomplete anti-Rh antibody. The results obtained indicate that these antibodies behave in a similar manner to that of nonprecipitating antibodies, and that the agglutination of trypsinized red cells seems to be a mixed reaction due to the interaction of an Fab fragment with its Rh antigenic determinant present in the surface of a red cell and the Fc of the same molecule with a receptor for Fc present in adjacent red cells. The trypsin treatment apparently results in the liberation of occult Fc receptors. It has also been demonstrated that in the agglutination of ORh+ red cells by IgG incomplete anti-Rh antibody in the presence of albumin, interaction must occur in some manner between the albumin and the Fc fragment since the F(ab')2 fragment does not give rise to agglutination under such conditions. Images Figure 1 PMID:415968

  14. Antileukocyte antibody in postpartum and renal transplant subjects. A comparison of capillary agglutination and lymphocytotoxicity reactions.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J S; Jackson, D; Greazel, N A; Parmely, M J; Severson, C D

    1976-02-01

    Sera were obtained from 48 gravida II prenatal and 211 multiparous nonpregnant females and examined for leukocyte antibodies comparing a standard lymphocytotoxicity (CY) test with capillary agglutination (CA). Antibody was detected in 41% of the samples in both groups but only CA tests were positive with approximately one-half of the prenatal and three-fourths of the multiparous specimens. Although, CA reactions, when accompanied by positive CY responses, usually correlated with HLA, no correlation with HLA, 5b, or the neutrophil antigens was determined for 35 of the 48 sera reacting only by CA. As a model to test the specificity of CA positive-CY negative antisera, four extensively studied sera were further analyzed in 16 families. Independent segregation from the HLA complex and ABO and Rh antigens was confirmed and two of the sera appeared to detect separate clusters of reactions in conjunction with some of the other reagents. Pre- and postgraft samples obtained from 23 living related and 75 cadaveric renal transplanted patients were investigated and compared for graft function and prospective tissue typing. Although direct crossmatches were negative prior to surgery, 17.9% of the pretransplant samples from living related and 28.0% from cadaveric recipients contained detectable antibody when tested against a cell panel. Similar to the prenatal and multiparous groups, the majority of these responses were detected by CA. Following engraftment, antibody first became evident in 11 of 19 (58%) living related and in 23 of 53 (48.2%) cadaveric hosts. There was a striking association between the development of CA and CY antibody and failure, as contrasted to 100% 9-month or greater survival in 10 of 10 living related and 15 of 15 cadaveric transplants in whom only CA antibodies arose postoperatively. In total, these studies indicate that CA reacts with HLA antigens in common with CY tests. In addition, CA may detect HLA when CY is negative but many other reactions

  15. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in HIV-infected patients using a microparticle agglutination test.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Esaki Muthu; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Vengatesan, A; Kownhar, Hayath; Solomon, Suniti; Rao, Usha Anand

    2006-06-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is increasingly recognized as a common and important pathogen in community settings, and is responsible for various pulmonary and extrapulmonary conditions in the normal population. However, the seroepidemiology of acute M. pneumoniae infection in HIV-infected individuals is still unclear worldwide. This study examined the seroprevalence of antibodies to M. pneumoniae in HIV-infected patients admitted with respiratory complaints at a tertiary AIDS care centre in Chennai, India. A commercial gelatin microparticle agglutination test (Serodia-Myco II, Fujirebio) was used for the determination of antibodies against M. pneumoniae in acute serum specimens. Of the 200 HIV-infected patients with underlying pulmonary conditions tested, 34 (17 % positivity; 95 % CI 12-23 %) had antibodies specific to M. pneumoniae, while among the 40 patients with no underlying pulmonary symptoms, five (12.5 % positivity; 95 % CI 4-27 %) had evidence of anti-M. pneumoniae antibody. This shows that the incidence of M. pneumoniae seropositivity is greater in patients with underlying pulmonary complaints. Most positive titres were found in the age group 28-37 years in the symptomatic and symptom-free groups (64.7 and 60 %, respectively). The positive titres ranged from 40 to >20 480. High titres (> or =320) were found in 10 out of the 39 patients (25.6 %). This seroprevalence study reports a 16.2 % prevalence of M. pneumoniae infections in HIV-infected patients by a particle agglutination test.

  16. Agglutinating antibody to Aeromonas hydrophila in wild largemouth bass

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.C.; Esch, G.W.; Raker, M.L.

    1981-07-01

    Among largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in Par Pond, South Carolina, a significantly large percentage of those with red-sore disease were positive for anti-Aeromonas hydrophila agglutinin than of uninfected fish. Highest titers occurred during summer and fall, when the prevalence of the disease was declining. Most agglutinin activity was associated with a single serum fraction; the agglutinin has an apparent molecular weight of > 340,000 daltons, suggesting it may be a macroglobulin-like antibody. Homologous agglutinin reacted better with A. hydrophila than heterologous agglutinin. Differences in severity and duration of red-sore epizootics in the southeastern United States may be due to differing virulence among strains of A. hydrophila.

  17. Interaction forces between red cells agglutinated by antibody. III. Micromanipulation.

    PubMed Central

    Tha, S P; Goldsmith, H L

    1988-01-01

    In the flow studies described in two previous papers (Tha, S. P., and H. L. Goldsmith, 1986, Biophys. J. 50:1109-1116; Tha, S. P., J. Shuster, and H. L. Goldsmith, 1986, Biophys. J. 50:1117-1126), hydrodynamic forces of the order of 10(-11) N (mu dyn) were applied to measure the force of separation of doublets of hardened, sphered human red blood cells cross-linked by anti-B antibody. The same cell preparation and hyperimmune antiserum has here been used to carry out experiments with micropipet aspiration techniques. One cell of a doublet was aspirated onto a holding pipet, and a second aspiration pipet was brought into proximity of the other cell so that the two pipets and the doublet were colinear. Suction was then raised until the two cells separated. Some doublets were assembled by aspiration of a singlet, bringing a second singlet into apposition with the first, and releasing it from the pipet which was then withdrawn. Cells could be repeatedly assembled and separated. At 3.56% vol/vol antiserum, the mean normal force of separation was 0.45 +/- 0.11 nN in phosphate-buffered saline suspensions containing 2.5 x 10(4) cells/microliter; at 1.22% vol/vol antiserum, the value was 0.22 +/- 0.11 nN. The above values of the force were approximately 2.5 x greater than those from the flow studies. The data could be fitted to a Poisson distribution with 0.05 nN as the force needed to break a single cross-bridge (c.f. 0.024 nN from the previous hydrodynamic data). The forces of separation of randomly assembled doublets were lower than those of preexisting doublets. Repeated assembly and separation of doublets showed that the cell surfaces are nonuniform in adhesion strength both over the local scale less than 0.25 micron2 and the cell population. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:3134058

  18. Proposed method for agglutinating antibody titer analysis and its use as indicator of acquired immunity in pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus.

    PubMed

    Biller-Takahashi, J D; Montassier, H J; Takahashi, L S; Urbinati, E C

    2014-02-01

    Antibody can be assessed by agglutinating antibody titer which is a quantitative measure of circulating antibodies in serum from fish previously immunized. The antibody evaluation has been performed with different fish species, and is considered a reliable method that can be applied to confirm several hypothesis regarding acquired immunity, even in conjunction with precise methods to describe immune mechanisms. In order to provide appropriate analytical methods for future studies on the specific immune system of native fish, the present study standardized on assay to measure the serum agglutinating antibody titer produced after immunization with inactivated A. hydrophila and levamisole administration in pacu. It was possible to determine the agglutinating antibodies titer in a satisfactorily way in pacu immunized with inactive A. hydrophila, and the highest titers were observed on fish fed with levamisole.

  19. The evolution of pretransfusion testing: from agglutination to solid-phase red cell adherence tests.

    PubMed

    Plapp, F V; Sinor, L T; Rachel, J M

    1989-01-01

    Hospital transfusion services and blood centers still use manual hemagglutination tests for most of their serological procedures. Automation of hemagglutination reactions has proven to be difficult, primarily because hemagglutination lacks an objective endpoint which can be easily interpreted by inexpensive instruments. Alternatively, solid-phase red cell adherence assays for ABO cell and serum grouping, Rh typing, red cell and platelet antibody screening, red cell and platelet crossmatching, IgA deficiency screening, hepatitis B surface antigen, and HIV antibody screening have been developed. The performance of these assays compares favorably with current hemagglutination and enzyme immunoassay methods. All of these tests share a common objective endpoint of adherence or nonadherence of indicator red cells. This uniformity allows easy interpretation of results visually, spectrophotometrically, or by image analysis. The latter technique has the potential to revolutionize the reading and interpretation of all agglutination tests. Solid-phase red cell adherence tests in microplates are ideal for batch processing large numbers of specimens. However, adherence tests are not restricted to this format. Therefore, blood grouping dipsticks have been produced, which permit testing of individual blood samples even outside of the laboratory.

  20. [Detection of toxoplasma-specific IgM antibodies--comparison with the ISAGA (immunosorbent agglutination assay) and immunofluorescence results].

    PubMed

    Saathoff, M; Seitz, H M

    1985-01-01

    Serum samples from 702 persons were examined for Toxoplasma-specific IgM-antibodies using the immunosorbent agglutination assay (ISAGA) and the immunofluorescence-test (IIFT). 250 samples showed a positive reaction in the Sabin-Feldman-test (SFT) with titers greater than or equal to 1: 1 024, 58% were positive in ISAGA and 36% in the IIFT. Samples of persons with acute Toxoplasma-infection, showed high titers in the ISAGA and SFT as well, even in cases where the IgM-IIFT was negative. SFT-negative sera and others with weakly-positive reactions and also rheuma-positive samples were negative in the ISAGA. It is discussed how far it is possible to determine the duration of the Toxoplasma infection by applying the ISAGA in combination with other antibody tests.

  1. Rapid method for detection of Coxiella burnetii antibodies using high-density particle agglutination.

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, S V; Otsuka, H; Zhang, G Q; To, H; Yamaguchi, T; Fukushi, H; Noma, A; Hirai, K

    1996-01-01

    A high-density particle agglutination test, using erythrocyte-sensitizing substance from phase II Coxiella burnetii adsorbed to high-density composite particles, was developed for rapid serodiagnosis of Q fever. The test was compared with the microimmunofluorescence test for sensitivity and specificity by using 3,036 human serum samples collected in Gifu Prefecture, Japan. An excellent agreement was found between the two tests for the acute-phase group and paired serum samples, but some discordant results were observed in the single-sample group. The sensitivity and specificity of the high-density particle agglutination test were both 100% in the former group and 81.6 and 99.9%, respectively, in the latter group. The test is a very promising tool for routine serodiagnosis of Q fever because of its simplicity, sensitivity, and specificity. PMID:8940428

  2. Local hydrocortisone treatment of sperm-agglutinating antibodies in infertile women.

    PubMed

    Ulcová-Gallová, Z; Mráz, L; Plánicková, E; Macků, F; Ulc, I

    1988-01-01

    Local sperm-agglutinating antibodies (LSAA) in the cervical ovulatory mucus may be a cause of primary infertility. A group of 17 infertile women with LSAA treated without effect with artificial insemination and then condom therapy were studied. After hydrocortisone application to the ectocervix for up to four cycles, LSAA disappeared totally in 13 patients; six of them have given birth to babies. No side effects of treatment were observed. Hydrocortisone for local immunosuppression may become a new method of therapy in cervical immunological infertility.

  3. [Standardization of neutralization tests using the COBL cell line and comparison with the particle agglutination test for measles serology].

    PubMed

    Korukluoğlu, Gülay; Yalçinkaya, Tülay; Ozkaya, Etem; Kurtoğlu, Demet; Gözalan, Ayşegül; Miyamura, Kikuko

    2002-04-01

    The aim of the present study was the detection and comparison of measles antibody titers with particle agglutination (PA) and neutralization (Nt) methods, in the sera samples of 364 subjects from different age groups. PA method was performed with a commercial test kit (Serodiameasles, Fujirebio Com. Japan), and Nt test which was standardized in this study, by using COBL (cord blood) cell lines, has been started to use in our laboratory as a reference method. As a result, antibody titers detected by PA were in parallel to the titers which detected by Nt test, and it was concluded that the differences in antibody titers would arise from the differences of test principles and viral antigens.

  4. Simple solutions to false results with plate/slide agglutination tests in diagnosis of infectious diseases of man and animals

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Hari Mohan; Chothe, Shubhada; Kaur, Paviter

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a new Superagglutination test for serodiagnosis of infectious diseases. It differs from conventional plate/slide agglutination tests (PAT/SAT) by three additional steps: prior staining of serum antibody by adding a dye and addition of diluted biotinylated antiglobulin and avidin in sequence after mixing the antigen with the test serum. The new steps circumvent the problems of false positive and false negative results of PAT/SAT. In serodiagnosis of brucellosis, Superagglutination test had higher positive predictive value and specificity than Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT) and higher negative predictive value and sensitivity than RBPT, STAT, ELISA and Complement Fixation Test (CFT).•Superagglutination is a simple, accurate and economic screening test for infections.•More specificity, sensitivity, positive & negative predictive value than RBPT, STAT.•More sensitivity, negative predictive value than ELISA and Complement Fixation Test. PMID:26844209

  5. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in adult and fetal mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, David S; McKown, Richard D; DiCristina, Jennifer A; Jordan, Carly N; Mitchell, Sheila; Oates, David W; Sterner, Mauritz C

    2005-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite of mammals and birds. Herbivores acquire postnatal infection by ingesting oocysts from contaminated food or water. Toxoplasma gondii infection is common in white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, but little is known about the prevalence of infection in mule deer, O. hemionus. We examined sera from 89 mule deer from Nebraska for agglutinating antibodies to T. gondii using the modified direct agglutination test (MAT) with formalin-fixed tachyzoites as antigen. Thirty-one (35%) of the samples were positive at dilutions of > or = 1:25. Samples were examined from 29 fetuses from these mule deer and none were positive in the MAT. Sera from 14 white-tailed deer from Nebraska were also examined and 6 (43%) were positive for T. gondii. Samples were examined from 5 fetuses from these white-tailed deer and none was positive in the MAT. Our results in both deer species from Nebraska are similar to studies conducted in white-tailed deer from other regions of the United States. Our findings indicate that mule deer are frequently infected with T. gondii and that mule-deer meat may be a source of human infection.

  6. Evaluation of three commercial agglutination tests for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Pennell, D R; Rott-Petri, J A; Kurzynski, T A

    1984-10-01

    Three commercially available rapid slide agglutination tests for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated with 354 recent clinical isolates (165 strains of S. aureus). The test results of two latex agglutination products, SeroSTAT Staph (Scott Laboratories, Inc.) and Staphylatex (American Micro Scan), and one hemagglutination product, Staphyloslide (BBL Microbiology Systems), were compared with the results of the tube coagulase test, which was read at 4 h (4-h tube coagulase test) and, if negative, again after overnight incubation at room temperature (24-h tube coagulase test). Discrepancies between agglutination and tube coagulase identifications were resolved by use of the thermonuclease, mannitol fermentation, and slide coagulase tests. All sensitivities, specificities, predictive values of a positive result, and predictive values of a negative result for the three agglutination tests were at least 98.8% and comparable with the 4-h tube coagulase test. Best results were obtained with the 24-h tube coagulase test, which yielded one false-negative and no false-positive tests. Agglutination identifications may be performed on organisms taken directly from a primary plate when sufficient growth is present. Kit agglutination procedures yield rapid and reliable identifications and are easy to perform. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of the 24-h tube coagulase test.

  7. Development of a latex agglutination test with recombinant variant surface glycoprotein for serodiagnosis of surra.

    PubMed

    Rogé, S; Baelmans, R; Claes, F; Lejon, V; Guisez, Y; Jacquet, D; Büscher, P

    2014-10-15

    Serodiagnosis of surra is commonly performed with the CATT/Trypanosoma evansi direct agglutination test. This antibody detection test is based on lyophilised bloodstream form trypanosomes propagated in rats and presenting the predominant variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) RoTat 1.2 on their surface. Recently, the N-terminal fragment of VSG RoTat 1.2 has been expressed as a recombinant protein in the yeast Pichia pastoris and showed diagnostic potential in ELISA. This recombinant antigen has now been incorporated in a latex agglutination test, the rLATEX/T. evansi. In this study, we compared the diagnostic accuracy of rLATEX/T. evansi and CATT/T. evansi with immune trypanolysis (TL) as reference test on a total of 1717 sera from camels, horses, bovines, water buffaloes, dogs and sheep. The rLATEX/T. evansi displayed a slightly better agreement with TL than CATT/T. evansi (kappa [κ] respectively 0.84 and 0.72). The sensitivities of rLATEX/T. evansi (84.2%, 95% CI 80.8-87.1) and CATT/T. evansi (84.0%, 95% CI 80.6-87.0) were similar, but rLATEX/T. evansi was significantly more specific (97.7%, 95% CI 96.7-98.4) than CATT/T. evansi (89.4%; 95% CI 87.6-91.1). We consider the rLATEX/T. evansi an alternative for the CATT/T. evansi, with the advantage that the use of a purified recombinant antigen leads to a more standardised diagnostic test with an improved specificity. Moreover, it eliminates the use of laboratory animals and can be easily scaled-up, e.g. in biofermentors.

  8. Agglutination of Histoplasma capsulatum by IgG monoclonal antibodies against Hsp60 impacts macrophage effector functions.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Allan Jefferson; Frases, Susana; Pontes, Bruno; de Cerqueira, Mariana Duarte; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Viana, Nathan Bessa; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Nosanchuk, Joshua Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum can efficiently survive within macrophages, facilitating H. capsulatum translocation from the lung into the lymphatics and bloodstream. We have recently generated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to an H. capsulatum surface-expressed heat shock protein of 60 kDa (Hsp60) that modify disease in a murine histoplasmosis model. Interestingly, the MAbs induced different degrees of yeast cell agglutination in vitro. In the present study, we characterized the agglutination effects of the antibodies to Hsp60 on H. capsulatum yeast cells by light microscopy, flow cytometry, dynamic light scattering, measuring zeta potential, and using optical tweezers. We found that immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) to Hsp60 cause H. capsulatum aggregation dependent on the (i) concentration of MAbs, (ii) MAb binding constant, and (iii) IgG subclass. Furthermore, infection of macrophages using agglutinates of various sizes after incubation with different Hsp60-binding MAbs induced association to macrophages through distinct cellular receptors and differentially affected macrophage antifungal functions. Hence, the capacity of IgG MAbs to agglutinate H. capsulatum significantly impacted pathogenic mechanisms of H. capsulatum during macrophage infection, and the effect was dependent on the antibody subclass and antigen epitope.

  9. Agglutination of Histoplasma capsulatum by IgG Monoclonal Antibodies against Hsp60 Impacts Macrophage Effector Functions▿

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Allan Jefferson; Frases, Susana; Pontes, Bruno; de Cerqueira, Mariana Duarte; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Viana, Nathan Bessa; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Nosanchuk, Joshua Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum can efficiently survive within macrophages, facilitating H. capsulatum translocation from the lung into the lymphatics and bloodstream. We have recently generated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to an H. capsulatum surface-expressed heat shock protein of 60 kDa (Hsp60) that modify disease in a murine histoplasmosis model. Interestingly, the MAbs induced different degrees of yeast cell agglutination in vitro. In the present study, we characterized the agglutination effects of the antibodies to Hsp60 on H. capsulatum yeast cells by light microscopy, flow cytometry, dynamic light scattering, measuring zeta potential, and using optical tweezers. We found that immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) to Hsp60 cause H. capsulatum aggregation dependent on the (i) concentration of MAbs, (ii) MAb binding constant, and (iii) IgG subclass. Furthermore, infection of macrophages using agglutinates of various sizes after incubation with different Hsp60-binding MAbs induced association to macrophages through distinct cellular receptors and differentially affected macrophage antifungal functions. Hence, the capacity of IgG MAbs to agglutinate H. capsulatum significantly impacted pathogenic mechanisms of H. capsulatum during macrophage infection, and the effect was dependent on the antibody subclass and antigen epitope. PMID:21134968

  10. Comparison of two agglutination tests for differentiation between coagulase positive and coagulase negative staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Flesland, O

    1987-02-01

    Two agglutination tests, Monostaph (Bionor A/S, N-3700 Skien, Norway) and Staphaurex (Wellcome), for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus have been evaluated. Using the coagulase test as reference method both tests were equally reliable and in complete aggrement with the coagulase tube test when tested on 216 strains of Micrococcaceae.

  11. Prozone effects in microscopic agglutination tests for leptospirosis in the sera of mice infected with the pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola

    PubMed Central

    Shimabukuro, Fabio Hiroto; da Costa, Veruska Maia; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Langoni, Hélio; da Silva, Aristeu Vieira; de Carvalho, Lídia Raquel; Domingues, Paulo Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Mice experimentally infected with a pathogenic strain of Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola produced false negative results (prozone effect) in a microscopic agglutination test (MAT). This prozone effect occurred in several serum samples collected at different post-infection times, but it was more prominent in samples collected from seven-42 days post-infection and for 1:50 and 1:100 sample dilutions. This phenomenon was correlated with increased antibody titres in the early post-infection phase. While prozone effects are often observed in serological agglutination assays for the diagnosis of animal brucellosis and human syphilis, they are not widely reported in leptospirosis MATs. PMID:23903987

  12. Recombinant outer membrane protein C of Aeromonas hydrophila elicits mixed immune response and generates agglutinating antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sunita Kumari; Meena, Jitendra Kumar; Sharma, Mahima; Dixit, Aparna

    2016-08-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative fish pathogenic bacterium, also responsible for causing opportunistic pathological conditions in humans. It causes a number of diseases in fish due to which the fish industry incurs huge economic losses annually. Due to problems of antibiotic resistance, and the rapidity with which the infection spreads among fishes, vaccination remains the most effective strategy to combat this infection in fish populations. Among various virulence factors associated with bacterial virulence, outer membrane proteins have been widely evaluated for their vaccine potential owing to their surface exposure and related role in pathogenicity. In the present study, we have investigated the immunogenic potential of a non-specific porin, outer membrane protein C (OmpC) whose expression is regulated by the two-component regulatory system and plays a major role in the survival of A. hydrophila under different osmolaric conditions. The full-length gene (~1 kb) encoding OmpC of A. hydrophila was cloned, characterized and expressed in E. coli. High yield (~112 mg/L at shake flask level) of the recombinant OmpC (rOmpC) (~40 kDa) of A. hydrophila was obtained upon purification from inclusion bodies using Ni(2+)-NTA affinity chromatography. Immunization with purified rOmpC in murine model generated high endpoint (>1:40,000) titers. IgG isotyping, ELISA and ELISPOT assay indicated mixed immune response with a TH2 bias. Also, the anti-rOmpC antibodies were able to agglutinate A. hydrophila in vitro and exhibited specific cross-reactivity with different Aeromonas strains, which will facilitate easy detection of different Aeromonas isolates in infected samples. Taken together, these data clearly indicate that rOmpC could serve as an effective vaccine against different strains of Aeromonas, a highly heterogenous group of bacteria. PMID:27328672

  13. Detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) Antibodies in Serum Using A Polystyrene Bead/SE Flagella Agglutination Assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serologic screening of flocks can be an important method to detect Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infections but can be labor intensive or lack specificity. Our goal was to develop a rapid agglutination assay using SE flagella adsorbed to polystyrene beads as a simple, relatively specific test to dete...

  14. Cross-reactivity in Cryptococcus antigen latex agglutination test in two commercial kits.

    PubMed

    Tone, Kazuya; Umeda, Yoshiko; Makimura, Koichi

    2016-05-01

    This article presents an examination of the cross-reactivity of pathogenic fungi with Cryptococcus neoformans in two commercial Cryptococcus antigen latex agglutination tests performed across 39 fungal strains. Some fungi were newly indicated as Cryptococcus cross-reactive, and the two kits showed differences in cross-reactive fungi. PMID:26922300

  15. A microtitration agglutination test for detecting group E streptococcus infection in swine.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, C H; Wood, R L; Wessman, G E

    1982-04-01

    A microtitration agglutination test was developed and evaluated for detecting infection of swine with group E streptococci type IV, the most common causative agent of streptococcic lymphadenitis of swine. Whole cell agglutinogens representing group and type antigens of group E streptococci were tested in the microtitration agglutination test against reference antisera to Streptococcus groups A, B, C, D, E, F, G. H, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S and U, as well as specific antisera to types II, IV and V of group E. Group E specific agglutinogens were unsatisfactory in the microtitration agglutination test because of cross reactions with group P and U antisera and because of poor reproducibility of the test. Type specific agglutinogens of group E streptococci reacted only with their respective homologous antisera and not with any heterologous group antisera. None of the group E streptococci agglutinogens reacted with 52 normal swine sera. Agglutinogen made from group E streptococci type IV was selected for further evaluation in the microtitration agglutination test because group E streptococci types II and V are considered to be of minor importance in the etiology of streptococcic lymphadenitis of swine. Swine experimentally infected with a type IV strain developed significant titers in the microtitration agglutination test. All swine tested negative before exposure and seroconverted (titer >/=4) two to six weeks postexposure.The microtitration agglutination test was used by two different laboratories to test 187 duplicate samples of serum from infected swine. A total of 94.1% of the tests were read at either the same titer (48.1%) or a difference of not more than one dilution (46.0%) at the two laboratories. There was disagreement between the two laboratories in the test-positive test-negative status of 19 of the sera (10.2%). Titers of two of the sera differed by two dilutions (<4 at one laboratory and 8 at the other). The remaining 17 sera differed in titer by only one

  16. Widal agglutination test − 100 years later: still plagued by controversy

    PubMed Central

    Olopoenia, L.; King, A.

    2000-01-01

    We review the significance of the Widal agglutination test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Over 100 years since its introduction as a serologic means of detecting the presence of typhoid fever, the Widal test continues to be plagued with controversies involving the quality of the antigens used and interpretation of the result, particularly in endemic areas. Areas of concern with clinical and laboratory significance discussed in this review include: the techniques of test performance, interpretation of results, limitation of the value of the test results in endemic typhoid areas, the quality of the antigens used, and alternative diagnostic tests.


Keywords: Widal agglutination test; typhoid fever PMID:10644383

  17. Minimization of bacterial size allows for complement evasion and is overcome by the agglutinating effect of antibody

    PubMed Central

    Dalia, Ankur B.; Weiser, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The complement system, which functions by lysing pathogens directly or by promoting their uptake by phagocytes, is critical for controlling many microbial infections. Here we show that in Streptococcus pneumoniae, increasing bacterial chain length sensitizes this pathogen to complement deposition and subsequent uptake by human neutrophils. Consistent with this, we show that minimizing chain length provides wild-type bacteria with a competitive advantage in vivo in a model of systemic infection. Investigating how the host overcomes this virulence strategy, we find that antibody promotes complement-dependent opsonophagocytic killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae and lysis of Haemophilus influenzae independent of Fc-mediated effector functions. Consistent with the agglutinating effect of antibody, F(ab′)2 but not Fab could promote this effect. Therefore, increasing pathogen size, whether by natural changes in cellular morphology or via antibody-mediated agglutination, promotes complement-dependent killing. These observations have broad implications for how cell size and morphology can affect virulence among pathogenic microbes. PMID:22100164

  18. Evaluation of latex agglutination and microtube coagulase tests for detection of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Pourshadi, M; Klaas, J

    1984-09-01

    In a blind study, a latex agglutination test (Serostat Staphylococcus, Scott Laboratories) and a microtube coagulase test (Staphase, API) were evaluated for their ability to detect Staphylococcus aureus. Of 289 isolates of catalase-positive, gram-positive cocci, 122 were identified as S. aureus based on positive reactions in at least three of the following tests: tube coagulase, slide coagulase, DNase production, or anaerobic fermentation of mannitol. The latex agglutination test gave positive reactions for all S. aureus isolates and 10 (6%) non-S. aureus isolates. The slide coagulase test was positive for 121 S. aureus isolates and three (2%) non-S. aureus isolates. The microtube coagulase test detected 53, 90, and 98% of the S. aureus isolates after 2, 4, and 24 hr, respectively. In contrast, the conventional tube coagulase test detected 97% of the S. aureus isolates after 2 hr, and 98% after 4 and 24 hr. Two isolates of S. aureus gave negative tube coagulase reactions at 37 degrees C, but positive reactions at room temperature after 24 hr. The combination of tube and slide coagulase tests provided the most reliable results. The slide and tube coagulase tests gave more reliable results than the latex agglutination and microtube coagulase tests, respectively.

  19. A rapid slide agglutination test for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in the rural health set up

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Rakhi; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Background: Simple and rapid latex-based diagnostic tests have been used for detecting specific antigens or antibodies in several diseases. Aims: The aim of the present study was to standardize and evaluate the latex agglutination test (LAT) for the detection of Taenia solium metacestode antigen in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC). Settings and Design: The study was conducted at Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Post graduate medical education and research after obtaining informed consent from the study subjects. Materials and Methods: In the present study, CSF and serum samples were collected from clinically suspected NCC, CT/MRI proven cases of NCC, non-cysticercal central nervous system infection control and from healthy control subjects. CSF was not collected from healthy controls. Polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against porcine T. solium metacestode complete homogenate antigen, was used in the LAT to detect the antigen in the specimens. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was carried out using Epi Info. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the LAT were calculated. Results: The LAT exhibited sensitivity of 64.7% and specificity of 85.7% with CSF samples and sensitivity of 52.08% and specificity of 96% with serum samples. Conclusions: Results of the present study shows that the LAT can be employed as a moderately sensitive and specific test for the detection of T. solium metacestode antigen in the CSF and serum specimens for the diagnosis of NCC in poorly equipped laboratories. PMID:23508849

  20. Antibody Blood Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... discovered that people with celiac disease who eat gluten have higher than normal levels of certain antibodies ... rye and barley that are generically known as “gluten.” Antibody Testing: Only A First Step To help ...

  1. Comparison of immunofluorescence, particle agglutination, and enzyme immunoassays for detection of human T-cell leukemia virus type I antibody in African sera.

    PubMed

    Verdier, M; Denis, F; Leonard, G; Sangare, A; Patillaud, S; Prince-David, M; Essex, M

    1990-09-01

    The effectiveness of four screening tests for detecting antibody to human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) was determined by using 2,700 African serum specimens. The tests studied were indirect immunofluorescence, particle agglutination from Fujirebio, and two enzyme immunoassays, one from Abbott Laboratories that used virus lysate from HUT 102 cells and the other from Cambridge BioScience Corp. that used an env recombinant protein. Positive and doubtful sera were confirmed by Western immunoblot and radioimmunoprecipitation assay with Food and Drug Administration seropositivity criteria. The best results were obtained with the two enzyme immunoassays, which were more sensitive (100 and 98.6% [Abbott and Cambridge, respectively]) and more specific (98.7 and 96.5%). Indirect immunofluorescence exhibited difficulties for reading and interpretation. With particle agglutination, prozone was observed for 9 of 78 HTLV-I-positive serum specimens. False-positives in any of the tests were not linked to cross-reactions with human immunodeficiency viruses. However, confirmation tests remain necessary for HTLV-I screening.

  2. Comparison of genomic and antimicrobial resistance features of latex agglutination test-positive and latex agglutination test-negative Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Moser, A; Stephan, R; Corti, S; Johler, S

    2013-01-01

    The dairy industry suffers massive economic losses due to staphylococcal mastitis in cattle. The Staphaureux latex agglutination test (Oxoid, Basel, Switzerland) was reported to lead to negative results in 54% of bovine Staphylococcus aureus strains, and latex-negative strains are thought to be less virulent than Staphaurex latex-positive strains. However, comparative information on virulence and resistance profiles of these 2 groups of Staph. aureus is scarce. Our objective was to associate the latex agglutination phenotype of Staph. aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis milk with data on clonal complexes, virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance to (1) determine the virulence profiles of the Staphaureux test positive and Staphaurex test negative groups, and (2) provide data needed to improve treatment of bovine mastitis and to identify potential vaccine targets. Seventy-eight Staph. aureus strains isolated from 78 cows on 57 Swiss farms were characterized. Latex agglutination was tested by Staphaureux kit, and resistance profiles were generated by disk diffusion. A DNA microarray was used to assign clonal complexes (CC) and to determine virulence and resistance gene profiles. By the Staphaureux test, 49% of the isolates were latex-positive and 51% were latex-negative. All latex-negative strains were assigned to CC151, whereas latex-positive strains were assigned to various clonal complexes, including CC97 (n=16), CC8 (n=10), CC479 (n=5), CC20 (n=4), CC7 (n=1), CC9 (n=1), and CC45 (n=1). Although the latex-negative isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested, 24% of latex-positive isolates were classified as intermediate with regard to cefalexin-kanamycin and 13% were resistant to both ampicillin and penicillin. Microarray profiles of latex-negative isolates were highly similar, but differed largely from those of latex-positive isolates. Although the latex-negative group lacked several enterotoxin genes and sak, it exhibited significantly

  3. Evaluation of Polysaccharide-Based Latex Agglutination Assays for the Rapid Detection of Antibodies to Burkholderia pseudomallei

    PubMed Central

    Suttisunhakul, Vichaya; Chantratita, Narisara; Wikraiphat, Chanthiwa; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Douglas, Zakiya; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Brett, Paul J.; Burtnick, Mary N.

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is a severe disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Diagnosis of melioidosis currently relies on the isolation of B. pseudomallei from clinical samples, which can take several days. An indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) is widely used for serodiagnosis, but it has a short shelf life, is poorly standardized, and requires a viable bacteria culture performed in a biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratory. To improve the diagnostic methods, we have developed two rapid latex agglutination tests based on purified B. pseudomallei O-polysaccharide (OPS) and capsular polysaccharide (CPS) antigens. The immunodiagnostic potential of these tests was evaluated using serum from culture-confirmed melioidosis patients (N = 143) and healthy donors from either endemic (N = 199) or non-endemic areas (N = 90). The sensitivity of the OPS-based latex agglutination assay (OPS-latex; 84.4%) was significantly higher than both the CPS-latex (69.5%) (P < 0.001) and IHA (69.5%) (P = 0.001). When evaluated with Thai donor serum, the OPS-latex had comparable specificity (56.9%) to the CPS-latex (63.8%) (P = 0.053), but was significantly lower than the IHA (67.6%) (P = 0.002). In contrast, all tests with U.S. donor serum were highly specific (≥ 97.8%). These results suggest that polysaccharide-based latex agglutination assays may be useful for serodiagnosis of melioidosis in non-endemic areas. PMID:26123956

  4. Particle agglutination test "Serodia HIV-1/2" as a novel anti-HIV-1/2 screening test: comparative study on 3311 serum samples.

    PubMed

    Poljak, M; Zener, N; Seme, K; Kristancic, L

    1997-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassays are most widely used screening tests for antibodies to human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). Nevertheless, the need of simpler, noninstrumented tests is evident in many parts of the world, where laboratory facilities and trained personnel are limited, and HIV incidence is high. A recently developed variant of gelatin-particle agglutination tests, Serodia HIV-1/2 (Fujirebio Inc., Tokyo, Japan), is one of such simple and noninstrumented tests. To evaluate its utility, 3311 serum samples (281 anti-HIV-1 positive, 8 anti-HIV-2 positive and 3022 anti-HIV-1/2 negative) obtained from 2632 individuals from Slovenia, other parts of former Yugoslavia and Senegal were investigated. No false-negative results and only one false-positive result were obtained during the procedures, giving overall sensitivity and specificity of the particle agglutination test of 100% and 99.97%, respectively. We have concluded that Serodia HIV-1/2 test is highly specific and sensitive for detection of anti-HIV-1/2 antibodies, suitable for small blood banks and for epidemiological surveys.

  5. Microscopic agglutination test on captive rattlesnakes : Data on serovars and titers

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, T.C.S.; Santos, A.L.Q.; Lima, A.M.C.; Gomes, D.O.; Cardoso, G.F.; Brites, V.L.C.

    2016-01-01

    The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is considered the “golden standard” leptospirosis serodiagnostic test, but there is little information about it as it pertains to snakes. To fill this information gap, we provide data on serovars and titers of fifty-six Crotalus durissus collilineatus sera samples that tested positive by MAT (10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.02.006 (Rodrigues et al., 2016) [5]). These data are presented in a table, along with a description of the methodology used for sample collection and serologic testing. PMID:27077089

  6. Immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, particle agglutination and western blot for the detection of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Auwanit, W; Ayuthaya, P I; Balachandra, K; Jayavasu, C; Phanthumachinda, B; Ikuta, K; Yamanishi, K; Kanai, K

    1990-03-01

    Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) has been applied for detection of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). To compare the IFA with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and particle agglutination (PA), we examined the antibody response to HIV-1 in 475 sera from AIDS, PGL and ARC patients as well as several risk groups and healthy persons by three methods. The positive results by any methods were confirmed by western blot (WB). The results by all methods were well correlated on the sera from 45 asymptomatic male homosexuals and 70 female prostitutes. There were some false positive results by ELISA in the sera from prisoners and healthy persons. Four sera from drug abusers were positive only by PA and IFA and were negative by ELISA. All were WB-inconclusive. Particle agglutination and IFA results were compared with western blot analysis on 208 ELISA-positive sera. All IFA-strongly positive sera (84%) were positive by western blot. The sera with weakly positive, negative and inconclusive results by IFA (16%) were possibly any of positive, inconclusive or negative by western blot. By PA, 200 of 208 (97%) sera were PA-positive and 1% of these sera were WB-inconclusive while the PA-negative sera were either negative or inconclusive by western blot. These results suggested that PA is a simple and sensitive method for screening of HIV-1 antibody while IFA could be a primary confirmatory test and western blot would then be used for confirming any IFA-negative or inconclusive results.

  7. Rapid Detection of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia Using a Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae Capsular Polysaccharide-Specific Antigen Detection Latex Agglutination Test

    PubMed Central

    March, J. B.; Gammack, C.; Nicholas, R.

    2000-01-01

    Latex microspheres (diameter, 8 μm) were coated with anti-Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) antiserum (anti-F38 biotype). The coated microspheres, when used in a latex agglutination test (LAT), detected M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae antigen in the serum of goats with contagious caprine pleuropneumoniae (CCPP). Beads also agglutinated strongly in the presence of purified M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Preabsorption of CPS-specific antibodies prior to coating of the beads removed agglutinating activity in the presence of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, strongly suggesting that CPS is the likely soluble antigen recognized by the test. In addition, the specificity of the LAT exactly mirrored that of an M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (WM25): of the 8 other mycoplasma species tested, agglutination was observed only with bovine serogroup 7. The LAT detected all 11 strains of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae examined in this study, with a sensitivity level of 2 ng of CPS, or the equivalent of 1.7 × 104 CFU, in a reaction volume of 0.03 ml of serum. With field sera from goats with CCPP, the results of the LAT exhibited a 67% correlation with the results of the currently used complement fixation test (CFT), with the main discrepancy in diagnosis resulting from the increased sensitivity of the LAT compared to that of CFT. This antigen-detection LAT should prove particularly useful in identifying animals in the earliest stages of CCPP and combines sensitivity and low cost with ease of application in the field, without the need for any specialist training or equipment. PMID:11060083

  8. Anti-insulin antibody test

    MedlinePlus

    Insulin antibodies - serum; Insulin Ab test; Insulin resistance - insulin antibodies; Diabetes - insulin antibodies ... Normally, there are no antibodies against insulin in your blood. ... different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or ...

  9. Serological diagnosis of brucellosis in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis): comparison among complement fixation, serum agglutination and rose bengal plate test.

    PubMed

    Mathias, L A; Pinto, A A

    1983-12-01

    The results of a comparative study among complement fixation (CFT), plate agglutination (PAT), tube agglutination (TAT) and Rose Bengal plate tests ( RBPT ) to the serodiagnosis of brucellosis in Indian buffaloes are reported. Sera from 212 buffaloes unvaccinated against brucellosis were examined and the CFT was able to reveal significant titres in sera with low agglutinating titres. From 109 sera which did not show agglutination titres in the PAT, four showed complement fixing titre greater than 1 in 200. All the positive sera to the RBPT gave complement fixing titre equal to or greater than 1 in 20. In sera that showed negative result to the RBPT the CFT was able to reveal relatively high titres. From 131 sera negative to the RBPT five showed complement fixing titres greater than 1 in 60.

  10. HIV Antibody Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... despite the fact that the person is infected ( false negative ). If an HIV antibody test is negative ... infection (around 28 days) and may give a false-negative result. ^ Back to top Is there anything ...

  11. Interaction forces between red cells agglutinated by antibody. II. Measurement of hydrodynamic force of breakup.

    PubMed Central

    Tha, S P; Shuster, J; Goldsmith, H L

    1986-01-01

    The expressions derived in the previous paper for the respective normal, F3, and shear forces, Fshear, acting along and perpendicular to the axis of a doublet of rigid spheres, were used to determine the hydrodynamic forces required to separate two red cell spheres of antigenic type B crosslinked by the corresponding antibody. Cells were sphered and swollen in isotonic buffered glycerol containing 8 X 10(-5) M sodium dodecyl sulfate, fixed in 0.085% glutaraldehyde, and suspended in aqueous glycerol (viscosity: 15-34 mPa s), containing 0.15 M NaCl and anti-B antibody from human hyperimmune antiserum at concentrations from 0.73 to 3.56 vol%. After incubating and mixing for 12 h, doublets were observed through a microscope flowing in a 178-micron tube by gravity feed between two reservoirs. Using a traveling microtube apparatus, the doublets were tracked in a constantly accelerating flow and the translational and rotational motions were recorded on videotape until breakup occurred. From a frame by frame replay of the tape, the radial position, velocity and orientation of the doublet were obtained and the normal and shear forces of separation at breakup computed. Both forces increased significantly with increasing antiserum concentration, the mean values of F3 increasing from 0.060 to 0.197 nN, and Fshear from 0.023 to 0.072 nN. There was no significant effect of glycerol viscosity on the forces of separation. It was not possible to determine whether the shear or normal force was responsible for doublet separation. Measurements of the mean dimensionless period of rotation, TG, of doublets in suspensions containing 0.73 and 2.40% antiserum undergoing steady flow were also made to test whether the spheres were rigidly linked or capable of some independent rotation. A fairly narrow distribution in TG about the value 15.64, predicted for rigidly-linked doublets, was obtained at both antiserum concentrations. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:3801572

  12. Agglutinated tests in post-Sturtian cap carbonates of Namibia and Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosak, T.; Lahr, D. J. G.; Pruss, S. B.; Macdonald, F. A.; Dalton, L.; Matys, E.

    2011-08-01

    Paleomagnetic data suggest that the early Cryogenian (Sturtian) glaciation extended to sea level at low latitude. The impact of this dramatic environmental change on biota, and the composition of ecosystems in the immediate aftermath of the Sturtian glaciation remain virtually unknown. Here we report the discovery of abundant agglutinated tests in organic-rich carbonates directly overlying Sturtian glacial deposits from two different paleocontinents: the Rasthof Formation of the Congo craton in northern Namibia and the Tsagaan Oloom Formation of the Dzabkhan terrane in Mongolia. The most abundant tests preserve morphological and compositional characters consistent with those found in at least two different families of modern lobose testate amoebae (Amoebozoa), a group of heterotrophic microbial eukaryotes. The presence of spatially and compositionally variable clay minerals, quartz and microcline on the test walls is a signature of widespread biological agglutination. The post-glacial fossil assemblages differ from the most common pre-Sturtian vase-shaped fossil testate amoebae, perhaps as a result of different preservational mechanisms or of the appearance of new forms after the glaciation. The apparent local abundance of eukaryotic body fossils in the post-Sturtian carbonates suggests that the Cryogenian limestones and dolostones may host a currently unexplored fossil record of modern eukaryotes.

  13. Reverse-Transcriptase PCR Detection of Leptospira: Absence of Agreement with Single-Specimen Microscopic Agglutination Testing

    PubMed Central

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Balassiano, Ilana; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Vital-Brazil, Juliana Magalhães; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Reference diagnostic tests for leptospirosis include nucleic acid amplification tests, bacterial culture, and microscopic agglutination testing (MAT) of acute and convalescent serum. However, clinical laboratories often do not receive paired specimens. In the current study, we tested serum samples using a highly sensitive real-time nucleic acid amplification test for Leptospira and compared results to MAT performed on the same specimens. Methods/Principal Findings 478 serum samples from suspected leptospirosis cases in Rio de Janeiro were tested using a real-time RT-PCR for the diagnosis of leptospirosis, malaria and dengue (the Lepto-MD assay). The Lepto-MD assay detects all species of Leptospira (saprophytic, intermediate, and pathogenic), and in the current study, we demonstrate that this assay amplifies both Leptospira RNA and DNA. Dengue virus RNA was identified in 10 patients, and no cases of malaria were detected. A total of 65 samples (13.6%) were positive for Leptospira: 35 samples (7.3%) in the Lepto-MD assay, 33 samples (6.9%) by MAT, and 3 samples tested positive by both (kappa statistic 0.02). Poor agreement between methods was consistent regardless of the titer used to define positive MAT results or the day of disease at sample collection. Leptospira nucleic acids were detected in the Lepto-MD assay as late as day 22, and cycle threshold values did not differ based on the day of disease. When Lepto-MD assay results were added to the MAT results for all patients in 2008 (n=818), the number of detected leptospirosis cases increased by 30.4%, from 102 (12.5%) to 133 (16.3%). Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates a lack of agreement between nucleic acid detection of Leptospira and single-specimen MAT, which may result from the clearance of bacteremia coinciding with the appearance of agglutinating antibodies. A combined testing strategy for acute leptospirosis, including molecular and serologic testing, appears necessary to maximize

  14. Evaluation of the card agglutination test (CATT/T. evansi) for detection of Trypanosoma evansi infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hilali, M; Abdel-Gawad, A; Nassar, A; Abdel-Wahab, A; Magnus, E; Büscher, P

    2004-05-01

    A card agglutination test (CATT/T. evansi) was evaluated for detection of antibodies against Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) in experimentally and naturally infected buffaloes. Four calves were inoculated with a strain of T. evansi isolated from a dromedary camel. Parasitological examination of the calves revealed trypanosomes in the blood from days 4 to 9 post-inoculation (PI). General emaciation appeared from day 26 PI and aggravated until the end of the experiment (day 88 PI). Antibodies against T. evansi were detectable from day 8 PI till the end of the experiment. Parasitological examination of 200 water buffalo blood samples obtained from slaughterhouses revealed negative results. Serological examination of these animals showed that 48 (24%) water buffaloes had anti-T. evansi antibodies. PMID:15110402

  15. Evaluation of the card agglutination test (CATT/T. evansi) for detection of Trypanosoma evansi infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hilali, M; Abdel-Gawad, A; Nassar, A; Abdel-Wahab, A; Magnus, E; Büscher, P

    2004-05-01

    A card agglutination test (CATT/T. evansi) was evaluated for detection of antibodies against Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) in experimentally and naturally infected buffaloes. Four calves were inoculated with a strain of T. evansi isolated from a dromedary camel. Parasitological examination of the calves revealed trypanosomes in the blood from days 4 to 9 post-inoculation (PI). General emaciation appeared from day 26 PI and aggravated until the end of the experiment (day 88 PI). Antibodies against T. evansi were detectable from day 8 PI till the end of the experiment. Parasitological examination of 200 water buffalo blood samples obtained from slaughterhouses revealed negative results. Serological examination of these animals showed that 48 (24%) water buffaloes had anti-T. evansi antibodies.

  16. Comparative evaluation of Rose Bengal plate agglutination test, mallein test, and some conventional serological tests for diagnosis of equine glanders.

    PubMed

    Naureen, Abeera; Saqib, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulan; Hussain, Muhammad H; Asi, Muhammad N

    2007-07-01

    The Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBT) was evaluated for the diagnosis of equine glanders, and its diagnostic efficiency was compared with that of mallein and other serological tests, including indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), complement fixation test (CFT), and modified counter immunoelectrophoresis test (mCIET). Sera from 70 naturally infected culture-positive, 96 potentially exposed cohorts, and 110 healthy equines were tested. All tests but mCIET showed 100% specificity when testing the sera from glanders-negative equines. The calculated sensitivities of RBT, IHAT, CFT, mCIET, and mallein test when testing culture-positive equines were 90.0, 97.1, 91.4, 81.4, and 75.7%, respectively. The RBT was significantly (P < 0.05) more sensitive than the mallein test and mCIET. The positive and negative predictive values of each test (RBT, IHAT, CFT, mallein test, and mCIET) were as follows: 100 and 94, 100 and 98.2, 100 and 96.7, 100 and 86.6, and 90.5 and 88.6, respectively. On comparing glandered and nonglandered animals, the highest agreement (0.987) was found between RBT and CFT followed by RBT and IHAT (0.940), RBT and mallein test (0.871), and RBT and mCIET (0.852). Because the RBT is simpler and rapid to perform, the inclusion of the test as a supplementary test for the diagnosis of glanders in field conditions is recommended.

  17. Evaluation of six agglutination tests for Staphylococcus aureus identification depending upon local prevalence of meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA).

    PubMed

    Weist, Klaus; Cimbal, Ann-Katrin; Lecke, Christoph; Kampf, Günter; Rüden, Henning; Vonberg, Ralf-Peter

    2006-03-01

    Most routine laboratory detection of Staphylococcus aureus isolates is based on rapid agglutination test systems. Failure of agglutination assays to identify meticillin-resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) has been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate six commercially available agglutination tests for the detection of meticillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and mecA-positive MRSA strains. The Dry Spot Staphytect Plus test (Oxoid), the Pastorex Staph Plus test (Bio-Rad), the Slidex Staph-Kit and Slidex Staph Plus test (bioMérieux), the Staphaurex Plus test (Remel) and the Staphylase Test (Oxoid) were used. As determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, 52 distinct MRSA strains from five countries, 83 MSSA strains and 150 coagulase-negative staphylococci were included. Species identification and determination of susceptibility patterns were performed using colony morphology, Gram stain, catalase testing, tube coagulase testing, DNase testing, mannitol fermentation, susceptibility testing towards oxacillin by Etest, coagulase gene PCR, fibrinogen receptor gene PCR and PCR of the mecA gene. Sensitivity of the agglutination tests ranged from 82.7 to 100.0 % for MRSA strains and 92.8 to 100.0 % for MSSA strains, respectively. Specificity of the test systems ranged from 91.3 to 99.1 %. None of the six agglutination assays produced correct reactions for all staphylococci tested. Only the Dry Spot Staphytect Plus test correctly identified all 52 MRSA strains. For the other tests kits, sensitivity of MRSA detection was lower than for MSSA isolates. Depending upon the local MRSA prevalence and the parameter of interest (sensitivity or specificity), these test systems may be useful for routine diagnostic purposes.

  18. Evaluation of a latex agglutination test (PYLOGEN) for the detection of Helicobacter pylori in stool specimens.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Silvia; Forné, Montse; Lacoma, Alicia; Prat, Cristina; Cuesta, Miguel Angel; Fuenzalida, Loreto; Viver, Josep Maria; Domínguez, Jose

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess a new latex agglutination (LA) stool antigen assay (PYLOGEN; CerTest Biotec, Zaragoza, Spain) in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and to monitor its eradication after treatment. The LA test has been approved for sale in Europe, and its approval from the US Food and Drug Administration is still pending. The individuals enrolled were classified into 3 groups of patients: Group 1 consisted of 38 patients who are H. pylori positive. The diagnosis of H. pylori infection was established if there was concordance between 2 test results (urea breath test [UBT], rapid urease test, and histopathologic study) or if the culture alone was positive. Patients with only 1 positive test were considered indeterminate and were excluded from the study. Group 2 comprised 9 patients without positive tests and who were considered to be H. pylori negative. Group 3 consisted of 57 patients who received eradication treatment. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 78.9% and 100%, respectively. The results of the UBT of the patients were studied 6 weeks after eradication therapy. The sensitivity and specificity of the LA test relative to UBT for patients after treatment were 75% and 93.3%, respectively.

  19. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sheila M; Richardson, Dennis J; Lindsay, David S

    2006-06-01

    The prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was examined in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from 8 cities in Connecticut. Ten (42%) of the 24 striped skunks, 2 of 7 (29%) opossums, and 12 of 12 (100%) raccoons were positive at dilutions of 1:50 or greater. These results suggest that T. gondii is prevalent in the environment, or prey items, or both, of these omnivores in Connecticut.

  20. Antiparietal cell antibody test

    MedlinePlus

    APCA; Anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Atrophic gastritis - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Gastric ulcer - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Pernicious anemia - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Vitamin B12 - anti- ...

  1. Comparison of sensitivities and specificities of latex agglutination and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus in African sera.

    PubMed

    Francis, H L; Kabeya, M; Kafuama, N; Riggins, C; Colebunders, R; Ryder, R; Curran, J; Izaley, L; Quinn, T C

    1988-11-01

    The sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values of the Cambridge BioScience Corp. (Worcester, Mass.) human immunodeficiency virus latex agglutination assay were compared by using three different blood preparations. By using the manufacturer's standard test method with diluted sera, the sensitivity of latex agglutination was 100%, the specificity was 99.58%, and the positive and negative predictive values were 99.26 and 100%, respectively. Use of diluted whole blood or undiluted whole blood did not significantly affect the sensitivity (mean, 99.72%), specificity (mean, 99.47%), positive predictive value (mean, 99.07%), or negative predictive value (mean, 99.89%). The latex agglutination assay is a simple, rapid assay for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus that would be useful in Third World countries or other areas where enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are not available or cannot be used.

  2. Evaluation of four commercial IgG- and IgM-specific enzyme immunoassays for detecting Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibody: comparison with particle agglutination assay.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Soo Jin; Oh, Hye-Jeon; Shin, Bo-Moon

    2007-10-01

    Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is important due to its variable clinical manifestations and absence of response to beta-lactams. Introduction of enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for serologic diagnosis of M. pneumoniae has made it possible to separate the analyses of specific IgG and IgM antibodies. We compared four different commercial EIAs, ImmunoWELL IgG, IgM (GenBio), Medac IgG, IgA, IgM (Medac), Platelia IgG, IgM (Sanofi Pasteur), and Ridascreen IgG, IgA, IgM (r-Biopharm) with indirect particle agglutination assay (PA), Serodia-MycoII (Fujirebio). We tested 91 specimens from 73 pediatric patients (2-17 yr) hospitalized at a tertiary-care hospital between December 2005 and January 2006. The measurements of IgM EIAs were correlated with PA titers (Spearman's correlation coefficient, from 0.89 to 0.92) with high concordance rates, ranging from 82.4% to 92.3%. However, some negative IgM-EIA results in PA-positive specimens indicated that serial samplings with convalescent sera would be necessary to confirm M. pneumoniae infection.

  3. Rose Bengal plate agglutination and counterimmunoelectrophoresis tests on spinal fluid in the diagnosis of Brucella meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, R; Maraví-Poma, E; Delgado, G; Rivero, A

    1978-01-01

    Rose Bengal and counterimmunoelectrophoresis, two tests that detect antibodies against different structural antigens, when carried out on spinal fluid permitted rapid diagnosis of human Brucella meningitis. The Rose Bengal test was positive in five out of five patients studied, and counterimmunoelectrophoresis was positive in all but one. The Brucella meningitis was characterized by an increase of immunoglobulin G in the cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:632350

  4. Typhoid fever in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria: Another look at the Widal agglutination test as a preferred option for diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Enabulele, Osahon; Awunor, Simeon Nyemike

    2016-01-01

    Background: Single Widal agglutination test rather than blood culture, is commonly employed to diagnose typhoid fever in Nigeria. We took another look at the Widal agglutination test as a preferred option for diagnosis of typhoid fever by determining the specificity and sensitivity of Widal agglutination test in febrile adult patients. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and seventy-one blood samples from consecutive adults (>18 years) with febrile illness attending the General Practice Clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital were tested using the Widal agglutination test, blood culture, and malaria parasite test on each sample to establish the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Results: Of the 271 blood samples 124 (45.76%) were positive following a Widal agglutination test, 60 (22.10%) blood samples grew Salmonella organisms on blood culture while 55 (20.29%) blood samples showed a co-infection of typhoid fever and malaria. A sensitivity of 35%, specificity of 51%, positive predictive value of 17%, and a negative predictive value of 73% were observed for Widal agglutination test as a diagnostic modality for typhoid fever infection. Conclusion: A single Widal agglutination test is not a valid diagnostic option for typhoid fever while co-infection with malaria parasite is the preponderant microbiological finding in typhoid fever infections. The severity of malaria parasitemia is associated with positive titers on Widal test. PMID:27397952

  5. Evaluation of an Immunocapture-Agglutination Test (Brucellacapt) for Serodiagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Orduña, Antonio; Almaraz, Ana; Prado, Ana; Gutierrez, M. Purificación; Garcia-Pascual, Agustina; Dueñas, Ana; Cuervo, Milagros; Abad, Ramon; Hernández, Beatriz; Lorenzo, Belen; Bratos, Miguel A.; Torres, Antonio Rodriguez

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the validity and the usefulness of a new test for the diagnosis of human brucellosis based on an immunocapture-agglutination technique. A total of 315 sera from 82 patients with a diagnosis of brucellosis, 157 sera from patients in whom brucellosis was suspected but not confirmed, and 412 sera from people living in rural areas with endemic brucellosis were studied. The seroagglutination test (SAT), Coombs anti-Brucella test, and Brucellacapt test were evaluated. All the initial sera from the 82 patients proved to be positive in Brucellacapt and Coombs tests, while only 75 (91.4%) were positive in the SAT. If a ≥1/160 diagnostic threshold titer was defined for the Brucellacapt test, Coombs test, and SAT, the sensitivities were 95.1, 91.5, and 65.8%, respectively. Taking the same diagnostic threshold titer for the 157 sera from the unconfirmed but suspected patients, the specificities of the Brucellacapt, Coombs, and SAT were 81.5, 96.2, and 100%, respectively; for the 412 control sera, the specificities were 99.0, 99.8, and 100%. The diagnostic efficiency (area below the receiver operating characteristic curve) of Brucellacapt was 0.987852 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95109 to 0.99286), very similar to the diagnostic efficiency of the Coombs test (0.97611; 95% CI, 0.94781 to 0.99146) and higher than that of SAT (0.91013; 95% CI, 0.86649 to 0.94317). The results of the Brucellacapt test were compared with those of the Coombs test (correlation coefficient, 0.956; P = 0.000) and SAT (correlation coefficient, 0.866; P = 0.000). The study shows very good correlation between the Brucellacapt and Coombs tests, with a high concordance between titers obtained in the two tests. Nevertheless, lower correlation and concordance were found between the Brucellacapt and Coombs tests when the results for titers of ≥1/160 were compared (0.692; P = 0.000). In acute brucellosis, the Brucellacapt and Coombs tests render positive titers of ≥1/160. When the titers

  6. Evaluation of latex agglutination tests for fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products in the forensic identification of menstrual blood.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Tomoko; Watanabe, Ken; Motani, Hisako; Iwase, Hirotaro; Sakurada, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    The identification of menstrual blood is important when discriminating menstruation from vaginal trauma in sexual assault cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate two fibrin-fibrinogen degradation product (FDP)-latex agglutination test kits, FDPL® Test (FDP-L) and FDP Plasma "RD" (FDP-P), for their ability to forensically identify menstrual blood. Sensitivity and specificity of the two kits were compared for menstrual blood and various body fluids, and the sensitivity of the FDP-latex agglutination test kit was also compared with that of an immunochromatographic test for human hemoglobin. The robustness of the FDP-latex agglutination test was compared with that of gene expression analysis of menstrual blood specific markers. The FDP-L kit was more sensitive than the FDP-P kit, but it cross-reacted with peripheral bloodstains from healthy volunteers. The FDP-P kit was specific for menstrual blood, with the exception of postmortem blood samples, and was not affected by other body fluids. In an FDP-negative menstrual blood sample, the sensitivity of human hemoglobin detection was lower than for FDP-positive samples and peripheral blood stains, suggesting that determination of human hemoglobin could be useful in interpreting negative results in the FDP-latex agglutination test. In menstrual blood samples incubated in wet conditions, FDP was found to be a robust marker in the identification of menstrual blood compared with mRNA markers. FDP-P testing was shown to be a suitable and highly efficient rapid screening test for the laboratory identification of menstrual blood.

