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Sample records for aggravated assault simple

  1. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

  2. Extraction of DNA from forensic-type sexual assault specimens using simple, rapid sonication procedures.

    PubMed

    Crouse, C A; Ban, J D; D'Alessio, J K

    1993-10-01

    Sonication procedures for the extraction of DNA from forensic-type semen specimens have been developed, which, when compared to currently utilized sperm DNA extraction techniques, are simple, rapid and result in comparable DNA yields. Sperm DNA extraction by sonication was performed on whole semen, seminal stains, buccal swabs and post-coital specimens. Ultrasound disruption of sperm cells and their ultimate release of cellular DNA has been conducted in the presence of sperm wash buffers followed by organic extraction or Chelex 100 with little or no compromise to DNA quality, quantity or amplifiability. Two advantages of sonication over currently used forensic techniques to extract sperm DNA include 1) sperm DNA extraction that occurs within five minutes of sonication compared with an hour or greater for water bath incubations in classic enzyme digestion DNA extractions and 2) one less preparatory step with the Chelex/sonication protocol and three less steps with the sonication/organic protocol compared with other procedures thus eliminating potential sample-to-sample cross-contamination. Sperm DNA extracted by optimum sonication procedures was used for forensic HLA DQ alpha typing and restriction fragment length polymorphisms analysis without any adverse effects on typing results.

  3. Infected sex partner wins dismissal of assault charges.

    PubMed

    1998-01-23

    The California Court of Appeals ruled that a man who had unprotected intercourse with an underage female without disclosing his positive HIV status cannot be charged with aggravated assault. The court determined that prosecutors did not prove that the risk of HIV transmission from one act of unprotected heterosexual sex fell within California's definition of aggravated assault. The defendant, [name removed], will face trial on four counts of unlawful sexual intercourse, one count of failing to register as a sex offender, and two counts of assault with a deadly weapon. [Name removed] argued that because the sex was consensual he could not be convicted of aggravated assault; this argument was rejected. [Name removed] also argued that California's statutes violate his equal protection rights under the Constitution because they apply only to adult men who have sex with women and not the reverse. He also argued that the statutes discriminate against HIV carriers. The Supreme Court stated that the gender distinction protects women from becoming infected and passing the infection on to her infant in utero.

  4. Infected sex partner wins dismissal of assault charges.

    PubMed

    1998-01-23

    The California Court of Appeals ruled that a man who had unprotected intercourse with an underage female without disclosing his positive HIV status cannot be charged with aggravated assault. The court determined that prosecutors did not prove that the risk of HIV transmission from one act of unprotected heterosexual sex fell within California's definition of aggravated assault. The defendant, [name removed], will face trial on four counts of unlawful sexual intercourse, one count of failing to register as a sex offender, and two counts of assault with a deadly weapon. [Name removed] argued that because the sex was consensual he could not be convicted of aggravated assault; this argument was rejected. [Name removed] also argued that California's statutes violate his equal protection rights under the Constitution because they apply only to adult men who have sex with women and not the reverse. He also argued that the statutes discriminate against HIV carriers. The Supreme Court stated that the gender distinction protects women from becoming infected and passing the infection on to her infant in utero. PMID:11364962

  5. The Sexual Assault Examination

    PubMed Central

    Hargot, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The sexual assault examination poses many problems for physicians. They must deal not only with the patient's physical and emotional trauma, but also collect forensic evidence, and provide proper treatment and follow-up. Patient management has been simplified and improved in Ontario by a standardized sexual assault examination kit. It has been used at McMaster University's Regional Sexual Assault Centre since its establishment in 1979. The first step in managing victims is ensuring their wellbeing, and treating them sympathetically. The kit provides information on consent, taking the sexual assault history, recording the patient's emotional status, and treatment guidelines. It also contains equipment and instructions on collecting clothing and body evidence, and on the genital and anal examination. The collection of good forensic evidence can decrease the need for doctors and nurses to testify in court. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:21274059

  6. Rape (sexual assault) - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Sex and rape; Date rape; Sexual assault ... Rape may occur between members of the same sex. This is more common in places such as prisons, military settings, and single-sex schools. People with physical or mental disabilities or ...

  7. The sexual assault examination.

    PubMed

    Hargot, L A

    1985-04-01

    The sexual assault examination poses many problems for physicians. They must deal not only with the patient's physical and emotional trauma, but also collect forensic evidence, and provide proper treatment and follow-up. Patient management has been simplified and improved in Ontario by a standardized sexual assault examination kit. It has been used at McMaster University's Regional Sexual Assault Centre since its establishment in 1979. The first step in managing victims is ensuring their wellbeing, and treating them sympathetically. The kit provides information on consent, taking the sexual assault history, recording the patient's emotional status, and treatment guidelines. It also contains equipment and instructions on collecting clothing and body evidence, and on the genital and anal examination. The collection of good forensic evidence can decrease the need for doctors and nurses to testify in court.

  8. Working with Potentially Assaultive Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdach, Allison D.

    1993-01-01

    Examines potentially assaultive or preassaultive client and suggests some ways to minimize the risk of assault by such clients. Data for the article are from author's 10-year experience in providing social work services on acute psychiatric ward in large public medical center. Reviews potentially assaultive client conditions of panic, rage,…

  9. Fighting Campus Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Warren

    2014-01-01

    When President Obama points out, correctly, that young women stand a better chance of being sexually assaulted on a college campus than in the world outside, we have a problem that needs to be addressed not simply on campus, but at the highest levels of government. Author Warren Tolman strongly believes that the Massachusetts Office of Attorney…

  10. Physical Assault of School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajs, Lawrence T.; Schumacher, Gary; Vital, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical assault against school personnel is a serious problem, although not highly publicized. This workplace violence can result in debilitating injury to school employees along with major monetary costs. This article looks at legal issues that address physical assault against school personnel as well as the roles professional associations have…

  11. Forensic toxicology in drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2013-09-01

    The low rates of reporting, prosecution and conviction that characterize sexual assault, is likely even more evident in drug-facilitated cases. Typically, in these crimes, victims are incapacitated and left unable to resist sexual advances, unconscious, unable to fight off the abuser or to say "no" and unable to clearly remember the circumstances surrounding the events due to anterograde amnesia. The consequence is the delay in performing toxicological analysis aggravated by the reluctance of the victim to disclose the crime. Moreover since "date rape drugs" are often consumed with ethanol and exhibit similar toxicodynamic effects, the diagnosis is erroneously performed as being classical ethanol intoxication. Therefore, it is imperative to rapidly consider toxicological analysis in drug-facilitated sexual assaults. The major focus of this review is to harmonize practical approaches and guidelines to rapidly uncover drug-facilitated sexual assault, namely issues related to when to perform toxicological analysis, toxicological requests, samples to be collected, storage, preservation and transport precautions and xenobiotics or endobiotics to be analyzed. PMID:23581559

  12. Assaults against psychiatrists in outpatient settings.

    PubMed

    Dubin, W R; Wilson, S J; Mercer, C

    1988-09-01

    Questionnaires were sent to 3800 psychiatrists in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware to investigate assaults against psychiatrists in outpatient settings. Ninety-one questionnaires were returned: 32 psychiatrists reported serious assaults (gun or knife), and 59 reported less serious assaults (object or physical attack). Significantly more personal injury and property damage resulted from the less serious assaults. Coping strategy was significantly related to the type of assault; positive verbal intervention was the most effective. Thirty-one (36%) of 87 respondents stated that they had moderate to strong feelings before the attack that the patient was potentially violent. Experienced psychiatrists were as likely to be victims of assault as were inexperienced psychiatrists. Forty-eight (59%) of 81 psychiatrists continued to treat the patients who had assaulted them. Only 20 (23%) of 87 psychiatrists had security arrangements at the time of the assault. The authors present four case vignettes which typify the different types of assaults, interventions, and outcomes.

  13. The Phantom Epidemic of Sexual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Neil

    1991-01-01

    Discusses definitions and reporting of sexual assault. Concludes that the epidemic of sexual assault suggested by the media reflects a radical feminist attitude which prevents objective analysis and trivializes cases of real abuse. (DM)

  14. Multiple Perpetrator Sexual Assault: How Does It Differ from Assault by a Single Perpetrator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Louise; Brittain, Bernadette; Welch, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Research that attempts to identify characteristic features of multiple perpetrator sexual assault (MPSA) is limited. This study compared demographic and assault related characteristics of 135 cases of MPSA with 139 cases of single perpetrator sexual assault (SPSA) reported to the Haven sexual assault referral centre, Camberwell, London, over a…

  15. Sexual Assault Awareness Handbook. Knowledge is Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, Emily

    The purpose of this handbook, created as a component of a sexual assault awareness program at Millikin University, is to provide information needed to assist victims of sexual assault. Information is included on several aspects of sexual assault, as well as references and websites available for additional information. Topics covered include:…

  16. Violence in Known-Assailant Sexual Assaults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stermac, Lana; Du Mont, Janice; Dunn, Shelia

    1998-01-01

    Examines characteristics of sexual assaults among women (N=1,162) assaulted by strangers, acquaintances known for less than 24 hours, acquaintances known for more than 24 hours, and current or previous husbands or boyfriends. Findings reveal that assaults by husbands or boyfriends were more violent and resulted in more physical trauma to victims.…

  17. High Parenting Aggravation Among US Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between the joint effects of children’s immigrant family type and race/ethnicity on parenting aggravation. Methods. We analyzed data on a nationally representative sample of 101 032 children aged birth through 17 years from the 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health. Results. Analysis of the Aggravation in Parenting Scale showed that 26% of foreign-born parents with foreign-born children were highly aggravated, followed by 22% of foreign-born parents with US-born children and 11% of US-born parents. Multivariable analyses indicated that all minority parents experienced high parenting aggravation compared with non-Hispanic White US-born parents; the odds of reporting parenting aggravation were 5 times higher for Hispanic foreign-born parents. All foreign-born parents, regardless of race/ethnicity, reported significantly elevated parenting aggravation. Parents of adolescents, children with special health care needs, and nontraditional and lower-income households were also more likely to report high parenting aggravation. Conclusions. Our findings clearly document significantly elevated levels of parenting aggravation among immigrant and minority families. Public health programs and clinicians should target referrals and interventions for these families to avoid potential health problems for both children and their families. PMID:22994171

  18. Spouse Assault: A Community Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, David R.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive community approach to the problem of spouse assault involves education of a grassroots community organization, legal incorporation, establishing organizational goals and plans, publicity, state coalition of all such community groups, and new legislation. Such an approach led to the establishment of Michigan's Domestic Violence…

  19. Care of the adolescent sexual assault victim.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D W; Feinstein, R A; Fisher, M M; Klein, J D; Olmedo, L F; Rome, E S; Samuel Yancy, W; Adams Hillard, P J; Sacks, D; Pearson, G; Frankowski, B L; Piazza Hurley, T

    2001-06-01

    Sexual assault is a broad-based term that encompasses a wide range of sexual victimizations, including rape. Since the American Academy of Pediatrics published its last policy statement on this topic in 1994, additional information and data have emerged about sexual assault and rape in adolescents, the adolescent's perception of sexual assault, and the treatment and management of the adolescent who has been a victim of sexual assault. This new information mandates an updated knowledge base for pediatricians who care for adolescent patients. This statement provides that update, focusing on sexual assault and rape in the adolescent population.

  20. Sexual assault against female Nigerian students.

    PubMed

    Kullima, Abubakar Ali; Kawuwa, Mohammed Bello; Audu, Bala Mohammed; Mairiga, Abdulkarim G; Bukar, Mohammed

    2010-09-01

    Sexual assault is a common social disorder among students in our tertiary institutions. This study ascertains the extent and effect of sexual assault among Nigerian students. Two hundred and Sixty Eight structured questionnaires were distributed to randomly selected students in 4 tertiary institutions, information on socio demography, sexual history and consequences of their exposure were obtained for analysis and interpretation. Thirty seven (13.8%) of the respondents were sexually assaulted as a student and 19 (7.1%) were assaulted by their lecturers and fellow students, Younger age at coitarche, history of forced coitarche, marriage, coitarche with relations and unknown persons, significantly influenced subsequent risks of sexual assault. Improve security, moral behaviours enforcing dress code and stiffer penalties were suggested ways to prevent sexual assault among the students. Sexual assault is still a common finding in our institutions; effort should be made by all stake holders to prevent this social embarrassment. PMID:21495612

  1. Sexual assault in dating relationships.

    PubMed

    Rhynard, J; Krebs, M; Glover, J

    1997-03-01

    This article focuses on acquaintance rape, which under Canadian law constitutes a form of sexual assault. Frequency of acquaintance rape often is underestimated due to under-reporting, resulting in a local perception that acquaintance rape rarely occurs in a small Canadian community. A survey was conducted to determine whether acquaintance rape does occur in this community. One hundred sixty-four male and female students from grades 8-12 completed a questionnaire. Twenty-six percent of respondents reported being forced into some type of sexual activity. Based on the survey, this article explores the type of force used, the relationship between acquaintance rape and use of alcohol and drugs, and the relationship between acquaintance rape and the ability to indicate to a partner to stop a behavior. Results confirmed a need to develop programs to prevent rather than merely respond to issues of sexual assault on a date. PMID:9071669

  2. Stranger and Acquaintance Sexual Assault of Adult Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stermac, Lana; del Bove, Giannetta; Addison, Mary

    2004-01-01

    This study examined victim and assault characteristics and the nature and extent of coercion, violence, and physical injuries among adult male victims of sexual assaults. Client records of three groups presenting to a sexual assault care center were included: males assaulted by a stranger (n = 64), males assaulted by an acquaintance (n = 81), and…

  3. The Grand Assault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolittle, Russell F.; Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the protozoan parasite responsible for most human malaria, is among the most studied pathogens of all time, probably only exceeded by the human immunodeficiency virus HTV and the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The extent of human suffering and the devastating costs of malaria have long been recognized by world bodies, and numerous initiatives have been taken over the years in an effort to defeat this insidious microbe. Beginning in 1996, an international consortium of scientists from more than a dozen institutions set about to determine the sequence of the organism's 23-megabase genome. Their massive effort-which ended up going well beyond simple sequencing is reported in this special issue of Nature. The avowed goal of the project was to search for chinks in the parasite's armor so that new and effective drugs and vaccines might be developed.

  4. Needs of Sexual Assault Advocates in Campus-Based Sexual Assault Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Dianne; Ekhomu, Jessica; Payne, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    Most campuses have sexual assault crisis centers that are designed to assist victims and educate the college community about this crime. While much is known about sexual assault victimization patterns on college campuses, there is still a lack of understanding about the needs of those working to prevent sexual assault. In the current study, campus…

  5. The Sexual Assault Severity Scale: A Comprehensive Measure of Assault Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinson, Karyn Crystal

    2013-01-01

    Many studies in the sexual assault literature have found a significant relationship between sexual assault severity and psychological distress, specifically PTSD and suicidality. However, in the current literature, there is an inconsistent and incomplete definition of the construct of assault severity. The present study aims to create a…

  6. 25 CFR 11.407 - Sexual assault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... gratifying sexual desire, or for the purpose of abusing, humiliating, harassing, or degrading the victim. ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual assault. 11.407 Section 11.407 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.407 Sexual assault. (a) A person who has sexual contact with another person not...

  7. 25 CFR 11.407 - Sexual assault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... gratifying sexual desire, or for the purpose of abusing, humiliating, harassing, or degrading the victim. ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sexual assault. 11.407 Section 11.407 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.407 Sexual assault. (a) A person who has sexual contact with another person not...

  8. Prosecuting Assaultive Forensic and Psychiatric Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Kerri C.; Reddon, John R.; Chudleigh, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Inpatient assault of forensic and psychiatric staff is a complex and multifaceted issue. Hence, the consequences reported in the literature regarding prosecuting assaultive inpatients are quite variable. In this article, issues pertaining to the prosecution of violent inpatients are reviewed. Illustrative cases, challenges of prosecution,…

  9. Sexual Assault Reporting Procedures at Ohio Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krivoshey, Mira S.; Adkins, Rachel; Hayes, Rebecca; Nemeth, Julianna M.; Klein, Elizabeth G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess how Ohio colleges conform to recommendations that address barriers to reporting sexual assault. Participants: A study sample of Ohio 4-year colleges ("N" = 105). Methods: College Web sites were examined between March and November 2011 for their availability of sexual assault policies using 8 measures. Results: Of the colleges…

  10. PREVENTION OF SEXUAL ASSAULT IN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Eze, U.O.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault occurs commonly worldwide and is particularly pervasive in the developing world. The background to sexual violence is important in the understanding of the ramifications of the problem. Some elements that offer the means to the prevention of sexual assault in the community are important highlights especially where the means - expertise and facilities - for managing cases of sexual assault is grossly inadequate. These concepts, though are applicable universally, are however discussed in the context of the developing world and with particular emphasis on the Nigerian situation. Their applicability in sexual assault prevention is derived from previous studies in different parts of the world that highlight the viability of these interventions. Therefore if one posits that sexual assault can be prevented, certain responsibilities are imperative; some challenges must be anticipated; and special needs/circumstances should be catered for. PMID:25161422

  11. Disregarding Graduated Treatment: Why Transfer Aggravates Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kristin; Lanza-Kaduce, Lonn; Woolard, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    These data merge correctional histories with official state and courthouse information for a sample of teenage offenders, some of whom had been transferred to the adult system. Previous research indicated that transfer aggravates recidivism after the age of 18. The correctional data allow the examination of the relationship between sanctions and…

  12. The Shadow of Physical Harm? Examining the Unique and Gendered Relationship Between Fear of Murder Versus Fear of Sexual Assault on Fear of Violent Crime.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Samantha; Cook, Carrie L

    2015-09-01

    The shadow hypothesis regarding the impact of fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime suggests that female fear of crime is characterized by concern about sexual assault as a contemporaneous victimization event during a violent crime event. Recent research has found that other types of crime, namely physical assault, may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. We know of no research that has examined the unique impact of fear of murder versus fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime. There is also a lack of research that explores how these two types of fear uniquely affect men and women. In addition to gender, we examine factors that have been suggested in previous research to correlate with fear of crime: race, victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk. Through survey methodology, this research examines the unique relationship between both fear of murder and fear of sexual assault and fear of three types of violent crime for men and women. Results suggest differences in how fear of murder and fear of sexual assault are related to fear of other types of violence for men and women. Specifically, fear of murder is important in estimating male fear of robbery and aggravated assault. However, fear of sexual assault is almost as important as fear of murder for men in estimating fear of home invasion. Similarly, for women, fear of sexual assault and fear of murder both are significant factors associated with fear of violent crime, and differences between the levels of significance are marginal. This study is a first to examine whether murder may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. The results are informative in identifying what drives fear of crime, particularly violent crime, for both men and women. Avenues for future research are discussed.

  13. Time of psychiatric patient assaults: twenty-year analysis of the Assaulted Staff Action Program (ASAP).

    PubMed

    Flannery, Raymond B; Flannery, Georgina J; Walker, Andrew P

    2010-01-01

    Apparent random acts of violence viewed in the aggregate appear to occur in fairly exacting temporal patterns. This is true of rape, street assaults, and domestic violence, among other acts of violence. Patient assaults on staff as acts of violence should also follow a temporal pattern. This twenty-year retrospective study of assaultive psychiatric patients in one public sector examined the temporal pattern of such assaults. Inpatient assaults were more likely to occur in the summer in the middle ten days of the month, during the first shift at mealtimes. In community settings, assaults were more likely in winter during the first ten days of the month, and on the first shift at noon time. The possible reasons for these time patterns, their possible biological roots, and their implications for emergency services personnel and health care providers were discussed. PMID:21870385

  14. Male victims of sexual assault; 10 years' experience from a Danish Assault Center.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mie-Louise; Hilden, Malene

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to provide descriptive data regarding male victims of sexual assault seen at the Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen, Denmark. All 55 male victims attending the center in the time period of March 2001 until December 2010 underwent a standardized data collection. Data included information on the victim and the sexual assault. Male victims accounted for less than 2% of the total number of visits to the center in this time period. Fifty three percent were between 15 and 24 years. In all cases the perpetrator was male, and 25% were assaulted by more than one perpetrator. Of the 62% of male victims who gave information on sexual orientation, 36% reported themselves as heterosexuals. A total of 45.5% had an alcohol intake of more than 5 units in the hours before the assault. Forty two percent reported the assault to the police. The male victims differed from female victims in several ways; they were more often assaulted by a stranger; more likely to be assaulted by more than one perpetrator; more likely being victim of drug rape; less likely to have experienced previous sexual abuse and less willing to report their assault to the police. Being victim of a sexual assault by another man is considered a taboo subject and it is likely that the dark figure of men exposed to sexual assault is much higher than it is for women. Strengthening our knowledge regarding male victims of sexual assault is necessary to improve both primary and secondary preventive measures in order to make male victims feel safe in coming forward. Male victims should have equal access to both medical and psychological help as female victims. PMID:27391940

  15. Correlates of adult assault among homeless women.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Angela L; Wright, Kynna; Bhattacharya, Debika; Sinha, Karabi; Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of sexual and physical assault among homeless women. A multivariate, correlation design was utilized to identify independent correlates of adult physical and sexual assault. The sample consisted of 202 homeless women residing in shelters or living on the street in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Respondents reporting a history of child sexual abuse were almost four times more likely to report being sexually assaulted as adults and were almost two and one third times more likely to report being physically assaulted as adults. A range of factors increase homeless women's risk of adult physical and sexual victimization, including child sexual abuse, substance use, lifetime sex trade activity, and previous incarceration. It is important for homeless service providers to develop an individual risk profile for homeless women and to intervene in order to decrease their risk of re-victimization. PMID:21099076

  16. Aggravation of Parkinson's disease by cinnarizine.

    PubMed Central

    Martí Massó, J F; Obeso, J A; Carrera, N; Martínez-Lage, J M

    1987-01-01

    The effect of cinnarizine on motor function in Parkinson's disease was evaluated in a randomised double-blind parallel study of 20 patients. Both groups were comparable in age, duration of the disease, dose of levodopa and degree of disability. A significant worsening of mobility was observed in patients treated with cinnarizine (75 mg bd), whilst no change was recorded in patients receiving placebo. Cinnarizine should be added to the list of drugs capable of aggravating Parkinson's disease. PMID:3302112

  17. Adult Sexual Assault Survivors' Experiences with Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANEs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Campbell, Rebecca; Patterson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Sexual assault survivors often feel traumatized by the care received in traditional hospital emergency departments. To address these problems, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs were created to provide comprehensive medical care, crisis intervention, and forensic services. However, there is limited research on the actual experiences and…

  18. The pathways model of assault: a qualitative analysis of the assault offender and offense.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Jemma C; Ward, Tony; Eccleston, Lynne; Brown, Mark

    2009-09-01

    Research on offending behavior rehabilitation suggests that offenders would gain the maximum benefit from programs that reflect the individual needs of different types of offender. Multivariate theories of offending behavior are thus required to inform individualized rehabilitation. The aim of the current study was to construct a multivariate model for the prolific offense of assault. Qualitative methodology was used to construct a descriptive model of assault for 25 adult assault offenders. The model incorporated the development of violent behavior, types of anger, violence motivation, and the assault offense. The model consisted of 14 categories, 10 of which allowed for individual differences in behavior. A total of 35 participant transcripts were then coded through the model where the individual differences occurred. Five main offense types were found. The characteristics of the types of assault offense gave indications for how rehabilitation may be targeted for each group.

  19. Resistance to sexual assault: who resists and what happens?

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, J M; Sorenson, S B; Golding, J M; Burnam, M A; Stein, J A

    1989-01-01

    To determine who resists sexual assault and what happens, data were examined from a probability sample of 3,132 adult community residents of Los Angeles, California. Seventy-five per cent of the respondents reporting an assault (n = 365) indicated that they had attempted to resist their most recent assault; talking was the most frequently used resistance strategy. The strongest predictor to emerge in the multivariate analyses of resistance was timing of assault: respondents assaulted only in childhood were less likely to resist than either respondents assaulted only in adulthood, or respondents assaulted in both phases. Univariate analyses indicated that resistance reduced the probability of sexual contact, however multivariate analyses suggested that assailant use of force was the most important determinant of assault outcome. PMID:2909177

  20. The role of the sexual assault centre.

    PubMed

    Eogan, Maeve; McHugh, Anne; Holohan, Mary

    2013-02-01

    Sexual Assault Centres provide multidisciplinary care for men and women who have experienced sexual crime. These centres enable provision of medical, forensic, psychological support and follow-up care, even if patients chose not to report the incident to the police service. Sexual Support Centres need to provide a ring-fenced, forensically clean environment. They need to be appropriately staffed and available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to allow prompt provision of medical and supportive care and collection of forensic evidence. Sexual Assault Centres work best within the context of a core agreed model of care, which includes defined multi-agency guidelines and care pathways, close links with forensic science and police services, and designated and sustainable funding arrangements. Additionally, Sexual Assault Centres also participate in patient, staff and community education and risk reduction. Furthermore, they contribute to the development, evaluation and implementation of national strategies on domestic, sexual and gender-based violence. PMID:22975433

  1. Alcohol Sales and Risk of Serious Assault

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Joel G; Moineddin, Rahim; Bell, Chaim M; Thiruchelvam, Deva; Creatore, Maria Isabella; Gozdyra, Piotr; Cusimano, Michael; Redelmeier, Donald A

    2008-01-01

    Background Alcohol is a contributing cause of unintentional injuries, such as motor vehicle crashes. Prior research on the association between alcohol use and violent injury was limited to survey-based data, and the inclusion of cases from a single trauma centre, without adequate controls. Beyond these limitations was the inability of prior researchers to comprehensively capture most alcohol sales. In Ontario, most alcohol is sold through retail outlets run by the provincial government, and hospitals are financed under a provincial health care system. We assessed the risk of being hospitalized due to assault in association with retail alcohol sales across Ontario. Methods and Findings We performed a population-based case-crossover analysis of all persons aged 13 years and older hospitalized for assault in Ontario from 1 April 2002 to 1 December 2004. On the day prior to each assault case's hospitalization, the volume of alcohol sold at the store in closest proximity to the victim's home was compared to the volume of alcohol sold at the same store 7 d earlier. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associated relative risk (RR) of assault per 1,000 l higher daily sales of alcohol. Of the 3,212 persons admitted to hospital for assault, nearly 25% were between the ages of 13 and 20 y, and 83% were male. A total of 1,150 assaults (36%) involved the use of a sharp or blunt weapon, and 1,532 (48%) arose during an unarmed brawl or fight. For every 1,000 l more of alcohol sold per store per day, the relative risk of being hospitalized for assault was 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.26). The risk was accentuated for males (1.18, 95% CI 1.05–1.33), youth aged 13 to 20 y (1.21, 95% CI 0.99–1.46), and those in urban areas (1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.35). Conclusions The risk of being a victim of serious assault increases with alcohol sales, especially among young urban men. Akin to reducing the risk of driving while impaired

  2. Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault on Campus: Challenges and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Laura G.

    2002-01-01

    The use of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) to facilitate sexual assault is increasing on campuses nationwide. This article provides college counselors with an overview of the use of GHB in campus sexual assault, outlines suggestions for crisis intervention, and discusses the challenges of counseling survivors of drug-facilitated sexual assault.…

  3. 78 FR 20443 - Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... tissue to prevent undue suffering. Regardless of appearance, a sexual assault victim needs immediate... treated as emergency cases. A sexual assault victim needs immediate medical intervention to prevent loss... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 103 Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program...

  4. Current Psychopathology in Previously Assaulted Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acierno, Ron; Lawyer, Steven R.; Rheingold, Alyssa; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2007-01-01

    Older adult women age 55+ years (N = 549) were interviewed as part of a population-based epidemiological research study of lifetime experiences with physical and sexual assault and current mental health problems. Although overall rates of psychopathology were low, producing very small cells for comparison, women who reported experiencing physical…

  5. Sexual Assault of Older Women by Strangers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Susan J.; Hunt, Laura; Shaw, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This study examines victim, offender, and offence characteristics associated with sexual assaults by strangers of older women compared to those against younger women. Cases are obtained from the Serious Crime Analysis Section of the United Kingdom National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA; formerly Centrex). All possible cases of rape, attempted…

  6. Illegal Procedure? Title IX and Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Many higher education institutions are scrutinized by their campus community and the media for the way that they respond, or fail to respond, to allegations of sexual assault. Tack on the fact that nearly 100 colleges and universities are currently under investigation by the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR) for…

  7. Family Violence & Sexual Assault Bulletin, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family Violence & Sexual Assault Bulletin, 1997

    1997-01-01

    These two issues contain reviews of legal/legislative issues, research and treatment issues, book and video materials, and on-line resources and websites relating to family violence and sexual assault. The first issue, contains "Empowering African American Children To Become Resilient: Early Success in Overcoming Violent Families and Communities…

  8. Court Dispositions and Rearrest for Intimate Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldredge, John; Thistlethwaite, Amy

    2005-01-01

    Researchers examining court dispositions and domestic violence recidivism have argued that disposition effectiveness varies by offender characteristics. We extended this research with analyses of 3,662 persons arrested for misdemeanor assaults on intimates in Hamilton County, Ohio. The incidence, prevalence, and time to rearrest are examined for…

  9. Assault by burning in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, Kishore Kumar; Khondokar, M Sazzad; Quamruzzaman, M; Ahmed, Syed Shamsuddin; Peck, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Assault by burning in Dhaka, Bangladesh, occurs in a variety of forms, resulting from various causes and motives. A total of 311 cases of intentional burns from the Burn Unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2004 to May 2011 (6 years) were studied by retrospective and prospective observational review. The majority of victims (68%) were female. Concentrated sulphuric acid was the most commonly used chemical for attack. Disfigurement was the principal complication (mortality, 4%). Dowry-related issues, divorce and other marital quarrels were frequent backgrounds for assault by burning. Kerosene oil was used to ignite 78 girls or young women, most often related to conflicts over dowry (mortality 97%). A total of 102 victims (32%) in all burn groups were attacked because of dowry-related issues. Intentional contact burns were often inflicted on domestic servants. Although physical morbidity and mortality were not reported in contact and other types of burns, psychological disturbances were reported in all victims. A few victims had been assaulted prior to receiving burns, and fractures and deformities were also present on examination at the time of presentation for burn treatment. Ophthalmic injury, with frequent visual impairment, was very common in cases of chemical attack. Legal and social support for victims and their families are frequently inadequate to compensate for losses. Clearly, more attention in our community should be focussed on the prevention of burn assaults, adequate compensation and medical care for victims, as well as speedy retribution for perpetrators.

  10. "Fresh" Thoughts on Studying Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    When the author started graduate school in the late 1970s, she was drawn to studying sexual assault. She had been a declared feminist since high school as the Women's Movement even reached the coal region of eastern Pennsylvania! Attending college in New York City, with its myriad opportunities for more exposure to what feminists were up to, made…

  11. 38 CFR 3.306 - Aggravation of preservice disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... considered to have been aggravated by active military, naval, or air service, where there is an increase in disability during such service, unless there is a specific finding that the increase in disability is due to... rebut the presumption of aggravation where the preservice disability underwent an increase in...

  12. Characteristics associated with sexual assaults at mass gatherings

    PubMed Central

    Sampsel, Kari; Godbout, Justin; Leach, Tara; Taljaard, Monica; Calder, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexual assault is disturbingly common, yet little is known about those occurring at mass gatherings, defined as a group of people congregated for a common purpose. Our objectives were to examine patterns of variation in sexual assault associated with mass gatherings and to determine factors associated with assaults occurring at mass gatherings. Methods We performed a case series analysis from January to December, 2013. We included all patients >16 years presenting within 30 days of their sexual assault to the Ottawa Hospital Sexual Assault and Partner Abuse Care Program (SAPACP). Cases were stratified by whether or not they occurred at mass gatherings. We abstracted from the SAPACP records: patient and sexual assault characteristics, alcohol or drug consumption and medical and forensic care accepted. We performed descriptive analyses and multiple logistical regression to identify factors associated with mass gathering assaults. Results We found 204 cases of sexual assault, of which 53 (26%) occurred at mass gatherings. Relative frequencies of mass gathering sexual assaults peaked during New Year's Eve, Canada Day, university frosh week and Halloween. We found the following factors were statistically significantly associated with sexual assault at mass gatherings: younger age (OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.99); voluntary consumption of drugs and alcohol (3.88, 95% CI 1.34 to 11.23); assault occurring on a holiday (2.37, 95% CI 1.00 to 5.64) and the assailant unknown to the victim (2.43, 95% CI 1.15 to 5). Interpretation This study is the first to describe patterns of variation in sexual assault incidents associated with occurrence of mass gatherings as well as factors associated with such assaults. We will disseminate these results to key stakeholders in order to develop prevention-minded policies for future mass gatherings. PMID:26315648

  13. Drug-facilitated sexual assault ('date rape').

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Milteer, R; LeBeau, M A

    2000-06-01

    In the past few years, drug-facilitated sexual assaults have received widespread media coverage. In addition to alcohol, the most frequently used date-rape drug, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), a fast-acting benzodiazepine, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its congeners are among the most popular drugs used for this purpose. The latter drug is easily procured at some gymnasiums, popular bars, discos, and rave clubs, as well as over the Internet. Perpetrators choose these drugs because they act rapidly, produce disinhibition and relaxation of voluntary muscles, and cause the victim to have lasting anterograde amnesia for events that occur under the influence of the drug. Alcoholic beverages potentiate the drug effects. We review several date-rape drugs, provide information on laboratory testing for them, and offer guidelines for preventing drug-facilitated sexual assault. PMID:10881768

  14. Assault related substance use as a predictor of substance use over time within a sample of recent victims of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Heidi S; Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna L; Schumacher, Julie A; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Acierno, Ron E

    2012-08-01

    Substance use at time of assault is reported by a significant subgroup of rape victims. This study examined: (1) prevalence of assault related marijuana or alcohol use among women seeking post-rape medical care; (2) sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive power associated with reported use at time of assault in association with use in 6 weeks pre-assault, post-assault use, and post-assault abuse; and (3) trajectories of use and abuse over time as a function of use in 6 weeks pre-assault/assault time frame use, exposure to brief intervention, and interaction of pre-assault/assault time frame use with intervention. Participants were 268 women seeking post-sexual assault medical services completing one or more follow-up assessment at: (1) <3 months post-assault; (2) 3 to 6 months post-assault; and (3) 6 months or longer post-assault. Use of alcohol or marijuana at time of assault was a fairly sensitive and specific indicator respectively, of reported use of specific substance in the 6 weeks preceding assault and use or abuse at follow-up. Growth modeling revealed that use of alcohol or marijuana at the time of the assault or in the 6 weeks prior to assault predicted higher Time 1 follow-up alcohol and marijuana use and abuse. Although there was relatively little change in use or abuse over time, alcohol use at time of the assault or in the 6 weeks prior also predicted a steeper decline in alcohol use over the course of follow-up. Interestingly, women who reported using marijuana at the time of the assault or in the 6 weeks prior who also received a video intervention actually had lower initial marijuana use, a pattern that remained stable over time. Implications for evaluating screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment services among sexual assault victims seeking post-assault medical care are discussed.

  15. Sexual Assault Experienced by Deaf Female Undergraduates: Prevalence and Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Elliott Smith, Rebecca A; Pick, Lawrence H

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 25% of hearing women in the United States experience rape in their life-time, whereas deaf women have been found to experience increased rates of assault consistent with other marginalized populations. This study explored sexual assault prevalence and characteristics of assault in deaf female undergraduate students. Results revealed that more than two-thirds of the participants (69%) endorsed experiencing at least one assault and more than half (56%) experienced multiple types of assault. Most assaults were committed by a man known to the survivor. Characteristics (e.g., hearing status, primary language, and ethnicity) of the survivors and the assailants are explored. The implications of this data are discussed as well as the development of culturally and linguistically sensitive outreach and educational programs.

  16. Sexual Assault Simulation Course for Healthcare Providers: Enhancing Sexual Assault Education Using Simulation.

    PubMed

    Scannell, Meredith; Lewis-O'Connor, Annie; Barash, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Patients who have been sexually assaulted disproportionately experience gaps in healthcare delivery. Ensuring that healthcare providers who care for this population are adequately prepared is one way of addressing this gap. At the Brigham and Women's Hospital, a 4-hour long interprofessional Sexual Assault Simulation Course for Healthcare Providers (SASH) was developed and conducted at the hospital's Simulation, Training, Research, & Technology Utilization System Center. The SASH is offered using a variety of teaching methodologies including didactics, skill stations comprising how to collect forensic evidence, simulation experience with standardized patient, and debriefing. Using simulation as an educational method allows healthcare professionals to gain hands-on skills in a safe environment. Ultimately, the goal of the SASH is to enhance collaborative practice between healthcare professionals and to improve knowledge, with the purpose of improving care for patients who have been sexually assaulted.

  17. Sexual Assault Simulation Course for Healthcare Providers: Enhancing Sexual Assault Education Using Simulation.

    PubMed

    Scannell, Meredith; Lewis-O'Connor, Annie; Barash, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Patients who have been sexually assaulted disproportionately experience gaps in healthcare delivery. Ensuring that healthcare providers who care for this population are adequately prepared is one way of addressing this gap. At the Brigham and Women's Hospital, a 4-hour long interprofessional Sexual Assault Simulation Course for Healthcare Providers (SASH) was developed and conducted at the hospital's Simulation, Training, Research, & Technology Utilization System Center. The SASH is offered using a variety of teaching methodologies including didactics, skill stations comprising how to collect forensic evidence, simulation experience with standardized patient, and debriefing. Using simulation as an educational method allows healthcare professionals to gain hands-on skills in a safe environment. Ultimately, the goal of the SASH is to enhance collaborative practice between healthcare professionals and to improve knowledge, with the purpose of improving care for patients who have been sexually assaulted. PMID:26457900

  18. Male victims of sexual assault: phenomenology, psychology, physiology.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Clayton M; Beckson, Mace

    2011-01-01

    Myths, stereotypes, and unfounded beliefs about male sexuality, in particular male homosexuality, are widespread in legal and medical communities, as well as among agencies providing services to sexual assault victims. These include perceptions that men in noninstitutionalized settings are rarely sexually assaulted, that male victims are responsible for their assaults, that male sexual assault victims are less traumatized by the experience than their female counterparts, and that ejaculation is an indicator of a positive erotic experience. As a result of the prevalence of such beliefs, there is an underreporting of sexual assaults by male victims; a lack of appropriate services for male victims; and, effectively, no legal redress for male sexual assault victims. By comparison, male sexual assault victims have fewer resources and greater stigma than do female sexual assault victims. Many male victims, either because of physiological effects of anal rape or direct stimulation by their assailants, have an erection, ejaculate, or both during the assault. This is incorrectly understood by assailant, victim, the justice system, and the medical community as signifying consent by the victim. Studies of male sexual physiology suggest that involuntary erections or ejaculations can occur in the context of nonconsensual, receptive anal sex. Erections and ejaculations are only partially under voluntary control and are known to occur during times of extreme duress in the absence of sexual pleasure. Particularly within the criminal justice system, this misconception, in addition to other unfounded beliefs, has made the courts unwilling to provide legal remedy to male victims of sexual assault, especially when the victim experienced an erection or an ejaculation during the assault. Attorneys and forensic psychiatrists must be better informed about the physiology of these phenomena to formulate evidence-based opinions.

  19. Patterns of Injury and Reported Violence Depending on Relationship to Assailant in Female Swedish Sexual Assault Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Anna Sofia; Backstrom, Torbjorn; Sondergaard, Hans Peter; Helstrom, Lotti

    2012-01-01

    Earlier studies have explored the differences between known-assailant sexual assaults and stranger assaults and reported the stranger assaults as being more violent. Only a few studies have discriminated between sexual assaults by intimate partners from assaults by other known assailants when comparing with assaults by strangers. In this study, we…

  20. Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Service Goal Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Johns, Natalie; Rizo, Cynthia F.; Martin, Sandra L.; Giattina, Mary

    2011-01-01

    We investigated agency directors' perspectives about how service goals should be prioritized for domestic violence and sexual assault service subtypes, including crisis, legal advocacy, medical advocacy, counseling, support group, and shelter services. A sample of 97 (94% response rate) North Carolina domestic violence and/or sexual assault agency…

  1. Men's Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21 to 35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of…

  2. Effectiveness of a Social Change Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith E.

    2009-01-01

    The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…

  3. Identifying Subtypes of Spousal Assaulters Using the B-SAFER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thijssen, Jill; de Ruiter, Corine

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, a structured risk assessment instrument for intimate partner violence, the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER), was coded for 146 files of spousal assault cases from the Dutch probation service, dating from 2004 and 2005. The aim of the study was twofold: (a) to validate Holtzworth-Munroe and…

  4. Objective Ratings of Assault Safety as Predictors of PTSD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascardi, Michele; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines whether two trauma characteristics that are hypothesized to relate to perceptions of safety--assault location and assailant identity--predict rate and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female rape victims. Contrary to prediction, women assaulted by dangerous assailants reported significantly more severe PTSD symptoms…

  5. Attributions, World Assumptions, and Recovery from Sexual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.

    1997-01-01

    Examined how sexual assault history and attributions of blame were related to measures of recovery from, and cognitive adaptation to, trauma in a convenience sample of sexual assault victims (N=155). Results indicate that attributions of blame were related to assumptions about self and world but were unrelated to self-rated recovery. (RJM)

  6. Changes in Women's Sexual Behavior Following Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deliramich, Aimee N.; Gray, Matt J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines changes in women's sexual activity and behavior following sexual assault and the relationship between alcohol abuse and postassault promiscuity. Although many researchers have focused on avoidance of sexual activity following an assault, some have suggested that women may exhibit an increase in sexual activity…

  7. Issues and dynamics of sexually assaulted adolescents and their families.

    PubMed

    Clements, Paul T; Speck, Patricia M; Crane, Patricia A; Faulkner, Martha J

    2004-12-01

    Interpersonal violence such as sexual assault creates a variety of traumatic responses. Adolescents encounter a significantly high rate of exposure to sexual assault. In the aftermath of sexual assault, issues and dynamics related to traumatic responses include ongoing fear and threats to personal safety, stability, and structure of the family and environment. Each issue is of concern for community and health care practitioners. Sexual assault has a detrimental effect on adolescent intrapsychic development and interpersonal relationships. Symptoms are disturbing and disruptive to daily routines, negatively affect adolescent normal growth and development, and can result in post-traumatic stress disorder. Issues and dynamics regarding sexual assault are explored, with suggestions on how to help adolescents avoid developing a negative world view and long-term negative health consequences.

  8. [Aggravation after Diagnosis of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Ichiro; Nemoto, Toshimitsu; Tsukuda, Tomoko; Koshizuka, Keiichi

    2015-03-01

    Among 95 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss who received inpatient treatment at our hospital within the 27-month period between October 2009 and December 2011, those in whom hearing loss was aggravated after diagnosis were compared with a control group. Hearing loss aggravation was defined as a decrease by 10 dB or more in the mean hearing threshold at 5 frequencies from 250 to 4,000 Hz or decrease of 15 dB or more in the hearing threshold at 2 consecutive frequencies. Hearing loss was aggravated after diagnosis in 22 (23.2%) of the 95 patients, showing a similar tendency to that previously reported. Although the grades of hearing loss in these patients were higher than those in 73 control group patients, according to the sudden hearing loss severity classification, their outcomes were favorable. The hearing loss aggravation group consisted of those with steroid-dependent hearing loss (6) and those who had undergone perilymphatic fistula repair (4), in addition to a large number of patients with idiopathic hearing loss, including suspicious perilymphatic fistula (10). When hearing loss becomes aggravated after the diagnosis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, it may be important to determine the most appropriate approach in each case, such as a careful and gradual decrease in the adenocortical steroid dose and the consideration of perilymphatic fistula repair.

  9. Sexual assault and disordered eating in Asian women.

    PubMed

    La Flair, Lareina N; Franko, Debra L; Herzog, David B

    2008-01-01

    The link between sexual assault and disordered eating has yet to be clarified, especially for ethnic minority populations. Asian women, in particular, report low rates of both sexual assault and eating disorders compared to their Western counterparts, and studies suggest that these rates may be conservative. The literature indicates that there are cultural attitudes that contribute to non- and underreporting of sexual assault by Asian women and that these sociocultural factors may have an important role in the development of eating disorders as a response to sexual victimization. Research illustrates a relationship between sexual assault and eating disorders; eating disorders may serve as coping mechanisms for survivors of sexual assault by providing a mechanism for comfort, numbing, and distracting in an effort to rid the painful feelings in response to the assault. To stimulate future research, this article reviews the current literature on the development of eating disorders following a sexual assault and on the sociocultural factors linking both phenomena in Asian women, and offers avenues for investigation to increase our understanding of these relationships.

  10. Sexual Assault on the College Campus: The Role of Male Peer Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Martin D.; DeKeseredy, Walter S.

    This book links research on two topics--sexual assault on North American college and university campuses and the role played by male peer support in such assaults. Disputing the notion that college campuses are safe havens from crime, the first chapter defines sexual assault, notes the incidence and prevalence of campus sexual assault, and…

  11. The Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner's Interactions Within the Sexual Assault Response Team: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Adams, Phyllis; Hulton, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Many emergency department nurses care for the sexually assaulted victim, when sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) programs are not available. Therefore, it is important for emergency department nurses to understand the roles of both the SANE and the sexual assault response team (SART). The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the current research on the integration of the SANE among the SART and evaluate the gaps in research of the SANE's role, attitude, behavior, and satisfaction within the collaborative SART. Studies published between 2004 and 2014 using key words were evaluated. A 3-stage search strategy revealed 582 articles. The articles were assessed and categorized according to Level of Evidence definitions. Twelve qualitative and mixed-methods studies were identified. Studies ranged from SART protocols or responses to situational factors to SANE relationships with other SART members. The review reflected the need for more research within the collaborative atmosphere of this multidisciplinary and interagency team that defines the SART, and the individual member's perceptions. Further studies are needed on the SANE's impact on patient outcome and the emergency department nurses role when a SANE or SART program is not available. PMID:27482993

  12. Penetrating Heart Injury due to Screwdriver Assault

    PubMed Central

    Dieng, P. A.; Diop, M. S.; Ciss, A. G.; Ba, P. S.; Diatta, S.; Gaye, M.; Fall, M. L.; Ndiaye, A.; Ndiaye, M.

