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  1. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

  2. Extraction of DNA from forensic-type sexual assault specimens using simple, rapid sonication procedures.

    PubMed

    Crouse, C A; Ban, J D; D'Alessio, J K

    1993-10-01

    Sonication procedures for the extraction of DNA from forensic-type semen specimens have been developed, which, when compared to currently utilized sperm DNA extraction techniques, are simple, rapid and result in comparable DNA yields. Sperm DNA extraction by sonication was performed on whole semen, seminal stains, buccal swabs and post-coital specimens. Ultrasound disruption of sperm cells and their ultimate release of cellular DNA has been conducted in the presence of sperm wash buffers followed by organic extraction or Chelex 100 with little or no compromise to DNA quality, quantity or amplifiability. Two advantages of sonication over currently used forensic techniques to extract sperm DNA include 1) sperm DNA extraction that occurs within five minutes of sonication compared with an hour or greater for water bath incubations in classic enzyme digestion DNA extractions and 2) one less preparatory step with the Chelex/sonication protocol and three less steps with the sonication/organic protocol compared with other procedures thus eliminating potential sample-to-sample cross-contamination. Sperm DNA extracted by optimum sonication procedures was used for forensic HLA DQ alpha typing and restriction fragment length polymorphisms analysis without any adverse effects on typing results.

  3. Sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Dunn, S F; Gilchrist, V J

    1993-06-01

    Estimates are that one in four women will be sexually assaulted at some time during her life. For the victim, it is a life-changing, traumatic event. This paper reviews both the immediate and long-term care of the sexual assault victim. For the victim seen immediately after the assault, physicians must provide empathic, nonjudgmental care that puts the victim back in control of her life. It is essential that the physician provide continued support for the victim and her family through the recovery process. The medical presentations that should prompt the physician to inquire about undisclosed sexual assault and the social and cultural myths that promote sexual assault are reviewed.

  4. Sexual assault.

    PubMed

    DeVore, Heather K; Sachs, Carolyn J

    2011-08-01

    Sexual assault is a problem that permeates all socioeconomic classes and impacts hundreds of thousands in the United States and millions worldwide. Most victims do not report the assault; those that do often present to an emergency department. Care must encompass the patients' physical and emotional needs. Providers must be cognizant regarding handling of evidence and possible legal ramifications. This article discusses the emergency medicine approach to history taking, physical examination, evidence collection, chain of custody, psychological and medical treatment, and appropriate follow-up. Special circumstances discussed include intimate partner violence, male examinations, pediatric examinations, suspect examinations, and drug-facilitated assaults.

  5. It Is All About Respect: The Army’s Problem with Sexual Assault

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-23

    Courts-Martial (MCM) more closely with other Federal laws and regulations.42 Article 120: Rape , Sexual Assault, and other Sexual Misconduct The new...victim does not or cannot consent. Sexual assault includes rape , nonconsensual sodomy (oral or anal sex), indecent assault (unwanted, inappropriate...Manslaughter 24 3 1% Negligent Homicide 11 2 0% Attempted Murder 36 5 1% Sex Assault 1,313 186 47% Rape 515 73 18% Aggravated Sexual

  6. [Drug facilitated sexual assault].

    PubMed

    Alempijević, Djordje; Savić, Slobodan; Stojanović, Jovan; Spasić, Andjelka

    2007-01-01

    In line with the fact that there is little information regarding drug facilitated sexual assault in national medical literature, the authors aimed to prepare a review of the phenomenon based on available international references. Therefore we offered a definition of the concept of sexual assault, and rape in particular. Consent and ability for valid consent for sexual intercourse were defined as well. A review contains discussion about the basic elements of a concept of drug-facilitated sexual assault. There is also available information in regard to pharmacology of common data rape drugs, i.e. flunitrazepam, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), and ketamine. We indicate the utmost importance of prompt collecting of biological samples for toxicological screening in patients who are suspected victims of drug facilitated sexual assault.

  7. Rape (sexual assault) - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Sex and rape; Date rape; Sexual assault ... Rape may occur between members of the same sex. This is more common in places such as prisons, military settings, and single-sex schools. People with physical or mental disabilities or ...

  8. Working with Potentially Assaultive Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdach, Allison D.

    1993-01-01

    Examines potentially assaultive or preassaultive client and suggests some ways to minimize the risk of assault by such clients. Data for the article are from author's 10-year experience in providing social work services on acute psychiatric ward in large public medical center. Reviews potentially assaultive client conditions of panic, rage,…

  9. Fighting Campus Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Warren

    2014-01-01

    When President Obama points out, correctly, that young women stand a better chance of being sexually assaulted on a college campus than in the world outside, we have a problem that needs to be addressed not simply on campus, but at the highest levels of government. Author Warren Tolman strongly believes that the Massachusetts Office of Attorney…

  10. Sexual assault in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Linda H

    2011-01-01

    Women are sexually assaulted at an alarming rate, and the workplace is a frequent arena for assault. However, in recent decades, attention has been given to improving responses to sexual assault. Sexual assault is a frequent cause of injury and death for women in the United States. One in five American women admit they have experienced a completed rape during their lifetime. These estimates are conservative because sexual assault and sexual violence are both underreported and underprosecuted. Fear of job loss and discrimination are frequent reasons women do not report sexual assault in the workplace. Women are entering the workplace in greater numbers due in part to more single parent families and the depressed economy. Also, women are entering work environments that have traditionally been the domain of male workers: corporate headquarters, semi trucks, health care providers' offices, rural farms, and rural factories. Employers must have a plan to protect female employees and effectively address any incidents of sexual assault or violence. Occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners can assist both employees and employers to prevent sexual assault and resolve the aftermath of sexual assault. However, to accomplish this goal, occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners must be trained in sexual assault and violence response as well as preventive interventions.

  11. Physical Assault of School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajs, Lawrence T.; Schumacher, Gary; Vital, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical assault against school personnel is a serious problem, although not highly publicized. This workplace violence can result in debilitating injury to school employees along with major monetary costs. This article looks at legal issues that address physical assault against school personnel as well as the roles professional associations have…

  12. Forensic toxicology in drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2013-09-01

    The low rates of reporting, prosecution and conviction that characterize sexual assault, is likely even more evident in drug-facilitated cases. Typically, in these crimes, victims are incapacitated and left unable to resist sexual advances, unconscious, unable to fight off the abuser or to say "no" and unable to clearly remember the circumstances surrounding the events due to anterograde amnesia. The consequence is the delay in performing toxicological analysis aggravated by the reluctance of the victim to disclose the crime. Moreover since "date rape drugs" are often consumed with ethanol and exhibit similar toxicodynamic effects, the diagnosis is erroneously performed as being classical ethanol intoxication. Therefore, it is imperative to rapidly consider toxicological analysis in drug-facilitated sexual assaults. The major focus of this review is to harmonize practical approaches and guidelines to rapidly uncover drug-facilitated sexual assault, namely issues related to when to perform toxicological analysis, toxicological requests, samples to be collected, storage, preservation and transport precautions and xenobiotics or endobiotics to be analyzed.

  13. Mitochondrial Disorder Aggravated by Metoprolol

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Mary Kay; Hernandez, Mariana; Yadav, Aravind

    2016-01-01

    Beta-adrenergic blocking agents or beta-blockers are a class of medications used to treat cardiac arrhythmias and systemic hypertension. In therapeutic dosages, they have known adverse outcomes that can include muscular fatigue and cramping, dizziness, and dyspnea. In patients with mitochondrial disease, these effects can be amplified. Previous case reports have been published in the adult population; however, their impact in pediatric patients has not been reported. We describe a pediatric patient with a mitochondrial disorder who developed respiratory distress after metoprolol was prescribed for hypertension. As the patient improved with discontinuation of medication and no alternative etiology was found for symptoms, we surmise that administration of metoprolol aggravated his mitochondrial dysfunction, thus worsening underlying chest wall weakness. PMID:27840760

  14. Attracting Assault: Victims' Nonverbal Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Betty; Stein, Morris I.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a study in which prison inmates convicted of assault identified potential victims from videotapes. A lab analysis code was used to determine which nonverbal body movement categories differentiated victims and nonvictims. (JMF)

  15. Physical Assaults Among Education Workers

    PubMed Central

    Tiesman, Hope M.; Hendricks, Scott; Konda, Srinivas; Hartley, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Enumerate and describe physical assaults occurring to Pennsylvania education workers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was mailed to a random sample of 6450 workers, stratified on gender, occupation, and region. Logistic regression was used to examine risk factors for physical assault. Results During the 2009–2010 school year, 309 of 2514 workers were assaulted 597 times. Special education teachers, urban workers, and those in their first 3 years of employment were at an increased risk. Most assaults did not lead to medical care or time away from work; however, those assaulted were significantly more likely to find work stressful, have low job satisfaction, and consider leaving the education field (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.5 [95% CI = 1.5 to 4.1]; AOR = 2.4 [95% CI = 1.5 to 3.9]; AOR = 10.7 [95% CI = 4.1 to 28.1]). Conclusions Although education workers experienced few serious physical assaults, the impact of this violence was considerable. PMID:24854254

  16. Sexual assault services delivered by SANEs.

    PubMed

    Stermac, Lana; Dunlap, Hester; Bainbridge, Deidre

    2005-01-01

    Sexual Assult Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs have become the standard of care for sexual assault victims in many urgent care settings. This study examines SANE clinical nursing practices at one Canadian sexual assault urgent care centre.

  17. Sexual Assault Programming for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briskin, Karen Calabria; Gary, Juneau Mahan

    1986-01-01

    Describes awareness workshops designed to promote awareness of sexual assault and to provide education about such assaults on college campuses. Concludes that such workshops can increase individual and campus-wide awareness of appropriate resources in the event of a sexual assault and can provide knowledge as a form of improvement. (Author/NB)

  18. Assault history and follow-up contact of women survivors of recent sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Boykins, Anita D; Mynatt, Sarah

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this comparative descriptive study is to describe and examine differences in assault characteristics and the issues surrounding follow-up contact of women survivors of a recent sexual assault. This study identified assault characteristics: half of the assaults were by strangers; approximately one-third of the assaults occurred in the victim's home; 29% of the victims were abducted; weapons and physical force were used in over half of the cases; 63% were vaginal assaults; and 86% involved penile penetration. Three months after the assault and the initial examination, only 23% (n = 18) of the study participants could be contacted by telephone for follow-up. The study's findings provide not only data regarding the characteristics of sexual assault, but also the difficulties in contacting adult female survivors for follow-up services. Recommendations outline the importance of thorough, individualized examinations and the need for improved, timely, follow-up services for sexual assault victims.

  19. Sexual assault in dating relationships.

    PubMed

    Rhynard, J; Krebs, M; Glover, J

    1997-03-01

    This article focuses on acquaintance rape, which under Canadian law constitutes a form of sexual assault. Frequency of acquaintance rape often is underestimated due to under-reporting, resulting in a local perception that acquaintance rape rarely occurs in a small Canadian community. A survey was conducted to determine whether acquaintance rape does occur in this community. One hundred sixty-four male and female students from grades 8-12 completed a questionnaire. Twenty-six percent of respondents reported being forced into some type of sexual activity. Based on the survey, this article explores the type of force used, the relationship between acquaintance rape and use of alcohol and drugs, and the relationship between acquaintance rape and the ability to indicate to a partner to stop a behavior. Results confirmed a need to develop programs to prevent rather than merely respond to issues of sexual assault on a date.

  20. Usefulness: forensic photo documentation after sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E J; Speck, P M; Fitzpatrick, J J

    2011-01-01

    The forensic medical legal evaluation following sexual assault establishes evidence for law enforcement's investigation and criminal prosecution by the legal system. The sexual assault nurse examiner performs the forensic evaluation and uses digital photography to document physical injuries after sexual assault. Photographs have varying degrees of usefulness, but for a photograph to be useful, it must exhibit technical elements for the viewer. There was no tool available to evaluate the usefulness of digital photographs taken during forensic evaluation of genital injuries after sexual assault. The Photo Documentation Image Quality Scoring System (PDIQSS) tool was developed to rate photographic technical elements for usefulness. Using this tool, three experts on two separate occasions evaluated a series of digital photographs taken following sexual assault. The PDIQSS tool predicted usefulness in digital photography of female genital injuries following sexual assault when measured in all dimensions.

  1. Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Program Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    P&R) SUBJECT: Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Program Procedures References: (a) Task Force Report on Care for Victims of Sexual ...Assault, April 20041 (b) Sections 101(d)(3), 113, 504, 4331, and Chapter 47 of title 10, United States Code (c) DoD Directive 6495.01, “ Sexual ...Collateral Misconduct in Sexual Assault Cases (JTF-SAPR-001),” November 12, 2004 (hereby canceled)2 (e) through (ahm), see Enclosure 1 1

  2. Needs of Sexual Assault Advocates in Campus-Based Sexual Assault Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Dianne; Ekhomu, Jessica; Payne, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    Most campuses have sexual assault crisis centers that are designed to assist victims and educate the college community about this crime. While much is known about sexual assault victimization patterns on college campuses, there is still a lack of understanding about the needs of those working to prevent sexual assault. In the current study, campus…

  3. The Sexual Assault Severity Scale: A Comprehensive Measure of Assault Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinson, Karyn Crystal

    2013-01-01

    Many studies in the sexual assault literature have found a significant relationship between sexual assault severity and psychological distress, specifically PTSD and suicidality. However, in the current literature, there is an inconsistent and incomplete definition of the construct of assault severity. The present study aims to create a…

  4. The Grand Assault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolittle, Russell F.; Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the protozoan parasite responsible for most human malaria, is among the most studied pathogens of all time, probably only exceeded by the human immunodeficiency virus HTV and the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The extent of human suffering and the devastating costs of malaria have long been recognized by world bodies, and numerous initiatives have been taken over the years in an effort to defeat this insidious microbe. Beginning in 1996, an international consortium of scientists from more than a dozen institutions set about to determine the sequence of the organism's 23-megabase genome. Their massive effort-which ended up going well beyond simple sequencing is reported in this special issue of Nature. The avowed goal of the project was to search for chinks in the parasite's armor so that new and effective drugs and vaccines might be developed.

  5. Disregarding Graduated Treatment: Why Transfer Aggravates Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kristin; Lanza-Kaduce, Lonn; Woolard, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    These data merge correctional histories with official state and courthouse information for a sample of teenage offenders, some of whom had been transferred to the adult system. Previous research indicated that transfer aggravates recidivism after the age of 18. The correctional data allow the examination of the relationship between sanctions and…

  6. Sexual Assault Reporting Procedures at Ohio Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krivoshey, Mira S.; Adkins, Rachel; Hayes, Rebecca; Nemeth, Julianna M.; Klein, Elizabeth G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess how Ohio colleges conform to recommendations that address barriers to reporting sexual assault. Participants: A study sample of Ohio 4-year colleges ("N" = 105). Methods: College Web sites were examined between March and November 2011 for their availability of sexual assault policies using 8 measures. Results: Of the…

  7. Prosecuting Assaultive Forensic and Psychiatric Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Kerri C.; Reddon, John R.; Chudleigh, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Inpatient assault of forensic and psychiatric staff is a complex and multifaceted issue. Hence, the consequences reported in the literature regarding prosecuting assaultive inpatients are quite variable. In this article, issues pertaining to the prosecution of violent inpatients are reviewed. Illustrative cases, challenges of prosecution,…

  8. The Shadow of Physical Harm? Examining the Unique and Gendered Relationship Between Fear of Murder Versus Fear of Sexual Assault on Fear of Violent Crime.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Samantha; Cook, Carrie L

    2015-09-01

    The shadow hypothesis regarding the impact of fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime suggests that female fear of crime is characterized by concern about sexual assault as a contemporaneous victimization event during a violent crime event. Recent research has found that other types of crime, namely physical assault, may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. We know of no research that has examined the unique impact of fear of murder versus fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime. There is also a lack of research that explores how these two types of fear uniquely affect men and women. In addition to gender, we examine factors that have been suggested in previous research to correlate with fear of crime: race, victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk. Through survey methodology, this research examines the unique relationship between both fear of murder and fear of sexual assault and fear of three types of violent crime for men and women. Results suggest differences in how fear of murder and fear of sexual assault are related to fear of other types of violence for men and women. Specifically, fear of murder is important in estimating male fear of robbery and aggravated assault. However, fear of sexual assault is almost as important as fear of murder for men in estimating fear of home invasion. Similarly, for women, fear of sexual assault and fear of murder both are significant factors associated with fear of violent crime, and differences between the levels of significance are marginal. This study is a first to examine whether murder may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. The results are informative in identifying what drives fear of crime, particularly violent crime, for both men and women. Avenues for future research are discussed.

  9. PREVENTION OF SEXUAL ASSAULT IN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Eze, U.O.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault occurs commonly worldwide and is particularly pervasive in the developing world. The background to sexual violence is important in the understanding of the ramifications of the problem. Some elements that offer the means to the prevention of sexual assault in the community are important highlights especially where the means - expertise and facilities - for managing cases of sexual assault is grossly inadequate. These concepts, though are applicable universally, are however discussed in the context of the developing world and with particular emphasis on the Nigerian situation. Their applicability in sexual assault prevention is derived from previous studies in different parts of the world that highlight the viability of these interventions. Therefore if one posits that sexual assault can be prevented, certain responsibilities are imperative; some challenges must be anticipated; and special needs/circumstances should be catered for. PMID:25161422

  10. Stranger and acquaintance sexual assault of adult males.

    PubMed

    Stermac, Lana; Del Bove, Giannetta; Addison, Mary

    2004-08-01

    This study examined victim and assault characteristics and the nature and extent of coercion, violence, and physical injuries among adult male victims of sexual assaults. Client records of three groups presenting to a sexual assault care center were included: males assaulted by a stranger (n = 64), males assaulted by an acquaintance (n = 81), and females assaulted by an acquaintance (n = 106). Study results revealed that male victims of sexual assault tended to be young, single men who reported high rates of vulnerabilities such as homelessness and physical, psychiatric, and cognitive disabilities. Male stranger assailant victims were more likely to experience assaults involving weapons and physical violence. Injuries sustained by victims and services delivered at the sexual assault care center were similar for both male and female clients. The results of this study reveal new information about violence in male sexual assaults and the vulnerability of the male victims.

  11. The Survivor Master Narrative in Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Shane D; Taylor, S Caroline; Norma, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    This article is based on data drawn from 90 Victoria Police operational files covering the period 2004-2008. Several thematic responses by sexual assault survivors are described as forming a master narrative of "identity shock." It is argued that the "minor/serious" sexual assault legal distinction is meaningless to survivors and conceals a shared felt experience. It is also argued that sexual assault is fundamentally a "public issue" of betrayal of citizen trust--not just a collection of "private troubles"--and that effective resolutions require more than individualized therapeutic and criminal justice measures.

  12. Dealing with Sexual Assault, Challenges, and Insights

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-11

    whether the military justice system should change, primarily due to public scrutiny on how senior military commanders handle sexual assault cases. With...that the DoD may see Congress take civilian control of the military justice system if the numbers of victims continue to rise. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16...self-motivating reasons that lead to sexual assault. There is ongoing debate in Congress over whether the military justice system should change

  13. Adult Sexual Assault Survivors' Experiences with Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANEs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Campbell, Rebecca; Patterson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Sexual assault survivors often feel traumatized by the care received in traditional hospital emergency departments. To address these problems, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs were created to provide comprehensive medical care, crisis intervention, and forensic services. However, there is limited research on the actual experiences and…

  14. Assault by burning in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Haddadin, W

    2012-12-31

    Criminal attacks by burns on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal burns in female patients treated at the burn unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were burned by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. Burn percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface area, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet burning assaults are rare. Of these, burning by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments.

  15. The epidemiology of drug facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Michael; Parker, Helen; Wells, David L

    2006-05-01

    The files of the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine were reviewed for all cases of alleged drug facilitated sexual assault for the 12 month period concluding in April 2003. Seventy-six cases were identified from a total of 434 (17.5%) cases of adult sexual assault. The median delay from alleged incident to time of examination was 20 h. Alcohol consumption in the hours prior to the assault was reported by 77%. Alcohol was still present in 37% when subsequently examined, with an average blood alcohol concentration of 0.11% at the time of examination. Forty-nine percent reported using prescription medications and 26% reported the use of recreational drugs. Drugs not reportedly consumed by the subject were detected in 15 cases (20%) of the study group or 3% of all adult sexual assault cases. The drugs detected included cannabis (four cases), antidepressants (4), amphetamines (3), benzodiazepines (4) and opiates (3). The study indicates that covert administration of drugs in the setting of adult sexual assault appears uncommon. The true incidence however may be higher (due to non or delayed reporting) or lower (due to inaccurate self reporting of drug consumption) however the frequent findings of high concentrations of alcohol has implications for the health and safety of these individuals.

  16. Reducing Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault in the Marine Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-10

    REDUCING ALCOHOL-RELATED SEXUAL ASSAULT IN THE MARINE CORPS 5a.&CONTRACT&NUMBER! N/A 5b.&GRANT&NUMBER! N/A 5c.&PROGRAM&ELEMENT&NUMBER! N/A 6...reduce alcohol-related sexual assault in the Marine Corps. It advocates more emphasis and training on the interplay between alcohol and sexual ...assault, as well as male and female-specific training on the issue. 15.&SUBJECT&TERMS! Sexual Assault, Alcohol, Incapacitation, Marine Corps

  17. Criminal poisoning: drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

    2007-05-01

    Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) is a complex and ever-prevalent problem presenting to emergency departments. Emergency personnel should consider DFSA in patients who are amnestic to the specific details of the event following a reported sexual assault. The presence of ethanol or a positive routine drug screen in a sexual assault victim does not exclude the potential of a surreptitious drug being present. In addition, a negative routine drug screen does not exclude all potential agents that are used in DFSA. This article discusses agents reported in DFSA. It is imperative for emergency personnel to clearly document the history and the presenting signs and symptoms to assist laboratory personnel to hone in and detect the correct agent used in a DFSA.

  18. HIV postexposure prophylaxis after sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Stevens, L; Brown, M A

    2001-12-01

    Recent advances in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease have prompted health care providers to reexamine recommendations for prophylaxis of HIV infection. Parallels with occupational exposure through mucous membrane tissues spur consideration of HIV prophylaxis after sexual assault for several reasons. In both instances, exposure occurs at a single point in time and is unlikely to recur. Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention does not make definitive recommendations regarding postexposure prophylaxis after sexual assault, the reality is that as clinicians, we face situations in which we must consider treatment for prevention of HIV disease after sexual assault. Guidelines for treatment and how to create and implement a policy to ensure the best outcomes, and provide a high quality of patient care with the New York State guidelines as a model, are discussed.

  19. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Sexual Assault in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klump, Meredith C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the research literature on the factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women victims of rape and sexual assault. Various studies have linked preassault variables (such as childhood abuse), and assault variables (including injury and perceived life threat during the assault)…

  20. Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault on Campus: Challenges and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Laura G.

    2002-01-01

    The use of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) to facilitate sexual assault is increasing on campuses nationwide. This article provides college counselors with an overview of the use of GHB in campus sexual assault, outlines suggestions for crisis intervention, and discusses the challenges of counseling survivors of drug-facilitated sexual assault.…

  1. 77 FR 4239 - Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... assault. It is DoD policy to establish a culture free of sexual assault by providing an environment of... implement the DoD SAPR policy. (b) The DoD goal is a culture free of sexual assault by providing...

  2. Correlates of Disclosure Cessation After Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Emily R; Allen, Nicole

    2016-11-10

    Contacts with responders after sexual assault may influence further disclosure, but this possibility has not been explored empirically. Thus, this study investigates associations between survivors' contacts with responders and their decisions to discontinue disclosure. Fifty-four college students with a history of unwanted sexual experiences described 94 ordered contacts with responders. Results indicate that survivors' perceptions of responsiveness were not associated with continued disclosure, but survivors were more likely to continue disclosing when they perceived more rape myth acceptance from responders and when the assault was more recent. These findings highlight survivors' tenacity in meeting their needs, even after problematic responses.

  3. The factors affecting sexual assaults committed by strangers and acquaintances.

    PubMed

    Pazzani, Lynn M

    2007-07-01

    Research on the causes of sexual assault typically analyzes rape committed by acquaintances and strangers together, despite the fact that the characteristics of the assault in these two circumstances are very different. Thus, this work examines whether the causes of each type of sexual assault--stranger and acquaintance rape--differ. The results of the analyses reveal that variables that describe a culture of gender equality, prior child abuse, and prior sexual assaults are associated with acquaintance assaults. In contrast, a culture of "hypermasculinity" is associated with stranger rape. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. A descriptive study of work aggravated asthma

    PubMed Central

    Goe, S; Henneberger, P; Reilly, M; Rosenman, K; Schill, D; Valiante, D; Flattery, J; Harrison, R; Reinisch, F; Tumpowsky, C; Filios, M

    2004-01-01

    Background and Aims: Work related asthma (WRA) is one of the most frequently reported occupational lung diseases in a number of industrialised countries. A better understanding of work aggravated asthma (WAA), as well as work related new onset asthma (NOA), is needed to aid in prevention efforts. Methods: WAA and NOA in the United States were compared using cases reported to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) from four state Sentinel Event Notification Systems for Occupational Risks (SENSOR) surveillance programmes for 1993–95. Results: A total of 210 WAA cases and 891 NOA cases were reported. WAA cases reported mineral and inorganic dusts as the most common exposure agent, as opposed to NOA cases, in which diisocyanates were reported most frequently. A similar percentage of WAA and NOA cases still experienced breathing problems at the time of the interview or had visited a hospital or emergency room for work related breathing problems. NOA cases were twice as likely to have applied for workers' compensation compared with WAA cases. However, among those who had applied for worker compensation, approximately three-fourths of both WAA and NOA cases had received awards. The services and manufacturing industrial categories together accounted for the majority of both WAA (62%) and NOA (75%) cases. The risk of WAA, measured by average annual rate, was clearly the highest in the public administration (14.2 cases/105) industrial category, while the risk of NOA was increased in both the manufacturing (3.2 cases/105) and public administration (2.9 cases/105) categories. Conclusions: WAA cases reported many of the same adverse consequences as NOA cases. Certain industries were identified as potential targets for prevention efforts based on either the number of cases or the risk of WAA and NOA. PMID:15150390

  5. Hepatic macrophage iron aggravates experimental alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Shigang; She, Hongyun; Zhang, An-Sheng; Wang, Jiaohong; Mkrtchyan, Hasmik; Dynnyk, Alla; Gordeuk, Victor R.; French, Samuel W.; Enns, Caroline A.; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu

    2008-01-01

    One prime feature of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is iron accumulation in hepatic macrophages/Kupffer cells (KC) associated with enhanced NF-κB activation. Our recent work demonstrates a peroxynitrite-mediated transient rise in intracellular labile iron (ILI) as novel signaling for endotoxin-induced IKK and NF-κB activation in rodent KC. The present study investigated the mechanism of KC iron accumulation and its effects on ILI response in experimental ALD. We also tested ILI response in human blood monocytes. Chronic alcohol feeding in rats results in increased expression of transferrin (Tf) receptor-1 and hemochromatosis gene (HFE), enhanced iron uptake, an increase in nonheme iron content, and accentuated ILI response for NF-κB activation in KC. Ex vivo treatment of these KC with an iron chelator abrogates the increment of iron content, ILI response, and NF-κB activation. The ILI response is evident in macrophages derived from human blood monocytes by PMA treatment but not in vehicle-treated monocytes, and this differentiation-associated phenomenon is essential for maximal TNF-α release. PMA-induced macrophages load iron dextran and enhance ILI response and TNF-α release. These effects are reproduced in KC selectively loaded in vivo with iron dextran in mice and more importantly aggravate experimental ALD. Our results suggest enhanced iron uptake as a mechanism of KC iron loading in ALD and demonstrate the ILI response as a function acquired by differentiated macrophages in humans and as a priming mechanism for ALD. PMID:18599584

  6. Pinealectomy aggravates acute pancreatitis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Jaworek, Jolanta; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Szklarczyk, Joanna; Nawrot-Porąbka, Katarzyna; Leja-Szpak, Anna; Jaworek, Andrzej K; Tomaszewska, Romana

    2010-01-01

    Melatonin, a pineal indoleamine, protects the pancreas against acute damage; however, the involvement of the pineal gland in the pancreatoprotective action of melatonin is unknown. The primary aim of this study was to determine the effects of pinealectomy on the course of acute caerulein-induced pancreatitis (AP) in rats. AP was induced by a subcutaneous infusion of caerulein (25 μg/kg) into pinealectomized or sham-operated animals. Melatonin (5 or 25 mg/kg) was given via intraperitoneal (ip) injection 30 min prior to the induction of AP. The pancreatic content of the lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal (MDA + 4HNE) and the activity of an antioxidative enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), were measured in each group of rats. Melatonin blood levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). In the sham-operated rats, AP was confirmed with histological examination and manifested as pancreatic edema and an increase in the blood lipase level (by 1,500%). In addition, the pancreatic content of MDA+ 4HNE was increased by 200%, and pancreatic glutathione peroxydase (GSH-Px) activity was reduced by 40%. Pinealectomy significantly aggravated the histological manifestations of AP, reduced the GSH-Px activity and markedly augmented the levels of MDA+ 4HNE in the pancreas of rats with or without AP as compared to sham-operated animals. Melatonin was undetectable in the blood of the pinealectomized rats with or without AP. Treatment with melatonin (25 mg/kg, ip) prevented the development of AP in the sham-operated rats and significantly reduced pancreatic inflammation in the animals previously subjected to pinealectomy. In conclusion, pineal melatonin contributes to the pancreatic protection through the activation of the antioxidative defense mechanism in pancreatic tissue as well as its direct antioxidant effects.

  7. Assault by burning in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, Kishore Kumar; Khondokar, M Sazzad; Quamruzzaman, M; Ahmed, Syed Shamsuddin; Peck, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Assault by burning in Dhaka, Bangladesh, occurs in a variety of forms, resulting from various causes and motives. A total of 311 cases of intentional burns from the Burn Unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2004 to May 2011 (6 years) were studied by retrospective and prospective observational review. The majority of victims (68%) were female. Concentrated sulphuric acid was the most commonly used chemical for attack. Disfigurement was the principal complication (mortality, 4%). Dowry-related issues, divorce and other marital quarrels were frequent backgrounds for assault by burning. Kerosene oil was used to ignite 78 girls or young women, most often related to conflicts over dowry (mortality 97%). A total of 102 victims (32%) in all burn groups were attacked because of dowry-related issues. Intentional contact burns were often inflicted on domestic servants. Although physical morbidity and mortality were not reported in contact and other types of burns, psychological disturbances were reported in all victims. A few victims had been assaulted prior to receiving burns, and fractures and deformities were also present on examination at the time of presentation for burn treatment. Ophthalmic injury, with frequent visual impairment, was very common in cases of chemical attack. Legal and social support for victims and their families are frequently inadequate to compensate for losses. Clearly, more attention in our community should be focussed on the prevention of burn assaults, adequate compensation and medical care for victims, as well as speedy retribution for perpetrators.

  8. Illegal Procedure? Title IX and Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Many higher education institutions are scrutinized by their campus community and the media for the way that they respond, or fail to respond, to allegations of sexual assault. Tack on the fact that nearly 100 colleges and universities are currently under investigation by the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR) for possible…

  9. Parental Responses to Extrafamilial Child Sexual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regehr, Cheryl

    1990-01-01

    Common emotional responses that parents of a child who has been sexually assaulted by someone external to the family exhibit include guilt regarding failure as a parent, ambivalent feelings toward the child, ambivalent feelings toward the offender, and concerns about the investigatory and judicial processes. (DB)

  10. Sexual Assault of the Elderly Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muram, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evaluated elderly victims of rape and determined the variables affected solely by the patient's age. It was found that 71.7 percent of these assaults took place at the victim's home, and most were by an unknown assailant. Genital injury was more prevalent among elderly victims. Physical intimidation was all that was necessary to subdue the victims…

  11. Family Violence & Sexual Assault Bulletin, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family Violence & Sexual Assault Bulletin, 1997

    1997-01-01

    These two issues contain reviews of legal/legislative issues, research and treatment issues, book and video materials, and on-line resources and websites relating to family violence and sexual assault. The first issue, contains "Empowering African American Children To Become Resilient: Early Success in Overcoming Violent Families and Communities…

  12. Going Too Far: Sexual Assault on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Sarah; Betron, Rachel; Bubbers, Caroline; Keightley, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    This case involves the alleged sexual assault of a college athlete by her professor. Rather than report the incident, the athlete turns to social media to cryptically share her story. Her messages are clear cries for help and give window to her accelerating depressed state. Given the nature of her postings and follow-up accusations, various…

  13. A&E management of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Holloway, M

    The care of women who have been raped or sexually assaulted tends to be poorly managed in accident and emergency departments. In 1991, a special suite was established at Hillingdon Hospital for the care of such women. This article discusses the process of setting up the unit and looks at what has been achieved so far.

  14. Sexual Assault of Older Women by Strangers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Susan J.; Hunt, Laura; Shaw, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This study examines victim, offender, and offence characteristics associated with sexual assaults by strangers of older women compared to those against younger women. Cases are obtained from the Serious Crime Analysis Section of the United Kingdom National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA; formerly Centrex). All possible cases of rape, attempted…

  15. "Fresh" Thoughts on Studying Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    When the author started graduate school in the late 1970s, she was drawn to studying sexual assault. She had been a declared feminist since high school as the Women's Movement even reached the coal region of eastern Pennsylvania! Attending college in New York City, with its myriad opportunities for more exposure to what feminists were up to, made…

  16. Feelings of mental pollution subsequent to sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Nichole; Rachman, S

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the phenomenon of mental pollution in a sample of 50 female victims of sexual assault. Feelings of mental pollution were assessed using an interview and a questionnaire. An experimental procedure was employed to determine if feelings of dirtiness and the urge to wash could be provoked by deliberate attention to the assault memory. Thirty (60%) of the 50 participants reported some feelings of mental pollution subsequent to the assault, and feelings of mental pollution were related to post-assault washing behaviour. Deliberate recall of the assault resulted in stronger feelings of dirtiness and the urge to wash than did deliberate attention to a pleasant memory or scene. Nine women reported washing their hands in response to deliberate recall of the assault. These findings suggest that feelings of mental pollution may be prominent in victims of sexual assault.

  17. [Keeping dogs indoor aggravates infantile atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Endo, K; Hizawa, T; Fukuzumi, T; Kataoka, Y

    1999-12-01

    We had a two-month-old girl with severe dermatitis since birth. Her serum RAST to HD, Df and Dp were 1.06, 0.03 and 0.01 Ua/ml respectively. A Yorkshire terrier were kept at her mother's parents' home where the patient had lived for a month since birth. Her eczema, which became markedly aggravated whenever she visited there, improved after the elimination of the dog. We investigated the relationship between keeping dogs and infantile atopic dermatitis. We studied 368 patients under the age of two years (211 boys and 157 girls). Skin symptoms were graded globally mild, moderate or severe. Total serum IgE and specific antibody titer to dog dander were measured. We asked them whether they kept dogs and specifically, where they kept dogs, outdoor, indoor, in their own house, or in their grandparents' house. 197 patients had no contact with dogs, 90 patients kept dogs outdoor and 81 patients did indoor. The positive rate of RAST (> or = 0.7 Ua/ml) to dog dander was 6.1%, 17.8% and 46.9% respectively in these three groups. There were strong statistical differences between three groups. On the other hand, among the 81 patients who kept indoor, the RAST positive rates were almost same regarding where the dogs were kept, in their own house or their grandparents' house. Interestingly this difference happens only with patients under the age of 3 months. Patients older than 4 months showed no significant differences in the positive RAST rates, whether they kept dogs indoor or outdoor. This suggests the sensitization occurs before the age of 3 months. Speaking of symptoms, patients who kept dogs indoor showed significantly more severe symptoms than patients who had no contact with dogs and patients who kept dogs outdoor. There was no significant difference between the symptoms of patients who had no contact with dogs and those of patients who kept dogs outdoor. This implies the patient's symptom will improve only by moving the dog out of the house.

  18. [On PACAP-aggravated experimental acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Youdai; Zhou, Zongguang; Chen, Youqin; Wang, Zhao; Gao, Hongkai; Zheng, Xuelian

    2004-12-01

    The role of PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide), a peptidergic transmitter, in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis is not yet clear. This experiment was conducted to examine the action of exogenous PACAP on rat pancreas and on the course of experimental acute pancreatitis. The results showed that 5-30 microg/kg of PACAP slightly raised the serum amylase level, induced pancreatic edema (23.88% +/- 2.532%-25.86% +/- 1.974% of experiment groups versus 29.21% +/- 5.657% of control group), inflammatory cell infiltration, vacuolization of acinar cells, and occasionally fatty and parenchymal necroses. 15-30 microg/kg of PACAP aggravated cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis; the pancreatic edema became more marked (13.45% +/- 2.045%-17.66% +/- 4.652% of expreiment groups versus 21.83% +/- 3.013% of cerulein group, P<0.05), the serum amylase level became higher; and ascites, pancreatic bleeding, fatty and parenchymal necroses, and extensive vacuolization of acinar cells appeared. For sodium taurocholate-induced pancreatitis, 5-10 microg/kg of PACAP mildly attenuated the pancreatic edema, reduced the serum amylase level (1986.91 +/- 710.97-2944.33 +/- 1182.47 IU/L vs 3690.87 +/- 2277.99 IU/L, P<0.05), whereas it caused multifocal hemorrhage and prominent necrosis in pancreas. Except the cerulein-induced pancreatitis groups, other groups were found to have reduced pancreatic functional capillary density (FCD); when pancreatic edema was taken into consideration and calibrated FCD was introduced (FCD weighted against pancreatic wet/dry ratio), all groups revealed increases in pancreatic functional capillaries when compared with normal control. In conclusion, PACAP is proinflammatory in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis, PACAP plus cerulein can induce acute hemorrhagic/necrotizing pancreatitis, and the action of PACAP on cerulein-induced panceatitis may differ from that on sodium taurocholate-induced one. In this experiment, pancreatic FCD was

  19. Characteristics associated with sexual assaults at mass gatherings

    PubMed Central

    Sampsel, Kari; Godbout, Justin; Leach, Tara; Taljaard, Monica; Calder, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexual assault is disturbingly common, yet little is known about those occurring at mass gatherings, defined as a group of people congregated for a common purpose. Our objectives were to examine patterns of variation in sexual assault associated with mass gatherings and to determine factors associated with assaults occurring at mass gatherings. Methods We performed a case series analysis from January to December, 2013. We included all patients >16 years presenting within 30 days of their sexual assault to the Ottawa Hospital Sexual Assault and Partner Abuse Care Program (SAPACP). Cases were stratified by whether or not they occurred at mass gatherings. We abstracted from the SAPACP records: patient and sexual assault characteristics, alcohol or drug consumption and medical and forensic care accepted. We performed descriptive analyses and multiple logistical regression to identify factors associated with mass gathering assaults. Results We found 204 cases of sexual assault, of which 53 (26%) occurred at mass gatherings. Relative frequencies of mass gathering sexual assaults peaked during New Year's Eve, Canada Day, university frosh week and Halloween. We found the following factors were statistically significantly associated with sexual assault at mass gatherings: younger age (OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.99); voluntary consumption of drugs and alcohol (3.88, 95% CI 1.34 to 11.23); assault occurring on a holiday (2.37, 95% CI 1.00 to 5.64) and the assailant unknown to the victim (2.43, 95% CI 1.15 to 5). Interpretation This study is the first to describe patterns of variation in sexual assault incidents associated with occurrence of mass gatherings as well as factors associated with such assaults. We will disseminate these results to key stakeholders in order to develop prevention-minded policies for future mass gatherings. PMID:26315648

  20. Assault related substance use as a predictor of substance use over time within a sample of recent victims of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Heidi S; Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna L; Schumacher, Julie A; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Acierno, Ron E

    2012-08-01

    Substance use at time of assault is reported by a significant subgroup of rape victims. This study examined: (1) prevalence of assault related marijuana or alcohol use among women seeking post-rape medical care; (2) sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive power associated with reported use at time of assault in association with use in 6 weeks pre-assault, post-assault use, and post-assault abuse; and (3) trajectories of use and abuse over time as a function of use in 6 weeks pre-assault/assault time frame use, exposure to brief intervention, and interaction of pre-assault/assault time frame use with intervention. Participants were 268 women seeking post-sexual assault medical services completing one or more follow-up assessment at: (1) <3 months post-assault; (2) 3 to 6 months post-assault; and (3) 6 months or longer post-assault. Use of alcohol or marijuana at time of assault was a fairly sensitive and specific indicator respectively, of reported use of specific substance in the 6 weeks preceding assault and use or abuse at follow-up. Growth modeling revealed that use of alcohol or marijuana at the time of the assault or in the 6 weeks prior to assault predicted higher Time 1 follow-up alcohol and marijuana use and abuse. Although there was relatively little change in use or abuse over time, alcohol use at time of the assault or in the 6 weeks prior also predicted a steeper decline in alcohol use over the course of follow-up. Interestingly, women who reported using marijuana at the time of the assault or in the 6 weeks prior who also received a video intervention actually had lower initial marijuana use, a pattern that remained stable over time. Implications for evaluating screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment services among sexual assault victims seeking post-assault medical care are discussed.