  7. Usefulness of PCR and Antigen Latex Agglutination Test with Samples Obtained by Transthoracic Needle Aspiration for Diagnosis of Pneumococcal Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    García, Amparo; Rosón, Beatriz; Pérez, José Luis; Verdaguer, Ricard; Dorca, Jordi; Carratalà, Jordi; Casanova, Aurora; Manresa, Frederic; Gudiol, Francesc

    1999-01-01

    In a large number of cases, the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not established. Some cases are probably caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Transthoracic needle aspiration (TNA) culture has a limited sensitivity which might be improved by antigen detection or gene amplification techniques. We evaluated the capacity of a PCR assay and a latex agglutination test to detect S. pneumoniae in samples obtained by TNA from 95 patients with moderate-to-severe CAP. Latex agglutination and PCR had sensitivities of 52.2 and 91.3%, specificities of 88.7 and 83.3%, positive predictive values of 62.3 and 65.6%, and negative predictive values of 83.3 and 96.5%, respectively, when culture techniques were used as the “gold standard.” When we considered expanded criteria for the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia as a standard for our calculations, latex agglutination and PCR had sensitivities of 53.6 and 89.7%, specificities of 93.0 and 90.0%, positive predictive values of 78.9 and 81.3%, and negative predictive values of 80.3 and 94.7%, respectively. The additional diagnosis provided by the PCR assay compared to latex agglutination was 12.2% (95% confidence interval of the difference from 0.4 to 20.1%). PCR was more sensitive than TNA culture, particularly in patients who had received prior antibiotic therapy (83.3 versus 33.3%). Although PCR is a very sensitive and specific technique, it has not proved to be cost-effective in clinical practice. Conversely, latex agglutination is a fast and simple method whose results might have significant implications for initial antibiotic therapy. PMID:9986837

  8. [Evaluation of commercial usefulness for microparticle agglutination Serodia-Myco II test for serodiagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumonia infections].

    PubMed

    Rastawicki, Waldemar; Kałuzewski, Stanisław; Jagielski, Marek; Gierczyński, Rafał

    2002-01-01

    The usefulness of Serodia-Myco II agglutination test (Fujirebio, Japan) for diagnosis of the M. pneumoniae infections was evaluated. A total of 66 serum samples obtained from patients with respiratory tract infections were tested by Serodia-Myco II test, complement fixation (CF) test, ELISA-IgG/-IgM, and by latex agglutination (LA) test prepared in our laboratory. Using CF test and ELISA as the reference tests, Serodia-Myco II test gave too many false positive results. This test in relation to CF test, ELISA-IgM, ELISA-IgG, and LA test showed a very high sensitivity, virtually 100%, with a low specificity, below 50%. It seems that oversensitivity of the Serodia-Myco II test is caused by too low cut off (40) value recommended by the manufacturer. The Serodia-Myco II test may be used in routine serodiagnosis of mycoplasmosis under condition that cut off value will be raised to 160 and the positive results of this test will be confirmed by the CF test or ELISA.

  9. Evaluation of a rapid strip and a particle agglutination tests for syphilis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Figueroa, Luis; Uribe-Salas, Felipe; García-Cisneros, Santa; Olamendi-Portugal, María; Conde-Glez, Carlos J

    2007-10-01

    The availability of new diagnostic approaches, which are easier and faster to perform than conventional tests, offers the opportunity to improve the attention given to public health problems as syphilis. This study aimed to evaluate a rapid immunochromatographic strip test (Determine TP; Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL) and a nonequipment demanding particle microagglutination test (Serodia TP-PA; Fujirebio, Japan) for qualitative detection of treponemic antibodies. Sera from 548 women belonging to 3 population groups were tested; one of them showing low syphilis seroprevalence (1.5%) and the other 2 showing higher seroprevalences (>15%). By comparison with the gold standard (Venereal Disease Research Laboratories plus fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption), sensitivity and specificity values for both diagnostic tests were calculated. Sensitivity values of both tests evaluated were higher than 95% for 2 groups of 3 addressed; in one of the high syphilis prevalence groups, Serodia TP-PA showed 88.6% sensitivity. Specificity values were above 95% for all 3 groups. The use of simple/rapid treponemic tests as those included here may prove to be a suitable replacement for the traditional syphilis serology diagnosis approach, particularly at primary care settings.

  10. Isolation and identification of Duck tembusu virus strain lH and development of latex-agglutination diagnostic method for rapid detection of antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanxi; Wen, Yaping; Yifan Huang; Wu, Yijian; Cai, Yilong; Xu, Lihui; Wang, Changkang; Li, Ang; Wu, Baocheng; Chen, Jilong

    2014-12-01

    SUMMARY. An outbreak of egg-drop syndrome occurred on a Sheldrake duck farm in Longhai in Fujian Province, China, in 2012. The main clinical symptoms were sharply reduced egg production, crooked necks, and death. We isolated the virus from the sick ducks, identified it, and observed the histopathologic changes after viral infection. We detected viral RNA in the blood and feces of the infected ducks and developed a latex-agglutination diagnostic method to detect anti-Tembusu-virus antibodies. Our results show that the pathogenic virus is a Tembusu virus. The histopathologic changes included follicular cell degeneration and necrosis, follicular cavity filled with blood cells, massive necrosis in the brain, and degeneration and necrosis of the nerve and glial cells. When the transmission of the virus in the infected ducks was studied, the duck blood was positive for viral nucleic acid for up to 29 days, and the feces were positive for viral nucleic acid for up to 13 days. We successfully established a simple, rapid, and easy- to-use latex-agglutination diagnostic method for the detection of antibodies against duck Tembusu virus. PMID:25619007

  11. Comparison of three commercial rapid agglutination test kits for identification of coagulase positive staphylococci from foods and animals.

    PubMed

    Holme, I J; Rosef, O; Ewald, S

    1991-01-01

    Three rapid agglutination assays for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus Monostaph (Bionor A/S, Skien, Norway), Staphyslide-Test (BioMerieux, Lyon, France) and Staph-Rapid-Test (Roche, Basel, Switzerland), were compared. A total of 104 Gram-positive, catalase positive cocci were tested: Nineteen Staphylococcus reference strains comprising 15 spp. (4 strains were coagulase positive), and 7 Micrococcus reference strains comprising 4 spp.; 22 food isolates comprising 13 S. aureus, 8 coagulase positive Staphylococcus spp., and 1 Micrococcus sp.; 56 animal isolates comprising 11 S. aureus, 9 S. hyicus subsp. hyicus, 2 S. intermedius, 15 coagulase positive and 19 coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. Totally 54 strains were coagulase positive. Considering agglutination of a coagulase positive strain as a correct identification, Monostaph, Staph-Rapid-Test, and Staphyslide-Test correctly identified 52 (96.3%), 47 (87.0%) and 48 (89.0%) of the coagulase positive staphylococci, respectively. Monostaph, Staph-Rapid-Test and Staphyslide-Test showed 1 (2.0%), 4 (8.0%) and 4 (8.0%) false positive reactions respectively. Monostaph, Staph-Rapid-Test and Staphyslide-Test gave 0 (0.0%), 6 (5.8%) and 7 (6.7%) non-interpretable reactions, respectively. Monostaph may be a good alternative to the tube-coagulase test for rapid and reliable identification of coagulase positive staphylococci from both food and veterinary sources. However, false negative reactions may occur with coagulase positive strains of S. hyicus subsp. hyicus and S. intermedius.

  12. Mononucleosis spot test

    MedlinePlus

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  13. Improvement of a latex agglutination test for the evaluation of oxacillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Corso, A; Soloaga, R; Faccone, D; Gagetti, P; Corbella, S; Iglesias, M; Galas, M

    2004-11-01

    The "Slidex MRSA Detection" test (Denka Seiken, Japan) is a latex agglutination assay able to detect PBP2a. We evaluated its ability to differentiate mecA-positive from mecA-negative coagulase-negative staphylococci. We included 100 coagulase-negative staphylococci clinical isolates belonging to 9 species, 54 mecA positive and 46 mecA negative, as characterized by PCR. The specificity achieved using the manufacturer's instructions was 100%, but the sensitivity was only 57%. To increase sensitivity, we introduced modifications into the standard protocol. Using either large inocula or oxacillin induction before test performance, we achieved 100% sensitivity.

  14. Rapid Detection of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia by a Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC Capsular Polysaccharide-Specific Antigen Detection Latex Agglutination Test

    PubMed Central

    March, John B.; Kerr, Karen; Lema, Benedict

    2003-01-01

    A latex agglutination test (LAT) has been developed for the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). The latex microspheres were coated with MmmSC polyclonal immunoglobulin G antiserum and detected MmmSC antigen in the serum of cattle infected with CBPP and in growth medium containing MmmSC. The specific antigen recognizsed by this test appeared to be the capsular polysaccharide (CPS). The LAT recognized all 23 strains of MmmSC examined in this study, with a sensitivity level of 2 ng of CPS, or the equivalent of 5 × 103 CFU, in a reaction volume of 0.03 ml. Therefore, rapid identification of MmmSC cultures should be possible. Agglutination was also observed with the related goat pathogens and “Mycoplasma mycoides” cluster members Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony biotype (four of six strains positive) and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (three of six strains positive), in agreement with the suggestion that these latter two mycoplasmas may in fact represent a single species (although collectively exhibiting two capsular serotypes). Comparisons in diagnosis with the complement fixation test (CFT) were made by using African field sera from CBPP-infected cattle. After 2 (or 3) min of incubation, the test detected 55% (or 61%) of CFT-positive sera and 29% (or 40%) of CFT-negative sera, with an overall correlation in diagnosis of 62% (or 61%). The rates for false-positive diagnoses made by using “known” CBPP-negative sera from the United Kingdom were 3 or 13% after 2 or 3 min of incubation, respectively. The data agree with previous findings that some CBPP CFT-negative misdiagnoses may occur due to “antibody eclipsing” by excess circulating antigen. The LAT combines low cost and high specificity with ease of application in the field, without the need for any specialist training or equipment. PMID:12626448

  15. Validation of the modified agglutination test for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens by using cat and mouse bioassay.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Laurin, E; Kwowk, O C H

    2016-03-01

    The modified agglutination test (MAT) is one of the most commonly used tests for the detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in animal and human sera. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the MAT and bioassay in free-range/backyard (FR) chickens (Gallus domesticus). Previously-published T. gondii test results from 2066 chickens from 19 countries were compiled for the present study. The frequency of isolation of T. gondii increased for MAT titres between 1:5 and 1:160, and ranged from 61 to 75% for antibody titres of 1:160, 1:320, and ⩾1:640. Twenty-three cats fed pooled hearts from a total of 802 FR seronegative (MAT, <1:5) chickens from several countries did not excrete oocysts, indicating a high negative predictive value of MAT because FR chickens would have been exposed to many microbes; cats are the most sensitive indicators of T. gondii infection in tissues and can excrete millions of oocysts after ingesting even a few bradyzoites. Of the 29 cats in this study, six cats, fed hearts pooled from 15-122 FR chickens, excreted oocysts; but these identifications were likely related to misidentification or prozone. Results of the present study support the validity of MAT for the detection of T. gondii infection in chickens.

  16. Circulating sperm antibodies: indications for testing in infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Badawy, S Z; el Shaykh, M; Shulman, S; Cittadino, R

    1984-01-01

    Sperm antibody titers were evaluated in the serum of 73 infertile couples by the F-D and Kibrick agglutination tests, to study the relationship of the quality of post-coital tests and semen analysis. Thirty-eight couples had poor post-coital tests, fifteen couples had normal post-coital tests, and twenty couples revealed abnormal semen pictures of the males. In the first two groups, semen analysis was normal. The incidence of sperm antibodies was 10.5%, 6.6% in men, and 18.4%, 20.0% in women, with poor and normal post-coital tests, respectively. This suggests that sperm antibody testing is equally indicated in infertile couples with poor post-coital tests. In addition, there was no difference in the incidence of sperm antibodies in men with poor semen pictures and those with normal semen analysis in this infertile population. This suggests the significance of sperm antibody testing in infertile men with abnormal and normal semen pictures after correcting other infertility factors, in order to detect those patients who could benefit from treatment of such immunologic problems.

  17. Sero-epidemiology of equine toxoplasmosis using a latex agglutination test in the three metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Saqib, M; Hussain, M H; Sajid, M S; Mansoor, M K; Asi, M N; Fadya, A A K; Zohaib, A; Sial, A U R; Muhammad, G; Ullah, I

    2015-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a serious threat for livestock in addition to being of zoonotic significance. In this study, serodiagnosis of equine toxoplasmosis was conducted in a randomly selected population from the 3 metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan. To this end, 272 draught equines were screened using a commercial latex agglutination assay kit. Association of probable risk factors of equine toxoplasmosis was also documented. A total of 91 (33.5%) equines were found sero-positive for Toxoplama (T.) gondii having antibody titers ranging between 1:32 to 1:612. The highest rates of seropositive cases were observed in donkeys (58.7%) followed by mules (28.6%) and horses (23.5%). Age, sex and species of draught equines were found not to be statistically (p>0.05) associated with the distribution of T. gondii antibodies. The results of the study provided a baseline data for the exposure of equine population in this area. In addition, it is recommended that the contiguous population of domestic ruminants and possible reservoirs such as feral cats should be screened in order to explore the potential risk for the human population in Pakistan.

  18. [Assessment of a commonly available latex particle agglutination test in rapid, bacteriologic cerebrospinal fluid diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Grubbauer, H M; Dornbusch, H J; Zobel, G; Thiel, W

    1988-01-01

    36 cerebrospinal fluid specimens (CSF) from patients with bacterial meningitis were tested for the presence of bacterial antigens with the "Slidex Meningite Kit" (Bio Merieux). This kit has latex particles coated with antibodies against hemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) and neisseria meningitidis (NM) group A and C. With the LAT we could detect the bacterial antigens in 84% of bacterial meningitis cases, 23 of the 27 of Hib meningitis (85.2%), all of the 6 cases of SP meningitis (100%) and two of the three NM meningitis cases. The test is handicapped by the fact, that there is no antiserum against NM sero-group B, the main cause of NM meningitis in Austria. There were no false positive results with the LAT. False negative results were obtained in 19.2% of Hib and in one case of NM. Even under sufficient antibiotic therapy and with negative culture we could detect 9 Hib- and 1 NM-cases during the first 12-48 hours of therapy with this method. The LAT-Kit is a useful addition to standard methods of CSF examinations in bacterial meningitis. With the LAT a rapid bacteriological diagnosis is possible within 15 minutes. The Kit is also able to identify bacterial antigens even with negative culture and after initiation of antibiotic treatment. PMID:3133628

  19. A prototype of the direct agglutination test kit (DAT-Canis) for the serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Edward; Saliba, Juliana Wilke; Oliveira, Diana; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Paz, Gustavo Fontes

    2016-05-15

    This report describes the stege I/II development of a new direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) using freeze-dried antigen produced Coomassie blue-stained Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum promastigotes. In stage I, 16 canine serum samples, collected from eight dogs carrying CVL and eight healthy dogs, were assessed with the DAT using 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), kaolin or NAC plus urea (NAC+U) to improve the assay conditions. Stage II assessed the diagnostic accuracy with 100 serum samples collected from dogs with symptomatic CVL and clinically healthy dogs, comparing the four different sample diluents. The CVL-DAT prototype kit showed equivalent performances when 2-ME, NAC or NAC+U were used: 97.1% sensitivity (CI: 83-99.8%), 97% specificity (CI: 88.5-99.5%) and a 97% diagnostic accuracy (CI: 90.8-99.2). With kaolin, a 94.1% sensitivity (CI: 79-99%), 97% specificity (CI: 88.5-99.5%) and 96% diagnostic accuracy were observed (CI: 89.5-98.7), with no statistically significant differences among the four reagents (p=1.0). The NAC plus urea in sample diluent decreased non-specific agglutination, promoted a better defined sharp-edged blue spot and was thus chosen as a component for the new DAT prototype to diagnose canine VL, designated DAT-Canis.

  20. Epstein-Barr virus antibody test

    MedlinePlus

    EBV antibody test; EBV serology ... a lab, where a lab specialist looks for antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus. In the first stages of an illness, little antibody may be detected. For this reason, the test ...

  1. Diagnosis of Leptospirosis: Comparison between Microscopic Agglutination Test, IgM-ELISA and IgM Rapid Immunochromatography Test

    PubMed Central

    Niloofa, Roshan; Fernando, Narmada; de Silva, Nipun Lakshitha; Karunanayake, Lilani; Wickramasinghe, Hasith; Dikmadugoda, Nandana; Premawansa, Gayani; Wickramasinghe, Rajitha; de Silva, H. Janaka; Premawansa, Sunil; Rajapakse, Senaka; Handunnetti, Shiroma

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is diagnosed on clinical grounds, and confirmed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). IgM-ELISA (Serion-Virion) and immunochromatography test (Leptocheck-WB) are two immunodiagnostic assays for leptospirosis. Their sensitivity, specificity and applicability in Sri Lanka have not been systematically evaluated. Methods Clinically diagnosed leptospirosis patients (n = 919) were recruited from three hospitals in the Western Province of Sri Lanka, during June 2012 to December 2013. MAT, IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB were performed on all patient sera. MAT titer of ≥400 in single sample, four-fold rise or seroconversion ≥100 in paired samples were considered as positive for MAT. For diagnostic confirmation, MAT was performed during both acute and convalescent phases. Anti-leptospiral IgM ≥20 IU/ml and appearance of a band in the test window were considered as positive for IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB test respectively. Patients with an alternative diagnosis (n = 31) were excluded. Data analysis was performed using two methods, i) considering MAT as reference standard and ii) using Bayesian latent class model analysis (BLCM) which considers each test as imperfect. Results MAT, IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB positivity were 39.8%, 45.8% and 38.7% respectively during the acute phase. Acute-phase MAT had specificity and sensitivity of 95.7% and 55.3% respectively, when compared to overall MAT positivity. IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB had similar diagnostic sensitivity when compared with acute-phase MAT as the gold standard, although IgM-ELISA showed higher specificity (84.5%) than Leptocheck-WB (73.3%). BLCM analysis showed that IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB had similar sensitivities (86.0% and 87.4%), while acute-phase MAT had the lowest sensitivity (77.4%). However, acute-phase MAT had high specificity (97.6%), while IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB showed similar but lower specificity (84.5% and 82.9%). Conclusions Both IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB shows

  2. ANA (Antinuclear Antibody Test)

    MedlinePlus

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization ... for trustworthy health information. Verify Compliance . Produced by Advertisement

  3. Indirect hemagglutination test for detection of antibody to Rickettsia rickettsii in sera from humans and common laboratory animals.

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, R L; Philip, R N; Thomas, L A; Casper, E A

    1979-01-01

    Antibody production in humans and three species of laboratory animals infected with Rickettsia rickettsii was determined with the indirect hemagglutination test. Rabbits, guinea pigs, and mice were inoculated with R. rickettsii and bled at intervals. Antibody which agglutinated both fresh and glutaraldehyde-fixed sheep erythrocytes sensitized with antigen prepared either from purified rickettsiae or from infected yolk sacs was found in rabbit sera at all intervals tested (10 to 59 days postinfection). Antibody which agglutinated fresh but not glutaraldehyde-fixed erythrocytes sensitized with either of the above antigens was detected in guinea pig sera obtained 7, 14, and 28 days postinfection. Antibody was found in mice inoculated with 5.6 x 10(6) plaque-forming units of R. rickettsii but not in mice given 5.6 x 10(2) plaque-forming units. Peak indirect hemagglutination titers occurred in nonvaccinated human Rocky Mountain spotted fever patients about 3 weeks after onset of illness, and antibody was still detectable after 1 year. Both human immunoglobulin G and human immunoglobulin M antibodies agglutinated sensitized cells, but immunoglobulin M antibodies apparently were more efficient. The indirect hemagglutination test is useful for the titration of human, rabbit, guinea pig, and mouse antibodies when the appropriate erythrocytes are used. Images PMID:120875

  4. Bayesian estimation of sensitivity and specificity of the modified agglutination test and bioassay for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded animals worldwide. Serological tests, including the modified agglutination test (MAT), are often used to determine exposure to the parasite. The MAT can be used for all hosts because it does not need species-specific reagents and has been shown to...

  5. Latex agglutination using the periplasmic proteins antigen of Brucella melitensis is a successful, rapid, and specific serodiagnostic test for ovine brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Ismael, Alaa Bassuny; Swelum, Ayman Abdel-Aziz; Mostafa, Salama A-H; Alhumiany, Abdel-Rahman A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis, especially caused by Brucella melitensis, is considered the most-widespread zoonosis in the world, particularly in developing countries. This study was planned to develop an accurate test for diagnosis of ovine brucellosis using a specific hot saline extracted soluble Brucella melitensis periplasmic proteins (SBPPs). The efficacy of the latex agglutination test (LAT) using SBPPs compared to the Rose Bengal test (RBT), buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT), serum agglutination test (SAT), and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) was evaluated in the field diagnosis of ovine brucellosis. The test performance was evaluated by estimating sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), disease prevalence (DP), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) using test agreement and bacteriological culture in 1777 samples. The false-positive result was significantly (P ⩽0.05) lower in LAT than RBT, BPAT, SAT, and i-ELISA. With reference to test agreement, the Se, Sp, PPV, and PLR were highest (P ⩽0.05) in LAT 99.33%, 99.88%, 98.68%, and 827.25%, respectively. With reference to bacteriological culture, the LAT and i-ELISA tests showed a significant difference in Se with SAT. However, no significant difference in specificity was detected. The DP was 8.44% in the five tests. In conclusion, LAT using SBPPs of B. melitensis could be a suitable serodiagnostic field test for ovine brucellosis, with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:27207442

  6. Collaborative evaluation of antigen detection by a commercial latex agglutination test and enzyme immunoassay in the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, C; St-Germain, G; Vincelette, J; Kaufman, L; de Repentigny, L

    1990-01-01

    The Cand-Tec Candida detection system and enzyme immunoassay for serum mannan were retrospectively compared in a controlled collaborative evaluation of antigen detection in 32 patients with candidiasis proven by biopsy or culture from a normally sterile site and with sera drawn within 7 days of inclusion. With a threshold titer of 1/8, which excluded false-positive results in 17 hospitalized patients without candidiasis, sensitivities for all 32 patients with candidiasis were 44% for the Cand-Tec assay and 17% for the enzyme immunoassay. Both assays provided greater sensitivity when sera were drawn within 24 h of inclusion in the study and in the category of patients with invasive candidiasis (57% by Cand-Tec and 33% by enzyme immunoassay). The Cand-Tec assay gave false-positive results (titer, greater than or equal to 1/8) in 4 of 6 patients with transient candidemia, in 1 of 20 otherwise healthy patients with rheumatoid factor, and in 1 patient with a positive cryptococcal latex agglutination test. Three serum specimens from 3 of 32 patients with candidiasis contained rheumatoid factor and gave titers of greater than or equal to 1/8 by the Cand-Tec assay. Detection of serum mannan by enzyme immunoassay was less sensitive but more specific than the Cand-Tec Candida detection system for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis. PMID:2179258

  7. Detection of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in food and fecal samples with a duplex PCR and the slide latex agglutination test.

    PubMed Central

    Fach, P; Popoff, M R

    1997-01-01

    A duplex PCR procedure was evaluated for the detection of Clostridium perfringens in food and biological samples and for the identification of enterotoxigenic strains. This method uses two sets of primers which amplify in the same reaction two different DNA fragments simultaneously: the 283-bp C. perfringens phospholipase C gene fragment and the 426-bp enterotoxin gene fragment. Internal primers within the two primer sets confirmed the specificity of the method by DNA-DNA hybridization with the PCR products. No cross-reaction was observed with other Clostridium species or with other bacteria routinely found in food. The detection level was approximately 10(5) C. perfringens cells per g of stool or food sample. When overnight enrichment culture was used, 10 C. perfringens cells per g was detected in 57 artificially contaminated food samples. The duplex PCR is a rapid, sensitive, and reliable method for the detection and identification of enterotoxigenic C. perfringens strains in food samples. A slide latex agglutination test was also evaluated as a rapid, simple technique for the detection of C. perfringens enterotoxin in stool samples. PMID:9361409

  8. Reducing the cost of HIV antibody testing.

    PubMed

    Tamashiro, H; Maskill, W; Emmanuel, J; Fauquex, A; Sato, P; Heymann, D

    1993-07-10

    Available tests to detect antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a range of applications, and injudicious selection and inappropriate use can add a significant financial burden to budgets for AIDS programmes in developing countries. There are several ways by which the cost of HIV antibody testing can be reduced; they include use of tests appropriate for existing laboratory capabilities; adoption of cost-effective testing strategies; pooling of serum samples before testing; and ensuring best possible purchase prices. Each approach can significantly reduce the cost of HIV antibody testing alone or in combination, which increases the potential sustainability of antibody testing programmes, even in settings of limited resources. PMID:8100916

  9. Selective mineral composition, functional test morphology and paleoecology of the agglutinated foraminiferal genus Colominella Popescu, 1998 in the Mediterranean Pliocene (Liguria, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoletta, Mancin; Elena, Basso; Camilla, Pirini; Michael A., Kaminski

    2012-12-01

    Specimens of Colominella (agglutinated Foraminifera) from a Pliocene Mediterranean succession were analysed through a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) to document their test microstructure. Colominella develops a complex large test with a mostly biserial chamber arrangement, but with the internal chamber lumens partitioned by vertical and horizontal plates that form a labyrinthine structure of alcoves. This internal partition occurs from the first chambers but is completely masked from the outside by the thick wall. The test-wall microstructure is characterized by canaliculi (parapores) that are externally covered by a pavement of agglutinated grains. The mineralogical characterization of the agglutinated grains and the secreted cement shows that the grains are strongly selected as regards to size, arrangement and composition, with the coarse grains placed close to the outer wall. Moreover, these coarse grains, forming a pavement, are made of monocrystalline quartz, whereas the inner part of the skeleton is mostly composed of dolomite. The carbonate cement is less abundant and appears as cloudy light grey areas among the detrital grains. These shell features can be interpreted as functional adaptations to perform kleptoplastidy and/or to house functional photosymbionts, probably induced by stable environmental conditions as in warm shallow waters characterized by low nutrient flux.

  10. Traces of dissolved particles, including coccoliths, in the tests of agglutinated foraminifera from the Challenger Deep (10,897 m water depth, western equatorial Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooday, A. J.; Uematsu, K.; Kitazato, H.; Toyofuku, T.; Young, J. R.

    2010-02-01

    We examined four multilocular agglutinated foraminiferan tests from the Challenger Deep, the deepest point in the world's oceans and well below the depth at which biogenic and most detrital minerals disappear from the sediment. The specimens represent undescribed species. Three are trochamminaceans in which imprints and other traces of dissolved agglutinated particles are visible in the orange or yellowish organic test lining. In Trochamminacean sp. A, a delicate meshwork of organic cement forms ridges between the grain impressions. The remnants of test particles include organic structures identifiable as moulds of coccoliths produced by the genus Helicosphaera. Their random alignment suggests that they were agglutinated individually rather than as fragments of a coccosphere. Trochamminacean sp. C incorporates discoidal structures with a central hole; these probably represent the proximal sides of isolated distal shields of another coccolith species, possibly Hayaster perplexus. Imprints of planktonic foraminiferan test fragments are also present in both these trochamminaceans. In Trochamminacean sp. B, the test surface is densely pitted with deep, often angular imprints ranging from roughly equidimensional to rod-shaped. The surfaces are either smooth, or have prominent longitudinal striations, probably made by cleavage traces. We presume these imprints represent mineral grains of various types that subsequently dissolved. X-ray microanalyses reveal strong peaks for Ca associated with grain impressions and coccolith remains in Trochamminacean sp. C. Minor peaks for this element are associated with coccolith remains and planktonic foraminiferan imprints in Trochamminacean sp. A. These Ca peaks possibly originate from traces of calcite remaining on the test surfaces. Agglutinated particles, presumably clay minerals, survive only in the fourth specimen (' Textularia' sp.). Here, the final 4-5 chambers comprise a pavement of small, irregularly shaped grains with flat

  11. Latex agglutination test

    MedlinePlus

    ... antigens in a variety of body fluids including saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, or blood. ... depends on what type of sample is needed. Saliva Urine Blood Cerebrospinal fluid ( lumbar puncture ) The sample ...

  12. Evaluation of the usefulness of six commercial agglutination assays for serologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Villard, Odile; Cimon, Bernard; Franck, Jacqueline; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Godineau, Nadine; Houze, Sandrine; Paris, Luc; Pelloux, Hervé; Villena, Isabelle; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2012-07-01

    Six agglutination tests for detecting Toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies (immunoglobulin G or M) in serum were performed and compared. In total, 599 sera were examined using direct and indirect agglutination assays. Sensitivity varied from 93.7% to 100% and specificity from 97.1% to 99.2%. In a selected population with interfering diseases, the percentage of false positives ranged from 4.3% to 10.9%. Although an overall agreement of 100% was found for chronic toxoplasmosis, sensitivity for the detection of confirmed acute toxoplasmosis ranged from 86.4% to 97.3%. Regarding the large variability in terms of the performance of the 6 assays, tests based on the hemagglutination principle were found to be better than the other agglutination tests for all the panels evaluated, meaning that they could be used as qualitative or semiquantitative low-cost screening assays.

  13. Indirect hemagglutination test for chlamydial antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lewis, V J; Thacker, W L; Engelman, H M

    1972-07-01

    An indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test is described for chlamydial antibodies in psittacosis diagnostic sera; for this test tanned sheep erythrocytes sensitized with a deoxycholate extract of Chlamydia psittaci grown in Vero cell monolayers were used. Adaptation of the IHA test to the Microtiter system decreased sensitivity; nevertheless, the Microtiter-IHA test was more sensitive than the complement fixation test. Lymphogranuloma venereum antibodies also were detected by using antigen extracted from C. psittaci. PMID:4626906

  14. AIDS antibody tests on inpatient psychiatric units.

    PubMed

    Binder, R L

    1987-02-01

    An antibody test for the causative virus of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) became commercially available in 1985. The author discusses the use of the AIDS antibody test on inpatient psychiatric units. She reviews the controversial legal and ethical questions related to its use, addressing such questions as Who should be tested for the AIDS antibody? When and to whom should the results of the test be disclosed? and How should the doctrine of "right to privacy" be balanced with the "duty to warn"?

  15. Evidence for sialylated type 1 blood group chains on human erythrocyte membranes revealed by agglutination of neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes with Waldenström's macroglobulin IgMWOO and hybridoma antibody FC 10.2.

    PubMed

    Picard, J K; Loveday, D; Feizi, T

    1985-01-01

    Haemagglutination studies have been performed with untreated and neuraminidase-treated human erythrocytes of the three Lewis antigen types Le(a-b-), Le(a+b-) and Le(a-b+) using two monoclonal antibodies, IgMWOO and FC 10.2, which were previously shown to recognize the type 1 based blood group chains: Gal beta 1----3GlcNAc beta 1----3Gal beta 1----4Glc/GlcNAc (for explanation of abbreviations see table IV legend). Both antibodies behaved as cold agglutinins with neuraminidase-treated but not with untreated erythrocytes of the three Lewis antigen types. Neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes of i antigen type were similarly agglutinated. This haemagglutination was specifically inhibited by the type 1 based milk oligosaccharide lacto-N-tetraose. Thus, there is strong evidence for the occurrence of sialylated type 1 chains on human erythrocyte membranes of I and i antigen types. In addition, evidence for the presence of type 1 chains which are both sialylated and fucosylated was obtained by (1) haemagglutination of Le(a+b-) erythrocytes with the monoclonal antibody 19.9; (2) increased haemagglutination of neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes with anti-H antibodies of Bombay serum; (3) increased haemagglutination of neuraminidase-treated Le(a+b-) cells with anti-Lea antibodies, and (4) the appearance of Lea antigen activity on neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes of Le(a-b+) type.

  16. A new multi-host species indirect ELISA using protein A/G conjugate for detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies with comparison to ELISA-IgG, agglutination assay and Western blot.

    PubMed

    Al-Adhami, Batol H; Gajadhar, Alvin A

    2014-02-24

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite which can cause significant disease and losses in livestock and wild animals. It is increasingly recognized as an important foodborne pathogen in a broad range of food animals and products. Effective control strategies require rapid, reliable and cost-effective detection methods for large scale surveys and diagnostic applications in a broad range of warm-blooded animals. To overcome one or more of these shortcomings in the currently available detection methods for T. gondii infection a non-species-specific protein A/G conjugate was used in the development of an indirect ELISA (ELISA-A/G) for the detection of IgG antibodies in serum samples obtained from experimentally infected pigs. The performance of the assay was evaluated using serum samples from pigs, cats, mice and seals with known positive or negative status for T. gondii infection. Results of the ELISA-A/G obtained with pig serum samples were compared with those generated by traditional ELISA using host specific IgG conjugate (ELISA-IgG), modified agglutination test (MAT) and Western blot analysis (WB). Using protein A/G conjugate, comparative analysis of results from 77 samples obtained from T. gondii infected pigs showed excellent agreement between the ELISA-A/G and in-house ELISA-IgG (0.917 κ). Similar agreements were also observed when these samples were tested by a commercial ELISA kit (0.816 κ), MAT (0.816 κ) and WB (0.79 κ). A total of 86 serum samples obtained from cats, mice and seals experimentally infected with T. gondii and tested by the ELISA-A/G as well as MAT for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies yielded Kappa value of 1.0 for cats and mice and 0.79 for seals. These results show that the ELISA-A/G is a suitable method for serological detection of T. gondii infection in multiple host species and has the potential for testing samples from a broad range of domestic, wild, and aquatic mammalian host species. Simultaneous testing

  17. Rapid identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae in blood cultures by using the ImmuLex, Slidex and Wellcogen latex agglutination tests and the BinaxNOW antigen test.

    PubMed

    Altun, O; Athlin, S; Almuhayawi, M; Strålin, K; Özenci, V

    2016-04-01

    Rapid identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae in blood culture (BC) bottles is important for early directed antimicrobial therapy in pneumococcal bacteraemia. We evaluated a new latex agglutination (LA) test on BC bottles, the ImmuLex™ S. pneumoniae Omni (Statens Serum Institut, Denmark), and compared the performance with the Slidex® pneumo-Kit (bioMérieux, France) and the Wellcogen™ S. pneumoniae (Remel, UK) LA tests, as well as the BinaxNOW® S. pneumoniae (Alere, USA) antigen test. The four tests were directly applied on 358 positive BC bottles with Gram-positive cocci in pairs or chains and on 15 negative bottles. Valid test results were recorded in all cases for ImmuLex and BinaxNOW and in 88.5 % (330/373) and 94.1 % (351/373) of cases for Slidex and Wellcogen, respectively. Based on bottles positive for S. pneumoniae by conventional methods, the sensitivity of ImmuLex was 99.6 %, similar to the other tests (range, 99.6-100 %). Based on bottles positive for non-pneumococcal pathogens, the specificity of ImmuLex was 82.6 %, in comparison to 97.6 % for Slidex (p < 0.01) and 85.4 % for Wellcogen (p = ns). The BinaxNOW test had a lower specificity (64.1 %) than any LA test (p < 0.01). On BC bottles positive for α-haemolytic streptococci, ImmuLex was positive in 12/67 (17.9 %) cases, Slidex in 2/59 (3.4 %) cases, Wellcogen in 11/64 (17.2 %) cases and BinaxNOW in 25/67 (37.3 %) cases. In conclusion, the ImmuLex test provides a valid and sensitive technique for the rapid detection of S. pneumoniae in BC bottles, similar to the other compared methods. However, the specificity was sub-optimal, since the test may cross-react with other Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:26796552

  18. Optimising testing for phospholipid antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Helbert, M; Bodger, S; Cavenagh, J; D'Cruz, D; Thomas, J; MacCallum, P

    2001-01-01

    Aim—To compare anticardiolipin (ACL) and anti-ß2 glycoprotein 1 (ß2gp1) enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and to incorporate these results into a meta-analysis of published data. Method—Three representative commercial ACL ELISAs and an in house ß2gp1 assay were optimised and then assessed on 124 sera from normal donors, patients with infection, or patients with APS. A Medline search was screened for papers meeting defined criteria to conduct a meta-analysis. The performance of the assays used in this study was included. Results—A non-quantitative ACL assay performed at least as well as the anti-ß2gp1 assay in the diagnosis of APS. Meta-analysis confirmed that neither assay is perfect, although the anti-ß2gp1 assay had a higher specificity and lower sensitivity than the ACL assay. Conclusions—The pooled data suggest that the ACL assay is used to investigate thrombosis without overt underlying pathology and that the improved specificity of the anti-ß2gp1 assay is exploited where infection, connective tissue disease, or atheroma are present. Key Words: antiphospholipid syndrome • anticardiolipin antibodies • anti-ß2 glycoprotein 1 • sensitivity PMID:11533076

  19. Usefulness of the rK39-Immunochromatographic Test, Direct Agglutination Test, and Leishmanin Skin Test for Detecting Asymptomatic Leishmania Infection in Children in a New Visceral Leishmaniasis Focus in Amhara State, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefanía; Cañavate, Carmen; Sordo, Luis; Abebe, Zelalem; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Aseffa, Abraham; Yamuah, Lawrence; Engers, Howard; Moreno, Javier; Cruz, Israel

    2012-01-01

    In areas where visceral leishmaniasis is anthroponotic, asymptomatically infected patients may play a role in transmission. Additionally, the number of asymptomatic patients in a disease-endemic area will also provide information on transmission dynamics. Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts (Amhara State, Ethiopia) are now considered newly established areas to which visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In selected villages in these districts, we conducted a study to assess the usefulness of different approaches to estimate the asymptomatic infection rate. Of 605 participants, the rK39 immunochromatographic test was able to detect asymptomatic infection in 1.5% (9 of 605), direct agglutination test in 5.3% (32 of 605), and leishmanin skin test in 5.6% (33 of 589); the combined use of serologic methods and leishmanin skin test enabled detecting asymptomatic infection in 10.1% (61 of 605). We conclude that the best option to detect asymptomatic infection in this new visceral leishmaniasis–endemic focus is the combined use of the direct agglutination test and the leishmanin skin test. PMID:22556076

  20. Standardization of poliovirus neutralizing antibody tests.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, P; van Steenis, G; van Wezel, A L; Salk, J

    1984-01-01

    Recently the Forum for Advancement of Immunization Research sponsored a Collaborative Study on Poliovirus Antibody Titration. Twenty laboratories from 12 countries participated. There were considerable differences in detail of test performance and test results among laboratories. The sensitivity of the tests varied over a 10-fold range (geometric mean titer from 21 to 288). The average coefficient of variation ranged from 4.5% to 13.5%. Tests performed at the Food and Drug Administration indicated that Hep-2 cells were more suitable than Vero cells for poliovirus titration by cytopathic effect end point or plaque assay. However, the cell lines were equally suitable for polio antibody titration by neutralization of cytopathic effect. A high degree of sensitivity and optimal reproducibility of antibody assay were observed in tests utilizing a medium to low dose of virus and serum-virus incubation overnight at 36 C. On the basis of current experience, a protocol is proposed for a test that provides high sensitivity and reproducibility and is practical for large-scale determinations of poliovirus antibody.

  1. Evaluation of Immunochromatographic Test for the Detection of Antibodies against Echinococcosis granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Tamer, Gülden Sönmez; Dündar, Devrim; Uzuner, Hüseyin; Baydemir, Canan

    2015-01-01

    Background Echinococcosis in humans is a disease caused by the larvae of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) and Echinococcus multilocularis (E. multilocularis). Serological tests are valuable, especially in the clarification of unexplained clinical findings and imaging methods. For this reason, indirect hemagglutination (IHA), latex agglutination, immunoelectrophoresis, immunoblotting, immuno-enzymatic tests, indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of an immunochromatographic test (ICT) specific for E. granulosus antibodies in the diagnosis of echinococcosis. Material/Methods ICT evaluated 102 cases of cystic echinococcosis, 38 cases of other parasitic diseases, and 50 healthy individuals. ELISA (DRG, Germany) that detects IgG antibodies specific for E. granulosus was used as the reference method. Results The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of ICT were 96.8%, 87.5%, 98.9%, and 70%, respectively. Diagnostic value was 96.1%. No significant differences and high degrees of agreement were found between ELISA and immunochromatographic test for cystic echinococcosis. Serum samples included 4 taeniasis, 2 leishmaniasis, and 2 healthy individuals were diagnosed to be positive with immunochromatographic test. Conclusions The ability of test to give fast results without need for equipment, devices, and specific storage conditions is an advantage. This test may be used due to its advantages in endemic regions for screening and diagnostic purposes. PMID:25921809

  2. 21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antinuclear antibody immunological test system....5100 Antinuclear antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An antinuclear antibody... the autoimmune antibodies in serum, other body fluids, and tissues that react with cellular...

  3. 21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antinuclear antibody immunological test system....5100 Antinuclear antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An antinuclear antibody... the autoimmune antibodies in serum, other body fluids, and tissues that react with cellular...

  4. 21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antinuclear antibody immunological test system....5100 Antinuclear antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An antinuclear antibody... the autoimmune antibodies in serum, other body fluids, and tissues that react with cellular...

  5. NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN WILD CARNIVORES FROM SPAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples from 251 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum by the commercial competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) and confirmed by Neospora agglutination test (NAT) and/or by indirect fluorescent antibody test (I...

  6. Differential lytic and agglutinating activity of the anti-Lewis(x) monoclonal antibody FC-2.15 on human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and MCF-7 breast tumor cells. In vitro and ex vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Capurro, M; Ballaré, C; Bover, L; Portela, P; Mordoh, J

    1999-01-01

    The Lewis(x) (Le(x)) trisaccharide (CD15) linked to proteins and glycolipids is highly expressed on the surface of normal human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and several human neoplasias, such as breast and gastrointestinal carcinomas and chronic myeloid leukemias. FC-2.15 is an IgM murine mAb that specifically recognizes Le(x) and has been previously shown to mediate the in vitro lysis of Le(x)(+) cells by human complement. In a phase I clinical trial of FC-2.15, a temporary neutropenia was the main toxicity, and antitumor responses were observed. In order to characterize FC-2.15 further and determine the physiological relevance of Le(x) binding, the reactivity of FC-2.15 on PMN was investigated under several conditions. Flow cytometry revealed a strong reactivity of FC-2.15 with almost 100% of PMN, and Scatchard analysis demonstrated an affinity constant of 5.14 x 10(9) M(-1) and 1.11 x 10(6) antigen sites/cell. In vitro, the binding of Le(x) epitopes by FC-2.15 induced PMN homotypic aggregation, only 28.4 +/- 4.1% remaining as single cells. When PMN and the Le(x)(+) MCF-7 breast cancer cells were co-incubated, FC-2.15 induced heterotypic aggregation. In 51Cr-release assays employing human complement, FC-2.15 lysed 93.4 +/- 7.9% of PMN and 87.8 +/- 10.7% of MCF-7 cells. However, when the effect of FC-2.15 was tested in ex vivo circulating blood, no lytic activity against PMN was detected, whereas MCF-7 cells were still lysed. Blood smears demonstrated that FC-2.15 induced PMN agglutination and heterotypic aggregates when MCF-7 cells were present. A pretreatment of PMN with colchicine impaired PMN agglutination both in vitro (single PMN = 81.15 +/- 4.35%) and in ex vivo circulating blood. In the latter condition, FC-2.15-lytic activity was restored, suggesting that PMN homotypic aggregation by FC-2.15, but not lysis, is dependent on microtubule integrity and that PMN agglutination hinders their lysis. Moreover, when 51Cr-release assays were performed

  7. Performance of rK39 immunochromatography and freeze-dried direct agglutination tests in the diagnosis of imported visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    El-Moamly, Amal; El-Sweify, Mohamed; Hafeez, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the neglected tropical diseases that require a global policy for integrated control programs. The disease is fatal if untreated, affects ∼500,000 persons/year, and is most prevalent in poor countries. Treatment is expensive and carries a risk of toxicity. Therefore, sensitive and specific diagnosis of VL is crucial to avoid under- or overdiagnosis. Selecting an appropriate serological diagnostic test is an issue of controversy and depends on geographic location. The study aimed to evaluate the performance of two serological techniques: recombinant antigen K39 (rK39)-immunochromatographic (IC) lateral flow assay (InBios, USA) that uses a recombinant Leishmania antigen K39 and the specific IgG detection by direct agglutination test (DAT, for the diagnosis of imported VL in non-endemic region (Saudi Arabia). The diagnostic accuracy of the two assays was assessed using bone marrow aspiration, direct microscopic examination, and culture on NNN agar as the "gold standard". The bone marrow specimens from Indian, Sudanese, and Bengali patients (n = 98) with suspected VL features were cultured. Thirty-five specimens were positive (36%). The sensitivity and specificity of rK39-IC test were 89% (95% CI 78-99) and 92% (95% CI 85-99), respectively. DAT (with cutoff ≥1:1,600) showed comparable results (sensitivity 94%; 95% CI 87-101 and specificity 95%; 95% CI 90-100). To conclude, the performance of rK39-IC test and DAT is comparable. Both tests are moderately sensitive and specific and could be used to facilitate the global drive to eliminate this disease. The rK39-IC test is a rapid, easy-to-perform test and can be used as a point-of-care diagnostic method.

  8. The specificity of antisera against Bordetella pertussis examined by bacterial agglutination.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen, J H; Frøholm, L O; Kjennerud, U

    1987-12-01

    The specificity of conventional, adsorbed antisera against agglutinogens 1, 2, and 3 of Bordetella pertussis was examined by slide agglutination and by agglutination in microtitre wells. Unadsorbed hyperimmune sera showed higher agglutinating activity against autologous or homologous cells than against cells of heterologous serotype. Adsorption of sera with heterologous cells increased the serotype specificity considerably. In spite of extensive adsorption, these anti-agglutinogen sera were still found to cross-react with B. parapertussis and/or B. bronchiseptica strains. Adsorption experiments with B. pertussis hyperimmune sera against serotype 1-, 1.2-, and 1.3-organisms demonstrated that the cross-reacting surface antigens differed from the agglutinogens 1, 2, and 3. Thus, in making species-specific reagents for diagnostic use it may be of value to include adsorption with B. parapertussis and probably with B. bronchiseptica. Limited data indicated that there is no need to use B. avium for adsorption. The agglutination assays were also used to test three monoclonal antibodies stated to be specific for the agglutinogens 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Some anomalous behaviour for the anti-agglutinogen 1 reagent was found, whereas the anti-agglutinogen 2 and 3 reagents corresponded well with the present polyclonal factor sera. PMID:2894108

  9. 21 CFR 866.5090 - Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test... Systems § 866.5090 Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure...

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild carnivores from Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples from 282 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using a cut-off value of 1:25. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 22 of 27 (81.5%) of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), three of six European wildc...

  11. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  12. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  13. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  14. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  15. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  16. Evaluation of a latex agglutination assay for the identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei.

    PubMed

    Duval, Brea D; Elrod, Mindy G; Gee, Jay E; Chantratita, Narisara; Tandhavanant, Sarunporn; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Cases of melioidosis and glanders are rare in the United States, but the etiologic agents of each disease (Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei, respectively) are classified as Tier 1 select agents because of concerns about their potential use as bioterrorism agents. A rapid, highly sensitive, and portable assay for clinical laboratories and field use is required. Our laboratory has further evaluated a latex agglutination assay for its ability to identify B. pseudomallei and B. mallei isolates. This assay uses a monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes the capsular polysaccharide produced by B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, but is absent in closely related Burkholderia species. A total of 110 B. pseudomallei and B. mallei were tested, and 36 closely related Burkholderia species. The latex agglutination assay was positive for 109 of 110 (99.1% sensitivity) B. pseudomallei and B. mallei isolates tested.

  17. Behavioral and Psychological Responses to HIV Antibody Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Paul B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Considers effects of informing individuals of their antibody status as determined by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing. Reviews research examining changes in psychological distress and in behaviors associated with HIV infections among individuals who have undergone antibody testing. Identifies methodological issues in studying…

  18. Studying red blood cell agglutination by measuring membrane viscosity with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Heloise P.; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Barjas-Castro, Maria L.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2007-09-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) viscoelastic membrane contains proteins and glycoproteins embedded in a fluid lipid bilayer that are responsible for cell agglutination. Manipulating RBCs rouleaux with a double optical tweezers, we observed that the cells slide easily one over the others but are strongly connected by their edges. An explanation for this behavior could be the fact that when the cells slide one over the others, proteins are dragged through the membrane. It confers to the movement a viscous characteristic that is dependent of the velocity between the RBCs and justifies why is so easy to slide them apart. Therefore, in a first step of this work, by measuring the force as a function of the relative velocity between two cells, we confirmed this assumption and used this viscous characteristic of the RBC rouleaux to determine the apparent membrane viscosity of the cell. As this behavior is related to the proteins interactions, we can use the apparent membrane viscosity to obtain a better understanding about cell agglutination. Methods related to cell agglutination induced by antigen-antibody interactions are the basis of most of tests used in transfusion centers. Then, in a second step of this work, we measured the apparent membrane viscosity using antibodies. We observed that this methodology is sensitive to different kinds of bindings between RBCs. Better comprehension of the forces and bindings between RBCs could improve the sensibility and specificity of the hemagglutination reactions and also guides the development of new potentiator substances.

  19. [Effect of erythrocyte preserved for different lengths of time on anti-D antibody identification with three blood matching tests].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rui-Qing; Lin, Wu-Cun; Xu, Dan; Zeng, Jie; Wu, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Shu-Ming

    2003-10-01

    The specificity of the antigens and length of preservation time of erythrocytes are the interfering factors in blood group serological tests. In order to clarify the influence of preservation time of erythrocytes on the blood matching test, the titers of anti-D antibody were detected with papain method, BioVue cross matching card and DianaGel cross matching card in 7 series of panel red blood cells preserved for various length of time (0 to 9 months). The results showed that the titer of micro-column gel test (DianaGel card) was one tube higher than that of column agglutinating test (BioVue card). The titer of erythrocytes preserved for 9 months was as high as 256 tested by DianaGel card, but it was only 2 by papain method in the same anti-serum. It is suggested that there was no obvious difference between the results of micro-column gel test and column agglutinating test, and titer of papain method was the lowest. PMID:14575550

  20. Evaluation of chromogenic medium and direct latex agglutination test for detection of group B streptococcus in vaginal specimens from pregnant women in Lebanon and Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Ghaddar, Nahed; Alfouzan, Wadha; Anastasiadis, Elie; Al Jiser, Tamima; Itani, Saad Eddine; Dernaika, Racha; Eid, Toufic; Ghaddar, Ali; Charafeddine, Adib; Dhar, Rita; El Hajj, Hiba

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate chromogenic medium and a direct latex agglutination test (DLA) for detection of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the vaginal specimens of pregnant women, and to ascertain the prevalence of GBS in this population in Kuwait and Lebanon. Vaginal swabs, collected from women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, were cultured on 5 % sheep blood agar (SBA), colistin nalidixic acid agar (CNA), Strept B Select chromogenic agar (SBS) as well as Lim enrichment broth in 168 cases in Lebanon while only SBA was used for 1391 samples in Kuwait. In addition, vaginal samples from 102 GBS-positive and 20 GBS-negative women near the time of delivery were collected in Kuwait for evaluation of the DLA test. During the study period, the prevalence of GBS colonization was determined to be 20.7 % (288/1391) in Kuwait while 18.4 % (31) of 168 pregnant women in Lebanon had vaginal cultures positive for GBS. By direct plating of vaginal swabs on the three media used, the isolation rates of GBS were 51.6, 64.5 and 77.4 % on SBA, CNA and SBS, respectively, which increased to 90.35, 93.1 and 96.8 %, respectively, following subculture in Lim broth after 18 h of incubation. The sensitivity of the DLA test was found to be dependent on the density of GBS colonization, resulting in 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for heavy (>10(2) c.f.u. per swab) and moderately heavy (50-100 c.f.u. per swab) growth of GBS. However, for vaginal specimens yielding <50 c.f.u. per swab, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the DLA test were 100, 55.5, 63.6 and 100 %, respectively. In conclusion, a chromogenic agar, such as SBS, and a DLA test can be used for rapid detection of GBS in pregnant women. The DLA test, in particular, could prove to be a useful tool for immediate detection of GBS in women near delivery so that intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis can be initiated. PMID:25082944

  1. A comparative study of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in mink using a modified agglutination test, a Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yi; Wang, Zedong; Cai, Yufeng; Li, Xiaoxing; Wei, Feng; Shang, Limin; Li, Jiping; Liu, Quan

    2015-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, and many serological methods have been developed to detect T. gondii infection in a variety of animal species. In the present study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in farmed mink in northeast China was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT), a Western blot (WB), and 3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with protein A/G conjugate, using either of 2 recombinant dense granule antigens, GRA1 and GRA7, or Toxoplasma soluble antigens (TSA). There was no significant difference between the detection results of the GRA1-, GRA7-, and TSA-ELISAs and WB (McNemar chi-square, P > 0.05), but a significant difference was observed between MAT and WB (P < 0.05). A near perfect agreement (97.0%) was found between the GRA7-ELISA and WB (κ = 0.83), and a substantial agreement (92.4-93.1%) was observed in the TSA- and GRA1-ELISAs (κ = 0.68-0.73). The GRA7-ELISA showed the highest sensitivity and specificity, and the lowest false-positive and negative rates, while the MAT gave both a low sensitivity and frequent false positives in comparison to the WB. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed the largest area under curve of 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.96), and the highest relative sensitivity (72.7%) and specificity (99.0%) for a cutoff value of 0.19 in the GRA7-ELISA. These results indicate that the GRA7-ELISA is suitable for detection of T. gondii infection in mink and that MAT should be used with caution.

  2. Agglutinating serum for distinguishing Staphylococcus aureus of human biotype.

    PubMed

    Live, I

    1975-08-01

    Antiserum to Staphylococcus aureus strain 17 was treated with S. aureus strain 61218 until the antibodies against thermostable agglutinogen were removed. The absorbed serum agglutinated phage-typable as well as phageuntypable staphylococci of human biotype, whether recovered from people or from dogs. PMID:125241

  3. Antinuclear antibody testing: discordance between commercial laboratories.

    PubMed

    Abeles, Aryeh M; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Abeles, Micha; Honiden, Shyoko

    2016-07-01

    Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test results frequently affect the course of patients' evaluations, diagnosis, and treatment, but different laboratory centers may yield conflicting results. This study investigated the degree of agreement between laboratory results in a group of subjects who had ANA testing performed at two commercial laboratories. This was a chart review study, in which all ANA tests ordered by the authors from one commercial laboratory over a 4-year period were queried. Corresponding patient charts were reviewed, and if ANA testing had also been performed at the second commercial laboratory, subjects were entered into the study. The primary measurement was agreement between paired ANA results, and we performed sensitivity analysis using varying criteria defining agreement (criteria A to criteria D [strictest to most lenient definition of agreement]). Other data captured included relevant data obtained through the course of evaluation (e.g., presenting complaints, exam findings, other laboratory data) and final diagnoses. Of 101 paired ANA tests, there was 18 % agreement according to the strictest criteria and 42 % according to the most lenient. Of the seven subjects with ANA-associated rheumatic disease, none of the paired tests were in agreement according to criteria A (two agreed according to criteria D). Our findings demonstrate poor agreement between paired ANA tests performed at two commercial laboratories. The low level of agreement may have far-reaching clinical implications. Specifically, this finding calls into question the reliability of ANA testing as it is currently performed and suggests that results may in part depend upon the laboratory center to which patients are referred.

  4. Validation of Serological Tests for the Detection of Antibodies Against Treponema pallidum in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Knauf, Sascha; Dahlmann, Franziska; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K.; Frischmann, Sieghard; Liu, Hsi

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that the yaws bacterium (Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue) may exist in non-human primate populations residing in regions where yaws is endemic in humans. Especially in light of the fact that the World Health Organizaiton (WHO) recently launched its second yaws eradication campaign, there is a considerable need for reliable tools to identify treponemal infection in our closest relatives, African monkeys and great apes. It was hypothesized that commercially available serological tests detect simian anti-T. pallidum antibody in serum samples of baboons, with comparable sensitivity and specificity to their results on human sera. Test performances of five different treponemal tests (TTs) and two non-treponemal tests (NTTs) were evaluated using serum samples of 57 naturally T. pallidum-infected olive baboons (Papio anubis) from Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. The T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA) was used as a gold standard for comparison. In addition, the overall infection status of the animals was used to further validate test performances. For most accurate results, only samples that originated from baboons of known infection status, as verified in a previous study by clinical inspection, PCR and immunohistochemistry, were included. All tests, TTs and NTTs, used in this study were able to reliably detect antibodies against T. pallidum in serum samples of infected baboons. The sensitivity of TTs ranged from 97.7-100%, while specificity was between 88.0-100.0%. The two NTTs detected anti-lipoidal antibodies in serum samples of infected baboons with a sensitivity of 83.3% whereas specificity was 100%. For screening purposes, the TT Espline TP provided the highest sensitivity and specificity and at the same time provided the most suitable format for use in the field. The enzyme immune assay Mastblot TP (IgG), however, could be considered as a confirmatory test. PMID:25803295

  5. 21 CFR 866.5090 - Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5090 Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antimitochondrial antibody immunological...

  6. Field testing and comparative evaluation of rapid, visually read screening assays for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Spielberg, F; Kabeya, C M; Ryder, R W; Kifuani, N K; Harris, J; Bender, T R; Heyward, W L; Quinn, T C

    1989-03-18

    Five rapid, visually read assays for detection of antibody against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were evaluated on fresh serum samples from 4000 prospective blood donors at Mama Yemo Hospital, Kinshasa, Zaïre. The sensitivity of the assays, based on 214 specimens positive by western blot, ranged from 84.6% to 99.1%. The specificity, based on 3664 samples negative by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or western blot, ranged from 92.7% to 98.8%. Three readers scored each test result independently; disagreement about test interpretation occurred in 1.2-8.3% of the specimens. There was no correlation between assay performance and assay principle (agglutination or dot immunobinding) or antigen source (viral lysate or recombinant). Assays such as these can be readily implemented in a developing country transfusion centre, where blood screening by ELISA is not practicable.

  7. [A modified immunofluorescence test to demonstrate toxoplasma antibodies (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sylvester, B; Schöning, C; Neuhaus, B

    1975-01-01

    A modified test to demonstrate toxoplasma antibodies by immunofluorescence is described in detail. This test was used in more than 16 000 cases. The antibody content of a patient's serum is assessed from a single dilution of 1:4 by two criteria: 1. The number of toxoplasms in the assay is kept constant. The percentage of antibody loaded cells varies with the concentration of antibodies in the patient's serum. 2. The intensity of fluorescence is correlated to the antibody content of the serum and the latter can be determined by means of standard sera. The results of this method are expressed in degrees of brightness. We compared three different methods and found an identical behaviour of the FATOX III and the Sabin-Feldman test. Between the complement-fixation test and the FATOX III there is the same relation as between JFT and SFT. This is shown in tables presenting the results for 1621 sera. The method is described in detail.

  8. Monoclonal antibodies to the h1 agglutinogen from Staphylococcus aureus 17A. Serological testing with type strains.

    PubMed

    Haaheim, L R; Lund, H

    1984-12-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies to the h1 agglutinogen were produced by conventional means, and slide agglutination of S. aureus type strains was performed with protein A affinity purified IgG1 antibodies. In accordance with Oeding's serotype system the type strains 17A and 670 were strongly and consistently agglutinated. In addition, however, several of the remaining twelve type strains investigated showed varying reaction patterns. Our results indicate that the h1 agglutinogen may be more widely distributed among S. aureus strains than previously assumed. PMID:6532111

  9. An indirect fluorescent antibody test for antibodies to transmissible gastroenteritis of swine.

    PubMed

    Benfield, D A; Haelterman, E O; Burnstein, T

    1978-10-01

    The indirect fluorescent antibody test was modified to provide a rapid technique for the detection, screening and titration of antibodies to transmissible gastroenteritis of pigs. Large numbers of slides containing transmissible gastroenteritis antigen were prepared by planting mixtures of infected and uninfected swine testicular cells onto multiwelled teflon-coated slides. After overnight incubation, about one-half of the cells in each well were infected which provided contrast to aid in detecting specific fluorescence in the presence of varying degrees of background staining. Following fixation, antigen slides were stored at -20 degrees C until used. The indirect fluorescent antibody test was compared to the virus neutralization test in both the screening and titration of swine sera containing transmissible gastroenteritis antibodies. The test was found to be sensitive and reliable and to offer certain advantages over the virus neutralization test.