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating heart injuries cause wounds in the cardiac chambers. Most of them are due to gunshot or stabbing by knives. Screwdriver is an uncommon weapon. Authors report a case of stab wound by screwdriver, treated at cardiovascular center in Dakar. This is a 16-year-old boy who experienced physical aggression. He was assaulted with a screwdriver and had stab wound on the anterior wall of the chest. Physical examination showed a screwdriver penetrating the sternum bone over a right angle. He had a mild pericardial blood effusion and a right ventricle wound 5 mm in diameter with transection of the right coronary vein. The screwdriver was removed without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and the ventricle wound repaired by direct suture of stitches reinforced with Teflon pledgets. The right coronary artery was ligated. Postoperative period was free of events. Screwdriver is uncommonly used as a weapon. It is a dangerous device because of its rigid structure and narrow tip. PMID:25945263

  13. Sexual assault in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Badejoko, Olusegun Olalekan; Anyabolu, Henry Chineme; Badejoko, Bolaji Olusola; Ijarotimi, Adebimpe Omotade; Kuti, Oluwafemi; Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa Aderonke

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexual assault (SA) is a shattering malevolence against women. This study determined the burden, periodicity, presentation and management of SA in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 76 SA survivors managed over a 5-year period (2007-2011) in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife. Results: Sexual assault accounted for 0.69% of all female and 5.2% of all gynaecological emergencies in OAUTHC, Ile-Ife. The survivors’ ages ranged from 4 to 50 years (mean = 17.7 ± 8.8years) and adolescents made up for 48%. The peak prevalence of SA was in February and December and among adults and under-16-year-old survivors, respectively. Daytime and weekday SA were significantly more common among the under-16-year-old survivors (P = 0.008). Majority of the survivors (62%) knew their assailant(s). Neighbours were the commonest perpetrators identified (28.2%) and the assailants’ house was the commonest location (39.4%). Weapons were involved in 29.6% of cases and various injuries were identified in 28.2% of the survivors. Hospital presentation was within 24 hours in majority (76.1%) of the survivors, but rape kit examinations were not performed as the kits were not available. Although appropriate medical management was routinely commenced, only 12.7% of survivors returned for follow-up. Conclusions: Seasonal and diurnal patterns exist in the prevalence of SA in Ile-Ife and most survivors that reported in the hospital presented early. Rape kit examinations were, however, not executed, due to non-availability. Personnel training, protocol development, provision of rape kits and free treatment of SA survivors are, therefore, recommended. Public enlightenment on preventive strategies based on the observed periodicity and age patterns is also suggested. PMID:25013260

  14. Providing quality care to the sexual assault survivor: education and training for medical professionals.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Health care providers who perform sexual assault examinations can assist patients who report experiencing a sexual assault by increasing their knowledge and skills in sexual assault care, and serving as Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) coordinators, or as SART team members, in their communities. With little additional material, this training could be provided as a component of basic midwifery and/or advanced practice nursing education programs. This article reviews the essential steps and required training for conducting sexual assault examinations.

  15. 38 CFR 3.306 - Aggravation of preservice disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Connection § 3.306 Aggravation of preservice disability. (a) General. A preexisting injury or disease will be... the natural progress of the disease. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1153) (b) Wartime service; peacetime... disease or other conditions incurred before enlistment, including postoperative scars, absent or...

  16. 38 CFR 3.306 - Aggravation of preservice disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... disability. 3.306 Section 3.306 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Connection § 3.306 Aggravation of preservice disability. (a) General. A preexisting injury or disease will be... disability during such service, unless there is a specific finding that the increase in disability is due...

  17. 38 CFR 3.306 - Aggravation of preservice disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... disability. 3.306 Section 3.306 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Connection § 3.306 Aggravation of preservice disability. (a) General. A preexisting injury or disease will be... disability during such service, unless there is a specific finding that the increase in disability is due...

  18. 38 CFR 3.306 - Aggravation of preservice disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... disability. 3.306 Section 3.306 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Connection § 3.306 Aggravation of preservice disability. (a) General. A preexisting injury or disease will be... disability during such service, unless there is a specific finding that the increase in disability is due...

  19. Pulmonary embolism aggravated by two short flights 3 days apart.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Charles M; White, Jocelyn C; Dunn, Patrick M

    2005-07-01

    An elderly internist experienced aggravation of preexisting pulmonary emboli following each of two short flights of 75 min apiece 3 d apart. A brief discussion of risk factors is included. It is suggested that pertinent reports should separate venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) from uncomplicated deep venous thrombosis (DVT).

  20. A comparative and comprehensive analysis of nonsexual assaults.

    PubMed

    Asirdizer, Mahmut; Yavuz, M Sunay

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to make a comparative and comprehensive analysis of nonsexual assaults in 488 medico-legal cases presented to Forensic Medicine Outpatient Clinic of Celal Bayar University Hospital (Manisa, Turkey), between 2005 and 2009. There were blunt force injuries (BFI) in 262 cases (53.7%), sharp force injuries (SFI) in 163 cases (33.4%), and firearm-related wounds (FRW) in 63 cases (12.9%). The results showed significant differences in the monthly distribution of assaults, localization of injuries, and severity of injuries depending on the types of assaults. Most of the injuries were localized to the face, head, and neck in BFI and SFI and to the lower limbs in FRW. The results of this study will help researchers to investigate characteristics of victims, offenders, and injuries and types of assaults because of nonsexual violence.

  1. Attitudinal, Experiential, and Situational Predictors of Sexual Assault Perpetration

    PubMed Central

    ABBEY, ANTONIA; MCAUSLAN, PAM; ZAWACKI, TINA; CLINTON, A. MONIQUE; BUCK, PHILIP O.

    2015-01-01

    Past research demonstrates that sexual assault perpetration is caused by multiple factors including attitudes, early experiences, and situational factors. In this study, 343 college men described either a sexual assault they had committed or their worst date. Discriminant function analysis indicated that attitudes about gender roles and alcohol, number of consensual sex partners, how well the man knew the woman, how isolated the setting was, alcohol consumption during the event, the man’s misperception of the woman’s cues during the event, and prior consensual sexual activity between the man and the woman discriminated between sexual assaults and worst dates. Additionally, tactics used to obtain sex, self attributions, the perceived seriousness of the assault, and the extent to which it disrupted relationships with others significantly discriminated between men who committed forced sexual contact, sexual coercion, and rape. These results demonstrate the importance of considering both individual characteristics and situational factors in theories and prevention activities. PMID:26435575

  2. A Review of Sexual Assault Information on College Web Sites.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Rachel; McMahon, Sarah; Broadnax, Jesica

    2015-11-01

    This article presents a comprehensive review of information available on campus Web sites at all four-year colleges and universities in New Jersey. This study used a descriptive, content analysis methodology with a sample that consisted of 28 college and university Web pages. To evaluate the Web sites, ecological approaches were rated with a checklist created to document the presence and extent of information about sexual assault, including five key areas: (1) general information about sexual assault, (2) the availability of services for students, (3) information about how to report an incident of sexual assault, (4) whether there was a department exclusively dedicated to the school's response to sexual assault, and (5) information about the existence of a policy prohibiting sexual assault on campus. Almost all of the schools provided policies and information about services for students. However, the comprehensiveness of the information and the ease of finding it varied greatly by campus. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for social workers and those responding to survivors of sexual assault on a college campus. PMID:26638503

  3. Interpersonal violence amongst primary health care patients in Lesotho: A qualitative study of the reasons for assault

    PubMed Central

    Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A.; Omole, Olufemi B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Interpersonal violence is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. The incidence of and weapons used in interpersonal violence vary amongst countries and may even vary within regions of a country. Substance abuse, including alcohol, has been linked to interpersonal violence, but other socio-economic factors, cultural and traditional practices may also influence the perpetration of violence. Methods In 2002, a qualitative study was conducted to explore the experiences of physically-assaulted victims of interpersonal violence at a local clinic in Leribe district of the Kingdom of Lesotho. Results Aggravating factors for interpersonal violence included jealousy, unemployment, availability of weapons, substance abuse and poor levels of education. Interpersonal violence was ameliorated by family interventions, reporting to the authorities, seeking protection from assailants and religious assistance. Most interpersonal violence occurred during the night and on weekends. The head and neck regions are the most common anatomical sites of injury. Conclusion Emotional and socio-cultural factors aggravate interpersonal violence in Lesotho, whilst family and religious interventions ameliorate it. Legislation addressing the protection of victims needs to be enacted, and community agencies dealing with interpersonal violence should be established. Studies which assess the requirements and the feasibility of intervention programs are also needed in the kingdom of Lesotho.

  4. Aggravated neuromuscular symptoms of mercury exposure from dental amalgam fillings.

    PubMed

    Akbal, Ayla; Yılmaz, Hınç; Tutkun, Engin; Köş, Durdu Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Dental amalgam fillings are widely used all over the world. However, their mercury content can lead to various side effects and clinical problems. Acute or chronic mercury exposure can cause several side effects on the central nerve system, renal and hepatic functions, immune system, fetal development and it can play a role on exacerbation of neuromuscular diseases. In this case, we will present a patient with vacuolar myopathy whose symptoms were started and aggravated with her dental amalgam fillings.

  5. 38 CFR 3.322 - Rating of disabilities aggravated by service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rating of disabilities... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.322 Rating of disabilities aggravated by service. (a) Aggravation of preservice disability. In cases involving aggravation by active service, the rating will reflect only...

  6. 38 CFR 3.322 - Rating of disabilities aggravated by service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rating of disabilities... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.322 Rating of disabilities aggravated by service. (a) Aggravation of preservice disability. In cases involving aggravation by active service, the rating will reflect only...

  7. 38 CFR 3.322 - Rating of disabilities aggravated by service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rating of disabilities... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.322 Rating of disabilities aggravated by service. (a) Aggravation of preservice disability. In cases involving aggravation by active service, the rating will reflect only...

  8. 38 CFR 4.22 - Rating of disabilities aggravated by active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... aggravated by active service. 4.22 Section 4.22 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... aggravated by active service. In cases involving aggravation by active service, the rating will reflect only the degree of disability over and above the degree existing at the time of entrance into the...

  9. 38 CFR 4.22 - Rating of disabilities aggravated by active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... aggravated by active service. 4.22 Section 4.22 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... aggravated by active service. In cases involving aggravation by active service, the rating will reflect only the degree of disability over and above the degree existing at the time of entrance into the...

  10. 38 CFR 4.22 - Rating of disabilities aggravated by active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... aggravated by active service. 4.22 Section 4.22 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... aggravated by active service. In cases involving aggravation by active service, the rating will reflect only the degree of disability over and above the degree existing at the time of entrance into the...

  11. 38 CFR 4.22 - Rating of disabilities aggravated by active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... aggravated by active service. 4.22 Section 4.22 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... aggravated by active service. In cases involving aggravation by active service, the rating will reflect only the degree of disability over and above the degree existing at the time of entrance into the...

  12. 38 CFR 4.22 - Rating of disabilities aggravated by active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... aggravated by active service. 4.22 Section 4.22 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... aggravated by active service. In cases involving aggravation by active service, the rating will reflect only the degree of disability over and above the degree existing at the time of entrance into the...

  13. Investigating the Link Between Gun Possession and Gun Assault

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Therese S.; Culhane, Dennis P.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the possible relationship between being shot in an assault and possession of a gun at the time. Methods. We enrolled 677 case participants that had been shot in an assault and 684 population-based control participants within Philadelphia, PA, from 2003 to 2006. We adjusted odds ratios for confounding variables. Results. After adjustment, individuals in possession of a gun were 4.46 (P < .05) times more likely to be shot in an assault than those not in possession. Among gun assaults where the victim had at least some chance to resist, this adjusted odds ratio increased to 5.45 (P < .05). Conclusions. On average, guns did not protect those who possessed them from being shot in an assault. Although successful defensive gun uses occur each year, the probability of success may be low for civilian gun users in urban areas. Such users should reconsider their possession of guns or, at least, understand that regular possession necessitates careful safety countermeasures. PMID:19762675

  14. Predictors of Using Mental Health Services After Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual assault increases the risk for psychopathology. Despite the availability of effective interventions, relatively few victims who need treatment receive care in the months following an assault. Prior work identified several factors associated with utilizing care, including ethnicity, insurance, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined predictors of treatment utilization prospectively from the time of assault. The present study hypothesized that White racial status, younger age, being partnered, having health insurance, having previously received mental health treatment, and having more PTSD and depression symptoms would predict utilization of care in the 6 months postassault. This was examined in a sample of 266 female sexual assault victims with an average age of 26.2 years, of whom 62.0% were White and 38.0% were African American assessed at 1.5 and 6 months postassault. Available information on utilizing care varied across assessments (1.5 months, n = 214; 3 months, n = 126; 6 months, n = 204). Significant predictors included having previously received mental health treatment (OR = 4.09), 1 day depressive symptoms (OR = 1.06), and having private insurance (OR = 2.24) or Medicaid (OR = 2.19). Alcohol abuse and prior mental health care were associated with a substantial increase in treatment utilization (OR = 4.07). The findings highlight the need to help victims at risk obtain treatment after sexual assault. PMID:24852357

  15. A Longitudinal Examination of Male College Students’ Perpetration of Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia; McAuslan, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Self-administered surveys were completed by 197 men in college at 2 time points, 1 year apart. Men who committed sexual assault at multiple time points (repeat assaulters) had the most extreme scores on measures of hostility toward women, past sexual experiences, drinking in sexual situations, and adolescent delinquency. Nonassaulters had the least extreme scores and men who committed sexual assault at only 1 time point had scores that tended to fall in between. Repeat assaulters also expressed significantly less remorse when they described their sexual assault at Time 1 than did past assaulters who committed sexual assault only at the initial time point. These findings demonstrate the importance of initiating prevention and treatment programs in early adolescence, before longstanding attitudes and behaviors tolerant of sexual assault are established. PMID:15482033

  16. Assault frequency and preformation probability of the {alpha} emission process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H. F.; Royer, G.; Li, J. Q.

    2011-08-15

    A study of the assault frequency and preformation factor of the {alpha}-decay description is performed from the experimental {alpha}-decay constant and the penetration probabilities calculated from the generalized liquid-drop model (GLDM) potential barriers. To determine the assault frequency a quantum-mechanical method using a harmonic oscillator is introduced and leads to values of around 10{sup 21} s{sup -1}, similar to the ones calculated within the classical method. The preformation probability is around 10{sup -1}-10{sup -2}. The results for even-even Po isotopes are discussed for illustration. While the assault frequency presents only a shallow minimum in the vicinity of the magic neutron number 126, the preformation factor and mainly the penetrability probability diminish strongly around N=126.

  17. Social disorganization and unfounded sexual assault case clearances.

    PubMed

    Mustaine, Elizabeth Ehrhardt; Tewksbury, Richard; Corzine, Jay; Huff-Corzine, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Despite much research and policy development, it remains true that less than one half of all reported sexual assaults are cleared by arrest (Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI], 2011). Compounding this issue, many sexual assaults are not cleared by an arrest, but rather by being classified as "unfounded" by law enforcement (Soulliere, 1994, 2005; Tellis & Spohn, 2008). Grounded in the social disorganization perspective, this article examines the relationships between case-related and extralegal community-level characteristics and use of the designation of unfounded by the police. Contrary to initial expectations, findings show that communities with higher levels of concentrated disadvantage, immigrant concentration, and residential instability are less likely to have sexual assaults deemed unfounded by law enforcement.

  18. Injuries to the cervix in sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Keller, Patricia; Lechner, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Little research has addressed the types and meaning of genital injury in sexual assault victims. An even smaller amount of research exists documenting injury to the cervix in sexual assault victims. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of cervical injuries in women following sexual assault, the types of injuries seen, the mechanisms that are related to the injuries, and the types of injuries related to each mechanism. A retrospective chart review was conducted. A total of 538 charts were examined, with a final sample size of 114. Within this sample, 87.8% (n= 100) presented with no injury to the cervix, and 12.3% (n= 14) had documented injury. All statistical analyses were nonsignificant; however, clinical implications are noted. Recommendations for future research are made.

  19. Gender differences in sexual assault victimization among college students.

    PubMed

    Hines, Denise A; Armstrong, Jessica L; Reed, Kathleen Palm; Cameron, Amy Y

    2012-01-01

    College students are at particular risk for sexual assault victimization, yet research tends to focus on women as victims and men as perpetrators. The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the prevalence, context, and predictors of sexual assault victimization among college students. Results showed that women were significantly more likely to have been sexually assaulted in a 2-month time period, but the context of victimization varied little by gender. Victimization was predicted by sexual orientation, time spent socializing and partying, and severe dating violence victimization for men and by year in school, time spent on the Internet, drinking and using drugs, and being a stalking and dating violence victim for women. Results are discussed in the context of routine activities theory and implications for prevention and future research. PMID:23393954

  20. Characteristic illness behaviour in assault patients: DATES syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, J P; Peak, J D; Haria, S; Sleeman, F

    1995-01-01

    Violent crime has become a public health issue, not least because the needs of victims have been neglected in the criminal justice system. Since this group suffer more psychological distress than victims of accidents, we compared illness experience in 433 adult assault victims with paired victims of accidents in a case control study. In the 10 year period prior to injury, there was a significant excess of hospital contacts in the assault group in relation to trauma, elective surgery and drug abuse but not to other psychiatric or medical conditions. This spectrum of disorders constitutes a previously unrecognized syndrome in young adults, probably representing the manifestations of antisocial personality. PMID:7769600

  1. Munchausen's syndrome presenting as an acute sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Gibbon, K L

    1998-07-01

    This report describes a female patient with Munchausen's syndrome who made a false allegation of rape, buggery and indecent assault to the Metropolitan Police. The indecent assault took the form of inserting numerous wax crayons into the vagina, necessitating her admission to hospital for their removal under a general anaesthetic. Whilst in hospital she developed a status epilepticus-like condition, requiring admission to the Intensive Therapy Unit. As a specific method of self-harm in Munchausen's syndrome, this case appears to be unique. It has not previously been reported in the literature. PMID:9717368

  2. Service Patterns of Adult Survivors of Childhood versus Adult Sexual Assault/Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Susan F.; Lundy, Marta; Bertrand, Cathy; Ortiz, Cynthia; Tomas-Tolentino, Grace; Ritzema, Kim; Matson, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This analysis compared the characteristics and service patterns of adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse and adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Utilizing data from sexual assault crisis centers serving survivors in a Midwestern state over a six year period and controlling for revictimization, we describe and compare the…

  3. The Effects of Sexual Assault on the Identity Development of Black College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual assault victims face more social criticism than victims of any other crime. It is uncertain whether women of color are more at risk for sexual assault than White women during their college years. However, studies suggest that Black female sexual assault victims are more likely than White female victims to be blamed for their attacks and…

  4. Inmates' Cultural Beliefs about Sexual Violence and Their Relationship to Definitions of Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Shannon K.; Blackburn, Ashley G.; Marquart, James W.; Mullings, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    Effective strategies aimed at prison sexual assault require inmates to possess the same definition of sexual assault as prison administrations. This article argues that prison culture is rape-supportive and inmates may not define sexual assault as such. After analyzing questionnaire responses given by male and female inmates in a large Southern…

  5. Characteristics of Sexual Assault and Disclosure among Women in Substance Abuse Recovery Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Robison, Emily; Jason, Leonard A.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that many women experience some form of sexual assault in their lifetime and that women who engage in substance abuse often have a higher incidence of past sexual assault than women in the general population. Given the documented rates of sexual assault among women in recovery from substance use, it is important to explore…

  6. Stigma-Threat Motivated Nondisclosure of Sexual Assault and Sexual Revictimization: A Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Audrey K.; Canales, Erika J.; Amacker, Amanda M.; Backstrom, Tamika L.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess sexual assault survivors' nondisclosure motivations, including stigma threat, and their impact on revictimization risk. The authors describe data from a prospective study of 144 female, undergraduate sexual assault survivors, most of whom had been assaulted by acquaintances and only one of whom had officially…

  7. 32 CFR 635.28 - Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... The victim may allow Sexual Assault Response Coordinators (SARC), health care providers (HCP), or... in sexual assault cases. 635.28 Section 635.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... Offense Reporting § 635.28 Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault...

  8. 32 CFR 105.16 - Sexual assault annual and quarterly reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual assault annual and quarterly reporting... PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN SEXUAL ASSAULT PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PROGRAM PROCEDURES § 105.16 Sexual... USD(P&R) submits annual FY reports to Congress on the sexual assaults involving members of...

  9. 27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.40 Section 478.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. (a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture, transfer, or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon. (b) Exceptions. The provisions of paragraph (a)...

  10. 27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.40 Section 478.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. (a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture, transfer, or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon. (b) Exceptions. The provisions of paragraph (a)...

  11. 27 CFR 478.133 - Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.133 Section 478.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Records § 478.133 Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons. The evidence specified in § 478.40(c), relating to transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons, shall be retained in...

  12. 27 CFR 478.133 - Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.133 Section 478.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Records § 478.133 Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons. The evidence specified in § 478.40(c), relating to transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons, shall be retained in...

  13. 27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.40 Section 478.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. (a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture, transfer, or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon. (b) Exceptions. The provisions of paragraph (a)...

  14. 27 CFR 478.133 - Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.133 Section 478.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Records § 478.133 Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons. The evidence specified in § 478.40(c), relating to transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons, shall be retained in...

  15. 27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.40 Section 478.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. (a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture, transfer, or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon. (b) Exceptions. The provisions of paragraph (a)...

  16. 27 CFR 478.133 - Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.133 Section 478.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Records § 478.133 Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons. The evidence specified in § 478.40(c), relating to transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons, shall be retained in...

  17. 75 FR 73997 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ..., entitled ``Efforts to Prevent Sexual Assault/Harassment Involving DoD Contractors During Contingency...; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010-D023) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... are aware of the DoD definition of ``sexual assault'' as defined in DoD Directive 6495.01,...

  18. 76 FR 38051 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    .... Background DoD Inspector General audit D-2010-052, entitled ``Efforts to Prevent Sexual Assault/Harassment... Regulation Supplement; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010-D023) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... accompanying U.S. Armed Forces are made aware of the DoD definition of sexual assault as defined in...

  19. Forcible, Drug-Facilitated, and Incapacitated Rape and Sexual Assault among Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawyer, Steven; Resnick, Heidi; Bakanic, Von; Burkett, Tracy; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of drug-related sexual assaults, identify the frequency of assaults that occur following voluntary versus involuntary drug or alcohol consumption, and identify contextual correlates of drug-related assaults. Participants: College-student females (n = 314). Methods: Volunteers reported experiences with forcible…

  20. The Decline in Sexual Assaults in Men's Prisons in New South Wales: A "Systems" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Lorraine; Richters, Juliet; Butler, Tony; Schneider, Karen; Grant, Luke; Donovan, Basil

    2011-01-01

    Male prison rape and sexual assaults remains a serious and sensitive issue in many countries. Human rights groups claim that sexual assaults among male prisoners have reached pandemic proportions and need to be stopped. Researchers for many years have studied the causes of male sexual assault in prison and offered numerous recommendations on its…

  1. Language Impairment and Sexual Assault of Girls and Women: Findings from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlie, E. B.; Jabbar, Amina; Beitchman, Joseph; Vida, Ron; Atkinson, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Both children and adults with disabilities face increased prevalence of abuse and assault, including sexual assault. Women and girls are disproportionately the victims of sexual assault in both disabled and nondisabled populations. Communication difficulties have been identified as a factor that may increase the vulnerability of individuals with…

  2. Stifled Voices: Barriers to Help-Seeking Behavior for South African Childhood Sexual Assault Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kimberly; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Tillman, Shaquita; Marks, Alison

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa, females under the age of 18 comprise approximately 40% of the rapes and other forms of sexual assault that occur. However, South African girls face multiple barriers to seeking help in the aftermath of sexual assault. This literature review provides an overview of childhood sexual assault in South African girls and addresses…

  3. Assaults by Wives on Husbands: Implications for Primary Prevention of Marital Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straus, Murray A.

    Surveys of married and dating couples find that women assault their male partners at about the same rate as men assault female partners. When assaults serious enough to cause death were examined, it was found that in contrast to the extreme rarity of homicide by women outside the family, women kill their male partners at a rate that approaches the…

  4. 27 CFR 478.133 - Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.133 Section 478.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Records § 478.133 Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons. The evidence specified in § 478.40(c), relating to transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons, shall be retained in...

  5. 78 FR 20221 - National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    .... While rape and sexual assault affect all communities, those at the greatest risk are children, teens... experience sexual assault as the general population. Moreover, we know rape and sexual assault are consistently underreported, and that the physical and emotional trauma they leave behind can last for...

  6. 3 CFR 8359 - Proclamation 8359 of April 8, 2009. National Sexual Assault Awareness Month, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the physical and emotional consequences of the attack. Sexual assault can lead to long-term health... severe emotional harm that may be even more painful than the assault itself and resulting physical... to heal from the trauma of sexual assault, including crisis intervention, 24-hour sexual...

  7. 32 CFR 635.28 - Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... The victim may allow Sexual Assault Response Coordinators (SARC), health care providers (HCP), or... in sexual assault cases. 635.28 Section 635.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... Offense Reporting § 635.28 Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault...

  8. 32 CFR 635.28 - Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... The victim may allow Sexual Assault Response Coordinators (SARC), health care providers (HCP), or... in sexual assault cases. 635.28 Section 635.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... Offense Reporting § 635.28 Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault...

  9. Beyond bullying: Aggravating elements of peer victimization episodes.

    PubMed

    Turner, Heather A; Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry; Mitchell, Kimberly

    2015-09-01

    This study sought to identify features of peer victimization that aggravate negative outcomes in children. The features that were assessed include "power imbalance," a commonly used criterion in defining bullying, and 5 other characteristics: injury, weapon involvement, Internet involvement, sexual content, and bias content. Three outcomes were assessed: level of fear, missing school, and trauma symptoms. A nationally representative sample of 3,164 children and youth ages 6-17 (51.8% male; 68.4% white, 12.5% black, 13.5% Hispanic, 5.7% other race) was obtained through Random Digit Dial and supplemented with an address-based sample to capture cell-phone-only households. One child was randomly selected from each household. Interviews were conducted with parents of children age 6-9 and with the youths themselves if they were age 10-17. Peer victimization was assessed with the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ). Almost half (48.4%) of the entire sample of school-age children experienced at least 1 form of peer victimization in the past year. Injury and power imbalance independently increased the impact on children for all 3 outcomes. Additionally, weapon involvement and sexual content were associated with trauma symptoms, with sexual content having the strongest effect (B = .23, p < .001). This diversity of aggravating features suggests a need to reconsider the current emphasis on prioritizing bullying with its exclusionary power imbalance definition as the central focus for prevention and intervention. We recommend a broader focus on peer victimization along with more research to identify the aggravating features that signal the greatest need for intervention. PMID:25330389

  10. Men victim of sexual assault of concern into the first Emergency Medical Unit for Victims of Assaults in France.

    PubMed

    Hiquet, J; Gromb-Monnoyeur, S

    2013-10-01

    Although it accounts for only a small part of activity in the field of victimology, the provision of support for male victims of sexual assault is regularly discussed in the literature. Authors, English-speaking for the most part, all agree that this phenomenon has been largely underestimated, owing to the stigmatization victims suffer after the facts have been disclosed. The same authors agree that this type of assault is far from being inconsequential, from both a physical and a psychological perspective. The following retrospective and descriptive study, conducted at the Bordeaux CHU (Bordeaux University Hospital), aims to draw a comparison between the distinctive characteristics of male sexual assault victims treated at the CAUVA (Centre d'Accueil en Urgence des Victimes d'Agression - Emergency Medical Unit for Victims of Assaults) on the one hand, and, on the other hand, those identified in the existing scientific literature. The victims are predominantly young men, unconnected with their attackers, and more often than not the attacks take place on the public highway. Forensic treatment is provided within the seven days following the assault, which raises the question of the assessment of infection risks, including HIV transmission. Most of the time, the victims will not undergo a full psychological appraisal, though authors are unanimous that such assaults do indeed have heavy repercussions. Improving our services for such victims will require suitable training for staff, covering initial reception, general assessment and the drafting of the forensic medical report, as well as encouragement to lodge a complaint. This process should give priority to multidisciplinary centers, especially dedicated to shelter-providing, information, counseling and victim support. This will also entail information and awareness campaigns for the general population, and the homosexual community in particular. Finally, we should not be afraid to envisage an investigation into this

  11. Men victim of sexual assault of concern into the first Emergency Medical Unit for Victims of Assaults in France.

    PubMed

    Hiquet, J; Gromb-Monnoyeur, S

    2013-10-01

    Although it accounts for only a small part of activity in the field of victimology, the provision of support for male victims of sexual assault is regularly discussed in the literature. Authors, English-speaking for the most part, all agree that this phenomenon has been largely underestimated, owing to the stigmatization victims suffer after the facts have been disclosed. The same authors agree that this type of assault is far from being inconsequential, from both a physical and a psychological perspective. The following retrospective and descriptive study, conducted at the Bordeaux CHU (Bordeaux University Hospital), aims to draw a comparison between the distinctive characteristics of male sexual assault victims treated at the CAUVA (Centre d'Accueil en Urgence des Victimes d'Agression - Emergency Medical Unit for Victims of Assaults) on the one hand, and, on the other hand, those identified in the existing scientific literature. The victims are predominantly young men, unconnected with their attackers, and more often than not the attacks take place on the public highway. Forensic treatment is provided within the seven days following the assault, which raises the question of the assessment of infection risks, including HIV transmission. Most of the time, the victims will not undergo a full psychological appraisal, though authors are unanimous that such assaults do indeed have heavy repercussions. Improving our services for such victims will require suitable training for staff, covering initial reception, general assessment and the drafting of the forensic medical report, as well as encouragement to lodge a complaint. This process should give priority to multidisciplinary centers, especially dedicated to shelter-providing, information, counseling and victim support. This will also entail information and awareness campaigns for the general population, and the homosexual community in particular. Finally, we should not be afraid to envisage an investigation into this

  12. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  13. Prior substance abuse and related treatment history reported by recent victims of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Heidi S; Walsh, Kate; Schumacher, Julie A; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Acierno, Ron

    2013-04-01

    To inform intervention approaches, the current study examined prevalence and comorbidity of recent use and history of abuse of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs as well as history of substance treatment among a sample of female victims of sexual assault seeking post-assault medical care. Demographic variables and prior history of assault were also examined to further identify factors relevant to treatment or prevention approaches. Participants were 255 women and adolescent girls seeking post sexual assault medical services who completed an initial follow-up assessment on average within 3 months post-assault. The majority (72.9%) reported recent substance use prior to assault, approximately 40% reported prior substance abuse history, and 12.2% reported prior substance treatment history. Prior history of assault was associated with recent drug use and history of drug abuse as well as substance treatment. Among those with prior histories of substance abuse and assault, assault preceded substance abuse onset in the majority of cases. Almost all those with prior treatment history reported recent drug or alcohol use. A portion of sexual assault survivors seen for acute medical services may benefit from facilitated referral for substance abuse treatment in addition to counseling at the time of screening. Assessment and intervention approaches should target alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use and abuse. Substance use and associated impairment may serve as a rape tactic by perpetrators of assault. Substance use at the time of assault does not imply blame on the part of assault victims. Previous findings indicate that rape poses high risk of PTSD particularly among women with prior history of assault. Screening and intervention related to substance abuse should be done with recognition of the increased vulnerability it may pose with regard to assault and the high risk of PTSD within this population.

  14. Aldosterone aggravates glucose intolerance induced by high fructose.

    PubMed

    Sherajee, Shamshad J; Rafiq, Kazi; Nakano, Daisuke; Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Masaki, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Akira

    2013-11-15

    We previously reported that aldosterone impaired vascular insulin signaling in vivo and in vitro. Fructose-enriched diet induces metabolic syndrome including hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and diabetes in animal. In the current study, we hypothesized that aldosterone aggravated fructose feeding-induced glucose intolerance in vivo. Rats were divided into five groups for six-week treatment; uninephrectomy (Unx, n=8), Unx+aldosterone (aldo, 0.75 µg/h, s.c., n=8), Unx+fructose (fruc, 10% in drinking water, n=8), Unx+aldo+fruc, (aldo+fruc, n=8), and Unx+aldo+fruc+spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (aldo+fruc+spiro, 20mg/kg/day, p.o., n=8). Aldo+fruc rats manifested the hypertension, and induced glucose intolerance compared to fruc intake rats assessed by oral glucose tolerance test, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study. Spironolactone, significantly improved the aldosterone-accelerated glucose intolerance. Along with improvement in insulin resistance, spironolactone suppressed upregulated mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) target gene, serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinases-1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle in aldo+fruc rats. In conclusion, these data suggested that aldosterone aggravates fructose feeding-induced glucose intolerance through MR activation.

  15. Aggravation of viral hepatitis by platelet-derived serotonin.

    PubMed

    Lang, Philipp A; Contaldo, Claudio; Georgiev, Panco; El-Badry, Ashraf Mohammad; Recher, Mike; Kurrer, Michael; Cervantes-Barragan, Luisa; Ludewig, Burkhard; Calzascia, Thomas; Bolinger, Beatrice; Merkler, Doron; Odermatt, Bernhard; Bader, Michael; Graf, Rolf; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Hegazy, Ahmed N; Löhning, Max; Harris, Nicola L; Ohashi, Pamela S; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M; Lang, Karl S

    2008-07-01

    More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus. Although both viruses are poorly cytopathic, persistence of either virus carries a risk of chronic liver inflammation, potentially resulting in liver steatosis, liver cirrhosis, end-stage liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma. Virus-specific T cells are a major determinant of the outcome of hepatitis, as they contribute to the early control of chronic hepatitis viruses, but they also mediate immunopathology during persistent virus infection. We have analyzed the role of platelet-derived vasoactive serotonin during virus-induced CD8(+) T cell-dependent immunopathological hepatitis in mice infected with the noncytopathic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. After virus infection, platelets were recruited to the liver, and their activation correlated with severely reduced sinusoidal microcirculation, delayed virus elimination and increased immunopathological liver cell damage. Lack of platelet-derived serotonin in serotonin-deficient mice normalized hepatic microcirculatory dysfunction, accelerated virus clearance in the liver and reduced CD8(+) T cell-dependent liver cell damage. In keeping with these observations, serotonin treatment of infected mice delayed entry of activated CD8(+) T cells into the liver, delayed virus control and aggravated immunopathological hepatitis. Thus, vasoactive serotonin supports virus persistence in the liver and aggravates virus-induced immunopathology.

  16. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault among Ethnically Diverse Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…

  17. Victim Confidentiality on Sexual Assault Response Teams (SART)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how professionals and paraprofessionals involved with a Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) understand and navigate different professional statutory requirements for victim confidentiality. Telephone surveys are conducted with 78 professionals: medical (27.8%), criminal justice (44.3%), and victim advocacy…

  18. Longitudinal Research with Sexual Assault Survivors: A Methodological Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Sprague, Heather Brown; Cottrill, Sara; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal research designs are relatively rare in the academic literature on rape and sexual assault despite their tremendous methodological rigor and scientific utility. In the interest of promoting wider use of such methods, we conducted a methodological review of projects that have used prospective longitudinal designs to study the…

  19. Sexual Assault Victims' Acknowledgment Status and Revictimization Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather; Axsom, Danny; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2009-01-01

    How a victim of rape characterizes her assault has potential implications for her postassault experiences and revictimization risk. Prior research has identified several potential benefits to not conceptualizing one's experience as a form of victimization. The current study sought to identify whether there are costs to not acknowledging rape as…

  20. Survey of Threats and Assaults by Patients on Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvir, Yael; Moniwa, Emiko; Crisp-Han, Holly; Levy, Dana; Coverdale, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine the prevalence of threats and assaults by patients on psychiatry residents, their consequences, and the perceived adequacy of supports and institutional responses. Method: Authors conducted an anonymous survey of 519 psychiatry residents in 13 psychiatry programs across the United States. The survey…

  1. Assessing Eli Broad's Assault on Public School System Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Fenwick W.; Crowder, Zan

    2012-01-01

    Eli Broad's approach to reforming urban public education does not recognize his own self-interest in promoting changes within such educational systems, a classic problem of misrecognition. The Broad agenda is an assault on the notion of the mission of public education as a service instead of a for-profit enterprise concerned with making money for…

  2. An Evaluation of a Sexual Assault Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Angela P.

    2009-01-01

    Sexually aggressive behavior, especially on college campuses, is an issue of major concern. Previous research has found that 54% of college women report being sexually victimized (Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987). Given the scope of this problem, effective prevention strategies are necessary. Sexual assault prevention programs have included those…

  3. Reporting Differences among Sexually Assaulted College Women: A Cultural Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Malia J.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual assault (SA) is a critical public health problem, and there are many barriers that impede college women from reporting. Although there are many studies that explore these barriers, there is a lack of understanding regarding the cultural implications to reporting. The existing literature often uses race as a proxy for culture when exploring…

  4. Survivors on Campus: A Dialogue about Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray-Rosendale, Laura; Dierking, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    At a conference last fall, Kirsten Dierking came across "College Girl: A Memoir," a book by Laura Gray-Rosendale that tells the story of a brutal sexual assault she experienced as a college student. While she purchased a copy of the book, it sat unopened on her desk for a while; also a victim of brutal rape in college, she was not sure…

  5. Health Professionals' Perceptions of Sexual Assault Management: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine; Meuleners, Lynn; Phillips, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore health professionals' perceptions of sexual assault management practices and identify issues related to these practices across Western Australia (WA). Design: A two-round electronic Delphi study was undertaken with health professionals (medical doctors, registered nurses, social workers and managers). Setting: Healthcare…

  6. Sexual assault services coverage on Native American land.

    PubMed

    Juraska, Ashley; Wood, Lindsey; Giroux, Jennifer; Wood, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Native American women experience higher rates of sexual assault than other women in the United States, yet there is limited information on the accessibility of forensic services for Native American victims of sexual violence. This study used geographic information systems technology to map known sexual assault examiner (SAE) and sexual assault response team (SART) programs in the United States (n = 873) in proximity to 650 census-designated Native American lands. Analysis was repeated for 29 Indian Health Service and tribal-operated facilities that self-identified that they provide sexual assault examinations. Network analysis showed that 30.7% of Native American land is within a 60-minute driving distance of a facility offering SAE or SART services. Indian Health Service and tribal-operated facilities increased accessibility to SAE services on 35 Native American lands. This study shows gaps in coverage for more than two thirds of Native American lands, including 381 lands with no coverage, highlighting the need for expanded SAE and SART services near or on Native American land.

  7. Defending Letters: A Pragmatic Response to Assaults on the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Iain

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a mainly pragmatic response to utilitarian criticisms of the humanities. It first outlines political, public and practical fronts on which the humanities are under assault, identifying critics and their conspirators. Then, as a part of its defence of the humanities it expounds some of their central strengths. These range from the…

  8. Care Staff Perceptions of Challenging Behaviour and Fear of Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, John L.; Cleary, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Background: Past research has determined that fear of violence is often "irrational" in relation to the actual level of risk presented. This has been found to exacerbate the negative effects of exposure to work-related violence. Aims: This study investigates fear of assault in relation to exposure to challenging behaviour. The extent to which a…

  9. Sexual assault services coverage on Native American land.

    PubMed

    Juraska, Ashley; Wood, Lindsey; Giroux, Jennifer; Wood, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Native American women experience higher rates of sexual assault than other women in the United States, yet there is limited information on the accessibility of forensic services for Native American victims of sexual violence. This study used geographic information systems technology to map known sexual assault examiner (SAE) and sexual assault response team (SART) programs in the United States (n = 873) in proximity to 650 census-designated Native American lands. Analysis was repeated for 29 Indian Health Service and tribal-operated facilities that self-identified that they provide sexual assault examinations. Network analysis showed that 30.7% of Native American land is within a 60-minute driving distance of a facility offering SAE or SART services. Indian Health Service and tribal-operated facilities increased accessibility to SAE services on 35 Native American lands. This study shows gaps in coverage for more than two thirds of Native American lands, including 381 lands with no coverage, highlighting the need for expanded SAE and SART services near or on Native American land. PMID:24847872

  10. Medical care following multiple perpetrator sexual assault: a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Louise; Brittain, Bernadette; Welch, Jan

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes the healthcare needs of victims of multiple perpetrator sexual assault (MPSA) and single perpetrator sexual assault (SPSA) presenting to the Haven sexual assault referral centre in south-east London, and aims to identify any characteristics that might be related to attendance at follow-up appointments. We reviewed standardised casenotes of 136 MPSA victims and 139 SPSA victims attending for forensic medical examination (FME) between 1 July 2005 and 31 July 2009. MPSA victims reported a higher rate of stranger assaults, higher rates of vaginal, anal and oral rapes, more rapes at multiple anatomical sites or multiple rapes and were more likely to sustain injuries, all of which put MPSA victims at higher risk of subsequent health problems. Rates of attendance at follow-up appointments were low for all (53.5%) as were rates of completion of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV (33.3%). Attendance at follow-up was associated with presence of anogenital injury at the time of FME. Those over the age of 30 years were less likely to attend.

  11. Expressed Sexual Assault Legal Context and Victim Culpability Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Audrey K.; Markman, Keith D.; Amacker, Amanda M.; Menaker, Tasha A.

    2012-01-01

    Legal scholars have argued that laws have an "expressive function", specifically that sexual assault laws may convey social-level messages that victims are culpable for crimes against them. In a university sample, we conducted the first experimental test of legal scholars' proposal, hypothesizing that legal messages--specifically their clarity and…

  12. A Theoretical Model of Sexual Assault: An Empirical Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacquelyn W.; Humphrey, John A.

    Koss and Dinero's (1987) comprehensive developmental model of sexual aggression asserts that sexual assault is in part a result of early sexual experiences and family violence; that sexually aggressive behaviors may be predicted by such "releaser" variables as current sexual behavior, alcohol use, and peer group support; and that use of aggression…

  13. Beyond Crisis Counseling: After-Effects of Sexual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parvin, RuthAnn

    Rape is a significant trauma that causes the victim immediate as well as long-term difficulties. A cross-section of rape survivors and matched controls completed questionnaires about current somatic, psychological, and social difficulties. The time since assault for the rape group varied from 6 months to 8 years. Factor analysis yielded eight…

  14. Journey "during" crime: predicting criminal mobility patterns in sexual assaults.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, Eric; Busina, Irina

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether there is a relationship between situational and modus operandi characteristics and criminal mobility during the sexual assault event. Data collected from both police files and semistructured interviews with 72 serial sex offenders who have committed 361 sexual assaults have been used. Negative binomial regression was used to identify the relationships between the situational and modus operandi characteristics and the criminal mobility exhibited during the sexual assault. Events that involved child or adolescent victims, those where the offender did not use pornography prior to crime, and those where victim resistance was observed exhibited more criminal mobility. Moreover, crimes in which the victim was selected, the victim was alone when approached by the offender, and the assault was characterized by sexual penetration and a lack of premeditation exhibited more criminal mobility. Results seem to suggest that criminal mobility is a goal-oriented action taken by serial sex offenders to successfully complete their crime and to avoid detection and apprehension. PMID:23300197

  15. Service patterns of adult survivors of childhood versus adult sexual assault/abuse.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Susan F; Lundy, Marta; Bertrand, Cathy; Ortiz, Cynthia; Tomas-Tolentino, Grace; Ritzema, Kim; Matson, Julia

    2009-11-01

    This analysis compared the characteristics and service patterns of adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse and adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Utilizing data from sexual assault crisis centers serving survivors in a Midwestern state over a six year period and controlling for revictimization, we describe and compare the demographic characteristics, referral sources, and service patterns of the two groups. Results indicate that paths into service differ for the two groups. Furthermore, adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse obtain significantly more hours of service and service contacts on average than adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:20183424

  16. Feminine ideology and sexual assault: are more traditional college women at greater risk?

    PubMed

    Wigderson, Sara; Katz, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Previous research has not conclusively determined whether traditional femininity increases women's risk for sexual assault. Certain femininity beliefs, such as valuing deference, may increase risk for sexual assault by discouraging sexual refusal assertiveness (SRA). Other femininity beliefs, such as valuing purity, may promote self-protective behaviors. College women (N = 254) provided self-report data on these beliefs, risk and protective behaviors, and sexual assault experiences. Traditional femininity was not directly associated with experiencing sexual assault. However, specific traditional beliefs were related to behaviors directly associated with risk. High SRA and sexual abstinence simultaneously reduced the odds for sexual assault. PMID:25757718

  17. 78 FR 34995 - Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (Response Systems Panel); Notice of Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... of the Secretary Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (Response Systems Panel... Sexual Assault Crimes Panel. DATES: A meeting of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes... crimes involving adult sexual assault and related offenses under section 920 of title 10, United...

  18. Is the curve relating temperature to aggression linear or curvilinear? Assaults and temperature in minneapolis reexamined.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J; Wang, Morgan C; Anderson, Craig A

    2005-07-01

    Using archival data from Minneapolis recorded in 3-hr time intervals, E. G. Cohn and J. Rotton concluded that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between temperature and assault, with the maximum assault rate occurring at 74.9 degrees F. They depicted this relationship by plotting temperature against assault. This plot, however, fails to take into account time of day. Time of day was strongly related to both temperature and assault, but in opposite directions. Between 9:00 p.m. and 2:59 a.m. of the next day, when most assaults occurred, there was a positive linear relationship between temperature and assault. The Minneapolis data actually provide stronger support of a positive linear (or monotonic) relationship between temperature and assault than of an inverted U-shaped relationship. PMID:16060743

  19. Examining sexual assault survival of adult women: responses, mediators, and current theories.

    PubMed

    Hellman, Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the state of the science of sexual assault research to direct future research in three key areas: responses, mediators, and current theory with a religious or spiritual focus addressing recovery. Three research questions guided the investigation of literature and the formation of this article: (a) What are common survivor responses to, and long-term effects of, sexual assault?; (b) What are mediators for recovery after sexual assault?; and (c) What theory with a religious or spiritual focus exists to address recovery from sexual assault? This research identifies significant gaps in the literature underscoring the importance of future research that examines responses to and long-term effects of sexual assault, need for mediators during recovery, and need to develop theory using religious and spiritual tenets aiding in recovery from sexual assault. Further research is necessary to develop this science, expand understanding, and support sexual assault survivors on their recovery journey.

  20. Psychological Consequences Associated With Positive and Negative Responses to Disclosure of Sexual Assault Among College Women: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Orchowski, Lindsay M.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2015-01-01

    A prospective design was utilized to explore the impact of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure among college women who experienced sexual victimization over a 4-month academic quarter. Women completed baseline, 4- and 7-month assessments of symptomatology, beliefs about why sexual assault occurs, victimization, and social reactions to sexual assault disclosure. Accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, positive social reactions were not associated with victims’ subsequent symptomatology or beliefs. However, accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, higher negative social reactions were associated with victims’ post-assault reports of hostility, fear, and beliefs about why sexual assault occurs. PMID:25926138

  1. Psychological consequences associated with positive and negative responses to disclosure of sexual assault among college women: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Orchowski, Lindsay M; Gidycz, Christine A

    2015-07-01

    A prospective design was utilized to explore the impact of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure among college women who experienced sexual victimization over a 4-month academic quarter. Women completed baseline, 4- and 7-month assessments of symptomatology, beliefs about why sexual assault occurs, victimization, and social reactions to sexual assault disclosure. Accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, positive social reactions were not associated with victims' subsequent symptomatology or beliefs. However, accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, higher negative social reactions were associated with victims' post-assault reports of hostility, fear, and beliefs about why sexual assault occurs. PMID:25926138

  2. Improving the Credibility of Child Sexual Assault Victims in Court: The Impact of a Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner.