  1. Assault Related Substance Use as a Predictor of Substance Use Over Time Within a Sample of Recent Victims of Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna L.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Acierno, Ron E.

    2012-01-01

    Substance use at time of assault is reported by a significant subgroup of rape victims. This study examined: (1) prevalence of assault related marijuana or alcohol use among women seeking post-rape medical care; (2) sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive power associated with reported use at time of assault in association with use in 6 weeks pre-assault, post assault use, and post-assault abuse; and (3) trajectories of use and abuse over time as a function of use in 6 weeks pre-assault/assault time frame use, exposure to brief intervention, and interaction of pre-assault/assault time frame use with intervention. Participants were 268 women seeking post sexual assault medical services completing one or more follow-up assessment at: (1) < 3 months post-assault; (2) 3 to 6 months post-assault; and (3) 6 months or longer post-assault. Use of alcohol or marijuana at time of assault were fairly sensitive or specific indicators respectively, of reported use of specific substance in the 6 weeks preceding assault and use or abuse at follow-up. Growth modeling revealed that use of alcohol or marijuana at the time of the assault or in the 6 weeks prior to assault predicted higher Time 1 follow-up alcohol and marijuana use and abuse. Although there was relatively little change in use or abuse over time, alcohol use at time of the assault or in the six weeks prior also predicted a steeper decline in alcohol use over the course of follow-up. Interestingly, women who reported using marijuana at the time of the assault or in the six weeks prior who also received a video intervention actually had lower initial marijuana use, a pattern that remained stable over time. Implications for evaluating screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment services among sexual assault victims seeking post-assault medical care are discussed. PMID:22521363

  2. Drug-facilitated sexual assault ('date rape').

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Milteer, R; LeBeau, M A

    2000-06-01

    In the past few years, drug-facilitated sexual assaults have received widespread media coverage. In addition to alcohol, the most frequently used date-rape drug, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), a fast-acting benzodiazepine, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its congeners are among the most popular drugs used for this purpose. The latter drug is easily procured at some gymnasiums, popular bars, discos, and rave clubs, as well as over the Internet. Perpetrators choose these drugs because they act rapidly, produce disinhibition and relaxation of voluntary muscles, and cause the victim to have lasting anterograde amnesia for events that occur under the influence of the drug. Alcoholic beverages potentiate the drug effects. We review several date-rape drugs, provide information on laboratory testing for them, and offer guidelines for preventing drug-facilitated sexual assault.

  3. Drug-facilitated sexual assault using tetrahydrozoline.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Henry A; Siewert, Dennis J

    2012-05-01

    Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) has been defined as the use of a chemical agent to facilitate a sexual assault. We report two cases of the use of tetrahydrozoline for DFSA. We believe this is the first report with urinary quantification of tetrahydrozoline levels postassault. Blood and urine were obtained c. 20 h postexposure in two cases of reported DFSA. Tetrahydrozoline was not detected in blood but was identified in urine in both victims. After initial identification in the urine using the 2010 update to the AAFS mass spectrometry database library, tetrahydrozoline was quantified at 114 and 150 ng/mL, respectively, using GC/MS. Two unique clinical features reported in these cases were intermittent periods of consciousness and postexposure vomiting. Use of GC/MS was successful in identifying tetrahydrozoline in the 100 ng/mL range up to 20 h postexposure. For victims with late presentation, urine may be a better sample for evaluation for tetrahydrozoline.

  4. Engineering Provision of Assault Crossing of Rivers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-21

    of assault crossing. Thus, on the narrow rivers, in view of the fact that is difficult to realize turns, to disadvantageously create ferry crossings...house production and use/application of elements of corrugated plate, plastics and light alloys, and also covers/roofs/pavements from the multilayer...anchored mines (Fig. 5). The character of obstacles in the water in many respects depends on the profile/ airfoil of the bottom of river. Thus, on the

  5. A Compendium of Sexual Assault Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    unclear whether research on female rape victims applies to male victims. For example, rape trauma syndrome appears among both female and male victims...of the assault were more likely to have been threatened, and have general body trauma or genital trauma. They were also significantly older than...more likely to have been threatened (66 versus 33 percent), experienced general body trauma (39 versus 6 percent), and experienced genital trauma (36

  6. Sexual Assault Experienced by Deaf Female Undergraduates: Prevalence and Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Elliott Smith, Rebecca A; Pick, Lawrence H

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 25% of hearing women in the United States experience rape in their life-time, whereas deaf women have been found to experience increased rates of assault consistent with other marginalized populations. This study explored sexual assault prevalence and characteristics of assault in deaf female undergraduate students. Results revealed that more than two-thirds of the participants (69%) endorsed experiencing at least one assault and more than half (56%) experienced multiple types of assault. Most assaults were committed by a man known to the survivor. Characteristics (e.g., hearing status, primary language, and ethnicity) of the survivors and the assailants are explored. The implications of this data are discussed as well as the development of culturally and linguistically sensitive outreach and educational programs.

  7. The new sexual assault law: the victim's experience in court.

    PubMed

    Sahjpaul, S; Renner, K E

    1988-08-01

    The questions asked of victims of sexual and physical assault by the prosecutor and defense were recorded and coded by courtroom observers. The defense in comparison to the prosecution treated both types of victims in a negative way. Sexual assault victims were subjected to more negative questions and required to give a more personal form of testimony than physical assault victims due to the strategies used by both the prosecution and the defense. Sexual assault cases were convicted less often than physical assault cases. It was concluded that the new law in Canada which replaced the offense of rape with one of "sexual assault" has not had its intended effect of reducing the burden on a victim when she testifies in court.

  8. Child sexual assault: risk factors for girls.

    PubMed

    Butler, Amy C

    2013-09-01

    To identify prospectively measured risk factors of sexual assault (SA) among girls age 17 and younger. The data come from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and are derived from interviews with 1,087 girls, their primary caregivers, and household heads. The data were collected from the girls' first year of life through their early twenties. Factors measured during childhood were used to predict whether the girls experienced a subsequent first sexual assault before the age of 18. Prospectively measured risk factors associated with subsequent child SA included the absence of one or both parents, maternal education less than college, family income below 400% of the federal poverty threshold, low caregiver warmth, child internalizing and externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, low achievement scores, and having been classified by their school as needing special education. Girls with behavioral health problems and learning challenges are at heightened risk for sexual assault. Research on behavioral health consequences of SA should control for preexisting SA risk factors to more accurately estimate the impact of child SA on subsequent behavioral health.

  9. United States Marine Corps Assault Amphibian Vehicle Egress Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    CORPS ASSAULT AMPHIBIAN VEHICLE EGRESS STUDY by Jason T. Ford June 2014 Thesis Advisor: Lawrence G. Shattuck Second Reader: Lyn R...COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS ASSAULT AMPHIBIAN VEHICLE EGRESS STUDY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S...program, the Marine Corps have begun developing the Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) to replace the 42-year-old Assault Amphibian Vehicle (AAV). Because

  10. Leading Change: Sexual Harassment/Assault Response and Prevention (SHARP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    articulated the importance of justice , morality, equality, and family values. In essence, sexual harassment and sexual assault violates the tenants of the...and together we will be Army Strong.”5 Army Regulation 600-20 makes it clear that “Sexual assault is a criminal offense and has no place in the...Army.”6 In addition to the criminal element, sexual assault in the military breaks down the fabric of the organization. It breeds anger, mistrust

  11. Evaluation and Management of Female Victims of Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Vrees, Roxanne A

    2017-01-01

    Sexual assault is characterized by any sexual contact or behavior that occurs without explicit consent. Classifications vary based on the status of the perpetrator's relationship to the victim (eg, stranger, acquaintance) and characteristics of the victim herself (eg, child, elder adult, mentally disabled adult). Regardless of the classification, sexual assault is a significant individual as well as public health issue affecting women of all ages. While the majority of sexual assault cases are not initially reported to law enforcement, the best available data suggest the lifetime prevalence of sexual assault in the United States is approximately 20% among adult women. With such a significant proportion of women affected by sexual assault, women's health care providers in both ambulatory and emergency care settings play key roles in the evaluation, management, and advocacy of these victims. Establishing standard protocols based on state laws and on victim-centered practices to avoid revictimization of the patient is critical. The primary goals of care include the assessment and treatment of physical injuries, psychological assessment and support, pregnancy assessment and prevention, and therapy for prevention of sexually transmitted infections. In addition, evidentiary collection is a critical component of the sexual assault evaluation and subsequent legal proceedings. This report focuses specifically on the immediate evaluation and management of adult female victims of sexual assault. Best practices include the utility of the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner and Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner programs, as well as standardized treatment protocols.

  12. Criminal justice processing of sexual assault cases. Highlights.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J V

    1994-03-01

    This article discusses the processing of criminal justice on sexual assault cases in Canada. To begin with, in 1983, Bill C-127 abolished the offense of rape and indecent assault and created three new crimes of sexual assault and three parallel offenses of assault. This legislation also introduced a number of important changes to the way crimes of sexual aggression are processed by the criminal justice system. In 1991, the Supreme Court struck down provisions of the sexual assault legislation preventing a defendant from introducing evidence regarding complainant's previous sexual conduct. As a result, Bill C-49 was introduced to provide a test to determine whether a complainant's sexual history could be admitted at trial. This bill also addresses the issue of consent and the defense of mistaken beliefs in consent. The focus of the Juristat is the criminal justice processing of the three levels of sexual assault, which are elaborated in this article. In order to distinguish between the different levels, body harm relates only to physical injury and does not include psychological harm. Drawing on the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, the Sentence Study, the Adult Criminal Court Survey and the Youth Court Survey, the Juristat summarizes recent trends relating to the processing of sexual assault and assault by the police and the courts. Canada's Violence Against Women Survey provides a profile of sexual assault incidents among adult women in Canada.

  13. [Aggravation after Diagnosis of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Ichiro; Nemoto, Toshimitsu; Tsukuda, Tomoko; Koshizuka, Keiichi

    2015-03-01

    Among 95 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss who received inpatient treatment at our hospital within the 27-month period between October 2009 and December 2011, those in whom hearing loss was aggravated after diagnosis were compared with a control group. Hearing loss aggravation was defined as a decrease by 10 dB or more in the mean hearing threshold at 5 frequencies from 250 to 4,000 Hz or decrease of 15 dB or more in the hearing threshold at 2 consecutive frequencies. Hearing loss was aggravated after diagnosis in 22 (23.2%) of the 95 patients, showing a similar tendency to that previously reported. Although the grades of hearing loss in these patients were higher than those in 73 control group patients, according to the sudden hearing loss severity classification, their outcomes were favorable. The hearing loss aggravation group consisted of those with steroid-dependent hearing loss (6) and those who had undergone perilymphatic fistula repair (4), in addition to a large number of patients with idiopathic hearing loss, including suspicious perilymphatic fistula (10). When hearing loss becomes aggravated after the diagnosis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, it may be important to determine the most appropriate approach in each case, such as a careful and gradual decrease in the adenocortical steroid dose and the consideration of perilymphatic fistula repair.

  14. Latent Profiles among Sexual Assault Survivors: Understanding Survivors and Their Assault Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Nurius, Paula S.; Norris, Jeanette

    2007-01-01

    Little guidance exists about how to tailor empowerment and resistance sexual assault programming to be responsive to varying groups of women. Using an investigation of 415 college women who completed a self-administered survey about a range of sexually aggressive experiences by a known male assailant, this investigation tested for distinct…

  15. Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Service Goal Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Johns, Natalie; Rizo, Cynthia F.; Martin, Sandra L.; Giattina, Mary

    2011-01-01

    We investigated agency directors' perspectives about how service goals should be prioritized for domestic violence and sexual assault service subtypes, including crisis, legal advocacy, medical advocacy, counseling, support group, and shelter services. A sample of 97 (94% response rate) North Carolina domestic violence and/or sexual assault agency…

  16. Men's Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21 to 35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of…

  17. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault Among Ethnically Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among ethnic minority samples or identify the mechanisms responsible for this association. The current study examined sexual assault history and two health risk behaviors (hazardous drinking and engaging in sexual behavior to regulate negative affect) in a diverse sample of 1,620 college women. Depression and anxiety were examined as mediators of the relationship between sexual assault and health risk behaviors. There was evidence of moderated mediation, such that for European American women, but not for ethnic minority women, both forms of psychological distress were significant mediators of the sexual assault/hazardous drinking relationship. In contrast, among all ethnic groups, the relationship between sexual assault and both forms of psychological distress was mediated by the use of sexual behavior as an affect regulation strategy. Results support a need to evaluate the assault experiences of ethnically diverse women, as well as the impact of the assault on their postassault experiences including health risk behaviors and psychological adjustment. Additionally, results suggest that practitioners should carefully assess health risk behaviors among victims of sexual assault and be aware that there may be differences in the risk factors and motives for these behaviors among women of various ethnic backgrounds. PMID:24223467

  18. Effectiveness of a Social Change Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith E.

    2009-01-01

    The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…

  19. Sexism, Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault: Toward Conceptual Clarity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    SEXISM , SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND SEXUAL ASSAULT: TOWARD CONCEPTUAL CLARITY Dr. Richard Harris Department of Social Work and Center for Policy...00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sexism , Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault: Toward Conceptual Clarity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Sexual Harassment .........................................................................................2 Sexism

  20. Assault Injury Rates, Social Capital, and Fear of Neighborhood Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Daniel J.; Hutchison, Peter; Monroe, Matthew G.; Reischl, Thomas; Morrel-Samuels, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This study develops an explanatory framework for fear of neighborhood crime based on respondents' social context and local rates of assault injuries. Rates of assault injuries within zip codes are based on hospital discharge records. We find that only four variables have a significant unique contribution to fear of crime: respondent's sex,…

  1. Latinas and Sexual Assault: Towards Culturally Sensitive Assessment and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Georgiana; Organista, Kurt C.

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the sparse empirical data on sexual assault among Latinas. Presents a working bicultural model of sexual assault that frames the problem within both traditional Latino and American gender role systems. Discusses implications for providing culturally competent services for Latina victims that draw on supportive aspects of familism and…

  2. A Program on Preventing Sexual Assault Directed toward Greek Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Tamara; Boyd, Cynthia

    This paper discusses a program that uses the leadership and status of Greek system officers to prevent sexual assault at a large university. This program aims to prevent future assaults by altering the conditions of a rape-prone culture. The presentation comprises a definition and two examples of acquaintance rape situations, a discussion of…

  3. Male sexual assault and rape: who seeks counseling?

    PubMed

    Monk-Turner, Elizabeth; Light, David

    2010-09-01

    This work rests on responses from 219 male sexual assault and rape victims who self-reported their victimization in the 1994-1996 Violence and Threats of Violence Against Women and Men in the United States survey. The authors expected that men who reported being severely assaulted would be more likely than others to seek counseling. They defined severely assaulted as having been penetrated, assaulted with a weapon, threatened, self-reported sustaining physical injuries, sought medical care, and/or reported the assault to the police. However, in their logistic model that explores who sought counseling, only one variable was significant. The odds of seeking counseling for men who reported being penetrated had significantly lower odds of seeking counseling all else equal.

  4. Expressed sexual assault legal context and victim culpability attributions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Audrey K; Markman, Keith D; Amacker, Amanda M; Menaker, Tasha A

    2012-04-01

    Legal scholars have argued that laws have an expressive function, specifically that sexual assault laws may convey social-level messages that victims are culpable for crimes against them. In a university sample, we conducted the first experimental test of legal scholars' proposal, hypothesizing that legal messages-specifically their clarity and effectiveness in conveying that sexual assault is a crime-affect victim culpability attributions. Results demonstrated that greater culpability was attributed to a victim of sexual assault within a context expressing unclear and ineffective sexual assault law than within a context clearly and effectively expressing that sexual assault is a crime. We also garnered empirical support for a mediation model, that is, negative affective reactions to a victim statistically accounted for the relationship between expressed legal context and victim culpability attributions. Implications for future psycholegal research and potential legal reforms are discussed.

  5. Role of foods in irregular aggravation of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Uenishi, Toshiaki; Sugiura, Hisashi; Uehara, Masami

    2003-02-01

    Although it is well known that patients with atopic dermatitis often show unpredictable, irregular aggravation of skin lesions, there are no previously published studies examining trigger factors for such unpredictable aggravation. We investigated whether foods play a role in the unpredictable, irregular worsening of atopic dermatitis. The patient group included 195 Japanese adult patients with atopic dermatitis who showed unpredictable, irregular aggravation of skin lesions. They were hospitalized and openly challenged with suspected foods. Photographs of representative skin lesion sites were taken at baseline and before and after the challenge. Challenge-positive foods were determined by evaluating the comparable before-after challenge photographs. One to three (average: 1.7) challenge-positive foods were confirmed in 86 (44%) of the 195 patient examined. Predominant offending foods were chocolate, cheese, coffee, yogurt and some Japanese foods such as glutinous rice cake, soy sauce and fermented soybeans. Specific IgE values to the offending foods were mostly negative. Patients were asked to exclude challenge-positive foods from their diets. They were then discharged and followed up for 3 months at our outpatient clinic. Exclusion of the offending foods for 3 months brought about a progressive improvement of the disease. These results suggest that foods play an important role in unpredictable, irregular aggravation of skin lesions in patients with atopic dermatitis.

  6. 38 CFR 3.306 - Aggravation of preservice disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... disability. 3.306 Section 3.306 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Connection § 3.306 Aggravation of preservice disability. (a) General. A preexisting injury or disease will be... disability during such service, unless there is a specific finding that the increase in disability is due...

  7. 38 CFR 3.306 - Aggravation of preservice disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... disability. 3.306 Section 3.306 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Connection § 3.306 Aggravation of preservice disability. (a) General. A preexisting injury or disease will be... disability during such service, unless there is a specific finding that the increase in disability is due...

  8. 38 CFR 3.306 - Aggravation of preservice disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... disability. 3.306 Section 3.306 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Connection § 3.306 Aggravation of preservice disability. (a) General. A preexisting injury or disease will be... disability during such service, unless there is a specific finding that the increase in disability is due...

  9. The Impact of Sexual Assault History and Relationship Context on Appraisal of and Responses to Acquaintance Sexual Assault Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    2005-01-01

    Although a major predictor of sexual victimization is previous victimization, the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. Sexual assault historys impact on appraisal of and responses to sexual assault risk was examined in an experimental analog study. Intimacy with perpetrator was also examined as a potential contributor to…

  10. Challenges of Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    LeBeau, M A; Montgomery, M A

    2010-01-01

    This article provides the reader with an understanding of the numerous challenges of drug-facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA). The challenges are categorized as follows: the drugs, reporting the crime, evidence collection, and laboratory analysis of specimens. The challenges associated with the drugs used to commit DFSA emphasizes the pharmacological effects of strong central nervous system depressants and how the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these drugs create difficulties in an investigation. For example, while sexual assaults are generally considered to be a significantly underreported crime, the drug effects further complicate victims' reporting to law enforcement. Any delay in reporting decreases the ability of a laboratory to detect the presence of drugs or metabolites in useful evidentiary specimens such as blood and urine. Finally, differences in instrumentation and mission from one laboratory to the next will impact the ability to provide consistent identification of DFSA drugs or metabolites in these cases. Although the true prevalence of DFSAs will never be fully known, acknowledgment of the many challenges that come with these cases provides insight as to how to improve chances of successfully investigating DFSA allegations.

  11. Sexual Assault on the College Campus: The Role of Male Peer Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Martin D.; DeKeseredy, Walter S.

    This book links research on two topics--sexual assault on North American college and university campuses and the role played by male peer support in such assaults. Disputing the notion that college campuses are safe havens from crime, the first chapter defines sexual assault, notes the incidence and prevalence of campus sexual assault, and…

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with physical and sexual assault of female university students in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Newton-Taylor, B; DeWit, D; Gliksman, L

    1998-01-01

    The authors examined the prevalence of physical and sexual assault of female university students and associated factors. In a survey of a random sample of 3,642 female students from 6 universities across Ontario, 24% of female students reported being physically assaulted and 15% reported being sexually assaulted during the previous year. When the assault measures were combined, 32% of university women reported being either physically or sexually assaulted during the previous year. Of those experiencing assault, 40% had been the victim of 2 or more types of assaults. Logistic regression analysis revealed that assault was associated with year of study, marital status, alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, prescription drug use, unhealthy eating and stress behaviors, less time spent on academics, and more time involved in social activities. University programs and activities directed toward the reduction of assault should incorporate the factors identified in this study to increase awareness of the situational factors surrounding likelihood of assault.

  13. The Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner's Interactions Within the Sexual Assault Response Team: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Adams, Phyllis; Hulton, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Many emergency department nurses care for the sexually assaulted victim, when sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) programs are not available. Therefore, it is important for emergency department nurses to understand the roles of both the SANE and the sexual assault response team (SART). The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the current research on the integration of the SANE among the SART and evaluate the gaps in research of the SANE's role, attitude, behavior, and satisfaction within the collaborative SART. Studies published between 2004 and 2014 using key words were evaluated. A 3-stage search strategy revealed 582 articles. The articles were assessed and categorized according to Level of Evidence definitions. Twelve qualitative and mixed-methods studies were identified. Studies ranged from SART protocols or responses to situational factors to SANE relationships with other SART members. The review reflected the need for more research within the collaborative atmosphere of this multidisciplinary and interagency team that defines the SART, and the individual member's perceptions. Further studies are needed on the SANE's impact on patient outcome and the emergency department nurses role when a SANE or SART program is not available.

  14. Drug facilitated sexual assault--a review.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Moore, C B T

    2008-07-01

    This review was undertaken to identify the evolutionary process in the current understanding of allegations of drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), so that those who work in this field may gain a better understanding of the complexities involved in such cases. Several definitions of DFSA are provided as well as a list of intoxicating substances which have so far been incriminated in this crime. Perception and alcohol use is addressed, whilst an examination of intoxication and victim outcomes reveals disturbing but important information which needs to be centrally placed within health education campaigns with a degree of urgency. The review identifies the effects of alcohol on sexual behaviour, drinking patterns and specific quantitative research indicating very high alcohol levels in some instances. In practical terms, suggestions are made following Operation Matisse, to address prevention, early detection and easier identification of DFSA cases so that victims' needs are prioritised and appropriately addressed.

  15. Penetrating Heart Injury due to Screwdriver Assault

    PubMed Central

    Dieng, P. A.; Diop, M. S.; Ciss, A. G.; Ba, P. S.; Diatta, S.; Gaye, M.; Fall, M. L.; Ndiaye, A.; Ndiaye, M.

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating heart injuries cause wounds in the cardiac chambers. Most of them are due to gunshot or stabbing by knives. Screwdriver is an uncommon weapon. Authors report a case of stab wound by screwdriver, treated at cardiovascular center in Dakar. This is a 16-year-old boy who experienced physical aggression. He was assaulted with a screwdriver and had stab wound on the anterior wall of the chest. Physical examination showed a screwdriver penetrating the sternum bone over a right angle. He had a mild pericardial blood effusion and a right ventricle wound 5 mm in diameter with transection of the right coronary vein. The screwdriver was removed without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and the ventricle wound repaired by direct suture of stitches reinforced with Teflon pledgets. The right coronary artery was ligated. Postoperative period was free of events. Screwdriver is uncommonly used as a weapon. It is a dangerous device because of its rigid structure and narrow tip. PMID:25945263

  16. Sexual assault in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Badejoko, Olusegun Olalekan; Anyabolu, Henry Chineme; Badejoko, Bolaji Olusola; Ijarotimi, Adebimpe Omotade; Kuti, Oluwafemi; Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa Aderonke

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexual assault (SA) is a shattering malevolence against women. This study determined the burden, periodicity, presentation and management of SA in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 76 SA survivors managed over a 5-year period (2007-2011) in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife. Results: Sexual assault accounted for 0.69% of all female and 5.2% of all gynaecological emergencies in OAUTHC, Ile-Ife. The survivors’ ages ranged from 4 to 50 years (mean = 17.7 ± 8.8years) and adolescents made up for 48%. The peak prevalence of SA was in February and December and among adults and under-16-year-old survivors, respectively. Daytime and weekday SA were significantly more common among the under-16-year-old survivors (P = 0.008). Majority of the survivors (62%) knew their assailant(s). Neighbours were the commonest perpetrators identified (28.2%) and the assailants’ house was the commonest location (39.4%). Weapons were involved in 29.6% of cases and various injuries were identified in 28.2% of the survivors. Hospital presentation was within 24 hours in majority (76.1%) of the survivors, but rape kit examinations were not performed as the kits were not available. Although appropriate medical management was routinely commenced, only 12.7% of survivors returned for follow-up. Conclusions: Seasonal and diurnal patterns exist in the prevalence of SA in Ile-Ife and most survivors that reported in the hospital presented early. Rape kit examinations were, however, not executed, due to non-availability. Personnel training, protocol development, provision of rape kits and free treatment of SA survivors are, therefore, recommended. Public enlightenment on preventive strategies based on the observed periodicity and age patterns is also suggested. PMID:25013260

  17. Sexual Assault in Bisexual and Heterosexual Women Survivors.

    PubMed

    Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Ullman, Sarah E

    Social support is related to sexual minority status and negative psychological impact among sexual assault survivors. We compared bisexual and heterosexual survivors on how different types of social support are connected to symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. A community sample of bisexual and heterosexual (N = 905) women sexual assault survivors completed three annual surveys. Heterosexual women reported greater perceived social support and fewer negative reactions to disclosure of sexual assault than bisexual women, but there were no differences in frequency of social contact. Perceived social support and frequency of social contact were related to fewer psychological symptoms of PTSD and depression for all women. Heterosexual women had fewer psychological symptoms than bisexual women. Finally, perceived social support mediated the relationship of sexual orientation with depressive symptoms but not with PTSD symptoms. These findings suggest that social support and sexual orientation may explain women's post-assault adjustment.

  18. Sexual Assault in Bisexual and Heterosexual Women Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Ullman, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Social support is related to sexual minority status and negative psychological impact among sexual assault survivors. We compared bisexual and heterosexual survivors on how different types of social support are connected to symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. A community sample of bisexual and heterosexual (N = 905) women sexual assault survivors completed three annual surveys. Heterosexual women reported greater perceived social support and fewer negative reactions to disclosure of sexual assault than bisexual women, but there were no differences in frequency of social contact. Perceived social support and frequency of social contact were related to fewer psychological symptoms of PTSD and depression for all women. Heterosexual women had fewer psychological symptoms than bisexual women. Finally, perceived social support mediated the relationship of sexual orientation with depressive symptoms but not with PTSD symptoms. These findings suggest that social support and sexual orientation may explain women’s post-assault adjustment. PMID:27453694

  19. Detection of synthetic cathinones in victims of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Kiara S; Reidy, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    Drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) can be defined as sexual activity occurring whereby the victim is incapacitated by drugs and/or alcohol and thereby unable to consent. A new wave of designer drugs is emerging in the community at large and one group, the synthetic cathinones, is described in this study. Analyzing urine samples from reported sexual assaults submitted to the University of Miami Toxicology Lab in 2013 determined that methylone has become a popular drug encountered in these cases. Derivatization of these synthetic cathinones enabled a validated a qualitative method to identify ten different designer drugs. Of the forty-five sexual assault samples submitted, 13% were positive for synthetic cathinones without any toxicological finding of ethanol, GHB or ketamine. This study illustrates the recent correlation of drug-facilitated sexual assaults and the use of synthetic cathinones.

  20. Immediate and delayed treatment seeking among adult sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Millar, Golden; Stermac, Lana; Addison, Mary

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature which seeks to better understand the needs of sexual assault victims presenting for specialized treatment. This study explored aspects of immediate and delayed treatment seeking among 1118 women who presented for treatment to a specialized sexual assault care centre within a large urban hospital. Variables related to demographic and assault-specific characteristics were examined for association with immediate (within 12 hours) or delayed (after 12 hours) treatment seeking. Results indicate the severity of the attack prompted women to seek treatment earlier and that women who were assaulted by a known perpetrator were more likely to delay seeking assistance. Findings are conceptualized under the rubric of sociological and feminist frameworks with suggestions for additional research.

  1. Sexual Assault and Harassment: A Campus Community Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Bernice; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses results of a survey conducted among students, faculty, and staff at the University of Rhode Island to explore experiences of and attitudes toward sexual assault and sexual harassment. (Author/MJL)

  2. 38 CFR 3.322 - Rating of disabilities aggravated by service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rating of disabilities... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.322 Rating of disabilities aggravated by service. (a) Aggravation of preservice disability. In cases involving aggravation by active service, the rating will reflect only...

  3. 38 CFR 3.322 - Rating of disabilities aggravated by service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rating of disabilities... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.322 Rating of disabilities aggravated by service. (a) Aggravation of preservice disability. In cases involving aggravation by active service, the rating will reflect only...

  4. 38 CFR 3.322 - Rating of disabilities aggravated by service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rating of disabilities... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.322 Rating of disabilities aggravated by service. (a) Aggravation of preservice disability. In cases involving aggravation by active service, the rating will reflect only...

  5. Testing New Survey Questions of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Testing New Survey Questions of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault Juanita M. Firestone Richard J. Harris DEFENSE EQUAL...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 09/30/2011 Technical Report Summer 2011 Testing New Survey Questions of Sexual ...Harassment and Sexual Assault Dr. Juanita M. Firestone and Dr. Richard J. Harris Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute (DEOMI) 366 Tuskegee

  6. Service Academy 2005 Sexual Harassment and Assault Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-30

    reporting and investigation; (3) eliminating sexual harassment and negative attitudes toward women at the Academy; and (4) ensuring cadet orientation ...cases, provide updates to commanders, and assist commanders in meeting annual and newcomer orientation on sexual assault training requirements. The...30-12-2005 Final Report April 2005 - December 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Service Academy 2005 Sexual Harassment and Assault Survey

  7. Air Assault - Rapid Response at the Operational Level.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-30

    visualize a number of operational applications for air assault units on the European battlefield. The key to their employment at this level is for...concept, one can visualize a number of operational applications for air assault units on the European battlefield. The key to their employment at this level...combat troop carrying and fire support roles for the helicopter. In 1969, the Soviet Union realized a need for this new combat helicopter technology

  8. The Use of Benzodiazepines to Facilitate Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, M A

    2010-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are one of the classes of drugs most commonly associated with drug-facilitated sexual assault. As a widely prescribed class of medications and abused drugs, benzodiazepines are extensively available. Their sedating and amnesic effects make them effective candidates for use in drug-facilitated assaults. Detection methods for benzodiazepines and their metabolites in biological fluids are plentiful, but methods must be tailored to the low concentrations of drugs and metabolites expected to be encountered in these cases.

  9. Task Force Report on Care for Victims of Sexual Assault

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    is defined, as any sort of sexual activity in which one person is involved against his or her will, with or without physical force. Of the almost 3...deployed environment, is not currently a consideration in force planning. For example, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANE) exist in the active and...risks and actively engage in preventive measures xii DoD Care for Victims of Sexual Assault Task Force Report all responders treat victims with

  10. Combatting sexual assault: an evaluation of a prevention program.

    PubMed

    Baylis, M G; Myers, A M

    1990-01-01

    Few guidelines exist for the planning or evaluation of community-based sexual assault prevention initiatives. Records from the Safety Van Program, as well as survey data from 60 users and 60 non-users characteristic of the target group, were used to explore the complex relationship between awareness, fear of assault and service use. Findings from the evaluation address issues such as basing program expansion on utilization rates, and using incidence rates to justify service need.

  11. Sexual assault as a crime against young people.

    PubMed

    Felson, Richard B; Cundiff, Patrick R

    2014-02-01

    Evidence based on almost 300,000 sexual assaults from the National Incident-Based Reporting System showed that the modal age of victims was 15 years, regardless of the age of the offender, the gender of the offender, or the gender of the victim. We suggest that adolescents have the highest risk of victimization because of their sexual attractiveness, vulnerability, and exposure to motivated offenders. As a result of these factors, sexual assault is as much an offense against young people as it is against women. The sexual attractiveness of young people also has implications for the age of offenders. Older men have much higher rates of offending than one would expect, given the age-desistance relationship. Thus, we found that older men have much higher rates of sexual assault than physical assault. Finally, evidence suggested that homosexual men were at least as likely as heterosexual men to commit sexual assault. The pattern suggests that the tendency for sexual assaults to involve male offenders and female victims reflects male sexuality rather than attitudes toward women.

  12. Acute forensic medical procedures used following a sexual assault among treatment-seeking women.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Hester; Brazeau, Paulette; Stermac, Lana; Addison, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Despite the negative physical and mental health outcomes of sexual assault, a minority of sexually assaulted women seek immediate post-assault medical and legal services. This study identified the number and types of acute forensic medical procedures used by women presenting at a hospital-based urgent care centre between 1997 and 2001 within 72 hours following a reported sexual assault. The study also examined assault and non-assault factors associated with the use of procedures. It was hypothesized that assault characteristics resembling the stereotype of rape would be associated with the use of more procedures. The multiple regression indicated that injury severity, coercion severity, homelessness, and delay in presentation were significantly associated with the number of procedures received. Findings provide partial support for the hypothesis that post-assault procedures would be associated with the stereotype of rape, and highlight homeless women as a group particularly at risk for not receiving adequate medical treatment following a sexual assault.

  13. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  14. Beyond bullying: Aggravating elements of peer victimization episodes.

    PubMed

    Turner, Heather A; Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry; Mitchell, Kimberly

    2015-09-01

    This study sought to identify features of peer victimization that aggravate negative outcomes in children. The features that were assessed include "power imbalance," a commonly used criterion in defining bullying, and 5 other characteristics: injury, weapon involvement, Internet involvement, sexual content, and bias content. Three outcomes were assessed: level of fear, missing school, and trauma symptoms. A nationally representative sample of 3,164 children and youth ages 6-17 (51.8% male; 68.4% white, 12.5% black, 13.5% Hispanic, 5.7% other race) was obtained through Random Digit Dial and supplemented with an address-based sample to capture cell-phone-only households. One child was randomly selected from each household. Interviews were conducted with parents of children age 6-9 and with the youths themselves if they were age 10-17. Peer victimization was assessed with the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ). Almost half (48.4%) of the entire sample of school-age children experienced at least 1 form of peer victimization in the past year. Injury and power imbalance independently increased the impact on children for all 3 outcomes. Additionally, weapon involvement and sexual content were associated with trauma symptoms, with sexual content having the strongest effect (B = .23, p < .001). This diversity of aggravating features suggests a need to reconsider the current emphasis on prioritizing bullying with its exclusionary power imbalance definition as the central focus for prevention and intervention. We recommend a broader focus on peer victimization along with more research to identify the aggravating features that signal the greatest need for intervention.

  15. Sexual assault examinations and forensic medical samples.

    PubMed

    Ranson, David

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies and a review in the United States have identified that tens of thousands of used but untested sexual assault examination kits containing medical examination specimens are to be found in police station evidence rooms, forensic science laboratories, hospitals and rape crisis centres. A 2007 survey undertaken by the National Institute of Justice in the United States explored some of the reasons why forensic specimens are not tested by forensic science laboratories. Many of these relate to lack of knowledge on the part of investigators as to how scientific information can assist the investigation process, even if not used subsequently at trial. Cost factors and laboratory casework overload were also identified as significant. For the medical practitioner, the lack of testing poses issues that include quality management of the forensic medical examination and informed consent in a setting requiring the balancing of public and private benefits for the examinee. Limiting scientific testing, even with intelligence-led triaging of sample testing, could have an adverse effect on both prosecution and defence decision-making and ultimately could adversely affect trial outcomes.

  16. Predictors of Using Mental Health Services After Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual assault increases the risk for psychopathology. Despite the availability of effective interventions, relatively few victims who need treatment receive care in the months following an assault. Prior work identified several factors associated with utilizing care, including ethnicity, insurance, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined predictors of treatment utilization prospectively from the time of assault. The present study hypothesized that White racial status, younger age, being partnered, having health insurance, having previously received mental health treatment, and having more PTSD and depression symptoms would predict utilization of care in the 6 months postassault. This was examined in a sample of 266 female sexual assault victims with an average age of 26.2 years, of whom 62.0% were White and 38.0% were African American assessed at 1.5 and 6 months postassault. Available information on utilizing care varied across assessments (1.5 months, n = 214; 3 months, n = 126; 6 months, n = 204). Significant predictors included having previously received mental health treatment (OR = 4.09), 1 day depressive symptoms (OR = 1.06), and having private insurance (OR = 2.24) or Medicaid (OR = 2.19). Alcohol abuse and prior mental health care were associated with a substantial increase in treatment utilization (OR = 4.07). The findings highlight the need to help victims at risk obtain treatment after sexual assault. PMID:24852357

  17. [Sexual assaults in Geneva between 2006 and 2010].