  10. Transfusion-related acute lung injury due to HLA-A2-specific antibodies in recipient and NB1-specific antibodies in donor blood.

    PubMed

    Bux, J; Becker, F; Seeger, W; Kilpatrick, D; Chapman, J; Waters, A

    1996-06-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a hazardous but little-known complication of blood transfusion, characterized by non-cardiogenic lung oedema after blood transfusion. Leucoagglutinating antibodies in the donor plasma are considered to play a central role in the pathogenesis of TRALI but no recommended procedure currently exists for their detection, and most of them have not yet been well characterized. Serum samples of two patients who have developed TRALI within 30 min of blood transfusion and the sera of the involved blood donors were investigated for leucocyte antibodies by granulocyte immunofluorescence, granulocyte agglutination and lymphocytotoxicity assays using typed test cells. Suspected specificities of the detected antibodies were confirmed by a luminoimmunoblot assay and the antigen capture assay MAIGA. One case was associated with granulocyte agglutinating anti-HLA-A2 antibodies in the recipient's (i.e. patient's) own blood and the other with donor-related non-agglutinating antibodies directed against the granulocyte-specific antigen NB1. Leucocyte incompatibility between donor and recipient was shown in both cases by crossmatching and typing of the incompatible cells for the appropriate antigen. The results show that TRALI is associated not only with donor- but also with recipient-related leucocyte antibodies. In addition to leucoagglutinating antibodies, non-agglutinating granulocyte-specific antibodies can be also involved. For immunodiagnosis, sera from both must be investigated by a combination of granulocyte and lymphocyte (HLA) antibody screening tests and leucocyte incompatibility verified by crossmatching. PMID:8652399

  11. Use of polymerase chain reaction and quantitative antibody tests in children born to human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected mothers.

    PubMed

    Newell, M L; Loveday, C; Dunn, D; Kaye, S; Tedder, R; Peckham, C; De Maria, A; Giaquinto, C; Omeñaca, F; Canosa, C

    1995-12-01

    The diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children born to HIV-infected mothers is complicated by the presence of passively acquired maternal antibodies, and exclusion of infection in these infants remains problematic. The use of genome detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and the quantification of anti-HIV-1 antibodies were examined as methods for early diagnosis. Blood samples were taken from 84 non-breast-fed infants of HIV-infected mothers in five Italian and Spanish centres, a subgroup of children enrolled in the European Collaborative Study (ECS) for whom clinical and immunological information has been documented from birth. Whole blood was added to glycigel cryopreservative, stored, and tested in the United Kingdom by a nested PCR method. Antibody to HIV-1 was detected and quantified by titration using a gelatin particle agglutination test. PCR sensitivity and specificity were assessed. Twenty-one of the 84 children tested were infected. The estimated PCR sensitivity ranged from 0% (95% CI 0-26%) on day 1, 57% (19-85) on day 7, to 63% (33-92) on day 30. The negative predictive value of PCR ranged from 85% (83-88) on day 0 to 98% (94-100) at 3 months of age. On average, the level of maternal antibody halved every 33 days (31-36.5) in uninfected children. Between 6 and 9 months of age, increases in antibody titres in infected children were not more informative than absolute levels. These findings suggest that antibody measurement may supplement genomic diagnosis and that this collection method provides an alternative to the use of dried blood spots.

  12. NEOSPORA CANINUM AND TOXOPLASMA GONDII ANTIBODIES IN DOGS FROM DURANGO CITY, MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are structurally similar parasites with many common hosts.he prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum was determined in sera from dogs from Durango City, Mexico. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 52 (51.5%) ...

  13. Detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples from 315 horses from Costa Rica, Central America were examined for the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii using the SnSAG2 ELISA, the NhSAG1 ELISA, and the modified agglutination test, respectively. Anti-S. neurona antibodies were f...

  14. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN POLAR BEARS (URSUS MARITIMUS) FROM SVALBARD AND EAST GREENLAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples from 419 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard and the Barents Sea (collected 1990 - 2000) and 108 polar bears from East Greenland (collected 1999 - 2004) were assayed for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibody prevalences were ...

  15. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from northeastern Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in 673 domestic dogs from northeastern Portugal, by using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with 1:20 as cut-off for seropositivity; antibodies were found in 256 dogs (38.0%). Differences between seroprevalence levels in males (36.7%...

  16. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from the north of Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoa with zoonotic and economic importance. Prevalences of antibodies to these agents were assessed in 173 horses from the north of Portugal. Findings Antibodies to L. infantum were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT); seven (...

  17. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN WOLVERINES FROM NUNAVUT, CANADA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined in blood and tissue exudates recovered from the spleens of 41 wolverines (Gulo gulo) collected in Nunavut, Canada using a modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 17 (41.5%) of the 41 wolverines with MAT...

  18. Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... White Blood Cell Count ; Blood Smear ; CMV Tests ; Toxoplasmosis Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ... be ordered along with tests for cytomegalovirus (CMV) , toxoplasmosis , and other infections (sometimes as part of a ...

  19. The detection of circulating antibody in human toxocara infections using the indirect fluorescent antibody test

    PubMed Central

    Bisseru, B.; Woodruff, A. W.

    1968-01-01

    The indirect fluorescent antibody test has been used to detect Toxocara antibodies quantitatively in human sera. The results obtained correlate well with those obtained with the toxocara skin test. Cross reactions have been found with Ascaris lumbricoides and about one in five normal sera give a significant fluorescent reaction. The specificity of the test has been established by Ascaris adsorption studies and by a lack of cross reaction with sera from other helminthic infections. The test may be especially easy to use and therefore particularly valuable in regions where A. lumbricoides infection is relatively rare. Images PMID:4880409

  20. Novel indirect fluorescent antibody test for Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Chambers, M A; Swango, L J; Wright, J C

    1996-04-01

    An indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test was developed using a novel format of Borrelia burgdorferi organisms adhered to a monolayer of cultured endothelial cells derived from an equine tumor. Sensitivity and specificity of the new IFA test for detecting anti-B, burgdorferi antibodies were evaluated using sera from dogs inoculated with live B. burgdorferi or vaccinated with B. burgdorferi bacterin or leptobacterins and from unvaccinated specific-pathogen-free (SPF) dogs. To compare the new IFA test with existing tests, serum samples were submitted to independent laboratories to be tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a traditional IFA test. Samples were also tested with 2 commercially available membrane-bound ELISA kits. Both Borrelia-inoculated dogs and dogs vaccinated with B. burgdorferi bacterin developed levels of antibody detectable by the new IFA test. Dogs vaccinated with a combination canine vaccine or leptobacterin for food animal use developed detectable levels of antibody against Leptospira but remained seronegative for Borrelia by the new IFA test, as did the unvaccinated SPF dogs. The new IFA test was sensitive, detecting antibodies against B. burgdorferi as early as 7 days postinoculation. It was also specific, showing no cross-reactivity with anti-Leptospira antibodies induced by vaccination with leptobacterins. The new IFA test compared favorably with both the standardized traditional IFA test and ELISA. Results from both membrane-bound ELISA kits were not consistent when compared with each other or with the new IFA test. The new IFA test had low nonspecific fluorescence, which made it easier to evaluate and reduced the human error and variability of test results.

  1. Comparison of Buffered, Acidified Plate Antigen to Standard Serologic Tests for the Detection of Serum Antibodies to Brucella abortus in Elk (Cervus canadensis).

    PubMed

    Clarke, P Ryan; Edwards, William H; Hennager, Steven G; Block, Jean F; Yates, Angela M; Ebel, Eric; Knopp, Douglas J; Fuentes-Sanchez, Antonio; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Kientz, Rebecca L; Simunich, Marilyn

    2015-07-01

    Brucellosis (caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus) is a zoonotic disease endemic in wild elk (Cervus canadensis) of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, US. Because livestock and humans working with elk or livestock are at risk, validated tests to detect the B. abortus antibody in elk are needed. Using the κ-statistic, we evaluated the buffered, acidified plate antigen (BAPA) assay for agreement with the results of the four serologic tests (card test [card], complement fixation test [CF], rivanol precipitation plate agglutination test [RIV], standard plate agglutination test [SPT]) that are approved by the US Department of Agriculture for the detection of the B. abortus antibody in elk. From 2006 to 2010, serum samples collected from elk within B. abortus-endemic areas (n = 604) and nonendemic areas (n = 707) and from elk culture-positive for B. abortus (n = 36) were split and blind tested by four elk serum diagnostic laboratories. κ-Values showed a high degree of agreement for the card (0.876), RIV (0.84), and CF (0.774) test pairings and moderate agreement for the SPT (0.578). Sensitivities for the BAPA, card, RIV, CF, and SPT were 0.859, 0.839, 0.899, 1.00, and 0.813, whereas specificities were 0.986, 0.993, 0.986, 0.98, and 0.968, respectively. The positive predictive values and the negative predictive values were calculated for 2.6%, 8.8%, and 16.2% prevalence levels. These findings suggest the BAPA test is a suitable screening test for the B. abortus antibodies in elk.

  2. False-positive results in immunoglobulin M (IgM) toxoplasma antibody tests and importance of confirmatory testing: the Platelia Toxo IgM test.

    PubMed Central

    Liesenfeld, O; Press, C; Montoya, J G; Gill, R; Isaac-Renton, J L; Hedman, K; Remington, J S

    1997-01-01

    Although tests for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) toxoplasma antibodies have been reported to have a high degree of accuracy, it is well recognized by investigators in the United States and Europe that false-positive results may occur with many of these tests, at times to an alarming degree. Unfortunately, this information is not well documented in the literature. Studies on various toxoplasma IgM test kits are frequently flawed. The investigators often use reference tests which have not previously been carefully evaluated as well as sera that were not appropriate to answer the question of how often false-positive results might occur. We recently had the unique opportunity to evaluate the accuracy of the Platelia Toxo IgM test in 575 serum samples obtained during an outbreak of toxoplasmosis which occurred in 1995 in the Capital Regional District of British Columbia, Canada. When compared with results obtained in a reference IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the Platelia Toxo IgM test had a sensitivity of 99.4%, specificity of 49.2%, positive predictive value of 51.9%, negative predictive value of 99.3%, and an overall agreement of 67.0%. In an attempt to resolve discrepancies between these two tests, a serological profile (Sabin-Feldman dye test, IgA and IgE antibody tests, differential agglutination [AC/HS] test, and IgG avidity method) was performed. Of 153 serum samples that were positive in the Platelia Toxo IgM test and negative in the IgM ELISA, 71 (46.4%) were negative in the Sabin-Feldman dye test. Of the serum samples that were positive in the dye test, 77 (93.9%) had a serological profile most compatible with an infection acquired in the distant past. These results reveal high numbers of false-positive results in the Platelia Toxo IgM test and highlight the importance of appropriate evaluation of commercial tests that are currently being marked. Our results also emphasize the importance of confirmatory testing to determine whether the

  3. Diagnosis of myocardial infarction based on lectin-induced erythrocyte agglutination: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocsi, József; Nieschke, Kathleen; Mittag, Anja; Reichert, Thomas; Laffers, Wiebke; Marecka, Monika; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Piltz, Joachim; Esche, Hans-Jürgen; Wolf, Günther; Dähnert, Ingo; Baumgartner, Adolf; Tarnok, Attila

    2014-03-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is an acute life-threatening disease with a high incidence worldwide. Aim of this study was to test lectin-carbohydrate binding-induced red blood cell (RBC) agglutination as an innovative tool for fast, precise and cost effective diagnosis of MI. Five lectins (Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA), Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin (PHA), Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA), Artocarpus agglutinin (ArA), Triticum agglutinin (TA)) were tested for ability to differentiate between agglutination characteristics in patients with MI (n = 101) or angina pectoris without MI (AP) (n = 34) and healthy volunteers (HV) as control (n =68) . RBC agglutination was analyzed by light absorbance of a stirred RBC suspension in the green to red light spectrum in an agglutimeter (amtec, Leipzig, Germany) for 15 min after lectin addition. Mean cell count in aggregates was estimated from light absorbance by a mathematical model. Each lectin induced RBC agglutination. RCA led to the strongest RBC agglutination (~500 RBCs/aggregate), while the others induced substantially slower agglutination and lead to smaller aggregate sizes (5-150 RBCs/aggregate). For all analyzed lectins the lectin-induced RBC agglutination of MI or AP patients was generally higher than for HV. However, only PHA induced agglutination that clearly distinguished MI from HV. Variance analysis showed that aggregate size after 15 min. agglutination induced by PHA was significantly higher in the MI group (143 RBCs/ aggregate) than in the HV (29 RBC-s/aggregate, p = 0.000). We hypothesize that pathological changes during MI induce modification of the carbohydrate composition on the RBC membrane and thus modify RBC agglutination. Occurrence of carbohydrate-lectin binding sites on RBC membranes provides evidence about MI. Due to significant difference in the rate of agglutination between MI > HV the differentiation between these groups is possible based on PHA-induced RBC-agglutination. This novel assay

  4. Mannanoligosaccharide agglutination by Salmonella enterica strains isolated from carrier pigs

    PubMed Central

    Borowsky, Luciane; Corção, Gertrudes; Cardoso, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    Type-1 fimbriae are associated with most Salmonella enterica serovars and are an essential factor for host colonization. Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), a prebiotic that is agglutinated by type-1 fimbriae, are proposed for the control of enterobacteria colonization and may be an alternative to Salmonella control in pigs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of porcine Salmonella strains to adhere to MOS in vitro. A total of 108 strains of Salmonella sp. isolated from carrier pigs were evaluated for the amplification of fimA and fimH genes, agglutination of MOS and hemagglutination. In all tested strains, amplicons of expected size were detected for both fimA and fimH gene. In the hemagglutination assays, 31 (28.7%) strains presented mannose–sensitive agglutination of erythrocytes, indicating that the strains were expressing type-1 fimbriae. Considering only strains expressing the type-1 fimbriae, 23 (74.2%) presented a strong agglutination of MOS, 3 (9.6%) a weak reaction and 5 (16.2%) none. The results indicate that Salmonella enterica strains expressing type-1 fimbriae can agglutinate effectively in vitro to MOS. PMID:24031388

  5. Antibody Testing and Lyme Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lacombe, Eleanor H.; Rand, Peter W.

    2005-01-01

    Lyme disease test results for >9,000 dogs were collected from participating veterinary clinics. Testing was conducted by using the IDEXX 3Dx kit, used widely by Maine veterinarians to screen clinically normal dogs during heartworm season. This study demonstrates how this test can be a valuable public health disease surveillance tool. PMID:15890128

  6. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Antibody Test

    MedlinePlus

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization ... for trustworthy health information. Verify Compliance . Produced by Advertisement

  7. 21 CFR 866.5110 - Antiparietal antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antiparietal antibody immunological test system. 866.5110 Section 866.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5110 - Antiparietal antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antiparietal antibody immunological test system. 866.5110 Section 866.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5090 - Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... system. 866.5090 Section 866.5090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5090 Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification....

  10. 21 CFR 866.5110 - Antiparietal antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Antiparietal antibody immunological test system. 866.5110 Section 866.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Antinuclear antibody immunological test system. 866.5100 Section 866.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  12. 21 CFR 866.5090 - Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... system. 866.5090 Section 866.5090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5090 Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification....

  13. 21 CFR 866.5110 - Antiparietal antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antiparietal antibody immunological test system. 866.5110 Section 866.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5090 - Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... system. 866.5090 Section 866.5090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5090 Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification....

  15. 21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antinuclear antibody immunological test system. 866.5100 Section 866.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  16. Utility of HLA Antibody Testing in Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Konvalinka, Ana

    2015-01-01

    HLA antigens are polymorphic proteins expressed on donor kidney allograft endothelium and are critical targets for recipient immune recognition. HLA antibodies are risk factors for acute and chronic rejection and allograft loss. Solid-phase immunoassays for HLA antibody detection represent a major advance in sensitivity and specificity over cell-based methods and are widely used in organ allocation and pretransplant risk assessment. Post-transplant, development of de novo donor–specific HLA antibodies and/or increase in donor-specific antibodies from pretransplant levels are associated with adverse outcomes. Although single antigen bead assays have allowed sensitive detection of recipient HLA antibodies and their specificities, a number of interpretive considerations must be appreciated to understand test results in clinical and research contexts. This review, which is especially relevant for clinicians caring for transplant patients, discusses the technical aspects of single antigen bead assays, emphasizes their quantitative limitations, and explores the utility of HLA antibody testing in identifying and managing important pre- and post-transplant clinical outcomes. PMID:25804279

  17. Studying red blood cell agglutination by measuring electrical and mechanical properties with a double optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Adriana; Fernandes, Heloise P.; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Barjas-Castro, Maria L.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2007-07-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) viscoelastic membrane contains proteins and glycolproteins embedded in, or attached, to a fluid lipid bilayer and are negatively charged, which creates a repulsive electric (zeta) potential between the cells and prevents their aggregation in the blood stream. The basis of the immunohematologic tests is the interaction between antigens and antibodies that causes hemagglutination. The identification of antibodies and antigens is of fundamental importance for the transfusional routine. This agglutination is induced by decreasing the zeta-potential through the introduction of artificial potential substances. This report proposes the use of the optical tweezers to measure the membrane viscosity, the cell adhesion, the zeta-potential and the size of the double layer of charges (CLC) formed around the cell in an electrolytic solution. The adhesion was quantified by slowly displacing two RBCs apart until the disagglutination. The CLC was measured using the force on the bead attached to a single RBC in response to an applied voltage. The zeta-potential was obtained by measuring the terminal velocity after releasing the RBC from the optical trap at the last applied voltage. For the membrane viscosity experiment, we trapped a bead attached to RBCs and measured the force to slide one RBC over the other as a function of the relative velocity. After we tested the methodology, we performed measurements using antibody and potential substances. We observed that this experiment can provide information about cell agglutination that helps to improve the tests usually performed in blood banks. We also believe that this methodology can be applied for measurements of zeta-potentials in other kind of samples.

  18. Manufacturing High-Fidelity Lunar Agglutinate Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutafson, R. J.; Edmunson, J. E.; Rickman, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    The lunar regolith is very different from many naturally occurring material on Earth because it forms in the unique, impact-dominated environment of the lunar surface. Lunar regolith is composed of five basic particle types: mineral fragments, pristine crystalline rock fragments, breccia fragments, glasses of various kinds, and agglutinates (glass-bonded aggregates). Agglutinates are abundant in the lunar regolith, especially in mature regoliths where they can be the dominant component.This presentation will discuss the technical feasibility of manufacturing-simulated agglutinate particles that match many of the unique properties of lunar agglutinates.

  19. 21 CFR 866.3290 - Gonococcal antibody test (GAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gonococcal antibody test (GAT). 866.3290 Section 866.3290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3290...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3290 - Gonococcal antibody test (GAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gonococcal antibody test (GAT). 866.3290 Section 866.3290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3290...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3290 - Gonococcal antibody test (GAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gonococcal antibody test (GAT). 866.3290 Section 866.3290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3290...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3290 - Gonococcal antibody test (GAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gonococcal antibody test (GAT). 866.3290 Section 866.3290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3290...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3290 - Gonococcal antibody test (GAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gonococcal antibody test (GAT). 866.3290 Section 866.3290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3290...

  4. Antibody responses to Brucella abortus 2308 in cattle vaccinated with B. abortus RB51.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M G; Olsen, S C

    1996-03-01

    Cattle vaccinated with Brucella abortus rough strain RB51 (SRB51) produced small amounts of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) but no IgM antibody to smooth strain 2308 (S2308) bacteria and produced no IgG or IgM antibody to S2308 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Western immunoblot analysis revealed that antiserum from SRB51-vaccinated cattle contained IgG antibody that reacted with S2308 proteins of 84 to <20 kDa. However, antiserum from the vaccinated cattle did not contain agglutinating B. abortus antibody in the tube agglutination test for brucellosis. These results suggest that SRB51-vaccinated cattle produced no antibody to S2308 LPS, although they did produce nonagglutinating IgG antibody that reacted with S2308 bacteria and bacterial proteins of 84 to <20 kDa.

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the rodent capybara (Hidrochoeris hidrochoeris) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cañon-Franco, W A; Yai, L E O; Joppert, A M; Souza, C E; D'Auria, S R N; Dubey, J P; Gennari, S M

    2003-08-01

    Capybaras (Hidrochoeris hidrochoeris) are 1 of the largest rodents used for meat in South and Central America. Prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in 149 feral H. hidrochoeris from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, was evaluated using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and the modified agglutination test (MAT). Using IFAT, antibodies (>1:16) were found in 104 (69.8%) and with the MAT, antibodies (>1:25) were found in 63 (42.3%) capybaras. This is the first report of prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in this host.

  6. Lateral flow-based antibody testing for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Gwyn, Sarah; Mitchell, Alexandria; Dean, Deborah; Mkocha, Harran; Handali, Sukwan; Martin, Diana L

    2016-08-01

    We describe here a lateral flow-based assay (LFA) for the detection of antibodies against immunodominant antigen Pgp3 from Chlamydia trachomatis, the causative agent of urogenital chlamydia infection and ocular trachoma. Optimal signal detection was achieved when the gold-conjugate and test line contained Pgp3, creating a dual sandwich capture assay. The LFA yielded positive signals with serum and whole blood but not with eluted dried blood spots. For serum, the agreement of the LFA with the non-reference multiplex assay was 96%, the specificity using nonendemic pediatric sera was 100%, and the inter-rater agreement was κ=0.961. For whole blood, the agreement of LFA with multiplex was 81.5%, the specificity was 100%, and the inter-rater agreement was κ=0.940. The LFA was tested in a field environment and yielded similar results to those from laboratory-based testing. These data show the successful development of a lateral flow assay for detection of antibodies against Pgp3 with reliable use in field settings, which would make antibody-based testing for trachoma surveillance highly practical, especially after cessation of trachoma elimination programs. PMID:27208400

  7. [Correlation between measles-neutralizing antibody and HI antibody, between measles-neutralizing antibody and PA antibody among pregnant women, and protective levels of three titration types].

    PubMed

    Takayama, Naohide; Shoda, Akiko; Okazaki, Takayuki; Ichinohe, Sadato; Saika, Shizuko; Inaba, Noriyuki

    2007-11-01

    When measles antibody levels among pregnant women were measured with measles hemagglutinin inhibition (HI), 31% of subjects had negative HI antibody titers. When the same blood samples were tested with measles gelatin particle agglutination (PA) and neutralizing (NT), the percentages of those with negative antibody levels were 1% and 3%. We conducted the correlation between antibody titers measured by the three types of titration. Correlation between NT and HI antibody titers higher than 1:8 and that between NT and PA antibody titers were good, but 81% of subjects whose HI antibody titer was below 1:8 and all women with HI antibody of 1:8 were found to have NT antibody titer higher than 1:4. NT antibody titer higher than 1:4 was found in 95% of women having PA antibody titer of 1:256 and in 99% of those with PA antibody titer of 1:512. Based on the relationships to measles NT antibody level, the majority of subjects with HI antibody titer higher than 1:8 or PA antibody level higher than 1:512 was reasonably assumed to be protected against clinical measles. PA seemed superior to HI in finding subjects with insufficient immunity against measles, because the former detects weak immunity more efficiently than the latter.

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus antibody test and seroprevalence in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Naber, D; Pajonk, F G; Perro, C; Löhmer, B

    1994-05-01

    Psychiatric inpatients are at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Investigations in the United States revealed seroprevalence rates of 5.5-8.9%. Therefore, inclusion of HIV antibody testing in routine laboratory screening is sometimes suggested. To investigate this issue for inpatients in the Department of Psychiatry, University of Munich, the incidence, reason for HIV testing and results were analyzed. Of 12,603 patients, hospitalized from 1985 to 1993, 4.9% (623 patients, 265 in risk groups) underwent the HIV test after informed consent. Thirty patients (4.8% of those tested) were found to be positive, but only in 5 cases (all of risk groups) was infection newly detected. Data indicate that, in psychiatry, HIV testing is reasonable only in patients in risk groups or if clinical variables suggest HIV infection.

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus antibody test and seroprevalence in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Naber, D; Pajonk, F G; Perro, C; Löhmer, B

    1994-05-01

    Psychiatric inpatients are at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Investigations in the United States revealed seroprevalence rates of 5.5-8.9%. Therefore, inclusion of HIV antibody testing in routine laboratory screening is sometimes suggested. To investigate this issue for inpatients in the Department of Psychiatry, University of Munich, the incidence, reason for HIV testing and results were analyzed. Of 12,603 patients, hospitalized from 1985 to 1993, 4.9% (623 patients, 265 in risk groups) underwent the HIV test after informed consent. Thirty patients (4.8% of those tested) were found to be positive, but only in 5 cases (all of risk groups) was infection newly detected. Data indicate that, in psychiatry, HIV testing is reasonable only in patients in risk groups or if clinical variables suggest HIV infection. PMID:8067276

  10. Duration of maternally derived antibodies in Toxoplasma gondii naturally infected piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A longitudinal study was performed to analyze the dynamics of T. gondii antibodies in naturally infected piglets from 1 to 25 weeks of age. Seventy three piglets from 20 seronegative sows (modified agglutination test, MAT <1:25) and 20 naturally infected T. gondii seropositive sows (MAT>/=1:25) were...

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in captive wild mammals and birds in Brazil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study serum samples of 203 animals from different locations from zoos and breeding facilities from the north and northeast region of Brazil were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT) with a cutoff of 1:25. Of the sampled anima...

  12. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  13. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  14. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  15. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  16. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5120 - Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test... Systems § 866.5120 Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5120 - Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test... Systems § 866.5120 Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5120 - Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test... Systems § 866.5120 Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure...

  20. Antibody

    MedlinePlus

    An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples ... microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produced when the immune system mistakenly ...

  1. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in juvenile great grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus giganteus.

    PubMed

    Miller, David S; Faulkner, Charles; Patton, Sharon

    2003-06-01

    Serial IgG antibody titers to Toxoplasma gondii from three juvenile great grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus giganteus) with clinical signs consistent with toxoplasmosis were compared with titers from three clinically normal juveniles of similar age. The modified agglutination test was used to measure antibodies to T. gondii. Results demonstrated declining antibody titers to T. gondii in five of six animals. Antibody titers were similar in animals with and without clinical signs. This was interpreted as an indication that maternal IgG antibodies to T. gondii were transferred to juveniles, presumably in milk, rather than an indication of clinical disease. Therefore, clinicians should interpret Toxoplasma serology results in juvenile macropods cautiously.

  2. [Comparison of eight screening tests for ant-HCV antibody].

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Matsuo; Kagita, Masanori; Yamashita, Naoko; Nakano, Takasi; Tahara, Kazuko; Asari, Seishi; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2002-09-01

    We compared eight HCV screening tests for detection of anti-HCV antibody; Ortho Quick Chaser HCV Ab (QC), Ortho HCV Ab ELISA III (ELISA), Ortho HVC Ab PA test III (PA), Lumipulse II Ortho HCV (LUMI), IMx HCV.DAINAPACKII (IMx), ARCHITECT HCV (ARCH), Immucheck.F-HCV C50 Ab (Immu), RANREAM HCV Ab Ex II (RAN). Sera from six hundred patients were examined by these eight screening tests. The positive rates of the eight screening tests were from 9.0% to 13.2%. Forty-five sera showed discrepant results between the eight screening tests, and about half of them showed weak positive reaction and/or false positive. Twenty-five of the forty-five sera were negative for ant-HCV antibody in the CHIRON RIBA III confirmatory test, and forty-four of them were negative for HCV-RNA in the PCR method. The agreement rates between the two reagents were from 95.5% to 99.2%, but were not always high between the two reagents that used similar antigen. The specificities and sensitivities evaluated by using the RIBA III confirmatory test were excellent in ELISA, LUMI, IMx, ARCH and Immu. Three BBI seroconversion panels were used to compare the positive readings in the initial stage of HCV infection by eight screening tests. ELISA and ARCH showed the earliest positive readings, and then IMx, LUMI = RAN, PA, QC and Immu in this order. These findings indicate that ELISA and ARCH were the most excellent in the sensitivity, specificity and early diagnosis of HCV infection. However, we must pay attention to the weak positive reaction in the screening tests, because there is a possibility of "false positive".

  3. Isolation of a Factor from Apple that Agglutinates Erwinia amylovora12

    PubMed Central

    Romeiro, R.; Karr, A.; Goodman, R.

    1981-01-01

    Extracts prepared from apple seeds contain a factor (AF) capable of agglutinating cells of Erwinia amylovora. In drop agglutination tests, AF is more active in agglutinating an avirulent, acapsular strain of E. amylovora than a virulent, capsular strain. AF precipitates in agar plates with a receptor derived from boiled cells of avirulent acapsular strain and, therefore, can be located during fractionation by rocket electrophoresis. AF was heat-stable and had a pH optimum for agglutination near ≅3.6 pH. The agglutination activity was not affected by the presence of Mg2+, Ca2+, or EDTA. AF was separated into two fractions (AF I and AF II) by elution from a Bio-Gel P-100 column. The precipitin and agglutination activities associated with AF II were found to be present in a positively charged molecule which was sensitive to treatment with protease and trypsin and, hence, presumably resides in a protein. The approximate molecular weight of AF II was determined to be 12,600 daltons. Besides precipitating the receptor derived from cells of avirulent acapsular strain, AF II was capable of precipitating extracellular polysaccharide from cultures of virulent capsular strain, sodium polygalacturonate, and carboxymethylcellulose. These three polymers also inhibited the agglutination activity associated with AF II. AF II could be replaced by poly-l-lysines in both the precipitin and agglutination assays. In addition, in antigen absorption experiments, poly-l-lysines were found to remove the receptors for AF II from the boiled extracts of avirulent acapsular strain. Based on these observations, it is proposed that the activity of AF II resides in a highly positively charged protein which causes agglutination of bacterial cells by interacting on a charge-charge basis with negatively charged components on the surface of the bacterial cells. PMID:16661997

  4. Light-scattering analysis of ultrasonic wave's influence on the RBC agglutination in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubrovski, Valeri A.; Dvoretski, Costanten N.

    1999-04-01

    Elastic light scattering is one of the most often used optical methods to analyze the cells agglutination reaction - the base of a great number of medical diagnostic test and biomedical investigations. The increase of the resolution of methods and apparatus towards the induced cells aggregation - the foundation of the reaction of agglutination, is quite an actual problem. The solution of this problem increases the reliability of the diagnostic test and gives an opportunity to achieve the diagnostic information in the cases when the traditional approaches do not lead to the diagnostic results. The attempt to increase the resolution of the immune reaction analyzer by means of ultrasonic waves action on the reagent mixture in vitro is taken in this paper. The RBC agglutination reaction which is usually used for the blood group type examination is chosen as an example of an object of the investigation. Different laser optical trains of the devices based on the turbidimetric and nephelometric methods and their combination are analyzed here. The influence of the ultrasonic wave time interval action and of the features of the sample preparation procedure on the resolution towards the agglutination process was investigated in this work. It is shown that the ultrasonic wave action on the reagent mixture leads to a large gain in the resolution of the device towards the RBC agglutination process. The experiments showed that the resolution of the device was enough to register the agglutination process even for the erythrocytes with weak agglutination ability when the reaction was invisible without ultrasonic action. It occurred that the diagnostic test time was more than by an order shortened due to the ultrasonic wave action. The optimal ultrasonic time interval action, the sample preparation technology and experimental technique were defined. The principle of the ultrasonic wave action on the cells agglutination process suggested here can be spread out on the immune

  5. Interim Guidance for Interpretation of Zika Virus Antibody Test Results.

    PubMed

    Rabe, Ingrid B; Staples, J Erin; Villanueva, Julie; Hummel, Kimberly B; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Rose, Laura; Hills, Susan; Wasley, Annemarie; Fischer, Marc; Powers, Ann M

    2016-06-03

    Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus in the genus Flavivirus and is closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and yellow fever viruses (1,2). Among flaviviruses, Zika and dengue virus share similar symptoms of infection, transmission cycles, and geographic distribution. Diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection can be accomplished using both molecular and serologic methods. For persons with suspected Zika virus disease, a positive real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) result confirms Zika virus infection, but a negative rRT-PCR result does not exclude infection (3-7). In these cases, immunoglobulin (Ig) M and neutralizing antibody testing can identify additional recent Zika virus infections (6,7). However, Zika virus antibody test results can be difficult to interpret because of cross-reactivity with other flaviviruses, which can preclude identification of the specific infecting virus, especially when the person previously was infected with or vaccinated against a related flavivirus (8). This is important because the results of Zika and dengue virus testing will guide clinical management. Pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection should be evaluated and managed for possible adverse pregnancy outcomes and be reported to the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry or the Puerto Rico Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System for clinical follow-up (9,10). All patients with clinically suspected dengue should have proper management to reduce the risk for hemorrhage and shock (11). If serologic testing indicates recent flavivirus infection that could be caused by either Zika or dengue virus, patients should be clinically managed for both infections because they might have been infected with either virus.

  6. Interim Guidance for Interpretation of Zika Virus Antibody Test Results.

    PubMed

    Rabe, Ingrid B; Staples, J Erin; Villanueva, Julie; Hummel, Kimberly B; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Rose, Laura; Hills, Susan; Wasley, Annemarie; Fischer, Marc; Powers, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus in the genus Flavivirus and is closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and yellow fever viruses (1,2). Among flaviviruses, Zika and dengue virus share similar symptoms of infection, transmission cycles, and geographic distribution. Diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection can be accomplished using both molecular and serologic methods. For persons with suspected Zika virus disease, a positive real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) result confirms Zika virus infection, but a negative rRT-PCR result does not exclude infection (3-7). In these cases, immunoglobulin (Ig) M and neutralizing antibody testing can identify additional recent Zika virus infections (6,7). However, Zika virus antibody test results can be difficult to interpret because of cross-reactivity with other flaviviruses, which can preclude identification of the specific infecting virus, especially when the person previously was infected with or vaccinated against a related flavivirus (8). This is important because the results of Zika and dengue virus testing will guide clinical management. Pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection should be evaluated and managed for possible adverse pregnancy outcomes and be reported to the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry or the Puerto Rico Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System for clinical follow-up (9,10). All patients with clinically suspected dengue should have proper management to reduce the risk for hemorrhage and shock (11). If serologic testing indicates recent flavivirus infection that could be caused by either Zika or dengue virus, patients should be clinically managed for both infections because they might have been infected with either virus. PMID:27254248

  7. Rheologic characterization of vegetal lectins by dissociation of induced erythrocyte agglutinates.

    PubMed

    Rasia, R J; Valverde, J R; Gentils, M; Cauchois, C; Stoltz, J F

    1997-01-01

    Energy evolved from hemagglutination reaction or spent in dissociating erythrocyte agglutinates has been proved to be an excellent parameter for analyzing cell-cell interactions mediated by bridging molecules such as antibodies or lectins. We developed a new rheo-optical method to estimate the energy of dissociation of red blood cell agglutinates. In a Couette shear field agglutinates can be dissociated until a suspension of monodispersed cells is obtained. Intensity of light backscattered by suspended agglutinates increases during their mechanical dissociation. Variation of backscattered light intensity correlates with the energy spent in the process. The adhesive energy of erythrocyte agglutination induced by lectins has been estimated by applying this method. Two specific lectins (Dolichus Biflorus agglutinin and Ulex Europaeus agglutinin) and a new lectin obtained from Amarantus Cruentus seeds which specificity is unknown were studied. Results obtained in this work for Dolichus Biflorus lectin are comparable with values published by other authors. An asymptotic decrease of adhesive energy was observed when the mechanical dissociation was applied several times on the same sample. Our results suggest that the cell detachment is accompanied by the extraction of membrane receptors. This finding is consistent with results obtained by other authors.

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma Gondii antibodies in cats from Durango City, Mexico.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined in sera from 105 domestic cats from Durango City, Mexico. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to this parasite were found in (21%) of the 105 cats with titers of 1:25 in 3, 1:50 in 4, 1:200 in 5, 1:400 in 2, 1:800 in 2, 1...

  9. Prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sport horses from Qazvin, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hajialilo, Elham; Ziaali, Naser; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; Saraei, Mehrzad; Hajialilo, Mohammad

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, the prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in sport horses of Qazvin was examined using modified agglutination test (MAT). On 52 horse sera totally examined for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies, 37 horses (71.2%) were seropositive by MAT. Results of the present study showed a high rate of Toxoplasma infection in horses in Qazvin area. More comprehensive study on equine toxoplasmosis is recommended. PMID:20383793

  10. A Protein-Conjugate Approach to Develop a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Antigen Detection Test for the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Kailash P.; Saito, Mayuko; Atluri, Vidya L.; Rolán, Hortensia G.; Young, Briana; Kerrinnes, Tobias; Smits, Henk; Ricaldi, Jessica N.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsolis, Renee M.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Human brucellosis is most commonly diagnosed by serology based on agglutination of fixed Brucella abortus as antigen. Nucleic acid amplification techniques have not proven capable of reproducibly and sensitively demonstrating the presence of Brucella DNA in clinical specimens. We sought to optimize a monoclonal antibody-based assay to detect Brucella melitensis lipopolysaccharide in blood by conjugating B. melitensis LPS to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, an immunogenic protein carrier to maximize IgG affinity of monoclonal antibodies. A panel of specific of monoclonal antibodies was obtained that recognized both B. melitensis and B. abortus lipopolysaccharide epitopes. An antigen capture assay was developed that detected B. melitensis in the blood of experimentally infected mice and, in a pilot study, in naturally infected Peruvian subjects. As a proof of principle, a majority (7/10) of the patients with positive blood cultures had B. melitensis lipopolysaccharide detected in the initial blood specimen obtained. One of 10 patients with relapsed brucellosis and negative blood culture had a positive serum antigen test. No seronegative/blood culture negative patients had a positive serum antigen test. Analysis of the pair of monoclonal antibodies (2D1, 2E8) used in the capture ELISA for potential cross-reactivity in the detection of lipopolysaccharides of E. coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica O9 showed specificity for Brucella lipopolysaccharide. This new approach to develop antigen-detection monoclonal antibodies against a T cell-independent polysaccharide antigen based on immunogenic protein conjugation may lead to the production of improved rapid point-of-care-deployable assays for the diagnosis of brucellosis and other infectious diseases. PMID:24901521

  11. Haemagglutination inhibition test for the detection of rubella antibody*

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Between 1969 and 1972 three quality control studies were set up to investigate the variation in results that was occurring between and within laboratories performing routine tests for the diagnosis of rubella infection. No attempt was made to standardize the test in these studies, and a wide range in titres of sera was reported. The aims of the present studies were: (i) to investigate in greater detail whether results were more reproducible between laboratories if test sera were compared with control sera of known potency and the results given in international units of activity, and (ii) to ascertain whether results between laboratories would be more reproducible if a standard test procedure was used. Eleven laboratories participated in testing 38 sera on three separate occasions by a prescribed standard technique and by that used routinely in each laboratory. Eight of the 38 sera consisted of four pairs of duplicate samples. Analysis of results of the study showed that the reproducibility between laboratories was substantially improved when the test sera were compared with a control serum of known potency and when a standard test procedure was used. Variation in results between laboratories was least when a control serum of low rather than high potency was used. Variation within laboratories can be reduced by increasing the number of times the control and test sera are tested. Since the rubella antibody content of the British Standard anti-rubella serum is expressed in international units, the potency of the control and results of test sera should also be expressed in such units. PMID:731021

  12. Establishment of serological test to detect antibody against ferret coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    MINAMI, Shohei; TERADA, Yutaka; SHIMODA, Hiroshi; TAKIZAWA, Masaki; ONUMA, Mamoru; OTA, Akihiko; OTA, Yuichi; AKABANE, Yoshihito; TAMUKAI, Kenichi; WATANABE, Keiichiro; NAGANUMA, Yumiko; KANAGAWA, Eiichi; NAKAMURA, Kaneichi; OHASHI, Masanari; TAKAMI, Yoshinori; MIWA, Yasutsugu; TANOUE, Tomoaki; OHWAKI, Masao; OHTA, Jouji; UNE, Yumi; MAEDA, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Since there is no available serological methods to detect antibodies to ferret coronavirus (FRCoV), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant partial nucleocapsid (N) proteins of the ferret coronavirus (FRCoV) Yamaguchi-1 strain was developed to establish a serological method for detection of FRCoV infection. Many serum samples collected from ferrets recognized both a.a. 1–179 and a.a. 180–374 of the N protein, but two serum samples did not a.a. 180–374 of the N protein. This different reactivity was also confirmed by immunoblot analysis using the serum from the ferret.Therefore, the a.a. 1–179 of the N protein was used as an ELISA antigen. Serological test was carried out using sera or plasma of ferrets in Japan. Surprisingly, 89% ferrets in Japan had been infected with FRCoV. These results indicated that our established ELISA using a.a. 1–179 of the N protein is useful for detection of antibody to FRCoV for diagnosis and seroepidemiology of FRCoV infection. PMID:26935842

  13. Leptospirosis in Kuala Lumpur and the comparative evaluation of two rapid commercial diagnostic kits against the MAT test for the detection of antibodies to leptospira interrogans.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, W Y; Soo, E H; Gopalakrishnan, V; Devi, S

    2000-08-01

    The aim of the study was to look into the epidemiology of serodiagnosed cases of leptospirosis at the University Hospital and compare two commercial ELISA Assays to the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Demographic data for all serodiagnosed cases for the years 1991-1997 were collected. From this data, 104 sera (n = 104) were selected as samples for comparative evaluation of the commercial ELISAs (INDX Dip-S-Ticks and PanBio ELISA) to the MAT test. Thirty two (n = 32) negative control sera were selected from serodiagnosed cases of other differential diagnosis of leptospira infection. The MAT test is a standard test that detects agglutination antibodies to leptospira biflexa, while the INDX Dip-S-Ticks is an ELISA dot test assaying for total anti-leptospira antibodies. The PanBio ELISA is a colorometric assay in test well strips to detect anti-leptospira IgM. The sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of tests were calculated at a MAT cut-off value of 1:320. Demographic data showed that leptospirosis peaks during March-May and Aug-Nov coinciding with the inter-monsoon period with more men being infected than women and more adults than children. The sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of test for the INDX Dip-S-Ticks were 83.3%, 93.8% and 87.5% while the values for the PanBio ELISA were 54.2%, 96.9% and 71.3%. The suboptimal PanBio result could be related to the blocking effect of high IgG titres or could be related to the diagnostic MAT cut-off values used in this study. The data hence reflects a pattern of transmission that is related to "wet" occupational risk factors. The commercial assays evaluated, are easier to perform but interpretation of results should be based on level of endemicity. The INDX Dip-S-Ticks allows this flexibility and is a practical alternative to the MAT test.

  14. Leptospirosis in Kuala Lumpur and the comparative evaluation of two rapid commercial diagnostic kits against the MAT test for the detection of antibodies to leptospira interrogans.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, W Y; Soo, E H; Gopalakrishnan, V; Devi, S

    2000-08-01

    The aim of the study was to look into the epidemiology of serodiagnosed cases of leptospirosis at the University Hospital and compare two commercial ELISA Assays to the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Demographic data for all serodiagnosed cases for the years 1991-1997 were collected. From this data, 104 sera (n = 104) were selected as samples for comparative evaluation of the commercial ELISAs (INDX Dip-S-Ticks and PanBio ELISA) to the MAT test. Thirty two (n = 32) negative control sera were selected from serodiagnosed cases of other differential diagnosis of leptospira infection. The MAT test is a standard test that detects agglutination antibodies to leptospira biflexa, while the INDX Dip-S-Ticks is an ELISA dot test assaying for total anti-leptospira antibodies. The PanBio ELISA is a colorometric assay in test well strips to detect anti-leptospira IgM. The sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of tests were calculated at a MAT cut-off value of 1:320. Demographic data showed that leptospirosis peaks during March-May and Aug-Nov coinciding with the inter-monsoon period with more men being infected than women and more adults than children. The sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of test for the INDX Dip-S-Ticks were 83.3%, 93.8% and 87.5% while the values for the PanBio ELISA were 54.2%, 96.9% and 71.3%. The suboptimal PanBio result could be related to the blocking effect of high IgG titres or could be related to the diagnostic MAT cut-off values used in this study. The data hence reflects a pattern of transmission that is related to "wet" occupational risk factors. The commercial assays evaluated, are easier to perform but interpretation of results should be based on level of endemicity. The INDX Dip-S-Ticks allows this flexibility and is a practical alternative to the MAT test. PMID:11256343

  15. Process to create simulated lunar agglutinate particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, Robert J. (Inventor); Gustafson, Marty A. (Inventor); White, Brant C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of creating simulated agglutinate particles by applying a heat source sufficient to partially melt a raw material is provided. The raw material is preferably any lunar soil simulant, crushed mineral, mixture of crushed minerals, or similar material, and the heat source creates localized heating of the raw material.

  16. Red blood cell membrane viscoelasticity, agglutination and zeta potential measurements with double optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Adriana; Fernandes, Heloise P.; Barjas-Castro, Maria L.; de Thomaz, André A.; de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2006-02-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) viscoelastic membrane contains proteins and glycolproteins embedded in, or attached, to a fluid lipid bilayer and are negatively charged, which creates a repulsive electric (zeta) potential between the cells and prevents their aggregation in the blood stream. There are techniques, however, to decrease the zeta potential to allow cell agglutination which are the basis of most of the tests of antigen-antibody interactions in blood banks. This report shows the use of a double optical tweezers to measure RBC membrane viscosity, agglutination and zeta potential. In our technique one of the optical tweezers trap a silica bead that binds strongly to a RBC at the end of a RBCs rouleaux and, at the same time, acts as a pico-Newton force transducer, after calibration through its displacement from the equilibrium position. The other optical tweezers trap the RBC at the other end. To measure the membrane viscosity the optical force is measured as a function of the velocity between the RBCs. To measure the adhesion the tweezers are slowly displaced apart until the RBCs disagglutination happens. The RBC zeta potential is measured in two complimentary ways, by the force on the silica bead attached to a single RBC in response to an applied electric field, and the conventional way, by the measurement of terminal velocity of the RBC after released from the optical trap. These two measurements provide information about the RBC charges and, also, electrolytic solution properties. We believe this can improve the methods of diagnosis in blood banks.

  17. 21 CFR 606.151 - Compatibility testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... identification. (b) The use of fresh recipient serum or plasma samples less than 3 days old for all...) Procedures to demonstrate incompatibility between the donor's cell type and the recipient's serum or plasma... demonstrate agglutinating, coating and hemolytic antibodies, the recipient's cells shall be tested with...

  18. Anti IH: An antibody worth mention.

    PubMed

    Mohanan, Nithya; Henry, Nittin; Rafi, Aboobacker Mohamed; Innah, Susheela J

    2016-01-01

    A 72-year-old female with co-morbidities posted for surgical correction of fracture neck of femur without any history of transfusions was noted to have a hemoglobin level of 7 g/dl and packed red blood cells transfusion was ordered. Pretransfusion tests demonstrated A1B group with D positive on forward grouping. Reverse grouping showed a varying grade of agglutination with A, B, and O cells. Agglutination being stronger at 4°C. Antibody screening showed pan-agglutination, direct Coomb's test and auto control were negative. The serum reacted with adult O cells (OIadult) but not with adult Bombay cells (Oh Iadult) or O cord (Oicord) cells. A possibility of a compound cold antibody anti IH was made and A1B compatible cells were transfused to the patient. This case report illustrates anti-IH cold agglutinin with broad thermal amplitude. Uniqueness of this case report was O group incompatibility with A1B group, which was detected earlier and a catastrophic transfusion reaction being subverted. PMID:27605855

  19. Anti IH: An antibody worth mention.

    PubMed

    Mohanan, Nithya; Henry, Nittin; Rafi, Aboobacker Mohamed; Innah, Susheela J

    2016-01-01

    A 72-year-old female with co-morbidities posted for surgical correction of fracture neck of femur without any history of transfusions was noted to have a hemoglobin level of 7 g/dl and packed red blood cells transfusion was ordered. Pretransfusion tests demonstrated A1B group with D positive on forward grouping. Reverse grouping showed a varying grade of agglutination with A, B, and O cells. Agglutination being stronger at 4°C. Antibody screening showed pan-agglutination, direct Coomb's test and auto control were negative. The serum reacted with adult O cells (OIadult) but not with adult Bombay cells (Oh Iadult) or O cord (Oicord) cells. A possibility of a compound cold antibody anti IH was made and A1B compatible cells were transfused to the patient. This case report illustrates anti-IH cold agglutinin with broad thermal amplitude. Uniqueness of this case report was O group incompatibility with A1B group, which was detected earlier and a catastrophic transfusion reaction being subverted.

  20. Anti IH: An antibody worth mention

    PubMed Central

    Mohanan, Nithya; Henry, Nittin; Rafi, Aboobacker Mohamed; Innah, Susheela J.

    2016-01-01

    A 72-year-old female with co-morbidities posted for surgical correction of fracture neck of femur without any history of transfusions was noted to have a hemoglobin level of 7 g/dl and packed red blood cells transfusion was ordered. Pretransfusion tests demonstrated A1B group with D positive on forward grouping. Reverse grouping showed a varying grade of agglutination with A, B, and O cells. Agglutination being stronger at 4°C. Antibody screening showed pan-agglutination, direct Coomb's test and auto control were negative. The serum reacted with adult O cells (OIadult) but not with adult Bombay cells (Oh Iadult) or O cord (Oicord) cells. A possibility of a compound cold antibody anti IH was made and A1B compatible cells were transfused to the patient. This case report illustrates anti-IH cold agglutinin with broad thermal amplitude. Uniqueness of this case report was O group incompatibility with A1B group, which was detected earlier and a catastrophic transfusion reaction being subverted.

  1. Anti IH: An antibody worth mention

    PubMed Central

    Mohanan, Nithya; Henry, Nittin; Rafi, Aboobacker Mohamed; Innah, Susheela J.

    2016-01-01

    A 72-year-old female with co-morbidities posted for surgical correction of fracture neck of femur without any history of transfusions was noted to have a hemoglobin level of 7 g/dl and packed red blood cells transfusion was ordered. Pretransfusion tests demonstrated A1B group with D positive on forward grouping. Reverse grouping showed a varying grade of agglutination with A, B, and O cells. Agglutination being stronger at 4°C. Antibody screening showed pan-agglutination, direct Coomb's test and auto control were negative. The serum reacted with adult O cells (OIadult) but not with adult Bombay cells (Oh Iadult) or O cord (Oicord) cells. A possibility of a compound cold antibody anti IH was made and A1B compatible cells were transfused to the patient. This case report illustrates anti-IH cold agglutinin with broad thermal amplitude. Uniqueness of this case report was O group incompatibility with A1B group, which was detected earlier and a catastrophic transfusion reaction being subverted. PMID:27605855

  2. Screening of bacterial isolates for mannose-specific lectin activity by agglutination of yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Mirelman, D; Altmann, G; Eshdat, Y

    1980-01-01

    A total of 393 clinical bacterial isolates were tested for their ability to agglutinate yeast cells of either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Candida albicans. A positive agglutination of yeasts that could be prevented by methyl alpha-D-mannoside was taken as an indication for the possible presence of a mannose-specific lectin (carbohydrate-binding protein) on the surface of the tested bacteria. Agglutination tests on glass slides showed that 38% of all the isolates tested were positive in their capacity to agglutinate yeasts. Among the various strains tested, all isolates of Serratia marcescens, Proteus morganii, and Citrobacter diversus, as well as 94% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, were positive. On the other hand, only 46% of the Escherichia coli, 48% of the salmonellae, 44% of the Citrobacter freundii, and 71% of the Aeromonas hydrophila isolates were positive. A quantitative determination of the lectin activity done by observing the agglutination of yeasts in microtiter plates showed that S. marcescens isolates were the most avid binders to the yeast, whereas Klebsiella and Citrobacter isolates were the weakest. PMID:6989854

  3. Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Lepstospira spp. in manatees (Trichechus inunguis) of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Patrick D; da Silva, Vera M F; Rosas, Fernando C W; d'Affonseca Neto, José A; Lazzarini, Stella M; Ribeiro, Daniella C; Dubey, Jitender P; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Gennari, Solange M

    2012-03-01

    The presence of Toxoplasma gondii and Leptospira spp. antibodies was investigated in 74 manatees (Trichechus inunguis [Mammalia: Sirenia]) kept in captivity in two rescue units in the northern region of Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 29 (39.2%) of 74 animals by using the modified agglutination test (titer, 1:25). For antibodies against Leptospira spp., sera were diluted 1:50 and tested against 24 strains ofleptospires by microscopic agglutination microtechnique, and positive samples were end titrated. Twenty-three (31.1%) of 74 animals were reactive to four serovars (Patoc 21/23, Castellonis 2/23, Icterohaemorrhagiae 1/23, and Butembo 1/ 23), with titers ranging from 100 to 1,600. This is the first report of antibodies against T. gondii and Leptospira spp. in T. inunguis from the Brazilian Amazon.

  4. Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Lepstospira spp. in manatees (Trichechus inunguis) of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Patrick D; da Silva, Vera M F; Rosas, Fernando C W; d'Affonseca Neto, José A; Lazzarini, Stella M; Ribeiro, Daniella C; Dubey, Jitender P; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Gennari, Solange M

    2012-03-01

    The presence of Toxoplasma gondii and Leptospira spp. antibodies was investigated in 74 manatees (Trichechus inunguis [Mammalia: Sirenia]) kept in captivity in two rescue units in the northern region of Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 29 (39.2%) of 74 animals by using the modified agglutination test (titer, 1:25). For antibodies against Leptospira spp., sera were diluted 1:50 and tested against 24 strains ofleptospires by microscopic agglutination microtechnique, and positive samples were end titrated. Twenty-three (31.1%) of 74 animals were reactive to four serovars (Patoc 21/23, Castellonis 2/23, Icterohaemorrhagiae 1/23, and Butembo 1/ 23), with titers ranging from 100 to 1,600. This is the first report of antibodies against T. gondii and Leptospira spp. in T. inunguis from the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:22448513

  5. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  10. Monoclonal antibodies against the K99 antigen of Escherichia coli for diagnostic purposes.

    PubMed

    Angulo, A F; Jansen, W H; Osterhaus, A D; Uytdehaag, F G; Maas, H M; Guinée, P A

    1986-04-01

    Hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies against the K99 antigen of Escherichia coli were produced by the fusion of spleen cells from immunized BALB/c mice with P3/X63-Ag8.653 myeloma cells. The seven hybridomas which produced the highest antibody titers in vitro, as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Perma slide agglutination test (PSAT), were chosen for antibody production in vivo. No cross reaction was observed with K88ab, F41 and P987 antigens in the ELISA. The titer of each ascitic fluid was established by the ELISA and the slide agglutination (SAT) tests. The two ascitic fluids with the highest titer in the SAT were incorporated into the set of antisera used for serotyping at our laboratory. The results were satisfactory both in terms of stability and specificity.

  11. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) testing: detection methods and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Sinico, Renato Alberto; Radice, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are considered the diagnostic biomarker of some necrotising vasculitis such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and, to a lesser extent, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). According to the current recommendations, combining indirect immunofluorescence and proteinase 3 (PR3) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) antigen specific immunometric assays, in the proper clinical setting, assures the best diagnostic specificity. When such conditions are satisfied, ANCA are detected in up to 90% of patients with active generalised GPA and MPA and in about 40% of patients with EGPA. Cytoplasmic ANCA (C-ANCA) with specificity for PR3 are usually found in patients with GPA whereas perinuclear ANCA (P-ANCA) in patients with MPA and EGPA. However, ANCA antigen specificity is more closely associated with disease phenotype and prognosis than clinical diagnosis. The clinical value of serial ANCA testing in monitoring disease activity is still debated. Recently, new promising developments in methodology and techniques (computer-based image analysis of immunofluorescence patterns, novel generation of PR3-/MPO-ANCA immunometric assays and multiplex technology) have been proposed but studies comparing the performances of the different assays are scarce. PMID:24854381

  12. The production curve for agglutinates in planetary regoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, D. S.; Basu, A.

    1983-11-01

    Models for the production of agglutinates are developed that can be applied to the lunar surface or to any planetary or asteroidal body lacking an atmosphere. Models are developed using rate equations for progressively more complex situations and range from Model 1, which is a simple linear increase of agglutinate content with time, to Model 4, which includes provision for recycling of existing agglutinates and replenishment and burial of exposed soil. Model 4 has some aspects of a steady state because, depending on the rate constants, agglutinate content may be limited to an intermediate value, even for long exposure times. In an extreme case, agglutinate content may be limited to a value near zero. These models predict that agglutinates should be low in abundance in areas of thin regolith, such as the Lunokhod-2 site on the moon, and on asteroids. The models may also help explain the apparent low agglutinate abundances of lunar regolith breccias and meteorite regolith breccias.

  13. Antibodies to spermatozoa. VII humoral and cellular aspects of sperm inmunity and infertility.

    PubMed

    Shulman, S; Patel, S; Stamm, E

    1976-01-01

    The occurrence of sperm antibody in serum and cervical mucus of women from intertile couples in the serum of their male partners, as well as cellular immunity to sperm, has been studied by agglutination and immobilization techniques. For a total of about 260 couples, the tests on serum showed that 18% of the women and 8% of the men were positive by the Kibrick technique and that 15% of the women and 4% of the men were positive by the F-D technique. The women who were positive in their cervical mucus were 8% of the group by the K-agg (Kibrick agglutination) technique, 2% by the MIS-agg. (Microscale agglutination) technique, and 40% by the MIS-imm. (Microscale immobilization) tecnique. In considering all three techniques. 42% of a group of 132 women were positive. Cellular immunity to sperm, by the Migration Inhibition method, was positive in 18% and zero per cent of infertile and fertile women, respectively.

  14. Capsular gene typing of Streptococcus agalactiae compared to serotyping by latex agglutination.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kaihu; Poulsen, Knud; Maione, Domenico; Rinaudo, C Daniela; Baldassarri, Lucilla; Telford, John L; Sørensen, Uffe B Skov; Kilian, Mogens

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated three different PCR-based capsular gene typing methods applied to 312 human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) isolates and compared the results to serotyping results obtained by latex agglutination. Among 281 human isolates 27% could not be typed by latex agglutination. All 312 isolates except 5 could be typed by the three PCR methods combined. Two of these methods were multiplex assays. Among the isolates that were typeable by both latex agglutination and capsular gene typing, 94% showed agreement between the two methods. However, each of the PCR methods showed limitations. One of the methods did not include all 10 recognized serotypes, one misidentified eight isolates of serotypes Ib and IV as serotype Ia, and one did not distinguish between serotypes VII and IX. For five isolates that showed aberrant patterns in the capsular gene typing, long-range PCR targeting the cps operon disclosed large insertions or deletions affecting the cps gene cluster. A sensitive flow cytometric assay based on serotype-specific antibodies applied to 76 selected isolates that were nontypeable by latex agglutination revealed that approximately one-half of these did express capsular polysaccharide. A procedure for convenient and reliable capsular gene typing to be included in epidemiological and surveillance studies of S. agalactiae is proposed. PMID:23196363

  15. Heterophilic antibodies interfering with radioimmunoassay. A false-positive pregnancy test

    SciTech Connect

    Vladutiu, A.O.; Sulewski, J.M.; Pudlak, K.A.; Stull, C.G.

    1982-11-19

    A young woman with amenorrhea had a consistently positive pregnancy test result (serum radioimmunoassay measurement of ..beta..-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone). No fetal or placental tissue was found after uterine curettage and exploratory laparotomy. The false-positive pregnancy test result was due to heterophilic antibovine and antigoat antibodies in the patient's serum. These antibodies interfered with radioimmunoassays using goat antibodies. This case shows that serum heterophilic antibodies can interfere with immunoassays and result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or unnecessary treatment.