    PubMed

    Golding, Jonathan M; Wasarhaley, Nesa E; Lynch, Kellie R; Lippert, Anne; Magyarics, Casey L

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a sexual assault nurse examiner's (SANE's) testimony on mock juror perceptions of a child or adolescent victim of child sexual assault. Community members (N = 252, 156 females) read a fictional criminal trial summary of a child sexual assault case in which the victim was 6 or 15 years old and the prosecution presented medical testimony from a SANE or a traditional registered nurse (RN), or did not present medical testimony. Mock jurors were more likely to render guilty verdicts when a SANE testified compared with the other two testimony conditions. In addition, pro-victim judgments (e.g., sympathy toward the victim) and negative defendant judgments (e.g., anger toward the defendant) mediated this relation. Finally, cognitive network representations of the case demonstrated that the RN and no-medical-testimony groups were similar and the SANE group was distinct from the other two conditions. We discuss these results in terms of the implications of SANE testimony in child sexual assault court cases.

  3. Counseling Sexual Assault Victims Who Become Pregnant after the Assault: Benefits and Limitations of First-Trimester Paternity Determination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Lee P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a patient with a history of infertility who, after becoming pregnant following a sexual assault, used chorionic villus sampling and DNA studies for paternity identification. Discusses risks and potential problems that accompany prenatal paternity testing. Ethical, moral, emotional, and religious factors should be considered in the…

  4. Is there a role for paediatric Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners in the management of child sexual assault in Australia?

    PubMed

    Nathanson, Dania; Woolfenden, Susan; Zwi, Karen

    2016-09-01

    In Australia, paediatricians and Child Protection Specialists provide the medical and forensic examinations of child victims of sexual assault. There are workforce challenges in the recruitment and retention of doctors to undertake child sexual assault (CSA) work particularly in remote and rural areas. Pediatric Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (PSANE) programs have existed in the USA and the UK for many years. Using Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) methodology, a systematic search of the literature was performed to ascertain what is known about SANE programs, to evaluate the evidence for their effectiveness across a number of domains (accessibility, health and legal outcomes and cost effectiveness) and to inform policy on models of care and elements of best practice which may be appropriate for local implementation in Australia. This review showed that despite the limited evidence available and significant gaps in the evidence, SANEs provide a high standard of medical care and are not detrimental to the legal process. By providing recommendations regarding the potential value, effectiveness and feasibility of establishing a PSANE program in Australia, this article may be of interest to other high income countries facing similar workforce challenges in meeting the needs of children with alleged sexual assault. PMID:27490516

  5. Adaptive rewiring aggravates the effects of species loss in ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gilljam, David; Curtsdotter, Alva; Ebenman, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Loss of one species in an ecosystem can trigger extinctions of other dependent species. For instance, specialist predators will go extinct following the loss of their only prey unless they can change their diet. It has therefore been suggested that an ability of consumers to rewire to novel prey should mitigate the consequences of species loss by reducing the risk of cascading extinction. Using a new modelling approach on natural and computer-generated food webs we find that, on the contrary, rewiring often aggravates the effects of species loss. This is because rewiring can lead to overexploitation of resources, which eventually causes extinction cascades. Such a scenario is particularly likely if prey species cannot escape predation when rare and if predators are efficient in exploiting novel prey. Indeed, rewiring is a two-edged sword; it might be advantageous for individual predators in the short term, yet harmful for long-term system persistence.

  6. Severe Brown Fat Lipoatrophy Aggravates Atherosclerotic Process in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Beneit, Nuria; Escribano, Óscar; Díaz-Castroverde, Sabela; García-Gómez, Gema; Fernández, Silvia; Benito, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and is characterized by abnormal accumulation of adipose tissue, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). However, brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation reduces visceral adiposity. To demonstrate that severe brown fat lipoatrophy might accelerate atherosclerotic process, we generated a new mouse model without insulin receptor (IR) in BAT and without apolipoprotein (Apo)E (BAT-specific IR knockout [BATIRKO];ApoE(-/-) mice) and assessed vascular and metabolic alterations associated to obesity. In addition, we analyzed the contribution of the adipose organ to vascular inflammation. Brown fat lipoatrophy induces visceral adiposity, mainly in gonadal depot (gonadal white adipose tissue [gWAT]), severe glucose intolerance, high postprandial glucose levels, and a severe defect in acute insulin secretion. BATIRKO;ApoE(-/-) mice showed greater hypertriglyceridemia than the obtained in ApoE(-/-) and hypercholesterolemia similar to ApoE(-/-) mice. BATIRKO;ApoE(-/-) mice, in addition to primary insulin resistance in BAT, also showed a significant decrease in insulin signaling in liver, gWAT, heart, aorta artery, and thoracic PVAT. More importantly, our results suggest that severe brown fat lipoatrophy aggravates the atherosclerotic process, characterized by a significant increase of lipid depots, atherosclerotic coverage, lesion size and complexity, increased macrophage infiltration, and proinflammatory markers expression. Finally, an increase of TNF-α and leptin as well as a decrease of adiponectin by BAT, gWAT, and thoracic PVAT might also be responsible of vascular damage. Our results suggest that severe brown lipoatrophy aggravates atherosclerotic process. Thus, BAT activation might protect against obesity and its associated metabolic alterations. PMID:27414981

  7. Indoor air pollution aggravates symptoms of atopic dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Soyeon; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin; Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Gyo-Boong; Jung, Kweon; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Ahn, Kangmo

    2015-01-01

    Most of researches on the impact of indoor air pollutants on atopic dermatitis (AD) have been based upon animal models, in vitro experiments and case-control studies. However, human data to elucidate the role of indoor air pollution on worsening symptoms of pre-existing AD from a longitudinal study are scarce. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of indoor air pollution on AD symptoms in children. We surveyed 30 children with AD in a day-care centre, which moved to a new building during the study. These children stayed there for 8 hours a day Monday through Friday, and their daily symptom scores were recorded. Indoor and outdoor air pollutant levels were continuously measured 24 hours a day for 12 months (Period 1 to 4). Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. Compared to the period before moving (Period 1), concentrations of indoor air pollutants mostly increased after moving (Period 2) and decreased by natural ventilation and bake-out (Periods 3 and 4). The rate of positive AD symptom increased from 32.8% (Period 1) up to 43.8% (Period 2) and 50.5% (Period 3), then decreased to 35.4% in Period 4 (P < 0.0001). When the delayed effects of indoor air pollutants on AD symptoms 2 days later were evaluated, AD symptoms significantly increased by 12.7% (95% CI: -0.01 to 27.1) as toluene levels increased by 1 ppb (P = 0.05). In conclusion, indoor air pollutants increase the risk of AD aggravation in children and toluene in the indoor environment might act as an aggravating factor.

  8. Platelet interaction with lymphatics aggravates intestinal inflammation by suppressing lymphangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hirokazu; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Hozumi, Hideaki; Sato, Shingo; Furuhashi, Hirotaka; Takajo, Takeshi; Maruta, Koji; Yasutake, Yuichi; Narimatsu, Kazuyuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Kurihara, Chie; Okada, Yoshikiyo; Watanabe, Chikako; Komoto, Shunsuke; Tomita, Kengo; Nagao, Shigeaki; Miura, Soichiro; Hokari, Ryota

    2016-08-01

    Lymphatic failure is a histopathological feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent studies show that interaction between platelets and podoplanin on lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) suppresses lymphangiogenesis. We aimed to investigate the role of platelets in the inflammatory process of colitis, which is likely to be through modulation of lymphangiogenesis. Lymphangiogenesis in colonic mucosal specimens from patients with IBD was investigated by studying mRNA expression of lymphangiogenic factors and histologically by examining lymphatic vessel (LV) densities. Involvement of lymphangiogenesis in intestinal inflammation was studied by administering VEGF-receptor 3 (VEGF-R3) inhibitors to the mouse model of colitis using dextran sulfate sodium and evaluating platelet migration to LVs. The inhibitory effect of platelets on lymphangiogenesis was investigated in vivo by administering antiplatelet antibody to the colitis mouse model and in vitro by coculturing platelets with lymphatic endothelial cells. Although mRNA expressions of lymphangiogenic factors such as VEGF-R3 and podoplanin were significantly increased in the inflamed mucosa of patients with IBD compared with those with quiescent mucosa, there was no difference in LV density between them. In the colitis model, VEGF-R3 inhibition resulted in aggravated colitis, decreased lymphatic density, and increased platelet migration to LVs. Administration of an antiplatelet antibody increased LV densities and significantly ameliorated colitis. Coculture with platelets inhibited proliferation of LECs in vitro. Our data suggest that despite elevated lymphangiogenic factors during colonic inflammation, platelet migration to LVs resulted in suppressed lymphangiogenesis, leading to aggravation of colitis by blocking the clearance of inflammatory cells. Modulating the interaction between platelets and LVs could be a new therapeutic means for treating IBD.

  9. Aggravated Cardiac Remodeling post Aortocaval Fistula in Unilateral Nephrectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ye; Zou, Wusong; Zhang, Mingjing; Zhu, Pengfei; Hu, Shao

    2015-01-01

    Background Aortocaval fistula (AV) in rat is a unique model of volume-overload congestive heart failure and cardiac hypertrophy. Living donor kidney transplantation is regarded as beneficial to allograft recipients and not particularly detrimental to the donors. Impact of AV on animals with mild renal dysfunction is not fully understood. In this study, we explored the effects of AV in unilateral nephrectomized (UNX) rats. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into Sham (n = 10), UNX (right kidney remove, n = 10), AV (AV established between the levels of renal arteries and iliac bifurcation, n = 18) and UNX+AV (AV at one week after UNX, n = 22), respectively. Renal outcome was measured by glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, fractional excretion of sodium, albuminuria, plasma creatinine, and cystatin C. Focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS) incidence was evaluated by renal histology. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements. Results UNX alone induced compensatory left kidney enlargement, increased plasma creatinine and cystatin C levels, and slightly reduced glomerular filtration rate and increased FGS. AV induced significant cardiac enlargement and hypertrophy and reduced cardiac function and increased FGS, these changes were aggravated in UNX+AV rats. Conclusions Although UNX only induces minor renal dysfunction, additional chronic volume overload placement during the adaptation phase of the remaining kidney is associated with aggravated cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in UNX rats, suggesting special medical care is required for UNX or congenital monokidney subjects in case of chronic volume overload as in the case of pregnancy and hyperthyroidism to prevent further adverse cardiorenal events in these individuals. PMID:26252578

  10. 75 FR 39504 - Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Overview Information; Safe and Supportive Schools; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ..., simple assault, aggravated assault, rape, and sexual assault) in school than outside of school. During..., strategy, activity, service, or policy for school or community settings that prevents and reduces youth crime, violence, harassment, bullying, and the illegal use of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco;...

  11. 76 FR 19980 - Funding Priorities, Requirements, and Definitions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... school or community settings that prevents and reduces youth crime, violence, harassment, bullying, and..., simple assault, aggravated assault, rape, and sexual assault) in school than outside of school.\\1\\ During..., harassment, and substance abuse; and readily available physical and mental health supports and...

  12. An acute post-sexual assault intervention to prevent drug abuse: updated findings.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Heidi S; Acierno, Ron; Amstadter, Ananda B; Self-Brown, Shannon; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2007-10-01

    Sexual assault and rape routinely produce extreme distress and negative psychological reactions in victims. Further, past research suggests that victims are at increased risk of developing substance use or abuse post-rape. The post-rape forensic medical exam may itself exacerbate peritraumatic distress because it includes cues that may serve as reminders of the assault, thereby potentiating post-assault negative sequelae. To address these problems, a two-part video intervention was developed to take advantage of the existing sexual assault forensic exam infrastructure, and to specifically (a) minimize anxiety/discomfort during forensic examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased substance use and abuse following sexual assault. Updated findings with a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in the forensic medical exam and completing one or more follow-up assessments at: (1)<3 months post-assault; (2) 3 to 6 months post-assault; or (3) 6 months or longer post-assault indicated that the video was associated with significantly lower frequency of marijuana use at each time point, among women who reported use prior to the assault.

  13. Factors Associated with the Sexual Assault of Students: An Exploratory Study of Victims Treated at Hospital-Based Sexual Assault Treatment Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Mont, Janice; Chertkow, Laura; Macdonald, Sheila; Asllani, Eriola; Bainbridge, Deidre; Rotbard, Nomi; Cohen, Marsha M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that students experience high levels of sexual assault, but studies addressing how they differ in their experiences from other sexual assault victims are virtually nonexistent. To address this gap, information was collected from consecutive individuals, aged 16 years or older, presenting to one of 7 hospital-based sexual assault…

  14. Simple prostatectomy

    MedlinePlus

    Prostatectomy - simple; Suprapubic prostatectomy; Retropubic simple prostatectomy; Open prostatectomy; Millen procedure ... prostate and what caused your prostate to grow. Open simple prostatectomy is often used when the prostate ...

  15. A Unique Case of Intracranial Mucormycosis Following an Assault

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Fadilah S

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial mucormycosis is a very unusual presentation of an infection after a depressed skull fracture due to an assault. Only sporadic cases have been reported in the literature previously. A 30-year-old male with a traumatic brain injury following an assault, status-post debridement and elevation of a depressed skull fracture, was discharged home several weeks postoperatively. A CT scan of the head with contrast was obtained due to mental status changes and revealed an enhancing ring-shaped lesion in the right frontal lobe consistent with a brain abscess. The patient was taken to the operating room for image-guided excisional biopsy of the lesion, with pathology revealing mucormycosis. 

  16. Interpretation of non-genital injuries in sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Crane, Jack

    2013-02-01

    The accurate description and interpretation of non-genital injuries may be crucial in cases of alleged sexual assault, and may be important in corroborating a victim's statement of events. In many cases of sexual assault, non-genital injuries may be either absent or trivial; nevertheless, even minor injuries may be of significance and need to be recorded. Injuries may be result from attempts to restrain the victim, whereas others (e.g. bite marks) may have a sexual motive or be part of a sado-masochistic ritual. A standard nomenclature for injuries (i.e. using the terms 'bruises', 'abrasions', 'lacerations', 'incisions and 'stab wounds') should avoid ambiguity between medical examiners.

  17. Prototypes of intrafamily homicide and serious assault among insanity acquittees.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M E; Scott, D C; Baranoski, M V; Buchanan, J A; Griffith, E E

    1998-01-01

    Public concern with societal violence is intensified when persons who have been found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) of having committed a homicide or serious assault are returned to the community. Successful management of such acquittees in the community requires a sophisticated understanding of the person and the illness within the larger context of the violent incident, the family, the community, and the culture. In this article, we present an analysis of psychotic violence within a family context. A qualitative study of 64 subjects who were found NGRI of killing or seriously injuring a family member resulted in four prototypes of intrafamilial homicide/assault: Till Death Us Do Part; Overwhelming Burden, Elimination of the Limit Setter; and Family-Focused Delusional Killing. The prototypes are presented as a model for developing management strategies both for future risk assessment and for successful transition of the insanity acquittee into the community.

  18. A Unique Case of Intracranial Mucormycosis Following an Assault

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Fadilah S

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial mucormycosis is a very unusual presentation of an infection after a depressed skull fracture due to an assault. Only sporadic cases have been reported in the literature previously. A 30-year-old male with a traumatic brain injury following an assault, status-post debridement and elevation of a depressed skull fracture, was discharged home several weeks postoperatively. A CT scan of the head with contrast was obtained due to mental status changes and revealed an enhancing ring-shaped lesion in the right frontal lobe consistent with a brain abscess. The patient was taken to the operating room for image-guided excisional biopsy of the lesion, with pathology revealing mucormycosis.  PMID:27672528

  19. A Unique Case of Intracranial Mucormycosis Following an Assault.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Fadilah S; Hussain, Namath S

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial mucormycosis is a very unusual presentation of an infection after a depressed skull fracture due to an assault. Only sporadic cases have been reported in the literature previously. A 30-year-old male with a traumatic brain injury following an assault, status-post debridement and elevation of a depressed skull fracture, was discharged home several weeks postoperatively. A CT scan of the head with contrast was obtained due to mental status changes and revealed an enhancing ring-shaped lesion in the right frontal lobe consistent with a brain abscess. The patient was taken to the operating room for image-guided excisional biopsy of the lesion, with pathology revealing mucormycosis. PMID:27672528

  20. Ethanol and drug findings in women consulting a Sexual Assault Center--associations with clinical characteristics and suspicions of drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Cecilie T; Helland, Arne; Spigset, Olav; Espnes, Ketil A; Ormstad, Kari; Schei, Berit

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe toxicological findings among women seeking health care after sexual assault, and to assess the relationship with so-called proactive DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault). We also explored associations between ethanol in blood/urine and background data, assault characteristics, and clinical findings. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of female patients ≥ 12 years of age consulting the Sexual Assault Center at St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. They were examined between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010, and urine and/or blood were analyzed for ethanol and selected medicinal/recreational drugs. Among the 264 patients included, ethanol and/or drugs were detected in 155 (59%). Of the 50 patients (19%) testing positive for drugs other than ethanol, benzodiazepines/benzodiazepine-like drugs were found in 31, central stimulants in 14, cannabinoids in 13 and opioids in nine. None tested positive for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). In total, 57 patients (22%) suspected proactive DFSA, but only five had findings of sedative drugs that were not accounted for by self-reported voluntary intake. No cases could unequivocally be attributed to proactive DFSA. Among the 120 patients tested for ethanol within 12 h after the assault, 102 were positive. The median estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of assault was 1.87 g/L. Patients testing positive for ethanol more often reported a public place of assault and a stranger assailant. Higher estimated BAC at the time of assault was associated with higher frequency of suspecting proactive DFSA. Ethanol was the most prevalent toxicological finding in urine/blood from victims of sexual assault, and high ethanol concentrations were often detected. Among the patients suspecting proactive DFSA, very few had sedative drug findings not explained by voluntary intake. It seems like opportunistic DFSA, rather than proactive DFSA dominate among the sexually

  1. Relation between policies and work related assault: Minnesota Nurses' Study

    PubMed Central

    Nachreiner, N; Gerberich, S; McGovern, P; Church, T; Hansen, H; Geisser, M; Ryan, A

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To assess the relation between violence prevention policies and work related assault. Methods: From Phase 1 of the Minnesota Nurses' Study, a population based survey of 6300 Minnesota nurses (response 79%), 13.2% reported experiencing work related physical assault in the past year. In Phase 2, a case-control study, 1900 nurses (response 75%) were questioned about exposures relevant to violence, including eight work related violence prevention policy items. A comprehensive causal model served as a basis for survey design, analyses, and interpretation. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for potential exposure misclassification and the presence of an unmeasured confounder. Results: Results of multiple regression analyses, controlling for appropriate factors, indicated that the odds of physical assault decreased for having a zero tolerance policy (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.8) and having policies regarding types of prohibited violent behaviours (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.9). Analyses adjusted for non-response and non-selection resulted in wider confidence intervals, but no substantial change in effect estimates. Conclusions: It appears that some work related violence policies may be protective for the population of Minnesota nurses. PMID:16169912

  2. Internet-Initiated Sexual Assault Among U.S. Adolescents Reported in Newspapers, 1996–2007

    PubMed Central

    Canders, Caleb P.; Merchant, Roland C.; Pleet, Katherine; Fuerch, Janene H.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an assessment over time of the incidence of newspaper-reported Internet-initiated sexual assaults among U.S. adolescents undergoing adjudication from 1996 to 2007. Of 812 newspaper reports of adjudicated Internet-initiated sexual assault, most (79.2%) victims were female, and the median age was 14 years. The incidence rate of these reports increased over the 12-year period for females but remained steady for males. The frequency of these assaults was much less than reported for other types of sexual assaults in this age group. These estimates hopefully will assist in a greater understanding of these assaults, aid in interventions to decrease their occurrence, and guide effective policymaking that will reduce all types of sexual assault among adolescents. PMID:24283547

  3. Assaultive behavior in state psychiatric hospitals: differences between forensic and nonforensic patients.

    PubMed

    Linhorst, Donald M; Scott, Lisa Parker

    2004-08-01

    Forensic patients are occupying an increasingly large number of beds in state psychiatric hospitals. The presence of these mentally ill offenders has raised concerns about the risk they present to nonforensic patients. This study compared the rate of assaults and factors associated with assaultive behavior among 308 nonforensic patients and two groups of forensic patients including 469 patients found not guilty by reason of insanity and 76 pretrial patients. Consistent with other studies, nonforensic patients had higher rates of assaults than either group of forensic patients. However, being a forensic patient did not affect the odds of assault when controlling for the effects of demographic and clinical variables in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Factors associated with assaults in each of the three patient groups were identified using multivariate analyses. Implications are presented for treatment of assaultive behavior, mixing of forensic and nonforensic patients within state hospitals, forensic release policies, and future research.

  4. 33 CFR 20.1315 - Submission of prior records and evidence in aggravation or mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... evidence in aggravation or mitigation. 20.1315 Section 20.1315 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....1315 Submission of prior records and evidence in aggravation or mitigation. (a) The prior disciplinary... offer evidence and argument in mitigation of any charge proved. (c) The Coast Guard representative...

  5. 33 CFR 20.1315 - Submission of prior records and evidence in aggravation or mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... evidence in aggravation or mitigation. 20.1315 Section 20.1315 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....1315 Submission of prior records and evidence in aggravation or mitigation. (a) The prior disciplinary... offer evidence and argument in mitigation of any charge proved. (c) The Coast Guard representative...

  6. 33 CFR 20.1315 - Submission of prior records and evidence in aggravation or mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... evidence in aggravation or mitigation. 20.1315 Section 20.1315 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....1315 Submission of prior records and evidence in aggravation or mitigation. (a) The prior disciplinary... offer evidence and argument in mitigation of any charge proved. (c) The Coast Guard representative...

  7. 33 CFR 20.1315 - Submission of prior records and evidence in aggravation or mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... evidence in aggravation or mitigation. 20.1315 Section 20.1315 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....1315 Submission of prior records and evidence in aggravation or mitigation. (a) The prior disciplinary... offer evidence and argument in mitigation of any charge proved. (c) The Coast Guard representative...

  8. 33 CFR 20.1315 - Submission of prior records and evidence in aggravation or mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... evidence in aggravation or mitigation. 20.1315 Section 20.1315 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....1315 Submission of prior records and evidence in aggravation or mitigation. (a) The prior disciplinary... offer evidence and argument in mitigation of any charge proved. (c) The Coast Guard representative...

  9. 45 CFR 150.321 - Determining the amount of penalty-aggravating circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement..., if there are substantial or several aggravating circumstances, CMS sets the aggregate amount of the.... CMS considers the following circumstances to be aggravating circumstances: (a) The frequency...

  10. Offering HIV prophylaxis to people who have been sexually assaulted: 16 months' experience in a sexual assault service.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, E R; Comay, S E; McGregor, M; Ducceschi, S

    2000-03-01

    The sexual assault service, operated by the Children's & Women's Health Centre of British Columbia in partnership with the Vancouver General Hospital Emergency Department, started offering HIV prophylaxis in November 1996 to patients presenting to the emergency department after a sexual assault. In the first 16 months of the program a total of 258 people were seen by the service, of whom 71 accepted the offer of HIV prophylaxis. Only 29 continued with the drug treatment after receiving the initial 5-day starter pack, and only 8 completed the full 4-week treatment regmen and returned for their final follow-up visit. Patients at highest risk for HIV infection (those who had penetration by an assailant known to be HIV positive or at high risk for HIV infection [men who have sex with men, injection drug users]) were more likely to accept prophylaxis and more likely to complete the treatment than those at lower risk. Compliance and follow-up were the main problems with implementing this service. Service providers found it difficult to give the information about HIV prophylaxis to traumatized patients. After this program evaluation, the service changed its policy to offer HIV prophylaxis only to people at high risk of HIV infection. This targeting of services is expected to make the service providers' jobs easier and to make the program more cost-effective while still protecting sexual assault victims against HIV infection.

  11. Mast cells aggravate sepsis by inhibiting peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Dahdah, Albert; Gautier, Gregory; Attout, Tarik; Fiore, Frédéric; Lebourdais, Emeline; Msallam, Rasha; Daëron, Marc; Monteiro, Renato C.; Benhamou, Marc; Charles, Nicolas; Davoust, Jean; Blank, Ulrich; Malissen, Bernard; Launay, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the overwhelming inflammatory reaction associated with polymicrobial sepsis remains a prevalent clinical challenge with few treatment options. In septic peritonitis, blood neutrophils and monocytes are rapidly recruited into the peritoneal cavity to control infection, but the role of resident sentinel cells during the early phase of infection is less clear. In particular, the influence of mast cells on other tissue-resident cells remains poorly understood. Here, we developed a mouse model that allows both visualization and conditional ablation of mast cells and basophils to investigate the role of mast cells in severe septic peritonitis. Specific depletion of mast cells led to increased survival rates in mice with acute sepsis. Furthermore, we determined that mast cells impair the phagocytic action of resident macrophages, thereby allowing local and systemic bacterial proliferation. Mast cells did not influence local recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes or the release of inflammatory cytokines. Phagocytosis inhibition by mast cells involved their ability to release prestored IL-4 within 15 minutes after bacterial encounter, and treatment with an IL-4–neutralizing antibody prevented this inhibitory effect and improved survival of septic mice. Our study uncovers a local crosstalk between mast cells and macrophages during the early phase of sepsis development that aggravates the outcome of severe bacterial infection. PMID:25180604

  12. Inhalation of Carbon Black Nanoparticles Aggravates Pulmonary Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Saputra, Devina; Yoon, Jin-ha; Park, Hyunju; Heo, Yongju; Yang, Hyoseon; Lee, Eun Ji; Lee, Sangjin; Song, Chang-Woo; Lee, Kyuhong

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of recent studies have focused on the impact of particulate matter on human health. As a model for atmospheric particulate inhalation, we investigated the effects of inhaled carbon black nanoparticles (CBNP) on mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The CNBPs were generated by a novel aerosolization process, and the mice were exposed to the aerosol for 4 hours. We found that CBNP inhalation exacerbated lung inflammation, as evidenced by histopathology analysis and by the expression levels of interleukin-6 protein, fibronectin, and interferon-γ mRNAs in lung tissues. Notably, fibronectin mRNA expression showed a statistically significant increase in expression after CBNP exposure. These data suggest that the concentration of CBNPs delivered (calculated to be 12.5 μg/m3) can aggravate lung inflammation in mice. Our results also suggest that the inhalation of ultrafine particles like PM 2.5 is an impactful environmental risk factor for humans, particularly in susceptible populations with predisposing lung conditions. PMID:25071917

  13. Sexual assault training in the military: evaluating efforts to end the "invisible war".

    PubMed

    Holland, Kathryn J; Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia M

    2014-12-01

    Sexual assault is an insidious problem in the United States military. In 2005 the Department of Defense (DoD) created the Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office, which centralizes responsibility for sexual assault training. However, this training initiative has undergone little evaluation by outside researchers. Addressing this need, we analyzed responses from over 24,000 active duty personnel who completed the 2010 DoD Workplace and Gender Relations Survey. We assessed whether sexual assault training exposure (None, Minimal, Partial, or Comprehensive) predicted accurate knowledge of sexual assault resources and protocols. Using a social-ecological framework, we investigated whether institutional and individual factors influenced Service members' training exposure and judgment of training effectiveness. According to our results, exposure to comprehensive training predicted lower sexual assault incidence and superior knowledge. However, comprehensive training differed as a function of military branch, rank, gender, and sexual assault history. Judgments of training effectiveness also varied across these dimensions. Our results highlight the importance of considering context, gender, and victimization history when evaluating institutional efforts to end sexual violence. The DoD's 2010 annual report on military sexual assault concluded that "most Active Duty members receive effective training on sexual assault" (p. 104). Our results cast doubt on that assertion. PMID:25183207

  14. Preventing recurring injuries from violence: the risk of assault among Cleveland youth after hospitalization.

    PubMed Central

    Litacker, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although interpersonal violence has increased among urban youth, its epidemiology remains unclear. To prevent such violence, identifying the susceptible population is important. METHODS: Medical records for 998 patients aged 5 to 25 years at an urban hospital were reviewed to compare data for patients admitted for assault-related injuries, those admitted for unintentional injuries, and those for problems other than injuries. RESULTS: Those initially admitted for treatment of assault were found to be at greater risk of subsequent treatment for assault than those admitted for noninjuries. CONCLUSIONS: Admission for injuries caused by violence may increase risk for future assaults; hospitalization may offer an opportunity to interrupt these patterns. PMID:8916535

  15. Tolbutamide attenuates diazoxide-induced aggravation of hypoxic cell injury.

    PubMed

    Pissarek, M; Reichelt, C; Krauss, G J; Illes, P

    1998-11-23

    ATP-dependent potassium (KATP) channels of neurons are closed in the presence of physiological levels of intracellular ATP and open when ATP is depleted during hypoxia or metabolic damage. The present study investigates hypoxic alterations of purine and pyrimidine nucleotide levels supposed to intracellularly modulate KATP channels. In addition, the effects of the KATP channel activator diazoxide and its antagonist tolbutamide were investigated on ATP, GTP, CTP and UTP levels in slices of the parietal cortex. Hypoxia was evoked by saturation of the medium with 95% N2-5% CO2 instead of 95% O2-5% CO2 for 5 min. Nucleotide contents were measured by anion-exchange HPLC in neutralized perchloric acid extracts obtained from slices frozen immediately at the end of incubation. Hypoxia per se decreased purine and pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphate contents. Thus, ATP and GTP contents were reduced to 69.9 and 77.6% of the respective normoxic levels. UTP and CTP contents were even more decreased (to 60.9 and 41.6%),, probably because the salvage pathway of these pyrimidine nucleotides is less effective than that of the purine nucleotides ATP and GTP. While tolbutamide (30 microM) had no effect on the hypoxia-induced decrease of nucleotides, diazoxide at 300, but not 30 microM aggravated the decline of ATP, UTP and CTP to 51.8, 37.5 and 28.5% of the contents observed at normoxia; GTP levels also showed a tendency to decrease after diazoxide application. Tolbutamide (300 microM) antagonized the effects of diazoxide (300 but not 30 microM aggravated the decline of ATP, UTP and CTP to 51.8, 37.5 and 28.5% of the contents observed at normoxia; GTP levels also showed a tendency to decrease after diazoxide application. Tolbutamide (300 microM) antagonized the effects of diazoxide (300 MicroM). Nucleoside diphosphate (ADP, GDP and UDP) levels were uniformly increased by hypoxia. There was no hypoxia-induced increase of ADP contents in the presence of tolbutamide (300 microM). The ATP

  16. Arterial Hypertension Aggravates Innate Immune Responses after Experimental Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Karoline; Pösel, Claudia; Kranz, Alexander; Schulz, Isabell; Scheibe, Johanna; Didwischus, Nadine; Boltze, Johannes; Weise, Gesa; Wagner, Daniel-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is not only the leading risk factor for stroke, but also attributes to impaired recovery and poor outcome. The latter could be explained by hypertensive vascular remodeling that aggravates perfusion deficits and blood–brain barrier disruption. However, besides vascular changes, one could hypothesize that activation of the immune system due to pre-existing hypertension may negatively influence post-stroke inflammation and thus stroke outcome. To test this hypothesis, male adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs) were subjected to photothrombotic stroke. One and 3 days after stroke, infarct volume and functional deficits were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral tests. Expression levels of adhesion molecules and chemokines along with the post-stroke inflammatory response were analyzed by flow cytometry, quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry in rat brains 4 days after stroke. Although comparable at day 1, lesion volumes were significantly larger in SHR at day 3. The infarct volume showed a strong correlation with the amount of CD45 highly positive leukocytes present in the ischemic hemispheres. Functional deficits were comparable between SHR and WKY. Brain endothelial expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and P-selectin (CD62P) was neither increased by hypertension nor by stroke. However, in SHR, brain infiltrating myeloid leukocytes showed significantly higher surface expression of ICAM-1 which may augment leukocyte transmigration by leukocyte–leukocyte interactions. The expression of chemokines that primarily attract monocytes and granulocytes was significantly increased by stroke and, furthermore, by hypertension. Accordingly, ischemic hemispheres of SHR contain considerably higher numbers of monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes. Exacerbated brain inflammation in SHR may finally be responsible for

  17. Reported assaults and observed injuries in detainees held in police custody.

    PubMed

    Gahide, Sophie; Lepresle, Aude; Boraud, Cyril; Mahindhoratep, Tiao S; Chariot, Patrick

    2012-11-30

    The deprivation of liberty in police custody can be associated with violent situations and traumatic injuries. The rare available data did not mention whether alleged assaults occurred at the time of the arrest or during custody. Our objectives were to describe the frequency of recent traumatic injuries observed in detainees at the time of medical examination and to record detainees' self-reports of received physical violence, either before being arrested, at the time of the arrest, or during custody. In 2694 consecutive detainees examined in a suburban area near Paris, we compared persons' characteristics in four groups, according to the existence of alleged assaults or the presence of recent traumatic injuries, or both. Detainees reported to be victims of physical assaults in 25% of cases (686 of 2694): 374 assaults of 686 (55%) occurred at the time of arrest and 87 of 686 (13%) during custody. The opinion of assaulted detainees on custody was worse than non-assaulted detainees. Detainees alleging assaults by the police, whatever the time of the assault, accounted for 396 cases (15%). Three quarters of detainees (547 of 686, 79%) alleging assaults had recent traumatic injuries. When we considered all detainees, medical examination showed recent traumatic injuries in 724 of 2694 (27%). Injured detainees were declared unfit for detention more frequently than non-injured non-assaulted detainees (P<0.05). These results strengthen the need and usefulness that the attending physician systematically takes note of detainees' self reports of assaults and investigates recent traumatic injuries at the time of custody. PMID:22980144

  18. The Influence of Stereotypical Beliefs, Participant Gender, and Survivor Weight on Sexual Assault Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Allyson K.; Stermac, Lana

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the influence of survivor weight and participant gender, rape myth acceptance, and antifat attitudes on perceptions of sexual assault. Using an online survey tool, a community sample of 413 adult Canadian residents reviewed a hypothetical sexual assault scenario and completed a series of evaluations and attitudinal…

  19. Walking the Woods: The Lived Experience of Sexual Assault Survival for Women in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan-Kreishman, Mollie M.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores the lived experience of sexual assault survival for women in college. Through a grounding in the philosophy of hermeneutic phenomenology (Gadamer, 1960/2000; Heidegger, 1927/1962, 1968, 1928/1998, 1971/2001, 1950/2002), this work uncovers the lives of six sexual assault survivors who lived through rape during…

  20. 32 CFR 105.13 - Case management for Unrestricted Reports of sexual assault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subject of a sexual assault allegation, provide in writing all disposition data, to include any... data to the Criminal Justice Information System, Federal Bureau of Investigation; and to record the... will request an analysis of data to determine trends and patterns of sexual assaults and share...

  1. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Acute Stress Disorder Resulting from an Anti-Gay Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaysen, Debra; Lostutter, Ty W.; Goines, Marie A.

    2005-01-01

    This case study describes Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) with a 30-year-old gay man with symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) following a recent homophobic assault. Treatment addressed assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Also addressed were low self-esteem, helplessness, and high degrees of…

  2. 32 CFR 105.15 - Defense Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Defense Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID... Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID). (a) Purpose. (1) In accordance with section 563 of Public Law... activities. It shall serve as a centralized, case-level database for the collection and maintenance...

  3. 32 CFR 105.15 - Defense Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Defense Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID... Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID). (a) Purpose. (1) In accordance with section 563 of Public Law... activities. It shall serve as a centralized, case-level database for the collection and maintenance...

  4. A 2-year longitudinal analysis of the relationships between violent assault and substance use in women.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, D G; Acierno, R; Resnick, H S; Saunders, B E; Best, C L

    1997-10-01

    Women experience alarming levels of physical and sexual assault, which may lead to escalation of substance use. Reciprocally, evidence from cross-sectional studies indicates that substance use may increase risk of assault. To date, directionality of this relationship remains unclear. This issue is addressed by the present 3-wave longitudinal study in which a national probability sample of 3,006 women were followed for 2 years. Dependent measures were obtained at each wave of the study and included questions about lifetime and new assault status, alcohol abuse, and drug use. Wave 1 use of drugs, but not abuse of alcohol, increased odds of new assault in the subsequent 2 years. Reciprocally, after a new assault, odds of both alcohol abuse and drug use were significantly increased, even among women with no previous use or assault history. For illicit drug use, findings support a vicious cycle relationship in which substance use increases risk of future assault and assault increases risk of subsequent substance use. PMID:9337502

  5. Spirituality and Well-Being: The Relationship between Religious Coping and Recovery from Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Courtney E.; Abeling, Samantha; Ahmad, Sarah; Hinman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature documenting beneficial outcomes of religious coping, there are virtually no studies examining sexual assault survivors' use of religious coping. To fill this gap in the literature, the current study examines predictors and outcomes of positive and negative religious coping among 100 sexual assault survivors who…

  6. Sexual Assault Perpetrators' Tactics: Associations with Their Personal Characteristics and Aspects of the Incident

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.

    2011-01-01

    Past theory and empirical research have consistently associated a number of risk factors with sexual assault perpetration. This study extends past research by considering if the tactics which perpetrators use to obtain sex are associated with these risk factors or with characteristics of the sexual assault. Audio computer-assisted self-interviews…

  7. A Comparison of Men Who Committed Different Types of Sexual Assault in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; Parkhill, Michele R.; Clinton-Sherrod, A. Monique; Zawacki, Tina

    2007-01-01

    This study extends past research by examining predictors of different types of sexual assault perpetration in a community sample. Computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a representative sample of 163 men in one large urban community. As hypothesized, many variables that are significant predictors of sexual assault perpetration in…

  8. Latent Profiles among Sexual Assault Survivors: Implications for Defensive Coping and Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Nurius, Paula S.; Norris, Jeanette

    2007-01-01

    Rape resistance trainings need to prepare women to recognize and resist sexual assault across a range of experiences and contexts. To help address this need, this research used an investigation of 415 college women who completed a survey about their situational responding to an experience of acquaintance sexual assault. A previously established…

  9. A Pilot Survey of Patient-Initiated Assaults on Medical Students during Clinical Clerkship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Andrea E.; Katz, Mark R.; Lofchy, Jodi; Bradley, John

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the incidents of patient-initiated assault (PIA) against clinical clerks during the first six months of clinical clerkship. To characterise the assaults with respect to service, location, clerk gender, patient gender. To examine the students' perceptions of the reporting process for PIA. Methods: A brief email survey was sent…

  10. Health Status and Leisure Behavior of Sexual Assault Victims: Educational Opportunities for Health and Leisure Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Emilyn A.; And Others

    The health status and leisure behavior of victims of sexual assault were studied. Data concerning present illness symptoms, past illness symptoms, negative health behavior, family health history, and female reproductive physiology illness symptoms were obtained and analyzed. Sexual assault victims were similar to nonvictims demographically except…

  11. Is the Authoritarian Trait in Mental Health Workers a Significant Predictor Variable of Patient Assault?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safian-Rush, Donna

    Mental health workers may be assaulted by their violent patients. A study was conducted to examine one predictor variable of aggressive behavior in patients. It was hypothesized that authoritarian traits in the mental health worker could result in more assaults against the mental health worker by patients. Participants (N=32) were mental health…

  12. 77 FR 20499 - National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... fight to reduce sexual violence, the prevalence of sexual assault remains an affront to our national... still more have endured other forms of sexual violence or abuse. Tragically, these crimes take their... assault, and many victims, male and female, first experience abuse during childhood. The trauma of...

  13. Acute Stress Disorder as a Predictor of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Physical Assault Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Brink, Ole

    2004-01-01

    The authors' objective was to examine the ability of acute stress disorder (ASD) and other trauma-related factors in a group of physical assault victims in predicting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 6 months later. Subjects included 214 victims of violence who completed a questionnaire 1 to 2 weeks after the assault, with 128 participating…

  14. Assaultive Behavior in State Psychiatric Hospitals: Differences Between Forensic and Nonforensic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhorst, Donald M.; Scott, Lisa Parker

    2004-01-01

    Forensic patients are occupying an increasingly large number of beds in state psychiatric hospitals. The presence of these mentally ill offenders has raised concerns about the risk they present to nonforensic patients. This study compared the rate of assaults and factors associated with assaultive behavior among 308 nonforensic patients and two…

  15. Sexual Assault Prevention for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Critical Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Erin; Wacker, Julia; Macy, Rebecca; Parish, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Although research has indicated that women with intellectual disabilities are significantly burdened with sexual violence, there is a dearth of sexual assault prevention research for them. To help address this serious knowledge gap, the authors summarize the findings of general sexual assault prevention research and discuss its implications for…

  16. Psychological Outcomes After a Sexual Assault Video Intervention: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Miller, Katherine E; Cranston, Christopher C; Davis, Joanne L; Newman, Elana; Resnick, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Sexual assault survivors are at risk for a number of mental and physical health problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety. Unfortunately, few seek physical or mental health services after a sexual assault (Price, Davidson, Ruggiero, Acierno, & Resnick, 2014). Mitigating the impact of sexual assault via early interventions is a growing and important area of research. This study adds to this literature by replicating and expanding previous studies (e.g., Resnick, Acierno, Amstadter, Self-Brown, & Kilpatrick, 2007) examining the efficacy of a brief video-based intervention that provides psychoeducation and modeling of coping strategies to survivors at the time of a sexual assault nurse examination. Female sexual assault survivors receiving forensic examinations were randomized to standard care or to the video intervention condition (N = 164). The participants completed mental health assessments 2 weeks (n = 69) and 2 months (n = 74) after the examination. Analyses of covariance revealed that women in the video condition had significantly fewer anxiety symptoms at the follow-up assessments. In addition, of those participants in the video condition, survivors reporting no previous sexual assault history reported significantly fewer posttraumatic stress symptoms 2 weeks after the examination than those with a prior assault history. Forensic nurses have the unique opportunity to intervene immediately after a sexual assault. This brief video intervention is a cost-effective tool to aid with that process. PMID:26291847

  17. Do Assault-Related Variables Predict Response to Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for PTSD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembree, Elizabeth A.; Street, Gordon P.; Riggs, David S.; Foa, Edna B.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that variables such as history of prior trauma, assault severity, and type of assault, previously found to be associated with natural recovery, would also predict treatment outcome. Trauma-related variables were examined as predictors of posttreatment posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity in a sample of…

  18. Emancipatory Sexuality Education and Sexual Assault Resistance: Does the Former Enhance the Latter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Charlene Y.; Gee, Stephanie S.; Thake, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined whether adding emancipatory sexuality education, which encourages the exploration of women's own sexual values and desires, to a sexual assault resistance program would improve women's resistance to sexual assault by known men. The participants were 214 first-year university students. A randomized experimental design…

  19. A Prospective Examination of Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Victims of Nonsexual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, David S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were examined prospectively in 84 nonsexual assault victims, beginning shortly after the assault and continuing weekly for 3 months. Severity of PTSD decreased significantly over the course of the study in the groups who were not diagnosed with the disorder at the final assessment. (JBJ)

  20. Sexual Assault Disclosure in Relation to Adolescent Mental Health: Results from the National Survey of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2007-01-01

    Child sexual assault is a risk factor for a wide range of emotional and behavioral problems. Little is known about mental health functioning in relation to victims' decisions to tell someone (or not) about their assault. This study used data from a nationally representative sample of 4,023 adolescents to examine the relation between sexual assault…

  1. The Sexual Assault of Undergraduate Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Christopher P.; Barrick, Kelle; Lindquist, Christine H.; Crosby, Carmen M.; Boyd, Chimi; Bogan, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Although research has shown that undergraduate women are at high risk for experiencing sexual assault, little research has been conducted with undergraduate women who are attending a historically Black college or university (HBCU). The purpose of this research is to document the prevalence of different types of sexual assault among undergraduate…

  2. 75 FR 30002 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Task Force on Sexual Assault in the Military Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Task Force on Sexual Assault in the Military... terminating the Defense Task Force on Sexual Assault in the Military Services, effective June 1, 2010....

  3. 76 FR 18633 - National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... confront rape and other forms of sexual violence as a deplorable crime. Too many victims suffer unaided... women will experience an attempted or completed rape at some point in her life, and for some groups... the trauma of sexual assault. And ultimately, we must prevent sexual assault before it happens....

  4. Talking to Children/Talking to Parents about Sexual Assault. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loontjens, Lois

    This manual shares some of the experiences in parent and child education in sexual assault of a group dedicated to alleviating the trauma of sexual assault for victims and their families. The section of the manual about talking to children is arranged in four levels: kindergartners and first graders; second and third graders; fourth and fifth…

  5. Consensus and Controversy in Sexual Assault Prevention and Intervention: A Delphi Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Vivian B.; And Others

    Sexual assault literature reveals inconsistencies regarding important issues in establishing prevention and intervention standards. The Delphi inquiry technique was used to examine concepts and criteria for practice and to explore assumptions and value dilemmas in sexual assault prevention and treatment. Expert judgments were made by 51…

  6. Validation of the Sexual Assault Symptom Scale II (SASS II) Using a Panel Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruch, Libby O.; Wang, Chang-Hwai

    2006-01-01

    To examine the utility of a self-report scale of sexual assault trauma, 223 female victims were interviewed with the 43-item Sexual Assault Symptom Scale II (SASS II) at 1, 3, 7, 11, and 15 months postassault. Factor analyses using principal-components extraction with an oblimin rotation yielded 7 common factors with 31 items. The internal…

  7. The Reporting of Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault by Nonstrangers to the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felson, Richard B.; Par, Paul-Philippe

    2005-01-01

    We examine the effects of the gender of the victim and offender and their relationship to each other on whether sexual and physical assaults are reported to the police. We also examine the reasons victims give for not reporting assaults and whether reporting patterns have changed over time. The analyses are based on a sample of 6,291 physical…

  8. 32 CFR 105.16 - Sexual assault annual and quarterly reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with section 1631(d) of Public Law 111-383, and includes: (1) The policies, procedures, and... sexual assault. (2) An assessment of the implementation of the policies and procedures on the prevention, response, and oversight of sexual assaults in the military to determine the effectiveness of SAPR...