    PubMed

    La Harpe, Romano; Vlastos, Anne-Thérèse

    2012-01-01

    In Geneva, all sexual assault victims are examined both by a gynaecologist and a forensic pathologist with special training in clinical forensic medicine. Between 2006 and 2010, 473 victims were examined following such an assault. Over the years, the number of sexual assaults rose steadily. Most victims were aged between 15 and 30 years. The majority of the assaults occurred at night and on the weekend and often happened at the place where the perpetrator or the victim lived. Usually, the offender acted alone and was known to the victim. Many victims hesitate to present for an examination, which makes it difficult to collect evidence. Penetration was usually vaginal and without the use of a condom. Injuries on the body or genitals were seen in only half of the cases for the first ones and in less than one third for the second ones. Quite often (at least in 42 % of the cases), the victim consumed alcohol before the assault and the use of drugs--especially cannabis--was not uncommon either.

  18. Nonoccupational Postexposure Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prophylaxis: Acceptance Following Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Draughon, Jessica E.; Hauda, William E.; Price, Bonnie; Sheridan, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP) for HIV following sexual assault may decrease the likelihood of HIV transmission. Objective The purpose of this exploratory chart review study was to examine factors associated with patients accepting postsexual assault nPEP at three forensic nurse examiner programs in urban settings. Methods Forensic nursing charts of patients presenting for acute, sexual assault care were reviewed as part of a mixed-methods study. Results Patients assaulted by more than one or an unknown number of assailants were over 12 times more likely to accept the offer of nPEP (aOR 12.66; 95%CI [2.77, 57.82]). In cases where no condom was used (aOR = 8.57; 95%CI [1.59, 46.10]), or when any injury to the anus or genitalia was noted (aOR = 4.10; 95%CI [1.57, 10.75]), patients were more likely to accept nPEP. Patients with any injury to the face or head were less likely to initiate nPEP (aOR = 0.32; 95%CI [0.11, 0.97]). Discussion This study is an important first step in understanding factors associated with nPEP acceptance after sexual assault. PMID:26657480

  19. Gender differences in sexual assault victimization among college students.

    PubMed

    Hines, Denise A; Armstrong, Jessica L; Reed, Kathleen Palm; Cameron, Amy Y

    2012-01-01

    College students are at particular risk for sexual assault victimization, yet research tends to focus on women as victims and men as perpetrators. The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the prevalence, context, and predictors of sexual assault victimization among college students. Results showed that women were significantly more likely to have been sexually assaulted in a 2-month time period, but the context of victimization varied little by gender. Victimization was predicted by sexual orientation, time spent socializing and partying, and severe dating violence victimization for men and by year in school, time spent on the Internet, drinking and using drugs, and being a stalking and dating violence victim for women. Results are discussed in the context of routine activities theory and implications for prevention and future research.

  20. When should psychiatrists seek criminal prosecution of assaultive psychiatric inpatients?

    PubMed

    Ho, Justin; Ralston, D Christopher; McCullough, Laurence B; Coverdale, John H

    2009-08-01

    This Open Forum commentary reviews the ethical considerations relevant to the question of prosecuting assaultive psychiatric patients, with particular attention to the significance that should be attached to the arguments generated by those considerations. A comprehensive literature search was conducted incorporating the terms "assaultive patients," "ethics," "psychiatric inpatients," and "law." The literature of professional medical ethics was applied to identify relevant domains of ethical argument. Five domains were identified: fiduciary obligations of physicians to assaultive and other patients; obligations to staff members; professional virtues of compassion, self-sacrifice, and self-effacement; retributive justice; and the patient's right to confidentiality. The content of each domain is explained, and guidance is provided on how to assess the relative strengths of ethical argument within each domain. All five domains must be explicitly addressed in order to make ethically disciplined judgments about whether to seek prosecution. A distinctive feature of this ethical analysis is the central importance of the professional virtues.

  1. Assault frequency and preformation probability of the {alpha} emission process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H. F.; Royer, G.; Li, J. Q.

    2011-08-15

    A study of the assault frequency and preformation factor of the {alpha}-decay description is performed from the experimental {alpha}-decay constant and the penetration probabilities calculated from the generalized liquid-drop model (GLDM) potential barriers. To determine the assault frequency a quantum-mechanical method using a harmonic oscillator is introduced and leads to values of around 10{sup 21} s{sup -1}, similar to the ones calculated within the classical method. The preformation probability is around 10{sup -1}-10{sup -2}. The results for even-even Po isotopes are discussed for illustration. While the assault frequency presents only a shallow minimum in the vicinity of the magic neutron number 126, the preformation factor and mainly the penetrability probability diminish strongly around N=126.

  2. Social disorganization and unfounded sexual assault case clearances.

    PubMed

    Mustaine, Elizabeth Ehrhardt; Tewksbury, Richard; Corzine, Jay; Huff-Corzine, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Despite much research and policy development, it remains true that less than one half of all reported sexual assaults are cleared by arrest (Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI], 2011). Compounding this issue, many sexual assaults are not cleared by an arrest, but rather by being classified as "unfounded" by law enforcement (Soulliere, 1994, 2005; Tellis & Spohn, 2008). Grounded in the social disorganization perspective, this article examines the relationships between case-related and extralegal community-level characteristics and use of the designation of unfounded by the police. Contrary to initial expectations, findings show that communities with higher levels of concentrated disadvantage, immigrant concentration, and residential instability are less likely to have sexual assaults deemed unfounded by law enforcement.

  3. Toxicological findings in cases of sexual assault in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bosman, Ingrid J; Verschraagen, Miranda; Lusthof, Klaas J

    2011-11-01

    Reports on cases of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) have increased since the mid-1990s. The aim of this study was to identify the extent and types of drugs found in cases of alleged sexual assault (DFSA) in the Netherlands. In total, 135 cases of alleged DFSA were identified. Most of the victims were women (94%), and the mean age of the victims was 25 years. Blood and urine samples were tested for the presence of alcohol, drugs (drugs of abuse and prescription drugs), or both. In 27% of the cases, no alcohol and/or drugs were found. With increasing time delay, more cases were found to be negative. Alcohol is the most commonly found drug followed by nonopiate analgesics, illicit drugs, and benzodiazepines. In some cases, the absence of alcohol and drugs may represent false-negative results owing to the time delay between alleged sexual assault and sampling.

  4. Characteristics of Sexual Assault and Disclosure among Women in Substance Abuse Recovery Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Robison, Emily; Jason, Leonard A.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that many women experience some form of sexual assault in their lifetime and that women who engage in substance abuse often have a higher incidence of past sexual assault than women in the general population. Given the documented rates of sexual assault among women in recovery from substance use, it is important to explore…

  5. Stigma-Threat Motivated Nondisclosure of Sexual Assault and Sexual Revictimization: A Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Audrey K.; Canales, Erika J.; Amacker, Amanda M.; Backstrom, Tamika L.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess sexual assault survivors' nondisclosure motivations, including stigma threat, and their impact on revictimization risk. The authors describe data from a prospective study of 144 female, undergraduate sexual assault survivors, most of whom had been assaulted by acquaintances and only one of whom had officially…

  6. ADHD and Aggression as Correlates of Suicidal Behavior in Assaultive Prepubertal Psychiatric Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Geoff; Gerstadt, Cherie; Pfeffer, Cynthia R.; Stroh, Martha; Valdez, Adina

    2008-01-01

    Forty-three psychiatrically hospitalized prepubertal children were assessed regarding their assaultive and suicidal behaviors. These children were subsequently classified into two groups, assaultive/suicidal (AS) and assaultive-only (AO). AS children had higher aggression and suicidal-scale scores, but not higher depression scores, and were more…

  7. 76 FR 18633 - National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ..., and too many offenders elude justice. As we mark National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention... will be sexually assaulted. Young women ages 16 to 24 are at greatest risk, and an alarming number of young women are sexually assaulted while in college. Too many men and boys are also affected. With...

  8. 32 CFR 105.16 - Sexual assault annual and quarterly reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual assault annual and quarterly reporting... PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN SEXUAL ASSAULT PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PROGRAM PROCEDURES § 105.16 Sexual... USD(P&R) submits annual FY reports to Congress on the sexual assaults involving members of...

  9. The Decline in Sexual Assaults in Men's Prisons in New South Wales: A "Systems" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Lorraine; Richters, Juliet; Butler, Tony; Schneider, Karen; Grant, Luke; Donovan, Basil

    2011-01-01

    Male prison rape and sexual assaults remains a serious and sensitive issue in many countries. Human rights groups claim that sexual assaults among male prisoners have reached pandemic proportions and need to be stopped. Researchers for many years have studied the causes of male sexual assault in prison and offered numerous recommendations on its…

  10. Inmates' Cultural Beliefs about Sexual Violence and Their Relationship to Definitions of Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Shannon K.; Blackburn, Ashley G.; Marquart, James W.; Mullings, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    Effective strategies aimed at prison sexual assault require inmates to possess the same definition of sexual assault as prison administrations. This article argues that prison culture is rape-supportive and inmates may not define sexual assault as such. After analyzing questionnaire responses given by male and female inmates in a large Southern…

  11. Forcible, Drug-Facilitated, and Incapacitated Rape and Sexual Assault among Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawyer, Steven; Resnick, Heidi; Bakanic, Von; Burkett, Tracy; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of drug-related sexual assaults, identify the frequency of assaults that occur following voluntary versus involuntary drug or alcohol consumption, and identify contextual correlates of drug-related assaults. Participants: College-student females (n = 314). Methods: Volunteers reported experiences with forcible…

  12. Language Impairment and Sexual Assault of Girls and Women: Findings from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlie, E. B.; Jabbar, Amina; Beitchman, Joseph; Vida, Ron; Atkinson, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Both children and adults with disabilities face increased prevalence of abuse and assault, including sexual assault. Women and girls are disproportionately the victims of sexual assault in both disabled and nondisabled populations. Communication difficulties have been identified as a factor that may increase the vulnerability of individuals with…

  13. The Effects of Sexual Assault on the Identity Development of Black College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual assault victims face more social criticism than victims of any other crime. It is uncertain whether women of color are more at risk for sexual assault than White women during their college years. However, studies suggest that Black female sexual assault victims are more likely than White female victims to be blamed for their attacks and…

  14. 27 CFR 478.133 - Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.133 Section 478.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Records § 478.133 Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons. The evidence specified in § 478.40(c), relating to transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons, shall be retained in...

  15. 27 CFR 478.133 - Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.133 Section 478.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Records § 478.133 Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons. The evidence specified in § 478.40(c), relating to transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons, shall be retained in...

  16. 27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.40 Section 478.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. (a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture, transfer, or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon. (b) Exceptions. The provisions of paragraph (a)...

  17. 27 CFR 478.133 - Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.133 Section 478.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Records § 478.133 Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons. The evidence specified in § 478.40(c), relating to transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons, shall be retained in...

  18. 27 CFR 478.133 - Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.133 Section 478.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Records § 478.133 Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons. The evidence specified in § 478.40(c), relating to transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons, shall be retained in...

  19. 27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.40 Section 478.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. (a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture, transfer, or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon. (b) Exceptions. The provisions of paragraph (a)...

  20. 27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.40 Section 478.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. (a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture, transfer, or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon. (b) Exceptions. The provisions of paragraph (a)...

  1. 27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.40 Section 478.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. (a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture, transfer, or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon. (b) Exceptions. The provisions of paragraph (a)...

  2. 27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.40 Section 478.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. (a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture, transfer, or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon. (b) Exceptions. The provisions of paragraph (a)...

  3. 27 CFR 478.133 - Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.133 Section 478.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Records § 478.133 Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons. The evidence specified in § 478.40(c), relating to transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons, shall be retained in...

  4. Exploring the Relationships of Women's Sexual Assault Disclosure, Social Reactions, and Problem Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Starzynski, Laura L.; Long, Susan M.; Mason, Gillian E.; Long, LaDonna M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this exploratory study was to examine correlates of sexual assault disclosure and social reactions in female victims with and without drinking problems. An ethnically diverse sample of sexual assault survivors was recruited from college, community, and mental health agencies. Ethnic minority women were less likely to disclose assault,…

  5. Assaults by Wives on Husbands: Implications for Primary Prevention of Marital Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straus, Murray A.

    Surveys of married and dating couples find that women assault their male partners at about the same rate as men assault female partners. When assaults serious enough to cause death were examined, it was found that in contrast to the extreme rarity of homicide by women outside the family, women kill their male partners at a rate that approaches the…

  6. Service Patterns of Adult Survivors of Childhood versus Adult Sexual Assault/Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Susan F.; Lundy, Marta; Bertrand, Cathy; Ortiz, Cynthia; Tomas-Tolentino, Grace; Ritzema, Kim; Matson, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This analysis compared the characteristics and service patterns of adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse and adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Utilizing data from sexual assault crisis centers serving survivors in a Midwestern state over a six year period and controlling for revictimization, we describe and compare the…

  7. 3 CFR 8359 - Proclamation 8359 of April 8, 2009. National Sexual Assault Awareness Month, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... addition, rates of sexual assault remain startlingly high for students from high school to college. A 2005 survey of high school students found that 10.8 percent of girls and 4.2 percent of boys from grades nine... assault since entering college. Unlike victims of sexual assault in the larger community,...

  8. Loss of endogenous bone morphogenetic protein-6 aggravates renal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dendooven, Amélie; van Oostrom, Olivia; van der Giezen, Dionne M; Leeuwis, Jan Willem; Snijckers, Cristel; Joles, Jaap A; Robertson, Elizabeth J; Verhaar, Marianne C; Nguyen, Tri Q; Goldschmeding, Roel

    2011-03-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) suppresses inflammatory genes in renal proximal tubular cells and regulates iron metabolism by inducing hepcidin. In diabetic patients, an increase of myofibroblast progenitor cells (MFPCs), also known as fibrocytes, was found to be associated with decreased BMP-6 expression. We hypothesized that loss of endogenous BMP-6 would aggravate renal injury and fibrosis. Wild type (WT) and BMP-6 null mice underwent unilateral ureteral obstruction. In WT mice, ureteral obstruction down-regulated BMP-6. Obstructed kidneys of BMP-6 null mice showed more casts (1.5-fold), epithelial necrosis (1.4-fold), and brush border loss (1.3-fold). This was associated with more inflammation (1.8-fold more CD45(+) cells) and more pronounced overexpression of profibrotic genes for αSMA (2.0-fold), collagen I (6.8-fold), fibronectin (4.3-fold), CTGF (1.8-fold), and PAI-1 (3.8-fold), despite similar BMP-7 expression. Also, 1.3-fold more MFPCs were obtained from BMP-6 null than from WT mononuclear cell cultures, but in vivo only very few MFPCs were observed in obstructed kidneys, irrespective of BMP-6 genotype. The obstructed kidneys of BMP-6 null mice showed 2.2-fold more iron deposition, in association with 3.3-fold higher expression of the oxidative stress marker HO-1. Thus, ureteral obstruction leads to down-regulation of BMP-6 expression, and BMP-6 deficiency aggravates tubulointerstitial damage and fibrosis independent of BMP-7. This process appears to involve loss of both direct anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic action and indirect suppressive effects on renal iron deposition, oxidative stress, and MFPCs.

  9. Loss of Endogenous Bone Morphogenetic Protein-6 Aggravates Renal Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Dendooven, Amélie; van Oostrom, Olivia; van der Giezen, Dionne M.; Willem Leeuwis, Jan; Snijckers, Cristel; Joles, Jaap A.; Robertson, Elizabeth J.; Verhaar, Marianne C.; Nguyen, Tri Q.; Goldschmeding, Roel

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) suppresses inflammatory genes in renal proximal tubular cells and regulates iron metabolism by inducing hepcidin. In diabetic patients, an increase of myofibroblast progenitor cells (MFPCs), also known as fibrocytes, was found to be associated with decreased BMP-6 expression. We hypothesized that loss of endogenous BMP-6 would aggravate renal injury and fibrosis. Wild type (WT) and BMP-6 null mice underwent unilateral ureteral obstruction. In WT mice, ureteral obstruction down-regulated BMP-6. Obstructed kidneys of BMP-6 null mice showed more casts (1.5-fold), epithelial necrosis (1.4-fold), and brush border loss (1.3-fold). This was associated with more inflammation (1.8-fold more CD45+ cells) and more pronounced overexpression of profibrotic genes for αSMA (2.0-fold), collagen I (6.8-fold), fibronectin (4.3-fold), CTGF (1.8-fold), and PAI-1 (3.8-fold), despite similar BMP-7 expression. Also, 1.3-fold more MFPCs were obtained from BMP-6 null than from WT mononuclear cell cultures, but in vivo only very few MFPCs were observed in obstructed kidneys, irrespective of BMP-6 genotype. The obstructed kidneys of BMP-6 null mice showed 2.2-fold more iron deposition, in association with 3.3-fold higher expression of the oxidative stress marker HO-1. Thus, ureteral obstruction leads to down-regulation of BMP-6 expression, and BMP-6 deficiency aggravates tubulointerstitial damage and fibrosis independent of BMP-7. This process appears to involve loss of both direct anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic action and indirect suppressive effects on renal iron deposition, oxidative stress, and MFPCs. PMID:21356359

  10. A brief actuarial assessment for the prediction of wife assault recidivism: the Ontario domestic assault risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Hilton, N Zoe; Harris, Grant T; Rice, Marnie E; Lang, Carol; Cormier, Catherine A; Lines, Kathryn J

    2004-09-01

    An actuarial assessment to predict male-to-female marital violence was constructed from a pool of potential predictors in a sample of 589 offenders identified in police records and followed up for an average of almost 5 years. Archival information in several domains (offender characteristics, domestic violence history, nondomestic criminal history, relationship characteristics, victim characteristics, index offense) and recidivism were subjected to setwise and stepwise logistic regression. The resulting 13-item scale, the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA), showed a large effect size in predicting new assaults against legal or common-law wives or ex-wives (Cohen's d = 1.1, relative operating characteristic area =.77) and was associated with number and severity of new assaults and time until recidivism. Cross-validation and comparisons with other instruments are also reported.

  11. Men victim of sexual assault of concern into the first Emergency Medical Unit for Victims of Assaults in France.

    PubMed

    Hiquet, J; Gromb-Monnoyeur, S

    2013-10-01

    Although it accounts for only a small part of activity in the field of victimology, the provision of support for male victims of sexual assault is regularly discussed in the literature. Authors, English-speaking for the most part, all agree that this phenomenon has been largely underestimated, owing to the stigmatization victims suffer after the facts have been disclosed. The same authors agree that this type of assault is far from being inconsequential, from both a physical and a psychological perspective. The following retrospective and descriptive study, conducted at the Bordeaux CHU (Bordeaux University Hospital), aims to draw a comparison between the distinctive characteristics of male sexual assault victims treated at the CAUVA (Centre d'Accueil en Urgence des Victimes d'Agression - Emergency Medical Unit for Victims of Assaults) on the one hand, and, on the other hand, those identified in the existing scientific literature. The victims are predominantly young men, unconnected with their attackers, and more often than not the attacks take place on the public highway. Forensic treatment is provided within the seven days following the assault, which raises the question of the assessment of infection risks, including HIV transmission. Most of the time, the victims will not undergo a full psychological appraisal, though authors are unanimous that such assaults do indeed have heavy repercussions. Improving our services for such victims will require suitable training for staff, covering initial reception, general assessment and the drafting of the forensic medical report, as well as encouragement to lodge a complaint. This process should give priority to multidisciplinary centers, especially dedicated to shelter-providing, information, counseling and victim support. This will also entail information and awareness campaigns for the general population, and the homosexual community in particular. Finally, we should not be afraid to envisage an investigation into this

  12. Prior Substance Abuse and Related Treatment History Reported by Recent Victims of Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, Heidi S.; Walsh, Kate; Schumacher, Julie A.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Acierno, Ron

    2013-01-01

    To inform intervention approaches, the current study examined prevalence and comorbidity of recent use and history of abuse of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs as well as history of substance treatment among a sample of female victims of sexual assault seeking post-assault medical care. Demographic variables and prior history of assault were also examined to further identify factors relevant to treatment or prevention approaches. Participants were 255 women and adolescent girls seeking post sexual assault medical services who completed an initial follow-up assessment on average within 3 months post-assault. The majority (72.9%) reported recent substance use prior to assault, approximately 40% reported prior substance abuse history, and 12.2% reported prior substance treatment history. Prior history of assault was associated with recent drug use and history of drug abuse as well as substance treatment. Among those with prior histories of substance abuse and assault, assault preceded substance abuse onset in the majority of cases. Almost all those with prior treatment history reported recent drug or alcohol use. A portion of sexual assault survivors seen for acute medical services may benefit from facilitated referral for substance abuse treatment in addition to counseling at the time of screening. Assessment and intervention approaches should target alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use and abuse. Substance use and associated impairment may serve as a rape tactic by perpetrators of assault. Substance use at the time of assault does not imply blame on the part of assault victims. Previous findings indicate that rape poses high risk of PTSD particularly among women with prior history of assault. Screening and intervention related to substance abuse should be done with recognition of the increased vulnerability it may pose with regard to assault and the high risk of PTSD within this population. PMID:23396174

  13. The Use of Drinking and Sexual Assault Protective Behavioral Strategies: Associations With Sexual Victimization and Revictimization Among College Women.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Elizabeth C; Gilmore, Amanda K; Pinsky, Hanna T; Shepard, Molly E; Lewis, Melissa A; George, William H

    2015-09-07

    Despite consistent high rates of campus sexual assault, little research has examined effective strategies to decrease sexual assault victimization. Sexual assault and drinking protective behavioral strategies (PBS) may be important means of reducing sexual assault victimization risk on college campuses but need further examination. The current study examined the relationship among sexual assault in childhood, before college, and since college to evaluate the mitigating roles of both sexual assault PBS and drinking PBS on sexual assault victimization. Participants (n = 620) were undergraduate women, 18 to 20 years old. The current study was a cross-sectional online survey assessing participants' sexual assault PBS and sexual assault history. Sexual assault history was positively associated with future sexual assault experiences. Pre-college sexual assault was associated with increased since-college sexual assault and increased drinks per week. Since-college adolescent/adult sexual assault was associated with less use of sexual assault PBS. These findings suggest that PBS may have an important role in sexual assault victimization and future research should examine their usefulness in risk reduction programs for college women.

  14. The Use of Drinking and Sexual Assault Protective Behavioral Strategies: Associations With Sexual Victimization and Revictimization Among College Women

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Elizabeth C.; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Pinsky, Hanna T.; Shepard, Molly E.; Lewis, Melissa A.; George, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Despite consistent high rates of campus sexual assault, little research has examined effective strategies to decrease sexual assault victimization. Sexual assault and drinking protective behavioral strategies (PBS) may be important means of reducing sexual assault victimization risk on college campuses but need further examination. The current study examined the relationship among sexual assault in childhood, before college, and since college to evaluate the mitigating roles of both sexual assault PBS and drinking PBS on sexual assault victimization. Participants (n = 620) were undergraduate women, 18 to 20 years old. The current study was a cross-sectional online survey assessing participants’ sexual assault PBS and sexual assault history. Sexual assault history was positively associated with future sexual assault experiences. Pre-college sexual assault was associated with increased since-college sexual assault and increased drinks per week. Since-college adolescent/adult sexual assault was associated with less use of sexual assault PBS. These findings suggest that PBS may have an important role in sexual assault victimization and future research should examine their usefulness in risk reduction programs for college women. PMID:26345223

  15. Military Personnel. Preliminary Observations on DOD’s and the Coast Guard’s Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-31

    sexual assault; and (3) exercise oversight over reports of sexual assault. This statement draws on GAO’s preliminary observations from an ongoing...would enable servicemembers to confidentially disclose an incident of sexual assault. Since 2005, active duty servicemembers have had two options...incidents involving servicemembers; • have visibility over reports of sexual assault involving servicemembers; and • exercise oversight over

  16. Five Year Report: Office on Family Violence and Sexual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose Enterprises, Wright, WY.

    This report describes family violence and sexual assault and the specific nature and extent of the problem in Wyoming as illustrated by data obtained from statewide surveys and studies. Past efforts to address the problem are presented in an historical overview. Program operations are described, including the areas of safe houses, support groups,…

  17. Social Support and Risk of Sexual Assault Revictimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Gillian E.; Ullman, Sarah; Long, Susan E.; Long, LaDonna; Starzynski, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Limited research on revictimization has examined the role of social support, which is known to affect sexual assault survivors' psychological recovery. Measuring social support also provides a more ecological approach to understanding revictimization, as it assesses the possible role of those in the survivors' environment. The current study…

  18. Care Staff Perceptions of Challenging Behaviour and Fear of Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, John L.; Cleary, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Background: Past research has determined that fear of violence is often "irrational" in relation to the actual level of risk presented. This has been found to exacerbate the negative effects of exposure to work-related violence. Aims: This study investigates fear of assault in relation to exposure to challenging behaviour. The extent to which a…

  19. Implications for Sexual Assault Prevention: College Students as Prosocial Bystanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exner, Deinera; Cummings, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Prosocial bystander interventions are promising approaches to sexual assault prevention on college campuses. Objective: To assess bystander attitudes among undergraduate students at a northeastern university. Participants: A convenience sample of 188 students from 4 undergraduate classes was surveyed during regularly scheduled class sessions.…

  20. Sexual assault services coverage on Native American land.

    PubMed

    Juraska, Ashley; Wood, Lindsey; Giroux, Jennifer; Wood, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Native American women experience higher rates of sexual assault than other women in the United States, yet there is limited information on the accessibility of forensic services for Native American victims of sexual violence. This study used geographic information systems technology to map known sexual assault examiner (SAE) and sexual assault response team (SART) programs in the United States (n = 873) in proximity to 650 census-designated Native American lands. Analysis was repeated for 29 Indian Health Service and tribal-operated facilities that self-identified that they provide sexual assault examinations. Network analysis showed that 30.7% of Native American land is within a 60-minute driving distance of a facility offering SAE or SART services. Indian Health Service and tribal-operated facilities increased accessibility to SAE services on 35 Native American lands. This study shows gaps in coverage for more than two thirds of Native American lands, including 381 lands with no coverage, highlighting the need for expanded SAE and SART services near or on Native American land.

  1. Prevalence and Predictors of Sexual Assault among a College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, A. H.; Overstreet, C. M.; Hawn, S. E.; Kendler, K. S.; Dick, D. M.; Amstadter, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the prevalence and correlates of precollege, college-onset, and repeat sexual assault (SA) within a representative student sample. Participants: A representative sample of 7,603 students. Methods: Incoming first-year students completed a survey about their exposure to broad SA prior to college, prior trauma,…

  2. Defending Letters: A Pragmatic Response to Assaults on the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Iain

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a mainly pragmatic response to utilitarian criticisms of the humanities. It first outlines political, public and practical fronts on which the humanities are under assault, identifying critics and their conspirators. Then, as a part of its defence of the humanities it expounds some of their central strengths. These range from the…

  3. Victim Confidentiality on Sexual Assault Response Teams (SART)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how professionals and paraprofessionals involved with a Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) understand and navigate different professional statutory requirements for victim confidentiality. Telephone surveys are conducted with 78 professionals: medical (27.8%), criminal justice (44.3%), and victim advocacy…

  4. Survey of Threats and Assaults by Patients on Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvir, Yael; Moniwa, Emiko; Crisp-Han, Holly; Levy, Dana; Coverdale, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine the prevalence of threats and assaults by patients on psychiatry residents, their consequences, and the perceived adequacy of supports and institutional responses. Method: Authors conducted an anonymous survey of 519 psychiatry residents in 13 psychiatry programs across the United States. The survey…

  5. Health Professionals' Perceptions of Sexual Assault Management: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine; Meuleners, Lynn; Phillips, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore health professionals' perceptions of sexual assault management practices and identify issues related to these practices across Western Australia (WA). Design: A two-round electronic Delphi study was undertaken with health professionals (medical doctors, registered nurses, social workers and managers). Setting: Healthcare…

  6. Assessing Eli Broad's Assault on Public School System Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Fenwick W.; Crowder, Zan

    2012-01-01

    Eli Broad's approach to reforming urban public education does not recognize his own self-interest in promoting changes within such educational systems, a classic problem of misrecognition. The Broad agenda is an assault on the notion of the mission of public education as a service instead of a for-profit enterprise concerned with making money for…

  7. Longitudinal Research with Sexual Assault Survivors: A Methodological Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Sprague, Heather Brown; Cottrill, Sara; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal research designs are relatively rare in the academic literature on rape and sexual assault despite their tremendous methodological rigor and scientific utility. In the interest of promoting wider use of such methods, we conducted a methodological review of projects that have used prospective longitudinal designs to study the…

  8. Sexual Assault Victims' Acknowledgment Status and Revictimization Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather; Axsom, Danny; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2009-01-01

    How a victim of rape characterizes her assault has potential implications for her postassault experiences and revictimization risk. Prior research has identified several potential benefits to not conceptualizing one's experience as a form of victimization. The current study sought to identify whether there are costs to not acknowledging rape as…

  9. The Sexually Assaulted Female: Innocent Victim or Temptress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Sheldon H.

    The Toronto Transit Commission employees were on strike for 23 days, producing a total shut-down of all public transportation and a resulting increase in the number of hitch-hiking females. The strike provided a novel and unique opportunity to empirically examine two theories of sexual assault and to evaluate the effects of hitch-hiking upon…

  10. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault among Ethnically Diverse Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…

  11. Child Sexual Assault in Rural Alaska--Issues and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leddy, Susan; Cox, James

    A variety of information and sources for information on child sexual assault are collected in this document geared for educators in small communities. Materials include a fact sheet on small community concerns about sexual abuse, a flow chart for training school personnel in intervention and prevention, suggestions for school protocol for…

  12. A Theoretical Model of Sexual Assault: An Empirical Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacquelyn W.; Humphrey, John A.

    Koss and Dinero's (1987) comprehensive developmental model of sexual aggression asserts that sexual assault is in part a result of early sexual experiences and family violence; that sexually aggressive behaviors may be predicted by such "releaser" variables as current sexual behavior, alcohol use, and peer group support; and that use of aggression…

  13. Reporting Differences among Sexually Assaulted College Women: A Cultural Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Malia J.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual assault (SA) is a critical public health problem, and there are many barriers that impede college women from reporting. Although there are many studies that explore these barriers, there is a lack of understanding regarding the cultural implications to reporting. The existing literature often uses race as a proxy for culture when exploring…

  14. An Evaluation of a Sexual Assault Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Angela P.

    2009-01-01

    Sexually aggressive behavior, especially on college campuses, is an issue of major concern. Previous research has found that 54% of college women report being sexually victimized (Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987). Given the scope of this problem, effective prevention strategies are necessary. Sexual assault prevention programs have included…

  15. Psychological Consequences Associated With Positive and Negative Responses to Disclosure of Sexual Assault Among College Women: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Orchowski, Lindsay M.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2015-01-01

    A prospective design was utilized to explore the impact of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure among college women who experienced sexual victimization over a 4-month academic quarter. Women completed baseline, 4- and 7-month assessments of symptomatology, beliefs about why sexual assault occurs, victimization, and social reactions to sexual assault disclosure. Accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, positive social reactions were not associated with victims’ subsequent symptomatology or beliefs. However, accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, higher negative social reactions were associated with victims’ post-assault reports of hostility, fear, and beliefs about why sexual assault occurs. PMID:25926138

  16. Contextualization of Physical and Sexual Assault in Male Prisons: Incidents and Their Aftermath

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Physical and sexual assault are part of the prison experience. Approximately 21% of male inmates are physically assaulted during a 6-month period. Sexual assault is estimated at between 2% and 5%. Although prevalence evidence is growing, less is known about circumstances surrounding and resulting from these incidents. This article presents an analysis of approximately 2,200 physical and 200 sexual victimizations reported by a random sample of 6,964 male inmates. Physical injury occurred in 40% of physical assaults and 70% of sexual assaults between inmates and in 50% of assaults perpetrated by staff. Emotional reactions to assaults were experienced by virtually all victims. Context information is vital in the development and implementation of prevention and therapeutic interventions. PMID:19477812

  17. 45 CFR 150.321 - Determining the amount of penalty-aggravating circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement..., if there are substantial or several aggravating circumstances, CMS sets the aggregate amount of the.... CMS considers the following circumstances to be aggravating circumstances: (a) The frequency...

  18. 45 CFR 150.321 - Determining the amount of penalty-aggravating circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement..., if there are substantial or several aggravating circumstances, CMS sets the aggregate amount of the.... CMS considers the following circumstances to be aggravating circumstances: (a) The frequency...

  19. 45 CFR 150.321 - Determining the amount of penalty-aggravating circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement..., if there are substantial or several aggravating circumstances, CMS sets the aggregate amount of the.... CMS considers the following circumstances to be aggravating circumstances: (a) The frequency...

  20. 45 CFR 150.321 - Determining the amount of penalty-aggravating circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement..., if there are substantial or several aggravating circumstances, CMS sets the aggregate amount of the.... CMS considers the following circumstances to be aggravating circumstances: (a) The frequency...

  1. 45 CFR 150.321 - Determining the amount of penalty-aggravating circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement..., if there are substantial or several aggravating circumstances, CMS sets the aggregate amount of the.... CMS considers the following circumstances to be aggravating circumstances: (a) The frequency...

  2. Counseling Sexual Assault Victims Who Become Pregnant after the Assault: Benefits and Limitations of First-Trimester Paternity Determination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Lee P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a patient with a history of infertility who, after becoming pregnant following a sexual assault, used chorionic villus sampling and DNA studies for paternity identification. Discusses risks and potential problems that accompany prenatal paternity testing. Ethical, moral, emotional, and religious factors should be considered in the…

  3. Is there a role for paediatric Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners in the management of child sexual assault in Australia?

    PubMed

    Nathanson, Dania; Woolfenden, Susan; Zwi, Karen

    2016-09-01

    In Australia, paediatricians and Child Protection Specialists provide the medical and forensic examinations of child victims of sexual assault. There are workforce challenges in the recruitment and retention of doctors to undertake child sexual assault (CSA) work particularly in remote and rural areas. Pediatric Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (PSANE) programs have existed in the USA and the UK for many years. Using Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) methodology, a systematic search of the literature was performed to ascertain what is known about SANE programs, to evaluate the evidence for their effectiveness across a number of domains (accessibility, health and legal outcomes and cost effectiveness) and to inform policy on models of care and elements of best practice which may be appropriate for local implementation in Australia. This review showed that despite the limited evidence available and significant gaps in the evidence, SANEs provide a high standard of medical care and are not detrimental to the legal process. By providing recommendations regarding the potential value, effectiveness and feasibility of establishing a PSANE program in Australia, this article may be of interest to other high income countries facing similar workforce challenges in meeting the needs of children with alleged sexual assault.

  4. A case in south-eastern France: a review of drug facilitated sexual assault in European and English-speaking countries.

    PubMed

    Dorandeu, Anne H; Pagès, Cheryl A; Sordino, Marie-Christine; Pépin, Gilbert; Baccino, Eric; Kintz, Pascal

    2006-07-01

    Drug facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA) have been increasingly reported in the medical literature since the 1980s but their legal recognition is more recent, at least in Europe. From a case treated in south-eastern France, whose judicial consequences were known, it seemed of interest to carry out an international study of jurisprudence concerning this type of rape. While from the medical viewpoint the drugs used are well-known and their presence can be clinically verified, the legal consequences of their use in subsequent criminal prosecution is less clear-cut. Some European countries have no jurisprudence in this area, while others consider the use of drugs as an aggravating circumstance. In France, it was only in 2003 that the first case of DFSA was truly punished by the judicial system, with considerable media attention. By contrast, in English-speaking countries, particularly the United States, the use of drugs to facilitate sexual assault has frequently been recognized in legislation and in criminal prosecutions. Prevention is fundamental and is recognised as demonstrated by campaigns in various countries.

  5. Estrogen aggravates iodoacetate-induced temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Wang, X D; Kou, X X; Meng, Z; Bi, R Y; Liu, Y; Zhang, J N; Zhou, Y H; Gan, Y H

    2013-10-01

    Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA) is clinically characterized by female preponderance, with a female-to-male ratio of more than 2:1; however, the underlying mechanism remains obscure. We examined the effects of estrogen on TMJOA induced by monosodium iodoacetate. Female rats were randomly and equally divided into 5 groups: control, sham-ovariectomized, and ovariectomized rats treated, respectively, with 17β-estradiol (E2) at doses of 0 µg, 20 µg, and 80 µg/day until the end of the experiment. After induction of TMJOA, TMJs were evaluated by histopathology and microCT, and the expression of Fas, FasL, caspase 3, and caspase 8 was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain-reaction or immunohistochemistry. Another 5 groups of female rats were used to evaluate the effect of estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182780 on E2 effects on TMJOA, when injected intraperitoneally into the control, sham-ovariectomized, and 80-µg-E2-treated groups. We found that E2 potentiated cartilage degradation and subchondral bone erosion in iodoacetate-induced TMJOA. E2 also potentiated mRNA expression of Fas, FasL, caspase 3, and caspase 8 in the condylar cartilage. Moreover, the estrogen receptor antagonist partially blocked E2 effects on TMJOA. These findings suggest that E2 could aggravate TMJOA, which may be an important mechanism underlying the sexual dimorphism of TMJOA.

  6. Seawater Immersion Aggravates Burn Injury Causing Severe Blood Coagulation Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Mao, Qingxiang; Ma, Yongda; Wang, Li; Chen, Xian; Hu, Yi; Ge, Hengjiang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the endothelial function in a canine model of burn injury combined with seawater immersion. The model of burn injury was established. The dogs were randomly divided into four groups including dogs with burn injury (B group), or burn injury combined with seawater immersion (BI group), or only immersion in seawater (I group), or control animals with no injury or immersion (C group). The circulating endothelial cell (CEC) count and coagulation-fibrinolysis parameters were measured. The CEC count in B group increased at 4 h, 7 h, and 10 h after injury and then reduced, whereas it continuously increased to a greater extent in BI group (P < 0.05). The von Willebrand factor (vWF) activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), and the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) to 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-K-PGF1α ) in BI group had a marked increase after injury, and the tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in the BI group decreased. Microscope observations revealed thrombus formation in lungs of the animals in BI group, but not in C, I, or B groups. Burn injury causes endothelial dysfunction, and seawater immersion lastingly aggravates this injury, leading to a higher risk of developing thrombosis.