  16. Chlamydia antibody testing helps in identifying females with possible tubal factor infertility

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Swapnil; Bhandari, Shilpa; Agarwal, Pallavi; Chittawar, Priya; Thakur, Ratna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Chlamydia is an important cause of sexually transmitted diseases leading to tubal factor infertility. Background: This study aims to define the role of chlamydial antibody detection in predicting presence, nature and type of tubal pathology in laparoscopy. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 200 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopy as a part of infertility work-up. Preoperatively, serological determination of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) specific antibodies against Chlamydia Trachomatis was done by Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Findings of laparoscopy were evaluated against presence or absence of chlamydial antibodies in serum. Results: Out of 200 patients,10 patients tested positive for chlamydial antibody. Chlamydial antibody was found positive in 20% and 22.7% of patients with tubal pathology and peri-hepatic adhesions of patients, respectively. The sensitivity of chlamydial antibody for diagnosing tubal pathology was found to be 20%, while specificity was 100%. The positive chlamydial antibody test was not statistically associated with involvement of one or both tubes and site of tubal block. Conclusion: Chlamydia antibody test does not appear to be good screening test for tubal pathology especially in Indian subcontinent. In view of its high specificity, this test can be used to identify patients with higher chances of tubal pathology requiring operative intervention. PMID:27294217

  17. Agglutinates and carbon accumulation in Apollo 17 lunar soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, A.; Meinschein, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of maturity with respect to the abundance of implanted solar wind elements (SWE) in lunar soils indicates: (1) that the Rosiwal Principle has limited applicability in determining implantation of SWE in lunar soils, and (2) that despite a depletion of SWE in agglutinitic glass, agglutinates are enriched in SWE due to the presence of buried surfaces of numerous clasts within agglutinates. A statistical analysis of published data of several Apollo 17 soils indicates that the abundance of carbon and, by analogy, the abundance of other SWE are correlatable with the agglutinate content and the mean grain size of lunar soils. Microscopic examination of more than 5000 grains of agglutinates in polished thin sections reveals a wide range of variability in the mineralogy, grain size distribution, degree of recycling, etc., of the clast population in agglutinates. This indicates that the volume-correlated SWE content of agglutinates may vary and need not be constant.

  18. The chemistry of some individual lunar soil agglutinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, R. V.; Hoerz, F.; Schaal, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    The inquiry is centered on the composition of agglutinate glasses examined via microprobe techniques. The glass chemistry of the agglutinates is brought into relation with compositions of constituent detritus and bulk compositions of the parent soils, with recent reported results taken into cognizance. Electron microprobe analysis data were examined for possible chemical fractionation resulting from meteoritic impacts and formation of agglutinates in the lunar regolith; individual agglutinates from lunar soils 78222, 71061, and 60009 were probed. Differences between impact glasses and corresponding bulk soils were scrutinized. Agglutinate glass analyses tend to cluster near the bulk soil compositions. A slight enrichment in mafic elements in grand averages of the agglutinate clusters relative to the bulk soils was found. Evidence of total impact melts and minor partial shock melts is examined.

  19. Effect of skin test on serum antibody responses to Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, several serologic tests designed to detect immunodominant antibodies to M. bovis antigens (e.g., MPB83, MPB70, ESAT-6, and CFP10) have emerged for potential use with samples from cattle. Of these, a commercial ELISA to MPB83/MPB70 (M. bovis antibody ELISA) has gained approval for use in ca...

  20. A critical role for the regulation of Syk from agglutination to aggregation in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Ho; Chiang, Tin-Bin; Wang, Wen-Jeng

    2014-01-10

    Agglucetin, a tetrameric glycoprotein (GP) Ibα agonist from Formosan Agkistrodon acutus venom, has been characterized as an agglutination inducer in human washed platelets (WPs). In platelet-rich plasma (PRP), agglucetin dramatically elicits a biphasic response of agglutination and subsequent aggregation. For clarifying the intracellular signaling events from agglutination to aggregation in human platelets, we examined the essential signaling molecules involved through the detection of protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PTP). In WPs, an anti-GPIbα monoclonal antibody (mAb) AP1, but not a Src kinase inhibitor PP1, completely inhibited agglucetin-induced agglutination. However, PP1 but not AP1 had a potent suppression on platelet aggregation by a GPVI activator convulxin. The PTP analyses showed agglucetin alone can cause a weak pattern involving sequential phosphorylation of Lyn/Fyn, Syk, SLP-76 and phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2). Furthermore, a Syk-selective kinase inhibitor, piceatannol, significantly suppressed the aggregating response in agglucetin-activated PRP. Analyzed by flow cytometry, the binding capacity of fluorophore-conjugated PAC-1, a mAb recognizing activated integrin αIIbβ3, was shown to increase in agglucetin-stimulated platelets. Again, piceatannol but not PP1 had a concentration-dependent suppression on agglucetin-induced αIIbβ3 exposure. Moreover, the formation of signalosome, including Syk, SLP-76, VAV, adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein (ADAP) and PLCγ2, are required for platelet aggregation in agglucetin/fibrinogen-activated platelets. In addition, GPIbα-ligation via agglucetin can substantially promote the interactions between αIIbβ3 and fibrinogen. Therefore, the signal pathway of Lyn/Fyn/Syk/SLP-76/ADAP/VAV/PLCγ2/PKC is sufficient to trigger platelet aggregation in agglucetin/fibrinogen-pretreated platelets. Importantly, Syk may function as a major regulator for the response from GPIbα-initiated agglutination to

  1. A critical role for the regulation of Syk from agglutination to aggregation in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Ho; Chiang, Tin-Bin; Wang, Wen-Jeng

    2014-01-10

    Agglucetin, a tetrameric glycoprotein (GP) Ibα agonist from Formosan Agkistrodon acutus venom, has been characterized as an agglutination inducer in human washed platelets (WPs). In platelet-rich plasma (PRP), agglucetin dramatically elicits a biphasic response of agglutination and subsequent aggregation. For clarifying the intracellular signaling events from agglutination to aggregation in human platelets, we examined the essential signaling molecules involved through the detection of protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PTP). In WPs, an anti-GPIbα monoclonal antibody (mAb) AP1, but not a Src kinase inhibitor PP1, completely inhibited agglucetin-induced agglutination. However, PP1 but not AP1 had a potent suppression on platelet aggregation by a GPVI activator convulxin. The PTP analyses showed agglucetin alone can cause a weak pattern involving sequential phosphorylation of Lyn/Fyn, Syk, SLP-76 and phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2). Furthermore, a Syk-selective kinase inhibitor, piceatannol, significantly suppressed the aggregating response in agglucetin-activated PRP. Analyzed by flow cytometry, the binding capacity of fluorophore-conjugated PAC-1, a mAb recognizing activated integrin αIIbβ3, was shown to increase in agglucetin-stimulated platelets. Again, piceatannol but not PP1 had a concentration-dependent suppression on agglucetin-induced αIIbβ3 exposure. Moreover, the formation of signalosome, including Syk, SLP-76, VAV, adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein (ADAP) and PLCγ2, are required for platelet aggregation in agglucetin/fibrinogen-activated platelets. In addition, GPIbα-ligation via agglucetin can substantially promote the interactions between αIIbβ3 and fibrinogen. Therefore, the signal pathway of Lyn/Fyn/Syk/SLP-76/ADAP/VAV/PLCγ2/PKC is sufficient to trigger platelet aggregation in agglucetin/fibrinogen-pretreated platelets. Importantly, Syk may function as a major regulator for the response from GPIbα-initiated agglutination to

  2. Nitrogen isotopic signatures in agglutinates from breccia 79035

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerridge, John F.; Kim, Yoosook; Kim, Jin S.; Marti, Kurt

    1993-01-01

    Agglutinates in the size range 125-175 microns from regolith breccia 79035 are substantially depleted in N compared with bulk 79035. Isotopically, agglutinate N closely resembles that found previously in ilmenite separates. The minimum (delta)N-15 value found during stepwise pyrolysis of agglutinates is significantly heavier than that observed for bulk 79035. The major host phase for trapped N in 79035, and the host phase of the lightest isotopic component(s), remain unidentified.

  3. Penicillamine prevents ram sperm agglutination in media that support capacitation.

    PubMed

    Leahy, T; Rickard, J P; Aitken, R J; de Graaf, S P

    2016-02-01

    Ram spermatozoa are difficult to capacitate in vitro. Here we describe a further complication, the unreported phenomenon of head-to-head agglutination of ram spermatozoa following dilution in the capacitation medium Tyrodes plus albumin, lactate and pyruvate (TALP). Sperm agglutination is immediate, specific and persistent and is not associated with a loss of motility. Agglutination impedes in vitro sperm handling and analysis. So the objectives of this study were to investigate the cause of sperm agglutination and potential agents which may reduce agglutination. The percentage of non-agglutinated, motile spermatozoa increased when bicarbonate was omitted from complete TALP suggesting that bicarbonate ions stimulate the agglutination process. d-penicillamine (PEN), a nucleophilic thiol, was highly effective at reducing agglutination. The inclusion of 250 μM PEN in TALP reduced the incidence of motile, agglutinated spermatozoa from 76.7 ± 2.7% to 2.8 ± 1.4%. It was then assessed if PEN (1 mM) could be included in existing ram sperm capacitation protocols (TALP +1 mM dibutyryl cAMP, caffeine and theophylline) to produce spermatozoa that were simultaneously capacitated and non-agglutinated. This protocol resulted in a sperm population which displayed high levels of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins and lipid disordered membranes (merocyanine-540) while remaining motile, viable, acrosome-intact and non-agglutinated. In summary, PEN (1 mM) can be included in ram sperm capacitation protocols to reduce sperm agglutination and allow for the in vitro assessment of ram sperm capacitation.

  4. Kinetics and time dependence of the differential agglutination of acetone [AC]- and formalin [HS]-fixed Toxoplasma tachyzoites by serum of mice with experimental toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nehad Mahmoud; Habib, Khaled Sayed Mohamed

    2012-04-01

    Researches to specify a serologic diagnostic test capable of determining the stage of toxoplasmosis, whether recent or latent, have been hampered by lack of knowing the real time of infection. Studying the precise kinetics of the differential agglutination of acetone [AC]-fixed versus that of formalin [HS]-fixed tachyzoites (differential agglutination test or AC/HS test) by sera of mice during the course of toxoplasmosis and assessment of its value in the differentiation between recent and latent infections in mice were the aims of the present work. Experimental toxoplasmosis was induced in mice, sera were collected sequentially and AC/HS test, FAST-ELISA to determine levels of IgM and IgG and microscopic examination of brain for Toxoplasma cysts were done. Both AC and HS specific patterns in the AC/HS test were noted to be dependent on the time from the onset of infection. Acute patterns of the AC/HS test were observed early in infection till before the appearance of brain cysts. Non-acute patterns were obtained late on 28th day post infection coinciding with the disappearance of IgM, persistence of IgG and presence of cysts in brains. The AC antibody was high in the recent phase of infection, and then it declined to be replaced by high sustained level of HS antibody late in infection. In conclusion, in the presence of both IgM and IgG, the appearance of either equivocal pattern or the non-acute pattern in the AC/HS test is significant in ruling out acute infection in mice.

  5. Latex agglutination assays for detection of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145.

    PubMed

    Medina, Marjorie B; Shelver, Weilin L; Fratamico, Pina M; Fortis, Laurie; Tillman, Glenn; Narang, Neelam; Cray, William C; Esteban, Emilio; Debroy, Andchitrita

    2012-05-01

    Latex agglutination assays utilizing polyclonal antibodies were developed for the top six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups. Rabbit antisera were affinity purified through protein A/G columns, and the isolated immunoglobulins (IgGs) were covalently immobilized onto polystyrene latex particles. The resulting latex-IgG complex had a protein (IgG) load of 0.20 to 0.28 mg/ml in a 1% latex suspension. Optimum conditions for the agglutination assay consisted of utilizing 20 μm l of latex-IgG reagent containing 2.0 to 2.8 μm g IgG in a 0.5% latex suspension. Agglutination or flocculation was observed almost instantly after mixing the colonies with the latex-IgG, indicating STEC strains. More than 100 target and nontarget strains were tested in more than 3,000 test replicates. All target organisms produced positive results, but three antisera (anti-O26, anti-O103, and anti-O145) cross-reacted with some other STECs. The anti-O103 and anti-O145 latex reagents cross-reacted with O26 strains, and the anti-O26 cross-reacted with O103 strains. The latex-IgG reagents are stable for at least 1 year and are easy to prepare. These agglutination assays can be used for identification of presumptive non-O157 STEC colonies from agar media. The techniques used to prepare the latex reagents also can be utilized for testing other STEC serogroups, other E. coli serotypes, or other pathogens to ensure safe foods to consumers.

  6. Latex agglutination assays for detection of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145.

    PubMed

    Medina, Marjorie B; Shelver, Weilin L; Fratamico, Pina M; Fortis, Laurie; Tillman, Glenn; Narang, Neelam; Cray, William C; Esteban, Emilio; Debroy, Andchitrita

    2012-05-01

    Latex agglutination assays utilizing polyclonal antibodies were developed for the top six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups. Rabbit antisera were affinity purified through protein A/G columns, and the isolated immunoglobulins (IgGs) were covalently immobilized onto polystyrene latex particles. The resulting latex-IgG complex had a protein (IgG) load of 0.20 to 0.28 mg/ml in a 1% latex suspension. Optimum conditions for the agglutination assay consisted of utilizing 20 μm l of latex-IgG reagent containing 2.0 to 2.8 μm g IgG in a 0.5% latex suspension. Agglutination or flocculation was observed almost instantly after mixing the colonies with the latex-IgG, indicating STEC strains. More than 100 target and nontarget strains were tested in more than 3,000 test replicates. All target organisms produced positive results, but three antisera (anti-O26, anti-O103, and anti-O145) cross-reacted with some other STECs. The anti-O103 and anti-O145 latex reagents cross-reacted with O26 strains, and the anti-O26 cross-reacted with O103 strains. The latex-IgG reagents are stable for at least 1 year and are easy to prepare. These agglutination assays can be used for identification of presumptive non-O157 STEC colonies from agar media. The techniques used to prepare the latex reagents also can be utilized for testing other STEC serogroups, other E. coli serotypes, or other pathogens to ensure safe foods to consumers. PMID:22564929

  7. The Classroom-Friendly ABO Blood Types Kit: Blood Agglutination Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Savittree Rochanasmita; Kruatong, Tussatrin; Dahsah, Chanyah; Suwanjinda, Duongdearn

    2012-01-01

    The classroom-friendly ABO blood type kit was developed by combining advantages of modelling and a simulation laboratory to teach the topics of ABO blood types and blood transfusion. Teachers can easily simulate the agglutination reaction on a blood type testing plate in the classroom, and show the students how this reaction occurs by using the…

  8. Internal radiation dosimetry for clinical testing of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Durham, J.S.; Hui, T.E.; Hill, R.L.

    1990-11-01

    In gauging the efficacy of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies in cancer treatment, it is important to know the amount of radiation energy absorbed by tumors and normal tissue per unit administered activity. This paper describes methods for estimating absorbed doses to human tumors and normal tissues, including intraperitoneal tissue surfaces, red marrow, and the intestinal tract from incorporated radionuclides. These methods use the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) scheme; however, they also incorporate enhancements designed to solve specific dosimetry problems encountered during clinical studies, such as patient-specific organ masses obtained from computerized tomography (CT) volumetrics, estimates of the dose to tumor masses within normal organs, and multicellular dosimetry for studying dose inhomogeneities in solid tumors. Realistic estimates of absorbed dose are provided within the short time requirements of physicians so that decisions can be made with regard to patient treatment and procurement of radiolabeled antibodies. Some areas in which further research could improve dose assessment are also discussed. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  9. A human monoclonal antibody to high-frequency red cell antigen Jra.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, T; Kwon, K W; Yamamoto, K; Tone, Y; Ihara, H; Kato, T; Ikeda, H; Sekiguchi, S

    1994-01-01

    A human-mouse heterohybridoma (HMR0921) secreting human monoclonal IgG3, lambda antibody was produced from peripheral blood lymphocytes of a healthy blood donor with serum antibody to Jra, by EBV transformation and hybridization with mouse myeloma cell line P3X63Ag8.653. The reactivity of HMR0921 antibody was assessed by antiglobulin test with a panel of red cells including 14 different rare blood types. Only Jr(a-) red cells were negative. The strict specificity of this antibody to Jra antigen was further confirmed by absorption test with fluorescence flow cytometry. On screening of 28,744 blood donor samples by HMR0921 antibody, we detected 19 agglutination-negative samples, which were confirmed as Jr(a-) by conventional anti-Jra antisera. Therefore, our HMR0921 antibody is extremely useful for detecting rare Jr(a-) blood.

  10. A Peer Counselling Program for Persons Testing H.I.V. Antibody Positive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baiss, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Describes need for and development of a peer counseling program for persons who have tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies. Discusses selection of peer counselors, training, and confidentiality. Includes discussion of future plans. (ABL)

  11. Attempts at the detection of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus by haemofusion-inhibition test.

    PubMed

    Trybala, E

    1988-09-01

    Two modifications of a haemofusion-inhibition test (HFI-1 and HFI-2) were applied for the titration of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in chicken sera. Statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation of the HFI-1 antibody titres with those measured by the standard haemagglutination-inhibition (HI), virus neutralization (VN) and haemolysis-inhibition (HLI) tests. The same appeared true when the HFI-2 antibody titres were compared with the HI, VN, and HLI tests. Except for the several sera collected from birds immunized with formalin-inactivated vaccine, the HFI-2 antibody titres of individual serum samples were usually lower than those determined by HFI-1. The interpretation of these differences as well as some advantages and disadvantages of the proposed test are discussed.

  12. [A diagnostic serum with antibodies to virulent Yersinia].

    PubMed

    Smirnov, I V; Gorokhov, V I

    1990-01-01

    A diagnostic agglutinating adsorbed rabbit serum with antibodies to Yersinia strains containing virulence plasmid with molecular mass of 40-50 mD was prepared. Trials of this serum in agglutination test on the glass with 69 Yersinia strains (Y. enterocolitica, Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii, Y. pseudotuberculosis) and with 42 other Enterobacteriaceae strains have confirmed the specificity and sufficiently high activity of the agent in respect of virulent Yersinia strains. Experiments have demonstrated the possibility of using this serum in tests for the detection of yersiniasis agents and for rapid assessment of individual Yersinia clones in respect of the presence of plasmid with a molecular mass of 40-50 mD.

  13. HIV Antibody Testing among Adults in the United States: Data from 1988 NHIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ann M.; Dawson, Deborah A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes statistical data from 1988 National Health Interview Survey to determine adult awareness of and experience with HIV antibody testing. Following findings reported: most knew of test; 17 percent had been tested; Blacks and Hispanics were more likely than Whites to have been voluntarily tested; and high-risk group members were more likely…

  14. Prevalence of antibodies against Neospora spp. and Sarcocystis neurona in donkeys from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gennari, Solange Maria; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Lindsay, David Scott; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Cabral, Aline Diniz; Vitaliano, Sérgio Netto; Amaku, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi are coccidian protozoa that can cause neurological illness in horses in America. In this study we report seroprevalence of Neospora spp. andS. neurona in sera of 333 donkeys from the northeastern region of Brazil. Antibodies to Neospora spp. were detected in 2% (7 donkeys) of 333 sera tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) with a cut-off dilution of 1:40. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 3% (10 donkeys) of the samples tested by IFAT (cut-off ≥50) and 21% (69 donkeys) by the direct agglutination test (SAT ≥50). The SAT and IFAT results for S. neurona showed a poor concordance (value of Kappa=0.051). This is the first report of Neospora spp. antibodies in Brazilian donkeys and the first detection of antibodies against S. neurona in this animal species. PMID:26982557

  15. Prevalence of antibodies against Neospora spp. and Sarcocystis neurona in donkeys from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gennari, Solange Maria; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Lindsay, David Scott; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Cabral, Aline Diniz; Vitaliano, Sérgio Netto; Amaku, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi are coccidian protozoa that can cause neurological illness in horses in America. In this study we report seroprevalence of Neospora spp. andS. neurona in sera of 333 donkeys from the northeastern region of Brazil. Antibodies to Neospora spp. were detected in 2% (7 donkeys) of 333 sera tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) with a cut-off dilution of 1:40. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 3% (10 donkeys) of the samples tested by IFAT (cut-off ≥50) and 21% (69 donkeys) by the direct agglutination test (SAT ≥50). The SAT and IFAT results for S. neurona showed a poor concordance (value of Kappa=0.051). This is the first report of Neospora spp. antibodies in Brazilian donkeys and the first detection of antibodies against S. neurona in this animal species.

  16. Blood Group Typing: From Classical Strategies to the Application of Synthetic Antibodies Generated by Molecular Imprinting.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Adnan; Dickert, Franz L

    2015-01-01

    Blood transfusion requires a mandatory cross-match test to examine the compatibility between donor and recipient blood groups. Generally, in all cross-match tests, a specific chemical reaction of antibodies with erythrocyte antigens is carried out to monitor agglutination. Since the visual inspection is no longer useful for obtaining precise quantitative information, therefore there is a wide variety of different technologies reported in the literature to recognize the agglutination reactions. Despite the classical methods, modern biosensors and molecular blood typing strategies have also been considered for straightforward, accurate and precise analysis. The interfacial part of a typical sensor device could range from natural antibodies to synthetic receptor materials, as designed by molecular imprinting and which is suitably integrated with the transducer surface. Herein, we present a comprehensive overview of some selected strategies extending from traditional practices to modern procedures in blood group typing, thus to highlight the most promising approach among emerging technologies. PMID:26729127

  17. A micrometabolic inhibition test for the estimation of poliovirus neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kyriazopoulou, V G; Bell, E J

    1972-01-01

    A modified micrometabolic inhibition test for the titration of poliovirus neutralizing antibodies is described. The effects of varying both the duration and the temperature of incubation of the serum-virus mixtures were examined. Overnight incubation resulted in a 2-3-fold increase in the titre of the hyperimmune sera tested. The method is simple and economical and appears to be suitable for antibody surveys.

  18. Belgian recommendations on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing.

    PubMed

    Van Blerk, M; Bossuyt, X; Humbel, R; Mewis, A; Servais, G; Tomasi, J P; Van Campenhout, C; Van Hoovels, L; Vercammen, M; Damoiseaux, J; Coucke, W; Van de Walle, P

    2014-04-01

    Autoantibodies to nuclear antigens, i.e. antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and extractable nuclear antigens (ENA), are useful as diagnostic markers for a variety of autoimmune diseases. In March 2010, the Belgian national External Quality Assessment Scheme sent a questionnaire on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing designed by the Dutch EASI (European Autoimmunity Standardization Initiative) team, to all clinical laboratories performing ANA testing. Virtually all laboratories completed the questionnaire (97·7%, 127/130). This paper discusses the results of this questionnaire and provides valuable information on the state-of-the-art of ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing as practiced in the Belgian laboratories. In addition, this work presents practical recommendations developed by the members of the advisory board of the scheme as a result of the outcome of this study.

  19. Standardization and demonstration of antibody-coated Candida in urine by direct immunofluorescence test.

    PubMed

    Talwar, P; Pal, S R; Kaur, P; Kaiwar, R; Jayashree, T; Rao, M S; Vaidyanathan, S; Taiwar, P

    1986-04-01

    Acetone, carbontetrachloride, ethyl alcohol, mixture of ethyl alcohol and acetone, and heat were assessed for fixative property for direct immunofluorescent (IF) staining of antibody-coated Candida cells. The results indicated that ethyl alcohol was the most suitable fixative for the test. Antisera containing 16 units of Candida albicans type A agglutinin were found essential to get optimal detectable fluorescence of antibody-coated yeast cells. IF test showed cross reactivity between the yeasts of C. albicans and C. tropicalis. However, there was no cross reactivity with the conidia of A. flavus. The direct IF test could demonstrate antibody-coated yeast cells and pseudomycelia in deposits of urine in the direct smear. It correlated well with microscopy and culture studies. At times, it could demonstrate the antibody-coated yeasts earlier than routine significant culture. It could also differentiate the significant from non-significant fungal isolates from urine.

  20. Detection of Coxsackievirus B 4 antibodies in cases of suspected encephalopathy by microneutralization test.

    PubMed

    Badam, L; Thakare, J P

    2001-06-01

    A retrospective study of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected from suspected viral encephalitis and encephalopathy cases was carried-out and it included 100 CSF and 89 serum samples from Goa, collected during 1990-1994. These samples which were negative for antibodies to Japanese encephalitis (JE), West Nile (WN), Dengue-2 (DN-2) and herpes viruses, were tested for Coxsackievirus B 4 specific antibodies by 'in vitro' microneutralization technique along with 80 negative control serum samples. Out of 189 specimens (100 CSF and 89 serum), 23 CSF and 41 serum samples were positive for Coxsackievirus B 4 neutralizing antibodies. Antibody profile seemed to be IgG as revealed by mercaptoethanol treatment. The presence of neutralizing antibodies to coxsackievirus B 4 with titres as high as 1:512 in 8 CSF and 19 serum samples seemed to be suggestive of viral meningitis due to Cox B-4 viruses.

  1. Systems, devices, and methods for agglutination assays using sedimentation

    DOEpatents

    Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sommer, Gregory J.; Singh, Anup K.

    2016-01-26

    Embodiments of the present invention include methods for conducting agglutination assays using sedimentation. Aggregates may be exposed to sedimentation forces and travel through a density medium to a detection area. Microfluidic devices, such as microfluidic disks, are described for conducting the agglutination assays, as are systems for conducting the assays.

  2. The anti-MAP and anti-group A carbohydrate antibodies response in streptococcal human infections.

    PubMed

    Mihalcu, F; Stefãnescu, M

    1975-01-01

    The streptococcal infection cases from two outbreaks were serologically examined against two components of the streptococcal cellular wall; the M associated protein (MAP), by a latex agglutination test and the group A carbohydrate (A-CHO), by passive hemagglutination technique. Many positive cases with high levels of both antibodies were found, in rheumatic fever and glomerulo-nephritis, comparatively with the acute streptococcal infections. The differences were statistically significant. The results were correlated with the ASO titres and with the dermic cellular response.

  3. Affective and Behavioral Responses of Gay and Bisexual Men to HIV Antibody Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, James; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed 56 gay and bisexual men tested for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus. Subjects who tested positive experienced increased anxiety, depression and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome anxiety; subjects who tested negative experienced decrease in these feelings after learning results. Subjects who chose not to learn results experienced…

  4. Anti-GAPDHS antibodies: a biomarker of immune infertility.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jun; Yao, Rongyan; Luo, Yanyun; Yang, Dantong; Cao, Yang; Qiu, Yi; Song, Wei; Miao, Shiying; Gu, Yiqun; Wang, Linfang

    2016-04-01

    Numerous investigations have focused on the detection of antisperm antibodies, which have a naturally occurring impact on male and female fertility. In this study, spermatogenic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDHS) was considered to be a candidate biomarker of immune infertility. The concentrations of anti-GAPDHS antibodies in the sera of sterile individuals and fertile couples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sera were collected from immune infertile (n = 175) and fertile (n = 237) individuals and were screened by tray agglutination tests (TAT). Infertile sera were further divided into two groups according to the serum titers obtained by TAT (titers ≤ 1:8, n = 58; titers > 1:8, n = 117). The concentrations of anti-GAPDHS antibodies were significantly higher in the immune infertile group than in the fertile group and were much higher with regard to the increased degrees of sperm agglutination (titers > 1:8). Surprisingly, we found statistically significantly higher concentrations of antibodies in the sera of infertile men than in those of infertile women, and a similar statistical result was obtained in the sera when primary infertility was compared with secondary infertility. Thus, anti-GAPDHS antibodies seem to be a sensitive parameter in immune infertile detection and might be one of the main factors causing immune infertility. This factor might be valuable as an indicator in the clinical diagnosis and monitoring treatment of infertility. PMID:26846113

  5. Measurement of antibodies to varicella-zoster virus using a virus-free fluorescent-antibody-to-membrane-antigen (FAMA) test.

    PubMed

    Park, Rackhyun; Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, Kang Il; Namkoong, Sim; Choi, Seuk-Keun; Park, Songyong; Park, Hosun; Park, Junsoo

    2015-02-01

    The fluorescent-antibody-to-membrane-antigen (FAMA) test is regarded as the "gold standard" to detect protective antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) because of its high sensitivity and specificity. Because the classic FAMA test uses an infectious virus for detection of antibodies to VZV, it is labor-intensive, and also requires special equipment for handling the virus. For this reason, we attempted to develop a simple and safe FAMA assay. Because VZV glycoprotein E (gE) is one of the major VZV glycoproteins, we used the gE protein for the FAMA test (gE FAMA). Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of gE in HEK293T cells can be used to measure antibodies in human serum, and that gE FAMA titers are closely correlated with gpEIA ELISA data. These results indicate that our gE FAMA test has the potential to measure antibodies to VZV.

  6. Testing Eurasian wild boar piglets for serum antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Che' Amat, A; González-Barrio, D; Ortiz, J A; Díez-Delgado, I; Boadella, M; Barasona, J A; Bezos, J; Romero, B; Armenteros, J A; Lyashchenko, K P; Venteo, A; Rueda, P; Gortázar, C

    2015-09-01

    Animal tuberculosis (TB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC), is often reported in the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Tests detecting antibodies against MTC antigens are valuable tools for TB monitoring and control in suids. However, only limited knowledge exists on serology test performance in 2-6 month-old piglets. In this age-class, recent infections might cause lower antibody levels and lower test sensitivity. We examined 126 wild boar piglets from a TB-endemic site using 6 antibody detection tests in order to assess test performance. Bacterial culture (n=53) yielded a M. bovis infection prevalence of 33.9%, while serum antibody prevalence estimated by different tests ranged from 19% to 38%, reaching sensitivities between 15.4% and 46.2% for plate ELISAs and between 61.5% and 69.2% for rapid immunochromatographic tests based on dual path platform (DPP) technology. The Cohen kappa coefficient of agreement between DPP WTB (Wildlife TB) assay and culture results was moderate (0.45) and all other serological tests used had poor to fair agreements. This survey revealed the ability of several tests for detecting serum antibodies against the MTC antigens in 2-6 month-old naturally infected wild boar piglets. The best performance was demonstrated for DPP tests. The results confirmed our initial hypothesis of a lower sensitivity of serology for detecting M. bovis-infected piglets, as compared to older wild boar. Certain tests, notably the rapid animal-side tests, can contribute to TB control strategies by enabling the setup of test and cull schemes or improving pre-movement testing. However, sub-optimal test performance in piglets as compared to that in older wild boar should be taken into account.

  7. Monoclonal antibodies directed against human Rh antigens in tests with the red cells of nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Socha, W W; Ruffie, J

    1990-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against Rh related antigens on human red cells often crossreact with the red cells of the highest subhuman primate species. Depending on specificity of antibody, the species tested, and technique used, these reactions can be either species-specific or type specific. In tests with chimpanzee red cells, some of the latter type reactions have specificities related to the R antigen of the R-C-E-F blood group system of chimpanzee; specificities of some others seem to be unrelated to any known chimpanzee blood groups. Monoclonal anti-D reagents that give uniformly positive reactions with human D-positive (common and rare types) red cells, display wide individual differences in tests with chimpanzee blood. This indicates that there are minute structural variations of antibody molecules from one monoclonal anti-D antibodies apparently have no bearing on recognition of the D combining site on the human red cells, but come into play when in contact with chimpanzee rbcs. Some of the monoclonal antibodies directed against Rh and LW molecules are distinguished by unusually strong reactions with the red cells of the Old World monkeys (macaques and baboons), which is in contrast with negative or weak reactions of the same antibodies with the red cells of anthropoid apes and human bloods. One may recall, that polyclonal anti-Rh sera do not react with the blood of rhesus monkeys, the phenomenon that was the source of controversy surrounding the discovery of the rhesus factor of the human blood.

  8. Determination of optimal method for antibody identification in a reference laboratory.

    PubMed

    Haywood, J R; Moulds, M K G; Bryant, B J

    2011-01-01

    Methods commonly used for antibody identification are hemagglutination (tube), column agglutination (gel), and solid-phase red cell adherence. Our AABB immunohematology reference laboratory (IRL) conducted a study to determine which antibody identification testing method was optimal for detecting all clinically significant antibodies. Patient specimens were sent to our IRL from August 2008 to September 2009. Routine testing was performed by tube method and then by manual gel and manual solid-phase methods. Of the 254 samples tested, 115 showed agreement in antibody identification with all three methods. The tube method identified all but six clinically significant antibodies. The gel method did not identify 59 clinically significant antibodies. Fifty-six clinically significant antibodies were not identified by solid-phase testing. Tube testing identified 27 clinically insignificant antibodies, primarily cold autoantibodies. Gel and solid-phase methodologies identified two and three cold autoantibodies, respectively. Solid-phase testing failed to detect 12 examples of anti-K. No identifiable pattern of reactivity was found in 13 samples using gel testing compared with 6 for solid-phase and none for tube methodologies. Hemagglutination tube method was the best choice for our IRL because it missed the fewest number of clinically significant alloantibodies. Benefits also included the ability to use various potentiating factors, incubation times, and temperature phases to enhance antibody identification. The tube method provided critical data for determining antibody clinical significance.

  9. A sperm-agglutinating lectin from seeds of Jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus).

    PubMed

    Namjuntra, P; Muanwongyathi, P; Chulavatnatol, M

    1985-04-30

    A lectin specific for N-acetylgalactosamine was isolated from seed extract of Jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) by ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by affinity chromatography on a Affigel-galactosamine-agarose column. The lectin possessed agglutinating activities for human and rat sperm as well as human red blood cells. It was found to have Mr = 62,000 consisting of two dissimilar subunits of Mr = 18,000 and 13,000. It also cross-reacted with an antibody against the lectin of Osage Orange (Maclura pomifera).

  10. A solid phase antibody screen.

    PubMed

    Plapp, F V; Sinor, L T; Rachel, J M; Beck, M L; Coenen, W M; Bayer, W L

    1984-12-01

    An automated solid phase antibody screen (SPAS) in microplates has been developed. Red blood cell (RBC) adherence was used as the end point instead of agglutination. Consequently, positive and negative reactions were readily distinguished by a microplate spectrophotometer. The SPAS performed as well as conventional antiglobulin methods for detecting IgG antibodies in donor sera and had increased sensitivity as determined by serial dilutions of antibodies.

  11. Comparison of serological tests for the detection of antibody to natural and experimental murine cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Lussier, G; Guénette, D; Descôteaux, J P

    1987-04-01

    Three serological tests, i.e. complement fixation test, indirect immunofluorescent assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were compared for sensitivity in the detection and titration of murine cytomegalovirus antibody. The three tests were compared using sera from experimentally inoculated and naturally infected mice bled at intervals from 3 to 140 days postinfection. In the acute infection, complement fixation and indirect immunofluorescent assay tests were of comparable sensitivity for early detection of antibody, whereas the ELISA was less sensitive. In persistent infection, higher titers were recorded with ELISA. Since murine cytomegalovirus has been shown to exert significant effects on the immune response of infected mice, this antigen should be included routinely in viral antibody screening programs.

  12. Sorting out the new HSV type specific antibody tests.

    PubMed

    Ashley, R L

    2001-08-01

    This review will delineate performance characteristics and limitations, as far as they are known, of the new glycoprotein G based, type specific HSV serologies. Several of these tests have been FDA approved in the United States for use in adults. With the departure of Gull/Meridian from the HSV serology market, it is important for clinicians to understand the sources and claims of the remaining type specific tests. Moreover, inaccurate tests using crude antigen preparations remain on the market. These tests are identified based on product insert information provided by company representatives.

  13. Measuring glass abundances in lunar agglutinates. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strait, M. M.; Basu, A.; Mckay, D. S.; Robinson, R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a standard method for measuring modal abundances of glass in single agglutinates in the lunar regolith. Not only does agglutinitic glass increase in single agglutinates as clasts of older agglutinates get incorporated into newer agglutinates with increasing maturity, but it is in this glassy phase that nanophase superparamagnetic Fe metal originates as a result of reduction reactions during the agglutination process. We report the results of two sets of independent measurements using two different methods to determine the proportion of glass in single agglutinates. We have used polished grain mounts (PGM) of five hand-picked single agglutinates from Apollo 16 soil 61181. The ISI Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) fitted with a high-resolution Backscattered Electron (BSE) detector was used to collect high-contrast BSE images of the agglutinates. Several images were collected to represent each single agglutinate. The contrast, brightness, and focus were adjusted to optimize each image collected. Histograms of the grayscale range for all images produced four 'peaks' corresponding to epoxy, glass, crystalline phases, and metal grains. We analyzed every grid point for 12 elements with a less than 1 micron electron beam using a CAMECA SX-50 electron probe microanalyzer (EPM). If any analysis was not within about 10% of the stoichiometry of a known lunar mineral, we considered that point to be nonmineralic. Our results show that there is a remarkable correspondence in the glass percentages obtained by the two methods. The EPM method may overestimate glass because secondary fluorescence from dusty clasts in agglutinitic glass can give the appearance of nonmineralic targets. The BSE method may underestimate glass because the diversity of compositions of agglutinitic glass may not be contained under one grayscale 'peak' during image analysis.

  14. Anatomy of individual agglutinates from a lunar highland soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Abhijit; McKay, David S.; Morris, Richard V.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    1996-11-01

    We report results of our investigation of the relationship between values of Is/FeO (relative concentration of nanophase Fe0 divided by total FeO content), glass abundance, total Fe content, and degree of digestion of <20 μm clasts for 22 individual agglutinates (250-1000 μm) from the mature Apollo 16 soil 61181 (Is/FeO = 82 units in the <250 μm fraction). Agglutinates are important products of space weathering on the Moon, and they influence spectral observations at visible and near-IR wavelengths. Values of Is/FeO for individual agglutinates (250-1000 μm) within this single soil span a range from 3 to 262 units which is larger than the range observed for all Apollo 16 bulk soils (˜0 to 110 units). No correlation was observed between Is/FeO and glass abundance and FeO concentrations for either agglutinitic glass or whole agglutinate particles under investigation. Our results suggest that the variation in Is/FeO for agglutinates from a single soil may be in part a consequence of natural mixing processes on the Moon that produce highly-variable environments (with respect to surface exposure) for agglutinate formation and in part to variable kinetics of reactions in an agglutinate melt, which are influenced by a variety of factors including melt composition, temperature, impactor velocity, and quench rate. We cannot exclude but do not see evidence for other processes including addition of exotic agglutinates, micrometeoritic bombardment into compositionally-diverse microtargets, recycling of agglutinates, preferential melting of very fine soil particles, and production of nanophase Fe0 in amorphous rims of very fine irradiated lunar grains contributing to the observed variation of Is/FeO.

  15. Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in cattle and water buffaloes in southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huong, L T; Ljungström, B L; Uggla, A; Björkman, C

    1998-02-15

    Serum samples from 200 dairy cattle and 200 beef water buffaloes were collected in southern Vietnam during May to September 1995. The sera were analysed for antibodies to Neospora caninum by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the indirect fluorescent antibody test, and for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the direct agglutination test. Significant levels of N. caninum antibodies were detected in 5.5% of the cattle sera and in 1.5% of the water buffalo sera. 10.5% of the cattle sera and 3% of the water buffalo sera were found to contain T. gondii antibodies. Two of the cattle sera had both T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies. The present communication is the first to report serological evidence of N. caninum infection in the water buffalo.

  16. A Descriptive Analysis of Students Seeking HIV Antibody Testing at a University Health Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Marie-Christine; Sawyer, Robin G.; Pinciaro, Paul J.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated characteristics of students voluntarily seeking human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing at a university health center. Data from student surveys indicated that: 59% were women; reported rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases were low; nearly one-third had had previous HIV testing; 40% reported…

  17. Microneutralization test in PK(15) cells for assay of antibodies to louping ill virus.

    PubMed

    Timoney, P J; Geraghty, V P; Harrington, A M; Dillon, P B

    1984-07-01

    A microneutralization test in PK(15) cells was developed to measure the neutralizing antibody response of a group of ponies experimentally challenged with louping ill virus. Viral cytopathic effect was maximal after 6 days of incubation, at which point titration endpoints were clear-cut and readily determinable. The assay compared favorably with the mouse neutralization test for accuracy and ease of performance.

  18. 21 CFR 866.5120 - Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... system. 866.5120 Section 866.5120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5120 Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5120 - Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... system. 866.5120 Section 866.5120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5120 Antismooth muscle antibody immunological test system. (a) Identification. An...

  20. Blood Group Typing: From Classical Strategies to the Application of Synthetic Antibodies Generated by Molecular Imprinting †

    PubMed Central

    Mujahid, Adnan; Dickert, Franz L.

    2015-01-01

    Blood transfusion requires a mandatory cross-match test to examine the compatibility between donor and recipient blood groups. Generally, in all cross-match tests, a specific chemical reaction of antibodies with erythrocyte antigens is carried out to monitor agglutination. Since the visual inspection is no longer useful for obtaining precise quantitative information, therefore there is a wide variety of different technologies reported in the literature to recognize the agglutination reactions. Despite the classical methods, modern biosensors and molecular blood typing strategies have also been considered for straightforward, accurate and precise analysis. The interfacial part of a typical sensor device could range from natural antibodies to synthetic receptor materials, as designed by molecular imprinting and which is suitably integrated with the transducer surface. Herein, we present a comprehensive overview of some selected strategies extending from traditional practices to modern procedures in blood group typing, thus to highlight the most promising approach among emerging technologies. PMID:26729127

  1. Comparative efficacy of antigen and antibody detection tests for human trichinellosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanoska, D.; Cuperlovic, K.; Gamble, H.R.; Murrell, K.D.

    1989-02-01

    Sera collected from patients with suspected or confirmed exposure to Trichinella spiralis were tested for circulating parasite antigens and antiparasite antibodies. Using an immunoradiometric assay, excretory--secretory antigens from muscle-stage larvae of T. spiralis were detected in the sera of 47% of 62 patients with clinical trichinellosis and 13% of 39 patients without clinical signs but suspected of exposure to infected meat. In comparison, antibodies were detected using an indirect immunofluorescent test in the circulation of 100% of the 62 patients with clinical trichinellosis and 46% of the 39 patients with suspected exposure. The presence of antibodies specific to excretory-secretory products of T. spiralis muscle larvae was confirmed in the majority of the samples tested by a monoclonal antibody-based competitive inhibition assay. These results indicate that antibody detection is a more sensitive diagnostic method for human trichinellosis, but that antigen detection might be a useful confirmatory test because it is a direct demonstration of parasite products in the circulation.

  2. Simplification of immune adherence hemagglutination test for detection of rabies antibodies in human serum.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, C R; Tino, M S; Chamelet, E L; Ishizuka, M M; Pereira, O A

    1989-01-01

    In the present work the immune adherence hemagglutination test (IAHA) was standardized in a simplified procedure. This test showed good reproducibility, better than the classical mice serum neutralization test (SN). The tests showed high correlation degree: high titers in one test corresponded to high titers in the other one, and the same occurred with low titers. The IAHA test is extremely simple, fast to perform, and of low cost when compared to tests such as SN or indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). It also proved to be useful in less sophisticated laboratories or even as a screening test for the titration of rabies antibodies.

  3. Leptospira and Brucella antibodies in collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) in Brazilian zoos.

    PubMed

    Sales, Indiara dos Santos; Folly, Márcio Manhães; Garcia, Luize Néli Nunes; Ramos, Tatiane Mendes Varela; da Silva, Mariana Cristina; Pereira, Martha Maria

    2012-12-01

    The presence of Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. antibodies was investigated in serum samples from 28 collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) kept in seven Brazilian zoos. Sera were tested against 19 Leptospira serovars using microscopic agglutination. Samples reacted to the following serovars: two (7.14%) to Patoc, three (10.71%) to Tarrasovi, three (10.71%) to both Patoc and Tarrasovi, two (7.14%) to Wolffi, and one (3.57%) to Australis. Two (7.14%) samples reacted to the buffered Brucella antigen test, but no confirmatory reaction occurred using the 2-mercaptoethanol slow slide agglutination test. No sample was reactive in the agar gel immunodiffusion test for rugose species of Brucella. The presence of anti-leptospira agglutinins in captive T. tetradactyla serum indicates that this species may be susceptible to infection by these bacteria.

  4. Results from an indirect fluorescent antibody test using three different strains of Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Enara; Ayllón, Tania; Sainz, Angel; Amusategui, Inmaculada; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Tesouro, Miguel A

    2009-11-01

    An indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test is usually performed to detect antibodies in dogs naturally infected by Ehrlichia canis. In this work, results obtained using three different E. canis strains as antigen (a commercial antigen, the E. canis Oklahoma strain and the E. canis Madrid strain) were compared. One hundred and forty-nine serum samples obtained from dogs living in the centre of Spain were analysed. When qualitative results were evaluated, identical results were detected in 87.2% of samples for the three antigens tested. When comparing antibody titre results, differences between the Madrid strain and the commercial antigen, and between the Madrid and Oklahoma strains were statistically significant (P<0.0001). No differences were found when comparing the Oklahoma strain with the commercial antigen (P=0.562). Subtle intra-laboratory variations shown in this study suggest a higher sensitivity of the IFA test when an autochthonous strain is used as antigen.

  5. A simple adherence test for detection of IgM antibodies in typhoid.

    PubMed

    Ong, L Y; Pang, T; Lim, S H; Tan, E L; Puthucheary, S D

    1989-07-01

    A simple adherence test to detect IgM antibodies in patients with typhoid is described. The test utilises the IgM-"capture" approach, in which the test serum is applied to microtitration plate wells previously coated with anti-human IgM, followed by application of a stained Salmonella typhi antigen suspension which shows adherence in positive cases. By this test, 58 (95%) of 61 sera from confirmed cases of typhoid possessed IgM antibodies to the H or O or both antigens of S. typhi. In patients for whom a diagnosis of typhoid was based only on a significant Widal-test titre, 31 (41%) of 76 sera had IgM antibodies to the H or O or both antigens of S. typhi. Some cross-reactivity of the IgM antibodies was detected, especially with the O antigens of S. paratyphi A and B. A total of 82 sera from non-typhoidal fevers (leptospirosis, typhus, dengue fever) showed no reactivity in this test. In normal sera there was no detectable IgM to the O antigen of S. typhi and only a small number (3.9%) had low levels of IgM to the H antigen. The significance and potential importance of this simple, sensitive, specific and economical test is discussed.

  6. Onset of ocular complications in congenital toxoplasmosis associated with immunoglobulin M antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Sibalić, D; Djurković-Djaković, O; Bobić, B

    1990-09-01

    Four patients with congenital toxoplasmosis serologically diagnosed by the Sabin-Feldman test (SFT) and the IgM-indirect fluorescent antibody test (IgM-IFAT) in the first year of life presented with eye disease between the age of 21 months and ten years. Repeated serological testing revealed increasing levels of specific antibodies as measured by the SFT. IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were detected in all four patients by the immunosorbent agglutination assay, in two by the IgM-IFAT and in three by the IgM-indirect haemagglutination test. Findings suggest that specific IgM antibodies reappear at the time of reactivation of congenital toxoplasmosis later in life, or possibly persist for an extraordinary long period (up to ten years).

  7. Lectin-mediated agglutination of murine lymphoma cells. Cell surface deformability and reversibility of agglutination by saccharides.

    PubMed

    Nicolson, G L; Poste, G

    1979-07-01

    Agglutination of S49 mouse lymphoma cells by Ricinus communis I agglutinin can be reversed by the competing haptenic saccharide, lactose, soon after agglutination, but after further incubation in the absence of lectin the agglutination reaction could not be reversed by lactose and the cells remained as multicell aggregates. The irreversibility of S49 cell agglutination was time, temperature and lectin concentration dependent and its onset correlated with ultrastructurally observed deformation of adjacent cell surfaces and an increase in the proportion of adjacent cell surface areas in close apposition within multicell aggregates. Pretreatment of S49 cells with cytochalasin B or cytochalasin B plus vinblastine enhanced R. communis I agglutinin-mediated agglutination, while vinblastine alone and fluoride plus azide had essentially no effect. When drug-treated cells were agglutinated and then incubated in lectin-free drug-containing media for various times prior to lactose addition, the drug effects were more pronounced. Cytochalasin B alone or with vinblastine inhibited lactose reversal of S49 cell agglutination compared to the drug-free controls, while fluoride plus azide enhanced hapten reversibility. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that the onset of agglutination irreversibility correlated with cell surface deformation in the drug-treated cells. Cell aggregates that were more readily reversible by lactose (fluoride plus azide) were unchanged or less deformed, while S49 aggregates treated with cytochalasin B plus vinblastine were more deformed compared to controls without drugs. These experiments suggest a role for cell surface deformability as an important secondary effect during lectin-mediated cell agglutination of S49 lymphoma cells.

  8. Bulk tank milk ELISA for detection of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: Correlation between repeated tests and within-herd antibody-prevalence.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Detection of bulk tank milk (BTM) antibodies using ELISA (BTM-ELISA) may constitute an inexpensive test for surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in dairy cattle herds provided that the test is accurate and consistent. The objectives of this study were to determine: (a) the correlation between repeated BTM reactions; and (b) the association between the BTM antibody ELISA-level and the within-herd prevalence of antibody-positive cows. Eight BTM samples per herd and approximately four milk samples per lactating cow per herd were collected from each of 108 Danish Holstein herds over a period of one year. All samples were tested using a commercial indirect ELISA for detection of MAP specific antibodies. The individual cow's results were dichotomised and used to estimate the within-herd antibody prevalence at each test-date. These prevalences were then combined with the ELISA reading on the BTM test-date closest to the cow-level test-date. A mixed-effect analysis of covariance with autoregressive type 1 correlation structure was carried out using the log-transformed BTM-ELISA results as outcome. This model was used to assess the correlation between repeated tests with and without correction for within-herd antibody prevalence. The repeated BTM-recordings were highly correlated with a correlation of 0.80 between samples collected 1.5 months apart. The within-herd antibody prevalence significantly influenced this estimate (p<0.0001), which dropped to 0.60 when corrected for the within-herd antibody prevalence. Although the test-results were relatively consistent and correlated with the within-herd prevalence, the magnitude of the test-values makes it difficult to use the BTM-ELISA for surveillance of MAP infections in practice.

  9. This is not only a test. The hidden risks of antibody screening.

    PubMed

    Byron, P

    1986-05-27

    Interviews with several gay rights activists and public health workers raise serious questions about the blood test to detect antibodies to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A New York gay activist has described the test as "the 80's equivalent of the yellow star," which stigmatizes people and singles them out for discrimination. Public opinion tends not to make any distinction between a positive test result and full-blown AIDS, and government promotion of the test has not added clarity. Several states require the names and addresses of antibody carriers, while others keep lists of the sexual partners of those who test positive. Concern has been expressed that this trend will have 2 practical effects: people will be reluctant to take the test, and record keeping will lead to other uses. Since identification requirements were instituted in Colorado, voluntary testing at gay health clinics dropped from 600 to 100/month. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has allocated US$20 million for special AIDS antibody screening sites, and the states are spending thousands of dollars to collect statistics on individuals at risk. There is increasing concern, however, that funds that could be used for AIDS education are being diverted to antibody screening programs. In states where AIDS is still relatively new, refusal to fund community-based education efforts is considered especially destructive, since there may be time to stop the virus from infecting large numbers of people. A former government official, who disagrees with the CDC approach, has noted that there are no data to support the contention that testing people makes them change their behavior, while AIDS education has been proven to be an effective means to reduce high risk activities. Finally, there is evidence that a positive antibody test has a profound psychological impact, including anxiety, depression, and withdrawal from social relations.

  10. Modeling of Virion Collisions in Cervicovaginal Mucus Reveals Limits on Agglutination as the Protective Mechanism of Secretory Immunoglobulin A

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Alex; McKinley, Scott A.; Shi, Feng; Wang, Simi; Mucha, Peter J.; Harit, Dimple; Forest, M. Gregory; Lai, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), a dimeric antibody found in high quantities in the gastrointestinal mucosa, is broadly associated with mucosal immune protection. A distinguishing feature of sIgA is its ability to crosslink pathogens, thereby creating pathogen/sIgA aggregates that are too large to traverse the dense matrix of mucin fibers in mucus layers overlying epithelial cells and consequently reducing infectivity. Here, we use modeling to investigate this mechanism of “immune exclusion” based on sIgA-mediated agglutination, in particular the potential use of sIgA to agglutinate HIV in cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) and prevent HIV transmission. Utilizing reported data on HIV diffusion in CVM and semen, we simulate HIV collision kinetics in physiologically-thick mucus layers–a necessary first step for sIgA-induced aggregation. We find that even at the median HIV load in semen of acutely infected individuals possessing high viral titers, over 99% of HIV virions will penetrate CVM and reach the vaginal epithelium without colliding with another virion. These findings imply that agglutination is unlikely to be the dominant mechanism of sIgA-mediated protection against HIV or other sexually transmitted pathogens. Rather, we surmise that agglutination is most effective against pathogens either present at exceedingly high concentrations or that possess motility mechanisms other than Brownian diffusion that significantly enhance encounter rates. PMID:26132216

  11. Antibody and Viral Nucleic Acid Testing of Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid for Diagnosis of Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Brittain, David C.; Howard, John J.; Oliver, JoAnne

    2015-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis diagnostic serum antibody can appear 6 days after the onset of symptoms, and its numbers can increase 4-fold in 4 days, arguing for early and frequent serum testing. In populations where cerebrospinal fluid viral nucleic acid testing sensitivity and specificity remain undetermined, cerebrospinal antibody testing should also be performed. PMID:26063852

  12. [Detection of influenza B virus antibodies in different age groups using hemagglutination inhibition tests].

    PubMed

    Sonuvar, S; Kocabeyoğlu, O; Emekdaş

    1991-01-01

    Antibody levels against influenza B virus were investigated by using hemagglutination-inhibition (HA-I) tests in 402 sera obtained from different age groups. Hemagglutination antigens were obtained by production of influenza B virus (B/Singapur/LLC 6201) in trypsinized Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell cultured and they were used in tests. In 355 out of 402 sera (88.3%) antibodies against influenza B virus were detected at titers varying between 1/20 and 1/1280. However in 47 sera (11.7%) no antibodies were detected at 1/20 titer. High titers of antibody (1/640-1/1280) were not detected in none of the sera obtained from an age group between 1 and 14. However high titer antibodies were detected in 15.6% of the sera from an age group between 26 and 35, in the 17.3% of the sera from a group above 50 years of age. Our findings suggest that the increase in the rates of seropositivity against influenza B virus depends on getting older and, that the infections by this virus may be widely seen in our country.

  13. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in the Pennsylvania bobcat (Lynx rufus rufus).

    PubMed

    Mucker, Eric M; Dubey, J P; Lovallo, Matthew J; Humphreys, Jan G

    2006-01-01

    From 2000 to 2002 bobcat blood samples were collected, in association with the Pennsylvania Game Commission, during the recently reactivated bobcat hunting and trapping season. Sex, age, and county/township data were recorded for each animal. Blood was tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the modified agglutination test. In the 2-yr study, 131 bobcat samples were collected in 14 Pennsylvania counties and 109 (83%) of these had antibodies to T. gondii (titer>or=25). A two-way Chi-Square test (95% confidence interval) yielded no significance differences in antibody prevalence between males (83%) and females (88%) or adults (83%) and juveniles (77%). All 14 counties had at least one bobcat with antibodies to T. gondii.

  14. Agglutination of human erythrocytes by the interaction of Zn(2+)ion with histidine-651 on the extracellular domain of band 3.

    PubMed

    Kiyotake, Kento; Ochiai, Hideharu; Yamaguchi, Takeo

    2016-05-01

    Clustering of band 3, chloride/bicarbonate exchanger, has been reported in Zn(2+)-treated human erythrocytes. However, the agglutination of human erythrocytes is also induced by the interaction of Zn(2+)ion with histidine on band 3. Identification of histidine that interacts with Zn(2+)ion remains to be determined. The Zn(2+)-induced agglutination of human erythrocytes was unaffected by chymotrypsin cleavage of the small loop region containing His-547 in the extracellular domain of band 3. On the other hand, papain digestion of the large loop region containing His-651 in band 3 inhibited such Zn(2+)-induced agglutination. Moreover, Zn(2+)-induced erythrocyte agglutination was inhibited by the peptide (ARGWVIHPLG) containing His-651, but not by the peptide such as ARGWVIRPLG, which His-651 was substituted by arginine. Among 10 kinds of animal erythrocytes tested, interestingly, no agglutination by Zn(2+)ions was observed in cow cells only that the forth amino acid in the upstream from His-669 on the large loop of cow band 3 is aspartate (Asp-665) instead of glycine. As expected, the agglutination of human erythrocytes by Zn(2+) ions was inhibited in the presence of aspartate. These data indicate that the interaction of Zn(2+) ion with His-651 residue of band 3 plays an important role in the Zn(2+)-induced agglutination of human erythrocytes.

  15. Serological survey of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in goats, sheep, cattle and water buffaloes in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pita Gondim, L F; Barbosa, H V; Ribeiro Filho, C H; Saeki, H

    1999-05-01

    Serum samples from 439 goats, 240 sheep, 194 cattle and 104 water buffaloes were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by a latex agglutination test. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 28.93% of goats, 18.75% of sheep, 1.03% of cattle and 3.85% of water buffaloes, at a dilution of 1:64. The highest titres observed in goats, sheep, cattle and water buffaloes were 1:2048, 1:2048, 1:64 and 1:512, respectively.

  16. Detection of neutralizing antibodies against Bluetongue virus serotype 8 by an optimized plasma neutralization test.

    PubMed

    Worwa, Gabriella; Chaignat, Valérie; Feldmann, Julia; Thür, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    The neutralization test is used commonly for quantifying neutralizing antibodies and for distinguishing among different virus serotypes (serotyping). Due to the co-circulation of multiple serotypes of Bluetongue virus (BTV), the neutralization test has become an important surveillance method in Europe. However, the existence of different protocols makes test standardization and interpretation of results difficult. The current paper describes the development of a neutralization test using plasma and addresses the factors critical for detection of neutralizing antibodies against BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8), such as virus propagation, stability of virus infectivity and origin of the BTV-8 strain. The results indicated that animals exposed to the Northern European BTV-8 strain developed low neutralizing antibody titers, particularly after vaccination and experimental infection. Although clearly ELISA-positive, these samples often yielded false negative results when tested by the neutralization test using the OIE recommended virus concentration of 100 TCID₅₀/50 μl. The sensitivity of the neutralization test could be improved significantly with retained specificity by using a reduced TCID₅₀ and the homologous European BTV-8 strain instead of the South African reference strain.

  17. [Comparison of food specific IgE antibody test (RAST) and skin tests in children with atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Tang, R B; Chen, B S; Wu, K G; Hwang, B

    1993-09-01

    Thirty children with atopic dermatitis were enrolled in our study to evaluate the food specific IgE antibody assay (RAST) and skin tests as a screening test for food hypersensitivity. Our results showed that eight food antigens (fish, shrimp, crab, soybean, milk, egg-white, peanut, wheat) frequently elicited positive hypersensitivity reactions. Twenty-four patients had at least a positive skin reaction to one of the foods tested. Of the 240 skin tests, 30% (72/240) yield positive reactions. Eighteen patients had at least a positive RAST reaction to one of the foods tested, 20.9% (50/240) yield positive reaction. The agreement between skin test and RAST was 79.6%. Crab and shrimp accounted for most frequent positive reaction in both tests. The skin tests produced more positive results in skin testing than RAST, but gave a higher frequency of false positive results. The diagnosis of food allergy may be suspected from the medical history or by food specific IgE antibodies together with skin test as a screening test. Furthermore, the double blind placebo controlled food challenge should be considered as standard for clinical investigations.

  18. Preclinical and Clinical Performance of the Efoora Test, a Rapid Test for Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Arens, Max Q.; Mundy, Linda M.; Amsterdam, Daniel; Barrett, J. Tom; Bigg, Dan; Bruckner, David; Hanna, Bruce; Prince, Harry; Purington, Timothy; Hanna, Todd; Hewitt, Ross; Kalinka, Carolyn; Koppes, Thomas; Maxwell, Sarz; Moe, Ardis; Doymaz, Mehmet; Poulter, Melinda; Saber-Tehrani, Maryam; Simard, Lorenzo; Wilkins-Carmody, Donna; Vidaver, John; Berger, Cheryl; Davis, Alan H.; Alzona, Mortimer T.