  9. The Role of Alcohol and Victim Sexual Interest in Spanish Students' Perceptions of Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Megias, Jesus L.; Krahe, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Two studies investigated the effects of information related to rape myths on Spanish college students' perceptions of sexual assault. In Study 1, 92 participants read a vignette about a nonconsensual sexual encounter and rated whether it was a sexual assault and how much the woman was to blame. In the scenario, the man either used physical force…

  10. Psychological Outcomes After a Sexual Assault Video Intervention: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Miller, Katherine E; Cranston, Christopher C; Davis, Joanne L; Newman, Elana; Resnick, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Sexual assault survivors are at risk for a number of mental and physical health problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety. Unfortunately, few seek physical or mental health services after a sexual assault (Price, Davidson, Ruggiero, Acierno, & Resnick, 2014). Mitigating the impact of sexual assault via early interventions is a growing and important area of research. This study adds to this literature by replicating and expanding previous studies (e.g., Resnick, Acierno, Amstadter, Self-Brown, & Kilpatrick, 2007) examining the efficacy of a brief video-based intervention that provides psychoeducation and modeling of coping strategies to survivors at the time of a sexual assault nurse examination. Female sexual assault survivors receiving forensic examinations were randomized to standard care or to the video intervention condition (N = 164). The participants completed mental health assessments 2 weeks (n = 69) and 2 months (n = 74) after the examination. Analyses of covariance revealed that women in the video condition had significantly fewer anxiety symptoms at the follow-up assessments. In addition, of those participants in the video condition, survivors reporting no previous sexual assault history reported significantly fewer posttraumatic stress symptoms 2 weeks after the examination than those with a prior assault history. Forensic nurses have the unique opportunity to intervene immediately after a sexual assault. This brief video intervention is a cost-effective tool to aid with that process.

  11. Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Donna E.; Griffin, Melinda A.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychosocial correlates of alcohol-related sexual assault. Undergraduate students (N = 551) were recruited to complete a web-based survey. The outcome was a composite of 2 items: "experienced an unwanted sexual advance" or "was the victim of sexual assault or date rape" as a result of another's alcohol use. The predictors…

  12. Curcumin aggravates CNS pathology in experimental systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Foxley, Sean; Zamora, Marta; Hack, Bradley; Alexander, Rebecca Rashmi; Roman, Brian; Quigg, Richard John; Alexander, Jessy John

    2013-04-01

    Complement activation and inflammation are key disease features of systemic lupus erythematosus. Curcumin is an anti-inflammatory agent that inhibits the complement cascade. Therefore, we hypothesized that curcumin will be protective in CNS lupus. To assess the effect of curcumin on CNS-lupus, MRL/lpr mice were used. Brain MRI showed that curcumin (30mg/kg body wt. i.p. from 12-20 weeks) worsened regional brain atrophy. The volumes of the lateral and third ventricles are significantly increased (150%-213% and 107%-140%, without and with treatment respectively compared to MRL+/+ controls). The hippocampus was reduced further (83%-81%) by curcumin treatment. In line with increased brain atrophy, there were edematous cells (41% increase in cell size in MRL/lpr compared to MRL+/+ mice. The cell size was further increased by 28% when treated with curcumin; p<0.02) in the cortex. In line with increased atrophy and edema, there was a significant increase (p<0.02) in the mRNA and protein expression of the water channel protein, aquaporin 4 in these mice. The increase in the matrix proteins, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin in lupus mice in the hippocampus was prevented by curcumin. Curcumin increased IgG deposits and decreased C3 deposits in brain with a corresponding increase in immune complexes and decrease in C3 concentration (by 60% in MRL/lpr mice Vs. MRL+/+ mice and a further 26% decrease when treated with curcumin) in circulation. Decrease in C3 could alter the transport of immune complexes leading to an increase in IgG deposits which could induce inflammatory pathways thereby leading to worsening of the disease. The neurological outcome as measured by maze performance indicates that the curcumin treated mice performed poorly compared to the untreated counterparts. Our results for the first time provide evidence that at the dose used in this study, curcumin aggravates some CNS disease manifestations in experimental lupus brain. Therefore, until a safe

  13. Metallothionein deficiency aggravates depleted uranium-induced nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Yuhui; Huang, Jiawei; Gu, Ying; Liu, Cong; Li, Hong; Liu, Jing; Ren, Jiong; Yang, Zhangyou; Peng, Shuangqing; Wang, Weidong; Li, Rong

    2015-09-15

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been widely used in both civilian and military activities, and the kidney is the main target organ of DU during acute high-dose exposures. In this study, the nephrotoxicity caused by DU in metallothionein-1/2-null mice (MT −/−) and corresponding wild-type (MT +/+) mice was investigated to determine any associations with MT. Each MT −/− or MT +/+ mouse was pretreated with a single dose of DU (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) or an equivalent volume of saline. After 4 days of DU administration, kidney changes were assessed. After DU exposure, serum creatinine and serum urea nitrogen in MT −/− mice significantly increased than in MT +/+ mice, with more severe kidney pathological damage. Moreover, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased, and generation of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde increased in MT −/− mice. The apoptosis rate in MT −/− mice significantly increased, with a significant increase in both Bax and caspase 3 and a decrease in Bcl-2. Furthermore, sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) and sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-II) were significantly reduced after DU exposure, and the change of SGLT was more evident in MT −/− mice. Finally, exogenous MT was used to evaluate the correlation between kidney changes induced by DU and MT doses in MT −/− mice. The results showed that, the pathological damage and cell apoptosis decreased, and SOD and SGLT levels increased with increasing dose of MT. In conclusion, MT deficiency aggravated DU-induced nephrotoxicity, and the molecular mechanisms appeared to be related to the increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, and decreased SGLT expression. - Highlights: • MT −/− and MT +/+ mice were used to evaluate nephrotoxicity of DU. • Renal damage was more evident in the MT −/− mice after exposure to DU. • Exogenous MT also protects against DU-induced nephrotoxicity. • MT deficiency induced more ROS and apoptosis after exposure to

  14. Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity as a Moderator of Relationship Functioning After Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Gemberling, Tess M; Cramer, Robert J; Miller, Rowland S; Stroud, Caroline H; Noland, Ramona M; Graham, James

    2015-12-01

    Sexual assault is unfortunately common, especially among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. Yet, the associations of such victimization have not yet been extensively established in the areas of sexual identity and romantic relationship functioning. Accordingly, the present study examined the associations between lifetime sexual assault, LGB identity, and romantic relationship functioning in a sample of 336 LGB individuals. A history of sexual assault was associated with attachment anxiety and several sexual identity components (i.e., higher levels of acceptance concerns, identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity, and identity superiority). Furthermore, an association of sexual assault and attachment avoidance was moderated by internalized homonegativity. Finally, a more secure LGB identity was associated with healthier romantic relationship functioning. Collectively, these findings are applicable to services for LGB sexual assault victims, suggesting the incorporation of treatment that bolsters LGB identity and couple functioning. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  15. 27 CFR 478.132 - Dispositions of semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for... assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for official use... licensed dealers in semiautomatic assault weapons, as well as persons who manufacture, import, or deal...

  16. 27 CFR 478.132 - Dispositions of semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for... assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for official use... licensed dealers in semiautomatic assault weapons, as well as persons who manufacture, import, or deal...

  17. 27 CFR 478.132 - Dispositions of semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for... assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for official use... licensed dealers in semiautomatic assault weapons, as well as persons who manufacture, import, or deal...

  18. 27 CFR 478.132 - Dispositions of semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for... assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for official use... licensed dealers in semiautomatic assault weapons, as well as persons who manufacture, import, or deal...

  19. 78 FR 63454 - Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... of the Secretary Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel; Notice of Federal Advisory... Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel. DATES: A meeting of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (``the Panel'') will be held November 7-8, 2013. The Public Session...

  20. The Sexual Assault and Secondary Victimization of Female Veterans: Help-Seeking Experiences with Military and Civilian Social Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Raja, Sheela

    2005-01-01

    A sample of predominantly low-income, African American female veterans and reservists seeking health care in a Veterans' Administration medical clinic was screened for a history of sexual assault since age 18. Overall, 39% had been sexually assaulted in adulthood. Those who had been sexually victimized were asked to describe one assault incident…

  1. 27 CFR 478.132 - Dispositions of semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for... assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for official use... licensed dealers in semiautomatic assault weapons, as well as persons who manufacture, import, or deal...

  2. 3 CFR 8952 - Proclamation 8952 of March 29, 2013. National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... rape and sexual assault affect all communities, those at the greatest risk are children, teens, and... experience sexual assault as the general population. Moreover, we know rape and sexual assault are consistently underreported, and that the physical and emotional trauma they leave behind can last for...

  3. Assault experiences: Lessons learned from mental health nurses in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-I; Hsieh, Wen-Po; Lee, Li-Hung; Chen, Shu-Ling

    2016-06-01

    Mental health nurse are frequently subjected to patients' violent and aggressive behaviour. These assault experiences have given rise to mental health nurses' physical and psychological trauma, and negatively impact the quality of patient care. The purpose of the present qualitative study was to understand mental health nurses' experiences of being assaulted, the influences on their patient care, and their perspectives of the effectiveness of in-service, violence-prevention education. Ten mental health nurses from two different inpatient mental health facilities were interviewed using a semistructured interview guide. Thematic analysis of interview data found six themes: (i) violence is unpredictable; (ii) violence is normal; (iii) lasting psychological trauma; (iv) limited support from peers and the administrator; (v) violence prevention requires team cooperation; and (vi) doubting the effectiveness of in-service education on violence prevention. Psychiatric ward administrators should assess nurses' learning and skill needs to determine whether these needs are met by existing in-service training programmes. A culture of safety should also be promoted by building a warm and supportive ward climate for both staff and patients, which would include team cooperation and support for colleagues who suffer a violent incident. PMID:27170463

  4. [The nursing experience of caring for a sexual assault victim].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Hui; Tsai, Hui-Chu

    2008-02-01

    The more advancements in technology, the more temptations there are for teenagers on the Internet. Despite satisfying the fancies of juveniles, the Internet predisposes them to many kinds of danger. In this article, a seventeen-year-old girl met a net pal on the Internet, went out with him out of curiosity, and was sexual assaulted. The Roy's adaptation model was applied to the victim. Further, all data were collected by observation and conversation in the emergency room, during routine outpatient follow-up and through phone conversations from April, 27, 2006 to June, 1, 2006. Sleep pattern disturbance, situational low self-esteem, impaired social interaction, and Rape-trauma syndrome were diagnosed after nursing assessment. In accordance with these diagnoses, individualized nursing implementation was performed, including encouraging her to express herself, listening to her patiently, and providing her with support as well as social welfare resources. Finally, the victim was assisted not only to overcome the dark shadow of her assault but to develop a positive attitude and set a new goal through the cooperation of her family, our medical group, and herself. This nursing experience may provide some helpful information for us to share in caring for such cases.

  5. [The nursing experience of caring for a sexual assault victim].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Hui; Tsai, Hui-Chu

    2008-02-01

    The more advancements in technology, the more temptations there are for teenagers on the Internet. Despite satisfying the fancies of juveniles, the Internet predisposes them to many kinds of danger. In this article, a seventeen-year-old girl met a net pal on the Internet, went out with him out of curiosity, and was sexual assaulted. The Roy's adaptation model was applied to the victim. Further, all data were collected by observation and conversation in the emergency room, during routine outpatient follow-up and through phone conversations from April, 27, 2006 to June, 1, 2006. Sleep pattern disturbance, situational low self-esteem, impaired social interaction, and Rape-trauma syndrome were diagnosed after nursing assessment. In accordance with these diagnoses, individualized nursing implementation was performed, including encouraging her to express herself, listening to her patiently, and providing her with support as well as social welfare resources. Finally, the victim was assisted not only to overcome the dark shadow of her assault but to develop a positive attitude and set a new goal through the cooperation of her family, our medical group, and herself. This nursing experience may provide some helpful information for us to share in caring for such cases. PMID:18270939

  6. Trends and patterns of sexual assaults in Lagos south-western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ezechi, Oliver Chukwujekwu; Adesolamusa, Zaidat; David, Agatha Nkiru; Wapmuk, Agatha Eileen; Gbajabiamila, Titilola Abike; Eugeniaidigbe, Ifeoma; Ezeobi, Paschal Mbanefo; Ohihoin, Aigbe Greg; Ujah, Innocent Achanya Otobo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexual assault is a severely traumatic experience that disproportionally affects women and girls. Yet there is limited information on the subject in our environment. This study was conducted to determine the trend and pattern of sexual assault among Nigerians. Methods A retrospective study of sexual assault victims managed at a large clinic in south west Nigeria. Victims were identified from the programme data base and case files retrieved from medical records department. Relevant information was extracted and managed with SPSS for windows version 19. Results Steady increase in the proportion of reported cases of sexual violence over the years (P < 0.0001) was observed. Sexual assaults were recorded among the males (6.1%), although female victims were in the majority (93.9%). Sexual assault was found to be higher in person’s <20 years and the unmarried. Most sexual assault occurred during the day time. Assailants were mostly persons known to the victim (52.0%) and the assault occurred mostly in the assailants’ house or office (48.5%). Sexual assault through vaginal route only (87.2%) was the most common route of sexual assault. Threat of violence (31.1%) and physical force (29.6%) was the common methods for overcoming the victims. Follow up was completed by 75.0% of the victims. Conclusion Sexual assault is common in our environment, with increasing prevalence and change in pattern. Young persons aged less than 20 years constitutes the majority of victims and assailants were mostly persons known to them. The current public education on the evils of sexual violence should be intensified. PMID:27800114

  7. Comparison of sexual assaults by strangers and known assailants in an urban population of women.

    PubMed Central

    Stermac, L E; Du Mont, J A; Kalemba, V

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the characteristics of sexual assaults by strangers and those by people known to the victims in an urban community-based population of women. DESIGN: Descriptive study. SETTING: Sexual Assault Care Centre, Women's College Hospital, Toronto. PARTICIPANTS: All 677 women who presented to the centre between June 1, 1991, and Sept. 30, 1993, and for whom the victim-assailant relationship was known. OUTCOME MEASURES: Assailant's relationship to victim, sex of assailant, number of assailants, number, type and location of assaults, use of weapons, type of coercion and extent of physical trauma or injury. RESULTS: Sexual assault by a person known to the victim accounted for 456 (67.4%) of the assaults reported. In 344 cases the person was known more than 24 hours; 99 (28.8%) were current or previous boyfriends or spouses. Assailants who were strangers were more likely to assault the victim more than once (t = -2.42, 355 degrees of freedom [df], p < 0.05), force the victim to perform fellatio (chi 2 = 8.63, 1 df, p < 0.005), use weapons (chi 2 = 12.01, 1 df, p < 0.001) and use physical coercion (chi 2 = 4.42, 1 df, p < 0.05), whereas assailants who were known to the victims were more likely to assault a woman who was sleeping or drugged (chi 2 = 10.38, 1 df, p < 0.005). Sexual assault by a known assailant was more likely to occur in the home of the victim (chi 2 = 36.27, 1 df, p < 0.001) or the assailant (chi 2 = 8.46, 1 df, p < 0.005), whereas sexual assault by a stranger was more likely to occur outdoors (chi 2 = 89.80, 1 df, p < 0.001) or in a vehicle (chi 2 = 32.81, 1 df, p < 0.001). Overall, the mean number of trauma sites was greater among victims assaulted by strangers than among those assaulted by people they knew (t = -4.29, 180 df, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Two thirds of the sexual assaults in this urban population were committed by people known to the victims, and over two thirds of these assaults were associated with physical trauma. Improved

  8. Need for Specialized Support Services for Nurse Victims of Physical Assault by Psychiatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Lois Biggin; McManus, Marybeth; Cullinan, Meritta; Persico, Lori

    2016-07-01

    Assault of nurses in the psychiatric setting is an ongoing global concern. In a prior study by these authors, many nurses reported concern about the lack of supportive interventions offered to nurses after the assault event. These nurses reported ongoing psychosocial and emotional disturbance consistent with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. A follow-up study was done to investigate the perceived need of assaulted nurses for specialized support groups to assist them in dealing with the experience. A quantitative, cross sectional survey descriptive research design was done to assess assaulted nurses' perceived need for specialized support groups. The survey also gathered data relating to the reporting of the assault. A qualitative narrative section was added to gather data that might have been missed in the quantitative segment. The sample consisted of 57 previously assaulted nurses currently working at multiple acute care sites. Study findings showed that if specialized support groups were available, 57% of the nurses might be interested in attending these, and 41% would be interested in attending these. These nurses also reported multiple signs and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Considering the serious negative impact of assault on nurses and their desire for follow-up support, there is a need for the availability of supportive services. PMID:27269817

  9. Disgust, Mental Contamination, and Posttraumatic Stress: Unique Relations following Sexual versus Non-Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Badour, Christal L.; Feldner, Matthew T.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Dutton, Courtney E.

    2012-01-01

    Disgust and mental contamination (or feelings of dirtiness and urges to wash in the absence of a physical contaminant) are increasingly being linked to traumatic event exposure and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptomatology. Evidence suggests disgust and mental contamination are particularly relevant to sexual assault experiences; however, there has been relatively little direct examination of these relations. The primary aim of the current study was to assess disgust and mental contamination-based reactivity to an individualized interpersonal assault-related script-driven imagery procedure. Participants included 22 women with a history of traumatic sexual assault and 19 women with a history of traumatic non-sexual assault. Sexual assault and PTS symptom severity predicted greater increases in disgust, feelings of dirtiness, and urges to wash in response to the traumatic event script. Finally, assault type affected the association between PTS symptom severity and increases in feelings of dirtiness and urges to wash in response to the traumatic event script such that these associations were only significant among sexually assaulted individuals. These findings highlight the need for future research focused on elucidating the nature of the relation between disgust and mental contamination and PTS reactions following various traumatic events. PMID:23376603

  10. Circumstances surrounding male sexual assault and rape: findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey.

    PubMed

    Light, David; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth

    2009-11-01

    Much work in the area of male sexual assault and rape relies on small clinical samples. From these samples, researchers reported that most male victims were physically injured during the attack and that penetration occurred. This work rests on a subsample of 219 men from the 1994-1996 Violence and Threats of Violence Against Women and Men in the United States Survey. Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAW) show that the vast majority of male sexual assault victims reported that they were not physically injured during the assault, that a weapon was not used, that there was no substance use at the time of the assault, and that penetration did not occur. Only 29% of male respondents in the NVAW sought medical or psychological help after the assault. Prior work may have overrepresented men who reported being physically injured and/or penetrated. An analysis is presented of how those who presented for help in the NVAW differ from the whole sample. Results show that men who presented for help were more likely to have reported being physically injured during the assault and that penetration occurred. Thus, findings from prior work make sense; however, they may not be representative of male assault victims as a whole.

  11. Sexual Assault Victimization Among Female Undergraduates During Study Abroad: A Single Campus Survey Study.

    PubMed

    Flack, William F; Kimble, Matthew O; Campbell, Brooke E; Hopper, Allyson B; Petercă, Oana; Heller, Emily J

    2015-12-01

    Almost all research on sexual assault victimization among undergraduate university students pertains to incidents that occur on domestic college and university campuses. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of sexual assault victimization and related factors among undergraduates in the context of study-abroad programs. Two hundred eight female students (52% response rate) from a small university in the northeastern United States who had recently studied abroad responded to an online survey containing measures of sexual assault, posttraumatic stress responses (PSR), and alcohol consumption. Almost 19% of the respondents indicated one or more types of sexual assault victimization. Approximately 17% reported non-consensual sexual touching, 7% attempted rape, 4% rape, with 9% reporting attempted rape or rape. As in domestic studies, victimization in this sample was related positively to alcohol consumption and PSR. Use of force was the most frequently reported perpetrator tactic. In sum, the high rates of sexual assault victimization reported by this sample during study abroad replicate previous findings. This context requires further attention from sexual assault researchers, especially given the increasing numbers of university students engaging in study abroad, and from campus support personnel who may be unaware of the likelihood of assault in this context.

  12. Deviations in Monthly Staffing and Injurious Assaults Against Staff and Patients on Psychiatric Units.

    PubMed

    Staggs, Vincent S

    2016-10-01

    It is widely thought that low staffing levels are associated with higher risk of psychiatric inpatient violence. The purpose of this study was to determine whether odds of an injurious assault are higher in months in which unit staffing levels are higher or lower relative to unit average, using a design allowing each unit to serve as its own control. Using 2011-2013 National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators data from 480 adult and 90 geriatric units in 361 US hospitals, monthly assault odds were modeled as functions of unit staffing. Monthly RN and non-RN staffing (hours per patient day) were categorized as very low, low, average, high, or very high, based on deviation from the unit's average staffing across study months. Endpoints were binary indicators for one or more injurious assaults against staff during the month and for one or more injurious assaults against patients during the month. Despite large sample sizes, neither RN nor non-RN staffing was a statistically significant predictor of odds of assault, nor was there a consistent trend of odds of assault being higher at below- or above-average staffing levels. There was little evidence that monthly deviation in unit staffing is associated with the odds of an injurious assault on a unit. This suggests that staffing-assault rate associations in previous studies of monthly data are largely attributable to between-unit rather than within-unit staffing differences. Hospitals may need to look beyond below- or above-average nurse staffing as a cause of assaults. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27304990

  13. Deviations in Monthly Staffing and Injurious Assaults Against Staff and Patients on Psychiatric Units.

    PubMed

    Staggs, Vincent S

    2016-10-01

    It is widely thought that low staffing levels are associated with higher risk of psychiatric inpatient violence. The purpose of this study was to determine whether odds of an injurious assault are higher in months in which unit staffing levels are higher or lower relative to unit average, using a design allowing each unit to serve as its own control. Using 2011-2013 National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators data from 480 adult and 90 geriatric units in 361 US hospitals, monthly assault odds were modeled as functions of unit staffing. Monthly RN and non-RN staffing (hours per patient day) were categorized as very low, low, average, high, or very high, based on deviation from the unit's average staffing across study months. Endpoints were binary indicators for one or more injurious assaults against staff during the month and for one or more injurious assaults against patients during the month. Despite large sample sizes, neither RN nor non-RN staffing was a statistically significant predictor of odds of assault, nor was there a consistent trend of odds of assault being higher at below- or above-average staffing levels. There was little evidence that monthly deviation in unit staffing is associated with the odds of an injurious assault on a unit. This suggests that staffing-assault rate associations in previous studies of monthly data are largely attributable to between-unit rather than within-unit staffing differences. Hospitals may need to look beyond below- or above-average nurse staffing as a cause of assaults. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effects of restricting pub closing times on night-time assaults in an Australian city

    PubMed Central

    Kypri, Kypros; Jones, Craig; McElduff, Patrick; Barker, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Aims In March 2008 the New South Wales judiciary restricted pub closing times to 3 a.m., and later 3.30 a.m., in the central business district (CBD) of Newcastle, Australia. We sought to determine whether the restriction reduced the incidence of assault. Design Non-equivalent control group design with before and after observations. Setting Newcastle, a city of 530 000 people. Participants People apprehended for assault in the CBD and nearby Hamilton, an area with a similar night-time economy but where no restriction was imposed. Measurements Police-recorded assaults in the CBD before and after the restriction were compared with those in Hamilton. Cases were assaults occurring from 10 p.m.–6 a.m. from January 2001–March 2008, with April 2008–September 2009 as the post-restriction period. We also examined changes in assault incidence by time of night. Negative binomial regression with time, area, time × area interaction terms and terms for secular trend and seasonal effects was used to analyse the data. Autocorrelation was examined using generalized estimating equations. Findings In the CBD, recorded assaults fell from 99.0 per quarter before the restriction to 67.7 per quarter afterward [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55–0.80]. In the same periods in Hamilton, assault rates were 23.4 and 25.5 per quarter, respectively (IRR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.79–1.31). The relative reduction attributable to the intervention was 37% (IRR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.47–0.81) and approximately 33 assault incidents were prevented per quarter. Conclusion This study indicates that a restriction in pub closing times to 3/3.30 a.m. in Newcastle, NSW, produced a large relative reduction in assault incidence of 37% in comparison to a control locality. PMID:20840191

  15. Bystander perceptions: implications for university sexual assault prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Lori E; Brown, Amy L; Boisen, Leah

    2012-01-01

    The college party environment comprises a risk factor for unwanted sexual activity but may also provide a safety net, given the presence of bystanders who can potentially intervene in risky situations. Sexual assault prevention programs are increasingly incorporating bystander education into their designs. This article presents findings intended to inform these programs. Qualitative data from single-sex focus groups about typical college party behavior was analyzed for common themes. Analysis of these themes suggests that although some sexual behavior is visible at college parties, most sexual behavior is assumed to occur behind closed doors. In addition, intervention and prevention methods may vary by gender. Multiple factors appear to promote or dissuade bystander intervention in college party situations. PMID:22978075

  16. Community cooperatives combat sexual assault and domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Marc D

    2003-02-01

    The effectiveness of the SANE program is borne out by the following testimonies: "The emotional support required by these victims is best rendered by a SANE. This frees the ED nurse to care for other patients, while sexual assault victims receive a high level of care," says Nancy Donel, RN manager at St. Thomas Hospital ED. "The DOVE program benefits not only the emergency physician, but the EMS system as well. It gives us a resource and a specifically identified program with well-trained, qualified providers. Through their training and knowledge, SANEs not only help victims, but also increase the number of legal convictions that take assailants off the streets. This improves the health and safety of the communities in which we live and serve," says Michael Mackan, MD, of the Summa Health System.

  17. Sexual assault, irresistible impulses, and forensic psychiatry in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bergenheim, Asa

    2014-01-01

    After forensic psychiatry was firmly established in Sweden in the 1930s, many rapists and individuals charged with assaulting children underwent a forensic psychiatric examination. The physicians found that most of them had not been "in control" of their senses or not "in complete control" of their senses at the time of the crime. If the court ordered a forensic psychiatric examination, the defendant had a very good chance of either being discharged or having his sentence reduced considerably. By the 1950s psychological perspectives began to dominate in forensic psychiatry. In the forensic records of the 1950s we can notice a shift from a biomedical to a socio-psychological perspective, and crime was increasingly related to conditions that were not seen as mental derangement from a legal point of view. As a result, it became less and less common, from the 1950s onwards, for sentences to be commuted or defendants discharged.

  18. Qualitative study of breastfeeding after childhood sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Coles, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Childhood sexual assault (CSA) is a common experience for women. Little research has explored the breastfeeding experience of CSA survivors who successfully breastfeed. The objective of this study is to explore the experience of successful breastfeeding with mothers with a history of CSA. Eleven women are interviewed after responding to a community-based advertisement. The women self-identify as having experienced CSA by a family member. Semistructured interviews are conducted by the author. Interviews are transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes. Four key themes are identified: enhancement of the mother- baby relationship, validation of the maternal body, splitting of the breasts' dual role as maternal and sexual objects, and exposure and control when breastfeeding in public. Healthcare professionals should be aware of these maternal issues when promoting breastfeeding and counseling breastfeeding women. PMID:19414736

  19. Mediators of sexual revictimization risk in adult sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E; Vasquez, Amanda L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse, emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which child sexual abuse severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to child sexual abuse severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the child sexual abuse severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  20. Mediators of Sexual Revictimization Risk in Adult Sexual Assault Victims

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  1. Drug-facilitated sexual assault involving gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.

    PubMed

    Stillwell, Matthew E

    2002-09-01

    The first case involving an alleged sexual assault linked to the use of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in Oklahoma is reported. A-48-year-old Caucasian woman taking amitriptyline was known to have voluntarily ingested a sports drink containing a relaxing health product. She purportedly experienced unconsciousness that persisted for approximately 4 h. The toxicological testing on urine identified GHB, amitriptyline, and nortriptyline using a capillary Hewlett-Packard 6890 gas chromatograph coupled to a Hewlett-Packard 5973 mass selective detector (MSD). The GHB concentration in urine was 26.9 microg/mL. Urine concentrations of amitriptyline and nortriptyline were not determined. The analytical method used for identifying and quantitating GHB can be applied to matters of forensic interests.

  2. Interview: Tatyana Lipovskaya, Sisters Sexual Assault Recovery Centre, Moscow, Russia.

    PubMed

    1998-11-01

    The Sisters' Sexual Assault Recovery Center was established in Moscow, Russia, in 1993, to address the needs of victims of sexual violence. The Center's help-line received 4029 crisis calls in 1994-97. Most clients are seeking information about medical services or legal aid. Others call about employment, HIV/AIDS, alcoholism, and drug abuse. Services are available without regard to age, sex, occupation, or sexual orientation. Program funding has come entirely from Western foundations and organizations. Although Russia has not passed a law on domestic violence, the post-Communism government is reluctantly starting to acknowledge that rape and domestic violence are serious social problems. The Center runs an educational program for law enforcement officers to increase their sensitivity and create an environment of safety for women who report sexual violence. PMID:12294414

  3. Police interviews of sexual assault reporters: do attitudes matter?

    PubMed

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Sexual assault is underreported in the United States. Survivors are often reluctant to make police reports for various reasons; one is fear of revictimization by criminal justice professionals. Conversely, police officers often lack skills for interviewing crime victims. Posttraumatic stress reactions among victims can exacerbate the problem. Although some victims prefer female interviewers, it is not known whether they are more skilled. A sample of 429 police officers completed a written survey testing their rape myth acceptance and knowledge of how to interview rape reporters. A significant relationship between rape myth acceptance and interviewing skill was discovered. Although officer gender was related to interviewing skill, the effect was mediated by rape myth acceptance. Specific officer behaviors related to high rape myth acceptance were identified. Implications for selection of police to conduct victim interviews were discussed.

  4. Sexual assault, irresistible impulses, and forensic psychiatry in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bergenheim, Asa

    2014-01-01

    After forensic psychiatry was firmly established in Sweden in the 1930s, many rapists and individuals charged with assaulting children underwent a forensic psychiatric examination. The physicians found that most of them had not been "in control" of their senses or not "in complete control" of their senses at the time of the crime. If the court ordered a forensic psychiatric examination, the defendant had a very good chance of either being discharged or having his sentence reduced considerably. By the 1950s psychological perspectives began to dominate in forensic psychiatry. In the forensic records of the 1950s we can notice a shift from a biomedical to a socio-psychological perspective, and crime was increasingly related to conditions that were not seen as mental derangement from a legal point of view. As a result, it became less and less common, from the 1950s onwards, for sentences to be commuted or defendants discharged. PMID:24315847

  5. Effects of the 2010 World Cup football tournament on emergency department assault attendances in England.

    PubMed

    Quigg, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    We explore the impact of the 2010 World Cup, held in South Africa, on levels of assault attendances to 15 emergency departments in England. The majority (70.1%) of assault attendees during the 2010 World Cup was male and aged 18-34 years (52.5%). Assault attendances increased by 37.5% on the days that England played (P 001). Preparation for major sporting events in non-host countries should include violence prevention activity. Emergency department data can be used to identify violence associated with such events and thus inform both the targeting of prevention efforts and assessments of their effectiveness. PMID:22874732

  6. Revictimization by polygraph: the practice of polygraphing survivors of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Sloan, L M

    1995-01-01

    Sexual assault survivors are scrutinized in a manner unlike that meted out to any other victims of crime. Law enforcement officers or prosecutors may subject the survivor to a polygraph exam in an attempt to ascertain the truth or as a prerequisite to further investigation of the case. In a survey conducted with rape crisis centres across the United States, 63 centres in 17 states reported working with survivors of sexual assault who had been polygraphed. Rape crisis centres in 11 states reported that children had been polygraphed. This article examines the practice of polygraphing survivors of sexual assault.

  7. The military environment: risk factors for women's non-fatal assaults.

    PubMed

    Sadler, A G; Booth, B M; Cook, B L; Torner, J C; Doebbeling, B N

    2001-04-01

    Little is known regarding environmental exposures for non-fatal violence toward women in the workplace. We sought to identify factors associated with non-fatal physical assault occurring to women during military service. A cross-sectional telephone survey of a national sample of 558 women veterans who served in Vietnam and subsequent eras of military service was conducted; 537 women were interviewed. Twenty-three percent experienced non-fatal physical assault during military service. Rates of assault were consistent across eras of service. Military environmental exposures, including sexual harassment allowed by officers (P < 0.0001) and unwanted sexual advances while on duty (P < .0001) and in sleeping quarters (P < 0.0001), were independent risk factors for assault. Environmental factors in the military workplace, including leadership behavior, appeared to promote violence toward military women. Such occupational factors can be identified and should be eliminated. PMID:11322093

  8. Analytical developments in toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Negrusz, Adam; Gaensslen, R E

    2003-08-01

    This paper gives a general overview of the drug-facilitated sexual assault phenomenon. Sexual assault perpetrated on both women and men, while incapacitated by so-called date-rape drugs, recently became the focus of many investigations conducted by law enforcement agencies in the US throughout the 1990s; an alarming increase in reports of this crime as well as in the number of scientific publications on drug-facilitated sexual assault has been observed. The list of drugs reportedly associated with sexual assault is long and among others includes flunitrazepam with other benzodiazepines such as diazepam, temazepam, clonazepam, oxazepam, as well as gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine, and scopolamine. We discuss the most recent analytical developments in the toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated rape designed to reveal drug presence and that may help successfully prosecute perpetrators. PMID:12682705

  9. Reducing Sexual Assault on Campus: Lessons From the Movement to Prevent Drunk Driving.

    PubMed

    Potter, Sharyn J

    2016-05-01

    I examined similarities and differences between the movement to prevent drunk driving of the 1980s, and current efforts to prevent and address campus sexual assault. As college and university administrators design policies and initiatives to reduce campus sexual assault in response to new federal legislation and regulation, they can apply lessons from successful public health initiatives to reduce drunk driving initiated more than 3 decades ago. I illustrate how interventions at the 5 levels of the social-ecological model, and messages that address entrenched cultural attitudes condoning sexual assault and blaming its victims can be used to combat campus sexual assault as a crime and a public health problem. I also show how efforts to promote community engagement can change behavioral norms and reduce offenses. PMID:26985614

  10. Shattering silence: exploring barriers to disclosure for African American sexual assault survivors.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Shaquita; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Smith, Kimberly; Marks, Alison

    2010-04-01

    National-, community-, and college-based studies have documented the high prevalence of sexual assault among African American women. Although African American women experience sexual assault at alarming rates, they are less likely to disclose or seek help in the aftermath of sexual assault. The purpose of this literature review is to provide a critique of the current literature examining the barriers to disclosure for African American women, such as intrapsychic factors, the damaging effect of an unsupportive response to initial disclosure, stigmatization of African American female sexuality, apprehension regarding racism, and racial loyalty. The authors provide a summary of the literature, gaps in current empirical studies, and needs for future study. Culturally relevant intervention recommendations are described. Finally, implications for sexual assault policy are provided.

  11. Campus Sexual Violence Resources and Emotional Health of College Women Who Have Experienced Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Lust, Katherine A; Hannan, Peter J; Porta, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Institutional characteristics may help mitigate trauma associated with sexual assault. This study examines associations between resources on college campuses for sexual violence prevention and the emotional well-being of female students who have experienced sexual assault. There were 495 female college students who have experienced sexual assault who provided survey data in 2010-2011. Sexual violence resource data from 28 college campuses were combined with student survey data in multilevel analysis. Dependent variables include diagnosis with anxiety, depression, panic attacks, and PTSD, and models adjust for covariates and clustering of students within colleges. Participants attending colleges with more sexual violence resources had lower rates of mental health conditions than those attending colleges with fewer resources. Colleges are encouraged to expand their array of sexual violence resources to create a supportive environment for victims of sexual assault and to connect affected students with appropriate services.

  12. Campus Sexual Violence Resources and Emotional Health of College Women Who Have Experienced Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Lust, Katherine A; Hannan, Peter J; Porta, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Institutional characteristics may help mitigate trauma associated with sexual assault. This study examines associations between resources on college campuses for sexual violence prevention and the emotional well-being of female students who have experienced sexual assault. There were 495 female college students who have experienced sexual assault who provided survey data in 2010-2011. Sexual violence resource data from 28 college campuses were combined with student survey data in multilevel analysis. Dependent variables include diagnosis with anxiety, depression, panic attacks, and PTSD, and models adjust for covariates and clustering of students within colleges. Participants attending colleges with more sexual violence resources had lower rates of mental health conditions than those attending colleges with fewer resources. Colleges are encouraged to expand their array of sexual violence resources to create a supportive environment for victims of sexual assault and to connect affected students with appropriate services. PMID:26822585

  13. The military environment: risk factors for women's non-fatal assaults.

    PubMed

    Sadler, A G; Booth, B M; Cook, B L; Torner, J C; Doebbeling, B N

    2001-04-01

    Little is known regarding environmental exposures for non-fatal violence toward women in the workplace. We sought to identify factors associated with non-fatal physical assault occurring to women during military service. A cross-sectional telephone survey of a national sample of 558 women veterans who served in Vietnam and subsequent eras of military service was conducted; 537 women were interviewed. Twenty-three percent experienced non-fatal physical assault during military service. Rates of assault were consistent across eras of service. Military environmental exposures, including sexual harassment allowed by officers (P < 0.0001) and unwanted sexual advances while on duty (P < .0001) and in sleeping quarters (P < 0.0001), were independent risk factors for assault. Environmental factors in the military workplace, including leadership behavior, appeared to promote violence toward military women. Such occupational factors can be identified and should be eliminated.

  14. Reducing Sexual Assault on Campus: Lessons From the Movement to Prevent Drunk Driving

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    I examined similarities and differences between the movement to prevent drunk driving of the 1980s, and current efforts to prevent and address campus sexual assault. As college and university administrators design policies and initiatives to reduce campus sexual assault in response to new federal legislation and regulation, they can apply lessons from successful public health initiatives to reduce drunk driving initiated more than 3 decades ago. I illustrate how interventions at the 5 levels of the social–ecological model, and messages that address entrenched cultural attitudes condoning sexual assault and blaming its victims can be used to combat campus sexual assault as a crime and a public health problem. I also show how efforts to promote community engagement can change behavioral norms and reduce offenses. PMID:26985614

  15. 32 CFR 105.8 - Reporting options and Sexual Assault Reporting Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., improper release of medical information, and other violations of this part and 32 CFR part 103 are... option to sexual assault victims. (2) Victim's perception of the military justice system. The DoD...

  16. Testing an intervention to reduce assaults on nursing assistants in nursing homes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fitzwater, Evelyn L; Gates, Donna M

    2002-01-01

    Nursing home staffs frequently encounter physical and emotional violence directed toward them by residents. This article addresses the problem from an occupational health perspective and describes a pilot study focused an educational intervention to reduce resident assaults on certified nursing assistants (CNAs) in nursing homes. After a 4-hour education intervention, the study CNAs reported fewer physical assaults by residents and increased levels of knowledge and confidence in their ability to manage residents' aggressive behavior compared with a similar CNA group. Limitations include a small convenience sample who works only the day shift. Results support education and training as effective in reducing resident physical assaults and enhancing nursing home safety. Further research should investigate assaultive resident behavior and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent, reduce, and manage violence in nursing homes. PMID:11865253

  17. Medical and social aspects of sexual assault of males: a survey of 100 victims.

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, R J; O'Mara, N; Taylor-Robinson, D; Harris, J R

    1990-01-01

    Sexual assault of males is an infrequently reported and a poorly understood phenomenon. Details of 100 victims who sought assistance from a nationwide agency set up specifically to provide help for such individuals are reported here. Twenty eight victims were aged 16 years or over at the time of assault. The assailants were known by 72 of the victims and were perceived by the victim to have a heterosexual orientation in 72% of these cases. Attacks were often multiple and in 33 cases involved disruption of skin or mucous membranes. Twenty victims received threats about the possibility of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus and 17 victims sought medical advice following the assault, most commonly from their general practitioner. It is suggested that greater opportunities for medical and psychological support should be given to male victims of sexual assault. PMID:2282228

  18. Reducing Sexual Assault on Campus: Lessons From the Movement to Prevent Drunk Driving.

    PubMed

    Potter, Sharyn J

    2016-05-01

    I examined similarities and differences between the movement to prevent drunk driving of the 1980s, and current efforts to prevent and address campus sexual assault. As college and university administrators design policies and initiatives to reduce campus sexual assault in response to new federal legislation and regulation, they can apply lessons from successful public health initiatives to reduce drunk driving initiated more than 3 decades ago. I illustrate how interventions at the 5 levels of the social-ecological model, and messages that address entrenched cultural attitudes condoning sexual assault and blaming its victims can be used to combat campus sexual assault as a crime and a public health problem. I also show how efforts to promote community engagement can change behavioral norms and reduce offenses.

  19. Molecular Mechanism of Aggravation of Hypertensive Organ Damages by Short-Term Blood Pressure Variability

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Hisashi; Kudo, Hiroshi; Takayama, Narimasa; Yasuoka, Suguru; Aoki, Yuji; Imaizumi, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that not only the elevation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) but also the increase in BP variability (or fluctuation) are associated with hypertensive organ damages and the morbidity and mortality of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events. However, the molecular mechanism whereby the increase in BP variability aggravates hypertensive organ damages remains unknown. Thus, we created a rat chronic model of a combination of hypertension and large BP variability by performing bilateral sino-aortic denervation in spontaneously hypertensive rat. A series of our studies using this model revealed that large BP variability induces chronic myocardial inflammation by activating local angiotensin II and mineralocorticoid receptor systems and thereby aggravates cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis, leading to systolic dysfunction, in hypertensive hearts. In addition, large BP variability induces the aggravation of arteriolosclerotic changes and ischemic cortical fibrosis in hypertensive kidney via local angiotensin II system. PMID:25544288

  20. Mapping Activity Patterns to Quantify Risk of Violent Assault in Urban Environments

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Therese S.; Guo, Wensheng; Allison, Paul D.; Hollander, Judd E.; Nance, Michael L.; Branas, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We collected detailed activity paths of urban youth to investigate the dynamic interplay between their lived experiences, time spent in different environments, and risk of violent assault. Methods: We mapped activity paths of 10- to 24-year-olds, including 143 assault patients shot with a firearm, 206 assault patients injured with other types of weapons, and 283 community controls, creating a step-by-step mapped record of how, when, where, and with whom they spent time over a full day from waking up until going to bed or being assaulted. Case–control analyses compared cases with time-matched controls to identify risk factors for assault. Case-crossover analyses compared cases at the time of assault with themselves earlier in the day to investigate whether exposure increases acted to the trigger assault. Results: Gunshot assault risks included being alone (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3, 1.9) and were lower in areas with high neighbor connectedness (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.6, 0.8). Acquiring a gun (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.6) and entering areas with more vacancy, violence, and vandalism (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1, 2.7) appeared to trigger the risk of getting shot shortly thereafter. Nongunshot assault risks included being in areas with recreation centers (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.4). Entering an area with higher truancy (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1, 2.5) and more vacancy, violence, and vandalism appeared to trigger the risk of nongunshot assault. Risks varied by age group. Conclusions: We achieved a large-scale study of the activities of many boys, adolescents, and young men that systematically documented their experiences and empirically quantified risks for violence. Working at a temporal and spatial scale that is relevant to the dynamics of this phenomenon gave novel insights into triggers for violent assault. PMID:26414941

  1. Pattern of Female Sexual Assault in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, During the Period From 2009 to 2013: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Sharaf El-Din, Abeer A I; Elkholy, Shereen M S; Metwally, Eslam S; Farag, Hesham A

    2015-12-01

    Sexual assault is a serious social problem that affects women's life. In Egypt, there is no accurate epidemiological study on sexual assault, although it has undergone a dramatic surge in 2013. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence and the characteristics of sexual assault against female in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. It is a retrospective study evaluating sexual assault against females from 2009 to 2013. Total numbers of cases of female sexual assault was 130 over the studied years. The mean (SD) age of victims was 15.2 (6) years ranging from 4 to 40 years. Fifty-eight percent fall in the age group of 12 to 18 years. Most victims (61.5%) came from urban areas. Summer was relatively a vulnerable season for sexual assault (53.1%); 81.5% of victims was unmarried and 94.6% with normal mentality. The highest percentage of sexual assault crime was found in females with primary education (44.6%). Twenty-two (16.9%) of the assaulted cases were considered intrafamilial assault, whereas 83.1% were extrafamilial. The most common location for assaults was at the assailant's home (50.8%), and 80% of the victims were exposed to assault by 1 assailant. The shortest time between alleged assault and the examination was 1 day in 12 cases (9.2%). The most frequent type of assault was complete vaginal penetration (48.55%). The most common type of physical injury was abrasions (48.1%), whereas the least was burn or broken teeth (1.3% for each). The highest percentage of genital injury was lacerations (36.4%), and the most common location was the hymen (36.4%). PMID:26196269

  2. Pattern of Female Sexual Assault in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, During the Period From 2009 to 2013: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Sharaf El-Din, Abeer A I; Elkholy, Shereen M S; Metwally, Eslam S; Farag, Hesham A

    2015-12-01

    Sexual assault is a serious social problem that affects women's life. In Egypt, there is no accurate epidemiological study on sexual assault, although it has undergone a dramatic surge in 2013. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence and the characteristics of sexual assault against female in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. It is a retrospective study evaluating sexual assault against females from 2009 to 2013. Total numbers of cases of female sexual assault was 130 over the studied years. The mean (SD) age of victims was 15.2 (6) years ranging from 4 to 40 years. Fifty-eight percent fall in the age group of 12 to 18 years. Most victims (61.5%) came from urban areas. Summer was relatively a vulnerable season for sexual assault (53.1%); 81.5% of victims was unmarried and 94.6% with normal mentality. The highest percentage of sexual assault crime was found in females with primary education (44.6%). Twenty-two (16.9%) of the assaulted cases were considered intrafamilial assault, whereas 83.1% were extrafamilial. The most common location for assaults was at the assailant's home (50.8%), and 80% of the victims were exposed to assault by 1 assailant. The shortest time between alleged assault and the examination was 1 day in 12 cases (9.2%). The most frequent type of assault was complete vaginal penetration (48.55%). The most common type of physical injury was abrasions (48.1%), whereas the least was burn or broken teeth (1.3% for each). The highest percentage of genital injury was lacerations (36.4%), and the most common location was the hymen (36.4%).

  3. Pharyngeal aspiration of metal oxide nanoparticles showed potential of allergy aggravation effect to inhaled ovalbumin.

    PubMed

    Horie, Masanori; Stowe, Mayumi; Tabei, Miki; Kuroda, Etsushi

    2015-02-01

    The inhalation of manufactured metal oxide nanoparticles may lead to pulmonary toxicity. For instance, ZnO nanoparticles are known to induce pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation. On the other hand, the pulmonary toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles is less than that of ZnO nanoparticles. Although, there have been some investigations concerning the induction of pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation caused by manufactured metal oxide nanoparticles. And, although, it has reported that some nanoparticles cause aggravation of allergic reactions, there have so far been no reports regarding allergy aggravation effects of manufactured metal oxide nanoparticles. In this study, three types of nanoparticles, TiO2, ZnO and SiO2, were administered to mouse lungs by pharyngeal aspiration. Subsequently, the mice inhaled ovalbumin (OVA) a total of eight times over 3 weeks. After inhalation of OVA, the concentrations of total IgE, OVA-specific IgE and OVA-specific IgG1 in serum increased in the mice treated with ZnO. TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles did not affect the OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels. These results suggest that ZnO nanoparticles have the potential to aggravate allergic reactions. The results also suggest that Zn(2+) release from ZnO nanoparticles is involved in the aggravation potential of allergies. However, pharyngeal aspiration of ZnCl2 solution was not able to aggravate allergic reactions. Continuous Zn(2+) release from ZnO nanoparticles to the lung is necessary for the aggravation of allergic reactions.