  7. Inhalation of Carbon Black Nanoparticles Aggravates Pulmonary Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Saputra, Devina; Yoon, Jin-ha; Park, Hyunju; Heo, Yongju; Yang, Hyoseon; Lee, Eun Ji; Lee, Sangjin; Song, Chang-Woo; Lee, Kyuhong

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of recent studies have focused on the impact of particulate matter on human health. As a model for atmospheric particulate inhalation, we investigated the effects of inhaled carbon black nanoparticles (CBNP) on mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The CNBPs were generated by a novel aerosolization process, and the mice were exposed to the aerosol for 4 hours. We found that CBNP inhalation exacerbated lung inflammation, as evidenced by histopathology analysis and by the expression levels of interleukin-6 protein, fibronectin, and interferon-γ mRNAs in lung tissues. Notably, fibronectin mRNA expression showed a statistically significant increase in expression after CBNP exposure. These data suggest that the concentration of CBNPs delivered (calculated to be 12.5 μg/m3) can aggravate lung inflammation in mice. Our results also suggest that the inhalation of ultrafine particles like PM 2.5 is an impactful environmental risk factor for humans, particularly in susceptible populations with predisposing lung conditions. PMID:25071917

  8. Cysteine aggravates palmitate-induced cell death in hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Xiaobing; Wang, Zhigang; Yao, Tong; Song, Zhenyuan

    2011-01-01

    Aims Lipotoxicity, defined as cell death induced by excessive fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acids, is critically involved in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Recent studies report that plasma cysteine concentrations is elevated in the subjects with either alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) or NASH than normal subjects. The present study was conducted to determine if elevation of cysteine could be a deleterious factor in palmitate-induced hepatocyte cell death. Main methods HepG2 and Hep3B cells were treated with palmitate with/without the inclusion of cysteine in the media for 24 hours. The effects of cysteine inclusion on palmitate induced cell death were determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and MTT assay. Oxidative stress was evaluated by intracellular glutathione (GSH) level, malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and DCFH-DA assay. Western blotting was performed to detect the changes of endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress markers: C/EBP homologous transcription factor (CHOP), GRP-78, and phosphorylated c-jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK). Key findings Elevated intracellular cysteine aggravates hepatocytes to palmitate-induced cell death. Enhancement of ER stress, specifically increased activation of JNK pathway, contributed to this cell death process. Significance Increase of plasma cysteine levels, as observed in both ASH and NASH patients, may play a pathological role in the development of the liver diseases. Manipulation of dietary amino acids supplementation could be a therapeutic choice. PMID:22008477

  9. An acute post-sexual assault intervention to prevent drug abuse: updated findings.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Heidi S; Acierno, Ron; Amstadter, Ananda B; Self-Brown, Shannon; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2007-10-01

    Sexual assault and rape routinely produce extreme distress and negative psychological reactions in victims. Further, past research suggests that victims are at increased risk of developing substance use or abuse post-rape. The post-rape forensic medical exam may itself exacerbate peritraumatic distress because it includes cues that may serve as reminders of the assault, thereby potentiating post-assault negative sequelae. To address these problems, a two-part video intervention was developed to take advantage of the existing sexual assault forensic exam infrastructure, and to specifically (a) minimize anxiety/discomfort during forensic examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased substance use and abuse following sexual assault. Updated findings with a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in the forensic medical exam and completing one or more follow-up assessments at: (1)<3 months post-assault; (2) 3 to 6 months post-assault; or (3) 6 months or longer post-assault indicated that the video was associated with significantly lower frequency of marijuana use at each time point, among women who reported use prior to the assault.

  10. Attenuated behavioral and brain responses to trust violations among assaulted adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Lenow, Jennifer K; Scott Steele, J; Smitherman, Sonet; Kilts, Clinton D; Cisler, Josh M

    2014-07-30

    Physical and sexual assault during adolescence is a potent risk factor for mental health and psychosocial problems, as well as revictimization, especially among female victims. To better understand this conferred risk, we conducted an exploratory study comparing assaulted and non-assaulted girls׳ behavioral and brain responses during a trust learning task. Adolescent girls (14 assaulted, 16 non-assaulted) performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task that manipulated the percentages of which three different faces delivered positive and negative outcomes. Analyses focused on comparing unexpected to expected outcomes. We found that assaulted adolescent girls demonstrated less behavioral slowing in response to unexpected negative social outcomes, or trust violations (i.e., when a presumably trustworthy face delivered a negative outcome), relative to control girls. Trust violations were also associated with less activation in anterior insular and anterior cingulate regions among the assaulted group compared to the control group. Furthermore, we found that the severity of participants׳ exposure to assaultive events scaled negatively with recruitment of these regions. These preliminary results suggest that assault victims may engage differential learning processes upon unexpected negative social outcomes. These findings have implications for understanding impaired trust learning and social functioning among assault victims.

  11. Factors Associated with the Sexual Assault of Students: An Exploratory Study of Victims Treated at Hospital-Based Sexual Assault Treatment Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Mont, Janice; Chertkow, Laura; Macdonald, Sheila; Asllani, Eriola; Bainbridge, Deidre; Rotbard, Nomi; Cohen, Marsha M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that students experience high levels of sexual assault, but studies addressing how they differ in their experiences from other sexual assault victims are virtually nonexistent. To address this gap, information was collected from consecutive individuals, aged 16 years or older, presenting to one of 7 hospital-based sexual assault…

  12. Low-dose ethanol aggravates allergic dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sakazaki, Fumitoshi; Ogino, Hirofumi; Arakawa, Tomohiro; Okuno, Tomofumi; Ueno, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol injures dendritic cells and suppresses cellular immunity, while some evidence indicates that drinking alcohol aggravates allergic asthma. This study investigated the effect of low doses of ethanol in enhancing allergic reactions in the skin of mice. Liquid food containing alcohol was administered to conventional NC/Nga mice to induce alcoholic hepatic steatosis, and spontaneous dermatitis was evaluated. BALB/c mice were administered approximately 1 g/kg body weight of ethanol by gavage, and contact hypersensitivity (CHS) or active cutaneous anaphylaxis (ACA) was induced. Spleens were collected 24 h after the elicitation of CHS and mRNA expressions of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Alcohol-containing diet exaggerated spontaneous dermatitis in conventional NC/Nga mice and contact hypersensitivity in BALB/c mice. Ethanol administered by gavage for 5 days enhanced contact hypersensitivity in BALB/c mice. Ethanol administration with gavage also enhanced ACA of BALB/c mice. Ethanol did not affect mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-4, but did enhance IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 mRNA expression. Histological evaluation revealed an absence of hepatic steatosis in mice administered ethanol by gavage for 5 days. In ethanol-administered mice, inflamed areas presented as lesions or a local extreme accumulation of mononuclear cells in the epidermis. These findings suggest that ethanol enhances the expression of inflammatory cytokines independently from T helper (Th)1/Th2 cytokine phenotypes, causing abnormalities in the epidermis resulting in exacerbated allergic reactivity.

  13. Complement depletion aggravates Staphylococcus aureus septicaemia and septic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sakiniene, E; Bremell, T; Tarkowski, A

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the role of the complement system in Staphylococcus aureus arthritis and septicaemia. The murine model of haematogenously acquired septic arthritis was used, injecting intravenously toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), producing S. aureus LS-1. Complement was depleted using cobra venom factor (CVF). Evaluation of arthritis was performed clinically and histopathologically. In addition, the effect of complement depletion on the phagocytic activity of leucocytes was assessed in vivo and in vitro. Six days after inoculation of S. aureus the prevalence of arthritis in decomplemented mice was three-fold higher than that in controls (91% versus 25%). The clinical severity of arthritis at the end of the experiment, expressed as arthritic index, was 7.3 and 1.9, respectively. These findings were confirmed by histological index of synovitis as well as of cartilage and/or bone destruction being significantly higher in decomplemented mice than in controls (9.8 ± 1.7 versus 4.9 ± 1.2, P < 0.05; and 7.9 ± 1.7 versus 3.0 ± 0.9, P < 0.05, respectively). Also, the septicaemia-induced mortality was clearly higher in decomplemented mice compared with the controls. CVF treatment significantly reduced in vivo polymorphonuclear cell-dependent inflammation induced by subcutaneous injection of olive oil and mirroring the capacity of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNC) to migrate and/or extravasate. Besides, the decomplementation procedure significantly impaired phagocytic activity of peripheral blood leucocytes in vitro, since the number of phagocytes being able to ingest bacteria decreased by 50% when the cells were maintained in decomplemented serum compared with those in intact serum. The conclusion is that complement depletion aggravates the clinical course of S. aureus arthritis and septicaemia, possibly by a combination of decreased migration/extravasation of PMNC and an impairment of phagocytosis. PMID:9933426

  14. Arterial Hypertension Aggravates Innate Immune Responses after Experimental Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Karoline; Pösel, Claudia; Kranz, Alexander; Schulz, Isabell; Scheibe, Johanna; Didwischus, Nadine; Boltze, Johannes; Weise, Gesa; Wagner, Daniel-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is not only the leading risk factor for stroke, but also attributes to impaired recovery and poor outcome. The latter could be explained by hypertensive vascular remodeling that aggravates perfusion deficits and blood–brain barrier disruption. However, besides vascular changes, one could hypothesize that activation of the immune system due to pre-existing hypertension may negatively influence post-stroke inflammation and thus stroke outcome. To test this hypothesis, male adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs) were subjected to photothrombotic stroke. One and 3 days after stroke, infarct volume and functional deficits were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral tests. Expression levels of adhesion molecules and chemokines along with the post-stroke inflammatory response were analyzed by flow cytometry, quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry in rat brains 4 days after stroke. Although comparable at day 1, lesion volumes were significantly larger in SHR at day 3. The infarct volume showed a strong correlation with the amount of CD45 highly positive leukocytes present in the ischemic hemispheres. Functional deficits were comparable between SHR and WKY. Brain endothelial expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and P-selectin (CD62P) was neither increased by hypertension nor by stroke. However, in SHR, brain infiltrating myeloid leukocytes showed significantly higher surface expression of ICAM-1 which may augment leukocyte transmigration by leukocyte–leukocyte interactions. The expression of chemokines that primarily attract monocytes and granulocytes was significantly increased by stroke and, furthermore, by hypertension. Accordingly, ischemic hemispheres of SHR contain considerably higher numbers of monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes. Exacerbated brain inflammation in SHR may finally be responsible for

  15. Ethanol and drug findings in women consulting a Sexual Assault Center--associations with clinical characteristics and suspicions of drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Cecilie T; Helland, Arne; Spigset, Olav; Espnes, Ketil A; Ormstad, Kari; Schei, Berit

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe toxicological findings among women seeking health care after sexual assault, and to assess the relationship with so-called proactive DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault). We also explored associations between ethanol in blood/urine and background data, assault characteristics, and clinical findings. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of female patients ≥ 12 years of age consulting the Sexual Assault Center at St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. They were examined between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010, and urine and/or blood were analyzed for ethanol and selected medicinal/recreational drugs. Among the 264 patients included, ethanol and/or drugs were detected in 155 (59%). Of the 50 patients (19%) testing positive for drugs other than ethanol, benzodiazepines/benzodiazepine-like drugs were found in 31, central stimulants in 14, cannabinoids in 13 and opioids in nine. None tested positive for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). In total, 57 patients (22%) suspected proactive DFSA, but only five had findings of sedative drugs that were not accounted for by self-reported voluntary intake. No cases could unequivocally be attributed to proactive DFSA. Among the 120 patients tested for ethanol within 12 h after the assault, 102 were positive. The median estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of assault was 1.87 g/L. Patients testing positive for ethanol more often reported a public place of assault and a stranger assailant. Higher estimated BAC at the time of assault was associated with higher frequency of suspecting proactive DFSA. Ethanol was the most prevalent toxicological finding in urine/blood from victims of sexual assault, and high ethanol concentrations were often detected. Among the patients suspecting proactive DFSA, very few had sedative drug findings not explained by voluntary intake. It seems like opportunistic DFSA, rather than proactive DFSA dominate among the sexually

  16. (Missing) Knowledge About Sexual Assault Resources: Undermining Military Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Holland, Kathryn J; Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia M

    2017-02-01

    In 2005, the Department of Defense reformed military sexual assault (MSA) prevention and response efforts. However, research suggests that some Service members may not be informed of MSA resources. We examined how lacking such knowledge may undermine psychological well-being (i.e., symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress) among MSA survivors as well as Service members who feel unsafe from MSA. The data were collected by the DoD in 2010 and sampled active duty Service women and men. Experiencing MSA, feeling unsafe from MSA, and lacking knowledge of MSA resources predicted greater psychiatric symptoms. Service members who felt unsafe from MSA reported greater psychiatric symptoms as a function of lacking knowledge of MSA resources. Findings suggest that education about sexual assault resources may be critical for the protection of mental health-among survivors and nonvictims alike.

  17. DNA testing of sexual assault evidence: the laboratory perspective.

    PubMed

    Burg, Abby; Kahn, Roger; Welch, Katherine

    2011-09-01

    The availability of DNA testing has dramatically changed the way that crimes are investigated. DNA results can link offenders to their crimes, exonerate wrongfully accused individuals, identify mass fatality victims and more. In the case of sexual assault, DNA evidence alone cannot prove that a sexual assault has occurred. DNA analysis can only reveal whether a person's DNA is, or is not, present. In this paper, the authors provide readers with an overview of the advantages and limitations of DNA analysis, the importance of proper evidence collection, the technologies available, and the amount of sample needed for testing. Through proper evidence collection and quality laboratory services, the full value of DNA will be realized.

  18. Prototypes of intrafamily homicide and serious assault among insanity acquittees.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M E; Scott, D C; Baranoski, M V; Buchanan, J A; Griffith, E E

    1998-01-01

    Public concern with societal violence is intensified when persons who have been found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) of having committed a homicide or serious assault are returned to the community. Successful management of such acquittees in the community requires a sophisticated understanding of the person and the illness within the larger context of the violent incident, the family, the community, and the culture. In this article, we present an analysis of psychotic violence within a family context. A qualitative study of 64 subjects who were found NGRI of killing or seriously injuring a family member resulted in four prototypes of intrafamilial homicide/assault: Till Death Us Do Part; Overwhelming Burden, Elimination of the Limit Setter; and Family-Focused Delusional Killing. The prototypes are presented as a model for developing management strategies both for future risk assessment and for successful transition of the insanity acquittee into the community.

  19. A Unique Case of Intracranial Mucormycosis Following an Assault

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Fadilah S

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial mucormycosis is a very unusual presentation of an infection after a depressed skull fracture due to an assault. Only sporadic cases have been reported in the literature previously. A 30-year-old male with a traumatic brain injury following an assault, status-post debridement and elevation of a depressed skull fracture, was discharged home several weeks postoperatively. A CT scan of the head with contrast was obtained due to mental status changes and revealed an enhancing ring-shaped lesion in the right frontal lobe consistent with a brain abscess. The patient was taken to the operating room for image-guided excisional biopsy of the lesion, with pathology revealing mucormycosis.  PMID:27672528

  20. Laboratory Management of Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault Cases.

    PubMed

    LeBeau, M A

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades, cases of drug-facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA) have increased in forensic laboratories in many parts of the world. Investigators of DFSA allegations know of the many challenges associated with these cases, but forensic toxicologists find that delays in the reporting of such crimes to law enforcement and subsequent lags in specimen collection are particularly important concerns. These delays are usually a result of the traumatic experience of sexual assaults, as well as the amnesic effect of the drugs typically used to commit DFSA. Unfortunately, such a delay in specimen collection may be the difference between detecting traces of a drug (or metabolite) and reporting a negative result. Therefore, it is imperative for toxicology laboratories to properly prepare for DFSA cases by developing forms, policies, and procedures to ensure that truly meaningful analyses are performed. This article provides guidance in the steps laboratories may take to best prepare themselves to analyze evidentiary specimens from DFSA investigations.

  1. Sexual Assault: A Report on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Postexposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, William F.; Ackerman, Gary E.; Zoellner, Cindy L.; Sheffield, Jeanne S.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe an urban county hospital human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prevention protocol offering prophylactic combination antiretroviral medications to female victims of sexual assault. A retrospective chart review was conducted from June, 2007 through June, 2008 of 151 women who were prescribed antiretroviral prophylaxis by protocol. All women receiving HIV prophylaxis initially screened HIV seronegative. Of the 58 women who reported taking any HIV prophylaxis, 36 (62%) were HIV screened at 12 and/or 24 weeks and none had HIV seroconverted. Although the initiation of an HIV post exposure prophylaxis protocol for sexual assault in a county hospital population is feasible, patient follow-up for counseling and HIV serostatus evaluation is an identified barrier PMID:20706678

  2. Nightmare frequency in sexual assault survivors with PTSD.

    PubMed

    Krakow, Barry; Schrader, Ron; Tandberg, Dan; Hollifield, Michael; Koss, Mary P; Yau, C Lillian; Cheng, Diana T

    2002-01-01

    Sexual assault survivors with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were assessed for frequency of nightmares, measured retrospectively on the Nightmare Frequency Questionnaire (NFQ) and prospectively on nightmare dream logs (NLOG). Retrospective frequency was extremely high, averaging occurrences every other night and an estimated number of nightmares greater than five per week. Test-retest reliability data on the NFQ yielded weighted kappa coefficients of .85 (95% CI, .74-.95) for nights and .90 (95% CI, .83-.97) for nightmares. Correlations between retrospective and prospective nightmare frequencies ranged between .53 (P = .001) for nights and .63 (P = .001) for nightmares. Correlations between frequency and distress measures (anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress) yielded coefficients ranging from (r = .28-.53). Compared with intrusive, cumbersome and time-consuming prospective measurements, the NFQ appears reliable, convenient, and equally useful in assessing nightmare frequency in a group of sexual assault survivors. Nightmare frequency, prevalence, distress and impairment are discussed.

  3. Sexual Assaults in the Marine Corps: Really Increasing?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-11

    National Network 
 http://www.rainn.org/ Violence Against Women Online Resources 
 http://www.vaw.umn.edu Planned Parenthood 
 http...elements identified by the Sexual Assault Advisory Council for collection and for interoperability with the planned DoD Integrated SAPR Data...effect: (3) White Letters, (1) ALMAR, (12) MARADIMINS - Executive Off-Site Brief (Senior Leaders, LtGen-Gen) - DON Strategic Plan - Indoctrination

  4. Caring for sexual assault survivors. The value of choice.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Helen

    2003-10-01

    Over the past 10 years, Helen Griffiths has been interviewing registered nurses throughout British Columbia and writing articles for Nursing BC on how these registered nurses meet RNABC's Standards for Registered Nursing Practice in their practice. For this issue, we asked Helen to write about her own practice as a registered nurse with the B.C. Women's Hospital and Health Centre Sexual Assault Service.

  5. IMPORTANT BUT INCOMPLETE: PLAN B AS AN AVENUE FOR POST-ASSAULT CARE

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Michelle L.; Martyn, Kristy K.; Campbell, Rebecca; Graham-Bermann, Sandra; Seng, Julia S.

    2016-01-01

    Many survivors of rape do not seek post-assault care. The recent change in status of emergency contraception (EC), such as Plan B, to an over-the-counter (OTC) product may be further changing post-assault care-seeking. This descriptive study will quantify OTC EC use in the post-assault period and elicit survivors’ desires for care. Data were collected from women purchasing OTC EC at university pharmacies (n=55) and students in an undergraduate university class (n=165). Quantitative results indicate annual prevalence rates of post-assault OTC EC use as 5.4%-7.3%. Qualitative analyses indicate OTC EC is an important but incomplete form of post-assault care. Future work should focus on intervention development to provide all OTC EC users with information about post-assault resources to prevent long-term sequelae. PMID:27293493

  6. Assaultive behavior in state psychiatric hospitals: differences between forensic and nonforensic patients.

    PubMed

    Linhorst, Donald M; Scott, Lisa Parker

    2004-08-01

    Forensic patients are occupying an increasingly large number of beds in state psychiatric hospitals. The presence of these mentally ill offenders has raised concerns about the risk they present to nonforensic patients. This study compared the rate of assaults and factors associated with assaultive behavior among 308 nonforensic patients and two groups of forensic patients including 469 patients found not guilty by reason of insanity and 76 pretrial patients. Consistent with other studies, nonforensic patients had higher rates of assaults than either group of forensic patients. However, being a forensic patient did not affect the odds of assault when controlling for the effects of demographic and clinical variables in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Factors associated with assaults in each of the three patient groups were identified using multivariate analyses. Implications are presented for treatment of assaultive behavior, mixing of forensic and nonforensic patients within state hospitals, forensic release policies, and future research.

  7. The Frequency of Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault Investigations.

    PubMed

    LeBeau, M A; Montgomery, M A

    2010-01-01

    While there is a general belief throughout parts of the world that drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) cases have dramatically increased in recent times, the true prevalence of DFSA will never be fully realized. This is due to the general underreporting of sexual assaults, the pharmacodynamics of the drugs used to commit these crimes, the challenges that delayed reporting can impose on the charges associated with these cases, and the lack of a uniform system of defining and statistically capturing data on sexual assaults that are facilitated by drugs. Over the years, a number of studies have attempted to quantitate the frequency of DFSA in various countries throughout the world. Unfortunately, no two studies have taken the same approach in their assessment of DFSA; therefore, it is difficult to combine their results to allow for a realistic evaluation of how prevalent DFSA really is. This manuscript reviews the studies that have attempted such an assessment of DFSA prevalence to compare and contrast their results.

  8. The Use of Miscellaneous Prescription Medications to Facilitate Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Couper, F J; Saady, J J

    2010-01-01

    Drugs used to facilitate sexual assaults are typically those that rapidly render the potential victim unconscious or sedated, and produce memory loss or amnesia. Many of these drugs are difficult to detect due to a delay in biological specimen collection. Detection is further hampered as the drugs are often administered in single low doses and are rapidly and extensively metabolized, resulting in low concentrations in biological specimens. Miscellaneous prescription drugs such as the barbiturates, antipsychotics, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, ketamine, and chloral hydrate have the potential to produce varying degrees of sedation; however, they are not frequently detected in drug-facilitated sexual assault cases. A review of the literature shows that these drugs are often knowingly taken by the victim before or subsequent to the assault, and therefore may contribute to the sedation or unconsciousness experienced by the victim when ethanol or other central nervous system drugs are co-administered. Most barbiturates, opioids, and tricyclic antidepressants are routinely screened for in hospitals and forensic toxicology laboratories, and may be detectable in a urine specimen for several days. Antipsychotics, particularly the atypical class, ketamine, and chloral hydrate, generally require more targeted analyses. This review provides an overview of the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and common analytical methods for the barbiturates, antipsychotics, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, ketamine, and chloral hydrate.

  9. Patterns of genital injury in female sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, L; Brown, C R; Crowley, S; Peck, R

    1997-03-01

    New colposcopic protocols for US forensic examiners enable documentation of genital trauma in 87-92% of rape victims--a significant improvement over protocols based on gross visualization or toluidine blue dye enhancement. It remains unresearched, however, whether colposcopic genital findings in sexual assault victims differ substantially from those in women who have had consensual intercourse. Thus, the type, extent, and distribution of genital injuries observed through colposcopy in 311 rape victims seen by the San Luis Obispo (California) County's Suspected Abuse Response Team in 1985-93 were compared to genital changes in 75 healthy women who had engaged in consensual intercourse in the past 24 hours. 213 assault victims (68%) had evidence of anogenital trauma. Among the 178 women (57%) with nongenital trauma, 132 (74%) also had genital injury (tears, ecchymoses, abrasions, redness, and swelling). The most common trauma site was the posterior fourchette (70%). Examination findings were significantly greater at 24 hours after rape than at 72 hours or more, but almost half the women seen at 72 hours or more after assault had positive genital findings. The injury pattern was not affected by age. In the consensual sex group, trauma was noted in eight women (11%). The proportion with genital injury was significantly higher for women reporting nonconsensual sex than those reporting consensual sex.

  10. Sexual assault risks among gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Hequembourg, Amy L; Parks, Kathleen A; Collins, R Lorraine; Hughes, Tonda L

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine lifetime patterns of sexual assault and associated risks among a purposive sample of gay and bisexual men (N = 183; 18 to 35 years old, M = 24.3). Cross-sectional data were collected via written, self-administered questionnaires and face-to-face, event-based qualitative interviews. Alcohol severity scores indicated high rates of hazardous drinking (53.0%) and possible dependence (14.2%) among participants. One-half of men (50.8%) reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and 67.2% reported adult sexual assault (ASA). Average age at most recent ASA was 21 years. Most perpetrators (83.9%) of recent ASA incidents were male; 67.0% of participants reported consuming alcohol and/or drugs prior to the most recent incident. Regression findings indicated more severe CSA experiences and past alcohol-related problems predicted recent severe ASA. Although we found similarities between gay and bisexual men in lifetime sexual assault history, we found some distinct differences in ASA risk factors. Bisexual men reported higher alcohol severity scores, more female ASA perpetrators, higher internalized homophobia scores, and fewer male sexual partners than gay men. Findings suggest the need for interventions that reduce ASA risk among sexual minority men-and the potential benefits of focusing on alcohol consumption in risk reduction efforts.

  11. Aggravation of excessive daytime sleepiness concurrent with aggravation of an injured ascending reticular activating system in a patient with mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ho; Kwon, Hyeok Gyu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: We report on a patient who developed aggravation of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) concurrent with aggravation of an injured ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), demonstrated by follow-up diffusion tensor tractographies (DTTs). Methods: A 42-year-old male patient experienced head trauma resulting from flexion-hyperextension injury after collision with another vehicle from behind while stopped at an intersection. The patient lost consciousness for approximately 10 seconds and experienced no post-traumatic amnesia following the accident. The patient's Glasgow Coma Scale score was 15. No specific lesion was observed on the conventional brain MRI performed at 10 weeks after onset. The patient complained of EDS after the head trauma and aggravation of EDS with passage of time. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale indicated abnormality with a score of 12 at 10 weeks after onset (cut-off: 10 points full mark: 24 score) and it was aggravated with a score of 18 at 16 months. Results: On 10-week DTT, decreased neural connectivity of the intralaminar thalamic nucleus to the prefrontal cortex and basal forebrain was observed in both hemispheres. However, no significant abnormality was observed in the dorsal and ventral lower ARAS. On 16-month DTT, the upper portion of the left dorsal lower ARAS showed partial tearing and the ventral lower ARAS showed thinning (both sides) and partial tearing (right side). Conclusions: Aggravation of EDS concurrent with aggravation of an injured ARAS was demonstrated in a patient with mild TBI using DTT. PMID:28121943

  12. Root Cause Analysis of Sexual Assault: Shifting from Early Detection to a Vaccine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-17

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT: SHIFTING FROM EARLY DETECTION TO A VACCINE by Christine F.L. Holliday, Lt...2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Root Cause Analysis Of Sexual Assault: Shifting From Early Detection To A Vaccine 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER... vaccine . Unarguably, the Air Force needs to remedy the cancer with detection, reporting, and treatment when sexual assault does occur. But current AF

  13. Metallothionein deficiency aggravates depleted uranium-induced nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Yuhui; Huang, Jiawei; Gu, Ying; Liu, Cong; Li, Hong; Liu, Jing; Ren, Jiong; Yang, Zhangyou; Peng, Shuangqing; Wang, Weidong; Li, Rong

    2015-09-15

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been widely used in both civilian and military activities, and the kidney is the main target organ of DU during acute high-dose exposures. In this study, the nephrotoxicity caused by DU in metallothionein-1/2-null mice (MT −/−) and corresponding wild-type (MT +/+) mice was investigated to determine any associations with MT. Each MT −/− or MT +/+ mouse was pretreated with a single dose of DU (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) or an equivalent volume of saline. After 4 days of DU administration, kidney changes were assessed. After DU exposure, serum creatinine and serum urea nitrogen in MT −/− mice significantly increased than in MT +/+ mice, with more severe kidney pathological damage. Moreover, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased, and generation of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde increased in MT −/− mice. The apoptosis rate in MT −/− mice significantly increased, with a significant increase in both Bax and caspase 3 and a decrease in Bcl-2. Furthermore, sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) and sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-II) were significantly reduced after DU exposure, and the change of SGLT was more evident in MT −/− mice. Finally, exogenous MT was used to evaluate the correlation between kidney changes induced by DU and MT doses in MT −/− mice. The results showed that, the pathological damage and cell apoptosis decreased, and SOD and SGLT levels increased with increasing dose of MT. In conclusion, MT deficiency aggravated DU-induced nephrotoxicity, and the molecular mechanisms appeared to be related to the increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, and decreased SGLT expression. - Highlights: • MT −/− and MT +/+ mice were used to evaluate nephrotoxicity of DU. • Renal damage was more evident in the MT −/− mice after exposure to DU. • Exogenous MT also protects against DU-induced nephrotoxicity. • MT deficiency induced more ROS and apoptosis after exposure to

  14. Alcohol-involved Assault: Associations with posttrauma alcohol use, consequences, and expectancies

    PubMed Central

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Kaysen, Debra; Desai, Sruti; Lee, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Victim alcohol consumption is common prior to sexual assault, and a burgeoning literature suggests that victims who were intoxicated during assault may differ in post-assault adjustment compared to those who were not impaired. Less is known about potential relationships between experiencing an alcohol-involved assault (AIA) and later drinking behavior. In this study, we examined the relationships between sexual assault, subsequent drinking behavior and consequences, and alcohol expectancies in a sample of 306 undergraduate women who reported current alcohol use and reported either no trauma history (n = 53), non-AIA (n = 69), or AIA (n = 184). Differences emerged for alcohol use (F(2, 298) = 12.78, p < .001), peak blood alcohol content (F(2, 298) = 9.66, p < .001), consequences (F(2, 296) = 7.38, p < .005), and positive alcohol expectancies (F(14, 796) = 1.93, p < .05). In particular, women with an AIA reported greater alcohol use and positive expectancies compared to women with no trauma history and women with a non-alcohol influenced assault. In addition, both assault groups reported greater drinking consequences than women with no trauma history. Findings suggest that it is the women who are assaulted while under the influence of alcohol who evidence more alcohol use and alcohol-related problems following assault. PMID:21813246

  15. Offering HIV prophylaxis to people who have been sexually assaulted: 16 months' experience in a sexual assault service.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, E R; Comay, S E; McGregor, M; Ducceschi, S

    2000-03-07

    The sexual assault service, operated by the Children's & Women's Health Centre of British Columbia in partnership with the Vancouver General Hospital Emergency Department, started offering HIV prophylaxis in November 1996 to patients presenting to the emergency department after a sexual assault. In the first 16 months of the program a total of 258 people were seen by the service, of whom 71 accepted the offer of HIV prophylaxis. Only 29 continued with the drug treatment after receiving the initial 5-day starter pack, and only 8 completed the full 4-week treatment regmen and returned for their final follow-up visit. Patients at highest risk for HIV infection (those who had penetration by an assailant known to be HIV positive or at high risk for HIV infection [men who have sex with men, injection drug users]) were more likely to accept prophylaxis and more likely to complete the treatment than those at lower risk. Compliance and follow-up were the main problems with implementing this service. Service providers found it difficult to give the information about HIV prophylaxis to traumatized patients. After this program evaluation, the service changed its policy to offer HIV prophylaxis only to people at high risk of HIV infection. This targeting of services is expected to make the service providers' jobs easier and to make the program more cost-effective while still protecting sexual assault victims against HIV infection.

  16. Women's journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma: a grounded theory--part 1.

    PubMed

    Duma, S E; Mekwa, J N; Denny, L D

    2007-12-01

    Thousands of women and children experience sexual assault trauma annually in South Africa. The challenge posed by recovery from sexual assault trauma is a reality that confronts the survivors of sexual assault, their families and the larger community of service providers. Yet, little research has been conducted on recovery from sexual assault as a phenomenon. The purpose of the study was to explore and analyse the journey of recovery which is undertaken by women who have been sexually assaulted, with the aim of discovering and developing the grounded theory of recovery from sexual assault trauma within the first six months following the event of rape. The main research question was: What constitutes the journey of recovery undertaken by women within the first six months following sexual assault? A longitudinal qualitative study was conducted using the principles of grounded theory methodology as proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1990, 1998). A series of in-depth one-to-one interviews were conducted with a sample of ten women. The participants were selected through open, purposive and theoretical sampling procedures. The study was conducted over a period of six months following the event of sexual assault. The substantive theory was discovered and constructed through the inductive and deductive analysis of data, grounded on the ten women's descriptions of their journey of recovery from sexual assault. The theory of women's journey of recovery that was discovered and developed consisted of eight theoretical concepts or categories. These included the following concepts: 1. Sexual assault trauma 2. Awakening 3. Pragmatic acceptance 4. Turning point 5. Reclaiming what was lost 6. Defining own landmarks of healing 7. Readiness for closure 8. Returning to self. The grounded theory of the journey of recovery from sexual assault is a contribution to the knowledge about women's journey of recovery from sexual assault. It provides a process and language for understanding women

  17. Assaultive Behavior in State Psychiatric Hospitals: Differences Between Forensic and Nonforensic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhorst, Donald M.; Scott, Lisa Parker

    2004-01-01

    Forensic patients are occupying an increasingly large number of beds in state psychiatric hospitals. The presence of these mentally ill offenders has raised concerns about the risk they present to nonforensic patients. This study compared the rate of assaults and factors associated with assaultive behavior among 308 nonforensic patients and two…

  18. Emancipatory Sexuality Education and Sexual Assault Resistance: Does the Former Enhance the Latter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Charlene Y.; Gee, Stephanie S.; Thake, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined whether adding emancipatory sexuality education, which encourages the exploration of women's own sexual values and desires, to a sexual assault resistance program would improve women's resistance to sexual assault by known men. The participants were 214 first-year university students. A randomized experimental design…

  19. 32 CFR 105.15 - Defense Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Defense Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID... Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID). (a) Purpose. (1) In accordance with section 563 of Public Law 110-417, DSAID shall support Military Service SAPR program management and DoD SAPRO...

  20. Healing or Hurtful: Sexual Assault Survivors' Interpretations of Social Reactions from Support Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Courtney E.; Cabral, Giannina; Abeling, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Sexual assault survivors often receive both positive and negative reactions to the disclosure of their assault. Although positive reactions are typically more common from informal support providers and negative reactions are typically more common from formal support providers, not all formal and informal support providers react the same way. To…

  1. Barriers to care for sexual assault survivors of childbearing age: An integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that only a small fraction of sexual assault survivors seek comprehensive care afterward, including physical and mental health care, forensic evidence collection, victim services, and legal support. This integrative review was conducted to identify barriers that may be keeping sexual assault survivors of childbearing age from receiving such comprehensive care. PMID:25664329

  2. Sexual Assault Prevention for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Critical Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Erin; Wacker, Julia; Macy, Rebecca; Parish, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Although research has indicated that women with intellectual disabilities are significantly burdened with sexual violence, there is a dearth of sexual assault prevention research for them. To help address this serious knowledge gap, the authors summarize the findings of general sexual assault prevention research and discuss its implications for…

  3. Latent Profiles among Sexual Assault Survivors: Implications for Defensive Coping and Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Nurius, Paula S.; Norris, Jeanette

    2007-01-01

    Rape resistance trainings need to prepare women to recognize and resist sexual assault across a range of experiences and contexts. To help address this need, this research used an investigation of 415 college women who completed a survey about their situational responding to an experience of acquaintance sexual assault. A previously established…

  4. Acute Stress Disorder as a Predictor of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Physical Assault Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Brink, Ole

    2004-01-01

    The authors' objective was to examine the ability of acute stress disorder (ASD) and other trauma-related factors in a group of physical assault victims in predicting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 6 months later. Subjects included 214 victims of violence who completed a questionnaire 1 to 2 weeks after the assault, with 128 participating…

  5. Processes and patterns in gay, lesbian, and bisexual sexual assault: a multimethodological assessment.

    PubMed

    Menning, Chadwick L; Holtzman, Mellisa

    2014-04-01

    Although prior research suggests that sexual minorities are at equivalent or greater risk of sexual assault compared with heterosexual women, few studies have examined simultaneously a broad array of assault types, the forms of force and pressure experienced, and the relative risks of experiencing different kinds of assault or force or pressure during an assault according to sex and sexual orientation. Moreover, very little is known about how subjective interpretations of assault may differ by sex and sexual orientation. We address these gaps using a multimethodological analysis of original survey data (N = 342) with a snowball oversample of sexual minority respondents. Quantitative results indicate that both sexual minority status and sex are predictive of increased assault risk of most assault types, but that most effects of sexual minority status are restricted to men. The probabilities of experiencing verbal pressure or physical force are largely uniform across categories. Qualitative analyses of open-ended questions suggest that men and women interpret the experience of assault differently, such that sexual minority men conceptualize their unwanted sexual experiences as "giving in" due to feelings of guilt or low self-worth, whereas women of all sexual orientations acquiesced because it was perceived to be easier or more practical than resisting. Theoretical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  6. Psychological Outcomes After a Sexual Assault Video Intervention: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Miller, Katherine E; Cranston, Christopher C; Davis, Joanne L; Newman, Elana; Resnick, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Sexual assault survivors are at risk for a number of mental and physical health problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety. Unfortunately, few seek physical or mental health services after a sexual assault (Price, Davidson, Ruggiero, Acierno, & Resnick, 2014). Mitigating the impact of sexual assault via early interventions is a growing and important area of research. This study adds to this literature by replicating and expanding previous studies (e.g., Resnick, Acierno, Amstadter, Self-Brown, & Kilpatrick, 2007) examining the efficacy of a brief video-based intervention that provides psychoeducation and modeling of coping strategies to survivors at the time of a sexual assault nurse examination. Female sexual assault survivors receiving forensic examinations were randomized to standard care or to the video intervention condition (N = 164). The participants completed mental health assessments 2 weeks (n = 69) and 2 months (n = 74) after the examination. Analyses of covariance revealed that women in the video condition had significantly fewer anxiety symptoms at the follow-up assessments. In addition, of those participants in the video condition, survivors reporting no previous sexual assault history reported significantly fewer posttraumatic stress symptoms 2 weeks after the examination than those with a prior assault history. Forensic nurses have the unique opportunity to intervene immediately after a sexual assault. This brief video intervention is a cost-effective tool to aid with that process.

  7. 75 FR 30002 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Task Force on Sexual Assault in the Military Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... terminating the Defense Task Force on Sexual Assault in the Military Services, effective June 1, 2010. FOR... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Task Force on Sexual Assault in the Military Services AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Termination of federal advisory committee....

  8. Gender and the Seriousness of Assaults on Intimate Partners and Other Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felson, Richard B.; Cares, Alison C.