    2005-01-01

    Barriers to effective diagnostic testing for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection can be reduced with simple, reliable, and rapid detection methods. Our objective was to determine the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of a new rapid, lateral-flow immunochromatographic HIV-1 antibody detection device. Preclinical studies were performed using seroconversion, cross-reaction, and interference panels, archived clinical specimens, and fresh whole blood. In a multicenter, prospective clinical trial, a four-sample matrix of capillary (fingerstick) whole-blood specimens and venous whole blood, plasma, and serum was tested for HIV-1 antibodies with the Efoora HIV rapid test (Efoora Inc., Buffalo Grove, IL) and compared with an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Abbott Laboratories) licensed by the Food and Drug Administration. Western blot and nucleic acid test supplemental assays were employed to adjudicate discordant samples. Preclinical testing of seroconversion panels showed that antibodies were often detected earlier by the rapid test than by a reference EIA. No significant interference or cross-reactions were observed. Testing of 4,984 archived specimens yielded a sensitivity of 99.2% and a specificity of 99.7%. A prospective multicenter clinical study with 2,954 adult volunteers demonstrated sensitivity and specificity for the Efoora HIV rapid test of 99.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 99.3 and 99.98%) and 99.0% (95% CI, 98.5 and 99.4%), respectively. Reactive rapid HIV-1 antibody detection was confirmed in 99.6% of those with a known HIV infection (n = 939), 5.2% of those in the high-risk group (n = 1,003), and 0.1% of those in the low-risk group (n = 1,012). For 21 (0.71%) patients, there was discordance between the results of the rapid test and the confirmatory EIA/Western blot tests. We conclude that the Efoora HIV rapid test is a simple, rapid assay for detection of HIV-1 antibodies, with high sensitivity and specificity compared to a standardized

  19. Prevalence of mycoplasma antibodies in lesser prairie-chicken sera.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Christian A; Crupper, Scott S; Applegate, Roger D; Robel, Robert J

    2002-01-01

    Serologic testing by the serum plate agglutination (SPA) procedure was performed to detect the presence of cross-reacting antibodies to Mycoplasma meleagridis, Mycoplasma synoviae, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum in lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) trapped over a 2-yr period in Finney and Kearny counties of southwestern Kansas. Sera examined from birds (n = 50) obtained in March-April 2000 tested positive for M meleagridis, M. synoviae, and M. gallisepticum at levels of 6%, 10%, and 10%, respectively, for the population examined. Mycoplasma meleagridis antibodies were detected in 3 samples (2.7%), M. synoviae antibodies in 2 samples (1.7%), and M. gallisepticum antibodies in 3 samples (2.7%) from birds (n = 112) collected in March-April 2001. Data obtained by SPA can result in false positives and should be verified by additional procedures such as the hemagglutination-inhibition test. Low amounts of sera prohibited this additional testing. Thus, the positive SPA results should be considered presumptive for the presence of Mycoplasma antibodies. Although Mycoplasma antibodies have been detected in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from Kingman and Butler counties in Kansas, this report is the first of possible mycoplasmosis in Finney and Kearny counties, Kansas. All birds testing positive by this procedure should be considered as potential carriers of Mycoplasma and should not be used in relocation efforts.

  20. A low cost and high throughput magnetic bead-based immuno-agglutination assay in confined droplets.

    PubMed

    Teste, Bruno; Ali-Cherif, Anaïs; Viovy, Jean Louis; Malaquin, Laurent

    2013-06-21

    Although passive immuno-agglutination assays consist of one step and simple procedures, they are usually not adapted for high throughput analyses and they require expensive and bulky equipment for quantitation steps. Here we demonstrate a low cost, multimodal and high throughput immuno-agglutination assay that relies on a combination of magnetic beads (MBs), droplets microfluidics and magnetic tweezers. Antibody coated MBs were used as a capture support in the homogeneous phase. Following the immune interaction, water in oil droplets containing MBs and analytes were generated and transported in Teflon tubing. When passing in between magnetic tweezers, the MBs contained in the droplets were magnetically confined in order to enhance the agglutination rate and kinetics. When releasing the magnetic field, the internal recirculation flows in the droplet induce shear forces that favor MBs redispersion. In the presence of the analyte, the system preserves specific interactions and MBs stay in the aggregated state while in the case of a non-specific analyte, redispersion of particles occurs. The analyte quantitation procedure relies on the MBs redispersion rate within the droplet. The influence of different parameters such as magnetic field intensity, flow rate and MBs concentration on the agglutination performances have been investigated and optimized. Although the immuno-agglutination assay described in this work may not compete with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in terms of sensitivity, it offers major advantages regarding the reagents consumption (analysis is performed in sub microliter droplet) and the platform cost that yields to very cheap analyses. Moreover the fully automated analysis procedure provides reproducible analyses with throughput well above those of existing technologies. We demonstrated the detection of biotinylated phosphatase alkaline in 100 nL sample volumes with an analysis rate of 300 assays per hour and a limit of detection of 100 pM.

  1. Comparison of Four Commercially Available Avidity Tests for Toxoplasma gondii-Specific IgG Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Breit, L.; Cimon, B.; Franck, J.; Fricker-Hidalgo, H.; Godineau, N.; Houze, S.; Paris, L.; Pelloux, H.; Villena, I.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women may cause congenital toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of infection is based on serological tests aimed at detecting IgM and IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. However, IgM antibodies are not an accurate marker for discriminating between acute and latent infection. Detection of residual or persistent IgM may occur months or even years after primary infection, while the IgG avidity test is a rapid means of identifying latent infections in pregnant women who exhibit both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies on initial testing during pregnancy. In this study, we assessed and compared the performances of four commercially available Toxoplasma IgG avidity tests in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients with acute and latent toxoplasmosis. The positive predictive value of high avidity to confirm latent toxoplasmosis was 100% for all the assays, indicating that high avidity is a hallmark of latent infection. However, the negative predictive value of high avidity ranged from 99.2% (bioMérieux) to 95.3% (Abbott), indicating that acute toxoplasmosis could not be reliably diagnosed based on low IgG avidity alone. Thus, the avidity test provides a rapid means for identifying latent Toxoplasma infection in immunocompetent pregnant women presenting both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies on initial testing. In terms of cost-effectiveness, avidity testing is a powerful tool that optimizes screening and follow-up of pregnant women while minimizing the costs of screening by avoiding subsequent costly maternal and fetal investigation and unnecessary treatment. The cheapest assay, Vidas Toxo IgG Avidity, also had the best performance for the diagnosis of latent toxoplasmosis. PMID:23239801

  2. [Evaluation of a latex agglutination assay method for the determination of plasmin/alpha 2 plasmin inhibitor complex].

    PubMed

    Murakami, F; Iijima, K; Nakamura, K; Ikawa, S

    1994-06-01

    We evaluated a latex agglutination assay method for concentration of plasmin/alpha 2 plasmin inhibitor complex (PPI) developed recently. The latex reagent consisted of two kinds of latex particles, one was coated with monoclonal antibody against plasmin (JIPPI-3) and another coated with monoclonal antibody against modified alpha 2 plasmin inhibitor (JIPPI-50). A correlation of concentrations of PPI between this method and ordinary EIA kit was very good (r = 0.969). Within-run precision of latex agglutination reagent also was good. The concentrations of PPI in plasmas of 40 in 43 normal subjects were 0-0.8 microgram/ml and others were 0.8-1.6 microgram/ml. Plasma levels of PPI were markedly elevated in patients with DIC. In addition, half of the patients with malignant tumors or liver diseases had increased levels of PPI. 16 of 32 cases with selected diseases (18 malignant tumors, 4 liver diseases, 2 infectious diseases, 2 cerebral contusions, 6 others) showed abnormal levels in PPI (> or = 0.8 microgram/ml) during several days preceding the elevation of FDP. It suggested that PPI could reflect fibrinolysis earlier than FDP. This latex agglutination assay is a simple and rapid method, and specific for the determination of PPI concentration as well as EIA method. We conclude that this assay method is very convenient for clinical use. PMID:8051804

  3. Comparison of five different methods of rubella IgM antibody testing.

    PubMed Central

    Cubie, H; Edmond, E

    1985-01-01

    Five tests for the detection of rubella specific IgM antibody were compared. They were the conventional method of sucrose density gradient fractionation, followed by haemagglutination inhibition; an anti-mu capture radioimmunoassay; and three commercially available enzyme linked assays: Rubazyme M, Rubenz M I, and its successor, Rubenz M II. The five methods detected similar numbers of rubella positive samples between seven and 35 days after the onset of symptoms; in the earlier stages, however, the radioimmunoassay and Rubenz M II were more sensitive. All three commercial kits were straightforward to use but produced misleading positive results with sera containing heterophil antibody. In considering sensitivity, specificity, and cost effectiveness together the Rubenz M tests were the most appropriate for routine use. With the recent withdrawal of Rubenz M I from the market only Rubenz M II is now available. If Epstein-Barr virus infection is excluded, Rubenz M II provides a reliable test for the diagnostic laboratory. PMID:3968218

  4. An ELISA blocking test using a peroxidase-labelled anti-HN monoclonal antibody for the specific titration of antibodies to avian paramyxovirus type 1 (PMV1).

    PubMed

    Jestin, V; Cherbonnel, M; L'Hospitalier, R; Bennejean, G

    1989-01-01

    This report describes an ELISA blocking test using a peroxidase-labelled monoclonal antibody which binds to the HN protein of Newcastle disease (NDV). This test allows specific detection of type 1 avian paramyxovirus (PMV1) antibodies but does not detect other avian paramyxovirus (PMV2-9) antibodies recognized by the usual serological NDV tests (HI, Orgenics, and Agritech ELISA tests). Furthermore, swollen head syndrome and influenza antibodies were also not detected. ELISA blocking and HI titers of sera collected from SPF chickens immunized with 18 different PMV1 strains (including pigeon isolates) were the same; the correlation between ELISA blocking and HI titers was highly significant (P less than 0.001). In comparison with ELISA tests available commercially at the present time, the ELISA blocking test can be performed more quickly and is applicable without modification to sera from different species of fowls. For this reason, the test appears to be useful for determining the immunity and sanitary status of fowls. When recombinant or deleted vaccines become available, the test should make it possible to demonstrate with confidence any infection of fowls by wild type PMV1.

  5. Indirect fluorescent-antibody test for human cytomegalovirus infection in the absence of interfering immunoglobulin G receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Swack, N S; Michalski, F J; Baumgarten, A; Hsiung, G D

    1977-01-01

    The presence of immunoglobulin G receptors in human fibroblasts infected with human cytomegalovirus (CMV) resulted in a nonspecific cytoplasmic reaction in the indirect fluorescent-antibody test. Both CMV antibody-positive and antibody-negative sera from human or other animal species produced the cytoplasmic reaction. The substitution of a simian CMV strain for the human virus successfully eliminated this cytoplasmic reaction and, thus, allowed for the observation of virus-induced fluorescent intranuclear inclusions. With the latter system, CMV antibody titers in human sera were equivalent to those obtained by using the human virus and, in addition, allowed for the detection of relatively low-titered serum samples in which antibody measurement was difficult when human CMV-infected cells were used in the indirect fluorescent-antibody test. Images PMID:193791

  6. ELISA test for rabies antibody titration in orally vaccinated foxes sampled in the fields.

    PubMed

    Cliquet, F; Sagné, L; Schereffer, J L; Aubert, M F

    2000-08-01

    The assessment of the efficacy of rabies oral vaccination campaigns requires the titration of specific antibodies in the target species. Unfortunately, in Continental Europe, most fox serum samples are in fact "body fluids" taken from cadavers and the lack of a validated titration method for these poor quality sera made it impossible to survey and compare the efficacy of various oral vaccination protocols used by the different European teams. By using ready to use microplates sensitised with rabies virus glycoprotein purchased from a manufacturer and applying a simple and rapid ELISA technique on field fox sera, we obtained antibody quantitation highly correlated with seroneutralising antibody titres measured with a seroneutralisation test on cell culture. We obtained, with fox sera sampled in the same area, the same distribution of high, medium and low titres within all categories of serum quality (from high to very poor quality) and therefore conclude that this ELISA test allows a reliable titration even with highly contaminated body fluids. This test was shown to be equally capable of detecting rabies antibodies in serum samples taken from foxes vaccinated with an highly attenuated rabies virus (the SAG2 double mutant of the Street Alabama Dufferin strain) or with the VRG, the Vaccinia recombinant glycoprotein. Additionally, a strong correlation was demonstrated between titres given by this ELISA (or by the seroneutralisation test) and protection against challenge of foxes orally vaccinated with SAG2 vaccine baits. In view of this validation, this simple and reliable test is proposed for sero-surveying foxes following rabies oral vaccination campaigns.

  7. Evolution of carbon isotopes, agglutinates, and the lunar regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, D. J.; Basu, A.; Hayes, J. M.; Meinschein, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    Apollo 17 light-mantle soils and Apollo 15 Apennine Front soils are compared with respect to isotopic enrichment of C-13 and the maturity of the site. Analyses of soil-size fractions indicate that while the carbon concentration on particle surfaces remains relatively constant with increasing soil maturity, total surface-correlated carbon increases due to increasing total soil surface area. The role of agglutinates in the incorporation of surface-correlated carbon into aggregate grains is examined; agglutinates contain a major percentage of the carbon found in mature soil, and the volume-correlated carbon component in agglutinates apparently continues to increase after the surface-correlated carbon concentrations have reached a constant value. Constraints that may limit the carbon concentration in lunar soils to a value not greater than 300 micrograms/g are considered.

  8. Purification of Oncornaviruses by Agglutination with Concanavalin A

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Margaret L.; Summers, Donald F.; Soeiro, Ruy; Fields, Bernard N.; Maizel, Jacob V.

    1973-01-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A) has been used to rapidly and selectively agglutinate murine and avian oncornavirions from culture medium or plasma. The agglutinated virus was concentrated rapidly and gently by low-speed centrifugation and solubilization with α-methyl mannoside. Infectious virus was purified 2.3 times with respect to nucleic-acid content, and more than 60% of its infectivity was recovered. Infectious particles of densities 1.18 and 1.16 g/cm3 were found in mouse cells infected with Friend virus. Con A reacted only with particles of density 1.16 g/cm3, indicating heterogeneity with respect to carbohydrate content or structure as well as buoyant density. Electron microscopy of virus agglutinated with Con A showed a zone of Con A-glycoprotein complexes averaging 12-15 nm in thickness. Images PMID:4514301

  9. Detection of Babesia divergens in southern Norway by using an immunofluorescence antibody test in cow sera

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The incidence of bovine babesiosis, caused by Babesia divergens (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) has decreased markedly since the 1930 s, but may re-emerge as a consequence of climate change and changes in legislation and pasturing practices. This is a potentially serious disease, with both economical and animal welfare consequences. Therefore, there is a need to survey the distribution of B. divergens. Methods We tested sera from 306 healthy pastured cows from 24 farms along the southern Norwegian coast by using an indirect immunofluorescence IgG antibody test (IFAT). Fractions of seropositive cows were compared by calculating 95% CI. Results The results of this test showed that 27% of the sera were positive for B. divergens antibodies. The fraction of antibody-positive sera that we detected showed a two-humped distribution, with a high fraction of positives being found in municipalities in the western and eastern parts of the study area, while the municipalities between these areas had few or no positive serum samples. Conclusions Neither the farmers' observations nor the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System give an adequate picture of the distribution of bovine babesiosis. Serological testing of cows by using IFAT is a convenient way of screening for the presence of B. divergens in an area. PMID:20925923

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigen testing to detect HIV infection in female sex workers in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chan, R K; Ali, K; Thoe, S Y

    1995-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterised by seroconversion after a ¿window¿ period of 2 to 3 months. After this period antibodies are usually detectable by screening tests (enzyme immunoassay or particle agglutination) confirmed by Western blot analysis. We studied 1000 newly enrolled female sex workers who had not been previously tested for HIV to assess the usefulness of HIV antigen testing to improve the efficacy of HIV infection detection. Blood was taken at enrollment for HIV antigen and HIV antibody testing. The Abbott HIVAG-1 test was used to detect antigen; antibody detection was by the Abbott recombinant HIV-1/HIV-2 3rd generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test, the Fujirebio Serodia-HIV particle agglutination (PA) test for screening, and the Diagnostic Biotechnology HIV Blot 2.2 Western blot (WB) test for antibody confirmation. Of the 1000 samples, 26 were positive for HIV antibody testing (26/26 for EIA, 25/25 for PA, 26/26 for WB), giving a prevalence rate of 2.6%, Of these 26 seropositive samples 1 was positive on HIV antigen testing. There were no samples which were antigen-positive and antibody-negative. HIV antigen testing does not add to increased efficacy of HIV detection among female sex workers in Singapore.

  11. Preclinical safety testing of monoclonal antibodies: the significance of species relevance.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Kathryn; Pullen, Nick; Graham, Mark; Ragan, Ian

    2007-02-01

    Selecting a pharmacologically relevant animal species for testing the safety and toxicity of novel monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies to support clinical testing can be challenging. Frequently, the species of choice is the primate. With the increased number of mAbs in the pharmaceutical pipeline, this has significant implications for primate use, and so raises several important scientific, ethical and economic issues. Here, following a recent international workshop held to debate this topic, we discuss issues in the preclinical testing of mAbs, with a particular focus on species relevance and primate use, and provide suggestions for how these issues might be addressed.

  12. Antithyroglobulin antibody

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Hypothyroidism - thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Graves disease - thyroglobulin antibody; Underactive thyroid - thyroglobulin antibody

  13. Evolution of Shock Melt Compositions in Lunar Agglutinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vance, A. M.; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.

    2015-01-01

    Lunar agglutinates are aggregates of regolith grains fused together in a glassy matrix of shock melt produced during smaller-scale (mostly micrometeorite) impacts. Agglutinate formation is a key space weathering process under which the optically-active component of nanophase metallic Fe (npFe(sup 0)) is added to the lunar regolith. Here we have used energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) compositional spectrum imaging in the SEM to quantify the chemical homogeneity of agglutinitic glass, correlate its homogeneity to its parent soil maturity, and identify the principle chemical components contributing to the shock melt compositional variations.

  14. Red cell antibodies and low ionic strength: a study with enzyme-linked antiglobulin test.

    PubMed

    Leikola, J; Perkins, H A

    1980-01-01

    Alloantibody uptake on red blood cells was quantified with an accurate and reproducible enzyme-linked antiglobulin test. The uptake of anti-D, anti-Fy2 and anti-JK3 was markedly accelerated by low ionic strength salt solution (LISS) with a final ionic strength of 0.05 M. Near maximum uptake occurred within ten minutes at room temperature which corresponded to 60 minutes in saline at 37 C. Papain treatment of red blood cells increased the amount of anti-D bound, and there was no difference whether or not the papain-treated cells were suspended in LISS. In contrast, the uptake of IgG anti-A and anti-Leb was not accelerated by LISS, nor did LISS increase the rate of binding of antiblogulin to IgG antibody-coated red blood cells. We suggest this may be explained by the fact that the ABH and Lewis antigens (as well as bound IgG antibodies) extend beyond the "ionic cloud" surrounding the red blood cell. Antibody binding in the presence of albumin was approximately the same as in saline; but if the albumin was first dialyzed against LISS, the reaction was markedly accelerated and the final antibody uptake somewhat higher than in LISS alone.

  15. New tests to detect antiphospholipid antibodies: antiprothrombin (aPT) and anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT) antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sciascia, Savino; Khamashta, Munther A; Bertolaccini, Maria Laura

    2014-05-01

    Antiprothrombin antibodies have been proposed as potential new biomarkers for thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity in the setting of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Antiprothrombin antibodies are commonly detected by ELISA, using prothrombin coated onto irradiated plates (aPT), or prothrombin in complex with phosphatidylserine (aPS/PT), as antigen. Although these antibodies can co-exist in the same patient, aPT and aPS/PT seem to belong to different populations of autoantibodies. Early research explored the role of antibodies to prothrombin as potential antigenic targets for the lupus anticoagulant (LA). To date their clinical significance is being investigated and their potential role in identifying patients at higher risk of developing thrombotic events or pregnancy morbidity is being probed.

  16. Comparison of Rapid Point-of-Care Tests for Detection of Antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Dennis G; Hess, Kristen L; Erlyana, Erlyana; Reynolds, Grace L; Cummins, Catherine A; Alonzo, Todd A

    2015-09-01

    Background.  Hepatitis C is one of the most prevalent blood-borne diseases in the United States. Despite the benefits of early screening, among 3.2 million Americans who are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), 50%-70% are unaware of their infection status. Methods.  Data were collected between 2011 and 2014, from 1048 clients who were in the following groups: (1) injection drug users, (2) women at sexual risk, (3) gay and bisexual men, and (4) transgender individuals. The sensitivity and specificity of point-of-care tests included (1) the MedMira rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV antibody test, (2) MedMira hepatitis B (HBV)/HIV/HCV antibody test, (3) Chembio HCV Screen Assay used with both whole blood and (4) oral specimens, (5) Chembio HIV-HCV Assay also used with both whole blood and (6) oral specimens, (7) Chembio HIV-HCV-Syphilis Assay, and (8) OraSure HCV Rapid Antibody Test used with whole blood. The gold standard for the HCV tests were HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) 2.0. Results.  OraSure had the highest sensitivity at 92.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 88.8%-96.5%) followed closely by Chembio's 3 blood tests at 92.1% (95% CI = 87.7%-96.4%), 91.5% (95% CI = 87.2%-95.7%), and 92.3% (95% CI = 88.4%-96.2%). The sensitivities of MedMira HIV/HCV and MedMira HIV/HCV/HBV tests were the lowest, at 79.1% (95% CI = 72.6%-85.5%), and 81.5% (95% CI = 75.2%-87.8%), respectively. Specificity for the OraSure was 99.8% (95% CI = 99.4%-100%); specificity for the Chembio blood tests was 99.2% (95% CI = 98.6%-99.9%), 99.4% (95% CI = 98.8%-99.9%), and 99.3% (95% CI = 98.8%-99.9%); and specificity for the MedMira was100% and 100%. False-negative results were associated with HIV and hepatitis B core antibody serostatus. Conclusions.  The OraSure and Chembio blood tests (including those multiplexed with HIV and syphilis) appear to good performance characteristics. This study has identified potential limitations of rapid testing in those testing positive for

  17. Long-term human serum antibody responses after immunization with whole-cell pertussis vaccine in France.

    PubMed Central

    Grimprel, E; Bégué, P; Anjak, I; Njamkepo, E; François, P; Guiso, N

    1996-01-01

    Three hundred sixty children were tested for pertussis serology 0.5 to 1.58 months after complete whole-cell pertussis vaccination. An immunoblot assay was used to detect serum antibodies to pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, adenylate cyclase-hemolysin, and pertactin, and agglutination was used for detection of anti-agglutinogen antibodies. Antibodies against pertussis toxin, pertactin, and agglutinogens decreased rapidly after vaccination but increased secondarily, suggesting exposure to infected persons. In contrast, anti-filamentous hemagglutinin antibodies persisted and anti-adenylate cyclase-hemolysin antibodies increased continuously, suggesting either cross-reaction with non-Bordetella antigens or exposure to Bordetella isolates expressing these two antigens, including Bordetella pertussis. These data suggest that unrecognized pertussis is common in France despite massive and sustained immunization in infants and that vaccinated children become susceptible to infection more than 6 years after their last vaccination. PMID:8770511

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondhi antibodies in captive wild mammals and birds in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Minervino, Antonio Humberto Hamad; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Barrêto-Júnior, Raimundo Alves; Neves, Kedson Alessandri Lobo; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Ortolani, Enrico Lippi; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2010-09-01

    In this study, serum samples of 203 animals from different locations, from zoos and breeding facilities from the north and northeast regions of Brazil, were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT) with a cutoff of 1:25. Of the sampled animals, 184 were adult mammals of both sexes and 19 were birds. Antibodies were found in 61 of 184 mammals, and no association between sex and age of the animals and the presence of T. gondii antibodies was observed (P < 0.05). Anti-T gondii antibodies were not found in birds. Toxoplasma gondii was detected in Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris) for the first time. PMID:20945665

  19. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Romand, S; Hilali, M; Kwok, O C; Thulliez, P

    1998-03-01

    Sera from 75 water buffaloes from Egypt were examined using a direct agglutination test incorporating mercaptoethanol for antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 51 (68%) of 75 buffaloes in titres of 1:20 (six buffaloes), 1:40 (15 buffaloes), 1:160 (one buffalo), 1:320 (one buffalo) and > or = 1:640 (28 buffaloes), using N. caninum formalin-preserved whole tachyzoites as antigen. Antibodies to T. gondii were not found in a 1:100 dilution of serum of any of the 75 buffaloes, using T. gondii as antigen, indicating specificity in the detection of antibodies to N. caninum. This is the first report of N. caninum prevalence in water buffaloes, which are economically very important domestic animals in developing countries.

  20. Differential assay reactivity of immunglobulin A anti-ß2 glycoprotein I antibodies: implications for the clinical interpretation of antiphospholipid antibody testing

    PubMed Central

    Hood, David B.; Snyder, Karin R.; Buckner, Tammy R.; Hurley, Beth L.; Pitts, Kelly R.; Lopez, Luis R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The routine measurement of IgA anticardiolipin (aCL) and IgA anti-β2 glycoprotein I (anti-β2 GPI) antibodies remain controversial despite several studies demonstrating an association with thromboembolic disease in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). This controversy may be a contributing factor for the current under use of IgA antiphospholipid antibodies. We aimed to investigate the nature of discrepant IgA anti-β2 GPI reactivity to help define the diagnostic value of IgA antiphospholipid antibodies. Material and Methods Four sera selected from SLE/APS patients and positive for antiphospholipid antibodies but having discrepant IgA anti-β2 GPI reactivity on two commercial assays were studied. IgA antibodies were affinity purified to investigate anti-β2 GPI reactivity. Column wash through and eluent fractions were tested on both IgA anti-β2 GPI assays. Results were normalized to total protein. Assay conjugates and standards from the discrepant assays were interchanged. Results The diseased samples were strongly positive in one assay [144–388 IgA antiphospholipid (APL) units] and negative or weakly positive in another assay (9.9–53 APL units). IgA eluents from IgA anti-β2 GPI positive samples reacted 10 times stronger on the reactive assay. When normalized to protein content, the eluents showed no cross-reactivity for IgG or IgM anti-β2 GPI antibodies, confirming IgA isotype specificity. Conjugate interchange confirmed that both assays bound IgA anti-β2 GPI antibodies, but the anti-IgA conjugate from the reactive assay was 4 times stronger, suggesting that its ability to detect IgA anti-β2 GPI antibodies was partially dependent on the anti-IgA conjugate and calibration. Conclusion These results confirm not only the presence of IgA anti-β2 GPI antibodies in the selected patient samples but also highlight an IgA conjugate issue for the unreactive assay, causing an underestimation of IgA anti-β2

  1. The positive duration of varicella zoster immunoglobulin M antibody test in herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Min, Seong-Won; Kim, Yung Suk; Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Yoo, Da Hye; Choi, Eunjoo; Lee, Pyung-Bok; Choo, Hyunjung; Park, Zee-Yong; Yang, Catherine Seonghee

    2016-08-01

    Laboratory tests for herpes zoster (HZ) are required to confirm varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection, especially when a skin lesion is not typical or apparent. The serological test for VZV IgM antibody is simple and cost-effective; however, the change in the VZV IgM-positive rate over the time course of the disease has not been investigated. Therefore, we conducted an observational study to evaluate the positive rate of VZV IgM results during the time course of HZ and estimate the VZV IgM-positive period.After obtaining serum from patients with typical HZ, the VZV IgM titer was examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. After logarithmic transformation of the VZV IgM titer and the period after the onset of HZ, regression analysis was performed with the 2 transformed variables.A total of 62 patients were included in this study, and VZV IgM antibody was positive only in 23 patients (37%). The estimated antibody-positive period after HZ onset was 3.5 weeks (95% confidence interval 2.8-4.6 weeks).These findings suggest that the serological diagnosis of VZV IgM to confirm HZ is only useful within 3.5 weeks after the onset of symptoms. PMID:27537598

  2. [Unexpected Diseases in Two Patients with False-Positive Dengue Immunoglobulin M Antibody Test Results].

    PubMed

    Matono, Takashi; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Kato, Yasuyuki; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2016-03-01

    In 2014, an outbreak of 162 domestic dengue fever infections occurred in Tokyo, Japan; the first outbreak of its kind in 70 years. Nineteen of these cases were confirmed in our center. Advancements in diagnostic methods have enabled an earlier diagnosis of dengue fever; however, unfamiliarity with the clinical course and characteristics of diagnostic tests for dengue fever can lead to misdiagnosis. We herein describe 2 cases of Japanese patients with false-positive dengue immunoglobulin M antibody test results, who were finally diagnosed as having dermatomyositis and acute hepatitis A infection, respectively. PMID:27197439

  3. Synthesis for Lunar Simulants: Glass, Agglutinate, Plagioclase, Breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Michael; Wilson, Stephen A.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Stoeser, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The video describes a process for making glass for lunar regolith simulants that was developed from a patented glass-producing technology. Glass composition can be matched to simulant design and specification. Production of glass, pseudo agglutinates, plagioclase, and breccias is demonstrated. The system is capable of producing hundreds of kilograms of high quality glass and simulants per day.

  4. Promising Antibody Testing Strategies for Early Infant HIV Infection Diagnosis in China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xueli; Yao, Jun; Jiang, Yan; Li, Jie; Han, Jianfeng; Sun, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    Background In China, 1.1% of people living with HIV were transmitted vertically, causing a heavy burden on families and society. Early infant diagnosis (EID) is critical for improving neonatal survival. The purpose of this study is to suggest improvement in antibody testing strategies with dried blood spots (DBSs) for EID in China through analysis of anti-HIV seroreversion of infants. Methods A total of 280 infants born to HIV infected mothers in four diverse provinces of China where multiple subtypes coexist were enrolled. The status of the infants' infection was determined by HIV antibody enzyme immunoassay and Western blot analysis at ≥18 months of age or by convincing clinical and epidemiologic data for deceased infants. A total of 1028 DBSs were collected during follow-up, which were tested to obtain anti-HIV signal to cut-off ratio (S/CO) data. Results For uninfected infants, anti-HIV S/CO decreased with age. Seropositivity percentage declined most rapidly at 6 months to 9 months of age and 98.7% children seroreverted by 12 months of age. For most infected infants, minimum S/CO values were obtained at ≤6 months of age. Antibody negative predictive value was 100% at ≥6 months of age. An S/CO increase ≥1.86 after three months follow-up can determine HIV infection. S/CO threshold of 3.17 can differentiate infected from uninfected infants for exposed kids at 9 months or older with sensitivity as 100% and specificity ≥94.2%. Significance Suggestions obtained through studying seroreversion data of Chinese HIV-exposed infants help improve antibody strategies for HIV EID in China. The infection can be determined as early as 3 months of age and excluded as early as 6 months of age. PMID:24971594

  5. Pneumococcal antigen detection in cerebrospinal fluid: a comparative study on counter immunoelectrophoresis, latex agglutination and coagglutination.

    PubMed

    Rai, G P; Zachariah, K; Sharma, R; Phadke, S; Belapurkar, K M

    2003-07-01

    The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and predictive values of counter immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), latex agglutination (LA) and coagglutination (CoAg) tests were compared for detection of pneumococcal antigen in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients suspected of meningitis. A total of 95 CSF samples comprising 15 culture proven, 47 clinically suspected but culture negative cases of meningitis and 33 controls were screened by above tests. Among three tests, LA was found to have high sensitivity and moderately high negative predictive value than CIE and CoAg tests. However, CIE had slightly better specificity than LA and CoAg tests. Accuracywise CIE and LA tests were comparable than CoAg test. CIE and LA tests had high positive predictive value than CoAg test.

  6. Laboratory testing for the antiphospholipid syndrome: making sense of antiphospholipid antibody assays.

    PubMed

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Wong, Richard C W

    2011-03-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune condition characterised by a wide range of clinical features (primarily thrombosis and/or obstetric related), associated with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) as detected by a diverse range of laboratory tests. APS remains a significant diagnostic challenge for clinicians across a wide range of specialities, largely due to issues related to laboratory testing as well as the expanding range of reported clinical manifestations of APS. The laboratory issues include limitations in detailed knowledge by both clinical and laboratory personnel regarding the 'complete' range of available aPL tests, as well as ongoing problems with assay reproducibility and standardisation. aPL are identified using diverse laboratory procedures based on one of two distinct test processes, namely solid phase and liquid phase assays. The former includes anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) and anti-β(2)-glycoprotein I antibodies (aβ(2)GPI). The latter are centred on clot-based tests that are used to identify the so-called lupus anticoagulant (LA). This article will discuss: (i) issues related to laboratory testing for APS in terms of the currently available solid-phase and liquid-phase assays, and identifiable biases resulting from these tests usually being performed in different laboratories; (ii) current problems with calibration, standardisation and reproducibility of these assays; (iii) pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical considerations and ongoing initiatives for improvement; (iv) issues related to potential combinations/panels of available aPL tests; and (v) the entities of seropositive APS, seronegative APS and non-APS aPL-positivity. In doing so, this review will hopefully help bridge the two disciplines of haematology and immunology ('representing' liquid-phase and solid-phase aPL testing, respectively), by improving the understanding of those working in each of these disciplines of the merits and

  7. A multicenter evaluation of a new antibody test kit for lymphatic filariasis employing recombinant Brugia malayi antigen Bm-14

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Gary J.; Curtis, Kurt C.; Fischer, Peter U.; Won, Kimberly Y.; Lammie, Patrick J.; Joseph, Hayley; Melrose, Wayne D.; Brattig., Norbert W.

    2010-01-01

    Antibody tests are useful for mapping the distribution of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in countries and regions and for monitoring progress in elimination programs based on mass drug administration (MDA). Prior antibody tests have suffered from poor sensitivity and/or specificity or from a lack of standardization. We conducted a multicenter evaluation of a new commercial ELISA that detects IgG4 antibodies to the recombinant filarial antigen Bm14. Four laboratories tested a shared panel of coded serum or plasma samples that included 55 samples from people with microfilaremic Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia infections and 26 control samples. Qualitative results were identical in all four test sites. In addition, each laboratory tested samples from their own serum banks. The test detected antibodies in 32 of 36 samples (91%) from people with Brugian filariasis and in 96 of 98 samples (98%) from people with Bancroftian filariasis. Specificity testing showed that many serum or plasma samples from patients with other filarial infections such as onchocerciasis had positive antibody tests. Specificity was otherwise excellent, although 3 of 30 samples from patients with ascariasis and 4 of 51 with strongyloidiasis had positive antibody tests; it is likely that some or all of these people had previously lived in filariasis-endemic areas. Antibody test results obtained with eluates from blood dried on filter paper were similar to those obtained with plasma tested at the same dilution. This test may be helpful for diagnosing LF in patients with clinical signs of filariasis. It may also be a useful tool for use in LF endemic countries to monitor the progress of filariasis elimination programs and for post-MDA surveillance. PMID:20430004

  8. A multicenter evaluation of a new antibody test kit for lymphatic filariasis employing recombinant Brugia malayi antigen Bm-14.

    PubMed

    Weil, Gary J; Curtis, Kurt C; Fischer, Peter U; Won, Kimberly Y; Lammie, Patrick J; Joseph, Hayley; Melrose, Wayne D; Brattig, Norbert W

    2011-09-01

    Antibody tests are useful for mapping the distribution of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in countries and regions and for monitoring progress in elimination programs based on mass drug administration (MDA). Prior antibody tests have suffered from poor sensitivity and/or specificity or from a lack of standardization. We conducted a multicenter evaluation of a new commercial ELISA that detects IgG4 antibodies to the recombinant filarial antigen Bm14. Four laboratories tested a shared panel of coded serum or plasma samples that included 55 samples from people with microfilaremic Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia infections and 26 control samples. Qualitative results were identical in all four test sites. In addition, each laboratory tested samples from their own serum banks. The test detected antibodies in 32 of 36 samples (91%) from people with Brugian filariasis and in 96 of 98 samples (98%) from people with Bancroftian filariasis. Specificity testing showed that many serum or plasma samples from patients with other filarial infections such as onchocerciasis had positive antibody tests. Specificity was otherwise excellent, although 3 of 30 samples from patients with ascariasis and 4 of 51 with strongyloidiasis had positive antibody tests; it is likely that some or all of these people had previously lived in filariasis-endemic areas. Antibody test results obtained with eluates from blood dried on filter paper were similar to those obtained with plasma tested at the same dilution. This test may be helpful for diagnosing LF in patients with clinical signs of filariasis. It may also be a useful tool for use in LF endemic countries to monitor the progress of filariasis elimination programs and for post-MDA surveillance.

  9. Immunochemical parameters of some commercial conjugates for the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test.

    PubMed

    Hunter, E F; Smith, J F; Lewis, J S; McGrew, B E; Schmale, J D

    1972-06-01

    Fluorescein-labeled anti-human globulins were examined to determine the need for standardization of conjugates used in the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) test. Twenty-one of 33 conjugates submitted by commercial manufacturers to the Reagents Control Activity, Venereal Disease Research Laboratory, for evaluation in the FTA-ABS test were available for study. Conjugates, after evaluation in FTA-ABS performance tests, were examined by immunoelectrophoresis, by titration against immunoglobulins G and M (IgG, IgM) with FTA-ABS techniques, and by the biuret protein and fluorescein diacetate methods for determining fluorescein to protein (F/P) ratios. The conjugates were predominately anti-IgG globulin with anti-light-chain activity. Differences were noted in the ability of some conjugates to detect IgM antibody. The F/P ratios of those conjugates that could be determined varied from 2.6 to 17.8 mug of fluorescein per mg of protein. The need to identify and standardize both the immunologic capabilities and the optimum F/P ratio for FTA-ABS test conjugates is presented.

  10. Qualification of a microfluidics-based electrophoretic method for impurity testing of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Antes, Bernhard; Oberkleiner, Philipp; Nechansky, Andreas; Szolar, Oliver H J

    2010-02-01

    In this work, we present a comprehensive evaluation of the Agilent Bioanalyzer, a microfluidics-based electrophoretic device that was used for impurity testing of a monoclonal antibody (mAb). We compared the system to SDS-PAGE, both operated under non-reducing conditions and found a significant improvement of accuracy for the Bioanalyzer. In addition, the latter exhibited a larger assay range and lower limit of quantitation (LOQ) based on a predefined total error limit of +/-30%. However, during method qualification applying a three-factor nested design with two operators performing duplicate measurements per day, each on 4 different days, we observed unpredictable recurring quantitative outliers using the chip-based system. In-depth analysis on multiple runs with various chip lots confirmed the above finding and indicated that most likely on-chip dye labeling and/or post-column background fluorescence elimination are not compatible with the large size of the intact antibody as similar findings were observed for myosin used as upper marker for time correction. Interestingly, after reducing the intact antibody into light and heavy chain, we resolved the outlier issue. Eventually, requalification of the micro-fabricated analytical device under reducing conditions revealed only 1 out of 32 quality control samples (QCs) exceeding the +/-30% total error limits.

  11. Agglutinates as recorders of regolith evolution - Application to the Apollo 17 drill core

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

    1984-11-15

    Chemical data are reported for agglutinates from 26 depth intervals of the Apollo 17 deep drill core, and the compositions of the agglutinates are compared with those of the soils in which they occur. The agglutinate sequence suggests a scenario in which several closely-spaced depositional events were involved in the formation of the drill core, rather than a continuous accumulation process.

  12. Agglutinates as recorders of regolith evolution - Application to the Apollo 17 drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laul, J. C.; Smith, M. R.; Papike, J. J.; Simon, S. B.

    1984-01-01

    Chemical data are reported for agglutinates from 26 depth intervals of the Apollo 17 deep drill core, and the compositions of the agglutinates are compared with those of the soils in which they occur. The agglutinate sequence suggests a scenario in which several closely-spaced depositional events were involved in the formation of the drill core, rather than a continuous accumulation process.

  13. Agglutinates as recorders of regolith evolution - Application to the Apollo 17 drill core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laul, J. C.; Smith, M. R.; Papike, J. J.; Simon, S. B.

    1984-11-01

    Chemical data are reported for agglutinates from 26 depth intervals of the Apollo 17 deep drill core, and the compositions of the agglutinates are compared with those of the soils in which they occur. The agglutinate sequence suggests a scenario in which several closely-spaced depositional events were involved in the formation of the drill core, rather than a continuous accumulation process.

  14. Determination of antibodies against LAV/HTLV III: comparative evaluation of four different commercial test kits.

    PubMed

    Abb, J

    1986-01-01

    Four different, commercially available ELISA tests for the detection of antibodies against LAV/HTLV III were evaluated for specificity and sensitivity. The relative specificity of the kits was determined by investigating a test panel of 76 sera collected from asymptomatic or symptomatic homosexual men. Completely concordant results were obtained for sera from asymptomatic male homosexuals (11% positive for Anti-LAV/HTLV III) or from patients with the AIDS-related complex (91% positive for Anti-LAV/HTLV III). Differences between the ELISA test kits, however, were observed with sera obtained from patients with AIDS. While Anti-LAV/HTLV III was detected by the Abbott, Electro-Nucleonics, and Organon test in all 17 sera from AIDS patients, the Pasteur test failed to detect Anti-LAV/HTLV III in 7 consecutive sera from an individual patient with late-stage AIDS. The relative sensitivity of the ELISA tests was determined by endpoint titration of confirmed Anti-LAV/HTLV III positive sera from donors of different risk groups for AIDS. The titration experiments demonstrated that the Abbott test clearly was the most sensitive of the ELISA tests studied, followed by the Electro-Nucleonics, Pasteur, and Organon test. The results further indicate that most of the differences of specificity and sensitivity observed between the Anti-LAV/HTLV III tests could be abolished by a modified definition of minimum positive absorbance values.

  15. High levels of IgM antibodies specific for Toxoplasma gondii in pregnancy 12 years after primary toxoplasma infection. Case report.

    PubMed

    Bobić, B; Sibalić, D; Djurković-Djaković, O

    1991-01-01

    A case of high levels of specific IgM antibodies registered by the immunosorbent agglutination assay (ISAgA) in a pregnant woman with a history of toxoplasmosis is reported. The patient had acute lymphoglandular toxoplasmosis diagnosed serologically by increases in the specific antibody titer detected by the Sabin-Feldman test (SFT) and pathohistologically 12 years before pregnancy. In pregnancy, she had stable titers of specific antibodies registered by the SFT, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT) and direct agglutination test. Specific IgM antibodies were detected by the ISAgA but not by the IgM-IFAT, IgM-ELISA and IgM-IHAT. She had a normal pregnancy and gave birth to a clinically healthy baby who had a negative ISAgA finding at 7 days of age. This case indicates that ISAgA is not necessarily a marker of recent infection and is therefore not reliable for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.

  16. [Titration of rabies antibodies with the rapid fluorescence focus inhibition test].

    PubMed

    Závadová, J; Svrcek, S; Madar, M; Durove, A

    1996-07-01

    Antirabies virus neutralization antibodies in sera and/or transudates modified RFFIT method by Smith et al. (1973). Sera were titrated on Lab-Tek 8 chamber TC slides. Sera and/or transudates (content of pleural cavity) as well as the challenge virus strain (vaccination strains of the rabies virus Vnukovo-32/107th passage and/or CVS 11/Paris) were incubated at 37 degrees C during 90 minutes subsequently BHK-21/C13 cell culture was added. The cultures were fixed after 24 to 48 hours and stained with antirabic fluorescent conjugate (Bioveta a.s., Ivanovice n. H., Czech Republic). The highest dilution of the virus was used as the challenge dose where 50 percent of the cells in the examined range of view were infected (fluorescent inclusions can be observed). The antirabic reference serum was used as a control in RFFIT in each examined serum. To ensure a good control, the serum was diluted to contain 0.5 IU/ml of antirabic virus neutralization antibodies. Sera and/or transudates which were sent to our Laboratory were examined in this way. We examined 40 sera or pleural transudates of orally vaccinated foxes by those methods. These sera were sent to National reference laboratories for rabies (NRPB) in Kosice. Samples were examined for the monitoring of efficiency of oral antirabic vaccination. The parallel quantification of antirabic antibodies by virus neutralization test (VNT) in vivo was applied to mice and indirect haemagglutination test (NHT). The results of these three tests are comparable or in correlation. RFFIT has many advantages. When using highly attenuated strain Vnukovo-32/107th passage as the challenge virus in RFFIT method the potential risk of laboratory exposition is absent.

  17. [The use of the lectin test for detecting antineuraminidase antibodies in the sera of vaccinated subjects].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, V T; Slepushkin, A N; Burtseva, E I; Balandin, D I; Varecková, E; Rudenko, L G; Obrosova-Serova, N P

    1991-01-01

    The lectin test (a microvariant) was used to study the immunogenicity of live attenuated and inactivated virion divaccines of influenza A (H1N1 + H3N2) and influenza B vaccines in children 3 to 15 years of age. A good correlation was found between the general level of seroconversion of antineuraminidase and antihemagglutinin antibodies in the sera examined. This method is simple and may be useful for titration of large numbers of sera in studies on the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines or peculiarities of anti-influenza humoral immunity.

  18. Multiplex method for initial complex testing of antibodies to blood transmitted diseases agents.

    PubMed

    Poltavchenko, Alexander G; Nechitaylo, Oleg V; Filatov, Pavel V; Ersh, Anna V; Gureyev, Vadim N

    2016-10-01

    Initial screening of donors and population at high risk of infection with blood transmitted diseases involves a number of analyses using monospesific diagnostic systems, and therefore is expensive labor- and time-consuming process. The goal of this work is to construct a multiplex test enabling to carry out rapid initial complex testing at a low price. The paper describes a kit making it possible to detect simultaneously antibodies to six agents of the most significant blood transmitted diseases: HIV virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, cytomegalovirus, T. pallidum and T. gondii in blood products. The kit comprises multiplex dot-immunoassay based on plane protein arrays (immune chips) using colloidal gold conjugates and silver development. It provides an opportunity to carry out complex analysis within 70min at room temperature, and there is no need of well-qualified personnel. We compared laboratory findings of the kit with monospecific kits for ELISA produced by two Russian commercial companies. Dot-assay results correlate well with data obtained using commercial kits for ELISA. Furthermore, multiplex analysis is quicker and cheaper in comparison with ELISA and can be carried out in non-laboratory conditions. The kit for multiplex dot-immunoassay of antibodies to blood transmitted agents can significantly simplify initial complex testing. PMID:27497868

  19. Correlates of participation in AIDS education and HIV antibody testing by methadone patients.

    PubMed

    Magura, S; Grossman, J I; Lipton, D S; Amann, K R; Koger, J; Gehan, K

    1989-01-01

    The authors examined the factors associated with methadone patients' decisions about participating in a clinic-based AIDS prevention protocol. Despite the offer of incentives, only 27 percent attended AIDS education and only 12 percent obtained voluntary HIV antibody (ab) testing. However, AIDS education was attended by proportionately more of those who were at highest risk for AIDS because of current intravenous drug use. The availability of HIV-ab testing neither encouraged nor discouraged participation in AIDS education. Patients who were relatively more likely to choose HIV-ab testing were older, had been or were married, had plans to have children, believed the test to be useful, and believed that their counselors support their decision to be tested. Those who declined to be tested were reluctant to confront the emotional aspects of their risk status, were concerned about possible breaches of confidentiality, and doubted the value of testing. The implications of the findings for implementing AIDS prevention measures in methadone programs are discussed. Programs need either to require attendance at AIDS education or give patients an incentive to attend. HIV-ab testing should be available but should remain voluntary. A stronger medical rationale for testing is developing and may increase future participation. Methadone programs must continue to engage patients actively in AIDS risk reduction efforts.

  20. Leptospiral Antibodies in Cattle in Alberta and Evidence of an Emerging Serovar

    PubMed Central

    Kingscote, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovars hardjo and pomona were present in 8.3% and 0.5% of sera respectively, from adult female cattle in Alberta surveyed in 1984-85. Criterion for a positive serum sample was 50% agglutination at 1/100 dilution in the microscopic agglutination test. A positive herd contained one or more cows with positive serum. Prevalences were calculated on sample sizes that would give 80-95% reliability. Hardjo antibody prevalences and hardjo-positive herd prevalences were 0-53.9% and 0-83.3%, respectively, among 65 municipalities surveyed. Pomona prevalences by comparison were 0-3.4% and 0-11.7% respectively. Hardjo had increased significantly since 1980-82, and antibodies were found throughout the province. Pomona occurred mainly in southeastern Alberta, where it was isolated from cattle, swine and skunks. Hardjo was isolated only from cattle and it was found in many areas. Antibodies to icterohaemorrhagiae were present in 0.4% of sera from parts of Alberta surveyed in 1980; evidence of the presence of leptospires related to this serovar in bovine and porcine urinary tracts was obtained by immunofluorescence. ImagesFigure 3. PMID:17423101

  1. Detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in fresh colostrum: a modification of the virus neutralization test.

    PubMed

    Bedekovic, Tomislav; Mihaljevic, Zeljko; Jungic, Andreja; Lemo, Nina; Lojkic, Ivana; Cvetnic, Zeljko; Cac, Zeljko

    2013-03-01

    To eliminate cytotoxic effects of colostrum on cells, a modified virus neutralization test (VNT) for the detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in colostrum was developed. The new test was compared to the World Organization for Animal Health-recommended VNT and the results evaluated. The agreement of the new test compared to the standard VNT was determined to be 98%, whereas sensitivity and specificity of the modified VNT compared to the standard VNT were 100%. Bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific antibodies were detected in 42 sera samples and 38 colostrum samples. The antibody titers in serum and colostrum showed a high correlation (n = 56, r = 0.9719, P < 0.001). The modified virus neutralization technique described herein succeeds in eliminating cytotoxic effects and can be readily applied for the detection of specific antibodies against other infectious agents in colostrum. PMID:23417081

  2. An enzyme immunoassay based micro-neutralization test for titration of antibodies to human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and its correlation with direct ELISA measuring CMV IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, C K; Leszczynski, J; Gupta, R K; Siber, G R

    1996-03-01

    An ELISA-based micro-neutralization (Nt) test in MRC-5 cells for titration of neutralizing antibodies against human cytomegalovirus (CMV) in human plasma and preparations of immune globulins was developed to eliminate microscopic reading of cytopathic effect (CPE), a process that is subjective and time consuming. Un-neutralized CMV from the Nt reaction and grown in MRC-5 cells as per the standard micro-Nt test was coated in the same plates by various methods and CMV antigen was quantified by polyclonal or monoclonal CMV antibodies. Optimal coating of plates with CMV antigen (100 TCID50 of virus grown on MRC-5 cells for 7 days) was obtained by freezing/thawing of virus infected MRC-5 cells in phosphate buffered saline, ph 7.2. The CMV antigen treated sequentially with CMV monoclonal antibody to late nuclear protein antigen, goat anti-mouse IgG3 alkaline phosphatase conjugate and phosphatase substrate gave an absorbance of 1 at 410 nm wavelength whereas uninfected MRC-5 cells treated under similar conditions did not show any absorbance. The optimal Nt reaction occurred at 37 degrees C for 1-2 h and was unaffected by complement. At 4 degrees C, CMV was inactivated in 1-2 h. The antibody titres were affected by the virus dose used in the Nt test over a range of 20 to 798 TCID50. When the titre was determined against a reference serum, the effect of virus dose on the Nt titre was reduced. Complete neutralization virus read microscopically correlated with ELISA absorbance of < 0.1. CPE produced by approximately 1 TCID50 of CMV showed an absorbance of 0.1 or more. The correlation coefficient (r) between Nt titres and CMV IgG antibodies determined by ELISA was 0.69 (P < 0.001) for 257 human plasma samples and 0.85 (P < 0.001) for 50 immune globulin preparations.

  3. The occurrence of leptospiral antibodies in rural inhabitants of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Myers, D M; Varela-Díaz, V M

    1979-06-01

    Sera collected during surveys of presumably healthy rural inhabitants of the Provinces of Corrientes and Neuquén, Argentina, were examined for serological evidence of leptospirosis. Significant antibody levels (1:100 or greater) were found in 8.7 per cent of 1,029 sera from residents of Corrientes Province. The most frequent reactions occurred against the serotypes australis, hebdomadis group, pomona, and icterohaemorrhagiae. The predominance of antibodies to the Australis group in the country is new and suggests the emergence of leptospirosis in an unrecognized animal reservoir host. Out of 706 sera collected from rural school students and sera from 71 adults in the Province of Neuquén, only 4 (0.5%) showed leptospiral agglutinin in the microscopic agglutination test and these were only at a 1:100 serum dilution. The higher percentage of reactors in the Corrientes population appears to reflect a more favorable environment and a greater risk of infection.

  4. Automation of a hemagglutination-inhibition test for parainfluenza 3 antibodies in bovine sera.

    PubMed

    Webert, D W; Cohen, D

    1971-07-01

    An automated hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test for the "shipping fever" strain (SF-4) of parainfluenza 3 antibody in bovine sera was developed and compared to manual tube and microtiter test procedures. The automated system operating at 60 samples per hr provided the most test results per specified time period, and the manual tube test provided the least. The manual microtiter test and the automated system at 40 samples per hr, falling between the two above procedures, were comparable in the number of sera that could be titrated in 1 day by one technician. There was little difference between automated and manual test reproducibility when measured at the twofold titer one-dilution difference level. However, the automated system titrated a higher number of sera at the same titer on repeat runs than either of the manual test procedures. The automated one-quartile difference reproducibility (each twofold dilution subdivided into 4 units-"quartiles") was equal to the manual test one-dilution difference reproducibility. The standard deviation of the per cent variation from the mean of paired serum titers for 40-sample-per-hr runs ranged from +/-3.49 to +/-5.36%. The manual and automated systems were of comparable sensitivity in their detection of negative sera.

  5. Prevalence of antibodies against Leptospira sp. in snakes, lizards and turtles in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospiral infections in poikilothermic (cold blooded) animals have received very little attention and the literature concerning natural infections of these animals is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in reptiles, imported into Slovenia and intended to be pets in close contact with humans. A total of 297 reptiles (22 snakes, 210 lizards and 65 turtles) were tested for specific antibodies against serovars of Leptospira interrogans sensu stricto using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Live cultures of different serovars were used as antigens. MAT was performed according to standard procedures and the degree of reaction was interpreted by estimating the percentage of agglutinated leptospires. Samples showing titres of ≥ 50 against one or more serovars were considered as positive. Results Antibodies against seven pathogenic serovars of L. interrogans sensu stricto were detected in 46 of 297 reptiles. Among 22 snakes, specific antibodies against pathogenic serovars of three Leptospira species (L. interrogans, L. kirschneri and L. borgpetersenii) at titre levels from 1:50 to 1:400 were detected in 6 snakes. In 31 of 210 lizards, specific antibodies were found in titres from 1:50 to 1:1000 and, finally, among 65 turtles (terrapins and tortoises), 9 had specific antibodies at titre levels between 1:50 and 1:1600. Animals imported from non-EU countries showed significantly higher prevalence (25.0%; 95 confidence interval: 16.7–33.3%) than animals from EU member states (10.4%; confidence interval: 6.1–14.7%). Conclusions Reptiles may be considered as potential reservoirs of L. interrogans sensu stricto. Origin of the animals is a risk factor for presence of leptospiral antibodies, especially in lizards. Special attention should be focused on animals from non-EU member states. PMID:24020619

  6. Fast Magnetic Field-Enhanced Linear Colloidal Agglutination Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Daynès, Aurélien; Temurok, Nevzat; Gineys, Jean-Philippe; Cauet, Gilles; Nerin, Philippe; Baudry, Jean; Bibette, Jérôme

    2015-08-01

    We present the principle of a fast magnetic field enhanced colloidal agglutination assay, which is based on the acceleration of the recognition rate between ligands and receptors induced by magnetic forces. By applying a homogeneous magnetic field of 20 mT for only 7 s, we detect CRP (C-reactive protein) in human serum at a concentration as low as 1 pM for a total cycle time of about 1 min in a prototype analyzer. Such a short measurement time does not impair the performances of the assay when compared to longer experiments. The concentration range dynamic is shown to cover 3 orders of magnitude. An analytical model of agglutination is also successfully fitting our data obtained with a short magnetic pulse.

  7. An inhibitor to erythrocyte agglutination in bovine albumin preparations.

    PubMed

    Gunson, H H; Phillips, P K

    1975-01-01

    Three out of 28 commercial preparations of bovine serum albumin have been encountered which have an inhibitory effect on the assay of anti-Rh-o(D) using the Technicon AutoAnalyser. The inhibitory property, which can also be demonstrated by standard manual serological techniques, appears to be directed towards the second stage of the agglutination reaction. An automated screening procedure for bovine serum albumin preparations and some properties of the inhibitor are described.

  8. Antibodies against oxidized phospholipids in laboratory tests exploring lupus anti-coagulant activity

    PubMed Central

    Rolla, R; Vidali, M; Serino, R; Pergolini, P; Albano, E; Bellomo, G

    2007-01-01

    Lupus anti-coagulants (LA) are a variety of anti-phospholipid antibodies characterized by their capacity to interfere with phospholipid-dependent coagulation assays. LA are increasingly recognized as important predictors of thrombosis. However, the antigen specificity of LA is still poorly characterized. Growing evidence indicates that oxidized phospholipids are among the targets of anti-phospholipid antibodies. This prompted us to investigate the role of IgG directed against different oxidized phospholipids in 164 subjects without clotting factor defects that were tested for the presence of LA using a LA-sensitive activate partial thromboplastin time (aPTT-FSL) and a screening/confirmation assay based on diluted Russell's viper venom test (dRVVT-PL). The response to aPTT-FSL was significantly (P < 0·0005) associated with high titres of IgG against oxidized phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol, whereas positivity to dRVVT-PL was associated with the elevation of IgG against oxidized phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine (P < 0·0005) and phosphatidylinositol (P < 0·01). No difference in reactivity against oxidized cardiolipin was evident between the different groups. Positivity to the dRVVT-PL test was also associated significantly (P < 0·005) with the elevation of anti-cardiolipin and anti-β2-glycoprotein-1 IgG. However, stepwise logistic regression demonstrated that IgG recognizing oxidized phosphatidylethanolamine and oxidized phosphatidylcholine were the only independent predictors of the response to dRVVT-PL assay, while IgG recognizing oxidized phosphatidylethanolamine and oxidized phosphatidylinositol were independent predictors of the response to aPTT-FSL test. In conclusion, autoantibodies against defined oxidized phospholipids are independent predictors of LA detection by aPTT-FSL or dRVVT-PL assays and might contribute to the variability often observed in the responses to the functional

  9. Incidence of sperm antibodies before and after vasectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, J; Logan, H; Greer, G

    1976-01-01

    Sperm-agglutinating antibodies were present in three (2-6%) of 117 fertile men and in 19 (33-9%) of 56 men who had been vasectomized. Twenty-four of the 56 vasectomized men had been studied before vasectomy; sperm-agglutinating antibodies were present in one (4-3%) compared with eight (33-3%) after vasectomy. No sperm-immobilizing antibodies were detected before vasectomy but were present in 10 (17-9%) of the 56 men after vasectomy. PMID:1010880

  10. Concanavalin A-induced agglutination of human leukemic and lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Maca, R D

    1976-04-01

    With a newly developed turbidometric method, concanavalin A was shown to agglutinate normal lymphocytes, lymphoma cells, and leukemic cells from chronic lymphocytic leukemia and from acute myelocytic and lymphocytic leukemia. However, there was a marked difference in the kinetics of this agglutination process. Leukemic blast cells and cells from a patient with convoluted lymphoma agglutinated poorly in this system. Conversely, the degree of agglutination for chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells was greater than that for the blast cells and also slightly greater than that for normal lymphocytes. Cultured cells from a Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) and from a patient with poorly differentiated lymphoma agglutinated very rapidly with concanavalin A. Prior incubation of all cell types with neuraminidase markedly enhanced the agglutination process similar to that of trypsinization. Thus, these studies illustrate the usefulness of this method in quantitating the kinetics of agglutination of various human neoplastic cell types by concanavalin A. PMID:1063062

  11. Lack of Sarcocystis neurona antibody response in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) fed Sarcocystis neurona-infected muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Cheadle, M A; Lindsay, D S; Greiner, E C

    2006-06-01

    Serum was collected from laboratory-reared Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) to determine whether experimentally infected opossums shedding Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts develop serum antibodies to S. neurona merozoite antigens. Three opossums were fed muscles from nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), and 5 were fed muscles from striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). Serum was also collected from 26 automobile-killed opossums to determine whether antibodies to S. neurona were present in these opossums. Serum was analyzed using the S. neurona direct agglutination test (SAT). The SAT was modified for use with a filter paper collection system. Antibodies to S. neurona were not detected in any of the serum samples from opossums, indicating that infection in the opossum is localized in the small intestine. Antibodies to S. neurona were detected in filter-paper-processed serum samples from 2 armadillos naturally infected with S. neurona.