  4. Drug-Provoked Psoriasis: Is It Drug Induced or Drug Aggravated?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Grace K.

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a commonly encountered dermatosis with a variety of internal and external paradoxical factors contributing to the clinical course of the disease. There are several drugs described in the literature that have been associated with the initiation, exacerbation, and aggravation of psoriasis. Understanding the pathophysiology can provide clues to treatment and management of drug-induced and drug-aggravated psoriasis, which may be indistinguishable from idiopathic psoriasis. The clinical manifestations of drug-associated psoriasis can range from plaque-type psoriasis to severe erythroderma, thus warranting astute and sustained clinical observation. PMID:20725536

  5. The involvement of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in reported sexual assaults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Németh, Zsófia; Kun, Bernadette; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2010-09-01

    Over the past few years gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has generated widespread media interest as a possible 'date rape drug'. Our goal was to examine the extent to which GHB is associated with drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Literature was searched systematically and 11 studies, published between 1961 and June 30, 2009, were identified dealing specifically with the role of GHB in sexual assaults. GHB was detected in 0.2-4.4% of reported sexual assaults. The results demonstrate that a wide range of drugs may be present in cases of sexual assault, and many of them are much more frequent than GHB. Our results do not support the widespread labelling of GHB as a date rape drug as the prevalence of GHB is much lower than of other substances used in sexual assaults. On the other hand, however, the possible risk of GHB in this regard should not be neglected. Nevertheless, over-sensitive and sensation seeking media reports focusing on the association of sex crime and GHB might be counterproductive and misleading as they turn the attention away from other substances that are often used in sexual assaults. PMID:20488831

  6. Female hormone influences on sexual assaults in Northern Ireland from 2002 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Beirne, Patricia; Hall, Janet; Grills, Claire; Moore, Tara

    2011-10-01

    In Northern Ireland 1 in every 454 women of 13 years and over during 2008/09 reported to police that they had suffered a sexual assault. This study considered the possibility that women may be more likely to be victims of sexual assault during the fertile phase of their reproductive cycle. Evolutionary psychology suggests that women would have suffered more negative consequences if sexually assaulted when fertile and that specific psychological mechanisms may have evolved in women to combat male coercion. Female behaviours towards men vary across the reproductive cycle and men's behaviour towards women may vary also as a result of changes in female hormones. Hormones play a major role in producing the characteristic cyclical changes throughout a woman's reproductive life. This study is the first study of female hormone influences on sexual assaults. The data for the study was collated retrospectively from the records of 105 females with regular, spontaneous menstrual cycles. These females alleged recent sexual assault and were examined in Belfast during the period 2002-2009. The study concluded that young girls in the middle of their cycle, i.e. the fertile phase, were most at risk of sexual assault. It is possible that both sexes are sensitive to signs, albeit subtle behavioural signs, indicating high risk of conception. PMID:21907935

  7. Gender Differences in 16-Year Trends in Assault- and Police-Related Problems Due to Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Timko, Christine; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the frequency and predictors of physical assault and having trouble with the police due to drinking over 16 years among women and men who, at baseline, were untreated for their alcohol use disorder. Predictors examined were the personal characteristics of impulsivity, self-efficacy, and problem-solving and emotional-discharge coping, as well as outpatient treatment and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) participation. Women and men were similar on rates of perpetrating assault due to drinking, but men were more likely to have had trouble with the police due to drinking. Respondents who, at baseline, were more impulsive and relied more on emotional discharge coping, and less on problem-solving coping, assaulted others more frequently during the first year of follow-up. Similarly, less problem-solving coping at baseline was related to having had trouble with the police more often at one and 16 years due to drinking. The association between impulsivity and more frequent assault was stronger for women, whereas associations of self-efficacy and problem-solving coping with less frequent assault and police trouble were stronger for men. Participation in AA was also associated with a lower likelihood of having trouble with the police at one year, especially for men. Interventions aimed at decreasing impulsivity and emotional discharge coping, and bolstering self-efficacy and problem-solving coping, during substance abuse treatment, and encouragement to become involved in AA, may be helpful in reducing assaultive and other illegal behaviors. PMID:19446963

  8. Police Officer Schema of Sexual Assault Reports: Real Rape, Ambiguous Cases, and False Reports.

    PubMed

    Venema, Rachel M

    2016-03-01

    While extensive research has studied sexual assault reporting behaviors and described negative experiences with the criminal justice system among victim-survivors, fewer studies have explored police officer attitudes, knowledge, and thought processes that may affect victims' perceptions of negative interactions and unsatisfactory outcomes within reported sexual assault cases. This study explores police officer understanding of the definition of sexual assault and characteristics that influence their perceptions and response. Ten police officers were interviewed within one police department in a midsized city in the Great Lakes region. The study uses a modified grounded theory approach. Findings suggest that officers employ distinct schema of reported sexual assaults. Case characteristics, perceived credibility of the victim, and types of evidence formed categorizations of false reports, ambiguous cases, and legitimate sexual assaults. Police officers describe the ways in which perceptions of the case may or may not influence the response and point to areas for improvement within police procedure. The study findings provide insight into recommendations for improved police interviewing and response to reported sexual assaults.

  9. The associations of physical and sexual assault with suicide risk in nonclinical military and undergraduate samples.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; McNaugton-Cassill, Mary; Osman, Augustine; Hernandez, Ann Marie

    2013-04-01

    The associations of various forms of sexual and physical assault with a history of suicide attempts and recent suicide ideation were studied in two distinct samples: active duty military and undergraduate students. A total of 273 active duty Air Force personnel and 309 undergraduate students anonymously completed self-report surveys of assault victimization, emotional distress, belongingness, recent suicide ideation, and previous suicide attempts. Among military personnel, rape, robbery, or violent assault was associated with a nonsignificant trend toward increased risk for suicide attempts, whereas physical abuse or battering as an adult was significantly associated with recent suicide ideation. Among undergraduates, unwanted sexual experiences as an adult and physical or sexual abuse as a child were significantly associated with increased risk for suicide attempt, but only unwanted experiences as an adult was significantly associated with increased risk for suicide ideation. Experiencing multiple forms of assault increased risk for suicide attempts and ideation in both groups. Results suggest that different types of assault contribute differentially to suicide risk in military versus undergraduate populations, but experiencing multiple types of assault is associated with increased risk in both groups.

  10. On the relationship between automatic attitudes and self-reported sexual assault in men.

    PubMed

    Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Research and theory suggest rape supportive attitudes are important predictors of sexual assault; yet, to date, rape supportive attitudes have been assessed through self-report measures that are methodologically and theoretically limited. To address these limitations, the objectives of the current project were to: (1) develop a novel implicit rape attitude assessment that captures automatic attitudes about rape and does not rely on self-reports, and (2) examine the association between automatic rape attitudes and sexual assault perpetration. We predicted that automatic rape attitudes would be a significant unique predictor of sexual assault even when self-reported rape attitudes (i.e., rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women) were controlled. We tested the generalizability of this prediction in two independent samples: a sample of undergraduate college men (n = 75, M age = 19.3 years) and a sample of men from the community (n = 50, M age = 35.9 years). We found the novel implicit rape attitude assessment was significantly associated with the frequency of sexual assault perpetration in both samples and contributed unique variance in explaining sexual assault beyond rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women. We discuss the ways in which future research on automatic rape attitudes may significantly advance measurement and theory aimed at understanding and preventing sexual assault.

  11. The Use of GHB to Facilitate Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Marinetti, L; Montgomery, M A

    2010-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its metabolic precursors, γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), may be among the most favored drugs used to commit drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). In fact, federal legislation was enacted in the form of the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Drug Prohibition Act of 2000 to control and penalize use and distribution of GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD. Unfortunately, solid proof of their use in many cases is difficult to obtain because GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD have strong sedative and memory-impairing effects and are rapidly eliminated after ingestion. To further complicate the matter, GHB is a metabolite of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a naturally occurring neurotransmitter in humans. This review focuses on the chemistry and pharmacology of these drugs and their use in DFSA. An overview of analytical techniques used to identify their presence is provided, as well as guidance on the toxicological interpretation of findings of GHB in biological specimens.

  12. Expert testimony in sexual assault cases: Alcohol intoxication and memory.

    PubMed

    Connell, Mary

    2015-01-01

    At court-martial tribunals in the United States military, cases involving alcohol facilitated sexual assault often pivot on the alleged victim's level of intoxication or impairment and ability to consent to the sexual act. These cases frequently arise following a night of partying and heavy drinking among a group of friends and acquaintances, military and civilian. The determination of whether a sexual act was consensual may rest on estimates of the alleged victim's blood alcohol concentration and related behavioral indicia of impairment. Expert testimony may be presented by the prosecution and/or the defense, from forensic toxicologists and psychiatrists or psychologists regarding the potential involvement of alcohol and its impact on the participants relevant to the charges at court-martial. A review of the state of the science is offered to bring such testimony into perspective. Appellate cases illustrate that the experts' testimony may sometimes elucidate, sometimes obfuscate, and sometimes exceed professional expertise and invade the province of the factfinder. PMID:26372634

  13. The Use of GHB to Facilitate Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Marinetti, L; Montgomery, M A

    2010-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its metabolic precursors, γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), may be among the most favored drugs used to commit drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). In fact, federal legislation was enacted in the form of the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Drug Prohibition Act of 2000 to control and penalize use and distribution of GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD. Unfortunately, solid proof of their use in many cases is difficult to obtain because GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD have strong sedative and memory-impairing effects and are rapidly eliminated after ingestion. To further complicate the matter, GHB is a metabolite of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a naturally occurring neurotransmitter in humans. This review focuses on the chemistry and pharmacology of these drugs and their use in DFSA. An overview of analytical techniques used to identify their presence is provided, as well as guidance on the toxicological interpretation of findings of GHB in biological specimens. PMID:26242455

  14. Functional correlates of military sexual assault in male veterans.

    PubMed

    Schry, Amie R; Hibberd, Rachel; Wagner, H Ryan; Turchik, Jessica A; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Wong, Madrianne; Elbogen, Eric E; Strauss, Jennifer L; Brancu, Mira

    2015-11-01

    Despite research findings that similar numbers of male and female veterans are affected by military sexual trauma (MST), there has been considerably less research on the effects of MST specific to male veterans. The aim of the present study was to provide preliminary data describing functional correlates of military sexual assault (MSA) among male Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans to identify potential health care needs for this population. We evaluated the following functional correlates: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression symptoms, alcohol use, drug use, suicidality, social support, violent behavior in the past 30 days, incarceration, disability eligibility status, and use of outpatient mental health treatment. We compared 3 groups: (a) male veterans who endorsed a history of MSA (n = 39), (b) a general non-MSA sample (n = 2,003), and (c) a matched non-MSA sample (n = 39) identified by matching algorithms on the basis of factors (e.g., age, education, adult premilitary sexual trauma history, childhood sexual and physical trauma history, and race) that could increase veterans' vulnerability to the functional correlates examined. MSA in men was associated with greater PTSD symptom severity, greater depression symptom severity, higher suicidality, and higher outpatient mental health treatment, above and beyond the effects of vulnerability factors. These findings suggest that, for male veterans, MSA may result in a severe and enduring overall symptom profile requiring ongoing clinical management. PMID:26524280

  15. The acute management of acid assault burns: A pragmatic approach

    PubMed Central

    Burd, A.; Ahmed, K.

    2010-01-01

    This case series comprises 31 patients who were victims of acid assault burns. They were admitted for acute or reconstructive care to a regional burns unit. Ten patients were admitted late with suboptimal acute care and needed a total of 50 reconstructive procedures. Of 13 patients admitted acutely, 7 had surgery performed after 48 hours of constant lavage while seven had urgent surgical debridement within 48 hours, followed by lavage. Although the number of reconstructive procedures performed in these two groups was similar, i.e., 20 and 19, respectively, the magnitude of the deformity in the urgent surgery group was significantly less than in the conventional surgery group. As in many cases of acute burns care, determining the evidence for best practice using a prospective, randomised, controlled comparison of conventional versus urgent surgery is difficult in view of the small number of cases involved. However, basing surgical practice on ethical principles, and in particular 'primum non nocere,' we propose that the urgent reduction of the chemical load on the skin by surgical debridement is appropriate in selected cases and should be considered in the acute management of these devastating injuries. PMID:20924446

  16. Aggravation and Stress in Parenting: Associations with Coparenting and Father Engagement among Resident Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Horowitz, Allison; Carrano, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study uses a sample of 2,139 resident biological fathers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing surveys (baseline and 12-month follow-up), to examine whether paternal aggravation and stress in parenting is associated with father engagement and coparenting and whether this association differs by father's socioeconomic status. Results of…

  17. The role of death qualification in venirepersons' evaluations of aggravating and mitigating circumstances in capital trials.

    PubMed

    Butler, Brooke M; Moran, Gary

    2002-04-01

    Previous research has found that death qualification impacts jurors' receptiveness to aggravating and mitigating circumstances (e.g., J. Luginbuhl & K. Middendorf, 1988). However, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether death qualification affects jurors' endorsements of aggravating and mitigating circumstances when Witt, rather than Witherspoon, is the legal standard for death qualification. Four hundred and fifty venirepersons from the 11th Judicial Circuit in Miami, Florida completed a booklet of stimulus materials that contained the following: two death qualification questions; a case scenario that included a summary of the guilt and penalty phases of a capital case; a 26-item measure that required participants to endorse aggravators, nonstatutory mitigators, and statutory mitigators on a 6-point Likert scale; and standard demographic questions. Results indicated that death-qualified venirepersons, when compared to excludables, were more likely to endorse aggravating circumstances. Excludable participants, when compared to death-qualified venirepersons, were more likely to endorse nonstatutory mitigators. There was no significant difference between death-qualified and excludable venirepersons with respect to their endorsement of 6 out of 7 statutory mitigators. It would appear that the Gregg v. Georgia (1976) decision to declare the death penalty unconstitutional is frustrated by the Lockhart v. McCree (1986) affirmation of death qualification.

  18. Now We Know: Assessing Sexual Assault Criminal Justice Case Processing in an Urban Community Using the Sexual Assault Nurse Practitioner Evaluation Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Julie L; Shaw, Jessica; Lark, Alyssa; Campbell, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Campbell and colleagues developed an evaluation Toolkit for use by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) to assess criminal case outcomes in adult sexual assault cases seen by SANE programs (Campbell, Townsend, Shaw, Karim, & Markowitz, 2014; Campbell, Bybee, et al., 2014). The Toolkit provides step-by-step directions and an easy-to-use statistical program. This study describes implementation of the Toolkit in Salt Lake County, the first site outside the pilot sites to utilize the program. The Toolkit revealed that, in Salt Lake County from 2003 to 2011, only 6% of adult sexual assault cases were successfully prosecuted. These findings prompted multiple community discussions, media attention, and a call to action to improve the investigation and prosecution of adult sexual assault cases. The primary purpose of this case report is to encourage other SANE teams and communities to use the Toolkit by sharing the successful experience of Salt Lake County in implementing the Toolkit.Video Abstract available for additional insights from Dr. Valentine (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JFN/A19).

  19. Now We Know: Assessing Sexual Assault Criminal Justice Case Processing in an Urban Community Using the Sexual Assault Nurse Practitioner Evaluation Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Julie L; Shaw, Jessica; Lark, Alyssa; Campbell, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Campbell and colleagues developed an evaluation Toolkit for use by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) to assess criminal case outcomes in adult sexual assault cases seen by SANE programs (Campbell, Townsend, Shaw, Karim, & Markowitz, 2014; Campbell, Bybee, et al., 2014). The Toolkit provides step-by-step directions and an easy-to-use statistical program. This study describes implementation of the Toolkit in Salt Lake County, the first site outside the pilot sites to utilize the program. The Toolkit revealed that, in Salt Lake County from 2003 to 2011, only 6% of adult sexual assault cases were successfully prosecuted. These findings prompted multiple community discussions, media attention, and a call to action to improve the investigation and prosecution of adult sexual assault cases. The primary purpose of this case report is to encourage other SANE teams and communities to use the Toolkit by sharing the successful experience of Salt Lake County in implementing the Toolkit.Video Abstract available for additional insights from Dr. Valentine (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JFN/A19). PMID:27496646

  20. A person-centered approach to examining heterogeneity and subgroups among survivors of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Masters, N Tatiana; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Kaysen, Debra; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R

    2015-08-01

    This study identified subgroups of female sexual assault survivors based on characteristics of their victimization experiences, validated the subgroup structure in a second cohort of women recruited identically to the first, and examined subgroups' differential associations with sexual risk/safety behavior, heavy episodic drinking (HED), psychological distress symptomatology, incarceration, transactional sex, and experiences with controlling and violent partners. The community sample consisted of 667 female survivors of adolescent or adult sexual assault who were 21 to 30 years old (M = 24.78, SD = 2.66). Eligibility criteria included having unprotected sex within the past year, other HIV/STI risk factors, and some experience with HED, but without alcohol problems or dependence. Latent class analyses (LCA) were used to identify subgroups of women with similar victimization experiences. Three groups were identified and validated across 2 cohorts of women using multiple-group LCA: contact or attempted assault (17% of the sample), incapacitated assault (52%), and forceful severe assault (31%). Groups did not differ in their sexual risk/safety behavior. Women in the forceful severe category had higher levels of anxiety, depression, and trauma symptoms; higher proportions of incarceration and transactional sex; and more experiences with controlling and violent partners than did women in the other 2 groups. Women in the forceful severe category also reported a higher frequency of HED than women in the incapacitated category. Different types of assault experiences appear to be differentially associated with negative outcomes. Understanding heterogeneity and subgroups among sexual assault survivors has implications for improving clinical care and contributing to recovery. PMID:26052619

  1. A Person-Centered Approach to Examining Heterogeneity and Subgroups Among Survivors of Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Kaysen, Debra; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R.

    2015-01-01

    This study identified subgroups of female sexual assault survivors based on characteristics of their victimization experiences, validated the subgroup structure in a second cohort of women recruited identically to the first, and examined subgroups' differential associations with sexual risk/safety behavior, heavy episodic drinking (HED), psychological distress symptomatology, incarceration, transactional sex, and experiences with controlling and violent partners. The community sample consisted of 667 female survivors of adolescent or adult sexual assault who were 21 to 30 years old (M=24.78, SD=2.66). Eligibility criteria included having unprotected sex within the past year, other HIV/STI risk factors, and some experience with HED, but without alcohol problems or dependence. Latent class analyses (LCA) were used to identify subgroups of women with similar victimization experiences. Three groups were identified and validated across two cohorts of women using multiple-group LCA: Contact or Attempted assault (17% of the sample), Incapacitated assault (52%), and Forceful Severe assault (31%). Groups did not differ in their sexual risk/safety behavior. Women in the Forceful Severe category had higher levels of anxiety, depression, and trauma symptoms, higher proportions of incarceration and transactional sex, and more experiences with controlling and violent partners than did women in the other two groups. Women in the Forceful Severe category also reported a higher frequency of HED than women in the Incapacitated category. Different types of assault experiences appear to be differentially associated with negative outcomes. Understanding heterogeneity and subgroups among sexual assault survivors has implications for improving clinical care and contributing to recovery. PMID:26052619

  2. 38 CFR 3.310 - Disabilities that are proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determine the baseline and current levels of severity under the Schedule for Rating Disabilities (38 CFR... proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury. 3.310 Section 3.310 Pensions... are proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury. (a) General. Except...

  3. 38 CFR 3.310 - Disabilities that are proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determine the baseline and current levels of severity under the Schedule for Rating Disabilities (38 CFR... proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury. 3.310 Section 3.310 Pensions... are proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury. (a) General. Except...

  4. 38 CFR 3.310 - Disabilities that are proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determine the baseline and current levels of severity under the Schedule for Rating Disabilities (38 CFR... proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury. 3.310 Section 3.310 Pensions... are proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury. (a) General. Except...

  5. 38 CFR 3.310 - Disabilities that are proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determine the baseline and current levels of severity under the Schedule for Rating Disabilities (38 CFR... proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury. 3.310 Section 3.310 Pensions... are proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury. (a) General. Except...

  6. 38 CFR 3.310 - Disabilities that are proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... determine the baseline and current levels of severity under the Schedule for Rating Disabilities (38 CFR... proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury. 3.310 Section 3.310 Pensions... are proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury. (a) General. Except...

  7. Three decade old cold case murder solved with evidence from a sexual assault kit.

    PubMed

    Connery, Sheila A

    2013-05-01

    Sexual assault occurs at alarming rates in America. The true incidence remains unknown as many victims fail to both report for immediate medical care and notify law enforcement of the crime committed. For those who do seek medical assistance, a Sexual Assault Kit is available in Emergency Departments with established protocols for the forwarding of collected specimens to law enforcement. A crime lab analyzes the evidence to identify the offender's DNA. A DNA profile is then created and archived into a database. This case involved a woman who not only endured a sexual assault, but also sustained multiple gun shot wounds, and witnessed the murder of her friend nearly three decades ago. At that time, she was treated for her injuries and evidence was collected and secured into a Sexual Assault Kit. A DNA profile was then created from a predetermined crime lab. In 2011, a Cold Case Investigator, who was reviewing all archived DNA profiles of currently incarcerated individuals in the city where the initial crime was committed, was able to match a current prisoner's DNA to that of the DNA profile created from specimens collected during the sexual assault exam nearly thirty years ago. The perpetrator subsequently was charged with murder by the criminal justice system and received a thirty year sentence without opportunity for parole.

  8. The Interracial Nature of Violent Crimes: A Reexamination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    Using national data on homicide, rape, aggravated assault, simple assault, and robbery, this article examines assertions that violent crime in the United States is disproportionately interracial. Concludes that whatever measures are used, violent crimes are found to be intraracial (within racial classifications) to a far greater extent than…

  9. [Sexual assault during sleep: victim asleep/offender asleep--an update].

    PubMed

    Troschütz, Stefan; Püschel, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The topic of sexual assault during sleep is discussed again on the basis of two case reports and several incidents published in the media. The authors support the assumption of Hohner and Püsche1 (2011). There is evidence that it is indeed possible not to wake up during a sexual assault--even without being under the influence of alcohol, illicit drugs or medication--and that a sexual assault during sleep can pass unnoticed. In such cases the outcome of the criminal trial often depends on the careful assessment of the expert, as the faculty of imagination of those passing judgment varies greatly. Based on new findings regarding sexsomnia, even sexual offenders may use the "sleepwalking defense" in specific cases. PMID:26427282

  10. Barriers to the effective use of medico-legal findings in sexual assault cases worldwide.

    PubMed

    Mont, Janice Du; White, Deborah

    2013-09-01

    Despite the increasing implementation of standardized rape kits across jurisdictions, the medico-legal findings generated by these tools are often not related to positive criminal justice outcomes. Given that there has been no global investigation of the factors that might impede their successful use in cases of sexual assault, we conducted a review of relevant scholarly and "grey" literature from industrialized and less-developed regions. One key theme to emerge from the analysis concerned certain problematic practices and behaviors of professional groups involved in the various stages of the post-sexual assault process. We found that a lack of competence in handling sexual assault cases, contempt for women who have been victimized, and corruption among some forensic examiners, police, scientists, and legal personnel often have shaped the collection, processing, analysis, and use of medico-legal evidence. We discuss recent initiatives and future directions for research that might serve to address these issues.

  11. Sexual assault support services and community systems: understanding critical issues and needs in the LGBTQ community.

    PubMed

    Todahl, Jeffrey L; Linville, Deanna; Bustin, Amy; Wheeler, Jenna; Gau, Jeff

    2009-08-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals encounter social conditions that create important considerations for LGBTQ sexual assault victims. This exploratory, mixed-methods study examines the relationship between community attitudes toward LGBTQ persons and associated community responses to LGBTQ sexual assault victims. An online and paper-and-pencil survey (n = 130) and four focus group interviews (n = 14) are analyzed using frequency distributions and grounded theory methods. The central theme that emerged in focus group interviews, titled "low community awareness and support for sexual violence in the LGBTQ community," was corroborated by survey participants. Participants' views of unique considerations for LGBTQ sexual assault victims are presented, including causal factors, consequences, and recommended strategies.

  12. Overweight and the sexual assault forensic medical examination: a pressing problem.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Kathy

    2013-05-01

    This paper examines the problems faced by forensic physicians assessing overweight victim/survivors of sexual assault, using sample cases and reviewing the literature. This under-researched area is a minefield of practical difficulties and unanswered questions, with the need for solutions becoming more pressing as overweight becomes more common. Overweight has the potential to alter injury patterns; the way forensic medical examinations are conducted; and injury and specimen interpretation. Pertinent questions include whether the "cushion effect" noted in motor vehicle accidents is relevant to sexual assault and how obesity-related comorbidities affect our ability to age injuries. Practical problems include positioning the client safely, obtaining clear views of areas of interest, and taking high-quality specimens. Although overweight victims appear to be uncommon in sexual assault services, as the obesity epidemic progresses clinicians will need to address these issues.

  13. Physical injury and workplace assault in UK mental health trusts: An analysis of formal reports.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Lavelle, Mary; Brennan, Geoffrey; Stewart, Duncan; James, Karen; Richardson, Michelle; Williams, Hilary; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Workplace violence is a significant problem for health service personnel, with National Health Service (NHS) workers subject to 68 683 physical assaults between 2013 and 2014. Almost 70% of assaults occur in the mental health sector, and although serious, non-fatal injury is rare, the individual and economic impact can be substantial. In the present study, we analysed mandatory incident reports from a national database to examine whether there were identifiable precursors to incidents leading to staff injury, and whether staff characteristics were associated with injury. In line with previous descriptions, we found injury occurred either as a direct result of patient assault or during physical interventions employed by staff to contain aggression. Importantly, we found little evidence from staff reports that patients' symptoms were driving aggression, and we found less evidence of patient perspectives among reports. We make several recommendations regarding the reporting of these events that could inform policy and interventions aimed at minimizing the likelihood of injury.

  14. Relational caring: the use of the victim impact statement by sexually assaulted women.

    PubMed

    Miller, Karen-Lee

    2014-01-01

    The victim impact statement (VIS) is a written account of harms experienced as a result of crime. This study investigates VIS use by sexually assaulted women through interviews with Canadian victims, victim services workers, and feminist advocates (N = 35). Findings suggest that victims use the VIS to express relational caring. Relational caring is an ethic of care that prioritizes others through privileging the harms experienced by others because of witnessing the sexual assault or coping with the victim's postassault sequelae, protecting future or hypothetical victims, and promoting the interests of intimate partner offenders. Relational caring challenges traditional conceptions of victim agency and VIS use for instrumental purposes, as well as the targets and temporalities of sexual assault harms that are detailed in the statement. Relational caring has unique implications for victims who are mothers, especially those abused as minors, and for intimate partners. Legal, therapeutic, and social service consequences are discussed. PMID:25905129

  15. The forensic nursing in sexual assaults: the immunochemical diagnosis and prevention of its adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Elsa

    2012-04-01

    Sexual assault was a ubiquitous and serious problem in our society. The world's care centers and forensic associations, which were at the forefront of scientific research in sexual assaults, discussed the role of the Forensic Nursing in their early diagnosis and their prevention, but little has been written in literature regarding their appropriate management. This article focuses on the immunochemical laboratory investigation in diagnosis and prevention of its adverse effects in sexual assaults and the role of the Forensic Nursing played in this task. After a careful reading of all the material received from many of the care centers and the associations contacted, a Forensic Nursing Examination Program, with specific immunochemical address, is identified.

  16. Predictors of physical assault victimization: Findings from the National Survey of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Elwood, Lisa S.; Begle, Angela Moreland; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Smith, Daniel W.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to interpersonal victimization during childhood and adolescence is prevalent and has been found to be associated with negative physical and mental health outcomes. The present study examined the relations between childhood violence exposure and mental health on subsequent exposure to new physical assault in young adults using longitudinal nationally representative, prospective data from the initial (Wave I) and follow-up interviews (Wave II) of the National Survey of Adolescents (NSA). Among the 1,753 participants who completed both assessment time points, 15.8% reported a new physical assault experience at Wave II. Results indicated that racial/ethnic status, gender, history of child physical abuse, witnessed violence drug use, and family drug problems reported at Wave I were all significant predictors of new physical assault. Implications are discussed. PMID:21514060

  17. The Allure of the Freshman Girl: Peers, Partying, and the Sexual Assault of First-Year College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Brian N.

    2011-01-01

    Although sexual assault has long been recognized as a problem among college students, little attention has been paid to why first-year women are the most likely to be assaulted. In this article the author drew on two studies of college students to analyze peer culture and the organization of gender and sexuality within a college party scene.…

  18. Evaluation of the Impact of a Coeducational Sexual Assault Prevention Program on College Students' Rape Myth Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Victoria E.; Shepherd, J. Brad; Anderson, Renee I.; Petuch, Aaron J.; Nolan, James Michael; Thiemeke, Darlene

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of a mandatory, coeducational sexual assault prevention program on college freshmen's rape myth attitudes. Data from 174 college freshmen required to attend the program indicated that, regardless of gender, the proposed sexual assault prevention program significantly decreased participants' rape myth acceptance…

  19. Adult Perpetrator Gender Asymmetries in Child Sexual Assault Victim Selection: Results from the 2000 National Incident-Based Reporting System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Kathy A.; Raphael, Desreen N.

    2005-01-01

    Data from the 2000 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) show that while males make up about nine out of every 10 adult sexual assault perpetrators, totaling about 26,878 incidents within the reporting period, females account for about one out of 10 perpetrators, totaling about 1,162 incidents. Male sexual assault perpetrators offend…

  20. Sexual Assault Prevention and Reporting on College Campuses in the US: A Review of Policies and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streng, Tara K.; Kamimura, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Sexual violence within the collegiate environment is a pressing issue within American society. One way to address sexual violence is through the adaptation and implementation of a sexual assault policy by colleges and universities. The purpose of this study is to review sexual misconduct and assault policies of ten public universities…

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Drug/Alcohol-Facilitated and Incapacitated Sexual Assault in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Conoscenti, Lauren M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    Incapacitated/drug-alcohol facilitated sexual assault (IS/DAFS) is rapidly gaining recognition as a distinct form of assault with unique public health implications. This study reports the prevalence, case characteristics, and associated health risks of IS/DAFS using a large, nationally representative sample of 1,763 adolescent girls. Results…

  2. Council on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault. Annual Report to Governor Walter J. Hickel and the Alaska State Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Domestic Violence, Juneau, AK.

    This document presents a report on domestic violence and sexual assault in Alaska. An introduction includes vignettes and a review of the problems of domestic violence and sexual assault. National and state statistics are provided and it is noted that Alaska has the highest incidence of rape in the country. The next section describes major…

  3. Further Findings on Non-Linear Patterns of the Blaming of Professionals for Incidents of Aggression and Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carifio, James; Lanza, Marilyn

    This study compared responses to three vignettes describing incidents between a male patient and a female nurse that involved the nurse being mildly assaulted, severely assaulted, or verbally abused (the control condition) by the patient. After reading each vignette, 32 of 42 female senior-year nursing students and 28 of 48 practicing nurses…

  4. 78 FR 53429 - Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (Response Systems Panel); Notice of Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... of the Secretary Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (Response Systems Panel... Floor, Washington, DC 20001. DATES: A meeting of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes... and assessment of the systems used to investigate, prosecute, and adjudicate crimes involving...

  5. Sexual Harassment and Assault as Predictors of PTSD Symptomatology among U.S. Female Persian Gulf Military Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Jessica; Sharkansky, Erica J.; Read, Jennifer P.; Dawson, Ree; Ouimette, Paige Crosby; Martin, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines sexual harassment and assault of women in a wartime military example. Explores the impacts of these stressors and combat exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. Harassment and assault were higher than in civilian and peacetime military samples. The number of postwar stressful life events mediated the relationship…

  6. Calling It Rape: Differences in Experiences of Women Who Do or Do Not Label Their Sexual Assault as Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Arnold S.; Jackson, Jennifer; Kully, Christine; Badger, Kelly; Halvorsen, Jessica

    2003-01-01

    Past research had found that one-half or more of all women who have had an experience that might meet the definition of rape do not label themselves rape victims. The present study examined the actual rape experiences of 33 women who labeled their assault experience as rape and 56 women who did not label their assault experience as rape through…

  7. Co-Occurring Severe Mental Illnesses and Substance Abuse Disorders as Predictors of State Prison Inmate Assaults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Steven R.; Buttaro, Anthony, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Using hierarchical logistic regression with a nationally representative sample of state prisoners ("n" = 12,504), we found inmates with dual severe psychiatric and substance abuse disorders to be at higher risk of being assaulted and to assault others in prison than nonmentally ill inmates. Dually disordered inmates may be "importing"…

  8. The Problem of Untested Sexual Assault Kits: Why Are Some Kits Never Submitted to a Crime Laboratory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Victims of sexual assault are often advised to seek postassault medical care to have a forensic exam, which includes evidence collection (termed a "sexual assault kit" [SAK]). After the exam, law enforcement personnel are supposed to submit the SAK to a crime laboratory for analysis. However, recent media reports suggest that in many communities…

  9. Drug-facilitated sexual assault in Ontario, Canada: toxicological and DNA findings.

    PubMed

    Du Mont, Janice; Macdonald, Sheila; Rotbard, Nomi; Bainbridge, Deidre; Asllani, Eriola; Smith, Norman; Cohen, Marsha M

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which persons reporting sexual assault to a hospital-based treatment centre may have been covertly drugged and to provide information about whether a sexual assault may have occurred. Each consecutive adolescent and adult presenting at a sexual assault treatment centre was screened for drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). Urine was collected and tested for central nervous system active drugs. Oral, vaginal, and/or rectal swabs were tested for male DNA. Unexpected drugs were defined as those not reported as having been voluntarily consumed within the previous 72 h. Positive swabs for unexpected DNA were determined by whether the person reported having had consensual intercourse in the previous week. A total of 184 of 882 eligible participants met suspected DFSA criteria. Mean age was 25.8 years (SD=8.5), 96.2% were female and 64.7% White. Urine samples were positive for drugs in 44.9% of cases, alcohol in 12.9%, and both drugs and alcohol in 18.0%. The drugs found on toxicological screening were unexpected in 87 of the 135 (64.4%) cases with a positive drug finding and included cannabinoids (40.2%), cocaine (32.2%), amphetamines (13.8%), MDMA (9.2%), ketamine (2.3%), and GHB (1.1%). Male DNA was unexpected in 30 (46.9%) of 64 cases where it was found. Among those persons presenting to a sexual assault treatment centre with a suspicion of DFSA, the presence of unexpected drugs and male DNA was common, lending support for their contention that they had been intentionally drugged and sexually assaulted. Most unexpected drugs found were not those typically described as 'date rape drugs'. PMID:20650424

  10. Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs): mapping a research agenda that incorporates an organizational perspective.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Carrie A; Lindhorst, Taryn; Tajima, Emiko A

    2015-04-01

    Multidisciplinary coordinated Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs) are a growing model of providing health, legal, and emotional support services to victims of sexual assault. This article conceptualizes SARTs from an organizational perspective and explores three approaches to researching SARTs that have the potential of increasing our understanding of the benefits and challenges of multidisciplinary service delivery. These approaches attend to several levels of organizational behavior, including the organizational response to external legitimacy pressures, the inter-organizational networks of victim services, and the negotiation of power and disciplinary boundaries. Possible applications to organizational research on SARTs are explored.

  11. Integrating attachment and depression in the confluence model of sexual assault perpetration.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, David; Parkhill, Michele R

    2014-08-01

    This study sought to extend the confluence model of sexual assault perpetration by examining attachment insecurity and depression as additional predictors of sexual aggression. Male college students (N = 193) completed an online questionnaire assessing confluence model constructs in addition to attachment and history of depression. Overall, the model fit the data well, χ(2)(11, 193) = 19.43, p = ns; root mean square error of approximation = .063; comparative fit index = .94. Attachment and depression demonstrated both direct and indirect relationships with perpetration severity. The results contribute to elucidating the process by which certain men become susceptible to perpetrating sexual assault. Implications are discussed.

  12. The (in)significance of genital injury in rape and sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Walker, Graeme

    2015-08-01

    The forensic significance of genital injury following rape and sexual assault has been the subject of considerable academic and research interest, in terms of the contribution it may provide to the body of evidence in criminal proceedings. This essay takes a critical look at such research, in the context of modern understandings of what actually constitutes rape and sexual assault. Written from the author's perspective as a forensic physician practising in Scotland, it illustrates the fascinating interface between medical evidence and the legal system. PMID:26165680

  13. Perceptions of interpersonal versus intergroup violence: the case of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Droogendyk, Lisa; Wright, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    The social identity approach makes a distinction between behavior motivated by intergroup versus interpersonal identities, which may be relevant to victim blaming in the case of rape. Using a mock jury paradigm, we examined the impact of defining rape as an act of interpersonal violence (personal assault) versus intergroup violence (a "hate crime"), crossed with a manipulation describing the attacker as either an acquaintance or stranger. Defining rape in intergroup terms led to less victim blame than when it was defined in interpersonal terms, and participants blamed the victim more when she was assaulted by an acquaintance than a stranger.

  14. The (in)significance of genital injury in rape and sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Walker, Graeme

    2015-08-01

    The forensic significance of genital injury following rape and sexual assault has been the subject of considerable academic and research interest, in terms of the contribution it may provide to the body of evidence in criminal proceedings. This essay takes a critical look at such research, in the context of modern understandings of what actually constitutes rape and sexual assault. Written from the author's perspective as a forensic physician practising in Scotland, it illustrates the fascinating interface between medical evidence and the legal system.

  15. Perceptions of Interpersonal Versus Intergroup Violence: The Case of Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Droogendyk, Lisa; Wright, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    The social identity approach makes a distinction between behavior motivated by intergroup versus interpersonal identities, which may be relevant to victim blaming in the case of rape. Using a mock jury paradigm, we examined the impact of defining rape as an act of interpersonal violence (personal assault) versus intergroup violence (a “hate crime”), crossed with a manipulation describing the attacker as either an acquaintance or stranger. Defining rape in intergroup terms led to less victim blame than when it was defined in interpersonal terms, and participants blamed the victim more when she was assaulted by an acquaintance than a stranger. PMID:25419567

  16. Sexual Assault Perpetrators' Justifications for Their Actions: Relationships to Rape Supportive Attitudes, Incident Characteristics, and Future Perpetration.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E; Woerner, Jacqueline

    2015-08-01

    Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims' alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators' post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. PMID:26056162

  17. Sexual Assault Perpetrators’ Justifications for Their Actions: Relationships to Rape Supportive Attitudes, Incident Characteristics, and Future Perpetration

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E.; Woerner, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims’ alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators’ post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. PMID:26056162

  18. Aggravation of radio interference effects on a dual polarized Earth-space link by two adjacent interfering satellites under rain fades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagopoulos, A. D.; Kritikos, T. D.; Kanellopoulos, J. D.

    2005-10-01

    Interference phenomena affecting the performance and availability of an Earth-space system are of utmost importance for the reliable design of a satellite communication network. Commercial satellite networks operate or will operate at Ku, Ka, and V frequency bands, in which rain is the dominant fading mechanism. Nominal interference induced on an Earth-space link by an adjacent satellite network operating at the same frequency is further aggravated because of the potential existing differential rain attenuation, as well as the rain and ice crystals depolarization valid for a frequency reuse system. In the present paper, an existing model, predicting the degradation of the total carrier-to-interference ratio under rain fade conditions, is properly modified considering interference effects by two adjacent satellites. The method is based on a convective rain cell model and the lognormal assumption for the point rain rate statistics. The obtained numerical results indicate the significant impact of the second interfering satellite on the aggravation of radio interference effects. Also presented are some simple mathematical formulas for the prediction of the carrier-to-interference ratio, based on the above theoretical results, appropriate for use by the system designer for back of the envelope computations.

  19. College Women's Experiences with Physically Forced, Alcohol- or Other Drug-Enabled, and Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault before and since Entering College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Christopher P.; Lindquist, Christine H.; Warner, Tara D.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research has shown associations between college women's alcohol and/or drug consumption and the risk of sexual assault, but few studies have measured the various means by which sexual assault is achieved. Participants: The authors' Campus Sexual Assault Study obtained self-report data from a random sample of undergraduate women (N =…

  20. Sexual assault: review of a national model protocol for forensic and medical evaluation. New Hampshire Sexual Assault Medical Examination Protocol Project Committee.

    PubMed

    Young, W W; Bracken, A C; Goddard, M A; Matheson, S

    1992-11-01

    A national hospital/community model protocol was developed for the forensic and medical examination of victims of sexual assault. This review is designed to assist states in the development of sexual assault protocols. Controversial issues were addressed, including the collection of hair evidence, the importance of semen, mandatory reporting, pregnancy testing and prophylaxis, and sexually transmitted diseases including human immunodeficiency virus. The current role of DNA profiling is reviewed. These issues at the interface of medicine, forensic science, victim advocacy, and the law are analyzed. Representatives of the medical, legal, law enforcement, victim advocacy, and forensic science communities contributed to the development of the protocols at the national and state levels. The importance of a collaborative effort is emphasized. The broad protocol goals are to minimize the physical and psychological trauma to the victim while maximizing the probability of collecting and preserving physical evidence for potential use in the legal system.

  1. Facilitating police recording of the alcohol‐related characteristics of assault incidents: A stepped wedge implementation trial

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Andrew; Kingsland, Melanie; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Tindall, Jennifer; Bowman, Jennifer A.; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Aims Enforcement of liquor licensing laws is limited by inadequate police information systems. This study aimed to: (i) determine the effectiveness of an intervention in facilitating police recording of the alcohol consumption characteristics of people involved in assaults; and (ii) describe such characteristics by geographic area and setting of alcohol consumption. Design and Methods A stepped wedge trial was conducted across New South Wales, Australia. An intervention to facilitate police recording of alcohol consumption information for people involved in incidents was implemented. For people involved in an assault the proportion for which alcohol consumption information was recorded was assessed. The proportion of assaults that were alcohol related, the proportions of people that consumed alcohol prior to the assault, were intoxicated, and had consumed alcohol in various settings, are described. Results Post‐intervention, alcohol consumption information was recorded for 85–100% of people involved in an assault incident. The proportion of incidents recorded as alcohol‐related increased significantly (26–44.5%; P < 0.0001). The proportion of assaults classified as alcohol related was significantly greater in regional/rural areas (50–47%) than in metropolitan areas (38%). More people in metropolitan areas (54%) consumed alcohol on licensed premises prior to an assault than in regional/rural areas (39–42%), with approximately 70% of persons intoxicated regardless of setting of alcohol consumption. Twenty per cent of premises accounted for 60% of assaults linked to licensed premises. Discussion and Conclusions The intervention was effective in enhancing the recording of alcohol‐related information for assault incidents. Such information could enhance targeted policing of liquor licensing laws. [Wiggers JH, Hacker A, Kingsland M, Lecathelinais C, Tindall J, Bowman JA, Wolfenden L. Facilitating police recording of the

  2. Aggravation of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased SIRT1 activity in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic alcohol intake decreases adiponectin and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expressions, both of which have been implicated in various biological processes including inflammation, apoptosis and metabolism. We have previously shown that moderate consumption of alcohol aggravates liver inflammation and apoptos...

  3. Children who are victims of sexual assault and the psychology of offenders.

    PubMed

    Peters, J J

    1976-07-01

    Psychiatrists and others have too often discounted reports of sexual attacks upon children and ascribed the incident to fantasy. The author's experience in private psychoanalytic practice and in Philadelphia's rape victim clinics indicates that these assaults occur frequently. If the sexual attack is dealt with improperly or repressed it may cause serious psychologic problems for the victim as an adult.

  4. Premilitary Adult Sexual Assault Victimization and Perpetration in a Navy Recruit Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stander, Valerie A.; Merrill, Lex L.; Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Milner, Joel S.

    2008-01-01

    Female (n = 5,226) and male (n = 5,969) U.S. Navy recruits completed a survey assessing their premilitary histories of adult sexual assault (SA), defined as attempted or completed rape since the age of 14. The survey was completed under anonymous or identified conditions. Overall, 39% of women reported premilitary SA victimization and 13% of men…

  5. Sexual Assault History and Suicidal Behavior in a National Sample of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Brecklin, Leanne R.

    2002-01-01

    A national sample of women (N=627) with histories of sexual assault in both childhood and adulthood reported significantly greater odds of lifetime suicide attempts. As predicted, younger age, stressful events, depression, and alcohol dependency were all associated with suicide ideation. Discusses role of sexual trauma and other psychological…

  6. The Associations of Physical and Sexual Assault with Suicide Risk in Nonclinical Military and Undergraduate Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Craig J.; McNaugton-Cassill, Mary; Osman, Augustine; Hernandez, Ann Marie

    2013-01-01

    The associations of various forms of sexual and physical assault with a history of suicide attempts and recent suicide ideation were studied in two distinct samples: active duty military and undergraduate students. A total of 273 active duty Air Force personnel and 309 undergraduate students anonymously completed self-report surveys of assault…

  7. Enhancing Care and Advocacy for Sexual Assault Survivors on Canadian Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Elizabeth; Clarke, Allyson; Miller, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Recent media coverage of the rape chant at Saint Mary's University, the misogynist Facebook posts at Dalhousie's dental school, and the suspension of the University of Ottawa's hockey team have brought the topic of campus sexual assault under intense public scrutiny and the media accounts point to a widespread systemic rape culture on Canadian…

  8. Sexual Assault and Rape Perpetration by College Men: The Role of the Big Five Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voller, Emily K.; Long, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 521 college men completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and an expanded version of the Sexual Experiences Survey to examine whether variation in the Big Five personality traits in a normal, college population provides any insight into the nature of sexual assault and rape perpetrators. Rape perpetrators reported lower levels of…

  9. Sexual Assault Education Programs: A Meta-Analytic Examination of Their Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Linda A.; Whiston, Susan C.

    2005-01-01

    Meta-analyses of the effectiveness of college sexual assault education programs on seven outcome measure categories were conducted using 69 studies that involved 102 treatment interventions and 18,172 participants. Five of the outcome categories had significant average effect sizes (i.e., rape attitudes, rape-related attitudes, rape knowledge,…

  10. An Evaluation of a Mixed-Gender Sexual Assault Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, April R.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; O'Donohue, William

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the short-term effectiveness of a mixed-gender sexual assault prevention program developed for college students. Program participants (n = 177) were compared to non-program participants (n = 132) prior to the program and during a 2-week follow-up period on measures of rape myths, victim empathy, perceived negative consequences…

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of the "Playing the Game" Sexual Assault Prevention Theatre Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatcher, W. Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of a one-time sexual assault prevention theatre performance against a similar content video performance and a non-intervention control group. Methods: Using the College Date Rape Attitudes and Behaviors Survey, four-hundred ninety-seven students provided matched pairs data for analysis. Results: At a…

  12. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of the Revictimization of Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Shana L.