    2005-01-01

    We examine the ways in which assaults committed by male intimate partners are more serious than assaults committed by female partners and whether these differences reflect gender differences in offending and victimization generally. Analyses of the National Violence Against Women and Men Survey (N = 6,480) show that, in general, gender effects do…

  9. Walking the Woods: The Lived Experience of Sexual Assault Survival for Women in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan-Kreishman, Mollie M.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores the lived experience of sexual assault survival for women in college. Through a grounding in the philosophy of hermeneutic phenomenology (Gadamer, 1960/2000; Heidegger, 1927/1962, 1968, 1928/1998, 1971/2001, 1950/2002), this work uncovers the lives of six sexual assault survivors who lived through rape during…

  10. Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Donna E.; Griffin, Melinda A.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychosocial correlates of alcohol-related sexual assault. Undergraduate students (N = 551) were recruited to complete a web-based survey. The outcome was a composite of 2 items: "experienced an unwanted sexual advance" or "was the victim of sexual assault or date rape" as a result of another's alcohol use. The predictors…

  11. 78 FR 20221 - National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ..., and young women. Nearly one in five women will be a victim of sexual assault during college. For some... assault response teams, helping States deliver justice for survivors and hold offenders accountable. Just... this crime does take place, it cannot be tolerated; victims must have access to support, and...

  12. The ISSAS Model: Understanding the Information Needs of Sexual Assault Survivors on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Julia; Gross, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Sexual assault is a prevalent, yet underreported and stigmatizing crime that disproportionately affects college-age students. The literature of Library & Information Studies does not currently address the ways in which survivors may seek information after an assault. Blending findings from Psychology and LIS, this study proposes the…

  13. Sexual Assault Perpetrators' Tactics: Associations with Their Personal Characteristics and Aspects of the Incident

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.

    2011-01-01

    Past theory and empirical research have consistently associated a number of risk factors with sexual assault perpetration. This study extends past research by considering if the tactics which perpetrators use to obtain sex are associated with these risk factors or with characteristics of the sexual assault. Audio computer-assisted self-interviews…

  14. Child Sexual Assault as a Risk Factor for Mental Disorders among Women: A Community Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Benjamin E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Screened 391 women for a history of sexual assault during childhood and then assessed subjects for mental disorders. Results indicate that rape and molestation, but not noncontact sexual assault, increased incidents of mental disorders, suggesting that physical sexual contact leads to severe mental health effects. Other findings are discussed.…

  15. The Reporting of Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault by Nonstrangers to the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felson, Richard B.; Par, Paul-Philippe

    2005-01-01

    We examine the effects of the gender of the victim and offender and their relationship to each other on whether sexual and physical assaults are reported to the police. We also examine the reasons victims give for not reporting assaults and whether reporting patterns have changed over time. The analyses are based on a sample of 6,291 physical…

  16. How Does It End? Women Project the Outcome of a Sexual Assault Scenario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; George, William H.

    2006-01-01

    Content and thematic analyses were used to examine women's written responses to a hypothetical attempted sexual assault. A community sample (N=371) participated in an experiment examining the effects of alcohol on sexual assault resistance. Women received a high-dose alcohol, low-dose alcohol, placebo, or control beverage and then projected…

  17. The Influence of Stereotypical Beliefs, Participant Gender, and Survivor Weight on Sexual Assault Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Allyson K.; Stermac, Lana

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the influence of survivor weight and participant gender, rape myth acceptance, and antifat attitudes on perceptions of sexual assault. Using an online survey tool, a community sample of 413 adult Canadian residents reviewed a hypothetical sexual assault scenario and completed a series of evaluations and attitudinal…

  18. Listening to mental health workers' experiences: factors influencing their work with women who disclose sexual assault.

    PubMed

    McLindon, Elizabeth; Harms, Louise

    2011-02-01

    Women are overrepresented within mental health service-use statistics, and a disproportionate number of them have experienced sexual assault. While mental health workers are often the first point of contact between these women and the mental health system, within the research to date, women have often reported a negative experience of disclosing sexual assault to these workers. This article presents findings from an exploratory Australian study. The aim of the study was to explore factors that influenced how mental health Crisis Assessment and Treatment Service (CATS) workers respond to women who disclose sexual assault in crisis service settings. Fifteen CATS workers were surveyed and the predominantly qualitative data were then analysed using thematic analysis. This article presents two key findings: (i) the majority of participants had not experienced adequate sexual assault training, and seven of the 15 did not feel well equipped to respond to a disclosure of sexual assault; and (ii) they rarely consulted or referred women to specialist sexual assault services, despite recognizing the significant impact of sexual assault on mental health functioning. Recommendations are made for training and increased communication between mental health and sexual assault service systems to ensure better outcomes for women.

  19. Is the Authoritarian Trait in Mental Health Workers a Significant Predictor Variable of Patient Assault?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safian-Rush, Donna

    Mental health workers may be assaulted by their violent patients. A study was conducted to examine one predictor variable of aggressive behavior in patients. It was hypothesized that authoritarian traits in the mental health worker could result in more assaults against the mental health worker by patients. Participants (N=32) were mental health…

  20. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Acute Stress Disorder Resulting from an Anti-Gay Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaysen, Debra; Lostutter, Ty W.; Goines, Marie A.

    2005-01-01

    This case study describes Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) with a 30-year-old gay man with symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) following a recent homophobic assault. Treatment addressed assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Also addressed were low self-esteem, helplessness, and high degrees of…

  1. Spirituality and Well-Being: The Relationship between Religious Coping and Recovery from Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Courtney E.; Abeling, Samantha; Ahmad, Sarah; Hinman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature documenting beneficial outcomes of religious coping, there are virtually no studies examining sexual assault survivors' use of religious coping. To fill this gap in the literature, the current study examines predictors and outcomes of positive and negative religious coping among 100 sexual assault survivors who…

  2. A Pilot Survey of Patient-Initiated Assaults on Medical Students during Clinical Clerkship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Andrea E.; Katz, Mark R.; Lofchy, Jodi; Bradley, John

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the incidents of patient-initiated assault (PIA) against clinical clerks during the first six months of clinical clerkship. To characterise the assaults with respect to service, location, clerk gender, patient gender. To examine the students' perceptions of the reporting process for PIA. Methods: A brief email survey was sent…

  3. Risk Factors for Physical Assault and Rape among Six Native American Tribes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Koss, Mary P.; Polacca, Mona; Goldman, David

    2006-01-01

    Prevalence and correlates of adult physical assault and rape in six Native American tribes are presented (N = 1,368). Among women, 45% reported being physically assaulted and 14% were raped since age 18 years. For men, figures were 36% and 2%, respectively. Demographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences, adulthood alcohol dependence,…

  4. 32 CFR 105.17 - Sexual assault offense-investigation disposition descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... against the subject may include court-martial charge preferral, Article 15 UCMJ punishment, nonjudicial... seriousness. For each offender, any court-martial sentence and non-judicial punishment administered by... sexual assault offense. (i) Court-martial charges preferred (initiated) for sexual assault offense....

  5. 32 CFR 105.17 - Sexual assault offense-investigation disposition descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... against the subject may include court-martial charge preferral, Article 15 UCMJ punishment, nonjudicial... seriousness. For each offender, any court-martial sentence and non-judicial punishment administered by... sexual assault offense. (i) Court-martial charges preferred (initiated) for sexual assault offense....

  6. The Role of Alcohol and Victim Sexual Interest in Spanish Students' Perceptions of Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Megias, Jesus L.; Krahe, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Two studies investigated the effects of information related to rape myths on Spanish college students' perceptions of sexual assault. In Study 1, 92 participants read a vignette about a nonconsensual sexual encounter and rated whether it was a sexual assault and how much the woman was to blame. In the scenario, the man either used physical force…

  7. Rape on the Campus: The Prevalence of Sexual Assault while Enrolled in College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Colleen; Corty, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Surveyed 531 college students to examine prevalence of campus sexual assault. Found that one in six women reported assault, with no difference in rate between first- and upper-year women. Alcohol was more commonly involved than was force. Nonconsensual intercourse increased over time in college. Concluded that universities need carefully timed and…

  8. 32 CFR 105.15 - Defense Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Defense Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID... Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID). (a) Purpose. (1) In accordance with section 563 of Public Law... activities. It shall serve as a centralized, case-level database for the collection and maintenance...

  9. Health Status and Leisure Behavior of Sexual Assault Victims: Educational Opportunities for Health and Leisure Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Emilyn A.; And Others

    The health status and leisure behavior of victims of sexual assault were studied. Data concerning present illness symptoms, past illness symptoms, negative health behavior, family health history, and female reproductive physiology illness symptoms were obtained and analyzed. Sexual assault victims were similar to nonvictims demographically except…

  10. 32 CFR 105.13 - Case management for Unrestricted Reports of sexual assault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sexual assaults are entered into DSAID or a DSAID Service interface system within 48 hours of the report... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Case management for Unrestricted Reports of....13 Case management for Unrestricted Reports of sexual assault. (a) General. (1) The...

  11. The Use of Z-Drugs to Facilitate Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Stockham, T L; Rohrig, T P

    2010-01-01

    Zolpidem, zopiclone, and zaleplon are commonly referred to as the "Z-drugs." The Z-drugs are nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics indicated for the short-term treatment of insomnia. Since becoming widely prescribed as sleep aids in the United States, they are increasingly being detected in a variety of forensic specimens. We present a comprehensive overview of the basic chemistry, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of zolpidem, zopiclone, and zaleplon, including their interaction with other prescription drugs and ethanol, findings in drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) casework, and methods of analysis.

  12. Legal changes towards justice for sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesh, N

    2010-01-01

    The crime of rape is a major problem in India, evident from the reports in the press as well as official statistics. The accused has often gone free, because the victim did not file a complaint, or because of poor evidence gathering and well as lacunae in the law. This paper presents an overview of the laws applicable to sexual assault cases and amendments in these laws, specifically in terms of the roles and responsibilities of healthcare providers to bridge the gap in providing medical evidence to the courts.

  13. 78 FR 63454 - Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... of the Secretary Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel; Notice of Federal Advisory... Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel. DATES: A meeting of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (``the Panel'') will be held November 7-8, 2013. The Public Session...

  14. Assessing the Impact of Acquaintance Rape: Interviews with Women Who Are Victims/Survivors of Sexual Assault while in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerette, Sarah M.; Caron, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This is a study consisting of in-depth interviews with 12 women who were victims/survivors of acquaintance rape while attending a university in the Northeast. The interviews focused on research questions concerning actions taken by the victim/survivor after the assault, reactions to her disclosure of the assault, and the impact of assault. It was…

  15. 27 CFR 478.132 - Dispositions of semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for... assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for official use... licensed dealers in semiautomatic assault weapons, as well as persons who manufacture, import, or deal...

  16. 27 CFR 478.132 - Dispositions of semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for... assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for official use... licensed dealers in semiautomatic assault weapons, as well as persons who manufacture, import, or deal...

  17. 27 CFR 478.132 - Dispositions of semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for... assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for official use... licensed dealers in semiautomatic assault weapons, as well as persons who manufacture, import, or deal...

  18. 27 CFR 478.132 - Dispositions of semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for... assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for official use... licensed dealers in semiautomatic assault weapons, as well as persons who manufacture, import, or deal...

  19. 27 CFR 478.132 - Dispositions of semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for... assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices to law enforcement officers for official use... licensed dealers in semiautomatic assault weapons, as well as persons who manufacture, import, or deal...

  20. 3 CFR 8952 - Proclamation 8952 of March 29, 2013. National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2013 8952 Proclamation 8952 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8952 of March 29, 2013 Proc. 8952 National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2013By... the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim April 2013 as National Sexual Assault Awareness...

  1. The Sexual Assault and Secondary Victimization of Female Veterans: Help-Seeking Experiences with Military and Civilian Social Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Raja, Sheela

    2005-01-01

    A sample of predominantly low-income, African American female veterans and reservists seeking health care in a Veterans' Administration medical clinic was screened for a history of sexual assault since age 18. Overall, 39% had been sexually assaulted in adulthood. Those who had been sexually victimized were asked to describe one assault incident…

  2. A Prospective Analysis of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Victimization and Perpetration of Dating Violence and Sexual Assault in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Catherine; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2006-01-01

    The majority of studies evaluating the relationship between childhood sexual assault and subsequent sexual assault perpetration by men have been conducted retrospectively and with incarcerated populations. The present study seeks to improve on previous research by prospectively investigating the relationship between childhood sexual assault and…

  3. Characteristics of international assaultive psychiatric patients: review of published findings, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Raymond B; Wyshak, Grace; Tecce, Joseph J; Flannery, Georgina J

    2014-09-01

    In international reviews of psychiatric inpatient violence, one study of all types of patient violence found hostility, involuntary admission, and longer hospital stays associated with violence. A second study of comparison-group papers of patient assaults found younger males with schizophrenia, past violence, and substance abuse assaultive. The present review of raw assault data studies assessed characteristics of assaultive patients worldwide. It was hypothesized that patients with schizophrenia would present greatest assault risk. There were three analyses: International/no American studies (reviewed earlier), European studies, and merged International/American studies. Results revealed that male and female patients with schizophrenia, affective disorders, personality disorders, and other diagnoses presented greatest worldwide risk. Results partially support earlier findings. Given that individual institutional studies in this review reported significant assailant characteristics, a second finding is the absence of most of these institutional characteristics in this international review. Possible explanations for findings and a detailed methodological review are presented.

  4. An evaluation of a mixed-gender sexual assault prevention program.

    PubMed

    Bradley, April R; Yeater, Elizabeth A; O'Donohue, William

    2009-11-01

    This study evaluated the short-term effectiveness of a mixed-gender sexual assault prevention program developed for college students. Program participants (n = 177) were compared to non-program participants (n = 132) prior to the program and during a 2-week follow-up period on measures of rape myths, victim empathy, perceived negative consequences and estimated likelihood of committing rape, sexual communication, sexual assault awareness, and risky dating behavior. The prevention program was effective at increasing men's victim empathy and decreasing their adherence to rape myths but ineffective at changing women's assault-related knowledge, participation in risky dating behaviors, and sexual communication strategies. Limitations of the study and directions for future research in sexual assault prevention are addressed. Editors' Strategic Implications: This study provides an important example of the limitations of a single session prevention programming approach (even if it is well designed and executed) in addressing a systemic and pervasive problem like sexual assault on college campuses.

  5. Routine activities and sexual assault: an analysis of individual- and school-level factors.

    PubMed

    Cass, Amy I

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of routine activities theory is examined to explain sexual assault on the college campus. Although many research studies have utilized routine activities theory to predict sexual assault using individual-level factors, little is known about the effect of school-level factors on a student's risk of sexual assault. Based on interviews from 3,036 randomly selected students and surveys from 11 randomly selected colleges in the United States, a hierarchical linear model was created to predict student victimizations by school characteristics. For the individual, results reveal that being female, drug use, and marital status are statistically significant for predicting the probability of a sexual assault. At the institutional level, however, none of the variables are significant in predicting sexual assault among college coeds. Policy implications for prevention measures on college campuses are discussed.

  6. Predictors of victim-perpetrator relationship stability following a sexual assault: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie M; Kearns, Megan C; Gidycz, Christine A; Calhoun, Karen S

    2012-01-01

    The researchers assessed the predictors of victim-perpetrator relationship stability following a sexual assault. Participants included 254 women sexually assaulted by a friend, casual dating partner, or steady dating partner. Results suggested that most victim-perpetrator relationships (75%) continued following the sexual assault. Greater trauma symptomatology, less perpetrator blame, and nondisclosure of the assault by victims predicted relationship continuation with the perpetrator. Additionally, the odds of continuing the relationship were greater following acts of sexual coercion than following acts of completed rape. Close relationships (steady dating partner) were more likely to continue following the sexual assault than less close relationships (friends and casual dating partners). Unexpectedly, the odds of relationship stability were greater for women without histories of childhood sexual abuse than women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.

  7. The roles of victim and offender substance use in sexual assault outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brecklin, Leanne R; Ullman, Sarah E

    2010-08-01

    The impact of victim and offender preassault substance use on the outcomes of sexual assault incidents was analyzed. Nine hundred and seventy female sexual assault victims were identified from the first wave of a longitudinal study based on a convenience sampling strategy. Multivariate models showed that victim injury was more likely in assaults involving offender substance use (regardless of whether or not the victim was also using substances). Offender use of physical force and verbal threats were also related to greater odds of completed rape and injury, and force was associated with medical attention seeking. Based on this study, rape prevention programs should target men and focus on the role of substance use in sexual assault. These prevention programs should incorporate information on the roles of offender and victim substance use, offender aggression, and other situational factors in sexual assault outcomes. Study limitations and suggestions for future research on the role of victim and offender substance use in rape incidents are presented.

  8. Primary care provider interventions for the delayed disclosure of adolescent sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Lessing, Jessica E

    2005-01-01

    Acute sexual assault is a serious and underreported crime with the potential for causing grave physical and emotional harm to its victim. As a result of developmental and psychological factors, the adolescent victim may delay the disclosure of such an assault and therefore experience detrimental, acute, and long-term effects. By understanding the reasons for delayed disclosure and integrating this with currently established guidelines for acutely assaulted patients, primary care providers can better tailor the care they provide when faced with the delayed disclosure of adolescent sexual assault. Furthermore, based on this review, it becomes clear that standardized protocols are necessary to more efficiently care for these patients. Recommendations are provided to allow tailoring of primary care provider's interventions based on established protocols and new understandings when caring for adolescents who delay the disclosure of their sexual assault.

  9. Sexual assault in school, mental health and suicidal behaviors in adolescent women in Canada.

    PubMed

    Bagley, C; Bolitho, F; Bertrand, L

    1997-01-01

    Adolescent women (N = 1,025) in grades 7 through 12 in a stratified random sample of Alberta high schools completed measures of emotional problems and suicidal behavior in the past six months, and of frequency and type of sexual assault (including sexual harassment) experienced in school. It was found that 23% has experienced at least one event of assault (sexual touching, sexual threats or remarks, or an incident of indecent exposure); 4% had "often" experienced one or more of these assaults or harassments. Those experiencing a high number of sexual assaults or harassments were significantly more likely to have clinical profiles on the measures of emotional disorder; 15% of 38 women experiencing frequent, unwanted sexual touching had "often" made suicidal gestures or attempts in the previous six months, compared with 2% of 824 women with no experience of sexual assault.

  10. Predicting sexual assault kit submission among adolescent rape cases treated in forensic nurse examiner programs.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jessica; Campbell, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    Following a sexual assault, victims are usually advised to have a medical forensic exam and sexual assault forensic exam kit (SAK). Once completed, the SAK is to be transported by law enforcement to the crime lab for analysis. However, many kits are never transported to the crime lab, thereby preventing forensic evidence obtained in the kit to be used during the prosecutorial process. The current study examined rates of SAK submission for 393 adolescent sexual assault cases in two Midwestern communities and explored what factors predicted law enforcement officers' submission of SAKs to the crime lab for analysis. Findings reveal that more than 40% of the adolescent cases did not have their SAK submitted, and several factors, including the age and race of the victim, the number of perpetrators in the assault, and the number of assaultive acts, predicted SAK submission. Implications for SAK community protocols are discussed.

  11. Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity as a Moderator of Relationship Functioning After Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Gemberling, Tess M; Cramer, Robert J; Miller, Rowland S; Stroud, Caroline H; Noland, Ramona M; Graham, James

    2015-12-01

    Sexual assault is unfortunately common, especially among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. Yet, the associations of such victimization have not yet been extensively established in the areas of sexual identity and romantic relationship functioning. Accordingly, the present study examined the associations between lifetime sexual assault, LGB identity, and romantic relationship functioning in a sample of 336 LGB individuals. A history of sexual assault was associated with attachment anxiety and several sexual identity components (i.e., higher levels of acceptance concerns, identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity, and identity superiority). Furthermore, an association of sexual assault and attachment avoidance was moderated by internalized homonegativity. Finally, a more secure LGB identity was associated with healthier romantic relationship functioning. Collectively, these findings are applicable to services for LGB sexual assault victims, suggesting the incorporation of treatment that bolsters LGB identity and couple functioning. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  12. Trends and patterns of sexual assaults in Lagos south-western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ezechi, Oliver Chukwujekwu; Adesolamusa, Zaidat; David, Agatha Nkiru; Wapmuk, Agatha Eileen; Gbajabiamila, Titilola Abike; Eugeniaidigbe, Ifeoma; Ezeobi, Paschal Mbanefo; Ohihoin, Aigbe Greg; Ujah, Innocent Achanya Otobo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexual assault is a severely traumatic experience that disproportionally affects women and girls. Yet there is limited information on the subject in our environment. This study was conducted to determine the trend and pattern of sexual assault among Nigerians. Methods A retrospective study of sexual assault victims managed at a large clinic in south west Nigeria. Victims were identified from the programme data base and case files retrieved from medical records department. Relevant information was extracted and managed with SPSS for windows version 19. Results Steady increase in the proportion of reported cases of sexual violence over the years (P < 0.0001) was observed. Sexual assaults were recorded among the males (6.1%), although female victims were in the majority (93.9%). Sexual assault was found to be higher in person’s <20 years and the unmarried. Most sexual assault occurred during the day time. Assailants were mostly persons known to the victim (52.0%) and the assault occurred mostly in the assailants’ house or office (48.5%). Sexual assault through vaginal route only (87.2%) was the most common route of sexual assault. Threat of violence (31.1%) and physical force (29.6%) was the common methods for overcoming the victims. Follow up was completed by 75.0% of the victims. Conclusion Sexual assault is common in our environment, with increasing prevalence and change in pattern. Young persons aged less than 20 years constitutes the majority of victims and assailants were mostly persons known to them. The current public education on the evils of sexual violence should be intensified. PMID:27800114

  13. Comparison of sexual assaults by strangers and known assailants in an urban population of women.

    PubMed Central

    Stermac, L E; Du Mont, J A; Kalemba, V

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the characteristics of sexual assaults by strangers and those by people known to the victims in an urban community-based population of women. DESIGN: Descriptive study. SETTING: Sexual Assault Care Centre, Women's College Hospital, Toronto. PARTICIPANTS: All 677 women who presented to the centre between June 1, 1991, and Sept. 30, 1993, and for whom the victim-assailant relationship was known. OUTCOME MEASURES: Assailant's relationship to victim, sex of assailant, number of assailants, number, type and location of assaults, use of weapons, type of coercion and extent of physical trauma or injury. RESULTS: Sexual assault by a person known to the victim accounted for 456 (67.4%) of the assaults reported. In 344 cases the person was known more than 24 hours; 99 (28.8%) were current or previous boyfriends or spouses. Assailants who were strangers were more likely to assault the victim more than once (t = -2.42, 355 degrees of freedom [df], p < 0.05), force the victim to perform fellatio (chi 2 = 8.63, 1 df, p < 0.005), use weapons (chi 2 = 12.01, 1 df, p < 0.001) and use physical coercion (chi 2 = 4.42, 1 df, p < 0.05), whereas assailants who were known to the victims were more likely to assault a woman who was sleeping or drugged (chi 2 = 10.38, 1 df, p < 0.005). Sexual assault by a known assailant was more likely to occur in the home of the victim (chi 2 = 36.27, 1 df, p < 0.001) or the assailant (chi 2 = 8.46, 1 df, p < 0.005), whereas sexual assault by a stranger was more likely to occur outdoors (chi 2 = 89.80, 1 df, p < 0.001) or in a vehicle (chi 2 = 32.81, 1 df, p < 0.001). Overall, the mean number of trauma sites was greater among victims assaulted by strangers than among those assaulted by people they knew (t = -4.29, 180 df, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Two thirds of the sexual assaults in this urban population were committed by people known to the victims, and over two thirds of these assaults were associated with physical trauma. Improved

  14. Clear & Simple

    MedlinePlus

    ... the audience themselves. It is important to get direct audience involvement at some point to test the ... words are defined clearly. Sentences are simple, specific, direct, and written in the active voice. Each idea ...

  15. Examining cultural, social, and self-related aspects of stigma in relation to sexual assault and trauma symptoms.

    PubMed

    Deitz, Mandi F; Williams, Stacey L; Rife, Sean C; Cantrell, Peggy

    2015-05-01

    The current study investigated a model explaining sexual assault victims' severity of trauma symptoms that incorporated multiple stigma constructs. Integrating the sexual assault literature with the stigma literature, this study sought to better understand trauma-related outcomes of sexual assault by examining three levels of stigma-cultural, social, and self. Results showed self-stigma was significantly and positively related to trauma symptom severity. Thus, results revealed that the internalized aspect of stigma served as a mechanism in the relation between sexual assault severity and increased levels of trauma symptom severity, highlighting the importance of assessing self-stigma in women reporting sexual assault experiences.

  16. Drug-Provoked Psoriasis: Is It Drug Induced or Drug Aggravated?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Grace K.

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a commonly encountered dermatosis with a variety of internal and external paradoxical factors contributing to the clinical course of the disease. There are several drugs described in the literature that have been associated with the initiation, exacerbation, and aggravation of psoriasis. Understanding the pathophysiology can provide clues to treatment and management of drug-induced and drug-aggravated psoriasis, which may be indistinguishable from idiopathic psoriasis. The clinical manifestations of drug-associated psoriasis can range from plaque-type psoriasis to severe erythroderma, thus warranting astute and sustained clinical observation. PMID:20725536

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial Targeting Alcohol Use and Sexual Assault Risk among College Women at High Risk for Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Lewis, Melissa A.; George, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Current sexual assault risk reduction programs do not target alcohol use despite the widespread knowledge that alcohol use is a risk factor for being victimized. The current study assessed the effectiveness of a web-based combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction program using a randomized control trial. A total of 207 college women between the ages of 18 and 20 who engaged in heavy episodic drinking were randomized to one of five conditions: full assessment only control condition, sexual assault risk reduction condition, alcohol use reduction condition, combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction condition, and a minimal assessment only condition. Participants completed a 3-month follow-up survey on alcohol-related sexual assault outcomes, sexual assault outcomes, and alcohol use outcomes. Significant interactions revealed that women with higher incidence and severity of sexual assault at baseline experienced less incapacitated attempted or completed rapes, less incidence/severity of sexual assaults, and engaged in less heavy episodic drinking compared to the control condition at the 3-month follow-up. Web-based risk reduction programs targeting both sexual assault and alcohol use may be the most effective way to target the highest risk sample of college students for sexual assault: those with a sexual assault history and those who engage in heavy episodic drinking. PMID:26408290

  18. The Relationship Between the Quantity of Alcohol Consumed and the Severity of Sexual Assaults Committed by College Men

    PubMed Central

    ABBEY, ANTONIA; CLINTON-SHERROD, A. MONIQUE; McAUSLAN, PAM; ZAWACKI, TINA; BUCK, PHILIP O.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that intoxicated perpetrators may act more violently than other perpetrators, although empirical findings have been mixed. Past research has focused on whether or not alcohol was consumed, rather than the quantity consumed, and this may explain these inconsistent findings. The authors hypothesized that the quantity of alcohol consumed would have a curvilinear relationship to the severity of the assault. Data were collected from 113 college men who reported that they had committed a sexual assault since the age of 14. The quantity of alcohol that perpetrators consumed during the assault was linearly related to how much aggression they used and was curvilinearly related to the type of sexual assault committed. The quantity of alcohol that victims consumed during the assault was linearly related to the type of sexual assault committed. Strategies for improving assessment of alcohol consumption in sexual assault research are discussed. PMID:14675511

  19. Sexual Assault Victimization Among Female Undergraduates During Study Abroad: A Single Campus Survey Study.

    PubMed

    Flack, William F; Kimble, Matthew O; Campbell, Brooke E; Hopper, Allyson B; Petercă, Oana; Heller, Emily J

    2015-12-01

    Almost all research on sexual assault victimization among undergraduate university students pertains to incidents that occur on domestic college and university campuses. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of sexual assault victimization and related factors among undergraduates in the context of study-abroad programs. Two hundred eight female students (52% response rate) from a small university in the northeastern United States who had recently studied abroad responded to an online survey containing measures of sexual assault, posttraumatic stress responses (PSR), and alcohol consumption. Almost 19% of the respondents indicated one or more types of sexual assault victimization. Approximately 17% reported non-consensual sexual touching, 7% attempted rape, 4% rape, with 9% reporting attempted rape or rape. As in domestic studies, victimization in this sample was related positively to alcohol consumption and PSR. Use of force was the most frequently reported perpetrator tactic. In sum, the high rates of sexual assault victimization reported by this sample during study abroad replicate previous findings. This context requires further attention from sexual assault researchers, especially given the increasing numbers of university students engaging in study abroad, and from campus support personnel who may be unaware of the likelihood of assault in this context.

  20. Knowing a sexual assault victim or perpetrator: a stratified random sample of undergraduates at one university.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Susan B; Joshi, Manisha; Sivitz, Elizabeth

    2014-02-01

    Rape awareness and prevention programs are common on college campuses and a potentially useful way to reach large numbers of young adults. One largely unexamined potential mediator or moderator of program effectiveness is the personal knowledge of student audiences. In this study, we assess the prevalence of knowing a victim and, notably, a perpetrator of sexual assault. A stratified random sample of 2,400 undergraduates was recruited for an online survey about sexual assault. A total of 53.5% participated and yielded a sample representative of the student body. Sixteen questions were modified from the Sexual Experiences Survey to assess whether participants knew a victim of any one of eight types of sexual assault. Findings indicate that students begin college with considerable personal knowledge of sexual assault victimization and perpetration. Nearly two thirds (64.5%) reported that they know one or more women who were a victim of any one of eight types of sexual assault, and over half (52.4%) reported that they know one or more men who perpetrated any of the types of sexual assault. Most students reported knowing victims and perpetrators of multiple types of assault. Knowledge varied substantially by gender and ethnicity. Students' preexisting personal knowledge should be included in assessments of program effectiveness and, ideally, in program design.

  1. Circumstances surrounding male sexual assault and rape: findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey.

    PubMed

    Light, David; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth

    2009-11-01

    Much work in the area of male sexual assault and rape relies on small clinical samples. From these samples, researchers reported that most male victims were physically injured during the attack and that penetration occurred. This work rests on a subsample of 219 men from the 1994-1996 Violence and Threats of Violence Against Women and Men in the United States Survey. Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAW) show that the vast majority of male sexual assault victims reported that they were not physically injured during the assault, that a weapon was not used, that there was no substance use at the time of the assault, and that penetration did not occur. Only 29% of male respondents in the NVAW sought medical or psychological help after the assault. Prior work may have overrepresented men who reported being physically injured and/or penetrated. An analysis is presented of how those who presented for help in the NVAW differ from the whole sample. Results show that men who presented for help were more likely to have reported being physically injured during the assault and that penetration occurred. Thus, findings from prior work make sense; however, they may not be representative of male assault victims as a whole.

  2. The sexual assault of undergraduate women at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs).

    PubMed

    Krebs, Christopher P; Barrick, Kelle; Lindquist, Christine H; Crosby, Carmen M; Boyd, Chimi; Bogan, Yolanda

    2011-12-01

    Although research has shown that undergraduate women are at high risk for experiencing sexual assault, little research has been conducted with undergraduate women who are attending a historically Black college or university (HBCU). The purpose of this research is to document the prevalence of different types of sexual assault among undergraduate women at HBCUs and make comparisons to data collected from undergraduate women at non-HBCUs. Data on sexual assault victimization were collected from 3,951 undergraduate women at HBCUs using a cross-sectional, web-based survey. These data are compared to data collected from 5,446 undergraduate women at non-HBCUs using the same research methods. Findings indicate that approximately 9.7% of undergraduate women at HBCUs report experiencing a completed sexual assault since entering college. This rate is considerably lower than the comparable rate obtained from undergraduate women at non-HBCUs (13.7%). This difference seems to be associated with differences in alcohol-use frequency. Perhaps undergraduate women at HBCUs drink alcohol much less frequently and are thus less likely to be sexually assaulted when they are incapacitated and unable to provide consent. Alcohol use frequency, while controlling for other factors, seems to have an independent association with the likelihood of an undergraduate woman being sexually assaulted. Implications for the creation and delivery of sexual assault risk reduction and prevention policies and programs are discussed.

  3. An exploratory analysis of suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault seen in a hospital emergency department.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Margaret J; Lipowska, Magdalena; Shah, Seema; Du Mont, Janice; De Siato, Christine

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective review of sexual assault cases seen in an emergency department from 1993 to 1999 examined rates and characteristics of suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). Overall, 12% of cases were identified as suspected DFSAs. The rate of suspected DFSA in 1999 was more than double that in the preceding six years. As well, compared to other sexual assaults, suspected DFSA cases had a longer time delay in presenting to the hospital, were less likely to involve the police, and had a lower occurrence of both genital and extra-genital injury. The clinical implications of these findings, particularly in terms of toxicology evidence collection, are discussed.

  4. Drug facilitated sexual assault using an over-the-counter ocular solution containing tetrahydrozoline (Visine).

    PubMed

    Spiller, Henry A; Rogers, Jacqualine; Sawyer, Tama S

    2007-07-01

    Drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) has been defined as sexual activity occurring where consent is invalid or absent due to the effects of drugs and or alcohol. We report the use of a commonly available over-the-counter drug to induce an obtunded compliant victim with no memory of the period during the sexual assault. An adult male repeatedly used tetrahydrozoline to induce a comatose state in an adult female and four female children for the purposes of sexual assault. It may be warranted to include imidazoline derivatives in the testing for cases of DFSA.

  5. The sexual assault of women at work in Washington State, 1980 to 1989.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, B H; Franklin, G M; Wolf, M E

    1994-01-01

    Sexual assault in the workplace and the related factors have not been well studied. Workers' compensation claims data were used to describe work-related sexual assaults in Washington State between 1980 and 1989. Sixty-three cases of work-related rape were identified during this study period. The occupations of the rape victims were similar to occupations identified as high risk for other intentional injuries, and the rape incidents were characterized by isolation from the public and from coworkers. Estimates of industry-specific rates are presented. The identification, evaluation, and prevention of sexual assault and other workplace violence are discussed. PMID:8154570

  6. Nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis following sexual assault in industrialized low-HIV-prevalence countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Draughon, Jessica E; Sheridan, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    Although available for over a decade, use of nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP) remains controversial in the United States. There are concerns over sexual assault survivors' adherence, or lack thereof, leading to increased costs without an appreciable decrease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. This review examines and synthesizes the available literature from the past 10 years to determine the true rates of provision and adherence to nPEP regimens in sexual assault survivors in low HIV prevalence, industrialized nations. Findings suggest that further prospective research is necessary to better understand the process of post-assault nPEP evaluation and subsequent follow-up and adherence.

  7. A case of drug-facilitated sexual assault involving 3,4-methylenedioxy-methylamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Eiden, Céline; Cathala, Philippe; Fabresse, Nicolas; Galea, Yves; Mathieu-Daudé, Jean-claude; Baccino, Eric; Peyrière, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Typical scenarios of drug-facilitated sexual assaults usually involve victims having ingested a drink after which they had little, partial or no recollection of events for a period of time. We were surprised by the case of a woman who was sexually assaulted and described a state of amazement, leading to an incapacity to resist physically or verbally to her aggressor, and who remembered everything. Alcohol was first suspected but toxicological analysis revealed the presence of 3,4-methylene-dioxy-methylamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy). In the literature review, a few cases of sexual assault involving involuntarily MDMA intake are described.

  8. Disclosing sexual assault to parents: the influence of parental messages about sex.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sharon G; Cook, Sarah L

    2008-11-01

    Without frank discussion of what sex is, women may not learn what sex is not and what experiences constitute sexual assault. This qualitative study explores the relation between parental discussion and messages about sex and women's decisions of whether to disclose sexual assault to parents. Participants were 18 women from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Findings indicate that women more often disclosed sexual assault to parents who discussed sex with them in a frank and positive manner. In addition to the role of disclosure in recovery, implications for sex and parent education are discussed.

  9. Effects of the 2010 World Cup football tournament on emergency department assault attendances in England.

    PubMed

    Quigg, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    We explore the impact of the 2010 World Cup, held in South Africa, on levels of assault attendances to 15 emergency departments in England. The majority (70.1%) of assault attendees during the 2010 World Cup was male and aged 18-34 years (52.5%). Assault attendances increased by 37.5% on the days that England played (P 001). Preparation for major sporting events in non-host countries should include violence prevention activity. Emergency department data can be used to identify violence associated with such events and thus inform both the targeting of prevention efforts and assessments of their effectiveness.

  10. Impact of gender on reactions to military sexual assault and harassment.

    PubMed

    Bell, Margret E; Turchik, Jessica A; Karpenko, Julie A

    2014-02-01

    Research has shown that experiences ofmilitary sexual assault and harassment can have a negative impact on veterans' health and functioning, even years or decades later, thus clearly identifying this as an important area of concern for social workers. In addition to understanding the scope and general impact of military sexual assault and harassment, social workers also must thoroughly understand how different cultural factors may intersect with veterans' experiences. To this end, this article reviews the current knowledge base on how veterans' life experiences related to gender can affect their experience of and recovery from military sexual assault and harassment, highlights common gender-specific issues, and discusses implications for practice.

  11. Mediators of Sexual Revictimization Risk in Adult Sexual Assault Victims

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  12. Longitudinal research with sexual assault survivors: a methodological review.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rebecca; Sprague, Heather Brown; Cottrill, Sara; Sullivan, Cris M

    2011-02-01

    Longitudinal research designs are relatively rare in the academic literature on rape and sexual assault despite their tremendous methodological rigor and scientific utility. In the interest of promoting wider use of such methods, we conducted a methodological review of projects that have used prospective longitudinal designs to study the occurrence of sexual victimization throughout the lifespan and/or the process of change during rape recovery (N = 32 projects). Five questions were examined: (a) What were the substantive foci of these longitudinal studies? (b) How were survivors recruited? (c) What participation rates were typical? (d) How long were participants followed over time and with what success rates? and (e) What incentives were used to increase participation? Most studies focused on postassault sequelae and recruited survivors from hospital emergency departments and other first-response help-seeking sites with highly variable participation rates. Retention rates were comparable across studies (approximately 70%).

  13. Community cooperatives combat sexual assault and domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Marc D

    2003-02-01

    The effectiveness of the SANE program is borne out by the following testimonies: "The emotional support required by these victims is best rendered by a SANE. This frees the ED nurse to care for other patients, while sexual assault victims receive a high level of care," says Nancy Donel, RN manager at St. Thomas Hospital ED. "The DOVE program benefits not only the emergency physician, but the EMS system as well. It gives us a resource and a specifically identified program with well-trained, qualified providers. Through their training and knowledge, SANEs not only help victims, but also increase the number of legal convictions that take assailants off the streets. This improves the health and safety of the communities in which we live and serve," says Michael Mackan, MD, of the Summa Health System.