  12. Teichoic acid antibody test: its use in patients with coagulase-positive staphylococcal bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Larinkari, U M; Valtonen, M V; Sarvas, M; Valtonen, V V

    1977-11-01

    We have studied the occurrence and specificity of teichoic acid antibodies (TAAs), measured by double diffusion in agar, in 114 patients with bacteremia of whom 47 had coagulase-positive staphylococcal bacteremia. A total of 30% of the 47 patients with coagulase-positive staphylococcal bacteremia had a TAA titer of 1:8 or more, and an additional 30% had a titer of 1:2 or 1:4. High TAA titers were most often connected with coagulase-positive staphylococcal endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and deep wound infections. None of the six coagulase-negative patients with staphylococcal bacteremia nor any of the 92 controls had titers exceeding 1:1. A total of 10% of the other patients with bacteremia showed positive results on the TAA test at low titer levels. Compared to the antistaphylolysin value, the TAA test was about equally specific but more sensitive.

  13. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sera of domestic pigs and some wild game species from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Hove, T; Dubey, J P

    1999-04-01

    Serum samples of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa), elands (Taurotragus oryx), sable antelopes (Hippotragus niger), warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), bushpigs (Koiropotamus [Potamochoerus] koiropotamus), white rhinos (Ceratotherium simus), African buffalos (Syncerus caffer), wildebeest (Connochaetas taurinus), and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) from Zimbabwe were tested for Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT) with whole formalized tachyzoites and mercaptoethanol. Sera were diluted at 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 for MAT testing. Sera with antibodies in a 1:25 dilution were considered to have T. gondii infection. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were found in 9.3% of 97 domestic pigs, 36.8% of 19 elands, 11.9% of 67 sables, 0 of 3 warthogs, 0 of 3 bushpigs, 50% of 2 white rhinos, 5.6% of 18 buffalos, 14.5% of 69 wildebeest, and 10.5% of 19 elephants examined. PMID:10219323

  14. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from the north of Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoa with zoonotic and economic importance. Prevalences of antibodies to these agents were assessed in 173 horses from the north of Portugal. Findings Antibodies to L. infantum were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT); seven (4.0%) horses were seropositive with DAT titres of 200 (n = 5), 800 (n = 1) and ≥ 1600 (n = 1). Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT); 23 (13.3%) horses were seropositive with MAT titres of 20 (n = 13), 40 (n = 5), 80 (n = 3) and ≥ 160 (n = 2). No statistical differences were found among equine categories of gender (female, male and gelding), age (1.5–6, 7–12 and 13–30 years), type of housing (indoors and mixed/outdoors), ability (recreation, farming and sports) and clinical status (apparently healthy and sick) for both agents. Conclusions Horses are exposed to and may be infected with L. infantum and T. gondii in the north of Portugal. PMID:23773870

  15. Comparison of saliva and serum for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody testing in Uganda using a rapid recombinant assay.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, R M; Piwowar, E M; Katongole-Mbidde, E; Muzawalu, W; Rugera, S; Abima, J; Stramer, S L; Kataaha, P; Jackson, B

    1996-01-01

    The accuracy and acceptability of saliva human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody testing were compared with serum testing in a study of paired specimens from HIV-1-seropositive and HIV-1-seronegative Ugandan adults attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases. Saliva collection was performed with the Omni-sal device (Saliva Diagnostic Systems, Vancouver, Wash.), and antibody testing was performed by a rapid filter paper assay (Test-Pack; Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill.). Relative to serum testing, the sensitivity of saliva testing was 95% (195 of 205) and the specificity was 99% (295 of 297). The sensitivity of saliva testing was higher for patients with elevated levels of beta-2 microglobulin in sera and greater numbers of HIV-1-related symptoms. Pre- and poststudy interviews indicated that saliva testing did not foster inordinate fears of saliva exposure. The development of saliva tests that are inexpensive and do not require electricity is needed. PMID:8914752

  16. The mouse neutralization test in comparison with the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test: differences in the results in rabies antibody determinations.

    PubMed

    Haase, M; Seinsche, D; Schneider, W

    1985-04-01

    Sixteen lots of rabies immune globulin (RIG) and six lots of rabies immune horse serum (RIS) from different producers were examined for rabies antibody by the standard mouse neutralization test (MNT) and the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). An equine rabies standard serum was assayed in parallel. In comparisons of RIS with this standard the MNT and RFFIT gave comparable results. In comparisons of RIG the antibody values in the MNT was two to ten times higher than that in the RFFIT in 15 out of 16 lots. The MNT and RFFIT are thus not fully comparable when measuring rabies antibodies in RIG. The choice of the titration method is obviously important in the measurement of the antibody concentration in RIG or RIS in IU against an equine rabies reference preparation. The described differences could have consequences for the use of RIG.

  17. Rapid Effects of a Protective O-Polysaccharide-Specific Monoclonal IgA on Vibrio cholerae Agglutination, Motility, and Surface Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Kara J.; De Jesus, Magdia

    2015-01-01

    2D6 is a dimeric monoclonal immunoglobulin A (IgA) specific for the nonreducing terminal residue of Ogawa O-polysaccharide (OPS) of Vibrio cholerae. It was previously demonstrated that 2D6 IgA is sufficient to passively protect suckling mice from oral challenge with virulent V. cholerae O395. In this study, we sought to define the mechanism by which 2D6 IgA antibody protects the intestinal epithelium from V. cholerae infection. In a mouse ligated-ileal-loop assay, 2D6 IgA promoted V. cholerae agglutination in the intestinal lumen and limited the ability of the bacteria to associate with the epithelium, particularly within the crypt regions. In vitro fluorescence digital video microscopy analysis of antibody-treated V. cholerae in liquid medium revealed that 2D6 IgA not only induced the rapid (5- to 10-min) onset of agglutination but was an equally potent inhibitor of bacterial motility. Scanning electron microscopy showed that 2D6 IgA promoted flagellum-flagellum cross-linking, as well as flagellar entanglement with bacterial bodies, suggesting that motility arrest may be a consequence of flagellar tethering. However, monovalent 2D6 Fab fragments also inhibited V. cholerae motility, demonstrating that antibody-mediated agglutination and motility arrest are separate phenomena. While 2D6 IgA is neither bactericidal nor bacteriostatic, exposure of V. cholerae to 2D6 IgA (or Fab fragments) resulted in a 5-fold increase in surface-associated blebs, as well an onset of a wrinkled surface morphotype. We propose that the protective immunity conferred by 2D6 IgA is the result of multifactorial effects on V. cholerae, including agglutination, motility arrest, and possibly outer membrane stress. PMID:25667263

  18. Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and virus neutralization test for detection of antibodies to avian pneumovirus.

    PubMed

    Alkahalaf, A N; Halvorson, D A; Saif, Y M

    2002-01-01

    Two different whole-virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), developed in Ohio (OH) with APV/Minnesota/turkey/2a/97 and in Minnesota (MN) with APV/Colorado/turkey/97, and the virus neutralization (VN) test were used to test 270 turkey serum samples from 27 Minnesota turkey flocks for avian pneumovirus (APV) antibodies. In addition, 77 turkey serum samples and 128 ostrich serum samples from Ohio were tested. None of the turkey samples from Ohio had antibodies to APV by the VN test and OH ELISA. The ostrich samples were only tested with the VN test and were all negative for antibodies to APV. For the Minnesota serum samples, 107, 115, and 120 were positive by the VN test, the OH ELISA, and the MN ELISA, respectively. The Kappa values of 0.938 and 0.825 showed excellent agreement between the VN test and the OH ELISA and the MN ELISA, respectively, for detection of antibodies to the APV. The OH ELISA and MN ELISA had sensitivities of 1.0 and 0.953, specificities of 0.950 and 0.889, and accuracies of 0.970 and 0.914, respectively. Our results indicate that the 3 methods are sensitive and specific for diagnosis of the APV infection.

  19. Measurement of RBC agglutination with microscopic cell image analysis in a microchannel chip.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chi Hyun; Kim, Ju Yeon; Nyeck, Agnes E; Lim, Chae Seung; Hur, Dae Sung; Chung, Chanil; Chang, Jun Keun; An, Seong Soo A; Shin, Sehyun

    2014-01-01

    Since Landsteiner's discovery of ABO blood groups, RBC agglutination has been one of the most important immunohematologic techniques for ABO and RhD blood groupings. The conventional RBC agglutination grading system for RhD blood typings relies on macroscopic reading, followed by the assignment of a grade ranging from (-) to (4+) to the degree of red blood cells clumping. However, with the new scoring method introduced in this report, microscopically captured cell images of agglutinated RBCs, placed in a microchannel chip, are used for analysis. Indeed, the cell images' pixel number first allows the differentiation of agglutinated and non-agglutinated red blood cells. Finally, the ratio of agglutinated RBCs per total RBC counts (CRAT) from 90 captured images is then calculated. During the trial, it was observed that the agglutinated group's CRAT was significantly higher (3.77-0.003) than that of the normal control (0). Based on these facts, it was established that the microchannel method was more suitable for the discrimination between agglutinated RBCs and non-agglutinated RhD negative, and thus more reliable for the grading of RBCs agglutination than the conventional method.

  20. Investigation of False Positive Results with an Oral Fluid Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test

    PubMed Central

    Jafa, Krishna; Patel, Pragna; MacKellar, Duncan A.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Delaney, Kevin P.; Sides, Tracy L.; Newman, Alexandra P.; Paul, Sindy M.; Cadoff, Evan M.; Martin, Eugene G.; Keenan, Patrick A.; Branson, Bernard M.

    2007-01-01

    Background In March 2004, the OraQuick® rapid HIV antibody test became the first rapid HIV test approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use on oral fluid specimens. Test results are available in 20 minutes, and the oral fluid test is non-invasive. From August 2004–June 2005, we investigated a sudden increase in false-positive results occurring in a performance study of OraQuick® oral-fluid rapid HIV tests in Minnesota. Methodology/Principal Findings In a field investigation, we reviewed performance study data on oral-fluid and whole-blood OraQuick® rapid HIV test device lots and expiration dates and assessed test performance and interpretation with oral-fluid and whole-blood specimens by operators who reported false-positive results. We used multivariate logistic regression to evaluate client demographic and risk characteristics associated with false-positive results. Next, we conducted an incidence study of false-positive OraQuick rapid HIV tests in nine US cities and tested both oral-fluid and finger-stick whole-blood specimens from clients; reactive tests were confirmed with Western blot. Sixteen (4.1%) false-positive oral-fluid results occurred in the performance study from April 15, 2004 through August 31, 2004 with unexpired devices from six test lots among 388 HIV-uninfected clients (specificity, 95.9%; 95% CI: 93.4–97.6). Three test operators who had reported false-positive results performed and interpreted the test according to package-insert instructions. In multivariate analysis, only older age was significantly associated with false-positive results (adjusted odds ratio = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.2–25.7). In the incidence study, all valid oral-fluid and whole-blood results from 2,268 clients were concordant and no false-positive results occurred (100% specificity). Conclusions/Significance The field investigation did not identify a cause for the increase in false-positive oral-fluid results, and the incidence study detected no false

  1. Evaluation of an improved rapid neutralizing antibody detection test (RAPINA) for qualitative and semiquantitative detection of rabies neutralizing antibody in humans and dogs.

    PubMed

    Nishizono, Akira; Yamada, Kentaro; Khawplod, Pakamatz; Shiota, Seiji; Perera, Devika; Matsumoto, Takashi; Wimalaratne, Omala; Mitui, Marcelo Takahiro; Ahmed, Kamruddin

    2012-06-01

    Using the principle of immunochromatography, we previously developed a method called RAPINA (Rapid Neutralizing Antibody detection test) that can measure the level of rabies virus -neutralizing antibody (VNA) in serum samples [Shiota S, Mannen K, Matsumoto T, Yamada K, Yasui T, Takayama K, et al. Development and evaluation of a rapid neutralizing antibody test for rabies. J Virol Methods 2009;161:58-62]. RAPINA is faster, simpler, and easier to perform compared with a virus-neutralizing test or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The improved version of RAPINA has greater positive and negative predictive values corresponding to a VNA level of 0.5 IU/mL, as recommended by the World Health Organization and the World Organization for Animal Health. To verify the efficacy of this improved method, serum samples were collected from humans and dogs before and after immunization against rabies and were tested in Japan, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The results were compared between RAPINA and the true VNA levels measured by the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT). The improved RAPINA accurately predicted seropositivity for 182 of 183 seropositive human samples as assessed by RFFIT (99.5%) and for 138 of 140 RFFIT-negative human samples (98.6%). In dog serum samples, the positive and negative predictive values were 99.7% (345/355) and 95.6% (174/182), respectively. RAPINA was also used to estimate VNA levels in a semiquantitative manner by using serial dilution of serum samples. Our results show that RAPINA is an easy and rapid method for measuring VNA levels before and after immunization with the rabies vaccine and does not need a high skill level or sophisticated equipment. RAPINA can be used to monitor the success of preexposure prophylaxis in at-risk persons, vaccine coverage, and animal control. It can also be used in laboratories with modest facilities and where a large number of samples are screened.

  2. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjobovis and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjoprajitno.

    PubMed Central

    Surujballi, O; Howlett, C; Henning, D

    1999-01-01

    Murine monoclonal antibodies were produced by immunizing BALB/c mice with a killed whole-cell antigen prepared from Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjobovis. Six of these antibodies recognized epitopes on the homologous antigen and on whole-cell antigen prepared from Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjoprajitno. These antibodies did not cross-react with whole-cell antigens prepared from L. borgpetersenii serovar sejroe, 10 other pathogenic Leptospira serovars, or the saprophytic Leptospira biflexa serovar patoc. Three other monoclonal antibodies reacted with antigens prepared from the 2 hardjo serovars and serovar sejroe but not with antigens from the 10 other pathogenic serovars, or serovar patoc. The epitopes recognized by all of the hardjo-specific antibodies and 2 of the 3 hardjo/sejroe-specific antibodies were susceptible to sodium meta-periodate oxidation. All of the antibodies were characterized by Western blots with the hardjobovis whole-cell antigen. Each of the 9 monoclonal antibodies was inhibited from binding to the hardjobovis antigen by bovine sera which were obtained from cattle experimentally infected with hardjobovis and from field cattle, with anti-serovar hardjo microscopic agglutination test antibody titres ranging from 100 to 12800. Some of these antibodies may be suitable for incorporation into competitive enzyme immunoassays for the specific detection of antibodies to either of the hardjo serovars. Images Figure 1. PMID:9918336

  3. A simple saliva-based test for detecting antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Schramm, W; Angulo, G B; Torres, P C; Burgess-Cassler, A

    1999-07-01

    This study was performed to determine the feasibility of using saliva as a diagnostic medium for the detection of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 under nonlaboratory conditions and to evaluate the performance characteristics of such a test. We developed for this purpose a self-contained kit (Saliva. Strip [ST]), which combines the collection and processing, as well as the analysis, of the specimen. The kit's performance was evaluated in a blinded study. Saliva collection was facilitated with a specially designed device that contains a sample adequacy indicator, and immunochromatography test strips were used for the analysis. A total of 1,336 matched serum and saliva specimens (684 reactive and 652 nonreactive specimens) were tested. We tested sera using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a rapid strip test. Sera reactive in one of the assays were also analyzed by Western blotting. Sensitivity and specificity were 99.4 and 99.4%, respectively, for ST, 100 and 99.1%, respectively, for EIA, and 99.7 and 100%, respectively, for the serum strip test. The saliva test performed well when HIV-2-positive sera or a low-titer performance panel (HIV-1) of serum or plasma specimens were diluted (1:2,000) in nonreactive saliva. Because the methodology we present here uses a noninvasively obtained medium, the methodology may be suitable for use in the field where laboratory support and personnel are limited, such as community outreach programs, doctors' offices, surveillance studies, and community hospitals. PMID:10391866

  4. Amyloidogenic amyloid-β-peptide variants induce microbial agglutination and exert antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Philipp; Condic, Mateja; Herrmann, Martin; Oberstein, Timo Jan; Scharin-Mehlmann, Marina; Gilbert, Daniel F; Friedrich, Oliver; Grömer, Teja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lang, Roland; Maler, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are the main components of the plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, Aβ peptides are also detectable in secretory compartments and peripheral blood contains a complex mixture of more than 40 different modified and/or N- and C-terminally truncated Aβ peptides. Recently, anti-infective properties of Aβ peptides have been reported. Here, we investigated the interaction of Aβ peptides of different lengths with various bacterial strains and the yeast Candida albicans. The amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-42, Aβ2-42, and Aβ3p-42 but not the non-amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-40 and Aβ2-40 bound to microbial surfaces. As observed by immunocytochemistry, scanning electron microscopy and Gram staining, treatment of several bacterial strains and Candida albicans with Aβ peptide variants ending at position 42 (Aβx-42) caused the formation of large agglutinates. These aggregates were not detected after incubation with Aβx-40. Furthermore, Aβx-42 exerted an antimicrobial activity on all tested pathogens, killing up to 80% of microorganisms within 6 h. Aβ1-40 only had a moderate antimicrobial activity against C. albicans. Agglutination of Aβ1-42 was accelerated in the presence of microorganisms. These data demonstrate that the amyloidogenic Aβx-42 variants have antimicrobial activity and may therefore act as antimicrobial peptides in the immune system. PMID:27624303

  5. Amyloidogenic amyloid-β-peptide variants induce microbial agglutination and exert antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Philipp; Condic, Mateja; Herrmann, Martin; Oberstein, Timo Jan; Scharin-Mehlmann, Marina; Gilbert, Daniel F.; Friedrich, Oliver; Grömer, Teja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lang, Roland; Maler, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are the main components of the plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. However, Aβ peptides are also detectable in secretory compartments and peripheral blood contains a complex mixture of more than 40 different modified and/or N- and C-terminally truncated Aβ peptides. Recently, anti-infective properties of Aβ peptides have been reported. Here, we investigated the interaction of Aβ peptides of different lengths with various bacterial strains and the yeast Candida albicans. The amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-42, Aβ2-42, and Aβ3p-42 but not the non-amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-40 and Aβ2-40 bound to microbial surfaces. As observed by immunocytochemistry, scanning electron microscopy and Gram staining, treatment of several bacterial strains and Candida albicans with Aβ peptide variants ending at position 42 (Aβx-42) caused the formation of large agglutinates. These aggregates were not detected after incubation with Aβx-40. Furthermore, Aβx-42 exerted an antimicrobial activity on all tested pathogens, killing up to 80% of microorganisms within 6 h. Aβ1-40 only had a moderate antimicrobial activity against C. albicans. Agglutination of Aβ1-42 was accelerated in the presence of microorganisms. These data demonstrate that the amyloidogenic Aβx-42 variants have antimicrobial activity and may therefore act as antimicrobial peptides in the immune system. PMID:27624303

  6. [Occurrance of antibodies against Leptospira in horses in Middle Germany].

    PubMed

    Pikalo, Jutta; Sattler, Tatjana; Eichinger, Michaela; Loitsch, Angelika; Sun, Hao; Schmoll, Friedrich; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study was to detect antibodies and potential risk factors for an infec- tion with Leptospira in horses in Middle Germany. Serum samples of 314 horses were examined retrospectively by microscopic agglutination test for the presence of antibodies against eight Leptospira serovars. In total, 17.2% (n = 54) of the horses were positive for one or more of the serovars analyzed. The most prevalent serovar was lcterohaemorrhagiae (11.1%), followed by serovar Bratislava (9.6 %) and Grippotyphosa (1.9%). Mares showed a significantly higher occurrence of antibodies (p < 0.05) than geldings or stallions. Horses used for breeding have a significantly lower risk than horses used in sport or horses used for leisure activity. There was also a significantly higher prevalence (p < 0.05) in summer than in the other seasons. No significant influence of breed, husbandry conditions and age on the antibody occurrence was observed (p > 0.05). The clinical chemical parameters did not differ significantly between horses with positive or negative Leptospira antibody result (p > 0.05). It became apparent that horses can be infected with Leptospira without developing of clinical symptoms. PMID:27344912

  7. [Occurrance of antibodies against Leptospira in horses in Middle Germany].

    PubMed

    Pikalo, Jutta; Sattler, Tatjana; Eichinger, Michaela; Loitsch, Angelika; Sun, Hao; Schmoll, Friedrich; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study was to detect antibodies and potential risk factors for an infec- tion with Leptospira in horses in Middle Germany. Serum samples of 314 horses were examined retrospectively by microscopic agglutination test for the presence of antibodies against eight Leptospira serovars. In total, 17.2% (n = 54) of the horses were positive for one or more of the serovars analyzed. The most prevalent serovar was lcterohaemorrhagiae (11.1%), followed by serovar Bratislava (9.6 %) and Grippotyphosa (1.9%). Mares showed a significantly higher occurrence of antibodies (p < 0.05) than geldings or stallions. Horses used for breeding have a significantly lower risk than horses used in sport or horses used for leisure activity. There was also a significantly higher prevalence (p < 0.05) in summer than in the other seasons. No significant influence of breed, husbandry conditions and age on the antibody occurrence was observed (p > 0.05). The clinical chemical parameters did not differ significantly between horses with positive or negative Leptospira antibody result (p > 0.05). It became apparent that horses can be infected with Leptospira without developing of clinical symptoms.

  8. Formation of agglutinate-like particles in an experimental regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Horz, Friedrich

    1988-01-01

    Agglutinate-like particles composed predominantly of glass were produced from a fragmental gabbro target that was repetitively impacted by Ni-alloy projectiles. The experimental glasses are much more heterogeneous in composition than their lunar counterparts, and they are dominated by incomplete mixing of melted component minerals and by plagioclase-rich compositions. Most of the particles are found to be highly enriched in feldspar and to be sustantially fractionated relative to the initial bulk target. It is suggested that fractionation trends within lunar agglutinitic glasses may be partly due to phase-specific melting.

  9. Monoclonal antibodies as blood grouping reagents.

    PubMed

    Voak, D

    1990-04-01

    The large volume requirements for high quality ABO and Rh(D) typing reagents can now be supplied by selected monoclonal antibodies. Superior anti-A and anti-B monoclonal reagents can be prepared, from blends of at least two antibodies, to optimize the intensity of agglutination for slide tests and the potency for the detection of the weaker sub-groups, including Ax and Bw, by tube techniques. New quality control steps have been described for some highly sensitive anti-A/anti-B antibodies to avoid the detection of traces of A on B cells or traces of B on A1 cells, which results from the non-specific activity of A and B transferases. Excellent anti-A,B reagents may also be made by blends of at least two antibodies to optimize both A and B reactions, but the need for their continued use is now debatable. The development of high titre IgM monoclonal anti-D reagents offers simple rapid saline Rh(D) typing of both patients and donors, but they cannot reliably detect weak D (Du) and some D variants, e.g. the epitopes on D category VI cells. However, this can be achieved by blending an IgM anti-D with IgG (polyclonal) anti-D which can detect these types after conversion of negative saline tests to an antiglobulin phase. In addition, high grade Du, D categories and variants can be reliably detected (for typing donors) by selected monoclonal IgM and IgG anti-Ds by use of suitably enhanced tests without the use of an antiglobulin test.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. [Influence of different products of platelet membrane glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies used internationally on tests for monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigens].

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiu-Min; Shen, Wei-Dong; Zhong, Zhou-Lin; Zhou, Yan; Wu, Guo-Guang

    2009-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the influence of different platelet membrane glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies (McAb) which are common used in laboratories on the monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigens (MAIPA) technique according to the request of 14th International Society of Blood Transfusion Platelet Immunology Workshop. 30 participant laboratories were provided with 10 known human platelet antigen (HPA) antibodies, 1 normal serum, 9 different McAbs (against GPIIb/IIIa, GPIa/IIa, GPIb/IX and GPIV respectively), and the same protocol. Each participant laboratory carried out the test as the protocol to compare the results of different McAbs against the same glycoprotein and submitted the data to organizer. The results indicated that in McAbs against GPIIb/IIIa, AP2, Gi-5 and PL2-73 showed higher mean S/CO than that of others; in GPIa/IIa, MBC202.2 and 143.1 showed higher mean S/CO than that of others; in GPIb/IX, 142.11 and CLB-MB45 (CD42b) showed higher mean S/CO than that of others; as to GPIV, 131.4 showed higher mean S/CO. In conclusion, capture effects of various McAbs are different, so that different products of McAbs exert influences on the sensitivity of MAIPA. To use a panel of McAbs against the same glycoprotein may avoid the false negative results. PMID:19698264

  11. Agglutination of human O erythrocytes by influenza A(H1N1) viruses freshly isolated from patients.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Seto, Y; Kimura, T; Minoshiro, S; Shibe, K

    1991-04-01

    The hemagglutinin titers of 10 influenza A (H1N1) viruses were examined using the erythrocytes of several species. Human O erythrocytes showed the highest agglutination titer to the viruses, whereas chicken erythrocytes showed a low titer. These findings were noted for at least 10 passages by serial dilutions of the viruses in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. All influenza A(H1N1) viruses, plaque-cloned directly from throat-washing specimens of patients, also agglutinated human O but not chicken erythrocytes. The results of a hemadsorption test indicated that chicken erythrocytes possess less affinity to MDCK cells infected with the A/Osaka City/2/88(H1N1) stain than to those infected with the A/Yamagata/120/86(H1N1) strain which is used as an inactivated influenza vaccine in Japan. However, there were no significant differences between the A/Osaka City/2/88 and the A/Yamagata/120/86 strains in the hemagglutination inhibition test. Since human O erythrocytes have high agglutination activity to influenza A(H1N1) and also to A(H3N2) and B viruses in MDCK cells, these erythrocytes may be useful for the serological diagnosis of influenza. PMID:2066386

  12. Agglutination of human O erythrocytes by influenza A(H1N1) viruses freshly isolated from patients.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Seto, Y; Kimura, T; Minoshiro, S; Shibe, K

    1991-04-01

    The hemagglutinin titers of 10 influenza A (H1N1) viruses were examined using the erythrocytes of several species. Human O erythrocytes showed the highest agglutination titer to the viruses, whereas chicken erythrocytes showed a low titer. These findings were noted for at least 10 passages by serial dilutions of the viruses in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. All influenza A(H1N1) viruses, plaque-cloned directly from throat-washing specimens of patients, also agglutinated human O but not chicken erythrocytes. The results of a hemadsorption test indicated that chicken erythrocytes possess less affinity to MDCK cells infected with the A/Osaka City/2/88(H1N1) stain than to those infected with the A/Yamagata/120/86(H1N1) strain which is used as an inactivated influenza vaccine in Japan. However, there were no significant differences between the A/Osaka City/2/88 and the A/Yamagata/120/86 strains in the hemagglutination inhibition test. Since human O erythrocytes have high agglutination activity to influenza A(H1N1) and also to A(H3N2) and B viruses in MDCK cells, these erythrocytes may be useful for the serological diagnosis of influenza.

  13. [Detection of IgG antibodies against rubella virus using the "Rubella-IgG-EIA SSW" test kit].

    PubMed

    Meisegeier, B; Engelmann, A; Pustowoit, B; Thiel, B; Hehme, N; Koppatz, G; Richter, B; Mohr, J; Sandow, D

    1990-05-01

    A new commercial ELISA test kit "Rubella-IgG-EIA SSW" is described for the determination of IgG antibodies to rubella virus. A panel of 99 sera was tested by "Rubella-IgG-EIA SSW" and by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI test). The results of enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) and of HI test correlate well; the coefficient of correlation is 0.95, the specificity is 90.9% and the sensitivity is 100%. A coefficient of correlation was found out of 0.92 between EIA and HI test in the evaluation of the quantitative procedure. The test kit can be used for determination of immune status to rubella virus and for quantitative detection of rubella-IgG antibodies.

  14. Chikungunya virus RNA and antibody testing at a National Reference Laboratory since the emergence of Chikungunya virus in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Prince, Harry E; Seaton, Brent L; Matud, Jose L; Batterman, Hollis J

    2015-03-01

    Since first reported in the Americas in December 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections have been documented in travelers returning from the Caribbean, with many cases identified by CHIKV antibody and/or RNA testing at our laboratory. We used our large data set to characterize the relationship between antibody titers and RNA detection and to estimate IgM persistence. CHIKV RNA was measured by nucleic acid amplification and CHIKV IgG/IgM by indirect immunofluorescence. Of the 1,306 samples submitted for RNA testing in January through September 2014, 393 (30%) were positive; for 166 RNA-positive samples, CHIKV antibody testing was also ordered, and 84% were antibody negative. Of the 6,971 sera submitted for antibody testing in January through September 2014, 1,811 (26%) were IgM positive; 1,461 IgM positives (81%) were also IgG positive. The relationship between the CHIKV antibody titers and RNA detection was evaluated using 376 IgM-positive samples (138 with RNA testing ordered and 238 deidentified and tested for RNA). RNA detection showed no significant association with the IgM titer but was inversely related to the IgG titer; 63% of the IgG negative sera were RNA positive, compared to 36% of sera with low IgG titers (1:10 to 1:80) and 16% with IgG titers of ≥1:160. Using second-sample results from 62 seroconverters, we estimated that CHIKV IgM persists for 110 days (95% confidence interval, 78 to 150 days) after the initial antibody-negative sample. These findings indicate that (i) RNA detection is more sensitive than antibody detection early in CHIKV infection, (ii) in the absence of RNA results, the IgG titer of the IgM-positive samples may be a useful surrogate for viremia, and (iii) CHIKV IgM persists for approximately 4 months after symptom onset.

  15. A serological survey of Australian wildlife for antibodies to Leptospires of the Hebdomadis serogroup.

    PubMed

    Durfee, P T; Presidente, P J

    1979-04-01

    A serological survey for antibodies to Leptospira interrograns serovar hardjo was conducted on 574 serum samples from 10 native and 4 introduced wildlife species in south-eastern Australia. The microscopic agglutination (MA) test was used, and titres to hardjo antigen were detected in 33.5% of 352 brushtailed possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) sampled in several areas of Victoria. Prevalence of reactors ranged from 14 to 66% in 4 populations examined intensively. Serovar balcanica was isolated from possums with hardjo antibodies from two different areas. Of 20 wombats Vombatus ursinus) examined in Victoria, antibodies to hardjo were found in sera from 4 and titres to Pyrogenes and Pomona serogroups were detected in another. Hardjo antibodies were demonstrated in sera from 13 of 19 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis). Negative MA test results to hardjo antigens were recorded in 55 mountain possums (T. caninus), 63 macropods (Macropus spp.), 17 water rats (Hydrmys chrysogaster), 39 fallow deer (Dama dama), 2 hog deer (Axis porcinus) and 2 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalus). No MA antibodies to any of 16 leptospiral serogroups were detected in 17 water rats tested. Kidneys were examined from 330 of these animals and focal interstitial nephritis suggestive of leptospirosis was found in kidneys of 63 of 169 T. vulpecula, 3 of 55 T. caninus, 12 of 18 V. ursinus, 6 of 22 Macropus spp., 9 of 16 H. chrysogaster, 5 of 11 C. timorensis and 3 of 39 D. dama. A statistical association between focal interstitial nephritis and MA antibodies to hardjo was found in T. vulpecula.

  16. Radiometric cytolysis inhibition assay, a new rapid test for neutralizing antibodies to intact and trypsin-cleaved poliovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Hovi, T.; Roivainen, M.

    1989-04-01

    We have developed a new rapid test, the radiometric cytolysis inhibition assay (RACINA), for the determination of neutralizing poliovirus antibodies. HeLa cells prelabeled with /sup 51/Cr, (/sup 3/H)leucine, or, preferentially, with (/sup 3/H)uridine are used as sensitive quantitative indicators of residual infectious virus. Both suspensions and monolayer cultures of the indicator cells can be used. Neutralization of a fraction of a high-titer virus preparation can be scored after the first replication cycle at 8 to 10 h. By lowering the incubation temperature to 30/degree/C, the completion of the cytolysis due to the first replication cycle of poliovirus was delayed beyond 21 h. This makes it possible to use the RACINA, unlike the standard microneutralization assay, for measuring antibodies to trypsin-cleaved polioviruses. The RACINA was found to be as sensitive as and more reproducible than the standard microneutralization assay in the measurement of neutralizing poliovirus antibodies. The RACINA is a rapid and reliable test for neutralizing antibodies and in principle it may be applicable for quantitation of neutralizing antibodies to other cytolytic agents as well.

  17. Comparison of immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and direct fluorescent antibody test for the detection of bovine coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Dar, A M; Kapil, S; Goyal, S M

    1998-04-01

    Bovine coronavirus (BCV) is 1 of the major causes of calf diarrhea and has also been implicated in respiratory infections of young calves and winter dysentery of adult cattle. Currently, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), direct fluorescent antibody (DFA), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques are considered standard methods for the diagnosis of BCV infection. However, these techniques are not useful if fresh tissues and intestinal contents are not available for examination. The detection of viral antigens in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a suitable alternative. In the present study, 166 tissue specimens were tested by IHC for the presence of BCV. These tissues were from animals whose feces were positive for rotavirus and/or coronavirus by TEM. Some of these samples were also tested by DFA. Thus, TEM, DFA, and IHC were compared for the detection of BCV. There was 56% agreement among the 3 methods (overall kappa = 0.368). When IHC was compared with TEM, 78% agreement was observed (kappa = 0.475). Similarly, IHC and DFA had 64% agreement (kappa = 0.277). These kappa values indicate a moderate degree of agreement between IHC and TEM; agreement between IHC and DFA was fair. The results of this study indicate that IHC may be a suitable adjunct for the detection of BCV because of its simplicity, ease of use, and relatively close correlation with TEM results. PMID:9576342

  18. Veterans health administration hepatitis B testing and treatment with anti-CD20 antibody administration

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Christine M; Beste, Lauren A; Lowy, Elliott; Suzuki, Ayako; Moylan, Cynthia A; Tillmann, Hans L; Ioannou, George N; Lim, Joseph K; Kelley, Michael J; Provenzale, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate pretreatment hepatitis B virus (HBV) testing, vaccination, and antiviral treatment rates in Veterans Affairs patients receiving anti-CD20 Ab for quality improvement. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using a national repository of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) electronic health record data. We identified all patients receiving anti-CD20 Ab treatment (2002-2014). We ascertained patient demographics, laboratory results, HBV vaccination status (from vaccination records), pharmacy data, and vital status. The high risk period for HBV reactivation is during anti-CD20 Ab treatment and 12 mo follow up. Therefore, we analyzed those who were followed to death or for at least 12 mo after completing anti-CD20 Ab. Pretreatment serologic tests were used to categorize chronic HBV (hepatitis B surface antigen positive or HBsAg+), past HBV (HBsAg-, hepatitis B core antibody positive or HBcAb+), resolved HBV (HBsAg-, HBcAb+, hepatitis B surface antibody positive or HBsAb+), likely prior vaccination (isolated HBsAb+), HBV negative (HBsAg-, HBcAb-), or unknown. Acute hepatitis B was defined by the appearance of HBsAg+ in the high risk period in patients who were pretreatment HBV negative. We assessed HBV antiviral treatment and the incidence of hepatitis, liver failure, and death during the high risk period. Cumulative hepatitis, liver failure, and death after anti-CD20 Ab initiation were compared by HBV disease categories and differences compared using the χ2 test. Mean time to hepatitis peak alanine aminotransferase, liver failure, and death relative to anti-CD20 Ab administration and follow-up were also compared by HBV disease group. RESULTS: Among 19304 VHA patients who received anti-CD20 Ab, 10224 (53%) had pretreatment HBsAg testing during the study period, with 49% and 43% tested for HBsAg and HBcAb, respectively within 6 mo pretreatment in 2014. Of those tested, 2% (167/10224) had chronic HBV, 4% (326/7903) past HBV, 5% (427

  19. Inappropriate use of commercial Antinuclear Antibody Testing in a community-based US hospital: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Abdul S.; Boddu, Prajwal; Mael, David; Samee, Mohammed; Villines, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare providers use antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) to screen and diagnose patients with autoimmune diseases. In the recent years, commercial multiplex ANA kits have emerged as a convenient and fast diagnostic method. Diagnostic testing should follow sequenced algorithms: initial screen followed by specific antibody analysis. Second-level testing as an initial screen for autoimmune disease is inappropriate. We reviewed 68 patients with ANA comprehensive panels over a 6-month period from May 2015 to October 2015. We assessed appropriateness and estimated incurred losses from inappropriate testing. We found 92.6% (63 out of 68) of the ANA comprehensive panel results to be negative. Incurred losses from inappropriate ANA comprehensive panel testing were $66,000. Physicians should become familiar with ANA-sequenced diagnostic algorithms to avoid unnecessary higher level testing. PMID:27609725

  20. Inappropriate use of commercial Antinuclear Antibody Testing in a community-based US hospital: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Abdul S; Boddu, Prajwal; Mael, David; Samee, Mohammed; Villines, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare providers use antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) to screen and diagnose patients with autoimmune diseases. In the recent years, commercial multiplex ANA kits have emerged as a convenient and fast diagnostic method. Diagnostic testing should follow sequenced algorithms: initial screen followed by specific antibody analysis. Second-level testing as an initial screen for autoimmune disease is inappropriate. We reviewed 68 patients with ANA comprehensive panels over a 6-month period from May 2015 to October 2015. We assessed appropriateness and estimated incurred losses from inappropriate testing. We found 92.6% (63 out of 68) of the ANA comprehensive panel results to be negative. Incurred losses from inappropriate ANA comprehensive panel testing were $66,000. Physicians should become familiar with ANA-sequenced diagnostic algorithms to avoid unnecessary higher level testing. PMID:27609725

  1. Mechanisms of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI): anti-leukocyte antibodies.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Brian R; McFarland, Janice G

    2006-05-01

    There is abundant evidence that leukocyte antibodies in blood donor products are somehow involved in transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I, HLA class II, and neutrophil-specific antibodies in the plasma of both blood donors and recipients have been implicated in the pathogenesis of TRALI. The case for a relationship between leukocyte antibodies and TRALI is more compelling if concordance between the antigen specificity of the leukocyte antibodies in the donor plasma and the corresponding antigen on the cells of the affected recipient is demonstrated. Such antibody-antigen concordance can be investigated by typing the recipient for the cognate leukocyte antigens or by cross-matching the donor plasma against the recipient's leukocytes. Two proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms for TRALI have received the most attention: the antibody hypothesis and the two-event hypothesis. The final common pathway in all of the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of TRALI is increased pulmonary capillary permeability, which results in movement of plasma into the alveolar space causing pulmonary edema. A typical TRALI serologic workup consists of tests for HLA class I and II and neutrophil-specific antibodies. The use of flow cytometry and HLA-coated microbeads is recommended for detection of HLA antibodies in plasma of implicated blood donors and a combination of the granulocyte agglutination test and granulocyte immunofluorescence test for detection of neutrophil-specific antibodies. Genotyping for class I and II HLA and for a limited number of neutrophil antigens may also be helpful in establishing antibody-antigen concordance. PMID:16617255

  2. Immunoscintigraphic localization of inflammatory lesions: concept, radiolabelling and in vitro testing of a granulocyte specific antibody.

    PubMed

    Andres, R Y; Schubiger, P A; Tiefenauer, L; Seybold, K; Locher, J T; Mach, J P; Buchegger, F

    1988-01-01

    Current nuclear medicine techniques for the localization of inflammatory processes are based on injection of 111In labelled autologous granulocytes which need to be isolated and radiolabelled in vitro before reinjection. A new technique is presented here that obviates the need for cell isolation by the direct intravenous injection of a granulocyte specific 123I labelled monoclonal antibody. In this publication the basic parameters of the antibody granulocyte interaction are described. Antibody binding does not inhibit vital functions of the granulocytes, such as chemotaxis and superoxide generation. Scatchard analysis of binding data reveals an apparent affinity of the antibody for granulocytes of 6.8 X 10(9) l/mol and approximately 7.1 X 10(4) binding sites per cell. Due to the high specificity of the antibody, the only expected interference is from CEA producing tumors.

  3. Antibodies to H5 subtype avian influenza virus and Japanese encephalitis virus in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Spackman, Erica; Yeh, Jung-Yong; Fujita, Go; Konishi, Kan; Reed, John A.; Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Brown, Justin D.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Blood samples from 105 northern pintails (Anas acuta) captured on Hokkaido, Japan were tested for antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and West Nile virus (WNV) to assess possible involvement of this species in the spread of economically important and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Antibodies to AIV were detected in 64 of 105 samples (61%). Of the 64 positives, 95% and 81% inhibited agglutination of two different H5 AIV antigens (H5N1 and H5N9), respectively. Antibodies to JEV and WNV were detected in five (5%) and none of the samples, respectively. Results provide evidence for prior exposure of migrating northern pintails to H5 AIV which couldhave implications for viral shedding and disease occurrence. Results also provide evidence for limited involvement of this species in the transmission and spread of flaviviruses during spring migration.

  4. Simultaneous determination of influenza virus antihemagglutinin and antineuraminidase antibodies by means of the combined photometric ACU method I. conduct of test.

    PubMed

    Drescher, J

    1976-01-01

    A modification of the photometric ACU (antibody concentration unit) method designated as combined ACU test is described by means of which the titers of both antihemagglutinin (AH) and antineuraminidase (AN) antibodies can be simultaneously determined, using intact homologous influenza virus. In addition, the constants describing the reactions of AH and AN antibodies with their antigens can be obtained. These constants were determined for a series of H2M2 and H3M2 influenza virus strains. This paper gives a detailed description of the conduct of test. The sensitivity and accuracy of AH antibody titration by means of the combinated ACU test was found to be the same as achieved by means of the original ACU test. The same conclusion was reached when comparing the titration of AN antibodies by means of the combined ACU test and of a modified ACU test which, in turn, has been found to be more sensitive and accurate than is AN antibody titration by the enzyme inhibition test. However, the sensitivity of AN antibody titration by the combined ACU test was found to decrease progressively as the ratio of AH to AN antibodies exceeded certain limits.

  5. An experimental investigation of agglutinate melting mechanisms - Shocked mixtures of sodium and potassium feldspars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Horz, F.; See, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an experiment designed to test the validity of the model for agglutinate formation involving fusion of the finest fraction or F3 are reported. Impact glasses were formed from various mixes of orthoclase and albite powders, which were used as analogs for soils with chemically constrasting coarse and fine fractions. The results showed that the single most important factor displacing the composition of a small-scale impact melt from the bulk composition of the source regolith is the fractionated composition of the finest soil fraction. Volatile loss and the amount of melting, which in turn are determined by the degree of shock, are also important. As predicted by the model, the lower pressure melts are the most fractionated, and higher pressure is accompanied by increased melting causing glass compositions to approach the bulk. In general, the systematics predicted by the model are observed; the model appears to be valid.

  6. Effectiveness of antigliadin antibodies as a screening test for celiac disease in children

    PubMed Central

    Chartrand, L J; Agulnik, J; Vanounou, T; Russo, P A; Baehler, P; Seidman, E G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of serologic antigliadin antibody (AGA) testing in predicting celiac disease in children. DESIGN: Prospective clinical assessment. SETTING: Hôpital Sainte-Justine, montreal. PATIENTS: A total of 176 children with possible celiac disease who were referred for duodenal biopsy between January 1992 and June 1995. OUTCOME MEASURES: IgA and IgG AGA titres, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); duodenal biopsy; clinical outcome on a gluten-free diet. RESULTS: Of the 176 children 30 were found to have celiac disease according to the criteria of the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ESPGAN). The sensitivity and specificity of the IgA AGA titre, as well as its positive and negative predictive values, were 80%, 92%, 67% and 96% respectively; the corresponding values for the IgG AGA titre were 83%, 79%, 45% and 96%. The respective values for IgA and IgG AGA titres combined were 93%, 71%, 43% and 98%. Only 2 of the 30 patients with celiac disease had false-negative results for both IgA and IgG AGA titres. The IgA and IgG AGA titres decreased significantly (p < 0.005) in all 11 patients after being on a gluten-free diet for at least 10 months and reached normal values in 8. CONCLUSION: AGA screening for celiac disease permits better selection of patients for duodenal biopsy and adds specificity to the histologic diagnosis. Such screening cannot replace intestinal biopsy, which remains the gold standard for diagnosis. PMID:9294391

  7. An early Cambrian agglutinated tubular lophophorate with brachiopod characters

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Z.-F.; Li, G.-X.; Holmer, L. E.; Brock, G. A.; Balthasar, U.; Skovsted, C. B.; Fu, D.-J.; Zhang, X.-L.; Wang, H.-Z.; Butler, A.; Zhang, Z.-L.; Cao, C.-Q.; Han, J.; Liu, J.-N.; Shu, D.-G.

    2014-01-01

    The morphological disparity of lophotrochozoan phyla makes it difficult to predict the morphology of the last common ancestor. Only fossils of stem groups can help discover the morphological transitions that occurred along the roots of these phyla. Here, we describe a tubular fossil Yuganotheca elegans gen. et sp. nov. from the Cambrian (Stage 3) Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Yunnan, China) that exhibits an unusual combination of phoronid, brachiopod and tommotiid (Cambrian problematica) characters, notably a pair of agglutinated valves, enclosing a horseshoe-shaped lophophore, supported by a lower bipartite tubular attachment structure with a long pedicle with coelomic space. The terminal bulb of the pedicle provided anchorage in soft sediment. The discovery has important implications for the early evolution of lophotrochozoans, suggesting rooting of brachiopods into the sessile lophotrochozoans and the origination of their bivalved bauplan preceding the biomineralization of shell valves in crown brachiopods. PMID:24828016

  8. An early Cambrian agglutinated tubular lophophorate with brachiopod characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.-F.; Li, G.-X.; Holmer, L. E.; Brock, G. A.; Balthasar, U.; Skovsted, C. B.; Fu, D.-J.; Zhang, X.-L.; Wang, H.-Z.; Butler, A.; Zhang, Z.-L.; Cao, C.-Q.; Han, J.; Liu, J.-N.; Shu, D.-G.

    2014-05-01

    The morphological disparity of lophotrochozoan phyla makes it difficult to predict the morphology of the last common ancestor. Only fossils of stem groups can help discover the morphological transitions that occurred along the roots of these phyla. Here, we describe a tubular fossil Yuganotheca elegans gen. et sp. nov. from the Cambrian (Stage 3) Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Yunnan, China) that exhibits an unusual combination of phoronid, brachiopod and tommotiid (Cambrian problematica) characters, notably a pair of agglutinated valves, enclosing a horseshoe-shaped lophophore, supported by a lower bipartite tubular attachment structure with a long pedicle with coelomic space. The terminal bulb of the pedicle provided anchorage in soft sediment. The discovery has important implications for the early evolution of lophotrochozoans, suggesting rooting of brachiopods into the sessile lophotrochozoans and the origination of their bivalved bauplan preceding the biomineralization of shell valves in crown brachiopods.

  9. Immunoblot Assay Using Recombinant Antigens as a Supplemental Test To Confirm the Presence of Antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi▿

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Chang, Chi-Deu; Salbilla, Vince A.; Kirchhoff, Louis V.; Leiby, David A.; Schochetman, Gerald; Shah, Dinesh O.

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of chronic Chagas' disease is generally made by detecting antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi. Most conventional serological tests are based on lysates of whole parasites or semipurified antigen fractions from T. cruzi epimastigotes grown in culture. The occurrence of inconclusive and false-positive results has been a persistent problem with the conventional assays, and there is no universally accepted gold standard for confirmation of positive test results. We describe here an immunoblot assay for detecting antibodies to T. cruzi in which four chimeric recombinant antigens (rAgs), designated FP3, FP6, FP10, and TcF, are used as target antigens. Each of these rAgs is composed of several antigenically distinct regions and includes repetitive as well as nonrepetitive sequences. Each rAg is coated as a discrete line on a nitrocellulose strip. Assay sensitivity was assessed by testing 345 specimens known to be positive for antibodies to T. cruzi. All 345 of these samples showed two to four reactive test bands in addition to the three on-board control bands that are on each strip. Assay specificity was determined by testing 500 specimens from random U.S. blood donors, all of which gave negative results. Based on the results obtained in this study, we propose the following scheme for interpretation of test results: (i) no bands or a single test band = a negative result; (ii) two or more test bands with at least one band showing intensity of 1+ or higher = a positive result; and (iii) multiple faint test bands (±) = indeterminate result. Based on this scheme, the prototype immunoblot assay showed sensitivity of 100% (n = 345) and specificity of 100% (n = 500). Additionally, all 269 potentially cross-reacting and T. cruzi antibody-negative specimens tested negative in our immunoblot assay. The rAg-based immunoblot assay has potential as a supplemental test for confirming the presence of antibodies to T. cruzi in blood specimens and for identifying false

  10. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Antarctic pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Rengifo-Herrera, Claudia; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Alvarez-García, Gema; Gómez-Bautista, Mercedes; García-Párraga, Daniel; García-Peña, Francisco Javier; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana

    2012-11-23

    The presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies was investigated in Antarctic marine mammals. Two hundred and eleven sera from different species of pinnipeds collected in years 2007, 2010 and 2011 from different locations in the South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula were analysed using a commercially available agglutination test kit. The presence of antibodies (titres ≥ 1:25) against T. gondii was detected in a total of 28 animals (13.3%). Amongst animal species, percentages of detection were higher in Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) (76.9%; 10/13) followed by Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) (41.9%; 13/31). Antibodies were also found in 4 of 165 (2.4%) Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 1 of 2 Crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophaga). Highest titres (1:100-1:800) were also observed in Southern elephant seals and Weddell seals. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the detection of antibodies against T. gondii in Antarctic marine mammals.

  11. Performance of the OraQuick HCV Rapid Antibody Test for Screening Exposed Patients in a Hepatitis C Outbreak Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fengxiang; Talbot, Elizabeth A.; Loring, Carol H.; Power, Jill J.; Dionne-Odom, Jodie; Alroy-Preis, Sharon; Jackson, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    During a nosocomial hepatitis C outbreak, emergency public clinics employed the OraQuick HCV rapid antibody test on site, and all results were verified by a standard enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Of 1,157 persons, 1,149 (99.3%) exhibited concordant results between the two tests (16 positive, 1,133 negative). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 94.1%, 99.5%, 72.7%, and 99.9%, respectively. OraQuick performed well as a screening test during an outbreak investigation and could be integrated into future hepatitis C virus (HCV) outbreak testing algorithms. PMID:24789176

  12. Simplified exercise test for the initial differential diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in HIV antibody positive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Sauleda, J.; Gea, J.; Aran, X.; Aguar, M. C.; Orozco-Levi, M.; Broquetas, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of a simplified exercise test in the differential diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). METHODS--Forty five subjects with antibodies against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and pneumonia were included and divided into two groups: those with PCP and those with "other pneumonias" (non-PCP). The test involved pedalling for two minutes on a stretcher bed and was considered positive if SaO2 decreased by at least 3%. RESULTS--During the exercise the mean(SE) SaO2 fell in patients with PCP from 88(4)% to 84(3)%, p < 0.01, whilst it improved slightly in subjects with non-PCP from 91(1)% to 93(3)%, p < 0.05. Sensitivity was 77% and specificity 91%. CONCLUSIONS--This simple test seems potentially useful for the initial investigation of HIV antibody positive patients with pneumonia. PMID:8128398

  13. Diagnostic usefulness of Vi-indirect fluorescent antibody test(Vi-IFAT) for typhoid fever--a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kim, J M; Kim, E; Chong, Y; Hong, C S

    1989-01-01

    Although the confirmative diagnosis of typhoid fever is by culture of the causative organism, usually from blood, a serological test is still necessary to provide a more rapid method of diagnosis. The indirect fluorescent antibody test, using a Salmonella typhi Vi antigen and a FITC-conjugated rabbit anti-human polyvalent immunoglobulin, was evaluated for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Serum specimens were collected from patients with febrile diseases on admission. Of the 32 patients with titers of 1:64 or more, 22 were confirmed to have typhoid fever by blood culture and 7 had fever of undetermined origin that was considered to be typhoid fever clinically. Three patients were diagnosed to have salmonellosis other than typhoid fever. Of the 121 patients with titers of 1:32 or less, 105 patients had non-typhoidal febrile disease, 15 patients had fever of undetermined origin, and one patient was confirmed to have typhoid fever by blood culture. When a Vi antibody titer of 1:64 or more was taken as serological evidence for the diagnosis of typhoid fever, the sensitivity and specificity were 95.7% and 97.2%, respectively. The incidence of positive test results following fever onset was 70.0% within 1 week of fever onset, 88.9% from 1 to 2 weeks, and 100% after 2 weeks. In conclusion, the Vi-indirect fluorescent antibody test(Vi-IFAT) can be employed as a useful serologic test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever.

  14. TB-SA antibody test for diagnosis and monitoring treatment outcome of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinxu; Xu, Hancheng; Jiang, Shiwen; Jing, Kuanhe; Wang, Li; Liu, Xiaoqiu; Li, Weibin; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Lixia

    2011-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the suitability of the TB-SA antibody test to diagnose tuberculosis in sputum smear negative (SS-) pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients and its applicability for monitoring treatment outcomes in these patients. This study was conducted in three counties/districts in Chongqing Municipality, Liaoning Province, China between June 2005 and June 2007. A total of 432 SS suspected pulmonary TB patients were recruited and their blood was collected prior to treatment, at the end of 1 month of treatment, 2 months of treatment and 6 months of treatment (E6MT). The serum samples were analyzed with a TB-SA antibody test kit. Of the 432 SS suspected pulmonary TB patients, serum samples were obtained at all time points in 316 patients and analyzed. The 316 patients were divided into three groups according to sputum smear and sputum culture results and the chest X-ray results before treatment and at E6MT. Ten point four percent were SS-/culture positive (C+), 73.1% were SS-/culture negative (C-) with X-rays abnormalities, and 16.5% were SS-/C- without X-rays abnormalities. The positive rates for TB-SA antibody in the three groups were 57.6, 44.6 and 44.2%, respectively, before treatment, and 18.2, 19.1 and 26.9%, respectively, at E6MT. There was a significant decrease in TB-SA antibody positivity with treatment for all 3 groups. The TB-SA antibody test may be a useful adjunct to diagnose tuberculosis in SS- pulmonary TB patients, and may be useful for monitoring treatment outcomes of SS- pulmonary TB patients. PMID:22299440

  15. Antibody screening tests variably overestimate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among HIV-infected adults in Ghana.

    PubMed

    King, S; Adjei-Asante, K; Appiah, L; Adinku, D; Beloukas, A; Atkins, M; Sarfo, S F; Chadwick, D; Phillips, R O; Geretti, A M

    2015-05-01

    HIV coinfection with HCV has been poorly studied in sub-Saharan Africa, and the reliability of available seroprevalence estimates remains uncertain. The study aim was to determine HCV RNA prevalence in HIV-infected subjects receiving care in Kumasi, Ghana, and relate the findings to HCV antibody detection. From a population of 1520 HIV-infected adults, all HBsAg-positive subjects (n = 236) and a random subset of HBsAg-negative subject (n = 172) were screened for HCV RNA using pooled plasma; positive samples were genotyped by core and NS5B sequencing. HCV antibodies were detected by three commercial screening assays and confirmed by the line immunoassay. HCV RNA was detected in 4/408 subjects (1.0%, 95% confidence interval 0.0-1.9%), comprising 3/236 (1.3%; 0.0-2.8%) HBsAg-positive and 1/172 (0.6%; 0.0-1.8%) HBsAg-negative subjects. HCV RNA-positive subjects showed reactivity in all three antibody screening assays. Among HCV RNA-negative subjects, 5/67 (7.5%), 5/67 (7.5%) and 19/67 (28.4%) showed antibody reactivity by each screening assay, respectively, including two (3.0%) with reactivity by all three assays. Only one sample (1.5%) had confirmed antibody reactivity by line immunoassay indicating past HCV infection. HCV-positive subjects (three males, two females) were aged 30-46 years, by questionnaire-based interview reported surgical procedures and blood transfusion as risk factors for infection. HCV genotypes were 2 (subtypes 2j, 2l, 2k/unassigned) and 1 (subtype unassigned). Without further testing, HCV antibody screening assays variably overestimated HCV prevalence among HIV-infected subjects in Ghana. These findings inform the interpretation of previous seroprevalence estimates based upon screening assays alone.

  16. Clinical laboratory applications of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, W J; Marshall, D L; Shockley, R K; Martin, W J

    1988-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) technology is well recognized as a significant development for producing specific serologic reagents to a wide variety of antigens in unlimited amounts. These reagents have provided the means for developing a number of highly specific and reproducible immunological assays for rapid and accurate diagnosis of an extensive list of diseases, including infectious diseases. The impact that MAbs have had in characterizing infectious disease pathogens, as well as their current and future applications for use in clinical microbiology laboratories, is reviewed. In addition, the advantages (and disadvantages) of the use of MAbs in a number of immunoassays, such as particle agglutination, radioimmunoassays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunofluorescent-antibody assays, and immunohistology, are explored, including the use of these reagents in novel test system assays. Also, nucleic acid probe technology is compared with the use of MAbs from the perspective of their respective applications in the diagnosis of infectious disease agents. There is no question that hybridoma technology has the potential to alter significantly the methods currently used in most clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:3058298

  17. RBC Antibody Screen

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? RBC Antibody Screen Share this page: Was this page ... Screen Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; Blood Typing ; RBC Antibody Identification ; Type and Screen; Crossmatch All content ...

  18. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in muskox (Ovibos moschatus) sera from northern Canada.

    PubMed

    Kutz, S J; Elkin, B; Gunn, A; Dubey, J P

    2000-08-01

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined in 203 muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from 3 geographically distinct areas of northern Canada (near the hamlets of Kugluktuk and Cambridge Bay, Nunavut and Holman, Northwest Territories) by the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies were found in 13 (6.4%) of 203 animals with MAT titers of 1:25 in 2, 1:50 in 7, 1:200 in 2, 1:400 in 1, and 1:800 in 1. The 4 muskoxen with MAT titers > or =1:200 were adult females and were among 10 animals examined from a mainland population near Kugluktuk. The seroprevalence was lower in Victoria Island muskoxen collected near Cambridge Bay (4.6% of 151) and Holman (4.8% of 42). This is the first serologic survey for T. gondii infection in muskoxen.

  19. [Indirect ultramicroElisa for the detection of total antibodies against cytomegaloviruses in human blood].

    PubMed

    Laferte, J; Marrero, M; Alvarez, M; Jomarron, L; Garcia, S; Vazquez, S; Morier, L; Ulacia, M; Melchor, A

    1992-01-01

    We have standardized an indirect ultramicro ELISA assay for detecting antibodies to human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) using human serum samples (UMELISA CMV). The optimal concentration of coating antigen (30 ug/ml), serum dilution (1:40) and anti-human conjugate working dilution (1:1500), were determined by a check board titration method. The UMELISA CMV was compared with the latex agglutination test for antibodies to CMV (Dupont de Nemours) and with an indirect immunofluorescent method. The results have showed the high coincidence, sensitivity and especificity of the proposed assay regarding the two methods compared with, and supporting its use either for a blood donors screening or in the serological diagnosis of this infection by paired serum samples.

  20. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in muskox (Ovibos moschatus) sera from northern Canada.