    2012-01-01

    While Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner programs have improved the treatment of rape victims by offering more compassionate and thorough treatment, SANEs believe victims continue to face revictimization by the medical, criminal justice and legal systems. The purpose of this research is to explore SANEs' perceptions of the revictimization of rape…

  13. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of Their Relationship with Doctors, Rape Victim Advocates, Police, and Prosecutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Shana L.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the negative and inefficient treatment of rape victims by emergency room personnel, the first Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began in the late 1970s. While SANEs, doctors, rape victim advocates, police officers and prosecutors work together to ensure the most comprehensive and sensitive care of rape victims, they all…

  14. Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Services: Historical Concerns and Contemporary Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Giattina, Mary C.; Parish, Susan L.; Crosby, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    More than 20 years ago, concerns were raised about whether domestic violence and sexual assault agencies need for stable funding would conflict with the values that initiated these respective movements. Since then, the movements have evolved considerably. Therefore, it is timely to investigate the challenges domestic violence and sexual assault…

  15. "I Have the Power to Change This": College Women's Agency and Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Lauren J.

    2012-01-01

    Noting the prevalence of sexual violence at American Institutions of Higher Education (IHEs), this study aims to inform discourse on college women's post-assault experiences and perceptions of the institution. Using a feminist, post-structuralist framework, this study examines the narratives of 26 traditionally-aged college women who…

  16. Incorporating Social Norms into Sexual Assault Interventions: Effects on Belief and Behavior Change among College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    A sexual assault intervention was designed using applicable research from social psychology (i.e., social norms). Undergraduate men were randomly assigned to the experimental intervention or an active control condition. Attitudinal and behavioral data were collected preintervention, post-intervention and at a one month follow-up. Significant…

  17. Adolescent sexual assault disclosure: the impact of peers, families, and schools.

    PubMed

    Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Campbell, Rebecca

    2013-09-01

    Adolescent sexual assault survivors are more likely to seek support from peers and families than to formal help systems, such as the medical and legal systems. In this study, we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with N = 20 adolescent sexual assault survivors aged 14-17 who obtained services from Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Programs to understand the pathways that led them to seek formal help. Our goal was to examine how survivors' initial disclosures to peers, families, and schools facilitated adolescents' access to formal help systems. Additionally, we explored how peer, family and school systems interact as mesosystems to effect subsequent disclosures. Results show that the peer and family microsystems were decisive in survivors' willingness to enter formal systems. Disclosure became more complex when peer, family, and school personnel all became aware of the assault. When these mesosystem interactions occurred with survivors' consent and produced a helpful response, they were perceived as positive. Alternatively, mesosystem interactions in which survivors had minimal control resulted in greater reluctance to enter formal systems. These conclusions highlight the need educating informal support providers about community services in order to make the disclosure process easier and beneficial for survivors' recovery and well-being. PMID:23702789

  18. Forensic urinalysis of drug use in cases of alleged sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Hindmarch, I; ElSohly, M; Gambles, J; Salamone, S

    2001-12-01

    The results of 3303 analyses of urine samples, collected in an independent testing programme from individuals who claimed to have been sexually assaulted and believed that drugs were involved, were examined in detail. Of the samples provided, 2026 (61.3%) proved positive for one or more substances. Alcohol, either alone or in combination with other drugs, was by far the commonest substance found, being present in 1358 samples (67.0% of positives). Cannabis was the second most prevalent drug, present in 613 samples, (30.3% of positives). Detailed examination of the testing results does not support the contention that any single drug, apart from alcohol, can be particularly identified as a 'date rape' drug. Rather, the alleged sexual assaults may often take place against a background of licit or recreational alcohol or drug use, where alcohol and other drugs are frequently taken together. The extensive forensic database examined here does not support the concept of a commonly occurring 'date rape' scenario, in which the victim's drink is covertly 'spiked' with a tablet, capsule or powder containing a sedative-hypnotic. This research highlights the need for the early collection of forensic samples in cases of alleged sexual assault. Law enforcement agencies and health professionals should establish guidelines and procedures to ensure that appropriate forensic samples (blood and urine) are collected in a timely manner following allegations of possible drug mediated sexual assault. PMID:16083685

  19. HIV Post-Exposure Prophylaxis in Children and Adolescents Presenting for Reported Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girardet, Rebecca G.; Lemme, Scott; Biason, Tiffany A.; Bolton, Kelly; Lahoti, Sheela

    2009-01-01

    Background: The appropriate use of antiretroviral medications to protect against infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is unclear in cases of sexual assault of children, for whom the perpetrator's risk of HIV is often unknown, and physical proof of sexual contact is usually absent. Objective: In an effort to clarify prescribing…

  20. Testing Telephone and Web Surveys for Studying Men's Sexual Assault Perpetration Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNitto, Diana M.; Busch-Armendariz, Noel Bridget; Bender, Kimberly; Woo, Hyeyoung; Tackett-Gibson, Melissa; Dyer, James

    2008-01-01

    Three pilot studies were conducted to obtain information about sexual assault perpetration from adult men in the United States. Each used the same random digit-dial sampling and recruitment strategy. One pilot was administered by telephone and two via the Web. Response rates in all pilots were low. Although results cannot be generalized beyond the…

  1. Alcohol and Dating Risk Factors for Sexual Assault: Double Standards Are Still Alive and Well Entrenched

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on her article entitled, "Alcohol and Dating Risk Factors for Sexual Assault Among College Women" (Abbey, Ross, McDuffie, & McAuslan, 1996) and her work in personal, intellectual, and disciplinary context. The original article can be found at http://pwq.sagepub.com/content/20/1/147. This personal reflection…

  2. Combining Primary Prevention and Risk Reduction Approaches in Sexual Assault Protection Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menning, Chadwick; Holtzman, Mellisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The object of this study is to extend prior evaluations of Elemental, a sexual assault protection program that combines primary prevention and risk reduction strategies within a single program. Participants and Methods: During 2012 and 2013, program group and control group students completed pretest, posttest, and 6-week and 6-month…

  3. Effects of Clinician-Assisted Emotional Disclosure for Sexual Assault Survivors: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Timothy; Fende Guajardo, Jennifer; Luthra, Rohini; Edwards, Katie M.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of clinician-assisted emotional disclosure (CAED), an integration of emotion focused therapy (Greenberg, Rice, & Elliott, 1993) and emotional disclosure, in ameliorating distress experienced by survivors of sexual assault. A total of 670 female university students were screened for both histories of sexual…

  4. Sexual Assault History and Health-Related Outcomes in a National Sample of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Brecklin, Leanne R.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined correlates of past-year chronic medical conditions and lifetime contact with health care professionals for mental health and substance abuse problems in women with differing histories of sexual victimization (N = 627) identified from the National Comorbidity Survey (e.g., assault in childhood, adulthood, or both life phases).…

  5. Using a Social Marketing Approach to Advertise Sexual Assault Nurse Examination (SANE) Services to College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konradi, Amanda; DeBruin, Patty L.

    2003-01-01

    The authors report on an advertising campaign to communicate the availability and desirability of using Sexual Assault Nurse Examination (SANE) services. They used social marketing precepts to develop posters to educate college students about using SANE as a health service and as an arm of prosecution. After 2 advertising campaigns, they conducted…

  6. Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault: College Women's Risk Perception and Behavioral Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Emily; Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Birchmeier, Zachary

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated relationships among prior victimization, risk perceptions, and behavioral choices in responding to drug-facilitated sexual assault in a college party where alcohol is available. Participants and Methods: From fall 2003 to spring 2004, over 400 female undergraduates rated risk perception following an acquaintance…

  7. Childhood Trauma, Adult Sexual Assault, and Adult Gender Expression among Lesbian and Bisexual Women

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Yamile; Simoni, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that lesbian and bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and adult sexual assault. It is unknown, however, which sexual minority women are most likely to experience such abuse. We recruited adult sexual minority women living in the US through electronic fliers sent to listservs and website groups inviting them to complete an online survey (N=1,243). We examined differences in both childhood abuse and adult sexual assault by women’s current gender identity (i.e., butch, femme, androgynous, or other) and a continuous measure of gender expression (from butch/masculine to femme/feminine), adjusting for sexual orientation identity, age, education, and income. Results indicated that a more butch/masculine current self-assessment of gender expression, but not gender identity, was associated with more overall reported childhood trauma. Although one aspect of gender expression, a more butch/masculine gender role, was associated with adult sexual assault, feminine appearance and a femme gender identity also significantly predicted adult sexual assault. These findings highlight the significance of gender identity and expression in identifying women at greater risk for various abuse experiences. PMID:24003263

  8. Evaluating a Peer-Led, Theatrical Sexual Assault Prevention Program: How Do We Measure Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milhausen, Robin R.; McBride, Kimberly R.; Jun, Mi Kyun

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a co-educational, theatrical, peer-facilitated sexual assault prevention program at a large midwestern university. Additionally, the study compared results based on two different measurement tools (the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (RMAS) and the Sexual Beliefs Scale (SBS)). Methods: Pre-test post-test…

  9. Assessing Police Classifications of Sexual Assault Reports: A Meta-Analysis of False Reporting Rates.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Claire E; Malouff, John M

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the study was to determine, through meta-analysis, the rate of confirmed false reports of sexual assault to police. The meta-analysis initially involved a search for relevant articles. The search identified seven studies where researchers or their trained helpers evaluated reported sexual assault cases to determine the rate of confirmed false reports. The meta-analysis calculated an overall rate and tested for possible moderators of effect size. The meta-analytic rate of false reports of sexual assault was .052 (95 % CI .030, .089). The rates for the individual studies were heterogeneous, suggesting the possibility of moderators of rate. However, the four possible moderators examined-year of publication, whether the data set used had information in addition to police reports, whether the study was completed in the U.S. or elsewhere, and whether inter-rater reliabilities were reported-were all not significant. The meta-analysis of seven relevant studies shows that confirmed false allegations of sexual assault made to police occur at a significant rate. The total false reporting rate, including both confirmed and equivocal cases, would be greater than the 5 % rate found here. PMID:26679304

  10. Gender Differences in the Clinical Presentation of PTSD and Its Concomitants in Survivors of Interpersonal Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galovski, Tara E.; Mott, Juliette; Young-Xu, Yinong; Resick, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares a sample of PTSD-positive, female survivors of interpersonal assault (n = 162) to a sample of similarly traumatized male counterparts (n = 45) on a number of variables, including PTSD-symptom severity, depressive symptoms, anger, guilt, and health-related concerns. Results indicate that male and female interpersonal assault…

  11. 27 CFR 478.153 - Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or imported for the purposes of testing... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.153 Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity... weapon, and § 478.40a with respect to large capacity ammunition feeding devices, shall not apply to...

  12. 27 CFR 478.153 - Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or imported for the purposes of testing... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.153 Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity... weapon, and § 478.40a with respect to large capacity ammunition feeding devices, shall not apply to...

  13. 27 CFR 478.153 - Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or imported for the purposes of testing... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.153 Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity... weapon, and § 478.40a with respect to large capacity ammunition feeding devices, shall not apply to...

  14. 27 CFR 478.153 - Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or imported for the purposes of testing... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.153 Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity... weapon, and § 478.40a with respect to large capacity ammunition feeding devices, shall not apply to...

  15. What Is an Empowerment Approach to Working with Sexual Assault Survivors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Townsend, Stephanie M.

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study sought to better understand what constitutes the empowerment approach used by rape crisis advocates working with sexual assault survivors. A grounded theory, qualitative, semistructured interview study was conducted of rape victim advocates (N=25) working in rape crisis centers in a large metropolitan area. Several…

  16. See Something, Do Something: Predicting Sexual Assault Bystander Intentions in the U.S. Military.

    PubMed

    Holland, Kathryn J; Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia

    2016-09-01

    Sexual assault is a pervasive problem in the U.S. military, especially against women. Bystander intervention is increasingly promoted as important for reducing sexual violence, and it may be particularly helpful in contexts with high rates of sexual violence. Bystander training encourages and enables people to intervene safely and stop sexual violence. In this study, we drew from an ecological model to investigate intrapersonal, microsystem, and exosystem factors that predicted Service members' assumption of personal responsibility to intervene in an alcohol-involved sexual assault. Moreover, we examined how these predictors played a role in decisions about how to intervene: confronting the perpetrator, assisting the victim, or finding someone to help. We analyzed data from 24,610 active duty personnel collected by the Department of Defense. Several factors significantly related to Service members' bystander intentions: gender, rank, morale, attitudes about sexual assault, training, and trust in the military sexual assault system predicted the likelihood and method of bystander intervention. These findings help identify how and why people intervene (or fail to intervene) when they witness situations that could develop into sexual violence. PMID:27539117

  17. Disclosure of Sexual Assault Experiences among Undergraduate Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, Christine H.; Crosby, Carmen M.; Barrick, Kelle; Krebs, Christopher P.; Settles-Reaves, Beverlyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To document the sexual assault disclosure experiences of historically black college or university (HBCU) students. Participants: A total of 3,951 female, undergraduate students at 4 HBCUs. Methods: All women at the participating schools were recruited in November 2008 to participate in a Web-based survey including both closed- and…

  18. Interpersonal Violence and Sexual Assault: Trauma-Informed Communication Approaches in University Counseling Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshimura, Christina Granato; Campbell, Kimberly Brown

    2016-01-01

    A university in the United States Mountain West utilized grant resources to track counseling services for students who were currently experiencing or who had historically experienced relationship violence, sexual assault and/or stalking. This report reflects on the first 2 years of this program, including an overview of prevalence and reporting…

  19. Gender Difference or Indifference? Detective Decision Making in Sexual Assault Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderden, Megan A.; Ullman, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research examining sexual assault case decision making has failed to account for the demographic characteristics of the criminal justice practitioners charged with making case decisions. Inclusion of such information is important because it provides researchers with a greater understanding of how criminal justice practitioners' own gender,…

  20. Prediction of Sexual Assault Experiences in College Women Based on Rape Scripts: A Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turchik, Jessica A.; Probst, Danielle R.; Irvin, Clinton R.; Chau, Minna; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2009-01-01

    Although script theory has been applied to sexual assault (e.g., H. Frith & C. Kitzinger, 2001; A. S. Kahn, V. A. Andreoli Mathie, & C. Torgler, 1994), women's scripts of rape have not been examined in relation to predicting sexual victimization experiences. The purpose of the current study was to examine how elements of women's sexual assault…

  1. R.U. Ready?: Peer Education and Bystander Intervention Sexual Assault Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweer, Jen Luettel; Heather, Katie; Kay, Kathryn; Stewart, K. Leigh; Kovach, Laura

    2012-01-01

    R.U. Ready? at Georgetown University is an annual sexual assault awareness event that incorporates peer education and resources with opportunities for students, staff, and faculty to dialogue about providing bystander intervention throughout the campus community. Beyond dialogue, participants learn about student activism and the resources and…

  2. "Designing Out" Gang Homicides and Street Assaults. National Institute of Justice Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, James

    This brief discusses the use of traffic barriers to block automobile access to streets as a way to reduce gang violence. The tactic was used in a crime-plagued area of Los Angeles, California, that had experienced a high level of drive-by shootings, gang homicides, and street assaults. The program, Operation Cul de Sac (OCDS), was evaluated as a…

  3. Middle School Youth: Satisfaction with and Responses to a Dating Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias-Lambert, Nada; Black, Beverly; Sharma, Yasoda

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how group composition influences students' level of satisfaction with a dating violence and sexual assault prevention program. A 10- to 12-session program was presented to 396 urban African American middle school students in mixed- and same-gender groups. Both males and females were significantly more satisfied with the…

  4. Circumstances Surrounding Male Sexual Assault and Rape: Findings from the National Violence against Women Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, David; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Much work in the area of male sexual assault and rape relies on small clinical samples. From these samples, researchers reported that most male victims were physically injured during the attack and that penetration occurred. This work rests on a subsample of 219 men from the 1994-1996 Violence and Threats of Violence Against Women and Men in the…

  5. Similarities and Differences in Women's Sexual Assault Experiences Based on Tactics Used by the Perpetrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; BeShears, Renee; Clinton-Sherrod, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam

    2004-01-01

    Only a few studies have examined the characteristics of sexual assault based on the tactics used by the perpetrator. In this study we compared the experiences of women who were forced to engage in vaginal, anal, or oral intercourse due to verbal coercion, physical force, or intoxication. Random-digit dialing was used to obtain a sample of 272…

  6. 27 CFR 478.153 - Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or imported for the purposes of testing... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.153 Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity... weapon, and § 478.40a with respect to large capacity ammunition feeding devices, shall not apply to...

  7. Adolescent sexual assault disclosure: the impact of peers, families, and schools.

    PubMed

    Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Campbell, Rebecca

    2013-09-01

    Adolescent sexual assault survivors are more likely to seek support from peers and families than to formal help systems, such as the medical and legal systems. In this study, we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with N = 20 adolescent sexual assault survivors aged 14-17 who obtained services from Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Programs to understand the pathways that led them to seek formal help. Our goal was to examine how survivors' initial disclosures to peers, families, and schools facilitated adolescents' access to formal help systems. Additionally, we explored how peer, family and school systems interact as mesosystems to effect subsequent disclosures. Results show that the peer and family microsystems were decisive in survivors' willingness to enter formal systems. Disclosure became more complex when peer, family, and school personnel all became aware of the assault. When these mesosystem interactions occurred with survivors' consent and produced a helpful response, they were perceived as positive. Alternatively, mesosystem interactions in which survivors had minimal control resulted in greater reluctance to enter formal systems. These conclusions highlight the need educating informal support providers about community services in order to make the disclosure process easier and beneficial for survivors' recovery and well-being.

  8. Understanding Rape and Sexual Assault: 20 Years of Progress and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Wasco, Sharon M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, researchers have documented the widespread problem of rape in American society. Approximately one in four women are raped in their adult lifetime, which causes severe psychological distress and long-term physical health problems. The impact of sexual assault extends far beyond rape survivors as their family, friends, and…

  9. Catholic Virtue and Female Sexuality: Additional Trauma for Sexual Assault Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vraney, Mary W.

    1981-01-01

    Studied how Catholic women who have experienced sexual assault not only have to deal with society's negative reactions but an additional guilt instilled by religious education. Proposes that religious values have traditionally ignored male responsibility. Suggests counselors may find bibliotherapy an effective intervention tool in these cases.…

  10. 3 CFR 8492 - Proclamation 8492 of April 1, 2010. National Sexual Assault Awareness Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pain and trauma of sexual assault. From verbal harassment and intimidation to molestation and rape... women will experience an attempted or completed rape at some point in her life. Too many men and boys...-traumatic stress disorder, only exacerbate victims’ sense of hopelessness. No one should face this...

  11. When nightclub security agents assault clients more insight through a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Romain-Glassey, Nathalie; Gut, Melody; De Puy, Jacqueline; Mangin, Patrice

    2014-08-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, aggressions by security agents of nightclubs on clients increased from 6% to 10% among community violence situations encountered at the Violence Medical Unit (VMU) at the Lausanne University Hospital in Switzerland. Most victims were young men who had been drinking alcohol before the assault. About one quarter (25.7%) presented with one or several fractures, all of them in the head area. (For more details, refer to the previous article "When nightclub security agents assault clients" published in 2012(1).) Following this first study, we performed a second qualitative study in order to bring more information about the context and highlight victims' behaviors and experiences. Four themes emerged: how the assault began; the assault itself; third-party involvement; and the psychological state of victims when they consulted the VMU. The findings of this second study complemented the statistical results of the first study by showing under what circumstances security agents of nightclubs respond with physical violence to situations they consider a threat to security. Furthermore, the study described consequences for the victims that could be quite serious. Our findings support the need for nightclubs to improve selection and training of security staff.

  12. 32 CFR 635.28 - Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault cases. 635.28 Section 635.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.28 Procedures...

  13. The Association between Sexual Assault and Suicidal Activity in a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasula, Jessica L.; Anderson, Laura M.; Littleton, Heather L.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris

    2012-01-01

    Sexual violence is a potential key risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior but has not been studied extensively. Thus, the current study examined the extent to which sexual assault predicted suicide attempts among adolescent students in the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey (2007 data). Gender differences in suicidal…

  14. Substance Abuse and Behavioral Correlates of Sexual Assault among South African Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gary; Flisher, Alan, J.; Noubary, Farzad.; Reece, Robert; Marais, Adele; Lombard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this article is twofold: first, to examine the prevalence of being the victim of actual and attempted rape among a large representative sample of Cape Town high school students; and second, to identify the correlates of sexual assault for both boys and girls, including alcohol, tobacco and other drug use, behavioral problems,…

  15. Characteristics of victims and assaults of sexual violence--improving inquiries and prevention.

    PubMed

    Ingemann-Hansen, Ole; Sabroe, Svend; Brink, Ole; Knudsen, Maiken; Charles, Annie Vesterbye

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of our study was to provide descriptive data on victim and assault characteristics in sexual violence and to ascertain risk factors in the sequence of the assault events. Retrospective data were collected on all sexual assault victims presented to the sexual referral centre, the police and the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Aarhus, Denmark, during a five-year period. Four hundred and twenty-three victims were included. The annual incidence rate was 14.5 per 100,000 inhabitants aged 12-87 years and the "dark figure" was estimated to be 1.34. Median age was 21 years; 69% of the victims knew the assailant, and penile intercourse was reported in 59% of the cases. Young age and drinking alcohol were risk factors for the assault to take place in a public place. Information to high-risk groups identified by this study should be integrated in approaches of modifying sexual behaviour. Furthermore, the results from this study are useful in supporting staff and police investigators in the guidance of their efforts regarding treatment and inquiries. PMID:19329073

  16. 78 FR 21715 - Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... Coordinators (SARC), SAPR Victim Advocates (VA), and other responders will assist sexual assault victims... http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-12-16/pdf/X11-11216.pdf ; (30) DoDD 5400.11, ``DoD Privacy Program... 32 CFR part 103. (s) Healthcare personnel. Persons assisting or otherwise supporting...

  17. 32 CFR 635.28 - Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... forensic evidence may be collected using the “Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kit,” NSN 6640-01-423-9132, or a suitable substitute (hereafter, “evidence kit”). The evidence kit, other items such as clothing... chaplains to collect specific items (clothing, bedding, etc.) that may be later used as evidence, should...

  18. "Yes Means Yes:" A New Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention and Positive Sexuality Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafrance, Dawn E.; Loe, Meika; Brown, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    "Yes Means Yes" (YMY) is an interdisciplinary, noncredit, five-week, positive sexuality seminar offered at a small liberal arts college as part of a campus-wide initiative to improve students' relationship skills and behaviors. Most university campuses employ some sort of sexual assault prevention program to help protect students from problematic…

  19. Sexual assault resistance education for university women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (SARE trial)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victims of rape or attempted rape. The associated physical and mental health effects are extensive and the social and economic costs are staggering. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether a novel, small-group sexual assault resistance education program can reduce the incidence of sexual assault among university-attending women, when compared to current university practice of providing informational brochures. Methods/Design The trial will evaluate a theoretically and empirically sound four-unit, 12-hour education program that has been demonstrated in pilot studies to have short-term efficacy. Three of the four units provide information, skills, and practice aimed at decreasing the time needed for women to assess situations with elevated risk of acquaintance sexual assault as dangerous and to take action, reducing emotional obstacles to taking action, and increasing the use of the most effective methods of verbal and physical self-defense. The fourth unit focuses on facilitating a stronger positive sexuality from which women may resist sexual coercion by male intimates more successfully. The trial will extend the pilot evaluations by expanding the participant pool and examining the long term efficacy of the program. A total of 1716 first-year female students (age 17 to 24 years) from three Canadian universities will be enrolled. The primary outcome is completed sexual assault, measured by The Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization instrument. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the process of sexual assault resistance. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 week, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Discussion The results of the trial will be used to produce a maximally

  20. Sexual assault tracking study: who gets lost to follow-up?

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, C P; Grams, G D; Berkowitz, J

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether loss to follow-up can be predicted in patients who present to an emergency sexual assault assessment service and to generate hypotheses regarding the prediction of loss to follow-up on the basis of patient characteristics, assault characteristics and the services provided. DESIGN: Prospective, exploratory study. SETTING: Emergency department functioning as a regional sexual assault centre in a tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS: All 294 women over the age of 16 years who presented to the emergency department with a complaint of sexual assault and consented to be followed up. INTERVENTIONS: Telephone interviews at 24 to 48 hours and 1 month after presentation; face-to-face interviews after 1 week, 3 months and 6 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Follow-up status (tracked versus lost to follow-up), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y), Beck Depression Scale (Beck) and Rape Trauma Symptom Rating Scale (RTSRS). RESULTS: At 24 to 48 hours 136 (46%) of the patients could not be reached. Only 61 (21%) were still tracked at 6 months. Loss to follow-up at 1 month accurately predicted loss to follow-up at 6 months in 209 (98%) of 214 patients. For tracked patients the STAI-Y and Beck scores improved over 6 months. These scores at 1 week did not predict follow-up status at 6 months, but the numbers were small. Subjects with a higher RTSRS score at 24 to 48 hours were most likely to remain tracked throughout the 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Decisions regarding how vigorously to track patients with a complaint of sexual assault can tentatively be based on the characteristics of the victim and of the assault. We hypothesize that the characteristics predicting loss to follow-up include denial and avoidance behaviour, lack of a telephone number or forwarding address, history of a psychiatric condition, a disability (e.g., deafness), characterization as a "street person," a high degree of violence or injury in the assault, and threat by the assailant

  1. Incidence of and Risk Factors for Sexual Orientation–Related Physical Assault Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Lampinen, Thomas M.; Chan, Keith; Anema, Aranka; Miller, Mary Lou; Schilder, Arn J.; Schechter, Martin T.; Hogg, Robert Stephen; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine incidence of, prevalence of, and risk factors for sexual orientation–related physical assault in young men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. We completed a prospective open cohort study of young MSM in Vancouver, British Columbia, surveyed annually between 1995 and 2004. Correlates of sexual orientation–related physical assault before enrollment were identified with logistic regression. Risk factors for incident assaults were determined with Cox regression. Results. At enrollment, 84 (16%) of 521 MSM reported ever experiencing assault related to actual or perceived sexual orientation. Incidence was 2.3 per 100 person-years; cumulative incidence at 6-year follow-up was 10.8 per 100 person-years. Increased risk of incident sexual orientation–related physical assault was observed among MSM 23 years or younger (relative hazard=3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6, 5.8), Canadian Aboriginal people (relative hazard = 3.0; 95% CI=1.4, 6.2), and those who previously experienced such assault (relative hazard=2.5; 95% CI=1.3, 4.8). Conclusions. These data underscore the need for increased public awareness, surveillance, and support to reduce assault against young MSM. Such efforts should be coordinated at the community level to ensure that social norms dictate that such acts are unacceptable. PMID:18445793

  2. Assessing the reliability and validity of the Chinese Sexual Assault Symptom Scale (C-SASS): scale development and validation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Hwai; Lee, Jin-Chuan; Yuan, Yu-Hsi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to establish and verify the psychometric and structural properties of the self-report Chinese Sexual Assault Symptom Scale (C-SASS) to assess the trauma experienced by Chinese victims of sexual assault. An earlier version of the C-SASS was constructed using a modified list of the same trauma symptoms administered to an American sample and used to develop and validate the Sexual Assault Symptom Scale II (SASS II). The rationale of this study is to revise the earlier version of the C-SASS, using a larger and more representative sample and more robust statistical analysis than in earlier research, to permit a more thorough examination of the instrument and further confirm the dimensions of sexual assault trauma in Chinese victims of rape. In this study, a sample of 418 victims from northern Taiwan was collected to confirm the reliability and validity of the C-SASS. Exploratory factor analysis yielded five common factors: Safety Fears, Self-Blame, Health Fears, Anger and Emotional Lability, and Fears About the Criminal Justice System. Further tests of the validity and composite reliability of the C-SASS were provided by the structural equation modeling (SEM). The results indicated that the C-SASS was a brief, valid, and reliable instrument for assessing sexual assault trauma among Chinese victims in Taiwan. The scale can be used to evaluate victims in sexual assault treatment centers around Taiwan, as well as to capture the characteristics of sexual assault trauma among Chinese victims.

  3. Health promotion messages in entertainment media: crime drama viewership and intentions to intervene in a sexual assault situation.

    PubMed

    Hust, Stacey J T; Marett, Emily Garrigues; Lei, Ming; Chang, Hua; Ren, Chunbo; McNab, Anna Lazárová; Adams, Paula M

    2013-01-01

    Popular crime dramas have tackled sensitive issues such as sexual assault with increasing frequency over the past 20 years. These popular programs increasingly demonstrate the emotional and physical effect of sexual assault on its victims, and in some instances they depict individuals being rewarded for intervening to prevent or stop an assault in progress. It is possible that this content could affect attitudes related to sexual assault prevention. However, no previous research has examined this possibility. In the fall 2008 semester, 508 undergraduates at a large northwestern university completed a questionnaire about media use and bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation. Results from hierarchical regressions lend support for the integrative model of behavioral prediction in that instrumentality, rape myth acceptance, perceived social norms, perceived efficacy related to intervening, and exposure to primetime crime dramas were associated with participants' intentions to intervene in a sexual assault. The results suggest that crime dramas may be a useful venue for prevention messages as exposure to crime dramas uniquely contributed to intentions to intervene in a sexual assault.

  4. Sodium chloride promotes pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization thereby aggravating CNS autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Hucke, Stephanie; Eschborn, Melanie; Liebmann, Marie; Herold, Martin; Freise, Nicole; Engbers, Annika; Ehling, Petra; Meuth, Sven G; Roth, Johannes; Kuhlmann, Tanja; Wiendl, Heinz; Klotz, Luisa

    2016-02-01

    The increasing incidence in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) during the last decades in industrialized countries might be linked to a change in dietary habits. Nowadays, enhanced salt content is an important characteristic of Western diet and increased dietary salt (NaCl) intake promotes pathogenic T cell responses contributing to central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity. Given the importance of macrophage responses for CNS disease propagation, we addressed the influence of salt consumption on macrophage responses in CNS autoimmunity. We observed that EAE-diseased mice receiving a NaCl-high diet showed strongly enhanced macrophage infiltration and activation within the CNS accompanied by disease aggravation during the effector phase of EAE. NaCl treatment of macrophages elicited a strong pro-inflammatory phenotype characterized by enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, increased expression of immune-stimulatory molecules, and an antigen-independent boost of T cell proliferation. This NaCl-induced pro-inflammatory macrophage phenotype was accompanied by increased activation of NF-kB and MAPK signaling pathways. The pathogenic relevance of NaCl-conditioned macrophages is illustrated by the finding that transfer into EAE-diseased animals resulted in significant disease aggravation compared to untreated macrophages. Importantly, also in human monocytes, NaCl promoted a pro-inflammatory phenotype that enhanced human T cell proliferation. Taken together, high dietary salt intake promotes pro-inflammatory macrophages that aggravate CNS autoimmunity. Together with other studies, these results underline the need to further determine the relevance of increased dietary salt intake for MS disease severity.

  5. Ethanol gastric lesion aggravated by lung injury in rat. Therapy effect of antiulcer agents.

    PubMed

    Stancic-Rokotov, D; Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Slobodnjak, Z; Aralica, J; Aralica, G; Perovic, D; Anic, T; Zoricic, I; Buljat, G; Prkacin, I; Gjurasin, M; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Turkovic, B; Ivasovic, Z; Jagic, V; Staresinic, M; Boban-Blagaic, A

    2001-01-01

    Hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in the stomach in the rat induced by an intragastrical application of 1 ml of 50 or 75% ethanol were aggravated by preceding lung damage provoked by an intratracheal instillation of pyrogen-free saline or HCl (pH 1.75) or 50-h exposure to 100% oxygen. Due to the particular preceding aggravating circumstances, these lesions were taken to be of a special kind, rather than ordinary. So far, it is not known whether and how antiulcer agents may influence these lesions. Rats received an intratracheal (i.t.) HCl instillation [1.5 ml/kg HCl (pH 1.75)] (lung-lesion), and an intragastric instillation of 96% ethanol (gastric lesion; 1 ml/rat, 24 h after i.t. HCl instillation), and were sacrificed 1 h after ethanol. Basically, in lung injured rats, the subsequent ethanol-gastric lesion was markedly aggravated. This aggravation, however, in turn, did not affect the severity of the lung lesions in the further period, at least for a 1-h observation. Taking intratracheal HCl-instillation as time 0, a gastric pentadecapeptide, GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W.1419, coded BPC 157 (PL-10, PLD-116; 10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg), ranitidine (10 mg), atropine (10 mg), omeprazole (10 mg), were given [/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)] (1) once, only prophylactically [as a pre-treatment (at -1 h), or as a co-treatment (at 0)], or only therapeutically (at +18 h or +24 h); (2) repeatedly, combining prophylactic/therapeutic regimens [(-1 h)+(+24 h) or (0)+(+24 h)], or therapeutic/therapeutic regimens [(+18 h)+(+24 h)]. In general, the antiulcer agents did protect against ethanol gastric lesions regardless of the presence of the severe lung injury, in all of the used regimens. Of note, combining their prophylactic and salutary regimens (at -1 h/+24 h, or at 0/+24 h) may increase the antiulcer potential, and the effect that had been not seen already with single application, became prominent after repeated treatment. PMID:11595452

  6. Burn assault with paint thinner ignition: an unexpected burn injury caused by street children addicted to paint thinner.

    PubMed

    Kulahci, Yalcin; Sever, Celalettin; Noyan, Nurettin; Uygur, Fatih; Ates, Alpay; Evinc, Rahmi; Oksuz, Sinan; Sahin, Cihan; Yuksel, Fuat

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of assault by burning among all burn patients varies from country to country. Assault by burning, although uncommon, is a serious form of trauma and a significant source of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify the epidemiologic features, current etiological factors, and the mortality of nine patients admitted to our burn unit between January 1999 and January 2009 after unexpected burn assault by paint thinner ignition caused by street children addicted to paint thinner. The circumstances of this injury and preventive measures are discussed. PMID:21422944

  7. Surviving the Storm: The Role of Social Support and Religious Coping in Sexual Assault Recovery of African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E.; Tsong, Yuying; Gobin, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    African American women are at high risk for sexual assault. In addition, many African American women endorse use of social support and religiosity to cope with life stressors. The current study investigates the relationship between these two coping strategies and post-trauma symptoms (depression and PTSD) in a sample of 413 African American female sexual assault survivors using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Findings indicated that African American assault survivors who have greater social support were less likely to endorse symptoms of depression and PTSD. Conversely, increased use of religious coping was related to greater endorsement of depression and PTSD symptoms. Counseling and research implications are explored. PMID:22410773

  8. Isoflurane anesthesia aggravates cognitive impairment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Zhu, Bin; Ding, Jie; Wang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence demonstrate that isoflurane anesthesia would be a great risk factor for the patients undergoing surgeries to suffer from postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Additionally, diabetes is also an important pathogenic factor for the emergence of cognitive dysfunction. If patient is suffering from diabetes, the incidence of cognitive dysfunction greatly increased. We therefore aimed to investigate the effects of isoflurane anesthesia on cognitive dysfunction in a diabetic rat model induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Wistar rats received 2 h of 2% isoflurane or oxygen exposure 1 month after a single intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg of STZ or the vehicle. The results showed that isoflurane anesthesia significantly aggravates STZ-induced an increase of the latency to the platform and a decrease of the proportion of time spent in the target quadrant of rats in Morris water maze test. In addition to the expression of amyloid-β (Aβ), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), isoflurane anesthesia significantly increased as compared with a single injection of STZ. However, isoflurane anesthesia had no effect on the blood glucose and leptin. In conclusion, our results suggested that isoflurane anesthesia aggravating cognitive impairment induced by STZ is probably related to the activation of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in rat hippocampus. PMID:24955160

  9. Chronic hypertension aggravates heat stress-induced brain damage: possible neuroprotection by cerebrolysin.

    PubMed

    Muresanu, Dafin Fior; Zimmermann-Meinzingen, Sibilla; Sharma, Hari Shanker

    2010-01-01

    Whole body hyperthermia (WBH) aggravates brain edema formation and cell damage in chronic hypertensive rats compared with normotensive animals. In this investigation, we examined the influence of cerebrolysin on WBH-induced edema formation and brain pathology in hypertensive and normotensive rats. Rats subjected to 4 h WBH at 38 degrees C in a biological oxygen demand (BOD) incubator showed breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF), edema formation and cell injuries in several parts of the brain. These effects were further aggravated in chronic hypertensive rats (two-kidney one clip model (2K1C), for 4 weeks) subjected to WBH. Pretreatment with cerebrolysin (5 mL/kg, 24 h and 30 min before heat stress) markedly attenuated the BBB dysfunction and brain pathology in normal animals. However, in hypertensive animals, a high dose of cerebrolysin (10 mL/kg, 24 h and 30 min before heat stress) was needed to attenuate WBH-induced BBB dysfunction and brain pathology. These observations indicate that heat stress could affect differently in normal and hypertensive conditions. Furthermore, our results suggest that patients suffering from various chronic cardiovascular diseases may respond differently to hyperthermia and to neuroprotective drugs, e.g., cerebrolysin not reported earlier.

  10. An Atherogenic Paigen-Diet Aggravates Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic OLETF Rats.

    PubMed

    Nozako, Masanori; Koyama, Takashi; Nagano, Chifumi; Sato, Makoto; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Mitani, Kiminobu; Yasufuku, Reiko; Kohashi, Masayuki; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy develops in association with hyperglycemia, is aggravated by atherogenic factors such as dyslipidemia, and is sometimes initiated before obvious hyperglycemia is seen. However, the precise mechanisms of progression are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the influence of an atherogenic Paigen diet (PD) on the progression of nephropathy in spontaneous type 2 diabetic OLETF rats. Feeding PD to male OLETF rats for 12 weeks caused an extensive increase in excretion of urinary albumin and markers of tubular injury such as KIM-1 and L-FABP, accompanied by mesangial expansion and tubular atrophy. PD significantly increased plasma total cholesterol concentration, which correlates well with increases in urine albumin excretion and mesangial expansion. Conversely, PD did not change plasma glucose and free fatty acid concentrations. PD enhanced renal levels of mRNA for inflammatory molecules such as KIM-1, MCP-1, TLR4 and TNF-α and promoted macrophage infiltration and lipid accumulation in the tubulointerstitium and glomeruli in OLETF rats. Intriguingly, PD had little effect on urine albumin excretion and renal morphology in normal control LETO rats. This model may be useful in studying the complex mechanisms that aggravate diabetic nephropathy in an atherogenic environment. PMID:26606054

  11. Inhibition of caspase-9 aggravates acute liver injury through suppression of cytoprotective autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Lin, Bin; Pan, Jing Fei; Liong, Emily C.; Xu, Ai Min; Youdim, Moussa; Fung, Man Lung; So, Kwok Fai; Tipoe, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver disease is characterized by inflammation, oxidative stress and necrosis, which can greatly influence the long term clinical outcome and lead to liver failure or cancer. Here, we initially demonstrated the beneficial role of caspase-9-dependent autophagy in acute liver injury. Treatment with caspase-9 inhibitor z-LEHD-FMK in HepG2 cells, AML12 cells and C57BL/b6N mice exacerbated CCl4-induced acute hepatocellular damage, and also down-regulated autophagy markers expression levels, indicating that caspase-9 inhibition may aggravate acute liver damage by suppressing cytoprotective autophagy. CCl4 was used as an acute liver injury inducer which caused oxidative stress and apoptosis through up-regulation of HIF-1α, as well as triggered hepatic inflammation and necroptosis via TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Caspase-9 Thr125 site was firstly phosphorylated by ERK1/2 which subsequently activated the cytoprotective autophagy process to attenuate acute CCl4 injury. Caspase-9 inhibition further aggravated hepatic necroptosis through NF-κB expression, leading to increased pro-inflammatory mediators levels, suggesting a protective role of caspase-9-dependent autophagy in the inflammatory process as well as its possibility being a new therapeutic target for the treatment of acute liver injury. PMID:27580936

  12. Inhibition of caspase-9 aggravates acute liver injury through suppression of cytoprotective autophagy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Lin, Bin; Pan, Jing Fei; Liong, Emily C; Xu, Ai Min; Youdim, Moussa; Fung, Man Lung; So, Kwok Fai; Tipoe, George L

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver disease is characterized by inflammation, oxidative stress and necrosis, which can greatly influence the long term clinical outcome and lead to liver failure or cancer. Here, we initially demonstrated the beneficial role of caspase-9-dependent autophagy in acute liver injury. Treatment with caspase-9 inhibitor z-LEHD-FMK in HepG2 cells, AML12 cells and C57BL/b6N mice exacerbated CCl4-induced acute hepatocellular damage, and also down-regulated autophagy markers expression levels, indicating that caspase-9 inhibition may aggravate acute liver damage by suppressing cytoprotective autophagy. CCl4 was used as an acute liver injury inducer which caused oxidative stress and apoptosis through up-regulation of HIF-1α, as well as triggered hepatic inflammation and necroptosis via TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Caspase-9 Thr125 site was firstly phosphorylated by ERK1/2 which subsequently activated the cytoprotective autophagy process to attenuate acute CCl4 injury. Caspase-9 inhibition further aggravated hepatic necroptosis through NF-κB expression, leading to increased pro-inflammatory mediators levels, suggesting a protective role of caspase-9-dependent autophagy in the inflammatory process as well as its possibility being a new therapeutic target for the treatment of acute liver injury. PMID:27580936

  13. Orally delivered β-glucans aggravate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Heinsbroek, Sigrid E M; Williams, David L; Welting, Olaf; Meijer, Sybren L; Gordon, Siamon; de Jonge, Wouter J

    2015-12-01

    β-Glucans have beneficial health effects due to their immune modulatory properties. Oral administration of β-glucans affects tumour growth, microbial infection, sepsis, and wound healing. We hypothesized that pre-treatment with orally delivered soluble and particulate β-glucans could ameliorate the development of aggravate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced intestinal inflammation. To study this, mice were orally pre-treated with β-glucans for 14 days. We tested curdlan (a particulate β-(1,3)-glucan), glucan phosphate (a soluble β-(1,3)-glucan), and zymosan (a particle made from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which contains around 55% β-glucans). Weight loss, colon weight, and feces score did not differ between β-glucan and vehicle treated groups. However, histology scores indicated that β-glucan-treated mice had increased inflammation at a microscopic level suggesting that β-glucan treatment worsened intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, curdlan and zymosan treatment led to increased colonic levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, compared to vehicle. Glucan phosphate treatment did not significantly affect cytokine and chemokine levels. These data suggest that particulate and soluble β-glucans differentially affect the intestinal immune responses. However, no significant differences in other clinical colitis scores between soluble and particulate β-glucans were found in this study. In summary, β-glucans aggravate the course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal inflammation at the level of the mucosa.

  14. Hyperglycemia Aggravates Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion Injury by Inducing Chronic Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Dongdong; Yao, Weifeng; Zhu, Qianqian; Liu, Yue; Chen, Xi; Huang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To investigate whether hyperglycemia will aggravate hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (HIRI) and the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to partial hepatic ischemia reperfusion. Liver histology, transferase, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress were assessed accordingly. Similarly, BRL-3A hepatocytes were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) after high (25 mM) or low (5.5 mM) glucose culture. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB) were determined. Results. Compared with control, diabetic rats presented more severe hepatic injury and increased hepatic inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. HIRI in diabetic rats could be ameliorated by pretreatment of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or apocynin. Excessive ROS generation and consequent Nrf2 and NF-κB translocation were determined after high glucose exposure. NF-κB translocation and its downstream cytokines were further increased in high glucose cultured group after H/R. While proper regulation of Nrf2 to its downstream antioxidases was observed in low glucose cultured group, no further induction of Nrf2 pathway by H/R after high glucose culture was identified. Conclusion. Hyperglycemia aggravates HIRI, which might be attributed to chronic oxidative stress and inflammation and potential malfunction of antioxidative system. PMID:27656261

  15. Hyperglycemia Aggravates Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion Injury by Inducing Chronic Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Dongdong; Yao, Weifeng; Zhu, Qianqian; Liu, Yue; Chen, Xi; Huang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To investigate whether hyperglycemia will aggravate hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (HIRI) and the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to partial hepatic ischemia reperfusion. Liver histology, transferase, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress were assessed accordingly. Similarly, BRL-3A hepatocytes were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) after high (25 mM) or low (5.5 mM) glucose culture. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB) were determined. Results. Compared with control, diabetic rats presented more severe hepatic injury and increased hepatic inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. HIRI in diabetic rats could be ameliorated by pretreatment of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or apocynin. Excessive ROS generation and consequent Nrf2 and NF-κB translocation were determined after high glucose exposure. NF-κB translocation and its downstream cytokines were further increased in high glucose cultured group after H/R. While proper regulation of Nrf2 to its downstream antioxidases was observed in low glucose cultured group, no further induction of Nrf2 pathway by H/R after high glucose culture was identified. Conclusion. Hyperglycemia aggravates HIRI, which might be attributed to chronic oxidative stress and inflammation and potential malfunction of antioxidative system.

  16. FSH aggravates bone loss in ovariectomised rats with experimental periapical periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hua; Guan, Xiaoyue; Bian, Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    Periapical bone loss is one of the prominent pathological and clinical features of periapical periodontitis. Previous studies have demonstrated that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) could directly affect skeletal remodelling by stimulating the formation and the function of osteoclasts in vitro and in vivo. However, the effect of FSH on periapical bone loss remained to be fully elucidated. In the current study, a rat model was established in order to verify the effect of FSH in experimental periapical lesions. It was identified that FSH aggravated the bone loss of periapical lesions. In addition, RANKL-, TRAP-, TNF-α- and IL-1β-positive cells were increased significantly in FSH-treated groups, which indicated that the function of FSH in bone loss may be mediated through the increasing activity of osteoclasts and the increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines. The results of the current study suggested that FSH, independent of oestrogen, may aggravate periapical bone loss by FSH receptors, which may serve an important role in the immune and inflammatory response of the host to root canal and periradicular infection during menopause. PMID:27510616

  17. An Atherogenic Paigen-Diet Aggravates Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic OLETF Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nozako, Masanori; Koyama, Takashi; Nagano, Chifumi; Sato, Makoto; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Mitani, Kiminobu; Yasufuku, Reiko; Kohashi, Masayuki; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy develops in association with hyperglycemia, is aggravated by atherogenic factors such as dyslipidemia, and is sometimes initiated before obvious hyperglycemia is seen. However, the precise mechanisms of progression are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the influence of an atherogenic Paigen diet (PD) on the progression of nephropathy in spontaneous type 2 diabetic OLETF rats. Feeding PD to male OLETF rats for 12 weeks caused an extensive increase in excretion of urinary albumin and markers of tubular injury such as KIM-1 and L-FABP, accompanied by mesangial expansion and tubular atrophy. PD significantly increased plasma total cholesterol concentration, which correlates well with increases in urine albumin excretion and mesangial expansion. Conversely, PD did not change plasma glucose and free fatty acid concentrations. PD enhanced renal levels of mRNA for inflammatory molecules such as KIM-1, MCP-1, TLR4 and TNF-α and promoted macrophage infiltration and lipid accumulation in the tubulointerstitium and glomeruli in OLETF rats. Intriguingly, PD had little effect on urine albumin excretion and renal morphology in normal control LETO rats. This model may be useful in studying the complex mechanisms that aggravate diabetic nephropathy in an atherogenic environment. PMID:26606054

  18. From the margins to the center: ethnic minority women and the mental health effects of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Chung, Heewoon; Tillman, Shaquita; Belcourt, Annie

    2009-10-01

    The trauma of sexual assault is heightened for many women by the interlocking experience of societal traumas such as racism, sexism, and poverty. The mental health effects of sexual assault are mediated by race and ethnicity. The investigators explore the experiences of African American, Asian American, Latina, and Native American female survivors of sexual assault. The sociohistorical context of intergenerational trauma in the lives of ethnic minorities is a part of the context for the contemporary experience of sexualized violence. Racial and ethnic dynamics related to sexual assault prevalence, mental health effects, and disclosure are examined. Literature related to cultural beliefs, community attitudes, and perceived social support in relation to sexualized violence are also reviewed. Finally, practice, research, and policy implications are discussed.