  14. Drug-facilitated sexual assault involving gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.

    PubMed

    Stillwell, Matthew E

    2002-09-01

    The first case involving an alleged sexual assault linked to the use of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in Oklahoma is reported. A-48-year-old Caucasian woman taking amitriptyline was known to have voluntarily ingested a sports drink containing a relaxing health product. She purportedly experienced unconsciousness that persisted for approximately 4 h. The toxicological testing on urine identified GHB, amitriptyline, and nortriptyline using a capillary Hewlett-Packard 6890 gas chromatograph coupled to a Hewlett-Packard 5973 mass selective detector (MSD). The GHB concentration in urine was 26.9 microg/mL. Urine concentrations of amitriptyline and nortriptyline were not determined. The analytical method used for identifying and quantitating GHB can be applied to matters of forensic interests.

  15. Separation/divorce sexual assault in rural Ohio: survivors' perceptions.

    PubMed

    DeKeseredy, Walter S; Schwartz, Martin D

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1970s, many studies have enhanced a social scientific understanding of the lethal and non-lethal physical abuse of women during and after separation and divorce, but less than a handful have examined sexual assaults on rural women who want to leave, are trying to leave, or who have left spouses or live-in male partners. Further, none of the work done so far on this problem has examined the role of collective efficacy. The results presented here help fill these research gaps and call into question the common assumption that there is more collective control on criminal behavior in rural settings. Moreover, our exploratory qualitative data show that collective efficacy can take many shapes and forms, and often what is perceived as the "common good" may actually be behaviors and discourses that threaten the health and well-being of women seeking freedom from abusive male partners.

  16. Shared roles ensure complete care for sexual assault survivors.

    PubMed

    McNair, S; Finigan, A B

    1996-10-01

    Collaboration between nurse and medical practitioners is required to achieve the quality of care needed by persons experiencing sexual assault. The environment necessary to support this endeavor emerges from the larger organizational values, the program values, and from mature, confident team members. Medical and nurse practitioners understand their unique knowledge and skills as complementary and enhancing, rather than divisive; they must identify the knowledge and skill sets common to both as well as those unique to each discipline. The complex needs of the client demand a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach. This approach benefits both the client and the care provider. The atmosphere provided by this style allows individual professionals to grow and cultivates interest to learn from each other. Modeling of this behavior to clients gives unwritten and unspoken permission to rely on others in a healthy and open fashion.

  17. Police interviews of sexual assault reporters: do attitudes matter?

    PubMed

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Sexual assault is underreported in the United States. Survivors are often reluctant to make police reports for various reasons; one is fear of revictimization by criminal justice professionals. Conversely, police officers often lack skills for interviewing crime victims. Posttraumatic stress reactions among victims can exacerbate the problem. Although some victims prefer female interviewers, it is not known whether they are more skilled. A sample of 429 police officers completed a written survey testing their rape myth acceptance and knowledge of how to interview rape reporters. A significant relationship between rape myth acceptance and interviewing skill was discovered. Although officer gender was related to interviewing skill, the effect was mediated by rape myth acceptance. Specific officer behaviors related to high rape myth acceptance were identified. Implications for selection of police to conduct victim interviews were discussed.

  18. Emergency contraception for sexual assault victims: an advocacy coalition framework.

    PubMed

    Schorn, Mavis N

    2005-11-01

    A bill was introduced into the Tennessee legislature in the 2005 session that would require emergency departments to offer and dispense emergency contraception to sexual assault survivors who are at risk of pregnancy. Several advocacy groups collaborated to form the Women's Health Safety Network for the purpose of communicating as one voice. The advocacy coalition framework of policy development is applied to the political system and is used as a model to discuss issues impacting policy development for this particular bill. Key actors, proponents, and opponents to this bill are presented along with constraints to policy acceptance. The challenge for emergency contraception advocates on a state and national level is to keep the focus on public health science, the health and well-being of women, and out of the abortion debate.

  19. Moderate alcohol consumption aggravates high fat-diet induced steatohepatitis in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) develops in the absence of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. However, it remains unknown whether moderate alcohol consumption aggravates liver inflammation in pre-existing NASH condition. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were first fed ad libitum...

  20. [Evaluation of severity of harm to health caused by trauma aggravating a preceding disease].

    PubMed

    Kapustin, A V

    2003-01-01

    A severity of damage made to the health condition by an injury aggravating a preceding pathology is under discussion. It was demonstrated that such criteria as the time period of temporary disablement as well as the permanent disablement ensure, with respect for clinical data, an objective assessment of a severity done to the health in the discussed cases.

  1. 42 CFR 93.408 - Mitigating and aggravating factors in HHS administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.408 Mitigating and aggravating factors in HHS... action is commensurate with the seriousness of the misconduct, and the need to protect the health...

  2. Aggravation and Stress in Parenting: Associations with Coparenting and Father Engagement among Resident Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Horowitz, Allison; Carrano, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study uses a sample of 2,139 resident biological fathers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing surveys (baseline and 12-month follow-up), to examine whether paternal aggravation and stress in parenting is associated with father engagement and coparenting and whether this association differs by father's socioeconomic status. Results of…

  3. Simple Saucers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2008-01-01

    With standardized English Language Arts exams on the horizon, the author thought a game of Antonyms would provide not only a quick language arts activity for her sixth graders, but also a nice segue to an art lesson in contrast. In this article, she describes a project, a simple saucer on a pedestal base, which required students to demonstrate…

  4. 38 CFR 3.310 - Disabilities that are proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1110 and 1131) (c) Cardiovascular disease. Ischemic heart disease or other... proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury. 3.310 Section 3.310 Pensions... are proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury. (a) General. Except...

  5. 38 CFR 3.310 - Disabilities that are proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1110 and 1131) (c) Cardiovascular disease. Ischemic heart disease or other... proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury. 3.310 Section 3.310 Pensions... are proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury. (a) General. Except...

  6. 38 CFR 3.310 - Disabilities that are proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1110 and 1131) (c) Cardiovascular disease. Ischemic heart disease or other... proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury. 3.310 Section 3.310 Pensions... are proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury. (a) General. Except...

  7. 38 CFR 3.310 - Disabilities that are proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1110 and 1131) (c) Cardiovascular disease. Ischemic heart disease or other... proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury. 3.310 Section 3.310 Pensions... are proximately due to, or aggravated by, service-connected disease or injury. (a) General. Except...

  8. Campus Sexual Violence Resources and Emotional Health of College Women Who Have Experienced Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Lust, Katherine A; Hannan, Peter J; Porta, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Institutional characteristics may help mitigate trauma associated with sexual assault. This study examines associations between resources on college campuses for sexual violence prevention and the emotional well-being of female students who have experienced sexual assault. There were 495 female college students who have experienced sexual assault who provided survey data in 2010-2011. Sexual violence resource data from 28 college campuses were combined with student survey data in multilevel analysis. Dependent variables include diagnosis with anxiety, depression, panic attacks, and PTSD, and models adjust for covariates and clustering of students within colleges. Participants attending colleges with more sexual violence resources had lower rates of mental health conditions than those attending colleges with fewer resources. Colleges are encouraged to expand their array of sexual violence resources to create a supportive environment for victims of sexual assault and to connect affected students with appropriate services.

  9. Sexual assault and rape perpetration by college men: the role of the big five personality traits.

    PubMed

    Voller, Emily K; Long, Patricia J

    2010-03-01

    A sample of 521 college men completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and an expanded version of the Sexual Experiences Survey to examine whether variation in the Big Five personality traits in a normal, college population provides any insight into the nature of sexual assault and rape perpetrators. Rape perpetrators reported lower levels of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness when compared to both sexual assault perpetrators and nonperpetrators, and lower levels of Extraversion when compared to nonperpetrators. Rape perpetrators also endorsed lower levels of tendermindedness, excitement-seeking, warmth, positive emotions, feelings, altruism, competence, and dutifulness, and higher levels of vulnerability. Contrary to expectation, overall personality profiles followed remarkably comparable patterns for sexual assault and nonperpetrators, suggesting that sexual assault perpetrators were more similar to nonperpetrators than to rape perpetrators. Findings suggest that individuals who perpetrate sexual offenses, particularly rape, differ from nonperpetrators on dimensions of normal personality. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  10. 76 FR 38051 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ..., Title 10, Chapter 47 (http: www.constitution.org/mil/ucmj19970615.htm). DoDD 6495.01, ``Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Program,'' is available at http: www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/...

  11. Analytical developments in toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Negrusz, Adam; Gaensslen, R E

    2003-08-01

    This paper gives a general overview of the drug-facilitated sexual assault phenomenon. Sexual assault perpetrated on both women and men, while incapacitated by so-called date-rape drugs, recently became the focus of many investigations conducted by law enforcement agencies in the US throughout the 1990s; an alarming increase in reports of this crime as well as in the number of scientific publications on drug-facilitated sexual assault has been observed. The list of drugs reportedly associated with sexual assault is long and among others includes flunitrazepam with other benzodiazepines such as diazepam, temazepam, clonazepam, oxazepam, as well as gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine, and scopolamine. We discuss the most recent analytical developments in the toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated rape designed to reveal drug presence and that may help successfully prosecute perpetrators.

  12. Actuarial assessment of violence risk in hospital-based partner assault clinics.

    PubMed

    Hilton, N Zoe; Harris, Grant T; Holder, Norah

    2008-12-01

    Hospital-based partner assault clinics are a relatively recent addition to the community response to partner violence. In this study, 66% of 111 women attending hospital clinics for partner assault were physically injured and 43% reported death threats. Few concurrently used other services (shelters or police) and most relied on female friends and relatives for help. Many participants who currently lived with the perpetrator were contemplating leaving but only a third had made plans to do so. Participants faced an unusually high risk of future assault, according to both victim interview using the ODARA actuarial risk assessment and their own perceptions. Findings imply an important role for partner assault clinics and the feasibility of the victim service sector's using the same actuarial risk assessments as the criminal justice system.

  13. Struggling to Survive: Sexual Assault, Poverty, and Mental Health Outcomes of African American women

    PubMed Central

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E.; Tsong, Yuying; Tillman, Shaquita; Smith, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of research documents the mental health consequences of sexual assault including, but not limited to, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use, and suicidality. Far less attention has been given to the mental health effects of sexual assault for ethnic minority women or women living in poverty. Given African American women’s increased risk for sexual assault and increased risk for persistent poverty, the current study explores the relationship between income and mental health effects within a sample of 413 African American sexual assault survivors. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that after controlling for childhood sexual abuse there were positive relationships between poverty and mental health outcomes of depression, PTSD, and illicit drug use. There was no significant relationship between poverty and suicidal ideation. Counseling and research implications are discussed. PMID:20397989

  14. Struggling to survive: sexual assault, poverty, and mental health outcomes of African American women.

    PubMed

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E; Tsong, Yuying; Tillman, Shaquita; Smith, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of research documents the mental health consequences of sexual assault including, but not limited to, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use, and suicidality. Far less attention has been given to the mental health effects of sexual assault for ethnic minority women or women living in poverty. Given African American women's increased risk for sexual assault and increased risk for persistent poverty, the current study explores the relationship between income and mental health effects within a sample of 413 African American sexual assault survivors. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that after controlling for childhood sexual abuse there were positive relationships between poverty and mental health outcomes of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and illicit drug use. There was no significant relationship between poverty and suicidal ideation. Counseling and research implications are discussed.

  15. The element of naturalness when evaluating image quality of digital photo documentation after sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E J; Speck, P M; Fitzpatrick, J J

    2012-01-01

    Digital photography is a valuable adjunct to document physical injuries after sexual assault. In order for a digital photograph to have high image quality, there must exist a high level of naturalness. Digital photo documentation has varying degrees of naturalness; however, for a photograph to be natural, specific technical elements for the viewer must be satisfied. No tool was available to rate the naturalness of digital photo documentation of female genital injuries after sexual assault. The Photo Documentation Image Quality Scoring System (PDIQSS) tool was developed to rate technical elements for naturalness. Using this tool, experts evaluated randomly selected digital photographs of female genital injuries captured following sexual assault. Naturalness of female genital injuries following sexual assault was demonstrated when measured in all dimensions.

  16. Reducing Sexual Assault on Campus: Lessons From the Movement to Prevent Drunk Driving.

    PubMed

    Potter, Sharyn J

    2016-05-01

    I examined similarities and differences between the movement to prevent drunk driving of the 1980s, and current efforts to prevent and address campus sexual assault. As college and university administrators design policies and initiatives to reduce campus sexual assault in response to new federal legislation and regulation, they can apply lessons from successful public health initiatives to reduce drunk driving initiated more than 3 decades ago. I illustrate how interventions at the 5 levels of the social-ecological model, and messages that address entrenched cultural attitudes condoning sexual assault and blaming its victims can be used to combat campus sexual assault as a crime and a public health problem. I also show how efforts to promote community engagement can change behavioral norms and reduce offenses.

  17. Sexual assault within intimate partner violence: impact on helpseeking in a national sample.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Lauren Bennett; DeLoveh, Heidi L M; Zweig, Janine M

    2008-01-01

    Within intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual assault is often subsumed under the heading of physical abuse, but evidence suggests qualitative differences in outcomes when both types of abuse occur. This study explores the cumulative effect of sexual assault and physical abuse by a current or former intimate partner on helpseeking. Using a dataset of 1,072 IPV victims from 8 states, we found that women who had experienced sexual assault in addition to physical abuse (44%) used more help, but were also more likely to say that they did not seek help when they needed it. Among those who were aware of services, fear was the greatest obstacle to reaching out for help. Implications include the need for information on best practices in addressing the sequelae of both physical and sexual assault in victim service agencies.

  18. Reducing Sexual Assault on Campus: Lessons From the Movement to Prevent Drunk Driving

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    I examined similarities and differences between the movement to prevent drunk driving of the 1980s, and current efforts to prevent and address campus sexual assault. As college and university administrators design policies and initiatives to reduce campus sexual assault in response to new federal legislation and regulation, they can apply lessons from successful public health initiatives to reduce drunk driving initiated more than 3 decades ago. I illustrate how interventions at the 5 levels of the social–ecological model, and messages that address entrenched cultural attitudes condoning sexual assault and blaming its victims can be used to combat campus sexual assault as a crime and a public health problem. I also show how efforts to promote community engagement can change behavioral norms and reduce offenses. PMID:26985614

  19. Alcohol-involved assault and the course of PTSD in female crime victims.

    PubMed

    Kaysen, Debra L; Lindgren, Kristen P; Lee, Christine M; Lewis, Melissa A; Fossos, Nicole; Atkins, David C

    2010-08-01

    Although alcohol use has been associated with increased risk of victimization, little is known about how victim substance use at the time of assault may affect posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom development. The present study is a longitudinal examination of substance use on PTSD symptom severity and course. A community sample of female crime victims (n = 60) were assessed within 5 weeks of sexual or physical assault with 3 and 6 month post-assault follow-ups. Twenty-three participants had consumed alcohol or alcohol/drugs prior to the assault (38%) and 37 had consumed neither alcohol nor drugs. Analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. Participants who had consumed alcohol had lower initial intrusive symptoms, but their symptoms improved less over time.

  20. Pattern of Female Sexual Assault in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, During the Period From 2009 to 2013: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Sharaf El-Din, Abeer A I; Elkholy, Shereen M S; Metwally, Eslam S; Farag, Hesham A

    2015-12-01

    Sexual assault is a serious social problem that affects women's life. In Egypt, there is no accurate epidemiological study on sexual assault, although it has undergone a dramatic surge in 2013. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence and the characteristics of sexual assault against female in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. It is a retrospective study evaluating sexual assault against females from 2009 to 2013. Total numbers of cases of female sexual assault was 130 over the studied years. The mean (SD) age of victims was 15.2 (6) years ranging from 4 to 40 years. Fifty-eight percent fall in the age group of 12 to 18 years. Most victims (61.5%) came from urban areas. Summer was relatively a vulnerable season for sexual assault (53.1%); 81.5% of victims was unmarried and 94.6% with normal mentality. The highest percentage of sexual assault crime was found in females with primary education (44.6%). Twenty-two (16.9%) of the assaulted cases were considered intrafamilial assault, whereas 83.1% were extrafamilial. The most common location for assaults was at the assailant's home (50.8%), and 80% of the victims were exposed to assault by 1 assailant. The shortest time between alleged assault and the examination was 1 day in 12 cases (9.2%). The most frequent type of assault was complete vaginal penetration (48.55%). The most common type of physical injury was abrasions (48.1%), whereas the least was burn or broken teeth (1.3% for each). The highest percentage of genital injury was lacerations (36.4%), and the most common location was the hymen (36.4%).

  1. Human Trafficking, Sexual Assault, or Something Else? A Complicated Case With an Unexpected Outcome.

    PubMed

    Scott-Tilley, Donna; Crites, Heather

    This case report presents a patient who presented multiple times with vaginal injuries and bleeding, reporting sexual assault with a foreign object. Findings from her history and physical examination were consistent with sexual assault and human trafficking. The outcome of this case was not what we initially expected when the patient first presented for care. However, the patient ultimately received the care she needed. This case illuminates the need for excellent continuing education, interdisciplinary communication, and continuity of care.

  2. Man-Portability Considerations for an Improved Medium Antiarmor Assault Weapon (IMAAW)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    0 Technical Memorandum 6-81 MAN-PORTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS IPOR ANI IMPROVED MEDIUM ANTIARMOR ASSAULT WEAPON (IMAAw) Dominick J. Giordano Samuel T...ASSAULT WEAPON (IMAAW) Dominick J. Giordano Samuel T. Brainerd -. March 1981 APPROVED: US Army Human Ft1gineoving Lahor;it’ry US ARMY HUMAN...Jones, R.D., Randall, R.B., Ellis, P.H., & Bruno , R.S. ŕ Human factors evaluation of two proposed arut infantry/marine fragmentation protective

  3. Military Personnel: DOD Needs to Take Further Actions to Prevent Sexual Assault During Initial Military Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    sexual assaults within the military still go unreported. Based on the results of a DOD 2012 survey of active duty servicemembers, DOD estimated that...about 26,000 active duty 2Department of Defense, Department of Defense Annual Report on Sexual Assault in the Military: Fiscal Year 2013 (Apr. 22...to estimate the past year prevalence of unwanted sexual contact among active duty servicemembers. Although the survey term “unwanted sexual contact

  4. Notes on the Planning and Assault Phases of the Sicilian Campaign. Part 1. Introduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-10-01

    1943 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE COHQ bulletin Y/1 notes on the planning and assault phase of the Sicilian ...27 oac Maintrn ...... 27 Lessons Loarnea fro> the Oporrt ion . 27. -1- NOTES O_ T PLAUNINT AIND ASSAULT PHISES OF, THE SICILIAN ...interpretation of the American vievwpoint in respect ’ of the Sicilian operations is at fault, it is due -to my lack of perspicacity and not to the

  5. Sexual Assaults Under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ): Selected Legislative Proposals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-06

    insubordinate contact (Art. 91, UCMJ); failure to obey an order (Art. 92, UCMJ); cruelty and maltreatment (Art. 93, UCMJ); and misconduct as a prisoner... child are defined under Art. 120b. Other sexual misconduct, including forcible pandering, indecent exposure, and indecent viewing, visual recording...UCMJ Articles 120 (rape and sexual assault generally), 120a (stalking), 120b (rape and sexual assault of a child ), 120c (other sexual misconduct), 125

  6. Combat Deployment is Associated With Sexual Harassment or Sexual Assault in a Large, Female Military Cohort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-11

    Women who deployed and reported combat experiences were significantly more likely to report sexual harassment (odds ratio [OR], 2.20; 95% confidence...experiences (Table 2). Women who were deployed who experi enced combat reported the highest cumulative incidence of sexual harassment (19.9%) and sexual ... sexual harassment and sexual assault (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.61 3.78), but not the sexual assault only category. Women who deployed before baseline had

  7. Assault Injury and Homicide Death Profile in Rhode Island, 2004-2014.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yongwen; Ranney, Megan L; Seaberry, Jordan; Shea, Lynne-Marie; Sullivan, Brian; Viner-Brown, Samara

    2017-04-03

    Community violence, including assault and homicide, is a public health problem. We provide a profile of assault-related injury and homicide death in Rhode Island to better understand assault/homicide. The 2014 emergency department (ED) visit data, hospital discharge (HD) data, and 2004-2014 Rhode Island Violent Death Reporting System (RIVDRS) data were used for this study. Most assault injuries and homicide deaths were among persons who were 25-44 years old, male, black and Hispanic, living in urban regions, self-pay or public insurance user, and never married. Almost 63% of the homicide decedents tested positive for some illicit substance. Precipitating circumstances include a preceding argument or a conflict, another crime, intimate partner violence, and drug involvement. RIVDRS did not provide an estimate for mental illness related homicides (e.g. command hallucinations). ED, HD, and RIVDRS data can provide a profile of assault injury and homicide death for public health authorities in RI. Interventions need to focus on high-risk populations and areas to effectively prevent assault-related injury and homicide. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-04.asp].

  8. The associations of physical and sexual assault with suicide risk in nonclinical military and undergraduate samples.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; McNaugton-Cassill, Mary; Osman, Augustine; Hernandez, Ann Marie

    2013-04-01

    The associations of various forms of sexual and physical assault with a history of suicide attempts and recent suicide ideation were studied in two distinct samples: active duty military and undergraduate students. A total of 273 active duty Air Force personnel and 309 undergraduate students anonymously completed self-report surveys of assault victimization, emotional distress, belongingness, recent suicide ideation, and previous suicide attempts. Among military personnel, rape, robbery, or violent assault was associated with a nonsignificant trend toward increased risk for suicide attempts, whereas physical abuse or battering as an adult was significantly associated with recent suicide ideation. Among undergraduates, unwanted sexual experiences as an adult and physical or sexual abuse as a child were significantly associated with increased risk for suicide attempt, but only unwanted experiences as an adult was significantly associated with increased risk for suicide ideation. Experiencing multiple forms of assault increased risk for suicide attempts and ideation in both groups. Results suggest that different types of assault contribute differentially to suicide risk in military versus undergraduate populations, but experiencing multiple types of assault is associated with increased risk in both groups.

  9. Social Reactions, Self-Blame and Problem Drinking in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Ullman, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to test a model of the relations of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure, self-blame and problem drinking. This is the first study to investigate whether type of self-blame has different relationships with social reactions and problem drinking in a large, diverse sample of sexually assaulted women. These relationships are important to investigate in order to identify specific targets for treatment and intervention with sexual assault victims and their social networks. Method Community-residing female sexual assault survivors (N = 1863) in a large metropolitan area completed a mail survey about sexual assault, social reactions to disclosure, self-blame attributions, and problem drinking symptoms. Results Structural equation modeling showed that characterological self-blame mediated the effect of negative social reactions on drinking, but behavioral self-blame did not function as a mediator. A second model showed unique relationships of specific positive and negative social reactions to drinking through characterological and behavioral self-blame. Conclusions Characterological self-blame needs to be targeted in treatment and intervention with survivors, as it appears to be a key mechanism through which social reactions may influence recovery. Secondary prevention with informal social networks should educate people about social reactions to avoid negative reactions and promote those that are helpful, so people can better respond to survivors’ sexual assault disclosures and improve recovery. PMID:26366320

  10. Police Officer Schema of Sexual Assault Reports: Real Rape, Ambiguous Cases, and False Reports.

    PubMed

    Venema, Rachel M

    2016-03-01

    While extensive research has studied sexual assault reporting behaviors and described negative experiences with the criminal justice system among victim-survivors, fewer studies have explored police officer attitudes, knowledge, and thought processes that may affect victims' perceptions of negative interactions and unsatisfactory outcomes within reported sexual assault cases. This study explores police officer understanding of the definition of sexual assault and characteristics that influence their perceptions and response. Ten police officers were interviewed within one police department in a midsized city in the Great Lakes region. The study uses a modified grounded theory approach. Findings suggest that officers employ distinct schema of reported sexual assaults. Case characteristics, perceived credibility of the victim, and types of evidence formed categorizations of false reports, ambiguous cases, and legitimate sexual assaults. Police officers describe the ways in which perceptions of the case may or may not influence the response and point to areas for improvement within police procedure. The study findings provide insight into recommendations for improved police interviewing and response to reported sexual assaults.

  11. Evaluation of image quality of digital photo documentation of female genital injuries following sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E J; Speck, Patricia M; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2011-12-01

    With the patient's consent, physical injuries sustained in a sexual assault are evaluated and treated by the sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) and documented on preprinted traumagrams and with photographs. Digital imaging is now available to the SANE for documentation of sexual assault injuries, but studies of the image quality of forensic digital imaging of female genital injuries after sexual assault were not found in the literature. The Photo Documentation Image Quality Scoring System (PDIQSS) was developed to rate the image quality of digital photo documentation of female genital injuries after sexual assault. Three expert observers performed evaluations on 30 separate images at two points in time. An image quality score, the sum of eight integral technical and anatomical attributes on the PDIQSS, was obtained for each image. Individual image quality ratings, defined by rating image quality for each of the data, were also determined. The results demonstrated a high level of image quality and agreement when measured in all dimensions. For the SANE in clinical practice, the results of this study indicate that a high degree of agreement exists between expert observers when using the PDIQSS to rate image quality of individual digital photographs of female genital injuries after sexual assault.

  12. Gender Differences in 16-Year Trends in Assault- and Police-Related Problems Due to Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Timko, Christine; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the frequency and predictors of physical assault and having trouble with the police due to drinking over 16 years among women and men who, at baseline, were untreated for their alcohol use disorder. Predictors examined were the personal characteristics of impulsivity, self-efficacy, and problem-solving and emotional-discharge coping, as well as outpatient treatment and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) participation. Women and men were similar on rates of perpetrating assault due to drinking, but men were more likely to have had trouble with the police due to drinking. Respondents who, at baseline, were more impulsive and relied more on emotional discharge coping, and less on problem-solving coping, assaulted others more frequently during the first year of follow-up. Similarly, less problem-solving coping at baseline was related to having had trouble with the police more often at one and 16 years due to drinking. The association between impulsivity and more frequent assault was stronger for women, whereas associations of self-efficacy and problem-solving coping with less frequent assault and police trouble were stronger for men. Participation in AA was also associated with a lower likelihood of having trouble with the police at one year, especially for men. Interventions aimed at decreasing impulsivity and emotional discharge coping, and bolstering self-efficacy and problem-solving coping, during substance abuse treatment, and encouragement to become involved in AA, may be helpful in reducing assaultive and other illegal behaviors. PMID:19446963

  13. Self-reported sexual assault in convicted sex offenders and community men.

    PubMed

    Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael A; Bolen, Rebecca M

    2013-05-01

    Although self-reported sexual assault perpetrated by men against women has been well documented among college men, less is known about self-reported perpetration among convicted sex offenders and community men. This study provides unique descriptive and comparative information on sexual assaults in these understudied populations. Participants were 40 convicted sex offenders and 49 demographically comparable community men who completed the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES; Abbey, Parkhill, & Koss, 2005; Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987) and other surveys to capture the promiscuous sex and hostile masculinity pathways posited by the confluence model (Malamuth, 2003). We found notably few differences between sex offenders and community men in the rate and severity of sexual assault perpetration and the tactics used to obtain unwanted sexual contact. Specifically, 68% of sex offenders and 59% of community men acknowledged they had perpetrated sexual assault. Both groups used guilt and anger as the most frequent tactics to obtain unwanted sexual activity from their female victims. Consistent with the confluence model, an impersonal orientation toward sexual relationships was associated with sexual assault for both sex offenders and community men. Future directions for research on sexual assault perpetration and violence prevention efforts are discussed in light of these findings.

  14. Sexual assault in the lives of urban sex workers: a descriptive and comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Du Mont, Janice; McGregor, Margaret J

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study contributes to the sparse literature on sexually assaulted sex workers. We examined 462 sexual assault cases seen at an emergency department-based sexual assault service and reported to the police between 1993 and 1997. More than one fifth of victims were sex workers. We compared them to other victims on victim characteristics, assault characteristics, and medical-legal findings. Relative to other victims, sex workers were younger, had lower incomes, and were more likely to be heroin and/or cocaine users. They suffered a greater number of injuries and forensic samples collected from their bodies were more likely to test positive for sperm and/or semen. These victims were also less likely to have been using alcohol and/or marijuana prior to the assault and to be emotionally expressed during the medical- legal examination. The substantial proportion of sex workers in the study population suggests that attention to their particular needs should be an important part of hospital-based sexual assault services. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  15. The decline in sexual assaults in men's prisons in New South Wales: a "systems" approach.

    PubMed

    Yap, Lorraine; Richters, Juliet; Butler, Tony; Schneider, Karen; Grant, Luke; Donovan, Basil

    2011-10-01

    Male prison rape and sexual assaults remains a serious and sensitive issue in many countries. Human rights groups claim that sexual assaults among male prisoners have reached pandemic proportions and need to be stopped. Researchers for many years have studied the causes of male sexual assault in prison and offered numerous recommendations on its prevention. Few, however, have presented evidence for a decline in male prisoner sexual assaults and investigated the reasons for the decline. This article provides evidence from population-based surveys of a steady decrease in male prisoner sexual assaults in New South Wales (NSW) between 1996 and 2009. The authors conducted in-depth interviews with former and current inmates, and using a "systems" approach they discuss the complexity of sexual assaults in prison, incorporating a multiplicity of perspectives. In particular, they bring together different sources of data and discuss this in relation to changes in power structures and control in a modern prison, the attitudes of older and younger prisoners, the concept of "duty of care," introduction of prison drug programs, and prisoner attitudes toward gender and sexuality. In anthropology, the term "system" is used widely for describing sociocultural phenomena of a given society in a holistic manner without reducing the complexity of a given community.

  16. Development of a valid simulation assessment for a military dismounted assault task.

    PubMed

    Silk, Aaron J; Billing, Daniel C

    2013-03-01

    The Australian Defence Force is currently developing physical standards commensurate with job demands. Vital to this development process has been the accurate profiling of common military tasks. One such task required of all dismounted combat soldiers, an offensive assault on an enemy force, was the subject of in-depth profiling. In addition to overall assault performance, potential differences among patrol roles (scout, gunner, and flank) were investigated. Three different mock assaults of 100 to 150 m were performed by three patrols comprising qualified experienced infantry soldiers. Each soldier was fitted with a heart rate monitor and wore a global positioning device. Average assault duration was 6.5 minutes and required nineteen 7-m bounds performed on a 22-seconds duty cycle at 75% heart rate reserve and a work to rest ratio 1:4. Assaults conducted in more densely vegetated terrain resulted in significantly reduced (p < 0.05) bound distance, bound duration, and movement velocity. Results indicated significant performance differences (p < 0.05) among patrol roles for external load carried, heart rate response, bound duration, and distance covered while movement velocity was not different (p > 0.05). As a result of profiling the assault task, a valid simulation capable of assessing soldiers' physical capacity to perform this task was developed.

  17. Adolescent sexual assault victims and the legal system: building community relationships to improve prosecution rates.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R; Bybee, Deborah; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina

    2012-09-01

    Adolescents are at high risk for sexual assault, but few of these crimes are reported to the police and prosecuted by the criminal justice system. To address this problem, communities throughout the United States have implemented multidisciplinary interventions to improve post-assault care for victims and increase prosecution rates. The two most commonly implemented interventions are Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs and Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether community-level context (i.e., stakeholder engagement and collaboration) was predictive of adolescent legal case outcomes, after accounting for "standard" factors that affect prosecution success (i.e., victim, assault, and evidence characteristics). Overall, 40% of the adolescent cases from these two SANE-SART programs (over a 10-year period) were successfully prosecuted. Cases were more likely to be prosecuted for younger victims, those with disabilities, those who knew their offenders, and instances in which the rape evidence collection kit was submitted by police for analysis. After accounting for these influences, multi-level modeling results revealed that in one site decreased allocation of community resources to adolescent sexual assault cases had a significant negative effect on prosecution case outcomes. Results are explained in terms of Wolff's (Am J Community Psychol 29:173-191, 2001) concept of "over-coalitioned" communities and Kelly's (1968) ecological principles.

  18. [Patient assaults of staff; a prospective study of the incidence, circumstances and sequelae].

    PubMed

    Richter, D; Berger, K

    2001-09-01

    Patient assaults in psychiatric hospitals result in a considerable number of job-related accidents and personnel absenteeism. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of assaults, analyze trigger situations, and describe physical and psychological consequences among staff members. Within a study period of 6 months, all apparently aggressive physical contacts between patients and staff in six northwest German psychiatric hospitals were assessed. Patient and staff variables, situational characteristics, and physical as well as psychological consequences were evaluated. During this time, 155 assaults on 170 staff members were reported. Before the assaults, most of the patients showed early signs of aggression as an indication of situational worsening. Work absenteeism following the assaults was observed in 5% of the affected staff. In 14%, symptoms of post-traumatic stress could be diagnosed using the questionnaire version of the PTSD interview. In conclusion, the study results suggest that additional training of younger personnel and implementation of conflict management schemes could help to prevent these assaults.

  19. Resiliency factors in the relation between childhood sexual abuse and adulthood sexual assault in college-age women.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kate; Blaustein, Margaret; Knight, Wanda Grant; Spinazzola, Joseph; van der Kolk, Bessel A

    2007-01-01

    Research has suggested that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may be a risk factor for adulthood sexual assault. This study examined associations between CSA experiences, cognitive resiliency variables, and revictimization. Participants were 73 college-age females who completed self-report questionnaires assessing CSA, adult assault, self-efficacy, locus of control (LOC), and coping styles. Sexual assault was categorized as forced or coerced assault based on the tactics used by the perpetrator. Results indicated that CSA alone was the strongest independent predictor of forced adult assault; however, LOC and positive coping were associated with resiliency to coercive sexual assault. The current findings have clinical implications in that LOC and coping styles are characteristics that can be enhanced through therapy.

  20. The context and consequences of sexual assault among undergraduate women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Christine H; Barrick, Kelle; Krebs, Christopher; Crosby, Carmen M; Lockard, Allison J; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy

    2013-08-01

    To examine the context of sexual assault and postassault actions and consequences among women attending historically Black colleges or universities (HBCUs), web-based surveys were administered in November 2008 to 3,951 undergraduate women attending four HBCUs. Data on the context in which assaults occurred were generated for women who had been sexually assaulted since entering college (n = 358). Multivariate models were run on the full sample to examine the association between sexual assault and symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results indicated that most survivors were assaulted by assailants well known to them and when the survivor and perpetrator were drinking alcohol. Very few survivors disclosed their experiences to formal sources of support. Survivors had significantly more symptoms of depression and were more likely to screen positive for PTSD than nonvictims. Further research on disclosure and its moderating role on the mental health consequences of sexual assault is needed.

  1. Examining the standardized application of rape kits: an exploratory study of post-sexual assault professional practices.

    PubMed

    Parnis, Deborah; Du Mont, Janice

    2002-12-01

    In this exploratory study we examine the practices surrounding with respect to standardization the administration and processing of the Sexual Assault Evidence Kit (SAEK). Despite the presumed scientific objectivity of this protocol, our survey of sexual assault nurses, physicians, police, and forensic scientists found that discretionary practices pervaded the evidentiary process. We argue that there must be greater awareness of the shaping of medicolegal evidence. Given the diverse characteristics of sexual assaults and of the health care needs of sexually assaulted women, we also suggest that it may be unreasonable to apply a single standard model of a rape kit.

  2. Now We Know: Assessing Sexual Assault Criminal Justice Case Processing in an Urban Community Using the Sexual Assault Nurse Practitioner Evaluation Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Julie L; Shaw, Jessica; Lark, Alyssa; Campbell, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Campbell and colleagues developed an evaluation Toolkit for use by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) to assess criminal case outcomes in adult sexual assault cases seen by SANE programs (Campbell, Townsend, Shaw, Karim, & Markowitz, 2014; Campbell, Bybee, et al., 2014). The Toolkit provides step-by-step directions and an easy-to-use statistical program. This study describes implementation of the Toolkit in Salt Lake County, the first site outside the pilot sites to utilize the program. The Toolkit revealed that, in Salt Lake County from 2003 to 2011, only 6% of adult sexual assault cases were successfully prosecuted. These findings prompted multiple community discussions, media attention, and a call to action to improve the investigation and prosecution of adult sexual assault cases. The primary purpose of this case report is to encourage other SANE teams and communities to use the Toolkit by sharing the successful experience of Salt Lake County in implementing the Toolkit.Video Abstract available for additional insights from Dr. Valentine (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JFN/A19).

  3. Structural Models of the Relations of Assault Severity, Social Support, Avoidance Coping, Self-Blame, and PTSD among Sexual Assault Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Filipas, Henrietta H.; Starzynski, Laura L.

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies have identified which survivors of sexual assault are more likely to develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most correlates that have been identified have been at the individual level. Insufficient attention has been given to whether survivors' social interactions impact their individual responses to assault…

  4. Factors associated with the sexual assault of students: an exploratory study of victims treated at hospital-based sexual assault treatment centers.

    PubMed

    Du Mont, Janice; Chertkow, Laura; Macdonald, Sheila; Asllani, Eriola; Bainbridge, Deidre; Rotbard, Nomi; Cohen, Marsha M

    2012-12-01

    Research suggests that students experience high levels of sexual assault, but studies addressing how they differ in their experiences from other sexual assault victims are virtually nonexistent. To address this gap, information was collected from consecutive individuals, aged 16 years or older, presenting to one of 7 hospital-based sexual assault treatment centers in Ontario from 2005 to 2007. Of the 882 victims seen during the study period, 32% were students. Relative to other sexual assault victims, students were more likely to be aged 16 to 18 years and 19 to 24 years versus 25 years and older. They were more likely to be living alone, with family of origin, a partner or spouse, or a nonrelative than on the street or in a shelter or institution. They were also more likely to report having consumed over-the-counter medication in the 72 hours prior to examination. Student victims were less likely than nonstudent victims to report having a disability and having used street drugs. Implications for research, education, and practice are discussed.

  5. Unusual Case of Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault using Chloroform.

    PubMed

    Richeval, Camille; Allorge, Delphine; Lopez, Vincent; Boyer, Baptiste; Gaulier, Jean-Michel

    2016-11-22

    Despite its well-known sedative properties, chloroform is rarely used for drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) as its administration cannot be achieved without the victim's knowledge: we report an unusual case of DFSA using this solvent. A 26-year-old woman declared that her partner get her to sleep using chloroform the previous night. When she waked up at 3 am, her hands were tied. She immediately suspected violence and sexual penetration. Toxicological blood screening using a liquid chromatography-electrospray coupled tandem mass spectrometry method highlighted the presence of bamifylline and theophylline, two therapeutics of asthma. A screening method for volatile substances using a headspace-gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry method showed (i) the presence of chloroform in blood at a concentration subsequently estimated at 580 µg/L using an external calibration, and (ii) chloroform traces on a piece of a scarf brought by the patient and suspected to have been used to put her to sleep. These results were consistent with an exposure to chloroform by inhalation and demonstrate that there is no limit in the use of chemical weapons in DFSA.