    PubMed

    Kutz, S J; Elkin, B; Gunn, A; Dubey, J P

    2000-08-01

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined in 203 muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from 3 geographically distinct areas of northern Canada (near the hamlets of Kugluktuk and Cambridge Bay, Nunavut and Holman, Northwest Territories) by the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies were found in 13 (6.4%) of 203 animals with MAT titers of 1:25 in 2, 1:50 in 7, 1:200 in 2, 1:400 in 1, and 1:800 in 1. The 4 muskoxen with MAT titers > or =1:200 were adult females and were among 10 animals examined from a mainland population near Kugluktuk. The seroprevalence was lower in Victoria Island muskoxen collected near Cambridge Bay (4.6% of 151) and Holman (4.8% of 42). This is the first serologic survey for T. gondii infection in muskoxen. PMID:10958480

  1. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from northeastern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, A P; Santos, H; Neto, F; Rodrigues, M; Kwok, O C H; Dubey, J P; Cardoso, L

    2011-06-01

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in 673 domestic dogs from northeastern Portugal, using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with 1 : 20 as cutoff for seropositivity; antibodies were found in 256 dogs (38.0%). Differences between seroprevalence levels in males (36.7%) and females (41.8%) and between pure-breed (42.1%) and mixed-breed dogs (35.2%) were not statistically significant. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified age above 12 mo (odds ratio [OR]  =  4.0), chance of eating birds or small mammals (OR  =  4.0), housing exclusively outdoors (OR  =  1.5), home-cooked meals (OR  =  3.0), and eating raw meat or viscera (OR  =  7.7) as risk factors for the canine T. gondii infection. Some control measures are suggested based on these findings. PMID:21506866

  2. Development and validation of a point-of-care test for detecting hantavirus antibodies in human and rodent samples.

    PubMed

    Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Aoki, Mateus Nóbrega; Jorge, Taissa Ricciardi; Suzukawa, Andréia Akemi; Zanluca, Camila; Levis, Silvana; Duarte Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes

    2016-07-01

    Hantaviruses are etiologic agents of a zoonotic disease transmitted mainly from wild rodents to humans, causing Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Eurasia and the Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome in the Americas (HCPS), reaching a lethality rate of 40% in Brazil. Hantavirus diagnostic and seroprevalence are often based on the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies against the virus. Here we propose a rapid test assay able to identify hantavirus antibodies with sensibility and specificity similar to ELISA assays. We analyzed five groups of samples, including healthy human population and small mammals of endemic areas, suspected cases of HCPS, patients with non-related infections and a serum panel from a different geographical region. The test presented good rates of sensibility (87-100%) and specificity (97-100%) for all groups, being a promising tool suitable for both rodent and human hantavirus epidemiological surveys.

  3. Development and validation of a point-of-care test for detecting hantavirus antibodies in human and rodent samples.

    PubMed

    Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Aoki, Mateus Nóbrega; Jorge, Taissa Ricciardi; Suzukawa, Andréia Akemi; Zanluca, Camila; Levis, Silvana; Duarte Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes

    2016-07-01

    Hantaviruses are etiologic agents of a zoonotic disease transmitted mainly from wild rodents to humans, causing Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Eurasia and the Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome in the Americas (HCPS), reaching a lethality rate of 40% in Brazil. Hantavirus diagnostic and seroprevalence are often based on the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies against the virus. Here we propose a rapid test assay able to identify hantavirus antibodies with sensibility and specificity similar to ELISA assays. We analyzed five groups of samples, including healthy human population and small mammals of endemic areas, suspected cases of HCPS, patients with non-related infections and a serum panel from a different geographical region. The test presented good rates of sensibility (87-100%) and specificity (97-100%) for all groups, being a promising tool suitable for both rodent and human hantavirus epidemiological surveys. PMID:27155935

  4. Detection of Schistosoma mansoni Antibodies in a Low-Endemicity Area Using Indirect Immunofluorescence and Circumoval Precipitin Test

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho do Espírito-Santo, Maria Cristina; Pinto, Pedro Luiz; Gargioni, Cybele; Viviana Alvarado-Mora, Monica; Pagliusi Castilho, Vera Lúcia; Pinho, João Ranato Rebello; de Albuquerque Luna, Expedito José; Borges Gryschek, Ronaldo Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Parasitological diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis lack sensitivity, especially in regions of low endemicity. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections by antibody detection using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA-IgM) and circumoval precipitin test (COPT). Serum samples of 572 individuals were randomly selected. The IFA-IgM and COPT were used to detect anti-S. mansoni antibodies. Of the patients studied, 15.9% (N = 91) were IFA-IgM positive and 5.1% (N = 29) had COPT reactions (P < 0.001 by McNemar's test). Immunodiagnostic techniques showed higher infection prevalence than had been previously estimated. This study suggests that combined use of these diagnostic tools could be useful for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in epidemiological studies in areas of low endemicity. PMID:24639303

  5. Presence of antibodies against Leptospira serovars in Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae), La Pampa province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kin, Marta S; Brihuega, Bibiana; Fort, Marcelo; Delgado, Fernando; Bedotti, Daniel; Casanave, Emma B

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of antibodies against 21 Leptospira reactive serovars in Chaetophractus villosus in La Pampa province, Argentina, using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Pathologic changes compatible with leptospirosis and in situ detection of the agent by immunohistochemistry were studied in 24 and 3 individuals respectively. Only 35/150 (23.3%) serum samples had antibodies against Leptospira sp. Six percent of the samples reacted with serovar Canicola, 4.7% with serovar Castellonis, 1.3% with serovar Icterohemorrhagieae and 0.7% with serovar Hardjo. Sixteen (10.6%) serum samples agglutinated with Castellonis-Icterohemorrhagiae and Canicola-Castellonis serovars, both with 4.7%, and Canicola-Hardjo and Castellonis-Canicola-Icterohemorrhagiae both with 0.6%. Fourteen animals had variable degrees of lesions, which were more severe in animals with higher serological titers (3200), and Leptospira sp. was detected in 3 animals by immunohistochemistry. These results represent the first record of the presence of Leptospira in C. villosus in La Pampa. PMID:25754485

  6. Presence of antibodies against Leptospira serovars in Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae), La Pampa province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kin, Marta S; Brihuega, Bibiana; Fort, Marcelo; Delgado, Fernando; Bedotti, Daniel; Casanave, Emma B

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of antibodies against 21 Leptospira reactive serovars in Chaetophractus villosus in La Pampa province, Argentina, using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Pathologic changes compatible with leptospirosis and in situ detection of the agent by immunohistochemistry were studied in 24 and 3 individuals respectively. Only 35/150 (23.3%) serum samples had antibodies against Leptospira sp. Six percent of the samples reacted with serovar Canicola, 4.7% with serovar Castellonis, 1.3% with serovar Icterohemorrhagieae and 0.7% with serovar Hardjo. Sixteen (10.6%) serum samples agglutinated with Castellonis-Icterohemorrhagiae and Canicola-Castellonis serovars, both with 4.7%, and Canicola-Hardjo and Castellonis-Canicola-Icterohemorrhagiae both with 0.6%. Fourteen animals had variable degrees of lesions, which were more severe in animals with higher serological titers (3200), and Leptospira sp. was detected in 3 animals by immunohistochemistry. These results represent the first record of the presence of Leptospira in C. villosus in La Pampa.

  7. A strong antibody reacting with enzyme modified E positive red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Heistø, H; Fagerhol, M K

    1979-01-01

    A high titer antibody was discovered in a healthy young man of blood group A1 R2r. The antibody strongly agglutinated all E positive red blood cells including his own, which had been modified by papain, ficin and bromelin, but only very weakly when modified by trypsin. The antibody was shown to be an IgM antibody. It did not react with unmodified red blood cells.

  8. A strong antibody reacting with enzyme modified E positive red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Heistø, H; Fagerhol, M K

    1979-01-01

    A high titer antibody was discovered in a healthy young man of blood group A1 R2r. The antibody strongly agglutinated all E positive red blood cells including his own, which had been modified by papain, ficin and bromelin, but only very weakly when modified by trypsin. The antibody was shown to be an IgM antibody. It did not react with unmodified red blood cells. PMID:116398

  9. Undiagnosed leptospirosis cases in naïve and vaccinated dogs: properties of a serological test based on a synthetic peptide derived from Hap1/LipL32 (residues 154-178).

    PubMed

    Andre-Fontaine, Geneviève; Aviat, Florence; Marie, Jean-Lou; Chatrenet, Benoit

    2015-04-01

    Leptospirosis is a common disease in dogs, despite having current vaccinations. However, leptospirosis diagnosis based on the routine Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) leads to confusing conclusions, especially for infected vaccinated dogs. Indeed, both bacterin and natural infection stimulate the production of agglutinating antibodies. In experimentally infected dogs, antibodies against the peptide PP derived from Hap1/Lipl32 were raised earlier than agglutinating antibodies. The background level of these antibodies was determined in a group of 109 healthy dogs, either vaccinated or not against leptospirosis, with a specificity for IgM of 96.4% and for IgG of 95.5%. PP ELISA was subsequently performed with 118 sera from dogs with suspected leptospirosis that was not confirmed by MAT. New leptospirosis cases based on the PP ELISA results were suspected in 14 out of 102 vaccinated dogs and in two out of 16 non-vaccinated dogs. These results highlight the importance of serological diagnosis corresponding to an interesting window when it is too late for PCR detection and too early to be confirmed by MAT. PMID:25659817

  10. Development of immunochromatographic strip test using fluorescent, micellar silica nanosensors for rapid detection of B. abortus antibodies in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Swati S; Jadhav, Sushma V; Majee, Sharmila B; Shastri, Jayanthi S; Patravale, Vandana B

    2015-08-15

    Presence of bacteria such as Brucella spp. in dairy products is an immense risk to public health. Point of care immunoassays are rapid in that they can quickly screen various samples in a relatively short amount of time, are sensitive, specific and offer a great advantage in accurate and fast diagnosis of infectious diseases. We have fabricated a point of care rapid diagnostic assay that employs fluorescent, micellar silica nanosensors capable of specifically detecting Brucella IgG antibodies in milk samples of afflicted animals. Currently, point of care detection assays are not commercially available for field testing of farm animals using milk samples. The nanosensing allows precise detection of antibodies with low sample volumes (50 μl). We demonstrate recognition of B. abortus antibodies through capture by fluorescent silica nanosensors using spiked and raw milk samples validated by ELISA and PCR. The test results are accurate and repeatable with high sensitivity and specificity, and a short assay time of 10 min for antigenic recognition and do not require any sample processing procedures such as isolation and separation. Additionally, well defined antigenic components and surface biomarkers of various disease causing microbes can be broadly incorporated within the purview of this technology for accurate and rapid detection of suspected bovine pathological conditions, and can largely enable rapid field testing that can be implemented in farms and food industry.

  11. Development and evaluation of a new immunohistochemistry-based test for the detection of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudana, Shampur N; Malavalli, Bhavana V; Thankappan, Ullas P; Sundramoorthy, Subha; Belludi, Ashwin Y; Pulagumbaly, Srinivasa B; Sanyal, Sampada

    2014-01-01

    Rabies claims about 55 000 human lives and many hundreds of thousands of livestock every year, worldwide. Despite a heavy disease burden, laboratory facilities to diagnose the infection remain scarce in most countries of the developing world where the disease is endemic. Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT) and Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralization Test (FAVN) are the common tests done in the rabies diagnostic laboratories to detect and quantitate Rabies Virus Neutralizing Antibodies (RVNA). RFFIT is most often employed in confirming seroconversion following prophylactic vaccination, and to aid ante-mortem diagnosis in suspected cases of rabies. Though this remains one of the most sought-after diagnostic services in rabies laboratories, the requirements for expensive anti-rabies fluorochrome antibody conjugate and a fluorescent microscope restrict its performance to only a few reference laboratories. Cost-effective laboratory diagnostic methods employing affordable technology are a need of the hour in the rabies-endemic countries. In this study we have developed a new immunohistochemistry-based neutralization test and extensively evaluated it along with RFFIT. One hundred and 20 human serum samples collected after post-exposure vaccination were subjected to both the tests for determining RVNA titers. The results obtained with the new test correlated significantly with those of RFFIT. Further validation of the inter- and intra- assay precision, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) and specificity was also performed. The best correlation between the 2 methods, however, was observed only when the RVNA concentrations in the samples were >20 IU/mL. Overall, the immunohistrochemistry-based neutralization test yielded satisfactory results. We suggest that it might serve as a cost-effective alternative to RFFIT in low-resource settings in the developing countries. PMID:24583787

  12. The variability in immunofluorescent viral capsid antigen antibody tests in population surveys of Epstein—Barr virus infections*

    PubMed Central

    Geser, A.; Day, N. E.; de-Thé, G. B.; Chew, B. K.; Freund, R. J.; Kwan, H. C.; Lavoue, M. F.; Simkovic, D.; Sohier, R.

    1974-01-01

    A comparative study of the extent of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections in populations that differ with respect to the incidence of tumours associated with this virus is now in progress in different countries. In these surveys of antibody titres from the various study populations, it is of critical importance that strict comparability be maintained. Despite standardization of techniques and reagents in the cooperating laboratories, considerable variation in the results has remained. The components of the total variability in the results of the immunofluorescence test for estimating the antibody titres against viral capsid antigens (VCA) of the EBV have been investigated. With repeated tests on the same sera, four sources of variation were measured: the reading of the slides, the performance of the tests, the use of various batches of the same cell line as antigen, and the use of different cell lines. The greatest variations were due to the use of different cell lines and to differences in performing the test; the reading of the slides caused only minor variations. Both the systematic and unsystematic variations were measured. The systematic variation was great in tests between laboratories and when different cell lines were used as antigens. Most of the systematic variation resulting from the use of different cell batches from the same cell line could be accounted for by the differing proportions of brilliant fluorescent cells. Adjustments are possible to correct the systematic variation whenever this has been measured, but not the unsystematic “residual” variability, which presents the real obstacle to the comparison of results obtained in different laboratories or by different observers. To attain full comparability of VCA antibody tests the sera from the different surveys should all be tested in the same laboratory. PMID:4376066

  13. Serologic tests for detecting antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa).

    PubMed

    Boadella, Mariana; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Greenwald, Reena; Esfandiari, Javan; Jaroso, Raquel; Carta, Tania; Garrido, Joseba M; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2011-01-01

    New tools to detect exposure of free-range Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) to pathogenic mycobacteria would be valuable for improved disease surveillance and wildlife management. Two hundred sera from wild boar of known Mycobacterium bovis infection status were used to evaluate test suitability for the detection of antibodies against M. bovis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (or cross-reacting members of the M. avium complex). Two traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were evaluated using M. bovis purified protein derivative (bPPD) and paratuberculosis protoplasmatic antigen 3 (PPA3) as antigens, respectively, and a new point-of-care test format for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) that uses the innovative dual-path platform (DPP TB) test. The effect of individual factors (sex, age, lesions) on the diagnostic performance of the serologic tests was also determined. Although the DPP had a sensitivity of 89.6% and a specificity of 90.4%, for bPPD, the sensitivity was 79.2% and the specificity 100%. Both tests had a kappa agreement of 0.80. Sixty-five of 68 (95.6%) wild boar sera with antibodies against the PPA3 antigen corresponded to known M. bovis-infected wild boar. Significant differences were not observed in the bPPD and DPP readings among lesion categories or between age classes. A slight sex-related difference in sensitivity toward males in the DPP was found, but it was not detected in the bPPD enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results support the use of antibody-based diagnostic tests for both large-scale and individual bTB testing of Eurasian wild boar and suggest that wild boar cannot be used as sentinels for infections caused by M. avium complex members.

  14. Sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, complement fixation, and hemagglutination inhibition serological tests for detection of Sendai virus antibody in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Parker, J C; O'Beirne, A J; Collins, M J

    1979-03-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique for detection of Sendai virus antibody in mice was approximately 100- and 300-fold more sensitive than the complement fixation and hemagglutination inhibition tests, respectively. The assay also permitted direct quantitative measurement of the amount of antibody on a single serum dilution rather than by the more traditional serial titration.

  15. Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique and complement-fixation test for estimation of cytomegalovirus IgG antibody.

    PubMed

    Booth, J C; Hannington, G; Aziz, T A; Stern, H

    1979-02-01

    The ELISA technique has been found to be reliable for the detection and titration of cytomegalovirus-specific IgG antibody in serum. It is about six times more sensitive than the CF test although some discrepancies were found between the antibody titres determined by the two methods.

  16. Guidelines for laboratory testing and result reporting of antibody to hepatitis C virus. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Alter, Miriam J; Kuhnert, Wendi L; Finelli, Lyn

    2003-02-01

    Testing for the presence of antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) is recommended for initially identifying persons with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (CDC. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus [HCV] infection and HCV-related chronic disease. MMWR 1998;47[No. RR-19] :1-33). Testing for anti-HCV should include use of an antibody screening assay, and for screening test-positive results, a more specific supplemental assay. Verifying the presence of anti-HCV minimizes unnecessary medical visits and psychological harm for persons who test falsely positive by screening assays and ensures that counseling, medical referral, and evaluation are targeted for patients serologically confirmed as having been infected with HCV. However, substantial variation in reflex supplemental testing practices exists among laboratories, and an anti-HCV-positive laboratory report does not uniformly represent a confirmed positive result. These guidelines expand recommendations for anti-HCV testing to include an option for reflex supplemental testing based on screening-test-positive signal-to-cut-off (s/co) ratios. Use of s/co ratios minimizes the amount of supplemental testing that needs to be performed while improving the reliability of reported test results. These guidelines were developed on the basis of available knowledge of CDC staff in consultation with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration and public health, hospital, and independent laboratories. Adoption of these guidelines by all public and private laboratories that perform in vitro diagnostic anti-HCV testing will improve the accuracy and utility of reported anti-HCV test results for counseling and medical evaluation of patients by health-care professionals and for surveillance by public health departments. PMID:12585742

  17. The effect of scheduled antibody testing on treatment patterns in interferon-treated patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with high-dose interferon-β (IFNβ) develop serum binding antibodies (BAb) and neutralizing antibodies (NAb). NAb reduces the biological activity of IFNβ, which contributes to clinical failure in these patients. We investigated whether access to antibody (Ab) test results would alter usual care of (IFNβ)-treated patients and whether BAb could predict NAb. Methods This was a randomized, controlled, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter study in patients with multiple sclerosis. Subjects (n = 1358) were randomly assigned to Ab testing or usual care. BAb and NAb titres were measured using standard assays. Primary and secondary outcomes were the proportion of patients whose IFNβ therapy changed and the type of and reasons for therapy changes. Results Therapy changes differed between the Ab testing and usual care arms (19.6% and 14.0%, respectively; p = 0 · 004). Results from Ab testing were more frequently reported as the reason for therapy change in the Ab testing arm than in the usual care arm (p < 0.0001). NAb and BAb positivity significantly increased the likelihood of therapy change and reduced IFNβ-associated adverse events. BAb titres were a significant predictor of NAb positivity (p = 0.0012). Initial BAb-positive and NAb-positive status in both study arms had a significant impact on the overall number of patients with a therapy change (p < 0.05). Conclusion Access to Ab test results impacted therapy management. BAb titres can predict NAb positivity in patients on high-dose IFNβ. PMID:24708578

  18. Antiphospholipid antibody testing for the antiphospholipid syndrome: a comprehensive practical review including a synopsis of challenges and recent guidelines.

    PubMed

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Wong, Richard C W

    2014-10-01

    The antiphospholipid (antibody) syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune condition characterised by a wide range of clinical features, but primarily identified as thrombotic and/or obstetric related adverse events. APS is associated with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), including the so-called lupus anticoagulant (LA). These aPL are heterogeneous in nature, detected with varying sensitivity and specificity by a diverse range of laboratory tests. All these tests are unfortunately imperfect, suffer from poor assay reproducibility (inter-method and inter-laboratory) and a lack of standardisation and harmonisation. Clinicians and laboratory personnel may struggle to keep abreast of these factors, as well as the expanding range of available aPL tests, and consequent result interpretation. Therefore, APS remains a significant diagnostic challenge for many clinicians across a wide range of clinical specialities, due to these issues related to laboratory testing as well as the ever-expanding range of reported clinical manifestations. This review is primarily focussed on issues related to laboratory testing for APS in regards to the currently available assays, and summarises recent international consensus guidelines for aPL testing, both for the liquid phase functional LA assays and the solid phase assays (anticardiolipin and anti-beta-2-Glycoprotein-I).

  19. Comparison between the counter immunoelectrophoresis test and mouse neutralization test for the detection of antibodies against rabies virus in dog sera.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luzia Helena Queiroz da; Bissoto, César Eduardo; Carvalho, Cristiano de; Cardoso, Tereza Cristina; Pinheiro, Devani M; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli

    2002-03-01

    The detection of rabies antibodies is extremely valuable for epidemiological studies, determination of immune status in man, animals, and for the diagnosis of the disease. Several serological procedures have been described for this purpose. The present study reports a comparison between counterimmunoelectrophoresis test (CIET) and mouse neutralization test (MNT) in the detection of antibodies against rabies virus from 212 serum samples of vaccinated dogs. The agreement between both techniques was 79.7% and a significative association was demonstrated. The correlation coefficients between MNT and the CIET titers was determined considering 88 samples showing positive results in both techniques [CIET = 2 and MNT = 5 (0.13 IU/ml)] and resulted r2 = 0.7926 (p < 0.001). The performance of CIET system was technically simple, cheap and rapid, and thereby it could be useful for serological monitoring of dog vaccination campaigns as well as for individual analysis.

  20. [Methicillin resistance detection in Staphylococcus aureus: comparison between conventional methods and MRSA-Screen latex agglutination technique].

    PubMed

    Soloaga, R; Corso, A; Gagetti, P; Faccone, D; Galas, M

    2004-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant pathogen that has emerged over the last four decades, causing both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Rapid and accurate detection of methicillin resistance in S. aureus is important for the use of appropriate antimicrobial therapy and for the control of nosocomial spread of MRSA strains. We evaluated the efficiency of conventional methods for detection of methicillin resistance such as the disk diffusion, agar dilution, oxacillin agar screen test, and the latex agglutination test MRSA-Screen latex, in 100 isolates of S. aureus, 79 mecA positive and 21 mecA negative. The MRSA-Screen latex (Denka Seiken, Niigata, Japón), is a latex agglutination method that detects the presence of PLP-2a, product of mecA gene in S. aureus. The PCR of the mecA gene was used as the "gold standard" for the evaluation of the different methods tested. The percentages of sensitivity and specificity were as follows: disk difusión 97 and 100%, agar dilution 97 and 95%, oxacillin agar screen test 100 and 100%, and MRSA-Screen latex, 100 and 100 %. All methods presented high sensitivity and specificity, but MRSA-Screen latex had the advantage of giving a reliable result, equivalent to PCR, in only 15 minutes.

  1. Momordica charantia seed lectin: toxicity, bacterial agglutination and antitumor properties.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Syed Rashel; Nabi, Md Mahamodun; Nurujjaman, Md; Abu Reza, Md; Alam, A H M Khurshid; Uz Zaman, Rokon; Khalid-Bin-Ferdaus, Khandaker Md; Amin, Ruhul; Khan, Md Masudul Hasan; Hossain, Md Anowar; Uddin, Md Salim; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat

    2015-03-01

    In last three decades, several studies were carried out on the D-galactose-specific lectin of Momordica charantia seeds (MCL). In the present study, in vitro growth inhibition (8-23 %) at different concentrations (6-24 μg/ml) of MCL was observed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. MCL also showed 28, 45, and 75 % growth inhibitions against EAC cells when administered 1.2, 2.0, and 2.8 mg/kg/day (i.p.), respectively for five consequent days in vivo in mice. After lectin treatment, the level of red blood cell and hemoglobin was increased significantly with the decrease of white blood cell and maintained the normal level when compared with EAC-bearing control and normal mice without EAC cells. Although MCL caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase of EAC cells, any irregular shape or apoptotic morphological alterations in the lectin-treated EAC cells was not observed by an optical and fluorescence microscope. Lectin showed toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii with an LC50 value of 49.7 μg/ml. Four out of seven pathogenic bacteria were agglutinated by MCL in the absence of inhibitory sugar D-lactose/D-galactose. In conclusion, MCL showed strong cytotoxic effect and therefore can be used as a potent anticancer chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:25542240

  2. Commensal symbiosis between agglutinated polychaetes and sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Guido, A; Mastandrea, A; Rosso, A; Sanfilippo, R; Tosti, F; Riding, R; Russo, F

    2014-05-01

    Pendant bioconstructions occur within submerged caves in the Plemmirio Marine Protected Area in SE Sicily, Italy. These rigid structures, here termed biostalactites, were synsedimentarily lithified by clotted-peloidal microbial carbonate that has a high bacterial lipid biomarker content with abundant compounds derived from sulfate-reducing bacteria. The main framework builders are polychaete serpulid worms, mainly Protula with subordinate Semivermilia and Josephella. These polychaetes have lamellar and/or fibrillar wall structure. In contrast, small agglutinated terebellid tubes, which are a minor component of the biostalactites, are discontinuous and irregular with a peloidal micritic microfabric. The peloids, formed by bacterial sulfate reduction, appear to have been utilized by terebellids to construct tubes in an environment where other particulate sediment is scarce. We suggest that the bacteria obtained food from the worms in the form of fecal material and/or from the decaying tissue of surrounding organisms and that the worms obtained peloidal micrite with which to construct their tubes, either as grains and/or as tube encompassing biofilm. Peloidal worm tubes have rarely been reported in the recent but closely resemble examples in the geological record that extend back at least to the early Carboniferous. This suggests a long-lived commensal relationship between some polychaete worms and heterotrophic, especially sulfate-reducing, bacteria.

  3. Seroprevalence of unexpected red blood cell antibodies among pregnant women in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Eipl, K; Nakabiito, C; Bwogi, K; Motevalli, M; Roots, A; Blagg, L; Jackson, J B

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study among pregnant women in Kampala, Uganda, to determine ABO and D blood types and to determine the percentage who have unexpected red blood cell (RBC) antibodies and their specificities. De-identified blood samples from routine testing of 1001 pregnant women at the Mulago Hospital antenatal clinics in Kampala were typed for ABO and D and screened for the presence of unexpected RBC antibodies with confirmation and subsequent antibody identification. Of the 1001 blood samples tested, 48.9 percent, 26.4 percent, 21.0 percent, and 3.8 percent tested positive for blood groups 0, A, B, and AB, respectively. Of these samples, 23 (2.3%)were negative forD, and 55 (5.5%) showed initial reactivity with at least one screening RBC. The RBC antibody screen was repeated on these 55 samples, and antibody identification was performed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital Blood Bank in Baltimore, Maryland. Twenty-one of the 55 samples were confirmed to have evidence of agglutination. Nine of the 21 samples demonstrated the presence of clinically significant RBC antibodies with anti-S being the most common, 8 samples demonstrated the presence of benign or naturally occurring antibodies, and 4 had only inconclusive reactivity. This study revealed a relatively high frequency of D and a low frequency of demonstrable clinically significant alloantibodies that may cause hemolytic disease of the newborn or hemolytic transfusion reactions among pregnant women in Kampala, with anti-S being the most frequent antibody specificity.

  4. Prevalence of naturally occurring antibodies against dog erythrocyte antigen 7 in a population of dog erythrocyte antigen 7-negative dogs from Spain and Italy.

    PubMed

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Viñals Flórez, Luis Miguel; Del Rosario Perlado Chamizo, Maria; Serra Y Gómez de la Serna, Blanca; Perego, Roberta; Baggiani, Luciana

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of naturally occurring anti-dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 7 antibodies in DEA 7-negative dogs from Spain and Italy. ANIMALS 252 DEA 7-negative dogs from a population of 312 dogs that were previously tested for DEA 1, DEA 4, and DEA 7. PROCEDURES A plasma sample was obtained from each dog and evaluated for anti-DEA 7 antibodies by the use of gel column agglutination. Each plasma sample underwent major crossmatching with RBCs from DEA 7-positive dogs. Samples that resulted in agglutination were then crossmatched with RBCs from DEA 1-negative, DEA 4-positive, and DEA 7-negative dogs to confirm the presence of anti-DEA 7 antibodies. Results were then used to calculate the risk for a delayed transfusion reaction in a DEA 7-negative dog with anti-DEA 7 antibodies after a transfusion with blood that was not crossmatched or typed for DEA 7. RESULTS 96 of 252 (38.1%) plasma samples contained anti-DEA 7 antibodies. A DEA 7-negative dog with anti-DEA 7 antibodies had a 5.9% chance of developing a delayed hemolytic reaction after transfusion with blood not crossmatched or typed for DEA 7. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that canine blood used for transfusion should be crossmatched with the blood or plasma of the intended recipient prior to transfusion to minimize the likelihood that the recipient will develop a hemolytic reaction associated with anti-DEA 7 antibodies. Ideal canine blood donors should be negative for both DEA 1 and DEA 7.

  5. Two Sisters with Graves' Disease and Similar Clinical Features who Tested Positive for Anti-insulin Antibodies after Thiamazole Treatment.

    PubMed

    Torimoto, Keiichi; Okada, Yosuke; Mori, Hiroko; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2016-01-01

    The older of a pair of sisters experienced hypoglycemia after the start of thiamazole (MMI) treatment. Based on a high insulin antibody level, she was diagnosed with insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS). HLA-DNA typing identified DRB1*04:06. Although a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) showed biphasic insulin secretion, the secretion pattern became monophasic after discontinuation of the MMI. The younger sister was diagnosed with IAS after the start of MMI treatment. HLA-DNA typing identified DRB1*04:06. The 75-g OGTT showed biphasic insulin secretion, but it became monophasic after discontinuation of the MMI. According to the similar insulin secretion kinetics in the two sisters with IAS, we suspect that a genetic predisposition may be associated with the features of anti-insulin antibodies. PMID:27150866

  6. An evaluation of two indirect fluorescent antibody tests for the diagnosis of Legionnaire's disease in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ratshikhopha, M E; Klugman, K P; Koornhof, H J

    1990-04-21

    The specificity and sensitivity of the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA) for the diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease in South African patients is unknown. Heat-treated and formalin-treated antigen preparations from 456 normal blood transfusion donors and from 34 confirmed patients with the disease (3 culture-positive cases and 31 cases of seroconversion) were assessed. Tests using both antigens showed a relatively high degree of positivity at low titres in normal individuals with an age-related increasing frequency of positive tests. The best combinations of specificity and sensitivity of the heat-treated antigen determinations were at titres of 1/128 and for formalin-treated antigen at titres of 1/8 for both IgG and IgM. An IgM titre of 1/8 using the formalin-treated antigen appeared to be the best diagnostic criterion of the IFA but an antibody level of 1/8 using this antigen was attained in only 37.1% of cases on initial testing but 100% of cases on subsequent testing.

  7. A modified ELISA technique for the titration of antibodies to polio virus as an alternative to a virus neutralization test.

    PubMed

    Hagenaars, A M; van Delft, R W; Nagel, J; van Steenis, G; van Wezel, A L

    1983-04-01

    An ELISA based on inhibition of antibody binding for the determination of antibodies to polio virus type I is described. F(ab1)2-fragments of bovine antibodies to polio virus type I are used as the capture antibody thus lowering the background staining. A good correlation was found between the poliovirus neutralizing antibody level and the antibody titers as determined by ELISA.

  8. [An immunoenzyme test system for the detection of antibodies to Campylobacter].

    PubMed

    Kuz'mina, T I; Cherkasskiĭ, B L

    1991-10-01

    An enzyme immunoassay system for the detection of antibodies to bacteria of the genus Campylobacter in human blood serum has been developed. The system is based on the use of ethanol-treated C. jejuni and C. coli whole cells as antigen. The study of sera obtained from healthy donors in this assay has made it possible to establish the value of the tentative diagnostic titer: 320.

  9. Development of a multiplex lateral flow strip test for foot-and-mouth disease virus detection using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Caterer, Nigel R; Xu, Wanhong; Goolia, Melissa

    2015-09-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the world's most highly contagious animal diseases with tremendous economic consequences. A rapid and specific test for FMD diagnosis at the site of a suspected outbreak is crucial for the implementation of control measures. This project developed a multiplex lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test (multiplex-LFI) for the rapid detection and serotyping of FMD viruses. The monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against serotypes O, A, and Asia 1 were used as capture mAbs. The mAbs were conjugated with fluorescein, rhodamine or biotin for serotype O, A and Asia 1, respectively. The detection mAbs which consisted of a serotype-independent mAb in combination with one serotype A-specific mAb and one Asia 1-specific mAb, were each colloidal gold-conjugated. The strips used in this study contained one control line and three test lines, which corresponded to one of the three serotypes, O, A or Asia 1. The newly developed multiplex-LFI strip test specifically identified serotype O (n=46), A (n=45) and Asia 1 (n=17) in all tested field isolates. The sensitivity of this strip test was comparable to the double antibody sandwich ELISA for serotypes O and A, but lower than the ELISA for serotype Asia 1. The multiplex-LFI strip test identified all tissue suspensions from animals that were experimentally inoculated with serotypes O, A or Asia 1. FMD viruses were detected in 38% and 50% of the swab samples from the lesion areas of experimentally inoculated sheep for serotypes O and A, respectively. The capability of the multiplex-LFI strip tests to produce rapid results with high specificity for FMD viruses of multiple serotypes makes this test a valuable tool to detect FMD viruses at outbreak sites.

  10. The Cenozoic Diversity of Agglutinated Foraminifera - Evidence for a late Oligocene to early Miocene diversification event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Michael; Setoyama, Eiichi; Kender, Sev; Cetean, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The agglutinated foraminifera are among the most abundant micro-organisms in the deep marine environment and have a diversity record extending back to the late Precambrian. We present an updated diversity curve for agglutinated foraminiferal genera based on the stratigraphic ranges of all the agglutinated genera recognized as valid in the classification of Kaminski (2014). The data set for this analysis is based on the stratigraphic ranges of agglutinated genera published in Foraminiferal Genera and their Classification, which has been subsequently updated based on published studies and our new observations. The mean standing diversity of agglutinated foraminiferal genera was compiled by counting the number of boundary crossers rather than the number of genera in each stage. In this study, we report the stratigraphic and geographical occurrence of a benthic foraminiferal diversification event that has previously received little attention. In the latest Oligocene to earliest Miocene a number of trochospiral agglutinated genera with alveolar or canaliculate walls first appeared in the fossil record. Our studies of late Oligocene of the Congo fan, offshore Angola (Kender et al., 2008; Cetean and Kaminski, 2011) have revealed a diverse assemblage that includes new taxa of deep-water agglutinated foraminifera. In a biostratigraphic study of the Miocene foraminiferal assemblages Kender et al. (2008) noted steadily increasing diversity and proportions of infaunal agglutinated foraminiferal morphotypes over the lower Miocene interval. The proportion of infaunal agglutinated foraminifera assigned to the order Textularida increased dramatically in the lower mid-Miocene, suggesting expansion of the oxygen minimum zone into deeper waters. In addition to the trochospiral alveolar genera, several species of Reticulophragmium and Cyclammina display rapid diversification into numerous separate lineages that are at present not reflected in our generic diversity record owing to

  11. Coombs antiglobulin test using Brucella abortus 99 as antigen to detect incomplete antibodies induced by B abortus RB51 vaccine in cattle.

    PubMed

    Ciuchini, Franco; Adone, Rosanna; Pasquali, Paolo

    2002-11-01

    This study showed that vaccination of cattle with Brucella abortus rough strain RB51 induces incomplete antibodies that can be detectable by a Coombs antiglobulin test using the B. abortus 99 smooth strain.

  12. Development and Evaluation of Two Simple, Rapid Immunochromatographic Tests for the Detection of Yersinia pestis Antibodies in Humans and Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Dartevelle, Sylvie; Ralafiarisoa, Lalao A.; Bitam, Idir; Tuyet, Dinh Thi Ngoc; Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Nato, Faridabano; Rahalison, Lila

    2009-01-01

    Background Tools for plague diagnosis and surveillance are not always available and affordable in most of the countries affected by the disease. Yersinia pestis isolation for confirmation is time-consuming and difficult to perform under field conditions. Serologic tests like ELISA require specific equipments not always available in developing countries. In addition to the existing rapid test for antigen detection, a rapid serodiagnostic assay may be useful for plague control. Methods/Principal Findings We developed two rapid immunochromatography-based tests for the detection of antibodies directed against F1 antigen of Y. pestis. The first test, SIgT, which detects total Ig (IgT) anti-F1 in several species (S) (human and reservoirs), was developed in order to have for the field use an alternative method to ELISA. The performance of the SIgT test was evaluated with samples from humans and animals for which ELISA was used to determine the presumptive diagnosis of plague. SIgT test detected anti-F1 Ig antibodies in humans with a sensitivity of 84.6% (95% CI: 0.76–0.94) and a specificity of 98% (95% CI: 0.96–1). In evaluation of samples from rodents and other small mammals, the SlgT test had a sensitivity of 87.8% (95% CI: 0.80–0.94) and a specificity of 90.3% (95% CI: 0.86–0.93). Improved performance was obtained with samples from dogs, a sentinel animal, with a sensitivity of 93% (95% CI: 0.82–1) and a specificity of 98% (95% CI: 0.95–1.01). The second test, HIgM, which detects human (H) IgM anti-F1, was developed in order to have another method for plague diagnosis. Its sensitivity was 83% (95% CI: 0.75–0.90) and its specificity about 100%. Conclusion/Significance The SIgT test is of importance for surveillance because it can detect Ig antibodies in a range of reservoir species. The HIgM test could facilitate the diagnosis of plague during outbreaks, particularly when only a single serum sample is available. PMID:19399164

  13. Optimization and proficiency testing of a pseudovirus-based assay for detection of HIV-1 neutralizing antibody in China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jianhui; Wang, Wenbo; Wen, Zhiheng; Song, Aijing; Hong, Kunxue; Lu, Shan; Zhong, Ping; Xu, Jianqing; Kong, Wei; Li, Jingyun; Shang, Hong; Ling, Hong; Ruan, Li; Wang, Youchun

    2012-11-01

    Among the neutralizing antibody evaluation assays, the single-cycle pseudovirus infection assay is high-throughput and can provide rapid, sensitive and reproducible measurements after a single cycle of infection. Cell counts, pseudovirus inoculation levels, amount of diethylaminoethyl-dextran (DEAE-dextran), and the nonspecific effects of serum and plasma were tested to identify the optimal conditions for a neutralizing antibody assay based on pseudoviruses. Optimal conditions for cell counts, pseudovirus inoculation, and amount of DEAE-dextran were 1 × 10(4)cells/well, 200TCID(50)/well, and 15 μg/ml, respectively. Compared with serum samples, high-concentration anticoagulants reduced the relative light unit (RLU) value. The RLU value increased sharply initially but then decreased slowly with dilution of the plasma sample. Test kits containing 10 HIV-1 CRF07/08_BC pseudovirus strains and 10 plasma samples from individuals infected with HIV-1 CRF07/08_BC were assembled into two packages and distributed to nine laboratories with a standard operating procedure included. For the 10 laboratories that evaluated the test, 17 of 44 (37%) laboratory pairs were considered equivalent. A statistical qualification rule was developed based on the testing results from 5 experienced laboratories, where a laboratory qualified if at least 83% of values lied within the acceptable range.

  14. A neutralization test for specific detection of Nipah virus antibodies using pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus expressing green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Yoshihiro; Noguchi, Akira; Marsh, Glenn A; McEachern, Jennifer A; Okutani, Akiko; Hotta, Kozue; Bazartseren, Boldbaatar; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Broder, Christopher C; Yamada, Akio; Inoue, Satoshi; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2009-09-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a new zoonotic paramyxovirus that emerged in 1998 and is now classified in the genus Henipavirus along with the closely related Hendra virus (HeV). NiV is highly pathogenic in several vertebrate species including humans, and the lack of available vaccines or specific treatment restricts it to biosafety level 4 (BSL4) containment. A serum neutralization test was developed for measuring NiV neutralizing antibodies under BSL2 conditions using a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and bearing the F and G proteins of NiV (VSV-NiV-GFP). The neutralization titers were obtained by counting GFP-expressing cells or by measuring fluorescence. The performance of this new assay was compared against the conventional test using live NiV with panels of sera from several mammalian species, including sera from NiV outbreaks, experimental infections, as well as HeV-specific sera. The results obtained with the VSV-NiV-GFP based test correlated with those obtained using live NiV. Using a 50% reduction in VSV-NiV-GFP infected cells as the cut-off for neutralization, this new assay demonstrated its potential as an effective tool for detecting NiV neutralizing antibodies under BSL2 containment with greater speed, sensitivity and safety as compared to the conventional NiV serum neutralization test. PMID:19433112

  15. Agglutinating secretory IgA preserves intestinal epithelial cell integrity during apical infection by Shigella flexneri.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Amandine; Longet, Stéphanie; Corthésy, Blaise

    2013-08-01

    Shigella flexneri, by invading intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and inducing inflammatory responses of the colonic mucosa, causes bacillary dysentery. Although M cells overlying Peyer's patches are commonly considered the primary site of entry of S. flexneri, indirect evidence suggests that bacteria can also use IECs as a portal of entry to the lamina propria. Passive delivery of secretory IgA (SIgA), the major immunoglobulin secreted at mucosal surfaces, has been shown to protect rabbits from experimental shigellosis, but no information exists as to its molecular role in maintaining luminal epithelial integrity. We have established that the interaction of virulent S. flexneri with the apical pole of a model intestinal epithelium consisting of polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers resulted in the progressive disruption of the tight junction network and actin depolymerization, eventually resulting in cell death. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific agglutinating SIgAC5 monoclonal antibody (MAb), but not monomeric IgAC5 or IgGC20 MAbs of the same specificity, achieved protective functions through combined mechanisms, including limitation of the interaction between S. flexneri and epithelial cells, maintenance of the tight junction seal, preservation of the cell morphology, reduction of NF-κB nuclear translocation, and inhibition of proinflammatory mediator secretion. Our results add to the understanding of the function of SIgA-mediated immune exclusion by identifying a mode of action whereby the formation of immune complexes translates into maintenance of the integrity of epithelial cells lining the mucosa. This novel mechanism of protection mediated by SIgA is important to extend the arsenal of effective strategies to fight against S. flexneri mucosal invasion. PMID:23753631

  16. Agglutinating Secretory IgA Preserves Intestinal Epithelial Cell Integrity during Apical Infection by Shigella flexneri

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Amandine; Longet, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Shigella flexneri, by invading intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and inducing inflammatory responses of the colonic mucosa, causes bacillary dysentery. Although M cells overlying Peyer's patches are commonly considered the primary site of entry of S. flexneri, indirect evidence suggests that bacteria can also use IECs as a portal of entry to the lamina propria. Passive delivery of secretory IgA (SIgA), the major immunoglobulin secreted at mucosal surfaces, has been shown to protect rabbits from experimental shigellosis, but no information exists as to its molecular role in maintaining luminal epithelial integrity. We have established that the interaction of virulent S. flexneri with the apical pole of a model intestinal epithelium consisting of polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers resulted in the progressive disruption of the tight junction network and actin depolymerization, eventually resulting in cell death. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific agglutinating SIgAC5 monoclonal antibody (MAb), but not monomeric IgAC5 or IgGC20 MAbs of the same specificity, achieved protective functions through combined mechanisms, including limitation of the interaction between S. flexneri and epithelial cells, maintenance of the tight junction seal, preservation of the cell morphology, reduction of NF-κB nuclear translocation, and inhibition of proinflammatory mediator secretion. Our results add to the understanding of the function of SIgA-mediated immune exclusion by identifying a mode of action whereby the formation of immune complexes translates into maintenance of the integrity of epithelial cells lining the mucosa. This novel mechanism of protection mediated by SIgA is important to extend the arsenal of effective strategies to fight against S. flexneri mucosal invasion. PMID:23753631

  17. Efficacy of serum samples stored on filter paper for the detection of antibody to Leptospira spp. by microagglutination test (MAT).

    PubMed

    Blanco, R M; Romero, E C

    2012-12-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microagglutination test (MAT) results in serum samples dried on filter paper and stored at different temperatures during 1day, 7days, 30days and 1year to determine the stability of sera antibody against leptospires. Serum samples collected onto filter paper for the detection of leptospires antibody was compared with MAT in a study of 300 serum samples from patients with suspected leptospirosis. Among 300 fresh serum samples analyzed by MAT 156 (52%) were positive and 144 (48%) negative. All the negative fresh serum samples were negative when dried on filter paper (specificity 100%). The sensitivity of MAT performed on dried serum samples was 100%. Storage on filter paper at room temperature and at 4°C for 1 and 7days did not affect the MAT titers. For up to 7days, 98.72% of dried serum samples had titers identical to those of the corresponding serum samples, and 1.18% of dried serum samples showed 1 dilution of difference. After a storage period of one month a prozone phenomenon was observed. After a storage period of one year all serum samples were negative. Serum samples collected onto filter paper are a convenient source of antibodies for serological diagnosis and epidemiological surveys. PMID:22960422

  18. The range and specificity of antinuclear antibodies in systematic lupus erythematosus*

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón-Segovia, D.; Fishbein, Eugenia; Alcalá, Hilda; Olguín-Palacios, Eugenia; Estrada-Parra, S.

    1970-01-01

    Antibodies to nine calf thymus nuclear antigens were sought by complement fixation methods in twenty-four sera from sixteen patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. These antigens included whole nuclei, native and heat denatured DNA, particulate and soluble nucleoprotein and Sm antigen. Soluble antigens were also tested by tanned red-cell agglutination tests. A wide variation in the presence and titres of antibodies to these various antigens was found in the sera studied even when from the same patient but at different times. To further test the range and specificity of antinuclear antibodies in SLE, nineteen ribonucleosides, nucleotides and monophosphoric dinucleotides were coupled to human serum albumin and used as antigens in precipitin studies. A wide variation of reactivity was also found in each serum. Exquisite specificity became apparent, capable of reacting with a nucleoside but not with the corresponding nucleotide or vice versa, with a dinucleotide but not with the nucleotides or nucleosides which it contained, with a given dinucleotide but not with the opposite sequence. Antinuclear antibodies in systemic lupus are, therefore, markedly heterogeneous. Those to a `single' antigen such as DNA may be directed to antigenic sites which may variously be at the bases, single or in sequence, at the site of union of base and sugar–phosphate moiety, at the backbone of deoxyribophosphate or actually dependent on the secondary structure. PMID:4097823

  19. The potency determination of human varicella-zoster immunoglobulin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, complement-fixation test and indirect fluorescent antibody tests.

    PubMed

    Winsnes, R; Wiger, D

    1986-10-01

    Traditionally, plasma for the production of the human varicella-zoster immunoglobulin (VZIG) has been selected on the basis of the complement-fixing antibody (CFA) titre. Since immune individuals may lack CFA to varicella-zoster virus (VZV), non-CFA may be of importance in protection. In a search for a simple and reliable method for potency determination, 24 VZIG preparations were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the complement-fixation test (CFT), the indirect fluorescent antibody test to acetone-fixed (IF) and viable (FAMA) VZV-infected cells, respectively. The antibody titres obtained by the various methods were compared. Arranged in order of decreasing agreement, the correlation coefficients (r) of the regression equations between the variables were 0.62 for CFT and FAMA, 0.50 for CFT and ELISA and 0.26 for CFT and IF in a log2 plot. There was complete agreement between the titres obtained by the commercially available Enzygnost Varicella/Zoster kits (Behring Institute, Marburg, F.R. Germany) and the ELISA microtitre plates produced at our institute (r = 1). The regression equation lines for ELISA/CFT and FAMA/CFT titres tended to be parallel to each other, while the line for IF/CFT titres had a less steep slope. Similar titration curves were obtained for VZIGs fractionated by two different methods. Furthermore, the titration curves of serum pools from varicella and zoster convalescents, respectively, had a similar shape below delta OD = 0.4. Generally, a steeper slope was observed above delta OD = 0.4. As antibody detectable by ELISA seems to correlate with protection and the method is sensitive, specific, reproduceable, simple to carry out and easily automated, it may be suitable for the potency determination of VZIGs.

  20. Evaluation of Meridian ImmunoCard Mycoplasma test for the detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae-specific IgM in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Matas, L; Domínguez, J; De Ory, F; García, N; Galí, N; Cardona, P J; Hernández, A; Rodrigo, C; Ausina, V

    1998-01-01

    The Meridian ImmunoCard Mycoplasma kit, a 10-min card-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) designed to detect immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae was evaluated. We compared the ImmunoCard with the Fujirebio Serodia Myco II particle agglutination test, as well as with the complement fixation (CF) test to detect M. pneumoniae antibodies in paediatric patients. The ImmunoCard test and Serodia Myco II test agreed in 93.95%, and ImmunoCard test and CF test agreed in 83.51% of the 182 specimens tested. Nine specimens gave negative particle agglutination titres in the acute phase sample, and 28 specimens gave negative CF titres in the acute phase sample, although in the ImmunoCard test they were positive. These results may indicate that the ImmunoCard assay detects lower IgM levels of antibodies than the Serodia Myco II and CF test. The ImmunoCard appears to be a good screening assay test for M. pneumoniae IgM in children in whom M. pneumoniae IgM is found frequently.

  1. Detection of Leptospira-Specific Antibodies Using a Recombinant Antigen-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Zhiwen; Halsey, Eric S.; Guevara, Carolina; Canal, Enrique; Hall, Eric; Maves, Ryan; Tilley, Drake H.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2013-01-01

    We produced three highly purified recombinant antigens rLipL32, rLipL41, and rLigA-Rep (leptospiral immunoglobulin-like A repeat region) for the detection of Leptospira-specific antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The performance of these recombinant antigens was evaluated using 121 human sera. Among them, 63 sera were microscopic agglutination test (MAT)-confirmed positive sera from febrile patients in Peru, 22 sera were indigenous MAT-negative febrile patient sera, and 36 sera were from patients with other febrile diseases from Southeast Asia, where leptospirosis is also endemic. Combining the results of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG detection from these three antigens, the overall sensitivity is close to 90% based on the MAT. These results suggest that an ELISA using multiple recombinant antigens may be used as an alternative method for the detection of Leptospira-specific antibodies. PMID:24166046

  2. Validation and standardization of virus neutralizing test using indirect immunoperoxidase technique for the quantification of antibodies to rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, T; Gamoh, K; Aoki, H; Kobayashi, R; Etoh, M; Senda, M; Hirayama, N; Nishimura, M; Shiraishi, R; Servat, A; Cliquet, F

    2008-08-01

    A virus neutralizing test using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique (VNT-IIP) for rabies has been developed for the titration of dog and cat serum samples in Japan. The VNT-IIP has the advantage that results obtained can be viewed by the naked eye. The purpose of this study was to validate the VNT-IIP and compare it with one of the international standard methods, the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test (FAVNT). The VNT-IIP showed satisfactory repeatability, high analytical specificity and good accuracy. Regarding the comparison between the VNT-IIP and the FAVNT, the VNT-IIP showed good agreement (91.9%), high sensitivity (92.8%) as well as specificity (87.0%) and good correlation (r = 0.92). As described above, the validation of the VNT-IIP was satisfactory and the performances of the test proved to be equivalent to those of an international standard method.

  3. The efficacy of a commercial ELISA as an alternative to virus neutralisation test for the detection of antibodies to EAV.

    PubMed

    Duthie, S; Mills, H; Burr, P

    2008-03-01

    Infection with equine arteritis virus is a notifiable disease with sporadic occurrence in the UK. As stallions may harbour the virus after infection, horses are screened for exposure by serological testing prior to breeding. The virus neutralisation test is considered the 'gold standard' serological screening test, but it is time-consuming and labour intensive; consequently there is a move towards more rapid screening methodology. In this study, a commercially available EVA antibody ELISA is assessed. The ELISA performed poorly with a specificity [corrected] of 26% and a sensitivity [corrected] of 96% in the samples analysed. It was concluded that this ELISA would be of little value for reducing sample turnaround time. The study emphasises the need for in-house validation of commercially available kits.

  4. Prevalence of antibodies to HTLV in antenatal clinic attenders in south east London.

    PubMed

    Hale, A; Leung, T; Sivasubramaniam, S; Kenny, J; Sutherland, S

    1997-07-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to HTLV in women attending a south east London antenatal clinic between October 1990 and July 1992 was determined using sera referred for routine rubella antibody testing. Samples were screened for HTLV antibody using a modified Fujirebio gel particle agglutination test and reactive sera confirmed by ELISA (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL) and two commercial Western blots (Cambridge Biotech Inc., Rockville, MD, and Diagnostic Biotechnology, Genelab Diagnostics, Louvaine, Belgium). This strategy confirmed the presence of HTLV-1 antibodies in 12 out of 6,289 sera (0.19%, 95% confidence limits 0.083% to 0.30%) and HTLV-2 antibodies in 2 (0.03%) sera. Specimens from 8 of 821 (0.97%, 95% confidence limits 0.42% to 1.9%) Afro-Caribbean women, three of 1,136 (0.26%, 95% confidence limits 0.055% to 0.78%) African women, and one of 3,049 (0.033%, 95% confidence limits 0.006% to 0.18%) Caucasian women were positive for HTLV-1 antibodies. Sera from Afro-Caribbean women born in the Caribbean were 7.6 times more likely to be HTLV-1 antibody positive than sera from Afro-Caribbean women born in the UK (P = 0.012). Selective testing of Afro-Caribbean and African antenatal clinic attenders, in this setting, would have identified 11 of the 12 HTLV-1 infections at an estimated cost of prevention of HTLV-1 associated disease of 100,000 pounds per case which is considerably less than the 1.3 million pounds which has been estimated to prevent a case by universal screening of UK blood donors.

  5. Serologic responses in diagnostic tests for brucellosis in cattle vaccinated with Brucella abortus 19 or RB51.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M G; Hennager, S G; Olsen, S C; Cheville, N F

    1994-04-01

    Serologic responses in the particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay and the card, complement fixation, and tube agglutination tests were measured for 10 weeks after vaccination of cattle with either Brucella abortus 19 or the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen-deficient mutant, strain RB51. The responses of strain 19-vaccinated cattle were positive, whereas those of strain RB51-vaccinated cattle were negative, in all of the tests. These results indicate that cattle vaccinated with strain RB51 fail to produce antibodies that can be detected by conventional serologic tests that are used to diagnose bovine brucellosis.

  6. Kinetics of the in vitro antibody response to transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus from pig mesenteric lymph node cells, using the ELISASPOT and ELISA tests.

    PubMed

    Berthon, P; Bernard, S; Salmon, H; Binns, R M

    1990-08-01

    A method is described for in vitro studies of viral humoral immune responses in the pig. After oral immunization with transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) coronavirus, antibody production from primed mesenteric lymph node cells was revealed by an in vitro boost with viral antigen. For the latter the leukocytes were co-cultured with UV-inactivated virus using a variety of different methods of antigenic stimulation. Enumeration of specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) and titration of secreted anti-virus antibodies were performed with ELISASPOT (using 3-amino 9-ethyl carbazole as the peroxidase chromogen) and ELISA tests respectively, according to the Ig isotype. The results showed a close relationship between ASC numbers and secreted antibody titres. The best in vitro antibody synthesis was observed when the sensitized cells were maintained in contact with virus during the whole culture period. Antibody responses were defined by a kinetic profile characterized by a narrow peak, with a maximum occurring after 4 and 6 days of culture and with the IgA response appearing earlier than the IgG. This methodology, which analyses specific antibody responses at the cellular level, may permit studies on the mechanisms of Ig isotype regulation. Extended to leukocytes from other organs of the immune system, it may also constitute an in vitro model to study antibody responses expressed in different lymphoid tissues of the pig.

  7. Developing antibodies from cholinesterase derived from prokaryotic expression and testing their feasibility for detecting immunogen content in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-cui; Yuan, Bing-qiang; Li, Shao-nan

    2016-02-01

    To yield cholinesterase (ChE) from prokaryotic expression, the ChE gene that belongs to Daphnia magna was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using forward primer 5'-CCCYGGNGCSAT GATGTG-3' and reverse primer 5'-GYAAGTTRGCCCAATATCT-3'. To express the gene, one sequence of the amplified DNA, which was able to encode a putative protein containing two conserved carboxylesterase domains, was connected to the prokaryotic expression vector PET-29a(+). The recombinant vector was transformed into Escherichia coil BL21 (DE3). Protein expression was induced by isopropy-D-thiogalactoside. The expressed ChE was used as an immunogen to immunize BALB/c mice. The obtained antibodies were tested for their specificity towards crude enzymes from species such as Alona milleri, Macrobrachium nipponense, Bombyx mori, Chironomus kiiensis, Apis mellifera, Eisenia foetida, Brachydanio rerio, and Xenopus laevis. Results indicated that the antibodies had specificity suitable for detecting ChE in Daphnia magna. A type of indirect and non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IN-ELISA) was used to test the immunoreactive content of ChE (ChE-IR) in Daphina magna. The detection limit of the IN-ELISA was found to be 14.5 ng/ml at an antiserum dilution of 1:22 000. Results from tests on Daphnia magna exposed to sublethal concentrations of triazophos indicated a maximal induction of 57.2% in terms of ChE-IR on the second day after the animals were exposed to a concentration of 2.10 μg/L triazophos. Testing on animals acclimatized to a temperature of 16 °C indicated that ChE-IR was induced by 16.9% compared with the ChE-IR content detected at 21 °C, and the rate of induction was 25.6% at 10 °C. The IN-ELISA was also used to test the stability of ChE-IR in collected samples. Repeated freezing and thawing had no influence on the outcome of the test. All these results suggest that the polyclonal antibodies developed against the recombinant ChE are as

  8. Developing antibodies from cholinesterase derived from prokaryotic expression and testing their feasibility for detecting immunogen content in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-cui; Yuan, Bing-qiang; Li, Shao-nan

    2016-02-01

    To yield cholinesterase (ChE) from prokaryotic expression, the ChE gene that belongs to Daphnia magna was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using forward primer 5'-CCCYGGNGCSAT GATGTG-3' and reverse primer 5'-GYAAGTTRGCCCAATATCT-3'. To express the gene, one sequence of the amplified DNA, which was able to encode a putative protein containing two conserved carboxylesterase domains, was connected to the prokaryotic expression vector PET-29a(+). The recombinant vector was transformed into Escherichia coil BL21 (DE3). Protein expression was induced by isopropy-D-thiogalactoside. The expressed ChE was used as an immunogen to immunize BALB/c mice. The obtained antibodies were tested for their specificity towards crude enzymes from species such as Alona milleri, Macrobrachium nipponense, Bombyx mori, Chironomus kiiensis, Apis mellifera, Eisenia foetida, Brachydanio rerio, and Xenopus laevis. Results indicated that the antibodies had specificity suitable for detecting ChE in Daphnia magna. A type of indirect and non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IN-ELISA) was used to test the immunoreactive content of ChE (ChE-IR) in Daphina magna. The detection limit of the IN-ELISA was found to be 14.5 ng/ml at an antiserum dilution of 1:22 000. Results from tests on Daphnia magna exposed to sublethal concentrations of triazophos indicated a maximal induction of 57.2% in terms of ChE-IR on the second day after the animals were exposed to a concentration of 2.10 μg/L triazophos. Testing on animals acclimatized to a temperature of 16 °C indicated that ChE-IR was induced by 16.9% compared with the ChE-IR content detected at 21 °C, and the rate of induction was 25.6% at 10 °C. The IN-ELISA was also used to test the stability of ChE-IR in collected samples. Repeated freezing and thawing had no influence on the outcome of the test. All these results suggest that the polyclonal antibodies developed against the recombinant ChE are as

  9. Developing antibodies from cholinesterase derived from prokaryotic expression and testing their feasibility for detecting immunogen content in Daphnia magna *

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-cui; Yuan, Bing-qiang; Li, Shao-nan

    2016-01-01

    To yield cholinesterase (ChE) from prokaryotic expression, the ChE gene that belongs to Daphnia magna was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using forward primer 5'-CCCYGGNGCSAT GATGTG-3' and reverse primer 5'-GYAAGTTRGCCCAATATCT-3'. To express the gene, one sequence of the amplified DNA, which was able to encode a putative protein containing two conserved carboxylesterase domains, was connected to the prokaryotic expression vector PET-29a(+). The recombinant vector was transformed into Escherichia coil BL21 (DE3). Protein expression was induced by isopropy-D-thiogalactoside. The expressed ChE was used as an immunogen to immunize BALB/c mice. The obtained antibodies were tested for their specificity towards crude enzymes from species such as Alona milleri, Macrobrachium nipponense, Bombyx mori, Chironomus kiiensis, Apis mellifera, Eisenia foetida, Brachydanio rerio, and Xenopus laevis. Results indicated that the antibodies had specificity suitable for detecting ChE in Daphnia magna. A type of indirect and non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IN-ELISA) was used to test the immunoreactive content of ChE (ChE-IR) in Daphina magna. The detection limit of the IN-ELISA was found to be 14.5 ng/ml at an antiserum dilution of 1:22 000. Results from tests on Daphnia magna exposed to sublethal concentrations of triazophos indicated a maximal induction of 57.2% in terms of ChE-IR on the second day after the animals were exposed to a concentration of 2.10 μg/L triazophos. Testing on animals acclimatized to a temperature of 16 °C indicated that ChE-IR was induced by 16.9% compared with the ChE-IR content detected at 21 °C, and the rate of induction was 25.6% at 10 °C. The IN-ELISA was also used to test the stability of ChE-IR in collected samples. Repeated freezing and thawing had no influence on the outcome of the test. All these results suggest that the polyclonal antibodies developed against the recombinant ChE are as

  10. The effects of serial skin testing with purified protein derivative on the level and quality of antibodies to complex and defined antigens in Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several serologic tests designed to detect antibodies to immunodominant Mycobacterium bovis antigens have recently emerged as ancillary tests for the detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle, particularly when applied after injection of purified protein derivative (PPD) for skin test that signific...