  19. The normalization of sibling violence: does gender and personal experience of violence influence perceptions of physical assault against siblings?

    PubMed

    Khan, Roxanne; Rogers, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Despite its pervasive and detrimental nature, sibling violence (SV) remains marginalized as a harmless and inconsequential form of familial aggression. The present study investigates the extent to which perceptions of SV differ from those of other types of interpersonal violence. A total of 605 respondents (197 males, 408 females) read one of four hypothetical physical assault scenarios that varied according to perpetrator-victim relationship type (i.e., sibling vs. dating partner vs. peer vs. stranger) before completing a series of 24 attribution items. Respondents also reported on their own experiences of interpersonal violence during childhood. Exploratory factor analysis reduced 23 attribution items to three internally reliable factors reflecting perceived assault severity, victim culpability, and victim resistance ratings. A 4 × 2 MANCOVA-controlling for respondent age-revealed several significant effects. Overall, males deemed the assault less severe and the victim more culpable than did females. In addition, the sibling assault was deemed less severe compared to assault on either a dating partner or a stranger, with the victim of SV rated just as culpable as the victim of dating, peer, or stranger-perpetrated violence. Finally, respondents with more (frequent) experiences of childhood SV victimization perceived the hypothetical SV assault as being less severe, and victim more culpable, than respondents with no SV victimization. Results are discussed in the context of SV normalization. Methodological limitations and applications for current findings are also outlined.

  20. The Influence of Parental Emotional Neglect on Assault Victims Seeking Treatment for Depressed Mood and Alcohol Misuse: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Kylie A.; Baker, Amanda L.; McElduff, Patrick; Kavanagh, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between reported parental emotional neglect when a child, assault type experienced, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, and alcohol consumption in treatment seekers for comorbid depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Participants (n = 220) with concurrent depression and alcohol misuse were recruited from the DAISI (Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single-focussed Interventions) project. Assault type and PTSS were retrospectively assessed by the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. The Measure of Parenting Style is a self-report measure that retrospectively assessed emotional neglect experienced as a child. An exploratory factor analysis using the tetrachoric correlation matrix (applying principal factor extraction with a varimax rotation) identified the two assault factors of sexual assault (SA) and physical assault (PA). A path analysis revealed that Maternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PTSS and depression. Paternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PA on PTSS and alcohol dependence symptoms. There appears to be differential effects of assault type and Maternal/Paternal emotional neglect on depression and alcohol misuse, suggesting that parenting roles serve distinct protective functions. PMID:27735838

  1. Assaults on Inmates and Staff by Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Homicide: An Examination of Competing Hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Jonathan R; Vigen, Mark P; Woods, S O; Williams, Bradley D

    2015-11-01

    The current study presents the results of an analysis of serious and assaultive prison rule violating behavior among male perpetrators of intimate partner homicide (IPH). Data on prison rule violations were collected from a sample of 189 inmates convicted of IPH in a large, southern prison system. The study focused on the degree of continuity in violent behavior among IPH offenders from the community to the prison setting. The current study tested hypotheses derived from both the feminist perspective (FP) and the general violence perspective (GVP). As a group, IPH offenders were better behaved in prison than other incarcerated homicide offenders, thereby offering some support for the FP. However, the lower level of assaultive behavior among the group was not universal. Characteristics associated with continued violent offending in the prison environment were the same as those found in previous studies of incarcerated homicide offenders, thereby lending greater support to the GVP.

  2. Cold or caring? Adolescent sexual assault victims' perceptions of their interactions with the police.

    PubMed

    Greeson, Megan R; Campbell, Rebecca; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina

    2014-01-01

    One-third of sexual assault cases that are reported to the police involve adolescent victims (Snyder, 2000), yet little is known about adolescent victims' interactions with law enforcement. Through semistructured interviews with 20 adolescent sexual assault victims, this study sought to understand--from the perspectives of the adolescents--how the police interacted with them on an interpersonal level and the impact this had on the adolescents' emotional well-being and engagement in the criminal justice system. Findings revealed that when the police engaged in behaviors that the victims perceived as caring, compassionate, and personable (vs. behaviors that were perceived as uncaring, insensitive, and intimidating), there was a positive impact on victims' emotional well-being and criminal justice system engagement. Implications for improving adolescents' help-seeking experiences are discussed. PMID:25199391

  3. Medical imaging and consent: when is an X-ray assault?

    PubMed

    Lane, Andrea N

    2016-06-01

    New Zealand patients have rights in relation to their healthcare including the right to consent to medical treatment. Medical imaging is the third largest category of hospital procedure in New Zealand and it constitutes a circumstance where examination without consent could be assault. New Zealand assault law is unique, and medical radiation technologists (MRTs) must be educated about their responsibilities. A literature review was conducted focusing on the medicolegal aspects of consent as it relates to medical imaging. This was compared to the practical realities of practicing radiography as experienced by the author. Finally, the guidance given by the professional bodies for MRTs in New Zealand was examined to determine whether it adequately informs MRTs of the responsibilities and provides them with a framework to guide their practice. Medical imaging is a diverse area presenting a range of challenging circumstances for consent. Currently, the consent framework and guidance provided by professional bodies is insufficient and in need of updating.

  4. Validation of the Sexual Assault Symptom Scale II (SASS II) using a panel research design.

    PubMed

    Ruch, Libby O; Wang, Chang-Hwai

    2006-11-01

    To examine the utility of a self-report scale of sexual assault trauma, 223 female victims were interviewed with the 43-item Sexual Assault Symptom Scale II (SASS II) at 1, 3, 7, 11, and 15 months postassault. Factor analyses using principal-components extraction with an oblimin rotation yielded 7 common factors with 31 items. The internal consistency was high for 4 factors and moderate for 2 factors. The multitrait-multimethod matrix, correlating the factor subscale scores of self-reported trauma and clinical assessment ratings, demonstrated both convergent and discriminant validity, indicating that the SASS II has construct validity. Correlations between the SASS II subscales and the intrusion subscale of the Impact of Events Scale also indicated the convergent and discriminant validity of the SASS II. Significant positive correlations between current and prior trauma levels further evidence the validity of the SASS.

  5. Does the punishment fit the crime? Judicial sentencing in adolescent and adult sexual assault cases.

    PubMed

    Du Mont, Janice; Forte, Tania; Badgley, Robin F

    2007-12-01

    This is the first Canadian study to focus directly on whether factors commonly identified as reflecting the seriousness of a sexual assault are noted by judges, and in turn, related to the severity of the sentences they impose. We examined adolescent and adult female sexual assault cases heard in Ontario between 1993 and 2001. Two hundred twenty-one cases were identified using Quicklaw, Canada's most comprehensive on-line legal information system, with data extracted onto a coding instrument. In 201 (91%) of these cases, a perpetrator had been sentenced to prison or jail. Judges reported that in a substantial proportion of these women they had been penetrated (67%), forced (49%), coerced (50%), physically injured (33%), and psychologically harmed (65%). However, only two of the six offence seriousness factors examined were associated with a prison versus jail sentence: the occurrence of vaginal and/or anal penetration and the threat or use of a weapon(s).

  6. Does the punishment fit the crime? Judicial sentencing in adolescent and adult sexual assault cases.

    PubMed

    Du Mont, Janice; Forte, Tania; Badgley, Robin F

    2008-06-01

    This is the first Canadian study to focus directly on whether factors commonly identified as reflecting the seriousness of a sexual assault are noted by judges, and in turn, related to the severity of the sentences they impose. We examined adolescent and adult female sexual assault cases heard in Ontario between 1993 and 2001. Two hundred twenty-one cases were identified using Quicklaw, Canada's most comprehensive on-line legal information system, with data extracted onto a coding instrument. In 201 (91%) of these cases, a perpetrator had been sentenced to prison or jail. Judges reported that in a substantial proportion of these women they had been penetrated (67%), forced (49%), coerced (50%), physically injured (33%), and psychologically harmed (65%). However, only two of the six offence seriousness factors examined were associated with a prison versus jail sentence: the occurrence of vaginal and/or anal penetration and the threat or use of a weapon(s).

  7. Mock juror sensitivity to forensic evidence in drug facilitated sexual assaults.

    PubMed

    Schuller, Regina A; Ryan, Alison; Krauss, Daniel; Jenkins, Gwen

    2013-01-01

    Mock jurors' reactions to variations in the quality of toxicological evidence regarding the presence of drugs in a sexual assault trial were examined. In Study 1, participants received a trial summary in which a negative test result, a negative test result plus expert testimony, or no test result was presented. The time taken by the complainant to report the alleged sexual assault was manipulated. The negative test result influenced participants' judgments, but this effect was minimized by the presence of expert testimony. The complainant's delay in reporting had little impact on judgments. In Study 2, complainant time to report was again manipulated along with the outcome of the test result (negative finding and no result). Results revealed that men were less conviction prone when the negative test result was obtained early as opposed to late. In contrast, when the test result was unavailable, men were more conviction prone when the complainant reported late as oppose to early.

  8. DNA identification of biological traces and interpretation in a sexual assault case.

    PubMed

    Apostolov, Aleksandar; Hristov, Stanislav; Angelova, Ekaterina

    2009-03-01

    The approaches in research and practical work in the forensic laboratories of DNA profiling in a sexual assault case can be assessed by the individual valuation of the quality and quantity of available DNA and the choice of combination of the STRs loci that have been examined. The applied procedures are classic or modificated extraction, amplification, and electrophoretical procedures, which have been selected for every individual case. We set up to present a criminal case of sexual assault over a woman, where the suspect used a condom which--after being examined--gave a negative sperm cytologic result. Our aim is to put some debatable issues and to propose an interpretation of the obtained results based on an association of the DNA typing of the victim and the suspect, separated only by the condom. PMID:19237857

  9. The use of alternate light sources in the clinical evaluation of child abuse and sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Bonnie; Jenny, Carole

    2014-03-01

    Alternate light sources are devices that produce visible and invisible light at specific wavelengths to allow for enhanced visualization of fluorescent substances. These devices (which include Wood's lamp and blue light) are often used in forensics for evidence collection and can be quite useful to physicians in the medical evaluation of suspected physical or sexual assault. An understanding of the proper applications, as well as the limitations, of each alternate light source is imperative to correctly performing and interpreting medical evaluations in the emergency department. This review discusses the evidence from prospective trials in children and adults on the ability of specific alternate light sources to identify evidence of physical or sexual assault and also highlights some promising new technological adjuncts to alternate light sources that may allow for accurate dating of bruising. PMID:24589813

  10. The use of alternate light sources in the clinical evaluation of child abuse and sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Bonnie; Jenny, Carole

    2014-03-01

    Alternate light sources are devices that produce visible and invisible light at specific wavelengths to allow for enhanced visualization of fluorescent substances. These devices (which include Wood's lamp and blue light) are often used in forensics for evidence collection and can be quite useful to physicians in the medical evaluation of suspected physical or sexual assault. An understanding of the proper applications, as well as the limitations, of each alternate light source is imperative to correctly performing and interpreting medical evaluations in the emergency department. This review discusses the evidence from prospective trials in children and adults on the ability of specific alternate light sources to identify evidence of physical or sexual assault and also highlights some promising new technological adjuncts to alternate light sources that may allow for accurate dating of bruising.

  11. Biological Evidence Management for DNA Analysis in Cases of Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Silva, Benedita; Corte-Real, Francisco; Nuno Vieira, Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Biological evidence with forensic interest may be found in several cases of assault, being particularly relevant if sexually related. Sexual assault cases are characterized by low rates of disclosure, reporting, prosecution, and conviction. Biological evidence is sometimes the only way to prove the occurrence of sexual contact and to identify the perpetrator. The major focus of this review is to propose practical approaches and guidelines to help health, forensic, and law enforcement professionals to deal with biological evidence for DNA analysis. Attention should be devoted to avoiding contamination, degradation, and loss of biological evidence, as well as respecting specific measures to properly handle evidence (i.e., selection, collection, packing, sealing, labeling, storage, preservation, transport, and guarantee of the chain custody). Biological evidence must be carefully managed since the relevance of any finding in Forensic Genetics is determined, in the first instance, by the integrity and quantity of the samples submitted for analysis. PMID:26587562

  12. Biological Evidence Management for DNA Analysis in Cases of Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Silva, Benedita; Corte-Real, Francisco; Nuno Vieira, Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Biological evidence with forensic interest may be found in several cases of assault, being particularly relevant if sexually related. Sexual assault cases are characterized by low rates of disclosure, reporting, prosecution, and conviction. Biological evidence is sometimes the only way to prove the occurrence of sexual contact and to identify the perpetrator. The major focus of this review is to propose practical approaches and guidelines to help health, forensic, and law enforcement professionals to deal with biological evidence for DNA analysis. Attention should be devoted to avoiding contamination, degradation, and loss of biological evidence, as well as respecting specific measures to properly handle evidence (i.e., selection, collection, packing, sealing, labeling, storage, preservation, transport, and guarantee of the chain custody). Biological evidence must be carefully managed since the relevance of any finding in Forensic Genetics is determined, in the first instance, by the integrity and quantity of the samples submitted for analysis.

  13. Treatment of an assaultive, sensory-impaired adolescent through a multicomponent behavioral program.

    PubMed

    Luiselli, J K

    1984-03-01

    This project examined the effects of a multicomponent behavioral treatment program on assaultive behavior in a deaf, visually-impaired adolescent boy. Two types of assaultiveness were monitored: aggression towards adults and destruction of the physical environment. Intervention consisted of a token economy system, a response cost procedure, a "relaxation" technique, and skill training sessions. Through use of a multiple baseline across behaviors design, it was demonstrated that differentially reinforcing the absence of target behaviors on a weekly basis was the crucial ingredient in the treatment package. During a maintenance programming phase, the boy was gradually weaned off the token system. At 1- and 2-year follow-ups, no aggressive or destructive acts had occurred and the boy was showing improved communication and interpersonal skills.

  14. The Use of Over-The-Counter Medications to Facilitate Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, A J; Stillwell, M E

    2010-01-01

    Over-the-counter drugs are medications that are available without the requirement of a prescription. They are considered relatively safe and well-tolerated when taken in accordance with the dosing instructions on the package label. However, when taken alone or in combination with other drugs, they possess pharmacological properties that have the potential to facilitate sexual assault. This chapter reviews the chemistry and pharmacology of these drugs. Additionally, a brief overview of analytical methodology is presented. PMID:26242457

  15. Firearm Possession Among Adolescents Presenting to an Urban Emergency Department for Assault

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Maureen A.; Newton, Manya F.; Clery, Michael; Whiteside, Lauren K.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Firearm violence is a leading cause of death among youth. The objectives of this study were (1) determine firearm possession rates and associated correlates among youth seeking care for assault in an emergency department (ED); (2) understand differences in risk factors for youth with firearm possession; and (3) identify firearm possession characteristics in this population: type, reason for possession, and source of firearms. METHODS: Youth (14 to 24 years old) presenting to a Level 1 ED with assault were administered a computerized screening survey. Validated instruments were administered, measuring demographics, firearm rates and characteristics, attitudes toward aggression, substance use, and previous violence history. RESULTS: Among 689 assault-injured youth, 23% reported firearm possession in the past 6 months. Only 17% of those reporting firearm possession obtained the gun from a legal source; 22% reported ownership of highly lethal automatic/semiautomatic weapons and 37.1% reported having a firearm for protection. Logistic regression analysis identified significant correlates of firearm possession, including male gender, higher socioeconomic status, illicit drug use, recent serious fight, and retaliatory attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: ED assault-injured youth had high rates of firearm possession (23.1%), most of which were not obtained from legal sources. Youth with firearm possession were more likely to have been in a recent serious fight, and to endorse aggressive attitudes that increase their risk for retaliatory violence. Future prevention efforts should focus on minimizing illegal firearm access among high-risk youth, nonviolent alternatives to retaliatory violence, and substance use prevention. PMID:23837181

  16. Firearm Violence Among High-Risk Emergency Department Youth After an Assault Injury

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Maureen A.; Roehler, Douglas R.; Goldstick, Jason; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Blow, Frederic C.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk for firearm violence among high-risk youth after treatment for an assault is unknown. METHODS: In this 2-year prospective cohort study, data were analyzed from a consecutive sample of 14- to 24-year-olds with drug use in the past 6 months seeking assault-injury care (AIG) at an urban level 1 emergency department (ED) compared with a proportionally sampled comparison group (CG) of drug-using nonassaulted youth. Validated measures were administered at baseline and follow-up (6, 12, 18, 24 months). RESULTS: A total of 349 AIG and 250 CG youth were followed for 24 months. During the follow-up period, 59% of the AIG reported firearm violence, a 40% higher risk than was observed among the CG (59.0% vs. 42.5%; relative risk [RR] = 1.39). Among those reporting firearm violence, 31.7% reported aggression, and 96.4% reported victimization, including 19 firearm injuries requiring medical care and 2 homicides. The majority with firearm violence (63.5%) reported at least 1 event within the first 6 months. Poisson regression identified baseline predictors of firearm violence, including male gender (RR = 1.51), African American race (RR = 1.26), assault-injury (RR = 1.35), firearm possession (RR = 1.23), attitudes favoring retaliation (RR = 1.03), posttraumatic stress disorder (RR = 1.39), and a drug use disorder (RR = 1.22). CONCLUSIONS: High-risk youth presenting to urban EDs for assault have elevated rates of subsequent firearm violence. Interventions at an index visit addressing substance use, mental health needs, retaliatory attitudes, and firearm possession may help decrease firearm violence among urban youth. PMID:25847808

  17. “Campus Craft”: A Game for Sexual Assault Prevention in Universities

    PubMed Central

    Ekbia, Hamid R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Sexual assault is prevalent among college students. In response, universities have implemented prevention education initiatives. These interventions, however, often ignore the broader sociocultural context in which sexual violence occurs. This calls for innovative approaches in prevention education, which address the broader context. Computer games provide such an opportunity by providing simulated real-life scenarios, nonlinear narratives, and an interactive medium. We report the development and pilot testing of “Campus Craft,” a game prototype that focuses, among other things, on sexual assault prevention. Materials and Methods: The prototype was developed through a participatory design process; students, educators, and subject matter experts helped design and develop scenarios, game mechanics, and learning objectives. The prototype was evaluated by college students (n=141) in a multi-method approach. The evaluation encompassed issues of usability, game mechanics, attitudes, and learning outcomes. Results: Findings indicated that participants rated various aspects of the game positively. Additionally, use of “Campus Craft” contributed to differences in student learning of prevention concepts between the pre- and post-test such that students scored higher on the post-test. Conclusions: Findings demonstrate that, on average, students learned several core concepts related to sexual consent and rape culture through gameplay. Results suggest that computer-based gaming may be a viable avenue for sexual assault prevention education. Findings demonstrate that this approach could be effective in increasing student knowledge and understanding of factors that contribute to sexual assault in college. Future research is needed to corroborate findings and better understand the feasibility of using this approach among larger samples of college students. PMID:26181803

  18. Recovery from Trauma: A Look into the Process of Healing from Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Julia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. First, it is a narrative of the healing process and long-term effects of a sexual assault. But tied in with that is another aspect which I feel would be robbing my readers of a full understanding of my experience were I to exclude it. This involves these effects on an interpersonal level: an account of how…

  19. Investigating the medical forensic examination from the perspectives of sexually assaulted women.

    PubMed

    Du Mont, Janice; White, Deborah; McGregor, Margaret J

    2009-02-01

    Across many jurisdictions, a key institutional response to sexual assault is centred on the collection of medico-legal evidence through a medical forensic examination (MFE). Despite the increased routinization of this practice, such evidence often is not related to positive criminal justice outcomes. As there has been little systematic investigation of the perspectives of victims regarding the MFE, we conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with 19 women aged 17-46 years who had been sexually assaulted and had undergone an MFE in the previous six months at one of four specialized hospital-based sexual assault centres in Ontario, Canada. Extracts from the transcribed interviews were coded into two broad themes, 'Expectations' and 'Experiences', from which a series of lower order constructs were derived. We found that most women went to a centre to have their physical and emotional needs addressed rather than medico-legal evidence collected and were overwhelmingly satisfied with their interactions with specially trained nurse examiners. However, some women were confused about the purpose of the MFE, believing that their access to treatment hinged upon undergoing this process. Moreover, though optional, several indicated that they had been instructed to have an MFE by the police and/or nurse examiner. Most women who chose to have evidence collected did so with the hope that it would hold the assailant accountable and generate social recognition of the harm done to them. While many stated that they were distressed during the MFE, some reported feeling simultaneously empowered by the fact that the experience fostered a "sense of doing something". These findings point to the value of collecting medico-legal evidence in settings staffed with supportive practitioners who also attend to women's health related concerns. Implications with respect to issues of informed consent, revictimization, and empowerment, as well as the relative weight given to the MFE in the

  20. The Deficiency of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Aggravates the CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ogiso, Hideyuki; Ito, Hiroyasu; Ando, Tatsuya; Arioka, Yuko; Kanbe, Ayumu; Ando, Kazuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Saito, Kuniaki; Hara, Akira; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Shimizu, Masahito; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the development of CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis. The liver fibrosis induced by repetitive administration with CCl4 was aggravated in IDO-KO mice compared to WT mice. In IDO-KO mice treated with CCl4, the number of several inflammatory cells and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines increased in the liver. In the results, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and fibrogenic factors on HSCs increased after repetitive CCl4 administration in IDO-KO mice compared to WT mice. Moreover, the treatment with l-tryptophan aggravated the CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in WT mice. Our findings demonstrated that the IDO deficiency enhanced the inflammation in the liver and aggravated liver fibrosis in repetitive CCl4-treated mice. PMID:27598994

  1. The Deficiency of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Aggravates the CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ogiso, Hideyuki; Ito, Hiroyasu; Ando, Tatsuya; Arioka, Yuko; Kanbe, Ayumu; Ando, Kazuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Saito, Kuniaki; Hara, Akira; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Shimizu, Masahito; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the development of CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis. The liver fibrosis induced by repetitive administration with CCl4 was aggravated in IDO-KO mice compared to WT mice. In IDO-KO mice treated with CCl4, the number of several inflammatory cells and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines increased in the liver. In the results, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and fibrogenic factors on HSCs increased after repetitive CCl4 administration in IDO-KO mice compared to WT mice. Moreover, the treatment with l-tryptophan aggravated the CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in WT mice. Our findings demonstrated that the IDO deficiency enhanced the inflammation in the liver and aggravated liver fibrosis in repetitive CCl4-treated mice. PMID:27598994

  2. Survey of academic field experiences (SAFE): trainees report harassment and assault.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Kathryn B H; Nelson, Robin G; Rutherford, Julienne N; Hinde, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666) to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites. PMID:25028932

  3. Ecstasy (MDMA), methamphetamine, and date rape (drug-facilitated sexual assault): a consideration of the issues.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Karl L R; Theron, Lynn

    2006-03-01

    The term "date rape drug" has traditionally been applied by the media to powerful sedatives, such as gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), which can render a person unconscious and hence unable to resist and/or recall an assault. However, some law enforcement agents and others have recently obtained convictions by arguing that the empathy-generating and sensual effects of MDMA, and an occasional increase in disinhibition and sexual desire linked with methamphetamine use, remove a person's ability to give a reasoned consent, turning the person into "a helpless slave" to their own sexual desires and those of the alleged perpetrator. The argument holds that the victim becomes part of the assault because they may appear to be cooperating and colluding with activity which they would not have consented to without taking these drugs. This interpretation of the term "date rape" has been fed by data that sometimes finds MDMA and amphetamines in samples taken from sexual assault victims, and hence these prosecutions sometimes rely on expert testimony from toxicologists, pathologists and police officers rather than psychologists and psychiatrists who are expert in the human effects of these drugs. Some of those in the latter group have dismissed claims that MDMA is an aphrodisiac or a date rape drug as myths propagated by the media. In this article, these arguments and their respective strengths and weaknesses will be examined to assist professionals and others who may become involved in these cases. PMID:16681170

  4. Survey of Academic Field Experiences (SAFE): Trainees Report Harassment and Assault

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, Kathryn B. H.; Nelson, Robin G.; Rutherford, Julienne N.; Hinde, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666) to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites. PMID:25028932

  5. Disclosing Sexual Assault Within Social Networks: A Mixed-Method Investigation.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Emily R; Pittenger, Samantha L; Allen, Nicole E

    2016-03-01

    Most survivors of sexual assault disclose their experiences within their social networks, and these disclosure decisions can have important implications for their entry into formal systems and well-being, but no research has directly examined these networks as a strategy to understand disclosure decisions. Using a mixed-method approach that combined survey data, social network analysis, and interview data, we investigate whom, among potential informal responders in the social networks of college students who have experienced sexual assault, survivors contact regarding their assault, and how survivors narrate the role of networks in their decisions about whom to contact. Quantitative results suggest that characteristics of survivors, their social networks, and members of these networks are associated with disclosure decisions. Using data from social network analysis, we identified that survivors tended to disclose to a smaller proportion of their network when many network members had relationships with each other or when the network had more subgroups. Our qualitative analysis helps to contextualize these findings.

  6. Masculine discrepancy stress, substance use, assault and injury in a survey of US men.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Dennis E; Berke, Danielle S; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-10-01

    To understand and ultimately prevent injury and behavioural health outcomes associated with masculinity, we assessed the influence of masculine discrepancy stress (stress that occurs when men perceive themselves as falling short of the traditional gender norms) on the propensity to engage in stereotypically masculine behaviours (eg, substance use, risk taking and violence) as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Six-hundred men from the USA were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) online data collection site to complete surveys assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy and consequent discrepancy stress, substance use/abuse, driving while intoxicated (DWI) and violent assaults. Negative binomial regression analyses indicated significant interactive effects wherein men high on gender role discrepancy and attendant discrepancy stress reported significantly more assaults with a weapon (B=1.01; SE=0.63; IRR=2.74; p=0.05) and assaults causing injury (B=1.01; SE=0.51; IRR=2.74; p<0.05). There was no association of discrepancy stress to substance abuse, but there was a protective effect of gender role discrepancy for DWI among men low on discrepancy stress (B=-1.19, SE=0.48; IRR=0.30; p=0.01). These findings suggest that gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress, in particular, represent important injury risk factors and that prevention of discrepancy stress may prevent acts of violence with the greatest consequences and costs to the victim, offender and society.

  7. Disclosing Sexual Assault Within Social Networks: A Mixed-Method Investigation.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Emily R; Pittenger, Samantha L; Allen, Nicole E

    2016-03-01

    Most survivors of sexual assault disclose their experiences within their social networks, and these disclosure decisions can have important implications for their entry into formal systems and well-being, but no research has directly examined these networks as a strategy to understand disclosure decisions. Using a mixed-method approach that combined survey data, social network analysis, and interview data, we investigate whom, among potential informal responders in the social networks of college students who have experienced sexual assault, survivors contact regarding their assault, and how survivors narrate the role of networks in their decisions about whom to contact. Quantitative results suggest that characteristics of survivors, their social networks, and members of these networks are associated with disclosure decisions. Using data from social network analysis, we identified that survivors tended to disclose to a smaller proportion of their network when many network members had relationships with each other or when the network had more subgroups. Our qualitative analysis helps to contextualize these findings. PMID:27217324

  8. Barriers to Healthcare Provision for Victims of Sexual Assault: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Shahali, Shadab; Mohammadi, Eesa; Lamyian, Minoor; Kashanian, Maryam; Eslami, Mohammad; Montazeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Victims of sexual assault need comprehensive healthcare services to deal with the consequences of their experience. However, there are still many girls/women that delay seeking healthcare after they experience sexual assault. Objectives: To explore the process of health care and clinical services for victims of sexual assault in the health care centers of Iran. Patients and Methods: This was a qualitative study based on the grounded theory method. The sample consisted of 23 health care providers and 10 victims of sexual violence. Unstructured interviews and observations were used for data collection. Constant comparative analysis was used according to the Strauss and Corbin method. Results: The analysis of all data led to the extraction of four categories: “performing routines”, “victims’ expectations”, “conflict between expectations of victims and existing healthcare services”, and the core category of “neglect of healthcare providers to address the needs and expectations of victims”. Providers were offering health care to the victims of sexual violence regardless of their needs. Due to this neglect, victims sought illegal solutions to overcome the consequences that led to social stigma. Conclusions: The findings indicate the lack of mutual understanding between health care providers and victims of sexual violence in relation to the expectations and priorities of victims. PMID:27231579

  9. Physical injury and workplace assault in UK mental health trusts: An analysis of formal reports.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Lavelle, Mary; Brennan, Geoffrey; Stewart, Duncan; James, Karen; Richardson, Michelle; Williams, Hilary; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Workplace violence is a significant problem for health service personnel, with National Health Service (NHS) workers subject to 68 683 physical assaults between 2013 and 2014. Almost 70% of assaults occur in the mental health sector, and although serious, non-fatal injury is rare, the individual and economic impact can be substantial. In the present study, we analysed mandatory incident reports from a national database to examine whether there were identifiable precursors to incidents leading to staff injury, and whether staff characteristics were associated with injury. In line with previous descriptions, we found injury occurred either as a direct result of patient assault or during physical interventions employed by staff to contain aggression. Importantly, we found little evidence from staff reports that patients' symptoms were driving aggression, and we found less evidence of patient perspectives among reports. We make several recommendations regarding the reporting of these events that could inform policy and interventions aimed at minimizing the likelihood of injury. PMID:27170345

  10. Is Online Learning a Viable Training Option for Teaching Sexual Assault Forensic Examiners?

    PubMed

    Patterson, Debra; Resko, Stella M

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed knowledge attainment of healthcare professionals who participated in a nationwide sexual assault forensic examiner training program developed by the International Association of Forensic Nursing. A comprehensive curriculum was divided into 12 modules that students accessed through an online learning management system. Using a one-group pretest-posttest design, we assessed students' knowledge attainment for all 12 online modules. The results showed that the mean posttest scores were significantly greater than the mean pretest scores for all 12 online modules. On over 40% of the modules, the students exhibited at least a 25% knowledge gain. This study also examined the predictors of knowledge attainment. Using a multiple linear regression model, we found that knowledge attainment was positively associated with a reliable Internet connection, students who were drawn to the training because it was of no cost to them, and those students with higher levels of motivation. By contrast, lower knowledge gains were significantly related to students who reported more work/personal barriers and those who were drawn to sexual assault forensic examiner practice because they, or someone close to them, have personal experience with sexual assault.

  11. Sperm Hy-Liter™: an effective tool for the detection of spermatozoa in sexual assault exhibits.

    PubMed

    De Moors, Anick; Georgalis, Tina; Armstrong, Gail; Modler, Jeff; Frégeau, Chantal J

    2013-05-01

    A fluorescence-based assay specifically targeting human spermatozoa was tested and optimized for best staining results using a variety of mock sexual assault samples. Swab clippings versus whole swabs were evaluated for best sample preparation and to simplify workflow (direct application versus swab extraction). The practicality and sensitivity of Sperm Hy-Liter™ was compared to our current phase contrast microscopy protocol for searching for the presence of spermatozoa. Sperm Hy-Liter™ was more sensitive than phase contrast microscopy and was able to detect spermatozoa more effectively in actual sexual assault samples (recent [N=240] or 24 years old [N=4]) containing few spermatozoa. Correlations were drawn between the Sperm Hy-Liter™ spermatozoa counts and the AmpFlSTR(®) Profiler(®) Plus male profiles generated from the sperm cell DNA fractions of semen containing swabs and swab clippings. In addition, recovered spermatozoa from Sperm Hy-Liter™-stained slides with greater than 40 spermatozoa produced full STR male profiles in 20.3% of slides tested and partial STR male profiles in 52.8% of slides tested. The adoption of Sperm Hy-Liter™ offers a means to standardize and improve the efficiency of the microscopic screening of sexual assault evidence.

  12. Masculine discrepancy stress, substance use, assault and injury in a survey of US men.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Dennis E; Berke, Danielle S; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-10-01

    To understand and ultimately prevent injury and behavioural health outcomes associated with masculinity, we assessed the influence of masculine discrepancy stress (stress that occurs when men perceive themselves as falling short of the traditional gender norms) on the propensity to engage in stereotypically masculine behaviours (eg, substance use, risk taking and violence) as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Six-hundred men from the USA were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) online data collection site to complete surveys assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy and consequent discrepancy stress, substance use/abuse, driving while intoxicated (DWI) and violent assaults. Negative binomial regression analyses indicated significant interactive effects wherein men high on gender role discrepancy and attendant discrepancy stress reported significantly more assaults with a weapon (B=1.01; SE=0.63; IRR=2.74; p=0.05) and assaults causing injury (B=1.01; SE=0.51; IRR=2.74; p<0.05). There was no association of discrepancy stress to substance abuse, but there was a protective effect of gender role discrepancy for DWI among men low on discrepancy stress (B=-1.19, SE=0.48; IRR=0.30; p=0.01). These findings suggest that gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress, in particular, represent important injury risk factors and that prevention of discrepancy stress may prevent acts of violence with the greatest consequences and costs to the victim, offender and society. PMID:26303670

  13. Survey of academic field experiences (SAFE): trainees report harassment and assault.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Kathryn B H; Nelson, Robin G; Rutherford, Julienne N; Hinde, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666) to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites.

  14. A study of psychiatric nurses' beliefs and attitudes about work safety and assaults in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Hülya; Buzlu, Sevim

    2006-01-01

    In Turkey, the cultural structure effects the gender roles in the society, and women are subject to violence in an intense manner both inside the family and in their workplaces. In nursing, which is still defined as a woman's job in our country, it is possible to encounter many aggressive and threatening behaviours. Knowing no geographical borders, aggression leads to dissatisfaction and alienation with the profession for the nurses working at the psychiatric institutions in Turkey, thus aggression is a significant health risk in physical, psychological and social dimensions. The research was carried out with 162 randomly selected nurses working in the psychiatric institutions in Istanbul using the Attitudes Toward Patient Physical Assault Questionnaire. It has been determined that nurses' rate of exposure to verbal/physical assault by the patients and their relatives is high and that they experience an intense uncertainty and conflict, especially in legal issues, and that the duration of working in the psychiatry clinics effects attitudes toward the assaults. It is concluded that the nurses working at the psychiatry clinics in Turkey are under risk in regards to safety and they need protection and support, both in emotional and in legal terms. PMID:16352517

  15. A study of the psychological factors in outcomes for officers who survive ballistic assault.

    PubMed

    Swaim, Jennifer C; McMullen, Mary J; Williams, Carolyn J; Moore, Jeffrey L; Gilbertson, Alan D

    2007-01-01

    Among law enforcement personnel, who are subject to assault with firearms, there has been a trend toward decreased mortality and physical morbidity associated with the use of personal protective armor (PPA). Although there has been an increase in the rate of survival, studies of the unique psychological factors associated with this type of assault are essentially nonexistent. The prevalence and nature of the negative psychological sequelae associated with this type of assault and psychological injury, along with effective prevention techniques, were studied through retrospective interviews of registrants in two "body armor survival clubs." Significant relationships were found between available interventions and behavioral health outcomes. In addition to reducing the likelihood of poor health outcomes, departmentally based interventions were related to officers' ability to develop positive interpretations of the event and engage in fewer high risk behaviors. These findings suggest that departmental interventions, such as debriefings, are meaningful and may help improve outcomes for officers fired upon, but not wounded, in the line of duty. PMID:18459531

  16. Aggravation of laser-treated diabetic cystoid macular edema after prolonged flight: a case report.

    PubMed

    Daniele, S; Daniele, C

    1995-05-01

    A 62-year-old diabetic woman with pan-retinal laser treatment for non-proliferative, bilateral diabetic retinopathy and cystoid macular edema (CME) demonstrated an acute exacerbation of CME after 42 h of prolonged flight in commercial pressurized aircraft. When travelling by air, vital sensory functions of the human body are affected by a variety of disturbing factors. The most important of these--altitude-related oxygen deficiency--is compensated for by homeostatic mechanisms in healthy subjects. However, even with normal oxygen tension, the diabetic retina is hypoxic because the vascular response to oxygen variation is altered. Increased tissue demand for oxygen, owing to decreased ability of the circulating blood to release oxygen, cannot be met. In our patient, the aggravated CME appeared to result from hemodynamic changes induced by flight. In particular, the prolonged environmental oxygen deficiency may have exacerbated the retinal hypoxia leading to acute, vascular decompensation and dramatic plasma leakage with visual loss.

  17. Lowering barometric pressure aggravates mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Sato, J; Morimae, H; Seino, Y; Kobayashi, T; Suzuki, N; Mizumura, K

    1999-04-30

    To examine the effects of meteorological change on the pain-related behaviors of neuropathic rats, animals with a chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve were exposed to low barometric pressure (LP), 20 mmHg below the natural atmospheric pressure in a climate-controlled room. CCI caused a decreased hindpaw withdrawal threshold to von Frey hair (VFH) stimulation (mechanical allodynia) and prolonged duration of hindpaw withdrawal in response to pinprick stimulation (mechanical hyperalgesia). When the CCI rats were exposed to LP, both these pain-related behaviors were aggravated, whereas no change was seen in a group of controls. In the CCI rats sympathectomy inhibited this LP-induced augmentation of pain-related behaviors. These results show that LP intensifies the abnormalities in the pain-related behaviors of neuropathic rats, and that sympathetic activity contributes to the LP effect.

  18. IL-33 treatment attenuated diet-induced hepatic steatosis but aggravated hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yinjie; Liu, Yuan; Yang, Mei; Guo, Xiaodong; Zhang, Min; Li, Hanwei; Li, Jin; Zhao, Jingmin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our work was to investigate the role of interleukin-33 (IL-33) and its receptor ST2 in the progression of diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in mice, and the characteristic expression in livers of patients with NASH. Mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) or methionine-choline 4-deficient diet (MCD) and injected intraperitoneally with IL-33. Both mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-33 and ST2 were up-regulated in the livers of mice fed with HFD or MCD. Treatment with IL-33 attenuated diet-induced hepatic steatosis and reduced activities of ALT in serum, as well as ameliorated HFD-induced systemic insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, while aggravated hepatic fibrosis in diet-induced NASH. Furthermore, treatment with IL-33 can also promote Th2 response and M2 macrophage activation and beneficial modulation on expression profiles of fatty acid metabolism genes in livers. ST2 deficiency did not affect hepatic steatosis and fibrosis when fed with controlling diet. IL-33 did not affect diet-induced hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in ST2 knockout mice. Meanwhile, in the livers of patients with NASH, IL-33 was mainly located in hepatic sinusoid, endothelial cells, and hepatic stellate cells. The mRNA expression level of IL-33 and ST2 was elevated with the progression of NASH. In conclusion, treatment with IL-33 attenuated diet-induced hepatic steatosis, but aggravated hepatic fibrosis, in a ST2-dependent manner. PMID:27172901

  19. In Utero Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke Aggravates Adult Responses to Irritants

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Rui; Perveen, Zakia; Paulsen, Daniel; Rouse, Rodney; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Kearney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In utero exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) is associated with exacerbated asthmatic responses in children. We tested the hypothesis that in utero SHS will aggravate the lung responses of young adult mice re-exposed to SHS. We exposed Balb/c mice in utero to SHS (S) or filtered air (AIR; A), and re-exposed the male offspring daily from 11–15 weeks of age to either SHS (AS and SS) or AIR (AA and SA). After the adult exposures, we analyzed samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), examined the results of histopathology, and assessed pulmonary function and gene expression changes in lung samples. In SS mice, compared with the other three groups (AA, AS, and SA), we found decreases in breathing frequency and increases in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), as well as low but significantly elevated concentrations of BALF proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1b, IL-6, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine). Lung morphometric analyses revealed enlarged airspaces and arteries in SA and SS mice compared with their in utero AIR counterparts, as well as increased collagen deposition in AS and SS mice. Unique gene expression profiles were found for in utero, adult, and combined exposures, as well as for mice with elevated AHR responses. The profibrotic metalloprotease genes, Adamts9 and Mmp3, were up-regulated in the SS and AHR groups, suggesting a role for in utero SHS exposure on the adult development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Our results indicate that in utero exposures to environmentally relevant concentrations of SHS alter lung structure more severely than do adult SHS exposures of longer duration. These in utero exposures also aggravate AHR and promote a profibrotic milieu in adult lungs. PMID:22962063

  20. Obesity does not aggravate osteoporosis or osteoblastic insulin resistance in orchiectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Potikanond, Saranyapin; Rattanachote, Pinyada; Pintana, Hiranya; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that testosterone deprivation impairs osteoblastic insulin signaling, decreases osteoblast survival, reduces bone density, and that obesity aggravates those deleterious effects in testosterone-deprived rats. Twenty four male Wistar rats underwent either a bilateral orchiectomy (O, n=12) or a sham operation (S, n=12). Then the rats in each group were further divided into two subgroups fed with either a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HF) for 12 weeks. At the end of the protocol, blood samples were collected to determine metabolic parameters and osteocalcin ratios. The tibiae were collected to determine bone mass using microcomputed tomography and for osteoblast isolation. The results showed that rats fed with HF (sham-operated HF-fed rats (HFS) and ORX HF-fed rats (HFO)) developed peripheral insulin resistance and had decreased trabecular bone density. In ND-fed rats, only the ORX ND-fed rats (NDO) group had decreased trabecular bone density. In addition, osteoblastic insulin resistance, as indicated by a decrease in tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and Akt, were observed in all groups except the sham-operated ND-fed rats (NDS) rats. Those groups, again with the exception of the NDS rats, also had decreased osteoblastic survival. No differences in the levels of osteoblastic insulin resistance and osteoblastic survival were found among the NDO, HFS, and HFO groups. These findings suggest that either testosterone deprivation or obesity alone can impair osteoblastic insulin signaling and decrease osteoblastic survival leading to the development of osteoporosis. However, obesity does not aggravate those deleterious effects in the bone of testosterone-deprived rats. PMID:26675491

  1. Subchondral bone microstructural damage by increased remodelling aggravates experimental osteoarthritis preceded by osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Osteoporosis (OP) increases cartilage damage in a combined rabbit model of OP and osteoarthritis (OA). Accordingly, we assessed whether microstructure impairment at subchondral bone aggravates cartilage damage in this experimental model. Methods OP was induced in 20 female rabbits, by ovariectomy and intramuscular injections of methylprednisolone hemisuccinate for four weeks. Ten healthy animals were used as controls. At week 7, OA was surgically induced in left knees of all rabbits. At 22 weeks, after sacrifice, microstructure parameters were assessed by micro-computed tomography, and osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) protein expressions were evaluated by Western Blot at subchondral bone. In addition, cartilage damage was estimated using the histopathological Mankin score. Mann-Whitney and Spearman statistical tests were performed as appropriate, using SPSS software v 11.0. Significant difference was established at P < 0.05. Results Subchondral bone area/tissue area, trabecular thickness and polar moment of inertia were diminished in OPOA knees compared with control or OA knees (P < 0.05). A decrease of plate thickness, ALP expression and OPG/RANKL ratio as well as an increased fractal dimension and MMP9 expression occurred at subchondral bone of OA, OP and OPOA knees vs. controls (P < 0.05). In addition, the severity of cartilage damage was increased in OPOA knees vs. controls (P < 0.05). Remarkably, good correlations were observed between structural and remodelling parameters at subchondral bone, and furthermore, between subchondral structural parameters and cartilage Mankin score. Conclusions Microstructure impairment at subchondral bone associated with an increased remodelling aggravated cartilage damage in OA rabbits with previous OP. Our results suggest that an increased subchondral bone resorption may account for the exacerbation of cartilage

  2. Didymin reverses phthalate ester-associated breast cancer aggravation in the breast cancer tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    HSU, YA-LING; HSIEH, CHIA-JUNG; TSAI, EING-MEI; HUNG, JEN-YU; CHANG, WEI-AN; HOU, MING-FENG; KUO, PO-LIN

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrated two novel findings. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first study to demonstrate that regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), produced by breast tumor-associated monocyte-derived dendritic cells (TADCs) following breast cancer cell exposure to phthalate esters, may contribute to the progression of cancer via enhancement of cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, the present study revealed that didymin, a dietary flavonoid glycoside present in citrus fruits, was able to reverse phthalate ester-mediated breast cancer aggravation. MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) or di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Subsequently, the conditioned medium (CM) was harvested and cultured with monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mdDCs). Cultures of MDA-MB-231 cells with the conditioned medium of BBP-, DBP- or DEHP-MDA-MB-231 tumor-associated mdDCs (BBP-, DBP- or DEHP-MDA-TADC-CM) demonstrated enhanced proliferation, migration and invasion. Exposure of the MDA-MB-231 cells to DBP induced the MDA-TADCs to produce the inflammatory cytokine RANTES, which subsequently induced MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Depleting RANTES reversed the effects of DBP-MDA-TADC-mediated MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In addition, didymin was observed to suppress phthalate-mediated breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. The present study suggested that didymin was capable of preventing phthalate ester-associated cancer aggravation. PMID:26893687

  3. High-dose glucocorticoid aggravates TBI-associated corticosteroid insufficiency by inducing hypothalamic neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; Zhao, Zilong; Zhou, Yuan; Chen, Xin; Li, Ying; Liu, Xiao; Lu, Hujie; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhang, Jianning

    2013-12-01

    Emerging experimental and clinical data suggest that severe illness, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), can induce critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI). However, underlying mechanisms of this TBI-associated CIRCI remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that dexamethasone (DXM), a synthetic glucocorticoid, which was widely used to treat TBI, induces hypothalamic neuronal apoptosis to aggravate CIRCI. To test this hypothesis, we have evaluated the dose effect of DXM (1 or 10mg/kg) on the development of acute CIRCI in rats with fluid percussion injury-induced TBI and on cultured rat hypothalamic neurons in vitro (DXM, 10(-5)-10(-8)mol/L). Corticosterone Increase Index was recorded as the marker for CIRCI. In addition, MTT and TUNEL assays were used to measure the viability and apoptosis of hypothalamic neurons in primary culture. Moreover, high-resolution hopping probe ion conductance microscopy (HPICM) was used to monitor the DXM-induced morphological changes in neurons. The incidence of acute CIRCI was significantly higher in the high-dose DXM group on post-injury day 7. Cellular viability was significantly decreased from 12h to 24h after the treatment with a high-dose of DXM. A significantly increase in TUNEL positive cells were detected in cultured cells treated with a high-dose of DXM after 18h. Neurites of hypothalamic neuron were dramatically thinner and the numbers of dendritic beadings increased in neurons treated with the high dose of DXM for 12h. In conclusion, high-dose DXM induced hypothalamic neurons to undergo apoptosis in vivo and in vitro, which may aggravate TBI-associated CIRCI.