  6. The Use of Alcohol to Facilitate Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, S

    2010-01-01

    The presence of alcohol (ethanol) is a common toxicological finding in alleged cases of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). Alcohol was identified as the most frequently encountered drug in DFSAs more than a decade ago, and epidemiological studies to date confirm this initial finding. There is no single substance that is uniquely associated with DFSA. Alcohol has been used by humans for thousands of years and its effect on sexual behavior is well established. Despite the fact that alcohol has been the subject of scientific investigation for several hundred years, DFSA casework involving alcohol remains complex and poses numerous challenges. The prevalence of alcohol in DFSAs is reviewed within the context of toxicological findings and blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Pharmacological aspects are briefly presented, including pharmacokinetics and retrograde extrapolation. The effects of alcohol are discussed within the context of the pharmacodynamics of alcohol and the mechanistic issues associated with alcohol's disruption of memory. The amnesic effects of alcohol are reviewed, with particular focus on the two distinct types of alcohol-induced blackout: fragmentary and en bloc. The prevalence of and the BACs associated with this type of alcohol-mediated memory loss are described. Finally, biological specimens (blood, serum, and urine) are reviewed from a toxicological standpoint, and the associated methodology for quantitative alcohol determination is presented.

  7. The Use of GHB to Facilitate Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Marinetti, L; Montgomery, M A

    2010-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its metabolic precursors, γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), may be among the most favored drugs used to commit drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). In fact, federal legislation was enacted in the form of the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Drug Prohibition Act of 2000 to control and penalize use and distribution of GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD. Unfortunately, solid proof of their use in many cases is difficult to obtain because GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD have strong sedative and memory-impairing effects and are rapidly eliminated after ingestion. To further complicate the matter, GHB is a metabolite of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a naturally occurring neurotransmitter in humans. This review focuses on the chemistry and pharmacology of these drugs and their use in DFSA. An overview of analytical techniques used to identify their presence is provided, as well as guidance on the toxicological interpretation of findings of GHB in biological specimens.

  8. Sexual Assault and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Adults, Adolescents, and Children.

    PubMed

    Seña, Arlene C; Hsu, Katherine K; Kellogg, Nancy; Girardet, Rebecca; Christian, Cindy W; Linden, Judith; Griffith, William; Marchant, Anne; Jenny, Carole; Hammerschlag, Margaret R

    2015-12-15

    Survivors of sexual assault are at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted literature reviews and invited experts to assist in updating the sexual assault section for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases (STD) treatment guidelines. New recommendations for STI management among adult and adolescent sexual assault survivors include use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis by vaginal swabs; NAATs for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis from pharyngeal and rectal specimens among patients with a history of exposure or suspected extragenital contact after sexual assault; empiric therapy for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis based on updated treatment regimens; vaccinations for human papillomavirus (HPV) among previously unvaccinated patients aged 9-26 years; and consideration for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis using an algorithm to assess the timing and characteristics of the exposure. For child sexual assault (CSA) survivors, recommendations include targeted diagnostic testing with increased use of NAATs when appropriate; routine follow-up visits within 6 months after the last known sexual abuse; and use of HPV vaccination in accordance with national immunization guidelines as a preventive measure in the post-sexual assault care setting. For CSA patients, NAATs are considered to be acceptable for identification of gonococcal and chlamydial infections from urine samples, but are not recommended for extragenital testing due to the potential detection of nongonococcal Neisseria species. Several research questions were identified regarding the prevalence, detection, and management of STI/HIV infections among adult, adolescent, and pediatric sexual assault survivors.

  9. A Person-Centered Approach to Examining Heterogeneity and Subgroups Among Survivors of Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Kaysen, Debra; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R.

    2015-01-01

    This study identified subgroups of female sexual assault survivors based on characteristics of their victimization experiences, validated the subgroup structure in a second cohort of women recruited identically to the first, and examined subgroups' differential associations with sexual risk/safety behavior, heavy episodic drinking (HED), psychological distress symptomatology, incarceration, transactional sex, and experiences with controlling and violent partners. The community sample consisted of 667 female survivors of adolescent or adult sexual assault who were 21 to 30 years old (M=24.78, SD=2.66). Eligibility criteria included having unprotected sex within the past year, other HIV/STI risk factors, and some experience with HED, but without alcohol problems or dependence. Latent class analyses (LCA) were used to identify subgroups of women with similar victimization experiences. Three groups were identified and validated across two cohorts of women using multiple-group LCA: Contact or Attempted assault (17% of the sample), Incapacitated assault (52%), and Forceful Severe assault (31%). Groups did not differ in their sexual risk/safety behavior. Women in the Forceful Severe category had higher levels of anxiety, depression, and trauma symptoms, higher proportions of incarceration and transactional sex, and more experiences with controlling and violent partners than did women in the other two groups. Women in the Forceful Severe category also reported a higher frequency of HED than women in the Incapacitated category. Different types of assault experiences appear to be differentially associated with negative outcomes. Understanding heterogeneity and subgroups among sexual assault survivors has implications for improving clinical care and contributing to recovery. PMID:26052619

  10. Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and the Risk of Being Assaulted With a Gun

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Elliott, Michael R.; Richmond, Therese S.; Culhane, Dennis P.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    Background We conducted a population-based case–control study to better delineate the relationship between individual alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets in the surrounding environment, and being assaulted with a gun. Methods An incidence density sampled case–control study was conducted in the entire city of Philadelphia from 2003 to 2006. We enrolled 677 cases that had been shot in an assault and 684 population-based controls. The relationships between 2 independent variables of interest, alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, and the outcome of being assaulted with a gun were analyzed. Conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for numerous confounding variables. Results After adjustment, heavy drinkers were 2.67 times as likely to be shot in an assault when compared with nondrinkers (p < 0.10) while light drinkers were not at significantly greater risk of being shot in an assault when compared with nondrinkers. Regression-adjusted analyses also demonstrated that being in an area of high off-premise alcohol outlet availability significantly increased the risk of being shot in an assault by 2.00 times (p < 0.05). Being in an area of high on-premise alcohol outlet availability did not significantly change this risk. Heavy drinkers in areas of high off-premise alcohol outlet availability were 9.34 times (p < 0.05) as likely to be shot in an assault. Conclusions This study finds that the gun assault risk to individuals who are near off-premise alcohol outlets is about the same as or statistically greater than the risk they incur from heavy drinking. The combination of heavy drinking and being near off-premise outlets resulted in greater risk than either factor alone. By comparison, light drinking and being near on-premise alcohol outlets were not associated with increased risks for gun assault. Cities should consider addressing alcohol-related factors, especially off-premise outlets, as highly modifiable and politically feasible approaches

  11. Sexual assault prevention programs for college-aged men: a critical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Garrity, Stacy E

    2011-03-01

    An unacceptably large percent of women experience sexual assault during their collegiate years and efforts to eliminate sexual assault exist in various forms at numerous universities. The only way to effectively decrease the occurrence of rape on college campuses is to stop the perpetrators. This review examined established sexual assault prevention programs designed for college men to determine if an ideal educational program exists, or if one can be established, to effectively change male attitudes and behaviors about sexual assault. A library search of scientific databases yielded seven studies, published from 2000 to 2007, that met inclusion criteria. Through a variety of interventions, a measurable number of formerly held attitudes about rape myth and the role of the bystanders in an assaultive situation were effectively changed immediately postintervention in several studies. In addition, one study demonstrated sustained behavioral change. These results can effectively be used to provide education for forensic and school-based nurses to guide practice for development of educational programs to successfully change harmful attitudes and beliefs that contribute to rape.

  12. Deciding Where to Turn: A Qualitative Investigation of College Students' Helpseeking Decisions After Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    DeLoveh, Heidi L M; Cattaneo, Lauren Bennett

    2017-03-06

    Sexual assault is a widespread problem on college campuses that has been the subject of substantial attention in recent years (Ali, 2011; Krebs, Lindquist, Berzofsky, Shook-Sa, & Peterson, 2016). Resources designed to address the problem exist, but there is evidence that they are underutilized by survivors (Campbell, 2008). The current study used grounded theory to explore how sexual assault survivors make decisions about helpseeking. In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 college sexual assault survivors to develop a theoretical model for their decision-making process. The resulting model, Deciding Where to Turn, suggests that survivors engage in three key decision points: determining if there is a problem related to the sexual assault (Do I Need Help), considering options (What Can I Do), and weighing the consequences of these options (What Will I Do). This process results in one of four behavioral choices: cope on one's own, seek support from friends/family, seek support from formal resources, or covert helpseeking, where needs are met without disclosure. Deciding Where to Turn contributes to the literature by providing a framework for understanding helpseeking decisions after sexual assault, highlighting the need to match reactions to survivor perceptions. The concept of covert helpseeking in particular adds to the way researchers and practitioners think about helpseeking. Research and practice implications are discussed.

  13. Campus Sexual Assault: A Systematic Review of Prevalence Research From 2000 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Fedina, Lisa; Holmes, Jennifer Lynne; Backes, Bethany L

    2016-02-22

    Sexual assault is a pervasive problem on university and college campuses in the United States that has garnered growing national attention, particularly in the past year. This is the first study to systematically review and synthesize prevalence findings from studies on campus sexual assault (CSA) published since 2000 (n = 34). The range of prevalence findings for specific forms of sexual victimization on college campuses (i.e., forcible rape, unwanted sexual contact, incapacitated rape, sexual coercion, and studies' broad definitions of CSA/rape) is provided, and methodological strengths and limitations in the empirical body of research on CSA are discussed. Prevalence findings, research design, methodology, sampling techniques, and measures, including the forms of sexual victimization measured, are presented and evaluated across studies. Findings suggest that unwanted sexual contact appears to be most prevalent on college campuses, including sexual coercion, followed by incapacitated rape, and completed or attempted forcible rape. Additionally, several studies measured broad constructs of sexual assault that typically include combined forms of college-based sexual victimization (i.e., forcible completed or attempted rape, unwanted sexual contact, and/or sexual coercion). Extensive variability exists within findings for each type of sexual victimization measured, including those that broadly measure sexual assault, which is largely explained by differences in sampling strategies and overall study designs as well as measures of sexual assault used in studies. Implications for findings and recommendations for future research on the prevalence of college-based sexual victimization are provided.

  14. Review of 212 individuals attending a city centre genitourinary medicine clinic following acute sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C

    2006-05-01

    A retrospective case note review of 212 individuals (190 women) attending a city-centre Genitourinary Medicine clinic between 1/4/2002 and 31/3/2004 following an acute sexual assault. Direct referral by the Forensic Medical Examiner to the dedicated weekly clinic for victims of sexual assault facilitated the attendance of 55/113 attending the dedicated clinic. The 99 individuals who did not disclose a recent assault as the reason for attendance were seen at routine clinics. One third of individuals attending the dedicated clinic were less than 16 years old, reflecting the facilitated referral pathway. Those attending the dedicated clinic were more likely to be offered the extended service outlined in the departmental protocol. Twenty four sexually transmitted infections were detected in 23 (11%) individuals but 23/24 could have been acquired during other recent consensual sexual activity. Overall, the assailant was known to the victim in 53% cases, there was an allegation of violence associated with the assault in 20%, suspicion of a drug facilitated ('spiked drink') assault in 24% and admission of alcohol intoxication in 11% cases. The 22/212 (10%) who were male were more likely to present to a routine clinic.

  15. An ecological model of the impact of sexual assault on women's mental health.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rebecca; Dworkin, Emily; Cabral, Giannina

    2009-07-01

    This review examines the psychological impact of adult sexual assault through an ecological theoretical perspective to understand how factors at multiple levels of the social ecology contribute to post-assault sequelae. Using Bronfenbrenner's (1979, 1986, 1995) ecological theory of human development, we examine how individual-level factors (e.g., sociodemographics, biological/genetic factors), assault characteristics (e.g., victim-offender relationship, injury, alcohol use), microsystem factors (e.g., informal support from family and friends), meso/ exosystem factors (e.g., contact with the legal, medical, and mental health systems, and rape crisis centers), macrosystem factors (e.g., societal rape myth acceptance), and chronosystem factors (e.g., sexual revictimization and history of other victimizations) affect adult sexual assault survivors' mental health outcomes (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, suicidality, and substance use). Self-blame is conceptualized as meta-construct that stems from all levels of this ecological model. Implications for curbing and/or preventing the negative mental health effects of sexual assault are discussed.

  16. Three decade old cold case murder solved with evidence from a sexual assault kit.

    PubMed

    Connery, Sheila A

    2013-05-01

    Sexual assault occurs at alarming rates in America. The true incidence remains unknown as many victims fail to both report for immediate medical care and notify law enforcement of the crime committed. For those who do seek medical assistance, a Sexual Assault Kit is available in Emergency Departments with established protocols for the forwarding of collected specimens to law enforcement. A crime lab analyzes the evidence to identify the offender's DNA. A DNA profile is then created and archived into a database. This case involved a woman who not only endured a sexual assault, but also sustained multiple gun shot wounds, and witnessed the murder of her friend nearly three decades ago. At that time, she was treated for her injuries and evidence was collected and secured into a Sexual Assault Kit. A DNA profile was then created from a predetermined crime lab. In 2011, a Cold Case Investigator, who was reviewing all archived DNA profiles of currently incarcerated individuals in the city where the initial crime was committed, was able to match a current prisoner's DNA to that of the DNA profile created from specimens collected during the sexual assault exam nearly thirty years ago. The perpetrator subsequently was charged with murder by the criminal justice system and received a thirty year sentence without opportunity for parole.

  17. Sexual assaults during hostage takings and forcible confinements: implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Mailloux, Donna L; Serin, Ralph C

    2003-07-01

    Hostage takings and forcible confinements are rare phenomena within our Canadian institutions. However, when they occur they cause enormous psychological and/or physical harm. A review of the literature revealed that no previous research on hostage takings or forcible confinements in a prison setting has been published. This investigation reviewed 33 hostage-takings/forcible-confinements spanning 11 years. The incidents were classified as follows: 20 hostage takings (3 with sexual assault) and 13 forcible confinements (7 with sexual assault). Sexual assaults were always against women and 36.6% of the women were sexually assaulted. This is a violent group of offenders with a prior history of sexual and nonsexual violence as well as escapes. While a quarter of the perpetrators had a forcible confinement or hostage taking in their current conviction, half had a prior history of such incidents. Rapists were overwhelmingly implicated in incidents that resulted in a sexual assault. Most perpetrators were below the age of 30 and serving sentences of less than 10 years in medium- or maximum-security institutions. The perpetrators of these incidents are not necessarily different from the general population of offenders in terms of their dynamic needs. Although this research is primarily descriptive in nature, it offers a unique contribution to the field by providing the first comprehensive description of this group of perpetrators. These findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to policy, operational practices, and the development of screening instruments.

  18. Aggravation of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased SIRT1 activity in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic alcohol intake decreases adiponectin and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expressions, both of which have been implicated in various biological processes including inflammation, apoptosis and metabolism. We have previously shown that moderate consumption of alcohol aggravates liver inflammation and apoptos...

  19. US Marine Corps assault amphibious vehicle suspension system analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hammonds, C.J.; Jones, J.K.; Mayhall, J.A.; Williamson, D.E.

    1988-11-01

    In response to a request from the US Marine Corps (USMC), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory investigated a problem with the suspension system of the assault amphibious vehicle (AAV), Personnel Model 7A1. In the course of the investigation, drawings of the AAV and field survey data on bearing failures provided by VSE Corporation were used. The analysis approach taken was to model the suspension system and the vehicle hull and support structure using finite element techniques. This provided stress and deflection information for the system. To determine the loads imparted to the system as the AAV traversed terrain features, a dynamics model was developed to provide loads to the finite element analysis (FEA). Because the primary indication of a problem was frequent suspension-system bearing failure, an analysis of the suspension-system bearings was conducted. Finally, to check the accuracy of the models and to provide actual load data for bearing analysis, an instrumented AAV was tested over a surveyed course at Camp Pendleton, California. Initially the dynamics model assumed the interface between the hull and the suspension system to be fixed. Later improvements incorporating the flexibility of the vehicle hull into the analysis by linking the two models resulted in improved accuracy. Actual measurements of the front road-arm displacement and vertical acceleration of the chassis are compared with predictions from the model. The correlation is quite good and indicates that the model can accurately predict the dynamic load on each road wheel for input into finite element analyses. The dynamics model can be expanded to study the effects of adding weight to the vehicle, traversing other terrains, or evaluating inputs such as weapons firing or drop tests. 7 refs., 75 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Sexual Assault Prevention and Reporting on College Campuses in the US: A Review of Policies and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streng, Tara K.; Kamimura, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Sexual violence within the collegiate environment is a pressing issue within American society. One way to address sexual violence is through the adaptation and implementation of a sexual assault policy by colleges and universities. The purpose of this study is to review sexual misconduct and assault policies of ten public universities…

  1. Sexual Harassment and Assault as Predictors of PTSD Symptomatology among U.S. Female Persian Gulf Military Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Jessica; Sharkansky, Erica J.; Read, Jennifer P.; Dawson, Ree; Ouimette, Paige Crosby; Martin, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines sexual harassment and assault of women in a wartime military example. Explores the impacts of these stressors and combat exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. Harassment and assault were higher than in civilian and peacetime military samples. The number of postwar stressful life events mediated the relationship…

  2. Co-Occurring Severe Mental Illnesses and Substance Abuse Disorders as Predictors of State Prison Inmate Assaults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Steven R.; Buttaro, Anthony, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Using hierarchical logistic regression with a nationally representative sample of state prisoners ("n" = 12,504), we found inmates with dual severe psychiatric and substance abuse disorders to be at higher risk of being assaulted and to assault others in prison than nonmentally ill inmates. Dually disordered inmates may be "importing"…

  3. 78 FR 53429 - Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (Response Systems Panel); Notice of Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... of the Secretary Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (Response Systems Panel... Floor, Washington, DC 20001. DATES: A meeting of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes... and assessment of the systems used to investigate, prosecute, and adjudicate crimes involving...

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Drug/Alcohol-Facilitated and Incapacitated Sexual Assault in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Conoscenti, Lauren M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    Incapacitated/drug-alcohol facilitated sexual assault (IS/DAFS) is rapidly gaining recognition as a distinct form of assault with unique public health implications. This study reports the prevalence, case characteristics, and associated health risks of IS/DAFS using a large, nationally representative sample of 1,763 adolescent girls. Results…

  5. The Problem of Untested Sexual Assault Kits: Why Are Some Kits Never Submitted to a Crime Laboratory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Victims of sexual assault are often advised to seek postassault medical care to have a forensic exam, which includes evidence collection (termed a "sexual assault kit" [SAK]). After the exam, law enforcement personnel are supposed to submit the SAK to a crime laboratory for analysis. However, recent media reports suggest that in many communities…

  6. Evaluation of the Impact of a Coeducational Sexual Assault Prevention Program on College Students' Rape Myth Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Victoria E.; Shepherd, J. Brad; Anderson, Renee I.; Petuch, Aaron J.; Nolan, James Michael; Thiemeke, Darlene

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of a mandatory, coeducational sexual assault prevention program on college freshmen's rape myth attitudes. Data from 174 college freshmen required to attend the program indicated that, regardless of gender, the proposed sexual assault prevention program significantly decreased participants' rape myth acceptance…

  7. The Allure of the Freshman Girl: Peers, Partying, and the Sexual Assault of First-Year College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Brian N.

    2011-01-01

    Although sexual assault has long been recognized as a problem among college students, little attention has been paid to why first-year women are the most likely to be assaulted. In this article the author drew on two studies of college students to analyze peer culture and the organization of gender and sexuality within a college party scene.…

  8. Physical injury and workplace assault in UK mental health trusts: An analysis of formal reports.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Lavelle, Mary; Brennan, Geoffrey; Stewart, Duncan; James, Karen; Richardson, Michelle; Williams, Hilary; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Workplace violence is a significant problem for health service personnel, with National Health Service (NHS) workers subject to 68 683 physical assaults between 2013 and 2014. Almost 70% of assaults occur in the mental health sector, and although serious, non-fatal injury is rare, the individual and economic impact can be substantial. In the present study, we analysed mandatory incident reports from a national database to examine whether there were identifiable precursors to incidents leading to staff injury, and whether staff characteristics were associated with injury. In line with previous descriptions, we found injury occurred either as a direct result of patient assault or during physical interventions employed by staff to contain aggression. Importantly, we found little evidence from staff reports that patients' symptoms were driving aggression, and we found less evidence of patient perspectives among reports. We make several recommendations regarding the reporting of these events that could inform policy and interventions aimed at minimizing the likelihood of injury.

  9. DOES ALCOHOL CONTRIBUTE TO THE CONFLUENCE MODEL OF SEXUAL ASSAULT PERPETRATION?

    PubMed Central

    PARKHILL, MICHELE R.; ABBEY, ANTONIA

    2015-01-01

    The confluence model of sexual assault provides a useful theoretical integration of factors that influence men’s likelihood of committing sexual assault (Malamuth, Sockloskie, Koss, & Tanaka, 1991). This study replicates and extends the confluence model by including alcohol at multiple levels. Participants’ usual alcohol consumption and alcohol consumption in sexual situations were included as predictor variables. The number of sexually aggressive acts that participants committed after consuming alcohol and the number of sexually aggressive acts participants committed when sober were separately calculated so that the predictors of each could be distinguished. Participants were 356 men who completed a survey that included measures that assessed the key components of the confluence model. Results of path analyses indicated that the expanded model fit the data well, with both general and situational measures of alcohol use predicting frequency of sexual assault when drinking alcohol. These findings highlight the importance of developing universal and targeted prevention programs for young men. PMID:26405374

  10. Predictors of physical assault victimization: findings from the National Survey of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Amstadter, Ananda B; Elwood, Lisa S; Begle, Angela Moreland; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Smith, Daniel W; Resnick, Heidi S; Hanson, Rochelle F; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to interpersonal victimization during childhood and adolescence is prevalent and has been found to be associated with negative physical and mental health outcomes. The present study examined the relations between childhood violence exposure and mental health on subsequent exposure to new physical assault in young adults using longitudinal nationally representative, prospective data from the initial (Wave I) and follow-up interviews (Wave II) of the National Survey of Adolescents (NSA). Among the 1,753 participants who completed both assessment time points, 15.8% reported a new physical assault experience at Wave II. Results indicated that racial/ethnic status, gender, history of child physical abuse, witnessed violence drug use, and family drug problems reported at Wave I were all significant predictors of new physical assault. Implications are discussed.

  11. Barriers to the effective use of medico-legal findings in sexual assault cases worldwide.

    PubMed

    Mont, Janice Du; White, Deborah

    2013-09-01

    Despite the increasing implementation of standardized rape kits across jurisdictions, the medico-legal findings generated by these tools are often not related to positive criminal justice outcomes. Given that there has been no global investigation of the factors that might impede their successful use in cases of sexual assault, we conducted a review of relevant scholarly and "grey" literature from industrialized and less-developed regions. One key theme to emerge from the analysis concerned certain problematic practices and behaviors of professional groups involved in the various stages of the post-sexual assault process. We found that a lack of competence in handling sexual assault cases, contempt for women who have been victimized, and corruption among some forensic examiners, police, scientists, and legal personnel often have shaped the collection, processing, analysis, and use of medico-legal evidence. We discuss recent initiatives and future directions for research that might serve to address these issues.

  12. The forensic nursing in sexual assaults: the immunochemical diagnosis and prevention of its adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Elsa

    2012-04-01

    Sexual assault was a ubiquitous and serious problem in our society. The world's care centers and forensic associations, which were at the forefront of scientific research in sexual assaults, discussed the role of the Forensic Nursing in their early diagnosis and their prevention, but little has been written in literature regarding their appropriate management. This article focuses on the immunochemical laboratory investigation in diagnosis and prevention of its adverse effects in sexual assaults and the role of the Forensic Nursing played in this task. After a careful reading of all the material received from many of the care centers and the associations contacted, a Forensic Nursing Examination Program, with specific immunochemical address, is identified.

  13. Sexual assault support services and community systems: understanding critical issues and needs in the LGBTQ community.

    PubMed

    Todahl, Jeffrey L; Linville, Deanna; Bustin, Amy; Wheeler, Jenna; Gau, Jeff

    2009-08-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals encounter social conditions that create important considerations for LGBTQ sexual assault victims. This exploratory, mixed-methods study examines the relationship between community attitudes toward LGBTQ persons and associated community responses to LGBTQ sexual assault victims. An online and paper-and-pencil survey (n = 130) and four focus group interviews (n = 14) are analyzed using frequency distributions and grounded theory methods. The central theme that emerged in focus group interviews, titled "low community awareness and support for sexual violence in the LGBTQ community," was corroborated by survey participants. Participants' views of unique considerations for LGBTQ sexual assault victims are presented, including causal factors, consequences, and recommended strategies.

  14. An indepth actuarial assessment for wife assault recidivism: the Domestic Violence Risk Appraisal Guide.

    PubMed

    Hilton, N Zoe; Harris, Grant T; Rice, Marnie E; Houghton, Ruth E; Eke, Angela W

    2008-04-01

    An actuarial tool, the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA), predicts recidivism using only variables readily obtained by frontline police officers. Correctional settings permit more comprehensive assessments. In a subset of ODARA construction and cross-validation cases, 303 men with a police record for wife assault and a correctional system file, the VRAG, SARA, Danger Assessment, and DVSI also predicted recidivism, but the Hare Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R) best improved prediction of recidivism, occurrence, frequency, severity, injury, and charges. In 346 new cases, ODARA and PCL-R independently predicted recidivism. An algorithm was derived for a combined instrument, the Domestic Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (DVRAG), and an experience table is presented (N=649). Results indicated the importance of antisociality in wife assault.

  15. Military Personnel. The DOD and Coast Guard Academies Have Taken Steps to Address Incidents of Sexual Harassment and Assault, but Greater Federal Oversight is Needed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Sexual Assault Awareness Month Assists the senior commander to meet annual SAPR training requirements, including orientation for newly assigned...by providing sexual harassment and assault orientation briefings for new students and personnel. Each of the DOD academies employs different...Address Incidents of Sexual Harassment and Assault, but Greater Federal Oversight Is Needed January 2008 GAO-08-296 Report Documentation

  16. College Women's Experiences with Physically Forced, Alcohol- or Other Drug-Enabled, and Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault before and since Entering College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Christopher P.; Lindquist, Christine H.; Warner, Tara D.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research has shown associations between college women's alcohol and/or drug consumption and the risk of sexual assault, but few studies have measured the various means by which sexual assault is achieved. Participants: The authors' Campus Sexual Assault Study obtained self-report data from a random sample of undergraduate women (N =…

  17. Drug-facilitated sexual assault in Ontario, Canada: toxicological and DNA findings.

    PubMed

    Du Mont, Janice; Macdonald, Sheila; Rotbard, Nomi; Bainbridge, Deidre; Asllani, Eriola; Smith, Norman; Cohen, Marsha M

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which persons reporting sexual assault to a hospital-based treatment centre may have been covertly drugged and to provide information about whether a sexual assault may have occurred. Each consecutive adolescent and adult presenting at a sexual assault treatment centre was screened for drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). Urine was collected and tested for central nervous system active drugs. Oral, vaginal, and/or rectal swabs were tested for male DNA. Unexpected drugs were defined as those not reported as having been voluntarily consumed within the previous 72 h. Positive swabs for unexpected DNA were determined by whether the person reported having had consensual intercourse in the previous week. A total of 184 of 882 eligible participants met suspected DFSA criteria. Mean age was 25.8 years (SD=8.5), 96.2% were female and 64.7% White. Urine samples were positive for drugs in 44.9% of cases, alcohol in 12.9%, and both drugs and alcohol in 18.0%. The drugs found on toxicological screening were unexpected in 87 of the 135 (64.4%) cases with a positive drug finding and included cannabinoids (40.2%), cocaine (32.2%), amphetamines (13.8%), MDMA (9.2%), ketamine (2.3%), and GHB (1.1%). Male DNA was unexpected in 30 (46.9%) of 64 cases where it was found. Among those persons presenting to a sexual assault treatment centre with a suspicion of DFSA, the presence of unexpected drugs and male DNA was common, lending support for their contention that they had been intentionally drugged and sexually assaulted. Most unexpected drugs found were not those typically described as 'date rape drugs'.

  18. Sirtuin 2 aggravates postischemic liver injury by deacetylating mitogen‐activated protein kinase phosphatase‐1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Koh, Hyoung‐Won; Zhou, Lu; Bae, Ui‐Jin; Lee, Hwa‐Suk; Bang, In Hyuk; Ka, Sun‐O; Oh, Seon‐Hee; Bae, Eun Ju

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuin 2 (Sirt2) is known to negatively regulate anoxia‐reoxygenation injury in myoblasts. Because protein levels of Sirt2 are increased in ischemia‐reperfusion (I/R)‐injured liver tissues, we examined whether Sirt2 is protective or detrimental against hepatic I/R injury. We overexpressed Sirt2 in the liver of C57BL/6 mice using a Sirt2 adenovirus. Wild‐type and Sirt2 knockout mice were subjected to a partial (70%) hepatic ischemia for 45 minutes, followed by various periods of reperfusion. In another set of experiments, wild‐type mice were pretreated intraperitoneally with AGK2, a Sirt2 inhibitor. Isolated hepatocytes and Kupffer cells from wild‐type and Sirt2 knockout mice were subjected to hypoxia‐reoxygenation injury to determine the in vitro effects of Sirt2. Mice subjected to I/R injury showed typical patterns of hepatocellular damage. Prior injection with Sirt2 adenovirus aggravated liver injury, as demonstrated by increases in serum aminotransferases, prothrombin time, proinflammatory cytokines, hepatocellular necrosis and apoptosis, and neutrophil infiltration relative to control virus‐injected mice. Pretreatment with AGK2 resulted in significant improvements in serum aminotransferase levels and histopathologic findings. Similarly, experiments with Sirt2 knockout mice also revealed reduced hepatocellular injury. The molecular mechanism of Sirt2's involvement in this aggravation of hepatic I/R injury includes the deacetylation and inhibition of mitogen‐activated protein kinase phosphatase‐1 and consequent activation of mitogen‐activated protein kinases. Conclusion: Sirt2 is an aggravating factor during hepatic I/R injury. (Hepatology 2017;65:225‐236). PMID:27532371

  19. Sodium chloride promotes pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization thereby aggravating CNS autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Hucke, Stephanie; Eschborn, Melanie; Liebmann, Marie; Herold, Martin; Freise, Nicole; Engbers, Annika; Ehling, Petra; Meuth, Sven G; Roth, Johannes; Kuhlmann, Tanja; Wiendl, Heinz; Klotz, Luisa

    2016-02-01

    The increasing incidence in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) during the last decades in industrialized countries might be linked to a change in dietary habits. Nowadays, enhanced salt content is an important characteristic of Western diet and increased dietary salt (NaCl) intake promotes pathogenic T cell responses contributing to central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity. Given the importance of macrophage responses for CNS disease propagation, we addressed the influence of salt consumption on macrophage responses in CNS autoimmunity. We observed that EAE-diseased mice receiving a NaCl-high diet showed strongly enhanced macrophage infiltration and activation within the CNS accompanied by disease aggravation during the effector phase of EAE. NaCl treatment of macrophages elicited a strong pro-inflammatory phenotype characterized by enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, increased expression of immune-stimulatory molecules, and an antigen-independent boost of T cell proliferation. This NaCl-induced pro-inflammatory macrophage phenotype was accompanied by increased activation of NF-kB and MAPK signaling pathways. The pathogenic relevance of NaCl-conditioned macrophages is illustrated by the finding that transfer into EAE-diseased animals resulted in significant disease aggravation compared to untreated macrophages. Importantly, also in human monocytes, NaCl promoted a pro-inflammatory phenotype that enhanced human T cell proliferation. Taken together, high dietary salt intake promotes pro-inflammatory macrophages that aggravate CNS autoimmunity. Together with other studies, these results underline the need to further determine the relevance of increased dietary salt intake for MS disease severity.

  20. Sexual Assault Perpetrators' Justifications for Their Actions: Relationships to Rape Supportive Attitudes, Incident Characteristics, and Future Perpetration.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E; Woerner, Jacqueline

    2015-08-01

    Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims' alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators' post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change.

  1. Demographic and situational factors affecting injury, resistance, completion, and charges brought in sexual assault cases: what is best for arrest?

    PubMed

    Scott, Hannah S; Beaman, Rebecca

    2004-08-01

    This study examines demographic and situational factors in an effort to predict whether or not a complainant was injured, used resistance, experienced a completed assault, and whether charges were brought against the offender. If the accused had consumed alcohol or drugs, he was almost seven times more likely to be arrested. The complainant was six times more likely to report rape completion if she had consumed alcohol or drugs and if the complainant fell unconscious at any time during the attack she was significantly less likely to use a resistance strategy. The complainant's use of a compliance strategy at any time during the assault positively predicted not using a physical resistance strategy and sexual assault completion. The reporting of injury positively predicted use a physical resistance strategy and sexual assault completion. If the assault was completed, it was less likely that charges were pressed. Implications of these findings are discussed, and directions for future research are offered.

  2. Sexual Assault Perpetrators’ Justifications for Their Actions: Relationships to Rape Supportive Attitudes, Incident Characteristics, and Future Perpetration

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E.; Woerner, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims’ alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators’ post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. PMID:26056162

  3. Serological aggravation of autoimmune thyroid disease in two cases receiving nivolumab.

    PubMed

    Narita, Tomohiko; Oiso, Naoki; Taketomo, Yasunori; Okahashi, Kazunori; Yamauchi, Kohei; Sato, Masako; Uchida, Shusuke; Matsuda, Hiromasa; Kawada, Akira

    2016-02-01

    Nivolumab, a blockade of programmed cell death 1, is now administrated for advanced malignant melanomas. Nivolumab-associated adverse events include organ-specific autoimmune disorders; autoimmune thyroid disease, vitiligo and insulin-dependent diabetes. However, predisposed persons are currently unknown. Here, we report serological aggravation of autoimmune thyroid disease in two cases receiving nivolumab: one with Hashimoto disease and another with probable subclinical Hashimoto disease. We should verify if nivolumab-related hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are predisposed to occur in euthyroid individuals with subclinical autoimmune thyroid disease.

  4. An Exploratory Case Study of a Sexual Assault Telephone Hotline: Training and Practice Implications.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Marianna L; Pruett, Jana A; Young, Stephen M; Holosko, Michael J

    2016-06-29

    Using archival data, this case study systematically examines telephone calls received by a regional sexual assault hotline in the Southeastern United States over a 5-year period. A stratified random sample (n = 383) reveals that hotline staff require diversity and depth in knowledge and skills, demonstrated by the hotline's primary use as a crisis service, combined with notable use by long-term survivors. Findings include the utility of the hotline by survivors and community stakeholders, categories of assault, the time gap between incidents occurring and contacting the hotline, call severity and urgency, and services and referrals provided. Implications for training, practice, and future research are discussed.

  5. [The major issues of an "assault and battery" report for an adolescent].

    PubMed

    Depallens, Sarah

    2014-06-11

    Adolescents who are confronted to violence rarely consult health services about this problem. Family maltreatment is the origin of most violence against adolescents, but remains very often hidden from the eyes of professionals. The "assault and battery" reports produced by emergency services are largely about community violence situations. The medical consultation following an assault requires a global evaluation of the teenager confronted to violence. This evaluation will have to take into account not only the adolescent's requests (such as confidentiality), but also professional duties to prevent recidivism.

  6. Audit of the management of victims of sexual assault in a city centre genitourinary medicine clinic.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C

    2005-01-01

    A total of 113 individuals (101 women, 12 men) who had experienced sexual assault (SA) attended the genitourinary medicine clinic. Of the 60 patients who were seen at a dedicated clinic for victims of SA, the median age was lower, a greater number had reported to the police and the interval between assault and attendance was shorter, compared with the 53 who attended the routine walk-in service. However, the majority of the men attended routine clinics. Drug-facilitated rape was reported in 20%, excess alcohol in 10% and the use of violence in 20% cases. Overall, the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections was the same as the total clinic population.

  7. Separation and/or divorce sexual assault in rural Ohio: preliminary results of an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    DeKeseredy, Walter S; Joseph, Carolyn

    2006-03-01

    A rapidly growing social scientific literature shows that many women are at great risk of being killed, beaten, or psychologically abused when they exit or try to leave their marital and/or cohabiting partners. However, less than a handful of studies have examined male-to-female sexual assaults during and after separation or divorce. Furthermore, the bulk of the limited empirical work on this problem was done in urban areas. Thus, the main objective of this article is to help fill two major research gaps by presenting the preliminary results of an ongoing exploratory study of separation and/or divorce sexual assault in rural Ohio.

  8. The (in)significance of genital injury in rape and sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Walker, Graeme

    2015-08-01

    The forensic significance of genital injury following rape and sexual assault has been the subject of considerable academic and research interest, in terms of the contribution it may provide to the body of evidence in criminal proceedings. This essay takes a critical look at such research, in the context of modern understandings of what actually constitutes rape and sexual assault. Written from the author's perspective as a forensic physician practising in Scotland, it illustrates the fascinating interface between medical evidence and the legal system.

  9. Perceptions of interpersonal versus intergroup violence: the case of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Droogendyk, Lisa; Wright, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    The social identity approach makes a distinction between behavior motivated by intergroup versus interpersonal identities, which may be relevant to victim blaming in the case of rape. Using a mock jury paradigm, we examined the impact of defining rape as an act of interpersonal violence (personal assault) versus intergroup violence (a "hate crime"), crossed with a manipulation describing the attacker as either an acquaintance or stranger. Defining rape in intergroup terms led to less victim blame than when it was defined in interpersonal terms, and participants blamed the victim more when she was assaulted by an acquaintance than a stranger.

  10. Psychiatric nurses' attitudes toward sexuality, sexual assault/rape, and incest.

    PubMed

    Boutcher, F; Gallop, R

    1996-06-01

    This descriptive, exploratory study examined psychiatric nurses' attitudes towards sexuality, sexual assault/rape, and incest, and explored the relationships between these attitudes and the personal characteristics of the nurse. Contrary to previous research on nurses in nonpsychiatric settings, the nurses in this Canadian study had favorable attitudes towards sexuality and did not subscribe to attitudes of victim blaming in sexual assault/rape and incest. The strongest predictor of attitudes was age of the nurse (p < .02); cultural/ethnic background may also be associated with attitudes (p < .02). The results indicate a need to develop more precise measures of attitude for psychiatric nurses.