  11. Probability of a false-negative HIV antibody test result during the window period: a tool for pre- and post-test counselling.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Darlene; Durigon, Monica; Davis, Heather; Archibald, Chris; Konrad, Bernhard; Coombs, Daniel; Gilbert, Mark; Cook, Darrel; Krajden, Mel; Wong, Tom; Ogilvie, Gina

    2015-03-01

    Failure to understand the risk of false-negative HIV test results during the window period results in anxiety. Patients typically want accurate test results as soon as possible while clinicians prefer to wait until the probability of a false-negative is virtually nil. This review summarizes the median window periods for third-generation antibody and fourth-generation HIV tests and provides the probability of a false-negative result for various days post-exposure. Data were extracted from published seroconversion panels. A 10-day eclipse period was used to estimate days from infection to first detection of HIV RNA. Median (interquartile range) days to seroconversion were calculated and probabilities of a false-negative result at various time periods post-exposure are reported. The median (interquartile range) window period for third-generation tests was 22 days (19-25) and 18 days (16-24) for fourth-generation tests. The probability of a false-negative result is 0.01 at 80 days' post-exposure for third-generation tests and at 42 days for fourth-generation tests. The table of probabilities of falsely-negative HIV test results may be useful during pre- and post-test HIV counselling to inform co-decision making regarding the ideal time to test for HIV.

  12. Detection of antibodies to Neospora caninum in moose (Alces alces): the first report in Europe.

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bozena; Goździk, Katarzyna; Bień, Justyna; Kornacka, Aleksandra; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Reiterová, Katarína; Cabaj, Władysław

    2014-02-01

    Neospora caninum Dubey, Carpenter, Speer, Topper et Uggla, 1988 is a protozoan parasite originally reported as a major cause of bovine abortions worldwide. It is documented that the parasite is widely spread among non-carnivorous cervids. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of N. caninum in moose (Alces alces Linnaeus). Blood samples collected in 2010 and 2012 in the northeastern Poland were tested for antibodies to N. caninum by agglutination test (NAT), a commercial competitive screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Sera that gave a positive result were further investigated by western blot (WB) analysis to verify the presence of antibodies. Antibodies to N. caninum were detected in one of seven moose. The antibody titer was confirmed by NAT (1 : 1 280), cELISA (I = 91%) and ELISA (OD = 0.736). The main immunodominant antigens detected by WB were 120, 70, 55, 35 and 16 kDa proteins. This is the first evidence of N. caninum seropositivity in moose living in a natural environment in Europe.

  13. Testing the Sexually Abused Child for the HIV Antibody: Issues for the Social Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, George A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses identifying children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through sexual abuse. Reviews testing guidelines. Sees social workers contributing to test decision making when perinatal HIV transmissions is possibility, when assailant may be tested, and when parents/legal guardians insist on testing child. Discusses family…

  14. Critical re-examination of the specificity of auto-anti-Rh antibodies in patients with a positive direct antiglobulin test.

    PubMed

    Issitt, P D; Pavone, B G

    1978-01-01

    Forty-eight autoantibodies with apparent 'simple' anti-Rh specificity (anti-e, -E, -c, -D, -C, -Ce, -G), have been studied by means of multiple absorption tests. The finding that 34 (70.8%) of these antibodies could bind to red blood cells lacking the antigens that the antibodies appeared to define, indicated that the antibodies had different specificities than seemed to be the case in initial antibody identification tests. Those autoantibodies that at first appeared to be directed against the Rh antigens e, E or c, most often had anti-Hr or anti-Hro specificity. These data explain why some apparent anti-Rh autoantibodies can be eluted from the red blood cells of patients negative for the antigens that the antibodi:s appear to define. However, they also illustrate that the phenomenon of autoantibodies mimicking specificities that they do not possess is common in patients positive for the antigens against which their autoantibodies appear to be directed. An explanation for the mode of action of these autoantibodies in complexing with the Rh agglutinogen is proposed, and the significance of the antibodies in transfusion therapy is considered. PMID:416845

  15. Comparison of antibodies in marine fish from clean and polluted waters of the New York Bight: relative levels against 36 bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Robohm, R A; Brown, C; Murchelano, R A

    1979-01-01

    Fish from polluted waters are subject to increased prevalence of disease. Because they respond to bacterial pathogens by producing serum antibodies, it was possible to construct a seasonal serological record in three fish species from clean and polluted waters of the New York Bight. Antibody levels were determined by testing sera for agglutinating activity against 36 strains of bacteria. Evaluation of 5,100 antibody titrations showed the following. During warm months, summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) from the polluted area had significantly higher antibody levels and antibody to a greater diversity of bacteria than fish from the unpolluted area. Weakfish (Cynoscion regalis) from the same polluted area shared with summer flounder raised titers to many bacteria. The greatest proportion of raised titers was against Vibrio species, although prominent titers were also seen against Aeromonas salmonicida and Haemophilus piscium, bacteria usually associated with diseases in freshwater but not marine fish. Differences between polluted and clean waters were not as evident in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) during cold months. This could be due, in part, to reduced antibody production at colder temperatures. The data illustrate the usefulness of the serum antibody record in identifying environmental exposure to bacteria in marine fish and indicate that the polluted New York Bight apex has increased levels and diversity of bacteria during warm months. PMID:518084

  16. Platelet antibodies.

    PubMed

    Pulkrabek, S M

    1996-12-01

    The proper diagnosis of patients with immune-mediated thrombocytopenias can be accomplished by using the advances made in the field of platelet serology. These techniques range from solid phase red cell adherence to sequencing platelet antigen amino acids by polymerase chain reaction. This article describes platelet antigens, the clinical tests available to detect platelet antigens and antibodies, and the value of these tests in supporting clinical diagnoses.

  17. Detection of Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus antibodies in free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in two protected areas of northern Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Crawshaw Júnior, Peter Gransden; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; May-Júnior, Joares Adenilson; Morais, Zenaide Maria de; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the exposure of free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) to Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus in two conservation units in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of antibodies in blood samples of eleven jaguars was investigated using autochthonous antigens isolated in Brazil added to reference antigen collection applied to diagnosis of leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The Rose Bengal test was applied for B. abortus antibodies. Two (18.2%) jaguars were seroreactive for the Leptospira spp. antigen and the serovar considered as most infective in both animals was a Brazilian isolate of serovar Canicola (L01). All jaguars were seronegative for B. abortus. These data indicate that the inclusion of autochthonous antigens in serological studies can significantly increase the number of reactive animals, as well as modify the epidemiological profile of Leptospira spp. infection.

  18. Detection of Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus antibodies in free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in two protected areas of northern Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Crawshaw Júnior, Peter Gransden; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; May-Júnior, Joares Adenilson; Morais, Zenaide Maria de; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the exposure of free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) to Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus in two conservation units in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of antibodies in blood samples of eleven jaguars was investigated using autochthonous antigens isolated in Brazil added to reference antigen collection applied to diagnosis of leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The Rose Bengal test was applied for B. abortus antibodies. Two (18.2%) jaguars were seroreactive for the Leptospira spp. antigen and the serovar considered as most infective in both animals was a Brazilian isolate of serovar Canicola (L01). All jaguars were seronegative for B. abortus. These data indicate that the inclusion of autochthonous antigens in serological studies can significantly increase the number of reactive animals, as well as modify the epidemiological profile of Leptospira spp. infection. PMID:25923900

  19. DETECTION OF Leptospira spp. AND Brucella abortus ANTIBODIES IN FREE-LIVING JAGUARS (Panthera onca) IN TWO PROTECTED AREAS OF NORTHERN PANTANAL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    ONUMA, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; KANTEK, Daniel Luis Zanella; CRAWSHAW, Peter Gransden; MORATO, Ronaldo Gonçalves; MAY-JÚNIOR, Joares Adenilson; de MORAIS, Zenaide Maria; FERREIRA, José Soares; de AGUIAR, Daniel Moura

    2015-01-01

     This study aimed to assess the exposure of free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) to Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus in two conservation units in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of antibodies in blood samples of eleven jaguars was investigated using autochthonous antigens isolated in Brazil added to reference antigen collection applied to diagnosis of leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The Rose Bengal test was applied for B. abortus antibodies. Two (18.2%) jaguars were seroreactive for the Leptospira spp. antigen and the serovar considered as most infective in both animals was a Brazilian isolate of serovar Canicola (L01). All jaguars were seronegative for B. abortus. These data indicate that the inclusion of autochthonous antigens in serological studies can significantly increase the number of reactive animals, as well as modify the epidemiological profile of Leptospira spp. infection. PMID:25923900

  20. [Evaluation of commercial equipment used in blood banks in Córdoba for the detection of anti-HTLV-I/II antibodies].

    PubMed

    Llop, N; Gastaldello, R; Valle, M; Macedo, R; Maturano, E; Blanco, S; Medeot, S; Gallego, S

    2000-01-01

    In order to assess the efficiency of currently used screening tests, Abbott HTLV-I/HTLV-II EIA, Vironostika HTLV-I/II Organon Teknika, Particle Agglutination (PA) assay Serodia Fujirebio Inc. (Tokyo, Japan) for HTLV-I/II antibody detection in blood donors samples, a panel of 100 sera from different blood banks of Córdoba city were studied. An "in house" indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was used as reference test. The correlation rates were: 66% for Abbott HTLV-I/HTLV-II EIA, 97% for Vironostika HTLV-I/II Organon Teknika EIA and 99% for PA Serodia. Vironostika HTLV-I/II Organon Teknika EIA and PA Serodia assay proved to be more reliable for HTlV-I/II antibody screening in blood donors from Córdoba, yielding a very low rate of false positive results as compared with Abbot HTLV-I/HTLV-II EIA.

  1. Evaluation of Multiplex-Based Antibody Testing for Use in Large-Scale Surveillance for Yaws: a Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Gretchen M.; Mitja, Oriol; Goodhew, Brook; Pillay, Allan; Lammie, Patrick J.; Castro, Arnold; Moses, Penias; Chen, Cheng; Ye, Tun; Ballard, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    WHO has targeted yaws for global eradication by 2020. The program goals are to interrupt the transmission in countries where yaws is endemic and to certify countries as yaws free where yaws was endemic in the past. No new rapid plasmin reagin (RPR) seroreactivity in young children is required for certification of elimination at a country level. We sought to evaluate whether antibody responses to specific treponemal antigens measured in a high-throughput multiplex bead array (MBA) assay differentiate past versus current infection and whether a nontreponemal lipoidal antigen test can be incorporated into the MBA. Serum and dried blood spot specimens collected for yaws surveillance projects in Ghana, Vanuatu, and Papua New Guinea (PNG) were run on MBA to measure antibodies against recombinant p17 (rp17) and treponemal membrane protein A (TmpA) treponemal antigens. Results were compared to standard treponemal laboratory (TPPA or TPHA [TPP(H)A]) and quantitative RPR test data. Of 589 specimens, 241 were TPP(H)A+/RPR+, 88 were TPP(H)A+/RPR−, 6 were TPP(H)A−/RPR+, and 254 were negative for both tests. Compared to TPP(H)A, reactive concordance of rp17 was 93.7%, while reactive concordance of TmpA was only 81.9%. TmpA-specific reactivity showed good correlation with RPR titers (R2 = 0.41; P < 0.0001). IgG responses to the lipoidal antigen used in RPR testing (cardiolipin) were not detected in the MBA. Our results suggest that TmpA can be used as a treponemal antigen marker for recent or active infection and potentially replace RPR in a high-throughput multiplex tool for large-scale yaws surveillance. PMID:26962086

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Different Testing Strategies that Use Antibody Levels to Detect Chronic Hepatitis C in Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Granados-García, Víctor; Contreras, Ana M.; García-Peña, Carmen; Salinas-Escudero, Guillermo; Thein, Hla-Hla; Flores, Yvonne N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of seven hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing strategies in blood donors. Methods. Three of the seven strategies were based on HCV diagnosis and reporting guidelines in Mexico and four were from previous and current recommendations outlined by the CDC. The strategies that were evaluated determine antibody levels according to the signal-to-cut-off (S/CO) ratio and use reflex Immunoblot (IMB) or HCV RNA tests to confirm true positive (TP) cases of chronic HCV infection. Costs were calculated from the perspective of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). A decision tree model was developed to estimate the expected number of true positive cases and costs for the base-case scenarios and for the sensitivity analyses. Results. Base-case findings indicate an extended dominance of the CDC-USA2 and CDC-USA4 options by the IMSS Mexico3 and IMSS-Mexico1 alternatives. The probabilistic sensitivity analyses results suggest that for a willingness-to-pay (WTP) range of $0–9,000 USD the IMSS-Mexico1 strategy is the most cost-effective of all strategies ($5,000 USD per TP). The IMSS-Mexico3, IMSS-Mexico2, and CDC-USA3 strategies are also cost-effective strategies that cost between $7,800 and $8,800 USD per TP case detected. The CDC-USA1 strategy was very expensive and not cost-effective. Conclusions. HCV antibody testing strategies based on the classification of two or three levels of the S/CO are cost-effective procedures to identify patients who require reflex IMB or HCV RNA testing to confirm chronic HCV infection. PMID:27159320

  3. Antibodies against glucan, chitin, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan as new biomarkers of Candida albicans infection that complement tests based on C. albicans mannan.

    PubMed

    Sendid, B; Dotan, N; Nseir, S; Savaux, C; Vandewalle, P; Standaert, A; Zerimech, F; Guery, B P; Dukler, A; Colombel, J F; Poulain, D

    2008-12-01

    Antibodies against Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan (ASCA) and antibodies against synthetic disaccharide fragments of glucans (ALCA) and chitin (ACCA) are biomarkers of Crohn's disease (CD). We previously showed that Candida albicans infection generates ASCA. Here, we explored ALCA and ACCA as possible biomarkers of invasive C. albicans infection (ICI). ASCA, ALCA, ACCA, and Candida mannan antigen and antibody detection tests were performed on 69 sera obtained sequentially from 18 patients with ICIs proven by blood culture, 59 sera from CD patients, 47 sera from hospitalized subjects colonized by Candida species (CZ), and 131 sera from healthy controls (HC). ASCA, ALCA, and ACCA levels in CD and ICI patients were significantly different from those in CZ and HC subjects (P<0.0001). In ICI patients, these levels increased as infection developed. Using ASCA, ALCA, ACCA, and Platelia Candida tests, 100% of ICIs were detected, with the kinetics of the antibody response depending on the patient during the time course of infection. A large number of sera presented with more than three positive tests. This is the first evidence that the detection of antibodies against chitin and glucans has diagnostic value in fungal infections and that these tests can complement more specific tests. Future trials are necessary to assess the value of these tests in multiparametric analysis, as well as their pathophysiological relevance.

  4. [Comparison of the indirect immunofluorescent (IFAT), ELISA test and the comercial Chagatek test for anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies detection].

    PubMed

    Enciso, Clara; Montilla, Marleny; Santacruz, María M; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago; Rodríguez, Adriana; Mercado, Marcela; Puerta, Concepción

    2004-03-01

    Chagas disease is a public health problem in Colombia, particularly in the eastern region. Because of human migration from rural areas to urban centers, the possibility of transfusional transmission becomes increasingly important. However the risk can be minimized by a careful screening of blood donors by means of serological tests. Colombian blood banks use comercial, foreign serological tests for screening for T. cruzi infection. The purpose of the current study was to compare the IFAT and ELISA tests (both use antigen obtained from Colombian strains) with the comercially available Chagatek tests. Sera of blood donors were classified in two groups on the basis of the IFAT: group I, 15 positive patients and group II, 14 negative patients. Sera from each group were tested by the ELISA and Chagatek tests. The ELISA test detected 100% of the patients as positive in group I and 7% (1/14) of patients as positive in group II. The Chagatek test detected 93% (14/15) of the patients as positive in group I and 50% (7/14) in group II. The kappa index for concordance between the ELISA and IFAT tests was 0.93 (95% C.I.: 0.80-1.00); between IFAT and Chagatek 0.43 (95% C.I.: 0.26-0.62), and between ELISA and Chagatek 0.49 (95% C.I.: 0.31-0.67). These results highlighted the importance of using autochtonous Colombian strains as antigens in screening tests for blood donors.

  5. Cell adhesion molecules: detection with univalent second antibody

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Identification of cell surface molecules that play a role in cell-cell adhesion (here called cell adhesion molecules) has been achieved by demonstrating the inhibitory effect of univalent antibodies that bind these molecules in an in vitro assay of cell-cell adhesion. A more convenient reagent, intact (divalent) antibody, has been avoided because it might agglutinate the cells rather than blocking cell-cell adhesion. In this report, we show that intact rabbit immunoglobulin directed against certain cell surface molecules of Dictyostelium discoideum blocks cell-cell adhesion when the in vitro assay is performed in the presence of univalent goat anti-rabbit antibody. Under appropriate experimental conditions, the univalent second antibody blocks agglutination induced by the rabbit antibody without significantly interfering with its effect on cell-cell adhesion. This method promises to be useful for screening monoclonal antibodies raised against potential cell adhesion molecules because: (a) it allows for the screening of large numbers of antibody samples without preparation of univalent fragments; and (b) it requires much less antibody because of the greater affinity of divalent antibodies for antigens. PMID:6970200

  6. The World Health Organization Recommendations for Trachoma Surveillance, Experience in Nepal and Added Benefit of Testing for Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis pgp3 Protein: NESTS Study

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano, Andrea I.; Sharma, Shekhar; Crowley, Kathryn; Dize, Laura; Muñoz, Beatriz E.; Mishra, Sailesh K.; Rotondo, Lisa A.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; West, Sheila K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) now requires a second surveillance survey for trachoma after an impact assessment has found follicular trachoma (TF) <5% to determine if re-emergence has occurred. Using new WHO guidelines, we undertook surveillance surveys, and determined the prevalence of infection and antibody positivity, in two districts in Nepal. Methods 20 clusters were randomly selected within each district, 15 were randomly selected for antibody testing. In each cluster, we randomly selected 50 children ages 1–9 years and 100 adults ≥15 years. TF and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) were evaluated. Conjunctival swabs to test for chlamydial infection using GenXpert platform were obtained, and dried blood spots were collected to test for antibodies to Chlamydia Trachomatis pgp3 using the Luminex platform. Findings 3 cases of TF were found in the two districts, and one case of infection. Pgp3 antibody positivity was 2·4% (95% confidence interval: 1·4%, 3·7%), and did not increase with age (P = 0.24). No clustering of antibody positivity within communities was found. TT prevalence was <1/1,000 population. Interpretation The surveillance surveys, as proposed by WHO, showed no evidence for re-emergence of trachoma in two districts of Nepal. The low level and no significant increase by age in seroprevalence of antibodies to C trachomatis pgp3 antigen deserve further investigation as a marker of interruption of transmission. PMID:27654497

  7. Cellular impedance measurement as a new tool for poxvirus titration, antibody neutralization testing and evaluation of antiviral substances.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Schuenadel, Livia; Wiethaus, Julia; Bourquain, Daniel R; Kurth, Andreas; Nitsche, Andreas

    2010-10-01

    Impedance-based biosensing known as real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) belongs to an emerging technology for analyzing the status of cells in vitro. In the present study protocols were developed for an RT-CES-based system (xCELLigence™, Roche Applied Science, ACEA Biosciences Inc.) to supplement conventional techniques in pox virology. First, proliferation of cells susceptible to orthopoxviruses was monitored. For virus titration cells were infected with vaccinia virus and cell status, represented by the dimensionless impedance-based cell index (CI), was monitored. A virus-dose dependent decrease in electrical impedance could be shown. Calculation of calibration curves at a suitable CI covering a dynamic range of 4 log enabled the quantification of virus titers in unknown samples. Similarly, antiviral effects could be determined as shown for anti-poxviral agents ST-246 and Cidofovir. Published values for the in vitro concentration that inhibited virus replication by 50% (IC₅₀) could be confirmed while cytotoxicity in effective concentrations was excluded in long-term incubation experiments. Finally, an RT-CES-based virus neutralization test was established. Various poxvirus-specific antibodies were examined for their neutralizing activity and a calculation mode for the neutralizing antibody titer was introduced. In summary, the presented RT-CES-based methods outmatch end-point assays by observing the cell population throughout the entire experiment while workload and time to result are reduced.

  8. Comparison of serological tests for Trypanosoma evansi natural infections in water buffaloes from north Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Verloo, D; Holland, W; My, L N; Thanh, N G; Tam, P T; Goddeeris, B; Vercruysse, J; Büscher, P

    2000-09-20

    In the present study, a collection of 415 water buffalo serum samples originating from the north of Vietnam was used for evaluation of different diagnostic antibody detection methods available to detect infections with Trypanosoma evansi. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of a direct card agglutination test (CATT/T. evansi), an indirect card agglutination test (LATEX/T. evansi) and a newly developed antibody detection ELISA (ELISA/T. evansi) was calculated on the basis of parasitological results, obtained by mouse inoculation, and compared for all assays. The immume trypanolysis assay with the predominant T. evansi RoTat 1.2 variable antigen type was used as reference test for antibody presence. All parasitologically confirmed animals (n=8) were positive in all tests. Diagnostic specificity was highest in CATT/T. evansi (98%) followed by the ELISA/T. evansi (95%) and the LATEX/T. evansi (82%). Concordance of the variant specific immune trypanolysis test with the other tests was calculated and revealed that few (1-8%) false positive results were actually due to a specific reactions, and that LATEX/T. evansi and ELISA/T. evansi detected more immune trypanolysis positives than the CATT/T. evansi. It was concluded that, apart from the immune trypanolysis test, which is not generally applicable, ELISA/T. evansi with a 30% positivity cut-off and LATEX/T. evansi, thanks to their superior capacity of detecting T. evansi specific antibodies, would be suitable as epidemiological tools detecting both active infections and persisting T. evansi specific antibodies. The ELISA/T. evansi with a 50% positivity cut-off and the CATT/T. evansi on the other hand, seem more appropriate to detect true infected water buffaloes.

  9. Epidemiological analysis of the significance of low-positive test results for antibody to hepatitis B surface and core antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Hadler, S C; Murphy, B L; Schable, C A; Heyward, W L; Francis, D P; Kane, M A

    1984-01-01

    To determine the significance of certain serological test results commonly encountered in hepatitis B virus testing, we reviewed serological test data from nine studies of hepatitis B conducted between 1980 and 1982. Three tests, for hepatitis B surface antigen and for antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBs and anti-HBc), were used to measure hepatitis B virus infection risk in various populations. Two results, low levels of anti-HBs alone and low levels of anti-HBc alone, occurred at constant frequencies (2.72 and 0.4%, respectively), regardless of the prevalence of HBV infection in the population. Positivity for low levels of anti-HBs alone persisted for 1 year in less than one-half of those studied; in addition, response to hepatitis B virus vaccine was augmented in only one-third of this group. Positivity for low levels of anti-HBc alone did not persist in any of 11 persons studied. These findings indicate that presently available tests for anti-HBs and anti-HBc at low levels are often nonspecific and should be interpreted with caution. PMID:6715519

  10. The use of trypan blue for counterstaining in the Sepharose bead immunofluorescence test. The application of the test for the demonstration of primate retrovirus-specific antibodies and antigens.

    PubMed

    Micheel, B

    1978-01-01

    The Sepharose bead immunoflurorescence test was performed by counterstaining the beads with trypan blue. This results in a red staining of negative beads which allows an easy distinction from positive green-fluorescent beads. Sepharose beads conjugated with viral proteins or antiviral antibodies were used to demonstrate Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMW)- and simian sarcoma virus (SSV) - specific antigens or antibodies. The test shows a high sensitivity and specificity and needs a small amount of material.

  11. Genetic and Mechanistic Evaluation for the Mixed-Field Agglutination in B3 Blood Type with IVS3+5G>A ABO Gene Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Ting; Sun, Chien-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Background The ABO blood type B3 is the most common B subtype in the Chinese population with a frequency of 1/900. Although IVS3+5G>A (rs55852701) mutation of B gene has been shown to associate with the development of B3 blood type, genetic and mechanistic evaluation for the unique mixed-field agglutination phenotype has not yet been completely addressed. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we analyzed 16 cases of confirmed B3 individuals and found that IVS3+5G>A attributes to all cases of B3. RT-PCR analyses revealed the presence of at least 7 types of aberrant B3 splicing transcripts with most of the transcripts causing early termination and producing non-functional protein during translation. The splicing transcript without exon 3 that was predicted to generate functional B3 glycosyltransferase lacking 19 amino acids at the N-terminal segment constituted only 0.9% of the splicing transcripts. Expression of the B3 cDNA with exon 3 deletion in the K562 erythroleukemia cells revealed that the B3 glycosyltransferase had only 40% of B1 activity in converting H antigen to B antigen. Notably, the typical mixed-field agglutination of B3-RBCs can be mimicked by adding anti-B antibody to the K562-B3 cells. Conclusions/Significance This study thereby demonstrates that both aberrant splicing of B transcripts and the reduced B3 glycosyltransferase activity contribute to weak B expression and the mixed-field agglutination of B3, adding to the complexity for the regulatory mechanisms of ABO gene expression. PMID:22624005

  12. A serological survey of Australian wildlife for antibodies to Leptospires of the Hebdomadis serogroup.

    PubMed

    Durfee, P T; Presidente, P J

    1979-04-01

    A serological survey for antibodies to Leptospira interrograns serovar hardjo was conducted on 574 serum samples from 10 native and 4 introduced wildlife species in south-eastern Australia. The microscopic agglutination (MA) test was used, and titres to hardjo antigen were detected in 33.5% of 352 brushtailed possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) sampled in several areas of Victoria. Prevalence of reactors ranged from 14 to 66% in 4 populations examined intensively. Serovar balcanica was isolated from possums with hardjo antibodies from two different areas. Of 20 wombats Vombatus ursinus) examined in Victoria, antibodies to hardjo were found in sera from 4 and titres to Pyrogenes and Pomona serogroups were detected in another. Hardjo antibodies were demonstrated in sera from 13 of 19 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis). Negative MA test results to hardjo antigens were recorded in 55 mountain possums (T. caninus), 63 macropods (Macropus spp.), 17 water rats (Hydrmys chrysogaster), 39 fallow deer (Dama dama), 2 hog deer (Axis porcinus) and 2 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalus). No MA antibodies to any of 16 leptospiral serogroups were detected in 17 water rats tested. Kidneys were examined from 330 of these animals and focal interstitial nephritis suggestive of leptospirosis was found in kidneys of 63 of 169 T. vulpecula, 3 of 55 T. caninus, 12 of 18 V. ursinus, 6 of 22 Macropus spp., 9 of 16 H. chrysogaster, 5 of 11 C. timorensis and 3 of 39 D. dama. A statistical association between focal interstitial nephritis and MA antibodies to hardjo was found in T. vulpecula. PMID:485984

  13. Voluntary Testing for HIV Antibodies among Clients in Long-Term Substance Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galea, Robert P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes voluntary testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a residential substance abuse treatment program; highlights discussion group involving 5 clients who tested positive for HIV. Notes that clients in HIV groups dropped out of treatment at significantly lower percentages than clients in general, indicating HIV identification…

  14. Developing Guidelines for HIV Antibody Testing among Victims of Pediatric Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, George A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    An interim set of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing guidelines for victims of pediatric sexual abuse (PSA) is proposed. Guidelines are based on responses of 63 practitioners of PSA assessment to 7 hypothetical clinical profiles with 12 testing criteria. (Author/DB)

  15. The use of the haemagglutination-inhibition test for detecting antibodies to type SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease viruses in cattle sera.

    PubMed Central

    Booth, J. C.; Pay, T. W.; Hedger, R. S.; Barnett, I. T.

    1975-01-01

    Two strains of type SAT 2-foot-and-mouth disease virus which gave high titres of haemagglutinin activity reacted type-specifically in direct haemagglutination-inhibition tests with reference, bovine convalescent antisera. Comparisons of the haemagglutination-inhibition and the serum neutralization tests using cattle sera showed that both were equally specific and sensitive for detecting virus antibody. PMID:163274

  16. Serum Neutralization Assay Can Efficiently Replace Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test for Detection and Quantitation of West Nile Virus Antibodies in Human and Animal Serum Samples

    PubMed Central

    Di Gennaro, Annapia; Casaccia, Claudia; Conte, Annamaria; Monaco, Federica; Savini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    A serum neutralization assay (SN) was compared with the official plaque reduction neutralization test for the quantitation of West Nile virus antibodies. A total of 1,348 samples from equid sera and 38 from human sera were tested by these two methods. Statistically significant differences were not observed, thus supporting the use of SN for routine purposes. PMID:25100824

  17. Specific testing for “isolated” anti‐52 kDa SSA/Ro antibodies during standard anti‐extractable nuclear antigen testing is of limited clinical value

    PubMed Central

    Langguth, Daman M; Morris, Samantha; Clifford, Lynette; Wilson, Robert J; Neil, John; Hogan, Patrick G; Wong, Richard C W

    2007-01-01

    Aim To ascertain whether specific testing for “isolated” anti‐52 kDa SSA/Ro antibodies (a‐SSA/Ro52) during standard anti‐extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) testing is clinically useful. Methods 1438 consecutive sera submitted for anti‐ENA testing over 1 year were evaluated for a‐SSA/Ro52 using various assays. Results 7 of 1438 (0.48%) patients were found to have a‐SSA/Ro52 without SSA/Ro60 antibodies. Subsequent testing detected a further five patients. Clinical follow‐up was possible in 10/12 patients. 2 of these 10 patients had evidence of primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and one had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with sicca symptoms and abnormal Schirmer's tests. Five other patients had sicca symptoms, of which four had abnormal Schirmer's tests. Conclusions “Isolated” anti‐52 kDa SSA/Ro antibodies were detected in approximately 0.5% of standard anti‐ENA requests, in which their presence was generally not associated with underlying SS or SLE. In view of the increased testing complexity and costs in detecting and confirming these antibodies, specific testing for isolated a‐SSA Ro52 antibodies during standard anti‐ENA testing seems to be of limited clinical value in a non‐obstetric population. PMID:17557869

  18. Seroepidemiology of varicella-zoster virus in Korean adolescents and adults using fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen test.

    PubMed

    Han, S B; Kang, K R; Huh, D H; Lee, H C; Kim, J H; Kang, J H; Ma, S H

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional seroepidemiological study in 2012-2013 to determine the seroprevalence of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in adolescents and adults living in Korea, where varicella vaccination has been recommended universally at age 12-15 months since 2005. Residual serum samples were collected from 1196 healthy adults and adolescents aged ⩾10 years between November 2012 and March 2013. The fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed to determine the seroprevalence of VZV. The seroprevalences of VZV were compared between six age groups: 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and ⩾60 years. The seroprevalence of VZV in the entire study cohort was 99·1% according to the FAMA test and 93·1% as determined by ELISA. The seroprevalences of the six age groups were as follows: 96·0%, 99·5%, 99·5%, 99·5%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, by the FAMA test, and 83·3%, 93·0%, 93·0%, 97·5%, 94·5%, and 97·5%, respectively, by ELISA. Seroprevalence increased significantly with age (P < 0·001); moreover, the seroprevalence in subjects aged 10-19 years was significantly lower than in other age groups (P < 0·001), as measured by both the FAMA test and ELISA. Thus, strategies to increase protective immunity against VZV in teenagers are necessary.

  19. Agglutinates as recorders of fossil soil compositions. [of Apollo 17 lunar probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. J.; Wentworth, S.; Warner, R. D.; Keil, K.

    1978-01-01

    The composition of agglutinates in polished sections of the Apollo 17 drill core was studied in an attempt to deduce the nature of the Taurus-Littrow valley regolith prior to the formation of the Camelot and Central Cluster craters. The agglutinate compositions in the soils differed from the host soil compositions except for samples from the North Massif. Local materials from the valley floor and the massifs appear to form the pre-Central Cluster regolith. It is also shown that chemical mixing models for bulk soil compositions can be misleading unless the petrologic characteristics of each soil are taken into account.

  20. Cellular impedance measurement as a new tool for poxvirus titration, antibody neutralization testing and evaluation of antiviral substances

    SciTech Connect

    Witkowski, Peter T.; Schuenadel, Livia; Wiethaus, Julia; Bourquain, Daniel R.; Kurth, Andreas; Nitsche, Andreas

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Real-time data acquisition by RT-CES requires low operative effort. {yields} Time to result is reduced by using RT-CES instead of conventional methods. {yields} RT-CES enables quantification of virus titers in unknown samples. {yields} RT-CES is a useful tool for high-throughput characterization of antiviral agents. {yields} An RT-CES-based virus neutralization test was established. -- Abstract: Impedance-based biosensing known as real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) belongs to an emerging technology for analyzing the status of cells in vitro. In the present study protocols were developed for an RT-CES-based system (xCELLigence{sup TM}, Roche Applied Science, ACEA Biosciences Inc.) to supplement conventional techniques in pox virology. First, proliferation of cells susceptible to orthopoxviruses was monitored. For virus titration cells were infected with vaccinia virus and cell status, represented by the dimensionless impedance-based cell index (CI), was monitored. A virus-dose dependent decrease in electrical impedance could be shown. Calculation of calibration curves at a suitable CI covering a dynamic range of 4 log enabled the quantification of virus titers in unknown samples. Similarly, antiviral effects could be determined as shown for anti-poxviral agents ST-246 and Cidofovir. Published values for the in vitro concentration that inhibited virus replication by 50% (IC{sub 50}) could be confirmed while cytotoxicity in effective concentrations was excluded in long-term incubation experiments. Finally, an RT-CES-based virus neutralization test was established. Various poxvirus-specific antibodies were examined for their neutralizing activity and a calculation mode for the neutralizing antibody titer was introduced. In summary, the presented RT-CES-based methods outmatch end-point assays by observing the cell population throughout the entire experiment while workload and time to result are reduced.

  1. Serological monitoring of eastern wild turkeys for antibodies to Mycoplasma spp. and avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Davidson, W R; Yoder, H W; Brugh, M; Nettles, V F

    1988-04-01

    From 1981 through 1986, plasma or serum samples were obtained from 322 wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from Georgia (n = 111), Kentucky (n = 21), Louisiana (n = 22), North Carolina (n = 118), Tennessee (n = 19), Missouri (n = 24) and Iowa (n = 7). These samples were tested for antibodies to Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and in most instances, M. synoviae (MS), M. meleagridis (MM), and avian influenza (AI) virus. All 322 turkeys were seronegative for MG by the rapid plate agglutination (RPA) test. All of a subsample (n = 147) also were negative (titer less than or equal to 1:40) for MG by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Five of 253 turkeys (2%) were seropositive (+4 reaction) for MS by the RPA test; however, HI tests for MS on these five turkeys were negative as were attempts to isolate MS from trachea and homogenized lung tissue. Three of 253 turkeys (1%) were seropositive (+1 to +3 reactions) for MM by the RPA test. None of 210 turkeys had antibodies to AI by the agar gel precipitation test. These data suggest that populations of native eastern wild turkeys are not important in the epizootiology of MG, MS, MM, or AI.

  2. Comparison of Biotinylated Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies in an Evaluation of a Direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Test for the Routine Diagnosis of Rabies in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Coetzer, Andre; Sabeta, Claude T.; Markotter, Wanda; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Nel, Louis H.

    2014-01-01

    The major etiological agent of rabies, rabies virus (RABV), accounts for tens of thousands of human deaths per annum. The majority of these deaths are associated with rabies cycles in dogs in resource-limited countries of Africa and Asia. Although routine rabies diagnosis plays an integral role in disease surveillance and management, the application of the currently recommended direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test in countries on the African and Asian continents remains quite limited. A novel diagnostic assay, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT), has been reported to have a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity equal to that of the DFA test while offering advantages in cost, time and interpretation. Prior studies used the dRIT utilized monoclonal antibody (MAb) cocktails. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that a biotinylated polyclonal antibody (PAb) preparation, applied in the dRIT protocol, would yield equal or improved results compared to the use of dRIT with MAbs. We also wanted to compare the PAb dRIT with the DFA test, utilizing the same PAb preparation with a fluorescent label. The PAb dRIT had a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%, which was shown to be marginally higher than the diagnostic efficacy observed for the PAb DFA test. The classical dRIT, relying on two-biotinylated MAbs, was applied to the same panel of samples and a reduced diagnostic sensitivity (83.50% and 90.78% respectively) was observed. Antigenic typing of the false negative samples indicated all of these to be mongoose RABV variants. Our results provided evidence that a dRIT with alternative antibody preparations, conjugated to a biotin moiety, has a diagnostic efficacy equal to that of a DFA relying on the same antibody and that the antibody preparation should be optimized for virus variants specific to the geographical area of focus. PMID:25254652

  3. Comparison of biotinylated monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies in an evaluation of a direct rapid immunohistochemical test for the routine diagnosis of rabies in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Coetzer, Andre; Sabeta, Claude T; Markotter, Wanda; Rupprecht, Charles E; Nel, Louis H

    2014-09-01

    The major etiological agent of rabies, rabies virus (RABV), accounts for tens of thousands of human deaths per annum. The majority of these deaths are associated with rabies cycles in dogs in resource-limited countries of Africa and Asia. Although routine rabies diagnosis plays an integral role in disease surveillance and management, the application of the currently recommended direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test in countries on the African and Asian continents remains quite limited. A novel diagnostic assay, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT), has been reported to have a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity equal to that of the DFA test while offering advantages in cost, time and interpretation. Prior studies used the dRIT utilized monoclonal antibody (MAb) cocktails. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that a biotinylated polyclonal antibody (PAb) preparation, applied in the dRIT protocol, would yield equal or improved results compared to the use of dRIT with MAbs. We also wanted to compare the PAb dRIT with the DFA test, utilizing the same PAb preparation with a fluorescent label. The PAb dRIT had a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%, which was shown to be marginally higher than the diagnostic efficacy observed for the PAb DFA test. The classical dRIT, relying on two-biotinylated MAbs, was applied to the same panel of samples and a reduced diagnostic sensitivity (83.50% and 90.78% respectively) was observed. Antigenic typing of the false negative samples indicated all of these to be mongoose RABV variants. Our results provided evidence that a dRIT with alternative antibody preparations, conjugated to a biotin moiety, has a diagnostic efficacy equal to that of a DFA relying on the same antibody and that the antibody preparation should be optimized for virus variants specific to the geographical area of focus.

  4. Comparison of biotinylated monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies in an evaluation of a direct rapid immunohistochemical test for the routine diagnosis of rabies in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Coetzer, Andre; Sabeta, Claude T; Markotter, Wanda; Rupprecht, Charles E; Nel, Louis H

    2014-09-01

    The major etiological agent of rabies, rabies virus (RABV), accounts for tens of thousands of human deaths per annum. The majority of these deaths are associated with rabies cycles in dogs in resource-limited countries of Africa and Asia. Although routine rabies diagnosis plays an integral role in disease surveillance and management, the application of the currently recommended direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test in countries on the African and Asian continents remains quite limited. A novel diagnostic assay, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT), has been reported to have a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity equal to that of the DFA test while offering advantages in cost, time and interpretation. Prior studies used the dRIT utilized monoclonal antibody (MAb) cocktails. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that a biotinylated polyclonal antibody (PAb) preparation, applied in the dRIT protocol, would yield equal or improved results compared to the use of dRIT with MAbs. We also wanted to compare the PAb dRIT with the DFA test, utilizing the same PAb preparation with a fluorescent label. The PAb dRIT had a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%, which was shown to be marginally higher than the diagnostic efficacy observed for the PAb DFA test. The classical dRIT, relying on two-biotinylated MAbs, was applied to the same panel of samples and a reduced diagnostic sensitivity (83.50% and 90.78% respectively) was observed. Antigenic typing of the false negative samples indicated all of these to be mongoose RABV variants. Our results provided evidence that a dRIT with alternative antibody preparations, conjugated to a biotin moiety, has a diagnostic efficacy equal to that of a DFA relying on the same antibody and that the antibody preparation should be optimized for virus variants specific to the geographical area of focus. PMID:25254652

  5. Perceived Empathy of Service Providers Mediates the Association between Perceived Discrimination and Behavioral Intention to Take Up HIV Antibody Testing Again among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jing; Lau, Joseph T. F.; Wang, Zixin; Wu, Anise M. S.; Tan, Xuhui

    2015-01-01

    HIV antibody testing is a key measure of HIV prevention for men who have sex with men (MSM). The World Health Organization recommends sexually active and at-risk MSM to take up HIV antibody testing regularly. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of behavioral intention to take up HIV antibody testing in the next six months among Hong Kong MSM who were ever-testers. An anonymous cross-sectional survey recruited 326 MSM who had taken up HIV antibody testing from gay-friendly venues and internet in Hong Kong. Of the participants, 40.8% had had unprotected anal intercourse with regular or non-regular male sex partners in the last six months; they were at risk of HIV transmission despite experience in HIV antibody testing. Only 37.2% showed a strong intention to take up HIV antibody testing again in the next six months. Adjusted analysis showed that both perceived discrimination toward Hong Kong MSM (AOR = .60, 95% CI: .36–.98) and the CARE Measure assessing perceived empathy of service providers (AOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02–1.08) were significantly associated with intention for retesting. Perceived discrimination, however, became statistically non-significant (AOR = .68, 95% CI: .41–1.14), when both CARE Measure and perceived discrimination entered into the adjusted model. It is warranted to increase HIV retesting rate by removing perceived discrimination and reducing the negative effect of perceived discrimination through enhancement of empathy of service providers. PMID:25693179

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild birds in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ju-Chi; Tsai, Yu-Jen; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoon which is well known for infecting humans and wild animals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were evaluated in 394 wild birds, belonging to 37 species, from 15 different administrative regions in Taiwan. Using modified agglutination test (MAT), the overall seroprevalence of infection was 23.35% (CI 95% = 19.17%-27.53%). Antibodies were detected in birds of prey (25.73%, CI 95% = 19.76%-31.70%), birds living in freshwater or marine systems (34.29%, CI 95% = 18.56%-50.01%) and ground-feeding birds (18.12%, CI 95% = 11.94%-24.31%). Adult birds showed higher seroprevalence than that in juvenile birds, and the presence of clinical abnormalities was associated with T. gondii seropositivity. The results showed that this pathogen has spread widely in Taiwan. This suggests the zoonotic potential of the disease, with transmission from urban to rural regions, and from terrestrial to aquatic systems. The pathogenicity of T. gondii infection in wild birds in Taiwan needs further investigation. This is the first study of the seroprevalence of T. gondii in wild birds in Taiwan.

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild birds in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ju-Chi; Tsai, Yu-Jen; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoon which is well known for infecting humans and wild animals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were evaluated in 394 wild birds, belonging to 37 species, from 15 different administrative regions in Taiwan. Using modified agglutination test (MAT), the overall seroprevalence of infection was 23.35% (CI 95% = 19.17%-27.53%). Antibodies were detected in birds of prey (25.73%, CI 95% = 19.76%-31.70%), birds living in freshwater or marine systems (34.29%, CI 95% = 18.56%-50.01%) and ground-feeding birds (18.12%, CI 95% = 11.94%-24.31%). Adult birds showed higher seroprevalence than that in juvenile birds, and the presence of clinical abnormalities was associated with T. gondii seropositivity. The results showed that this pathogen has spread widely in Taiwan. This suggests the zoonotic potential of the disease, with transmission from urban to rural regions, and from terrestrial to aquatic systems. The pathogenicity of T. gondii infection in wild birds in Taiwan needs further investigation. This is the first study of the seroprevalence of T. gondii in wild birds in Taiwan. PMID:26412541

  8. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in Crotalus durissus collilineatus kept in captivity and its zoonotic relevance.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, T C S; Santos, A L Q; Lima, A M C; Gomes, D O; Brites, V L C

    2016-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide spread zoonosis that can affect all groups of vertebrates, including reptiles. Because it has been little studied in snakes, this study focused on determining the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in 64 Crotalus durissus collilineatus kept in captivity and on identifying the most common serovars in these animals, using the microscopic agglutination test. Of these, almost 90% were positive and there were reactions to the 22 serovars used in the study. The most common serovar in these snakes was Javanica, Andamana and Patoc. Most frequent titers were 25 and 50, although high titers (such as 1600) were also recorded, despite the absence of clinical symptoms. The possibility should be considered of captive snakes serving as a serious source of leptospiral infection in humans, which is why it is essential to study, prevent and control the disease in breeding centers and serpentariums. PMID:26875762

  9. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in Crotalus durissus collilineatus kept in captivity and its zoonotic relevance.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, T C S; Santos, A L Q; Lima, A M C; Gomes, D O; Brites, V L C

    2016-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide spread zoonosis that can affect all groups of vertebrates, including reptiles. Because it has been little studied in snakes, this study focused on determining the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in 64 Crotalus durissus collilineatus kept in captivity and on identifying the most common serovars in these animals, using the microscopic agglutination test. Of these, almost 90% were positive and there were reactions to the 22 serovars used in the study. The most common serovar in these snakes was Javanica, Andamana and Patoc. Most frequent titers were 25 and 50, although high titers (such as 1600) were also recorded, despite the absence of clinical symptoms. The possibility should be considered of captive snakes serving as a serious source of leptospiral infection in humans, which is why it is essential to study, prevent and control the disease in breeding centers and serpentariums.

  10. Viral hepatitis and tests for the Australia (hepatitis-associated) antigen and antibody*

    PubMed Central

    1970-01-01

    ”Australia” antigen has been shown to be closely associated with serum hepatitis. The presence of the antigen and its corresponding antiserum can be detected in human beings (and in certain primates) by a number of laboratory tests. This is of great potential importance to blood transfusion and similar services because detection and exclusion of blood donors carrying the antigen might significantly reduce the risk of hepatitis from transfusions and other procedures. In this paper the present state of knowledge of ”Australia” or ”hepatitis-associated” antigen is reviewed. The currently employed tests are described in detail and their use, interpretation and limitations are discussed. Though it appears from early studies that the application of routine screening tests to blood donors would only reduce the risk to recipients by less than 25%, the more sensitive tests becoming available may increase this percentage and it is recommended that where competent laboratory services are available steps should be taken to set up a scheme for testing donors—provided that the current limitations of such a scheme are clearly recognized. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 1FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:4991606

  11. Public health consequences of a false-positive laboratory test result for Brucella--Florida, Georgia, and Michigan, 2005.

    PubMed

    2008-06-01

    Human brucellosis, a nationally notifiable disease, is uncommon in the United States. Most human cases have occurred in returned travelers or immigrants from regions where brucellosis is endemic, or were acquired domestically from eating illegally imported, unpasteurized fresh cheeses. In January 2005, a woman aged 35 years who lived in Nassau County, Florida, received a diagnosis of brucellosis, based on results of a Brucella immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) performed in a commercial laboratory using analyte specific reagents (ASRs); this diagnosis prompted an investigation of dairy products in two other states. Subsequent confirmatory antibody testing by Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT) performed at CDC on the patient's serum was negative. The case did not meet the CDC/Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists' (CSTE) definition for a probable or confirmed brucellosis case, and the initial EIA result was determined to be a false positive. This report summarizes the case history, laboratory findings, and public health investigations. CDC recommends that Brucella serology testing only be performed using tests cleared or approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or validated under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and shown to reliably detect the presence of Brucella infection. Results from these tests should be considered supportive evidence for recent infection only and interpreted in the context of a clinically compatible illness and exposure history. EIA is not considered a confirmatory Brucella antibody test; positive screening test results should be confirmed by Brucella-specific agglutination (i.e., BMAT or standard tube agglutination test) methods.

  12. Outbreak of Uncommon O4 Non-Agglutinating Salmonella Typhimurium Linked to Minced Pork, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, January to April 2013

    PubMed Central

    Helmeke, Carina; Kohlstock, Claudia; Prager, Rita; Tietze, Erhard; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Karagiannis, Ioannis; Werber, Dirk; Frank, Christina; Fruth, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In January 2013, the National Reference Centre for Salmonella (NRC) detected a salmonellosis cluster in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, caused by uncommon O4 non-agglutinating, monophasic Salmonella (S.) Typhimurium DT193. Circulating predominant monophasic S. Typhimurium DT193 clones typically display resistance phenotype ASSuT. We investigated common exposures to control the outbreak, and conducted microbiological investigations to assess the strains’ phenotype. Methods We conducted a case-control study defining cases as persons living or working in Saxony-Anhalt diagnosed with the O4 non-agglutinating strain between January and March 2013. We selected two controls contemporarily reported with norovirus infection, frequency-matched on residence and age group, per case. We interviewed regarding food consumption, especially pork and its place of purchase. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using logistic regression. The NRC investigated human and food isolates by PCR, SDS-PAGE, MLST, PFGE, MLVA and susceptibility testing. Results Altogether, 68 O4 non-agglutinating human isolates were confirmed between January and April 2013. Of those, 61 were assigned to the outbreak (median age 57 years, 44% female); 83% cases ≥ 60 years were hospitalized. Eating raw minced pork from butcheries within 3 days was associated with disease (31 cases, 28 controls; OR adjusted for sex: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.0-13). Phage type DT193 and MLST ST34 were assigned, and isolates’ lipopolysaccharide (LPS) matched control strains. Isolates linked to Saxony-Anhalt exhibited PFGE type 5. ASSuT- and ACSSuT phenotype proportions were 34 and 39% respectively; 54% were resistant to chloramphenicol. Three pork isolates matched the outbreak strain. Discussion Raw minced pork was the most likely infection vehicle in this first reported outbreak caused by O4 non-agglutinating, mostly chloramphenicol-resistant S. Typhimurium DT193. High hospitalization proportions

  13. Serotyping scheme for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli based on direct agglutination of heat-stable antigens.

    PubMed

    Frost, J A; Oza, A N; Thwaites, R T; Rowe, B

    1998-02-01

    Campylobacter is now the most frequently reported cause of gastrointestinal disease in England and Wales, yet few isolates are characterized beyond the genus level. The majority of isolates are Campylobacter jejuni (90%), with most of the remainder being Campylobacter coli. We describe an adaptation of the Penner serotyping scheme in which passive hemagglutination has been replaced by detection of heat-stable antigens by direct bacterial agglutination; absorbed antisera are used where appropriate. This scheme has been used to type 2,407 C. jejuni samples and 182 C. coli samples isolated in Wales between April 1996 and March 1997. Forty-seven C. jejuni serotypes were identified, with the 10 most prevalent serotypes accounting for 53% of the isolates tested; 19% of the isolates were untypeable. Only fifteen C. coli serotypes were identified, with three serotypes accounting for 69% of the isolates. This scheme provides a baseline for epidemiological studies of C. jejuni and C. coli.

  14. Self-Reported HIV Antibody Testing among Latino Urban Day Laborers

    PubMed Central

    Solorio, Maria Rosa; Galvan, Frank H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify the characteristics of male Latino urban day laborers who self-report having tested for HIV. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 356 Latino day laborers, aged 18 to 40 years, who had been sexually active in the previous 12 months, from six day labor sites in the City of Los Angeles. Results Most of the men were single, mainly from Mexico and Guatemala, and had been employed as a day laborer less than 3 years; 38% had an annual income of $4,000 or less. Ninety-two percent of the men reported having sex with women only and 8% reported a history of having sex with men and women. Forty-six percent had received an HIV test in the previous 12 months and one person tested positive. In univariate logistic regression analyses, day laborers who were 26 years of age or older, had more than 3 years in the United States, had more than 1 year but less than 5 years employed as a day laborer and had annual incomes greater than $4,000 were significantly more likely to self-report HIV testing in the previous 12 months. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, only higher annual income was found to be significantly associated with self-reported HIV testing. Discussion Interventions that target lower income Latino day laborers are needed to promote early HIV detection. HIV detection offers individual benefits through treatment, with decreased morbidity and mortality, as well as public health benefits through decreased rates of HIV transmission in the community. PMID:20070009

  15. Quantitative Assessment of the Effects of Oxidants on Antigen-Antibody Binding In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shuang; Wang, Guanyu; Xu, Naijin; Liu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We quantitatively assessed the influence of oxidants on antigen-antibody-binding activity. Methods. We used several immunological detection methods, including precipitation reactions, agglutination reactions, and enzyme immunoassays, to determine antibody activity. The oxidation-reduction potential was measured in order to determine total serum antioxidant capacity. Results. Certain concentrations of oxidants resulted in significant inhibition of antibody activity but had little influence on total serum antioxidant capacity. Conclusions. Oxidants had a significant influence on interactions between antigen and antibody, but minimal effect on the peptide of the antibody molecule. PMID:27313823

  16. Development of Monoclonal Antibody and Diagnostic Test for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Using Cell-Free Synthesized Nucleocapsid Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Yutaro; Matsuyama, Shutoku; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Matsunaga, Satoko; Matsushima, Yuki; Kuroyama, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Takeda, Makoto; Chimuro, Tomoyuki; Ryo, Akihide

    2016-01-01

    Protein nativity is one of the most critical factors for the quality of antigens used as immunogens and the reactivities of the resultant antibodies. The preparation and purification of native viral antigens in conventional cell-based protein expression systems are often accompanied by technical hardships. These challenges are attributable mainly to protein aggregation and insolubility during expression and purification, as well as to very low expression levels associated with the toxicity of some viral proteins. Here, we describe a novel approach for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against nucleocapsid protein (NP) of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Using a wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system, we successfully prepared large amounts of MERS-CoV NP antigen in a state that was highly soluble and intact for immunization. Following mouse immunization and hybridoma generation, we selected seven hybridoma clones that produced mAbs with exclusive reactivity against MERS-CoV NP. Epitope mapping and subsequent bioinformatic analysis revealed that these mAbs recognized epitopes located within relatively highly conserved regions of the MERS-CoV amino-acid sequence. Consistently, the mAbs exhibited no obvious cross-reactivity with NPs derived from other related viruses, including SARS coronavirus. After determining the optimal combinations of these mAbs, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a rapid immunochromatographic antigen detection test that can be reliably used for laboratory diagnosis of MERS-CoV. Thus, this study provides strong evidence that the wheat germ cell-free system is useful for the production of diagnostic mAbs against emerging pathogens. PMID:27148198

  17. Development of Monoclonal Antibody and Diagnostic Test for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Using Cell-Free Synthesized Nucleocapsid Antigen.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Yutaro; Matsuyama, Shutoku; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Matsunaga, Satoko; Matsushima, Yuki; Kuroyama, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Takeda, Makoto; Chimuro, Tomoyuki; Ryo, Akihide

    2016-01-01

    Protein nativity is one of the most critical factors for the quality of antigens used as immunogens and the reactivities of the resultant antibodies. The preparation and purification of native viral antigens in conventional cell-based protein expression systems are often accompanied by technical hardships. These challenges are attributable mainly to protein aggregation and insolubility during expression and purification, as well as to very low expression levels associated with the toxicity of some viral proteins. Here, we describe a novel approach for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against nucleocapsid protein (NP) of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Using a wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system, we successfully prepared large amounts of MERS-CoV NP antigen in a state that was highly soluble and intact for immunization. Following mouse immunization and hybridoma generation, we selected seven hybridoma clones that produced mAbs with exclusive reactivity against MERS-CoV NP. Epitope mapping and subsequent bioinformatic analysis revealed that these mAbs recognized epitopes located within relatively highly conserved regions of the MERS-CoV amino-acid sequence. Consistently, the mAbs exhibited no obvious cross-reactivity with NPs derived from other related viruses, including SARS coronavirus. After determining the optimal combinations of these mAbs, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a rapid immunochromatographic antigen detection test that can be reliably used for laboratory diagnosis of MERS-CoV. Thus, this study provides strong evidence that the wheat germ cell-free system is useful for the production of diagnostic mAbs against emerging pathogens. PMID:27148198

  18. An integrated fiberoptic-microfluidic device for agglutination detection and blood typing.

    PubMed

    Ramasubramanian, Melur K; Alexander, Stewart P

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, an integrated fiberoptic-microfluidic device for the detection of agglutination for blood type cross-matching has been described. The device consists of a straight microfluidic channel through with a reacted RBC suspension is pumped with the help of a syringe pump. The flow intersects an optical path created by an emitter-received fiber optic pair integrated into the microfluidic device. A 650 nm laser diode is used as the light source and a silicon photodiode is used to detect the light intensity. The spacing between the tips of the two optic fibers can be adjusted. When fiber spacing is large and the concentration of the suspension is high, scattering phenomenon becomes the dominant mechanism for agglutination detection while at low concentrations and small spacing, optointerruption becomes the dominant mechanism. An agglutination strength factor (ASF) is calculated from the data. Studies with a variety of blood types indicate that the sensing method correctly identifies the agglutination reaction in all cases. A disposable integrated device can be designed for future implementation of the method for near-bedside pre-transfusion check. PMID:18815884

  19. Analysis of negative result in serum anti-H. pylori IgG antibody test in cases with gastric mucosal atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Kyoichi; Mishiro, Tomoko; Tanaka, Shino; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose is to elucidate factors related to negative results of anti-H. pylori antibody test in cases with gastric mucosal atrophy. A total of 859 individuals without past history of eradication therapy for H. pylori (545 males, 314 females; mean age 52.4 years) who underwent an upper GI endoscopy examination and serological test were enrolled as subjects. Serological testing was performed using SphereLight H. pylori antibody J®, and endoscopic findings of gastric mucosal atrophy by the classification of Kimura and Takemoto and post-eradication findings were analyzed. The positive rates for the anti-H. pylori antibody test in subjects with and without gastric mucosal atrophy were 85.6% and 0.9%, respectively. In analysis of subjects with gastric mucosal atrophy, a low positive rate and serum titer was observed in subjects with C1, C2 and O3 atrophy. When the analysis was performed separately in male and female subjects, low positive rate was observed in males with O3 atrophy and females with C2 atrophy. Suspected post-eradication endoscopic findings were more frequently observed in cases with C2 atrophy. In conclusion, negative result of anti-H. pylori antibody test was frequently observed in middle-aged subjects with C1, C2 and O3 gastric mucosal atrophy. PMID:27698543

  20. Analysis of negative result in serum anti-H. pylori IgG antibody test in cases with gastric mucosal atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Kyoichi; Mishiro, Tomoko; Tanaka, Shino; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose is to elucidate factors related to negative results of anti-H. pylori antibody test in cases with gastric mucosal atrophy. A total of 859 individuals without past history of eradication therapy for H. pylori (545 males, 314 females; mean age 52.4 years) who underwent an upper GI endoscopy examination and serological test were enrolled as subjects. Serological testing was performed using SphereLight H. pylori antibody J®, and endoscopic findings of gastric mucosal atrophy by the classification of Kimura and Takemoto and post-eradication findings were analyzed. The positive rates for the anti-H. pylori antibody test in subjects with and without gastric mucosal atrophy were 85.6% and 0.9%, respectively. In analysis of subjects with gastric mucosal atrophy, a low positive rate and serum titer was observed in subjects with C1, C2 and O3 atrophy. When the analysis was performed separately in male and female subjects, low positive rate was observed in males with O3 atrophy and females with C2 atrophy. Suspected post-eradication endoscopic findings were more frequently observed in cases with C2 atrophy. In conclusion, negative result of anti-H. pylori antibody test was frequently observed in middle-aged subjects with C1, C2 and O3 gastric mucosal atrophy.