  4. Germline mitochondrial DNA mutations aggravate ageing and can impair brain development.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jaime M; Stewart, James B; Hagström, Erik; Brené, Stefan; Mourier, Arnaud; Coppotelli, Giuseppe; Freyer, Christoph; Lagouge, Marie; Hoffer, Barry J; Olson, Lars; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2013-09-19

    Ageing is due to an accumulation of various types of damage, and mitochondrial dysfunction has long been considered to be important in this process. There is substantial sequence variation in mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and the high mutation rate is counteracted by different mechanisms that decrease maternal transmission of mutated mtDNA. Despite these protective mechanisms, it is becoming increasingly clear that low-level mtDNA heteroplasmy is quite common and often inherited in humans. We designed a series of mouse mutants to investigate the extent to which inherited mtDNA mutations can contribute to ageing. Here we report that maternally transmitted mtDNA mutations can induce mild ageing phenotypes in mice with a wild-type nuclear genome. Furthermore, maternally transmitted mtDNA mutations lead to anticipation of reduced fertility in mice that are heterozygous for the mtDNA mutator allele (PolgA(wt/mut)) and aggravate premature ageing phenotypes in mtDNA mutator mice (PolgA(mut/mut)). Unexpectedly, a combination of maternally transmitted and somatic mtDNA mutations also leads to stochastic brain malformations. Our findings show that a pre-existing mutation load will not only allow somatic mutagenesis to create a critically high total mtDNA mutation load sooner but will also increase clonal expansion of mtDNA mutations to enhance the normally occurring mosaic respiratory chain deficiency in ageing tissues. Our findings suggest that maternally transmitted mtDNA mutations may have a similar role in aggravating aspects of normal human ageing.

  5. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... are more concentrated in the tear film of dry eye patients. In hot weather, sleep with the windows shut and keep cool with air conditioning. • Dry eye patients often develop or aggravate allergies. An ...

  6. The problem of untested sexual assault kits: why are some kits never submitted to a crime laboratory?

    PubMed

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2012-07-01

    Victims of sexual assault are often advised to seek postassault medical care to have a forensic exam, which includes evidence collection (termed a sexual assault kit [SAK]). After the exam, law enforcement personnel are supposed to submit the SAK to a crime laboratory for analysis. However, recent media reports suggest that in many communities throughout the United States, thousands of SAKs are left untested. Few studies have examined the rate at which law enforcement submits SAKs to crime labs or the factors that may predict them to do so. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory study is twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of SAKs law enforcement submits to crime labs in cases in which a sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) performed the exam with adult victims and (b) to explore whether assault and law enforcement characteristics predict whether SAKs are submitted to a crime lab. This study found that only 58.6% of the SAKs were submitted to the crime lab within a large Midwestern county. Using binary logistic regression, this study found that kits were significantly as likely to be submitted when there were documented physical (nonanogenital) injuries compared with kits that did not have documented physical injuries. In addition, kits that were handled by a law enforcement agency that had a high level of engagement with the SANE program were significantly as likely to be submitted as law enforcement agencies with a low or medium level of engagement. Kits were significantly less likely to be submitted when victims cleaned themselves after the sexual assault (e.g., bathing). No association was found between kit submission and the victim-offender relationship, suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault, anogenital injury, and when the victim consumed alcohol or drugs before the assault. This article concludes with a discussion of the implications for research and practice.

  7. Effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chen-Road

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing (BQC) aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: Male Wistar rats were challenged intravenously with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) to induce DM. Rats were fed with regular pellet food or BQC-containing diets. After 90 d, rats were deprived of food for 24 h. Rat stomachs were irrigated for 3 h with normal saline or simulated gastric juice. Rats were killed and gastric specimens were harvested. RESULTS: An enhancement of various gastric ulcerogenic parameters, including acid back-diffusion, mucosal lipid peroxide generation, as well as decreased glutathione levels and mucus content, were observed in DM rats. After feeding DM rats with BQC, an exacerbation of these ulcero-genic parameters was achieved. Gastric juice caused a further aggravation of these ulcerogenic parameters. Daily intragastric lysozyme chloride dose-dependently inhibited exacerbation of various ulcerogenic parameters in those BQC-fed DM rats. CONCLUSION: (1) Gastric juice could aggravate both DM and BQC-fed DM rat hemorrhagic ulcer; (2) BQC exacerbated gastric hemorrhagic ulcer in DM rats via enhancing oxidative stress and reducing defensive factors; (3) lysozyme chloride effectively protected BQC aggravated gastric damage in DM rats. PMID:16270397

  8. 77 FR 24415 - Inflation Adjustment of the Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalty for a Violation of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... $650, the ordinary maximum of $25,000, and the aggravated maximum CMP of $100,000). See 73 FR 79698...-adjusted $550. 69 FR 30591 (May 28, 2004) and 69 FR 62817 (Oct. 28, 2004). (In 2004, FRA had determined, by... should be increased to $650. 73 FR 79698 (Dec. 30, 2008). In 2009, FRA also published a...

  9. Multilevel spatio-temporal dual changepoint models for relating alcohol outlet destruction and changes in neighbourhood rates of assaultive violence

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qingzhao; Scribner, Richard; Carlin, Brad; Theall, Katherine; Simonsen, Neal; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Cohen, Deborah; Mason, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Many previous studies have suggested a link between alcohol outlets and assaultive violence. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of the “1992 Civil Unrest” in Los Angeles (which followed the “Rodney King incident”), in which many alcohol outlets were damaged leading to a decrease in alcohol outlet density, on crime. We leverage the natural experiment created by the closure of alcohol outlets in certain areas and not others to explore the effects of alcohol availability on assault crimes at the census tract level. We develop a hierarchical model that controls for important covariates (such as race and socio-economic status) and accounts for unexplained spatial and temporal variability. While our model is somewhat complex, its hierarchical Bayesian analysis is accessible via the WinBUGS software. Our results show that, keeping other effects fixed, the reduction in alcohol availability within a census tract was associated with a drop in the assaultive violence rate at the census tract level. Comparing several dual candidate changepoint models using the Deviance Information Criterion, the drop in assaultive violence rate is best seen as having occurred one year after the reduction in alcohol availability, with the effect lasting roughly five years. We also create maps of the fitted assault rates in Los Angeles, as well as spatial residual maps that suggest various spatially-varying covariates are still missing from our model. PMID:18686265

  10. On-Premise Alcohol Establishments and Ambulance Calls for Trauma, Assault, and Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ray, Joel G; Turner, Linda; Gozdyra, Piotr; Matheson, Flora I; Robert, Burgess; Bartsch, Emily; Park, Alison L

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol contributes to intentional and unintentional injury. We explored on-premise licensed alcohol establishments (LAEs) and emergency medical service (EMS) ambulance calls.We completed a retrospective population-based study in the Region of Peel, Ontario, 2005 to 2014, where alcohol sales are tightly regulated and healthcare is universally available. We included participants age ≥ 19 years. Longitude-latitude coordinates of all 696 LAEs and all 267,477 EMS ambulance calls were ascertained, and then assigned to 1 of 1568 dissemination areas (DA) in Peel. Relative risks (RRs) described the association between density of on-premise LAEs (by DA deciles) and the rate of EMS calls, adjusted for material deprivation, and density of beer/liquor stores in each DA.There was a curvilinear relation between LAE density and EMS calls for trauma, rising from 45.3 per 1000 in DAs with no LAEs to 381.0 per 1000 in decile-10 (adjusted RR 7.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.15-9.97). This relation was more pronounced for alcohol-focused LAEs, and highest among younger males. Calls for assault (RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.26-5.65) and intoxication (RR 4.00, 95% CI 1.41-11.38) were more likely on the last day of the month and the day thereafter, compared to 1 week prior. At 02:00 hours, when LAEs must stop selling alcohol, there was a considerable rise in assault-related calls in DAs with LAE but not in DAs without LAEs.On-premise LAEs contribute to EMS calls for trauma and assault, especially among young males, around last call, and when monthly pay cheques are cashed. PMID:27175699

  11. On-Premise Alcohol Establishments and Ambulance Calls for Trauma, Assault, and Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Joel G.; Turner, Linda; Gozdyra, Piotr; Matheson, Flora I.; Robert, Burgess; Bartsch, Emily; Park, Alison L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol contributes to intentional and unintentional injury. We explored on-premise licensed alcohol establishments (LAEs) and emergency medical service (EMS) ambulance calls. We completed a retrospective population-based study in the Region of Peel, Ontario, 2005 to 2014, where alcohol sales are tightly regulated and healthcare is universally available. We included participants age ≥ 19 years. Longitude–latitude coordinates of all 696 LAEs and all 267,477 EMS ambulance calls were ascertained, and then assigned to 1 of 1568 dissemination areas (DA) in Peel. Relative risks (RRs) described the association between density of on-premise LAEs (by DA deciles) and the rate of EMS calls, adjusted for material deprivation, and density of beer/liquor stores in each DA. There was a curvilinear relation between LAE density and EMS calls for trauma, rising from 45.3 per 1000 in DAs with no LAEs to 381.0 per 1000 in decile-10 (adjusted RR 7.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.15–9.97). This relation was more pronounced for alcohol-focused LAEs, and highest among younger males. Calls for assault (RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.26–5.65) and intoxication (RR 4.00, 95% CI 1.41–11.38) were more likely on the last day of the month and the day thereafter, compared to 1 week prior. At 02:00 hours, when LAEs must stop selling alcohol, there was a considerable rise in assault-related calls in DAs with LAE but not in DAs without LAEs. On-premise LAEs contribute to EMS calls for trauma and assault, especially among young males, around last call, and when monthly pay cheques are cashed. PMID:27175699

  12. Determinants of psychological resistance and recovery among women exposed to assaultive trauma

    PubMed Central

    Rusch, Heather L; Shvil, Erel; Szanton, Sarah L; Neria, Yuval; Gill, Jessica M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Women exposed to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) are at high risk for developing psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), general anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and substance-related disorders. However, this risk is not universal. Most women are resistant (i.e., remain asymptomatic), or recover following a brief symptomatic period. This study examined the psychological factors associated with resistant and recovered outcomes in a sample of high-risk women exposed to assault-related PTEs. Method One hundred and fifty-nine women completed the Life Events Checklist and were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. This resulted in three groups: (1) no diagnosis (no past or current psychiatric disorder diagnosis; n = 56), (2) past diagnosis (a past psychiatric disorder diagnosis, but none currently; n = 31), and (3) current diagnosis (a current diagnosis of one or more psychiatric disorders; n = 72). Groups were compared on sociodemographics, PTE exposure, psychopathology, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and psychological resilience-related factors. Results The majority of respondents (79%) did not develop chronic PTSD following assault exposure, and the most common psychiatric outcome was MDD (30%). High endorsement of mastery and social support were associated with the no diagnosis group; and greater reports of mastery and posttraumatic growth were associated with recovery from a past psychiatric disorder. Furthermore, both resilient groups (i.e., no diagnosis and past diagnosis) scored higher on HRQOL measures compared with the current diagnosis group (P < 0.001). Conclusion Psychological resilience has ramifications to health and well-being, and identifying these factors has potential to inform preventive strategies and treatment interventions for assault exposed women. PMID:25798336

  13. Contribution of psychological trauma to outcomes after traumatic brain injury: assaults versus sporting injuries.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Jane L; Harman-Smith, Yasmin; Bowden, Stephen C; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Bigler, Erin D

    2014-04-01

    Clinical research into outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently combines injuries that have been sustained through different causes (e.g., car accidents, assaults, and falls), the effect of which is not well understood. This study examined the contribution of injury-related psychological trauma—which is more commonly associated with specific types of injuries—to outcomes after nonpenetrating TBI in order to determine whether it may be having a differential effect in samples containing mixed injuries. Data from three groups that were prospectively recruited for two larger studies were compared: one that sustained a TBI as a result of physical assaults (i.e., psychologically traumatizing) and another as a result of sporting injuries (i.e., nonpsychologically traumatizing), as well as an orthopedic control group (OC). Psychosocial and emotional (postconcussion symptoms, injury-related stress, and depression), cognitive (memory, abstract reasoning, problem solving, and verbal fluency), and functional (general outcome; resumption of home, social, and work roles) outcomes were all assessed. The TBI(assault) group reported significantly poorer psychosocial and emotional outcomes and higher rates of litigation (criminal rather than civil) than both the TBI(sport) and OC groups approximately 6 months postinjury, but there were no differences in the cognitive or functional outcomes of the three groups. The findings suggest that the cause of a TBI may assist in explaining some of the differences in outcomes of people who have seemingly comparable injuries. Involvement in litigation and the cause of an injury may also be confounded, which may lead to the erroneous conclusion that litigants have poorer outcomes.

  14. On-Premise Alcohol Establishments and Ambulance Calls for Trauma, Assault, and Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ray, Joel G; Turner, Linda; Gozdyra, Piotr; Matheson, Flora I; Robert, Burgess; Bartsch, Emily; Park, Alison L

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol contributes to intentional and unintentional injury. We explored on-premise licensed alcohol establishments (LAEs) and emergency medical service (EMS) ambulance calls.We completed a retrospective population-based study in the Region of Peel, Ontario, 2005 to 2014, where alcohol sales are tightly regulated and healthcare is universally available. We included participants age ≥ 19 years. Longitude-latitude coordinates of all 696 LAEs and all 267,477 EMS ambulance calls were ascertained, and then assigned to 1 of 1568 dissemination areas (DA) in Peel. Relative risks (RRs) described the association between density of on-premise LAEs (by DA deciles) and the rate of EMS calls, adjusted for material deprivation, and density of beer/liquor stores in each DA.There was a curvilinear relation between LAE density and EMS calls for trauma, rising from 45.3 per 1000 in DAs with no LAEs to 381.0 per 1000 in decile-10 (adjusted RR 7.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.15-9.97). This relation was more pronounced for alcohol-focused LAEs, and highest among younger males. Calls for assault (RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.26-5.65) and intoxication (RR 4.00, 95% CI 1.41-11.38) were more likely on the last day of the month and the day thereafter, compared to 1 week prior. At 02:00 hours, when LAEs must stop selling alcohol, there was a considerable rise in assault-related calls in DAs with LAE but not in DAs without LAEs.On-premise LAEs contribute to EMS calls for trauma and assault, especially among young males, around last call, and when monthly pay cheques are cashed.

  15. Liver Cholesterol Overload Aggravates Obstructive Cholestasis by Inducing Oxidative Stress and Premature Death in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nuño-Lámbarri, Natalia; Domínguez-Pérez, Mayra; Baulies-Domenech, Anna; Monte, Maria J; Marin, Jose J G; Rosales-Cruz, Patricia; Souza, Verónica; Miranda, Roxana U; Bucio, Leticia; Montalvo-Jave, Eduardo E; Concepción Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, José C; Gomez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is one of the leading causes of liver disease. Dietary factors determine the clinical presentation of steatohepatitis and can influence the progression of related diseases. Cholesterol has emerged as a critical player in the disease and hence consumption of cholesterol-enriched diets can lead to a progressive form of the disease. The aim was to investigate the impact of liver cholesterol overload on the progression of the obstructive cholestasis in mice subjected to bile duct ligation surgery. Mice were fed with a high cholesterol diet for two days and then were subjected to surgery procedure; histological, biochemical, and molecular analyses were conducted to address the effect of cholesterol in liver damage. Mice under the diet were more susceptible to damage. Results show that cholesterol fed mice exhibited increased apoptosis and oxidative stress as well as reduction in cell proliferation. Mortality following surgery was higher in HC fed mice. Liver cholesterol impairs the repair of liver during obstructive cholestasis and aggravates the disease with early fatal consequences; these effects were strongly associated with oxidative stress. PMID:27635189

  16. Year-round grazing to counteract effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition may aggravate these effects.

    PubMed

    van Dobben, H F; Wamelink, G W W; Klimkowska, A; Slim, P A; van Til, M

    2014-12-01

    Excessive nitrogen input in natural ecosystems is a major threat to biodiversity. A coastal dune area near Amsterdam in the Netherlands suffers from high atmospheric nitrogen deposition affecting sensitive habitats such as fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation ('grey dunes'). To mitigate its effect year round grazing was applied from 2007 until 2012. In winter, when natural food supply is low, the cattle received supplementary hay that caused additional inputs of nitrogen. Estimates based on nitrogen contents of hay, as well as of manure, showed the input through winter feeding (c. 3-14 kg N ha(-1).y(-1)) is in the same order of magnitude as both the actual deposition (c. 17 kg N ha(-1).y(-1)) and the critical load for a number of herbaceous habitat types (10-15 kg N ha(-1).y(-1)). Locally, the effect of winter feeding adds to the effect of nitrogen redistribution within the area caused by the cattle's terrain usage. We conclude that winter feeding may aggravate effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

  17. High fat diet aggravates the nephrotoxicity of berberrubine by influencing on its pharmacokinetic profile.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Sun, Runbin; Zhao, Yuqing; He, Jun; Zhen, Le; Guo, Jiahua; Geng, Jianliang; Xie, Yuan; Wang, Jiankun; Feng, Siqi; Fei, Fei; Liao, Xiaoying; Zhu, Xuanxuan; Wang, Hongbo; Fu, Fenghua; Aa, Jiye; Wang, Guangji

    2016-09-01

    Berberrubine (BRB), the active metabolite of berberine (BBR), possesses various pharmacological activities. In this study, we found BRB showed not only a stronger lipid-lowering effect than berberine but also a specific nephrotoxicity in mice fed with high fat diet (HFD). To explore the underlying mechanism, the pharmacokinetics of BRB were evaluated. There was a greater in vivo exposure of BRB in C57BL/6J mice fed with HFD than with routine chows, in terms of Cmax, AUC0-t, levels of BRB in kidney and urinary excretion. Moreover, in vitro assessment clearly showed BRB had a toxic effect on renal cell lines, while the primary metabolite, berberrubine-9-O-β-d-glucuronide (BRBG), did not show any obvious toxicity. These results suggested HFD aggravated BRB-induced nephrotoxicity by promoting the in vivo exposure of BRB especially in urine and kidney. Although our previous study indicated BRB could be metabolized into BRBG, BRBG did not show any obvious toxicity in vitro. PMID:27525563

  18. Liver Cholesterol Overload Aggravates Obstructive Cholestasis by Inducing Oxidative Stress and Premature Death in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nuño-Lámbarri, Natalia; Domínguez-Pérez, Mayra; Baulies-Domenech, Anna; Monte, Maria J.; Marin, Jose J. G.; Rosales-Cruz, Patricia; Souza, Verónica; Miranda, Roxana U.; Bucio, Leticia; Montalvo-Jave, Eduardo E.; Concepción Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is one of the leading causes of liver disease. Dietary factors determine the clinical presentation of steatohepatitis and can influence the progression of related diseases. Cholesterol has emerged as a critical player in the disease and hence consumption of cholesterol-enriched diets can lead to a progressive form of the disease. The aim was to investigate the impact of liver cholesterol overload on the progression of the obstructive cholestasis in mice subjected to bile duct ligation surgery. Mice were fed with a high cholesterol diet for two days and then were subjected to surgery procedure; histological, biochemical, and molecular analyses were conducted to address the effect of cholesterol in liver damage. Mice under the diet were more susceptible to damage. Results show that cholesterol fed mice exhibited increased apoptosis and oxidative stress as well as reduction in cell proliferation. Mortality following surgery was higher in HC fed mice. Liver cholesterol impairs the repair of liver during obstructive cholestasis and aggravates the disease with early fatal consequences; these effects were strongly associated with oxidative stress. PMID:27635189

  19. Cedar pollen aggravates atopic dermatitis in childhood monozygotic twin patients with allergic rhino conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yukako; Matsui, Saki; Kijima, Akiko; Kitaba, Shun; Murota, Hiroyuki; Katayama, Ichiro

    2011-09-01

    We report a case of 7-year-old monozygotic twin patients with atopic dermatitis. The HLA haplotypes were HLA A2, A11, B27, B61, DR1, and DR4. Both serum IgE levels and cedar pollen radioallergosorbent test (RAST) scores were high in the twins (elder/younger sister: IgE: 5170/3980 IU/ml and Japansese cedar pollen: >100/64.0) in contrast to low mite and food RAST scores (Dermatophagoides Pterygonium; 0.59/0.4 and egg white 9.24/4.6). The patients showed positive immediate (20 min in both sisters) and delayed (24 hours in elder sister, 24, 48, 72 hours in younger sister) reactions to a scratch test with Japanese cedar pollen. Skin lesions on the face were aggravated and extended to the trunk and extremities during the Japanese cedar pollen season and gradually subsided in summer. Oral provocation with egg white or cow milk showed no exacerbations, and topical corticosteroid did not improve the eczema. In contrast, successful protection from severe scratching behaviors was achieved by use of topical anti-allergic eye drops and wearing nightgowns made by the mother. PMID:21430436

  20. Aggravated phosphorus limitation on biomass production under increasing nitrogen loading: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Niu, Shuli; Yu, Guirui

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), either individually or in combination, have been demonstrated to limit biomass production in terrestrial ecosystems. Field studies have been extensively synthesized to assess global patterns of N impacts on terrestrial ecosystem processes. However, to our knowledge, no synthesis has been done so far to reveal global patterns of P impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, especially under different nitrogen (N) levels. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of impacts of P addition, either alone or with N addition, on aboveground (AGB) and belowground biomass production (BGB), plant and soil P concentrations, and N : P ratio in terrestrial ecosystems. Overall, our meta-analysis quantitatively confirmed existing notions: (i) colimitation of N and P on biomass production and (ii) more P limitation in tropical forest than other ecosystems. More importantly, our analysis revealed new findings: (i) P limitation on biomass production was aggravated by N enrichment and (ii) plant P concentration was a better indicator of P limitation than soil P availability. Specifically, P addition increased AGB and BGB by 34% and 13%, respectively. The effect size of P addition on biomass production was larger in tropical forest than grassland, wetland, and tundra and varied with P fertilizer forms, P addition rates, or experimental durations. The P-induced increase in biomass production and plant P concentration was larger under elevated than ambient N. Our findings suggest that the global limitation of P on biomass production will become severer under increasing N fertilizer and deposition in the future.

  1. C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) deficiency aggravates hippocampal cell apoptosis and impairs memory performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Mu; Wu, Cheng-Tien; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Liao, Bor-Wu; Liu, Shing-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are growing burdens in modern societies because of increased life expectancy. Most neurodegenerative disorders commonly possess a similar neuropathological feature--the accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates or inclusions (misfolded proteins) in the brain. One of the main functions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is to initiate proper protein folding to facilitate protein secretion through the induction of unfolded protein response (UPR). C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) induction has been demonstrated to be a signaling event underlying ER stress-induced cell apoptosis. In this study, we explored the role of CHOP in the hippocampal cell apoptosis and memory performance injury under an induced ER stress condition. Adult male wild type (C57BL/6J) and CHOP knockout (CHOP-/-) mice were intracerebroventricularly injected with tunicamycin. Tunicamycin can induce ER stress and cell apoptosis in mouse hippocampus. Compared with wild type mice, CHOP-/- mice showed an enhanced hippocampal cell apoptosis, worse performance in memory-related behavioral tests, and attenuated IRE-1 expression under tunicamycin treatment. The aggravated cell apoptosis and worse memory performance in CHOP-/- mice might be due to the deficiency of CHOP protein resulted in the impaired adaptive/pathological transcriptional response, the decreased IRE-1 and XBP-1 expressions, and the increased JNK phosphorylation to cope with ER stress. Taken together, these results suggest that CHOP may play a protective role in the hippocampal cell apoptosis and impairment of memory performance.

  2. Liver Cholesterol Overload Aggravates Obstructive Cholestasis by Inducing Oxidative Stress and Premature Death in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nuño-Lámbarri, Natalia; Domínguez-Pérez, Mayra; Baulies-Domenech, Anna; Monte, Maria J.; Marin, Jose J. G.; Rosales-Cruz, Patricia; Souza, Verónica; Miranda, Roxana U.; Bucio, Leticia; Montalvo-Jave, Eduardo E.; Concepción Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is one of the leading causes of liver disease. Dietary factors determine the clinical presentation of steatohepatitis and can influence the progression of related diseases. Cholesterol has emerged as a critical player in the disease and hence consumption of cholesterol-enriched diets can lead to a progressive form of the disease. The aim was to investigate the impact of liver cholesterol overload on the progression of the obstructive cholestasis in mice subjected to bile duct ligation surgery. Mice were fed with a high cholesterol diet for two days and then were subjected to surgery procedure; histological, biochemical, and molecular analyses were conducted to address the effect of cholesterol in liver damage. Mice under the diet were more susceptible to damage. Results show that cholesterol fed mice exhibited increased apoptosis and oxidative stress as well as reduction in cell proliferation. Mortality following surgery was higher in HC fed mice. Liver cholesterol impairs the repair of liver during obstructive cholestasis and aggravates the disease with early fatal consequences; these effects were strongly associated with oxidative stress.

  3. Liver Cholesterol Overload Aggravates Obstructive Cholestasis by Inducing Oxidative Stress and Premature Death in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nuño-Lámbarri, Natalia; Domínguez-Pérez, Mayra; Baulies-Domenech, Anna; Monte, Maria J; Marin, Jose J G; Rosales-Cruz, Patricia; Souza, Verónica; Miranda, Roxana U; Bucio, Leticia; Montalvo-Jave, Eduardo E; Concepción Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, José C; Gomez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is one of the leading causes of liver disease. Dietary factors determine the clinical presentation of steatohepatitis and can influence the progression of related diseases. Cholesterol has emerged as a critical player in the disease and hence consumption of cholesterol-enriched diets can lead to a progressive form of the disease. The aim was to investigate the impact of liver cholesterol overload on the progression of the obstructive cholestasis in mice subjected to bile duct ligation surgery. Mice were fed with a high cholesterol diet for two days and then were subjected to surgery procedure; histological, biochemical, and molecular analyses were conducted to address the effect of cholesterol in liver damage. Mice under the diet were more susceptible to damage. Results show that cholesterol fed mice exhibited increased apoptosis and oxidative stress as well as reduction in cell proliferation. Mortality following surgery was higher in HC fed mice. Liver cholesterol impairs the repair of liver during obstructive cholestasis and aggravates the disease with early fatal consequences; these effects were strongly associated with oxidative stress.

  4. Feed exposure to FB1 can aggravate pneumonic damages in pigs provoked by P. multocida.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Melinda; Pósa, Roland; Tuboly, Tamás; Donkó, Tamás; Repa, Imre; Tossenberger, János; Szabó-Fodor, Judit; Stoev, Stoycho; Magyar, Tibor

    2016-10-01

    The possible interaction between Pasteurella multocida and the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1), recognised as one of the most often food/feed contaminant, was studied with the aim to evaluate whether and how FB1 can influence and/or complicate the development and severity of various pathological damages provoked by Pasteurella multocida in some internal organs of pigs. Heavier lung pathology was seen in pigs experimentally infected with Pasteurella multocida, when the same were exposed to 20ppm dietary levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1) as was assessed by gross pathology, pathomorphological examinations, clinical biochemistry and some immunological investigations. The most typical damages in FB1 treated pigs were the strong oedema in the lung and the slight oedema in the other internal organs and mild degenerative changes in the kidneys, whereas the typical pathomorphological findings in pigs infected with Pasteurella multocida was broncho-interstitial pneumonia. FB1 was found to aggravate pneumonic changes provoked by P. multocida in the cranial lobes of the lung and to complicate pneumonic damages with interstitial oedema in the lung. No macroscopic damages were observed in the pigs infected only with Pasteurella multocida. It can be concluded that the feed intake of FB1 in pigs may complicate or exacerbate the course of P. multocida serotype A infection. PMID:27663368

  5. Intravenous contrast medium aggravates the impairment of pancreatic microcirculation in necrotizing pancreatitis in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, J; Hotz, H G; Foitzik, T; Ryschich, E; Buhr, H J; Warshaw, A L; Herfarth, C; Klar, E

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous reports demonstrated that radiographic contrast medium, as used in contrast-enhanced computed tomography, increases acinar necrosis and mortality in experimental pancreatitis. The authors studied the possibility that these changes may be related to an additional impairment of pancreatic microcirculation. METHODS: Fifty Wistar rats had acute pancreatitis induced by intraductal glycodeoxycholic acid (10 mmol/L for 10 min) and intravenous cerulein (5 micrograms/kg/hr for 6 hrs). After rehydration (16 mL/kg), pancreatic capillary perfusion was quantified by means of intravital microscopy at baseline before intravenous infusion of contrast medium (n = 25) or saline (n = 25), and 30 and 60 minutes thereafter. In addition to total capillary flow, capillaries were categorized as high- or low-flow (> or < 1.6 nL/min). RESULTS: Pancreatic capillary flow did not change in either high- or low-flow capillaries after saline infusion. However, contrast medium infusion induced a significant decrease of total capillary flow (p < 0.001). Analysis according to the relative flow rate revealed that this was primarily because of a significant additional reduction of perfusion in low-flow capillaries (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, complete capillary stasis was observed in 15.9 +/- 3.4% after contrast medium as compared with 3.2 +/- 1.2% after saline infusion (p < 0.006). CONCLUSION: Radiographic contrast medium aggravates the impairment of pancreatic microcirculation in experimental necrotizing pancreatitis. PMID:7717779

  6. Deficiency of Glycine N-Methyltransferase Aggravates Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E–Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Yu; Ching, Li-Chieh; Liao, Yi-Jen; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Tsou, Chia-Yuan; Shyue, Song-Kun; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the dysregulation of cholesterol metabolism and inflammation in atherogenesis is not understood fully. Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) has been implicated in hepatic lipid metabolism and the pathogenesis of liver diseases. However, little is known about the significance of GNMT in atherosclerosis. We showed the predominant expression of GNMT in foamy macrophages of mouse atherosclerotic aortas. Genetic deletion of GNMT exacerbated the hyperlipidemia, inflammation and development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E–deficient mice. In addition, ablation of GNMT in macrophages aggravated oxidized low-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol accumulation in macrophage foam cells by downregulating the expression of reverse cholesterol transporters including ATP-binding cassette transporters-A1 and G1 and scavenger receptor BI. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor-α–induced inflammatory response was promoted in GNMT-null macrophages. Collectively, our data suggest that GNMT is a crucial regulator in cholesterol metabolism and in inflammation, and contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This finding may reveal a potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis. PMID:22415010

  7. Role of Hypertension in Aggravating Aβ Neuropathology of AD Type and Tau-Mediated Motor Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Ruiz, C.; Wang, J.; Ksiezak-Reding, H.; Ho, L.; Qian, X.; Humala, N.; Thomas, S.; Martínez-Martín, P.; Pasinetti, G. M.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that hypertension may accelerate the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we explored the role of hypertension in the neurodegenerative changes associated with Aβ and tau aggregation. We induced hypertension in APPswe Tg2576 and P301L-tauTg mouse models. In Tg2576 mice, experimental hypertension was associated with a significant increase of the accumulation of Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in brain tissue and a significant reduction of Aβ peptides in serum (P < .05). These results indicate that hypertension may promote AD-type Aβ neuropathology in Tg2576. In P301L-tauTg mice we found that the presence of hypertension was significantly associated with aggravated motor function assessed by hindlimb extension test (P = .01). These results suggest that hypertension may play a role in accelerating the progression of motor dysfunction associated with tau-related alterations. Our studies suggest that the management of blood pressure (BP) may alleviate AD-type Aβ neuropathology and neurological disorders associated with abnormal tau metabolism. PMID:19936102

  8. Homocysteine Aggravates Cortical Neural Cell Injury through Neuronal Autophagy Overactivation following Rat Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yaqian; Huang, Guowei; Chen, Shuang; Gou, Yun; Dong, Zhiping; Zhang, Xumei

    2016-01-01

    Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been reported to be involved in neurotoxicity after ischemic stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood to date. In the current study, we hypothesized that neuronal autophagy activation may be involved in the toxic effect of Hcy on cortical neurons following cerebral ischemia. Brain cell injury was determined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) staining. The level and localization of autophagy were detected by transmission electron microscopy, western blot and immunofluorescence double labeling. The oxidative DNA damage was revealed by immunofluorescence of 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Hcy treatment aggravated neuronal cell death, significantly increased the formation of autophagosomes and the expression of LC3B and Beclin-1 in the brain cortex after middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAO). Immunofluorescence analysis of LC3B and Beclin-1 distribution indicated that their expression occurred mainly in neurons (NeuN-positive) and hardly in astrocytes (GFAP-positive). 8-OHdG expression was also increased in the ischemic cortex of Hcy-treated animals. Conversely, LC3B and Beclin-1 overexpression and autophagosome accumulation caused by Hcy were partially blocked by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Hcy administration enhanced neuronal autophagy, which contributes to cell death following cerebral ischemia. The oxidative damage-mediated autophagy may be a molecular mechanism underlying neuronal cell toxicity of elevated Hcy level. PMID:27455253

  9. Cardiomyocyte Overexpression of FABP4 Aggravates Pressure Overload-Induced Heart Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji; Qiao, Congzhen; Chang, Lin; Guo, Yanhong; Fan, Yanbo; Villacorta, Luis; Chen, Y. Eugene; Zhang, Jifeng

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is a member of the intracellular lipid-binding protein family, responsible for the transportation of fatty acids. It is considered to express mainly in adipose tissues, and be strongly associated with inflammation, obesity, diabetes and cardiovasculardiseases. Here we report that FABP4 is also expressed in cardiomyocytes and plays an important role in regulating heart function under pressure overload. We generated heart-specific transgenic FABP4 (FABP4-TG) mice using α myosin-heavy chain (α-MHC) promoter and human FABP4 sequence, resulting in over-expression of FABP4 in cardiomyocytes. The FABP4-TG mice displayed normal cardiac morphology and contractile function. When they were subjected to the transverse aorta constriction (TAC) procedure, the FABP4-TG mice developed more cardiac hypertrophy correlated with significantly increased ERK phosphorylation, compared with wild type controls. FABP4 over-expression in cardiomyocytes activated phosphor-ERK signal and up-regulate the expression of cardiac hypertrophic marker genes. Conversely, FABP4 induced phosphor-ERK signal and hypertrophic gene expressions can be markedly inhibited by an ERK inhibitor PD098059 as well as the FABP4 inhibitor BMS309403. These results suggest that FABP4 over-expression in cardiomyocytes can aggravate the development of cardiac hypertrophy through the activation of ERK signal pathway. PMID:27294862

  10. Glucocorticoids aggravate retrograde memory deficiency associated with traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Zhang, Ke-Li; Yang, Shu-Yuan; Dong, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Ning

    2009-02-11

    Administration of glucocorticoid to patients with head injury has previously been demonstrated to impair memory. We hypothesize that glucocorticoids promote post-traumatic hippocampal apoptosis, resulting in retrograde memory deficiency associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, we tested this hypothesis by measuring spatial memory deficiency in rats subjected to fluid percussion injury (FPI) and receiving dexamethasone (DXM at 0.5-10 mg/kg) or methylprednisolone (MP at 5-30 mg/kg); we also examined neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus. Adult male Wistar rats were trained for the acquisition of spatial memory, then subjected to FPI and tested for spatial reference memory on post-injury days 7 and 14 using the Morris Water Maze. Brain tissue from injured rats was examined 24 h to 2 weeks after injury. The percent time in the goal quadrant, which measures spatial reference memory, was significantly lower in injured rats receiving either high-dose DXM or MP than in control groups. TUNEL-positive cells in hippocampus were first detected 24 h post-injury, plateauing at 48h. The number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly higher in injured rats treated with either DXM or MP. The data suggest that glucocorticoid therapy for TBI may increase neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus and, as a result, aggravate retrograde memory deficits induced by TBI.

  11. Histones from Dying Renal Cells Aggravate Kidney Injury via TLR2 and TLR4

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Ramanjaneyulu; Scherbaum, Christina Rebecca; Darisipudi, Murthy Narayana; Mulay, Shrikant R.; Hägele, Holger; Lichtnekert, Julia; Hagemann, Jan Henrik; Rupanagudi, Khader Valli; Ryu, Mi; Schwarzenberger, Claudia; Hohenstein, Bernd; Hugo, Christian; Uhl, Bernd; Reichel, Christoph A.; Krombach, Fritz; Monestier, Marc; Liapis, Helen; Moreth, Kristin; Schaefer, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    In AKI, dying renal cells release intracellular molecules that stimulate immune cells to secrete proinflammatory cytokines, which trigger leukocyte recruitment and renal inflammation. Whether the release of histones, specifically, from dying cells contributes to the inflammation of AKI is unknown. In this study, we found that dying tubular epithelial cells released histones into the extracellular space, which directly interacted with Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 (TLR2) and TLR4 to induce MyD88, NF-κB, and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling. Extracellular histones also had directly toxic effects on renal endothelial cells and tubular epithelial cells in vitro. In addition, direct injection of histones into the renal arteries of mice demonstrated that histones induce leukocyte recruitment, microvascular vascular leakage, renal inflammation, and structural features of AKI in a TLR2/TLR4-dependent manner. Antihistone IgG, which neutralizes the immunostimulatory effects of histones, suppressed intrarenal inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, and tubular cell necrosis and improved excretory renal function. In summary, the release of histones from dying cells aggravates AKI via both its direct toxicity to renal cells and its proinflammatory effects. Because the induction of proinflammatory cytokines in dendritic cells requires TLR2 and TLR4, these results support the concept that renal damage triggers an innate immune response, which contributes to the pathogenesis of AKI. PMID:22677551

  12. Cardiomyocyte Overexpression of FABP4 Aggravates Pressure Overload-Induced Heart Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Qiao, Congzhen; Chang, Lin; Guo, Yanhong; Fan, Yanbo; Villacorta, Luis; Chen, Y Eugene; Zhang, Jifeng

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is a member of the intracellular lipid-binding protein family, responsible for the transportation of fatty acids. It is considered to express mainly in adipose tissues, and be strongly associated with inflammation, obesity, diabetes and cardiovasculardiseases. Here we report that FABP4 is also expressed in cardiomyocytes and plays an important role in regulating heart function under pressure overload. We generated heart-specific transgenic FABP4 (FABP4-TG) mice using α myosin-heavy chain (α-MHC) promoter and human FABP4 sequence, resulting in over-expression of FABP4 in cardiomyocytes. The FABP4-TG mice displayed normal cardiac morphology and contractile function. When they were subjected to the transverse aorta constriction (TAC) procedure, the FABP4-TG mice developed more cardiac hypertrophy correlated with significantly increased ERK phosphorylation, compared with wild type controls. FABP4 over-expression in cardiomyocytes activated phosphor-ERK signal and up-regulate the expression of cardiac hypertrophic marker genes. Conversely, FABP4 induced phosphor-ERK signal and hypertrophic gene expressions can be markedly inhibited by an ERK inhibitor PD098059 as well as the FABP4 inhibitor BMS309403. These results suggest that FABP4 over-expression in cardiomyocytes can aggravate the development of cardiac hypertrophy through the activation of ERK signal pathway. PMID:27294862

  13. Feed exposure to FB1 can aggravate pneumonic damages in pigs provoked by P. multocida.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Melinda; Pósa, Roland; Tuboly, Tamás; Donkó, Tamás; Repa, Imre; Tossenberger, János; Szabó-Fodor, Judit; Stoev, Stoycho; Magyar, Tibor

    2016-10-01

    The possible interaction between Pasteurella multocida and the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1), recognised as one of the most often food/feed contaminant, was studied with the aim to evaluate whether and how FB1 can influence and/or complicate the development and severity of various pathological damages provoked by Pasteurella multocida in some internal organs of pigs. Heavier lung pathology was seen in pigs experimentally infected with Pasteurella multocida, when the same were exposed to 20ppm dietary levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1) as was assessed by gross pathology, pathomorphological examinations, clinical biochemistry and some immunological investigations. The most typical damages in FB1 treated pigs were the strong oedema in the lung and the slight oedema in the other internal organs and mild degenerative changes in the kidneys, whereas the typical pathomorphological findings in pigs infected with Pasteurella multocida was broncho-interstitial pneumonia. FB1 was found to aggravate pneumonic changes provoked by P. multocida in the cranial lobes of the lung and to complicate pneumonic damages with interstitial oedema in the lung. No macroscopic damages were observed in the pigs infected only with Pasteurella multocida. It can be concluded that the feed intake of FB1 in pigs may complicate or exacerbate the course of P. multocida serotype A infection.

  14. Concurrent administration of sexual assault prevention and risk reduction programming: outcomes for women.

    PubMed

    Gidycz, Christine A; Orchowski, Lindsay M; Probst, Danielle R; Edwards, Katie M; Murphy, Megan; Tansill, Erin

    2015-06-01

    The present study describes the 4- and 7-month postintervention outcomes of a sexual assault risk reduction program for women, which was part of an evaluation that included a prevention program for men. Relative to the control group, participants evidenced more relational sexual assertiveness and self-protective behavior, and were more likely to indicate that they utilized active verbal and physical self-defense strategies. Whether or not women experienced subsequent victimization did not differ between groups. Relative to control group women who were victimized, program participants who were victimized between the 4- and 7-month follow-up blamed the perpetrator more and evidenced less self-blame. PMID:25845615

  15. Analysis of sexual assault evidence by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mirabelli, Mario F; Chramow, Alexander; Cabral, Elaine C; Ifa, Demian R

    2013-07-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is employed in the forensic analysis of chemical components present in condoms and imaging of latent fingerprints as circumstantial evidence of sexual assault. Polymers such as nonoxynol-9, polyethylene glycol, and polydimethylsiloxane, as well as small molecules additives such as N-methylmorpholine, N-octylamine, N,N-dibutyl formamide, and isonox 132, commonly used in lubricated condom formulations, were successfully characterized by DESI. The results suggest that DESI-MS is useful for identification of this type of evidence, and it has advantages over conventional extractive techniques, in terms of speed of analysis and ease of use. PMID:23832933

  16. Prosecuting Intimate Partner Sexual Assault: Legal and Extra-Legal Factors That Influence Charging Decisions.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Eryn Nicole; Tellis, Katharine; Spohn, Cassia

    2015-10-01

    Prosecutors play a crucial role in determining whether persons who are accused of intimate partner sexual assault (IPSA) will be sanctioned by the criminal justice system. Prosecutors have unconditional discretion at the initial charging stage because a case rejection decision is typically immune to review. Using qualitative data from 47 IPSA complaints that were referred to Los Angeles County or City prosecution in 2008, this study examines the factors that influence charging decisions. Findings suggest that prosecutors consider both legal and extralegal factors when making charging decisions and that various cultural, legal, and rape myths surrounding IPSA influence these decisions.

  17. Relationship Type and Sexual Precedence: Their Associations With Characteristics of Sexual Assault Perpetrators and Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Rhiana; Pierce, Jennifer; Abbey, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Although most sexual assaults are committed by men who know their victims, few researchers have considered how characteristics of perpetrators and incidents differ depending on the victim–perpetrator relationship. This study addresses this gap with a community sample of 204 men who reported committing a sexually aggressive act in an audio computer-assisted self-interview. 2 (Relationship Type: Committed vs. Casual) × 2 (Sexual Precedence: Yes vs. No) ANOVAs revealed significant main effects of relationship type and sexual precedence associated with individual difference and incident characteristics. These findings demonstrate the importance of developing theories and prevention programs tailored for different relationship contexts. PMID:25288595

  18. Epidemiology of assault and self-harm injuries treated in a large Romanian Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Gal, Melinda; Rus, Diana; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Cherecheş, Răzvan M.; Şirlincan, Emanuela Oana; Boeriu, Cristian; Baba, Cătălin Ovidiu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intentional injury, including interpersonal violence and self-harm, is one of the world’s leading causes of preventable injury. In Europe alone, nearly 1.5 million individuals receive medical treatment each year for a violence-related injury. We examined violent injuries treated in the largest Emergency Department (ED) in Tîrgu Mures County, Romania, with a catchment area of approximately 580 000 residents to describe the epidemiology of assault and self-harm injuries. Methods Data were collected as part of the European Injury Database project, from a sample of patients who presented with a violence-related injury and received care from the ED of the Mures County Emergency Hospital, Romania. The data were collected for 9 months by two trained emergency physicians. Information about individual demographics; mechanism, nature, place, and activity of injury; injury types, and body regions affected; and discharge state were compared for assault and self-harm injuries. Results Of the 380 patients treated for violence-related injuries, 88.7% were for assault and 11.3% were for self-harm. For both types of injuries, the majority of patients were between the ages of 15 and 44. Assaults frequently occurred in the home, on streets and highways, or in public places; and men (80.4%) were far more likely than women (19.6%) to be treated for this type of injury; a slightly higher proportion of men (55.8%) than women (44.2%) were treated for self-harm, most of which occurred in homes. Discussion Of all injuries treated in the Tîrgu Mures ED, one out of five was violence related. One out of 10 patients that suffered an injury as a consequence of a violent event and treated in the ED required admission to a hospital for further medical care, leading to a significant health care burden. These data suggest that prevention strategies should focus on young adults, and particularly men. Interventions that focus on detection and treatment of psychological illness

  19. Well-Being and Safety Among Inpatient Psychiatric Staff: The Impact of Conflict, Assault, and Stress Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Erin L; Fenwick, Karissa; Brekke, John S; Novaco, Raymond W

    2016-09-01

    Psychiatric staff are faced with multiple forms of hostility, aggression, and assault at work, collectively referred to as workplace violence, which typically is activated by patients but can also come from coworkers and supervisors. Whether workplace violence adversely affects staff well-being may be related not only to its presence, but also to an individual's stress reactivity. At a large public psychiatric hospital, an online survey was completed by 323 clinical care staff, of whom 69.5 % had experienced physical assault in the previous 12 months. Staff well-being (depression, anger, and physical health) and staff safety concerns were adversely affected by conflicts with other staff members and by individual reactivity to social conflict and to assault. To improve staff well-being, in addition to safety protocols, interventions should target staff relationships, personal health maintenance practices, and individual coping skills for dealing with adverse workplace experiences. PMID:26377816

  20. College Men's Perception of the Risks and Benefits of Intervening against Sexual Assault and the Influence of Social Norms and Masculine Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is a major problem facing colleges and universities, and prevention efforts have begun to examine how student peers can be encouraged to intervene as active bystanders. This study investigated what male students perceived as the most salient risks and benefits of intervening in a situation involving a hypothetical sexual assault and…