  11. Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs): mapping a research agenda that incorporates an organizational perspective.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Carrie A; Lindhorst, Taryn; Tajima, Emiko A

    2015-04-01

    Multidisciplinary coordinated Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs) are a growing model of providing health, legal, and emotional support services to victims of sexual assault. This article conceptualizes SARTs from an organizational perspective and explores three approaches to researching SARTs that have the potential of increasing our understanding of the benefits and challenges of multidisciplinary service delivery. These approaches attend to several levels of organizational behavior, including the organizational response to external legitimacy pressures, the inter-organizational networks of victim services, and the negotiation of power and disciplinary boundaries. Possible applications to organizational research on SARTs are explored.

  12. Mesenchymal stromal cell implantation for stimulation of long bone healing aggravates Staphylococcus aureus induced osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Seebach, Elisabeth; Holschbach, Jeannine; Buchta, Nicole; Bitsch, Rudi Georg; Kleinschmidt, Kerstin; Richter, Wiltrud

    2015-07-01

    Large bone defects requiring long-term osteosynthetic stabilization or repeated surgeries show a considerable rate of infection. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been successfully used to enhance bone regeneration, but their powerful immunomodulatory effects may impose an enhanced risk for osteomyelitis development. In order to unravel whether implantation of MSCs aggravates a simultaneous bone infection, a hydrogel-supported osteomyelitis ostectomy model was developed in which rats received a femoral bone defect with rigid plate-fixation. After fibrin-assisted transfer of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), effects of MSC implantation on osteomyelitis development were quantified over 3-4 weeks. All SA-infected animals developed an acute local osteomyelitis with significantly increased blood neutrophil count, abscess formation and bone destruction. MSC-treatment of infected defects aggravated osteomyelitis according to a significantly elevated osteomyelitis score and enhanced distal bone loss with spongy alteration of cortical bone architecture. Increased attraction of macrophages, osteoclasts and regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators were potential MSC actions. Overall trophic actions of MSCs implanted into non-sterile bone defects may enhance an infection and/or exacerbate osteomyelitis. Studies on antibiotic carrier augmentation or antibiotic treatment are warranted to decide whether MSC implantation is a safe and promising therapy for orthopedic implant-stabilized bone defects at high risk for development of infection.

  13. High-fat diet aggravates glucose homeostasis disorder caused by chronic exposure to bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shibin; Fan, Ying; Zhao, Nana; Yang, Huiqin; Ye, Xiaolei; He, Dongliang; Jin, Xin; Liu, Jian; Tian, Chong; Li, Hongyu; Xu, Shunqing; Ying, Chenjiang

    2014-04-01

    Epidemiological findings on the association between bisphenol A (BPA, 2,2-bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane) exposure and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are paradoxical. In animal studies, BPA has been shown to disrupt pancreatic function and blood glucose homeostasis even at a reference 'safe' level during perinatal period. In this study, we explored the effects of long-term paternal exposure to a 'safe' level of BPA on parents themselves and their offspring. Adult male genitor rats fed with either standard chow diet (STD) or high-fat diet (HFD) were treated respectively with either vehicle or BPA (50 μg/kg per day) for 35 weeks. The male rats treated with vehicle or BPA for 21 weeks were then used as sires, and the adult female rats were fed with STD during the gestation and lactation. Offspring rats were weaned on postnatal day 21 and fed with STD in later life. Metabolic parameters were recorded on the adult male rats and their adult offspring. BPA exposure disrupted glucose homeostasis and pancreatic function, and HFD aggravated these adverse effects. However, BPA exposure did not alter body weight, body fat percentage, or serum lipid. In addition, the paternal BPA exposure did not cause adverse reproductive consequence or metabolic disorder in the adult offspring. Our findings indicate that chronic exposure to a predicted 'safe' dose of BPA contributes to glucose metabolic disorders, and that HFD aggravates these adverse effects in paternal rats.

  14. FSH aggravates bone loss in ovariectomised rats with experimental periapical periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hua; Guan, Xiaoyue; Bian, Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    Periapical bone loss is one of the prominent pathological and clinical features of periapical periodontitis. Previous studies have demonstrated that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) could directly affect skeletal remodelling by stimulating the formation and the function of osteoclasts in vitro and in vivo. However, the effect of FSH on periapical bone loss remained to be fully elucidated. In the current study, a rat model was established in order to verify the effect of FSH in experimental periapical lesions. It was identified that FSH aggravated the bone loss of periapical lesions. In addition, RANKL-, TRAP-, TNF-α- and IL-1β-positive cells were increased significantly in FSH-treated groups, which indicated that the function of FSH in bone loss may be mediated through the increasing activity of osteoclasts and the increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines. The results of the current study suggested that FSH, independent of oestrogen, may aggravate periapical bone loss by FSH receptors, which may serve an important role in the immune and inflammatory response of the host to root canal and periradicular infection during menopause. PMID:27510616

  15. Transmitted Holocaust trauma: curse or legacy? The aggravating and mitigating factors of Holocaust transmission.

    PubMed

    Kellermann, Natan P F

    2008-01-01

    For children of Holocaust survivors, the trauma of their parents can be perceived both as a curse and as a legacy. On the one hand, it may fill their inner lives with terrible anxiety-provoking associations; on the other, it may be a source of creative inspiration that motivates them to make the world a better place. As a result, most of them struggle with the contradictory forces of vulnerability and resilience that they inherited from their parents. Since there is such a wide spectrum of adaptive reactions to the Holocaust, it is important to identify the various aggravating and mitigating factors that are assumed to increase or decrease the risk of children to absorb the trauma of their parents and to develop specific second-generation psychopathology as a result. In an effort to understand more clearly some of the aggravating factors, a demographic study of a clinical sub-population of the "Second Generation" was conducted. Results indicated that most of this clinical population was born soon after the war ended, to parents who were both Holocaust survivors, and that they were mostly female, married, highly educated, working as teachers or in the helping professions, were the first or the second child, and had parents who were inclined not to share their Holocaust experiences with their children. Parents were mostly rated as fully functioning, without severe mental and physical disease and as not overly preoccupied with the Holocaust.

  16. Bacterial translocation aggravates CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis by regulating CD4+ T cells in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Haiyan; Lv, Longxian; Cao, Hongcui; Lu, Haifeng; Zhou, Ning; Yang, Jiezuan; Jiang, Haiyin; Dong, Huihui; Hu, Xinjun; Yu, Wei; Jiang, Xiawei; Zheng, Beiwen; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial translocation (BT) is thought to play an important role in the development of liver cirrhosis, but the mechanisms have not been fully explored. This study aims to investigate the distribution of Treg (CD3+CD4+CD25+Foxp3+), Th17 (CD3+CD4+IL-17+), and Th1 (CD3+CD4+IFN-γ+) cells in the intestinal lamina propria, liver and blood and to explore their relationships with BT. Cirrhotic rats with ascites were induced by CCl4. We found that there were lower levels of total protein and albumin, lower albumin/globulin ratio, lower body weight and higher spleen weight and ascites volume in cirrhotic rats with than without BT. We found that BT may cause increase of Treg cells in the proximal small intestine and decrease of Th17 cells in the whole intestine and blood in cirrhotic rats. It may also aggravate the CCl4-induced decrease in Th1 cells in the whole intestine, liver, caecum, and blood and the CCl4-induced increase in Th17 cells in the liver and Tregs in the distal small intestine, colon, and liver. Our data suggest that BT may aggravate liver injury and decrease liver function via an interaction with CD4+ T Cells. The results of this study may be helpful for the development of new treatments for liver cirrhosis. PMID:28134306

  17. The persistence of low-grade inflammatory monocytes contributes to aggravated atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Shuo; Chen, Keqiang; Yuan, Ruoxi; Peng, Liang; Maitra, Urmila; Diao, Na; Chen, Chun; Zhang, Yao; Hu, Yuan; Qi, Chen-Feng; Pierce, Susan; Ling, Wenhua; Xiong, Huabao; Li, Liwu

    2016-01-01

    Sustained low-grade inflammation mediated by non-resolving inflammatory monocytes has long been suspected in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis; however, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the sustainment of non-resolving inflammatory monocytes during atherosclerosis are poorly understood. Here we observe that subclinical endotoxemia, often seen in humans with chronic inflammation, aggravates murine atherosclerosis through programming monocytes into a non-resolving inflammatory state with elevated Ly6C, CCR5, MCP-1 and reduced SR-B1. The sustainment of inflammatory monocytes is due to the disruption of homeostatic tolerance through the elevation of miR-24 and reduction of the key negative-feedback regulator IRAK-M. miR-24 reduces the levels of Smad4 required for the expression of IRAK-M and also downregulates key lipid-processing molecule SR-B1. IRAK-M deficiency in turn leads to elevated miR-24 levels, sustains disruption of monocyte homeostasis and aggravates atherosclerosis. Our data define an integrated feedback circuit in monocytes and its disruption may lead to non-resolving low-grade inflammation conducive to atherosclerosis. PMID:27824038

  18. Proteasome β5i Subunit Deficiency Affects Opsonin Synthesis and Aggravates Pneumococcal Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Kirschner, Felicia; Reppe, Katrin; Andresen, Nadine; Witzenrath, Martin; Ebstein, Frédéric; Kloetzel, Peter-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Immunoproteasomes, harboring the active site subunits β5i/LMP7, β1i/LMP2, and β2i/MECL1 exert protective, regulatory or modulating functions during infection-induced immune responses. Immunoproteasomes are constitutively expressed in hematopoietic derived cells, constituting the first line of defense against invading pathogens. To clarify the impact of immunoproteasomes on the innate immune response against Streptococcus pneumoniae, we characterized the progression of disease and analyzed the systemic immune response in β5i/LMP7-/- mice. Our data show that β5i/LMP7 deficiency, which affected the subunit composition of proteasomes in murine macrophages and liver, was accompanied by reduced transcription of genes encoding immune modulating molecules such as pentraxins, ficolins, and collectins. The diminished opsonin expression suggested an impaired humoral immune response against invading pneumococci resulting in an aggravated systemic dissemination of S. pneumoniae in β5i/LMP7-/- mice. The impaired bacterial elimination in β5i/LMP7-/- mice was accompanied by an aggravated course of pneumonia with early mortality as a consequence of critical illness during the late phase of disease. In summary our results highlight an unsuspected role for immuno-subunits in modulating the innate immune response to extracellular bacterial infections. PMID:27100179

  19. Inhibition of caspase-9 aggravates acute liver injury through suppression of cytoprotective autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Lin, Bin; Pan, Jing Fei; Liong, Emily C.; Xu, Ai Min; Youdim, Moussa; Fung, Man Lung; So, Kwok Fai; Tipoe, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver disease is characterized by inflammation, oxidative stress and necrosis, which can greatly influence the long term clinical outcome and lead to liver failure or cancer. Here, we initially demonstrated the beneficial role of caspase-9-dependent autophagy in acute liver injury. Treatment with caspase-9 inhibitor z-LEHD-FMK in HepG2 cells, AML12 cells and C57BL/b6N mice exacerbated CCl4-induced acute hepatocellular damage, and also down-regulated autophagy markers expression levels, indicating that caspase-9 inhibition may aggravate acute liver damage by suppressing cytoprotective autophagy. CCl4 was used as an acute liver injury inducer which caused oxidative stress and apoptosis through up-regulation of HIF-1α, as well as triggered hepatic inflammation and necroptosis via TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Caspase-9 Thr125 site was firstly phosphorylated by ERK1/2 which subsequently activated the cytoprotective autophagy process to attenuate acute CCl4 injury. Caspase-9 inhibition further aggravated hepatic necroptosis through NF-κB expression, leading to increased pro-inflammatory mediators levels, suggesting a protective role of caspase-9-dependent autophagy in the inflammatory process as well as its possibility being a new therapeutic target for the treatment of acute liver injury. PMID:27580936

  20. Diisononyl phthalate aggravates allergic dermatitis by activation of NF-kB.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun; Song, Jing; Shen, Shiping; Li, Baizhan; Yang, Xu; Chen, Mingqing

    2016-12-20

    Several epidemiological studies have suggested a possible link between exposure to Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and the development of allergies. These findings remain controversial since there is insufficient scientific evidence to assess the ability of DINP to influence allergic immune responses. In addition, the mechanisms behind DINP-caused allergic diseases have not been fully elucidated. In this study, Balb/c mice were orally exposed to DINP for 3 weeks and were then sensitized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). We showed that oral exposure to DINP could aggravate allergic-dermatitis-like lesions, indicated by an increase in the number of mast cells, and in increased skin edema in FITC-induced contact hypersensitivity. This deterioration was concomitant with increased total serum immunoglobulin-E and Th2 cytokines. We determined the oxidative damage and the activation of nuclear factor-kb (NF-kB). The data demonstrated that DINP could promote oxidative damage and the activation of NF-kB in the skin. The expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcriptions 3, 5 and 6 were enhanced concomitant with exacerbated allergic dermatitis effects and the activation of NF-kB induced by DINP. These effects were alleviated by pyrollidine dithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of NF-kB. The results suggest that oral exposure to DINP aggravated allergic contact dermatitis, which was positively regulated via NF-kB.

  1. Inhibition of caspase-9 aggravates acute liver injury through suppression of cytoprotective autophagy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Lin, Bin; Pan, Jing Fei; Liong, Emily C; Xu, Ai Min; Youdim, Moussa; Fung, Man Lung; So, Kwok Fai; Tipoe, George L

    2016-09-01

    Acute liver disease is characterized by inflammation, oxidative stress and necrosis, which can greatly influence the long term clinical outcome and lead to liver failure or cancer. Here, we initially demonstrated the beneficial role of caspase-9-dependent autophagy in acute liver injury. Treatment with caspase-9 inhibitor z-LEHD-FMK in HepG2 cells, AML12 cells and C57BL/b6N mice exacerbated CCl4-induced acute hepatocellular damage, and also down-regulated autophagy markers expression levels, indicating that caspase-9 inhibition may aggravate acute liver damage by suppressing cytoprotective autophagy. CCl4 was used as an acute liver injury inducer which caused oxidative stress and apoptosis through up-regulation of HIF-1α, as well as triggered hepatic inflammation and necroptosis via TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Caspase-9 Thr125 site was firstly phosphorylated by ERK1/2 which subsequently activated the cytoprotective autophagy process to attenuate acute CCl4 injury. Caspase-9 inhibition further aggravated hepatic necroptosis through NF-κB expression, leading to increased pro-inflammatory mediators levels, suggesting a protective role of caspase-9-dependent autophagy in the inflammatory process as well as its possibility being a new therapeutic target for the treatment of acute liver injury.

  2. The Association between Sexual Assault and Suicidal Activity in a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasula, Jessica L.; Anderson, Laura M.; Littleton, Heather L.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris

    2012-01-01

    Sexual violence is a potential key risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior but has not been studied extensively. Thus, the current study examined the extent to which sexual assault predicted suicide attempts among adolescent students in the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey (2007 data). Gender differences in suicidal…

  3. 3 CFR 8492 - Proclamation 8492 of April 1, 2010. National Sexual Assault Awareness Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., this crime occurs far too frequently, goes unreported far too often, and leaves long-lasting physical... disabilities, isolation may lead to repeated assaults and an inability to seek and locate help. Native American... justice system. This feeling of isolation, often compounded with suicidal feelings, depression, and...

  4. 32 CFR 635.28 - Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... The victim may allow Sexual Assault Response Coordinators (SARC), health care providers (HCP), or... or bedding sheets, and any other articles provided by the HCP, SARC, or chaplain will be stored in... sources, but from a source other than the SARC, HCP, chaplain, or Provost Marshal/Director of...

  5. 32 CFR 635.28 - Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... The victim may allow Sexual Assault Response Coordinators (SARC), health care providers (HCP), or... or bedding sheets, and any other articles provided by the HCP, SARC, or chaplain will be stored in... sources, but from a source other than the SARC, HCP, chaplain, or Provost Marshal/Director of...

  6. 32 CFR 635.28 - Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... The victim may allow Sexual Assault Response Coordinators (SARC), health care providers (HCP), or... or bedding sheets, and any other articles provided by the HCP, SARC, or chaplain will be stored in... sources, but from a source other than the SARC, HCP, chaplain, or Provost Marshal/Director of...

  7. 32 CFR 635.28 - Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... The victim may allow Sexual Assault Response Coordinators (SARC), health care providers (HCP), or... or bedding sheets, and any other articles provided by the HCP, SARC, or chaplain will be stored in... sources, but from a source other than the SARC, HCP, chaplain, or Provost Marshal/Director of...

  8. 32 CFR 635.28 - Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... The victim may allow Sexual Assault Response Coordinators (SARC), health care providers (HCP), or... or bedding sheets, and any other articles provided by the HCP, SARC, or chaplain will be stored in... sources, but from a source other than the SARC, HCP, chaplain, or Provost Marshal/Director of...

  9. Propranolol in the treatment of assaultive patients with organic brain disease.

    PubMed

    Greendyke, R M; Schuster, D B; Wooton, J A

    1984-10-01

    Propranolol in doses up to 520 mg/day was administered to eight patients with organic brain disease characterized by violent and assaultive behavior refractory to conventional treatment. Improvement was demonstrated in the seven patients able to tolerate adequate drug dosages. Hypotension, bradycardia, and interactions with other medications constituted complications.

  10. Addressing Sexual Assault on College Campuses: Guidelines for a Prevention/Awareness Week.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Robin Wilbourn; Caruso, Michele E.; Goins, Shelley E.; Southerland, Jennifer P.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses concepts that are related to providing education and training regarding sexual assault, as outlined by the Crime Awareness and Campus Security Act. Because college counseling center staff members often initiate and plan campus outreach prevention programs, an outline is provided of a prevention/awareness week intervention that is…

  11. Using Mediation in Response to Sexual Assault on College and University Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, V. Shamim; Todd, Sybil R.

    1995-01-01

    Describes policies and procedures for using mediation as one alternative for adjudicating sexual assault cases, and examines factors to consider for implementation. Mediation gives survivors an opportunity to confront accused in a safe environment and to regain a feeling of control in life. Provides recommendations based on experiences at the…

  12. The Relationship between Alcohol Use and Sexual Assault Incidents in Educational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colon, Enid S.; Wells, Julian; Chambliss, Catherine

    A comparative study was conducted on the relationship between the frequency of sexual assault incidents and the relative accessibility of alcohol on two small liberal arts colleges and one larger public university. The alcohol policy varied among the colleges in that one was an alcohol free campus and another permitted drinking for students who…

  13. The Sexual Assault Teach In Program: Building Constructive Campus-Wide Discussions to Inspire Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Jennifer; DuBois, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    To begin to address the problem of campus sexual assault, we conducted a Teach In, an educational forum used to explore complex social problems. All students, faculty, and staff at our small liberal arts college were invited to participate. This paper summarizes our Teach In program, goals, and methods. By engaging in constructive, informed…

  14. Interpersonal Violence and Sexual Assault: Trauma-Informed Communication Approaches in University Counseling Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshimura, Christina Granato; Campbell, Kimberly Brown

    2016-01-01

    A university in the United States Mountain West utilized grant resources to track counseling services for students who were currently experiencing or who had historically experienced relationship violence, sexual assault and/or stalking. This report reflects on the first 2 years of this program, including an overview of prevalence and reporting…

  15. The healing power of reflective writing for a student victim of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Karlowicz, Karen A; King, Leticia S

    2009-01-01

    The phenomenon of a caring relationship between a teacher and her student, a victim of sexual assault, is mediated through reflective writing assignments in a baccalaureate nursing program. Increased self-awareness, personal transformation, and healing results when the student is encouraged to openly write about her feelings.

  16. Middle School Youth: Satisfaction with and Responses to a Dating Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias-Lambert, Nada; Black, Beverly; Sharma, Yasoda

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how group composition influences students' level of satisfaction with a dating violence and sexual assault prevention program. A 10- to 12-session program was presented to 396 urban African American middle school students in mixed- and same-gender groups. Both males and females were significantly more satisfied with the…

  17. Barriers to Reporting Sexual Assault for Women and Men: Perspectives of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Marjorie R.; Danis, Fran; Mauzy, Denise L.; Gallagher, Sarah K.

    2006-01-01

    The authors asked college students to rate the importance of a list of barriers to reporting rape and sexual assault among male and female victims. The authors' findings indicate that barriers prevalent 30 years ago, prior to efforts by the rape reform movement, continue to be considered important among college men and women. The barriers rated as…

  18. Preliminary Evaluation of the "Playing the Game" Sexual Assault Prevention Theatre Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatcher, W. Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of a one-time sexual assault prevention theatre performance against a similar content video performance and a non-intervention control group. Methods: Using the College Date Rape Attitudes and Behaviors Survey, four-hundred ninety-seven students provided matched pairs data for analysis. Results: At a…

  19. Gender Difference or Indifference? Detective Decision Making in Sexual Assault Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderden, Megan A.; Ullman, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research examining sexual assault case decision making has failed to account for the demographic characteristics of the criminal justice practitioners charged with making case decisions. Inclusion of such information is important because it provides researchers with a greater understanding of how criminal justice practitioners' own gender,…

  20. 32 CFR 105.16 - Sexual assault annual and quarterly reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the number of sexual assaults involving Service members, that includes case synopses, and disciplinary actions taken in substantiated cases and relevant information. (5) Analyses of the matrices of the number... October 15 of the following APY. DMDC will simultaneously conduct gender relations surveys of cadets...

  1. Childhood Trauma, Adult Sexual Assault, and Adult Gender Expression among Lesbian and Bisexual Women

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Yamile; Simoni, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that lesbian and bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and adult sexual assault. It is unknown, however, which sexual minority women are most likely to experience such abuse. We recruited adult sexual minority women living in the US through electronic fliers sent to listservs and website groups inviting them to complete an online survey (N=1,243). We examined differences in both childhood abuse and adult sexual assault by women’s current gender identity (i.e., butch, femme, androgynous, or other) and a continuous measure of gender expression (from butch/masculine to femme/feminine), adjusting for sexual orientation identity, age, education, and income. Results indicated that a more butch/masculine current self-assessment of gender expression, but not gender identity, was associated with more overall reported childhood trauma. Although one aspect of gender expression, a more butch/masculine gender role, was associated with adult sexual assault, feminine appearance and a femme gender identity also significantly predicted adult sexual assault. These findings highlight the significance of gender identity and expression in identifying women at greater risk for various abuse experiences. PMID:24003263

  2. 75 FR 73997 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ...) Program ( http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/649501p.pdf .) This proposed change will add a new... Assault Prevention and Response Program, at http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/649501p.pdf....regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. E-mail: dfars@osd.mil . Include DFARS...

  3. Reduction of assaultive behavior following anger treatment of forensic hospital patients with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Novaco, Raymond W; Taylor, John L

    2015-02-01

    Anger is related to violence prior to hospitalization, during hospitalization, and after discharge. Meta-analyses have established treatment efficacy in reducing anger, but few studies have addressed whether reduced anger leads to lowered aggressive behavior. This study concerns individually-delivered anger treatment, specialized for offenders with intellectual disabilities, delivered twice weekly for 18 sessions to 50 forensic hospital patients. Assessments involved patient self-report of anger, staff ratings of anger and aggression, and case records of assaultive incidents. Physical assault data were obtained from records 12 months pre-treatment and 12 months post-treatment. Significant reductions in assaults following treatment were found by GEE analyses, controlling for age, gender, length of stay, IQ, and pre-hospital violence. Following treatment, physical attacks reduced by more than half, dropping from approximately 3.5 attacks per patient 6 months prior to treatment, versus approximately 1 attack per patient in the 6-12 month interval post-treatment. In hierarchical regressions, controlling for IQ, reduction in physical assaults was associated with pre-to post-treatment change in anger level. These findings buttress the efficacy of anger treatment for patients having histories of violence and have significance for patient mental health, hospital staff well-being, therapeutic milieu, hospital management, and service delivery costs.

  4. Gender Differences in the Clinical Presentation of PTSD and Its Concomitants in Survivors of Interpersonal Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galovski, Tara E.; Mott, Juliette; Young-Xu, Yinong; Resick, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares a sample of PTSD-positive, female survivors of interpersonal assault (n = 162) to a sample of similarly traumatized male counterparts (n = 45) on a number of variables, including PTSD-symptom severity, depressive symptoms, anger, guilt, and health-related concerns. Results indicate that male and female interpersonal assault…

  5. Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Services: Historical Concerns and Contemporary Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Giattina, Mary C.; Parish, Susan L.; Crosby, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    More than 20 years ago, concerns were raised about whether domestic violence and sexual assault agencies need for stable funding would conflict with the values that initiated these respective movements. Since then, the movements have evolved considerably. Therefore, it is timely to investigate the challenges domestic violence and sexual assault…

  6. Alcohol and Dating Risk Factors for Sexual Assault: Double Standards Are Still Alive and Well Entrenched

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on her article entitled, "Alcohol and Dating Risk Factors for Sexual Assault Among College Women" (Abbey, Ross, McDuffie, & McAuslan, 1996) and her work in personal, intellectual, and disciplinary context. The original article can be found at http://pwq.sagepub.com/content/20/1/147. This personal reflection…

  7. HIV Post-Exposure Prophylaxis in Children and Adolescents Presenting for Reported Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girardet, Rebecca G.; Lemme, Scott; Biason, Tiffany A.; Bolton, Kelly; Lahoti, Sheela

    2009-01-01

    Background: The appropriate use of antiretroviral medications to protect against infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is unclear in cases of sexual assault of children, for whom the perpetrator's risk of HIV is often unknown, and physical proof of sexual contact is usually absent. Objective: In an effort to clarify prescribing…

  8. Report of the Defense Task Force on Sexual Assault in the Military Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    that military separation physicals shall include an assessment of sexual trauma, previously disclosed or undisclosed, during active duty service...comply with these standards. Further, SAPRO must be actively engaged in prevention policy development and legislation. Defense Task Force on Sexual ...SAPRO develop training policies and exercise oversight over Military Service training programs. Sexual assault prevention and response training must

  9. Preventing Posttraumatic Stress Related to Sexual Assault Through Early Intervention: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Emily R; Schumacher, Julie A

    2016-09-28

    Sexual assault survivors come into contact with a variety of community responders after assault, and these interactions may play an important role in mitigating distress. Given theoretical understandings of the importance of early experiences in the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS), early contact with formal systems (e.g., health care, criminal justice, social services) and informal responders (e.g., friends, family) might be particularly important in preventing PTS. However, the effectiveness of these early interventions is unclear. Understanding the key elements of early interventions, both formal and informal, that successfully prevent the development of PTS could help to improve community responses to sexual assault and ultimately promote survivor well-being. In this systematic review, we investigate the types of experiences with responders in the early aftermath of assault that are associated with PTS, the duration of effects on PTS, and the role of the timing of these responses in the development of PTS. Findings indicate that responder contact alone is not typically associated with significant differences in PTS, and there is insufficient evidence to indicate that the timing of seeking help is associated with PTS, but the quality of services provided and perceptions of interactions with certain responders appear to be associated with PTS. Although many effects were short-lived, interventions that were perceived positively may be associated with lower PTS up to a year postassault. These findings support the importance of offering best practice interventions that are perceived positively, rather than simply encouraging survivors to seek help.

  10. The Associations of Physical and Sexual Assault with Suicide Risk in Nonclinical Military and Undergraduate Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Craig J.; McNaugton-Cassill, Mary; Osman, Augustine; Hernandez, Ann Marie

    2013-01-01

    The associations of various forms of sexual and physical assault with a history of suicide attempts and recent suicide ideation were studied in two distinct samples: active duty military and undergraduate students. A total of 273 active duty Air Force personnel and 309 undergraduate students anonymously completed self-report surveys of assault…

  11. Enhancing Care and Advocacy for Sexual Assault Survivors on Canadian Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Elizabeth; Clarke, Allyson; Miller, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Recent media coverage of the rape chant at Saint Mary's University, the misogynist Facebook posts at Dalhousie's dental school, and the suspension of the University of Ottawa's hockey team have brought the topic of campus sexual assault under intense public scrutiny and the media accounts point to a widespread systemic rape culture on Canadian…

  12. 77 FR 20499 - National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... fight to reduce sexual violence, the prevalence of sexual assault remains an affront to our national... still more have endured other forms of sexual violence or abuse. Tragically, these crimes take their... violence leaves scars that may never fully heal. Many survivors experience depression, fear, and...

  13. Effects of Clinician-Assisted Emotional Disclosure for Sexual Assault Survivors: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Timothy; Fende Guajardo, Jennifer; Luthra, Rohini; Edwards, Katie M.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of clinician-assisted emotional disclosure (CAED), an integration of emotion focused therapy (Greenberg, Rice, & Elliott, 1993) and emotional disclosure, in ameliorating distress experienced by survivors of sexual assault. A total of 670 female university students were screened for both histories of sexual…

  14. Effects of Participation in a Sexual Assault Risk Reduction Program on Psychological Distress following Revictimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouilso, Emily R.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study followed women who participated in a sexual assault risk reduction program and a wait-list control group for 4 months. Those women in both groups who reported being revictimized (N = 147) were assessed to determine the effect of program participation on psychological distress. Intervention group participants reported a…

  15. Evaluating a Peer-Led, Theatrical Sexual Assault Prevention Program: How Do We Measure Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milhausen, Robin R.; McBride, Kimberly R.; Jun, Mi Kyun

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a co-educational, theatrical, peer-facilitated sexual assault prevention program at a large midwestern university. Additionally, the study compared results based on two different measurement tools (the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (RMAS) and the Sexual Beliefs Scale (SBS)). Methods: Pre-test post-test…

  16. The Effects of Frame of Reference on Responses to Questions about Sexual Assault Victimization and Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; Parkhill, Michele R.; Koss, Mary P.

    2005-01-01

    Self-reports of sexual assault are affected by a variety of factors including the number of questions, question phrasing, and context. Participants (307 women, 166 men) were randomly assigned to one of two forms of a questionnaire. One form had the tactics used to obtain forced sex as the initial frame of reference, whereas the other form had the…

  17. An Evaluation of a Mixed-Gender Sexual Assault Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, April R.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; O'Donohue, William

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the short-term effectiveness of a mixed-gender sexual assault prevention program developed for college students. Program participants (n = 177) were compared to non-program participants (n = 132) prior to the program and during a 2-week follow-up period on measures of rape myths, victim empathy, perceived negative consequences…

  18. Understanding Rape and Sexual Assault: 20 Years of Progress and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Wasco, Sharon M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, researchers have documented the widespread problem of rape in American society. Approximately one in four women are raped in their adult lifetime, which causes severe psychological distress and long-term physical health problems. The impact of sexual assault extends far beyond rape survivors as their family, friends, and…

  19. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of Their Relationship with Doctors, Rape Victim Advocates, Police, and Prosecutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Shana L.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the negative and inefficient treatment of rape victims by emergency room personnel, the first Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began in the late 1970s. While SANEs, doctors, rape victim advocates, police officers and prosecutors work together to ensure the most comprehensive and sensitive care of rape victims, they all…

  20. Sexual Assault Education Programs: A Meta-Analytic Examination of Their Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Linda A.; Whiston, Susan C.

    2005-01-01

    Meta-analyses of the effectiveness of college sexual assault education programs on seven outcome measure categories were conducted using 69 studies that involved 102 treatment interventions and 18,172 participants. Five of the outcome categories had significant average effect sizes (i.e., rape attitudes, rape-related attitudes, rape knowledge,…

  1. What Is an Empowerment Approach to Working with Sexual Assault Survivors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Townsend, Stephanie M.

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study sought to better understand what constitutes the empowerment approach used by rape crisis advocates working with sexual assault survivors. A grounded theory, qualitative, semistructured interview study was conducted of rape victim advocates (N=25) working in rape crisis centers in a large metropolitan area. Several…

  2. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of the Revictimization of Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Shana L.

    2012-01-01

    While Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner programs have improved the treatment of rape victims by offering more compassionate and thorough treatment, SANEs believe victims continue to face revictimization by the medical, criminal justice and legal systems. The purpose of this research is to explore SANEs' perceptions of the revictimization of rape…

  3. Early predictors of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder in assault survivors

    PubMed Central

    KLEIM, BIRGIT; EHLERS, ANKE; GLUCKSMAN, EDWARD

    2007-01-01

    Background Some studies suggest that early psychological treatment is effective in preventing chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but it is as yet unclear how best to identify trauma survivors who need such intervention. This prospective longitudinal study investigated the prognostic validity of acute stress disorder (ASD), of variables derived from a meta-analysis of risk factors for PTSD, and of candidate cognitive and biological variables in predicting chronic PTSD following assault. Method Assault survivors who had been treated for their injuries at a metropolitan Accident and Emergency (A&E) Department were assessed with structured clinical interviews to establish diagnoses of ASD at 2 weeks (n=222) and PTSD at 6 months (n=205) after the assault. Candidate predictors were assessed at 2 weeks. Results Most predictors significantly predicted PTSD status at follow-up. Multivariate logistic regressions showed that a set of four theory-derived cognitive variables predicted PTSD best (Nagelkerke R2=0·50), followed by the variables from the meta-analysis (Nagelkerke R2=0·37) and ASD (Nagelkerke R2=0·25). When all predictors were considered simultaneously, mental defeat, rumination and prior problems with anxiety or depression were chosen as the best combination of predictors (Nagelkerke R2=0·47). Conclusion Questionnaires measuring mental defeat, rumination and pre-trauma psychological problems may help to identify assault survivors at risk of chronic PTSD. PMID:17588274

  4. The Social Marketing Approach: A Way to Increase Reporting and Treatment of Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Amnon; Itzhaky, Haya

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Too often communities remain silent in response to cases of sexual assault of children. Members of the community are afraid to report such incidents and victims are reluctant to seek and accept treatment. The purpose of the paper is to examine whether application of a social marketing approach may serve as an effective means for…

  5. See Something, Do Something: Predicting Sexual Assault Bystander Intentions in the U.S. Military.

    PubMed

    Holland, Kathryn J; Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia

    2016-09-01

    Sexual assault is a pervasive problem in the U.S. military, especially against women. Bystander intervention is increasingly promoted as important for reducing sexual violence, and it may be particularly helpful in contexts with high rates of sexual violence. Bystander training encourages and enables people to intervene safely and stop sexual violence. In this study, we drew from an ecological model to investigate intrapersonal, microsystem, and exosystem factors that predicted Service members' assumption of personal responsibility to intervene in an alcohol-involved sexual assault. Moreover, we examined how these predictors played a role in decisions about how to intervene: confronting the perpetrator, assisting the victim, or finding someone to help. We analyzed data from 24,610 active duty personnel collected by the Department of Defense. Several factors significantly related to Service members' bystander intentions: gender, rank, morale, attitudes about sexual assault, training, and trust in the military sexual assault system predicted the likelihood and method of bystander intervention. These findings help identify how and why people intervene (or fail to intervene) when they witness situations that could develop into sexual violence.

  6. R.U. Ready?: Peer Education and Bystander Intervention Sexual Assault Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweer, Jen Luettel; Heather, Katie; Kay, Kathryn; Stewart, K. Leigh; Kovach, Laura

    2012-01-01

    R.U. Ready? at Georgetown University is an annual sexual assault awareness event that incorporates peer education and resources with opportunities for students, staff, and faculty to dialogue about providing bystander intervention throughout the campus community. Beyond dialogue, participants learn about student activism and the resources and…

  7. Explicating alcohol's role in acquaintance sexual assault: complementary perspectives and convergent findings.

    PubMed

    Zawacki, Tina; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Abbey, Antonia; Martell, Joel; Stoner, Susan A; Davis, Kelly Cue; Buck, Philip O; Masters, N Tatiana; McAuslan, Pamela; Beshears, Renee; Parkhill, Michele R; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique

    2005-02-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium presented at the 2004 meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. There were four presentations and a discussant. The symposium was co-chaired by Tina Zawacki and Jeanette Norris. The first presentation was made by Jeanette Norris, who found that alcohol consumption and preexisting alcohol expectancies affected women's hypothetical responses to a vignette depicting acquaintance sexual aggression. The second presentation was made by Joel Martell, who reported that alcohol-induced impairment of executive cognitive functioning mediated the effect of intoxication on men's perceptions of a sexual assault vignette. In the third presentation, Antonia Abbey found that the experiences of women whose sexual assault involved intoxication or force were more negative than were the experiences of women whose sexual assault involved verbal coercion. The fourth presentation was made by Tina Zawacki, who reported that men who perpetrated sexual assault only in adolescence differed from men who continued perpetration into adulthood in terms of their drinking patterns and attitudes toward women. William H. George discussed these findings in terms of their implications for theory development and prevention programming.

  8. Assault in medical law: revisiting the boundaries of informed consent to medical treatment in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Maria C I

    2009-05-01

    This article focuses on assault as a cause of action in medical law, with particular emphasis on the requirements for informed consent, both under common law and under the National Health Act 2003 (Sth Africa). In particular, the test for consent, adopted in Castell v De Greef 1994 (4) SA 408 (C), is analysed in detail. It is noted that the wording of this test for informed consent mirrors the wording of the test for negligence laid down in the Australian case of Rogers v Whitaker (1992) 175 CLR 479. Further, the relationship between the delictual elements of wrongfulness and fault in assault is discussed. It is argued that in South African law a valid consent to medical treatment requires knowledge not only of the general nature of medical treatment but also of the consequences of the treatment and, in determining which consequences should be disclosed to a patient, the constitutional rights to equality and self-determination support the application of a subjective patient-centred test for informed consent. However, it is also proposed that the broad right of a patient to information is reined in at the fault element of assault, so that a limited requirement of consciousness of wrongfulness on the part of the defendant negates liability for delictual assault.

  9. Sexual Assault History and Health-Related Outcomes in a National Sample of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Brecklin, Leanne R.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined correlates of past-year chronic medical conditions and lifetime contact with health care professionals for mental health and substance abuse problems in women with differing histories of sexual victimization (N = 627) identified from the National Comorbidity Survey (e.g., assault in childhood, adulthood, or both life phases).…

  10. Substance Abuse and Behavioral Correlates of Sexual Assault among South African Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gary; Flisher, Alan, J.; Noubary, Farzad.; Reece, Robert; Marais, Adele; Lombard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this article is twofold: first, to examine the prevalence of being the victim of actual and attempted rape among a large representative sample of Cape Town high school students; and second, to identify the correlates of sexual assault for both boys and girls, including alcohol, tobacco and other drug use, behavioral problems,…

  11. 27 CFR 478.153 - Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or imported for the purposes of testing... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.153 Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity... weapon, and § 478.40a with respect to large capacity ammunition feeding devices, shall not apply to...

  12. 27 CFR 478.153 - Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or imported for the purposes of testing... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.153 Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity... weapon, and § 478.40a with respect to large capacity ammunition feeding devices, shall not apply to...

  13. 27 CFR 478.153 - Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or imported for the purposes of testing... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.153 Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity... weapon, and § 478.40a with respect to large capacity ammunition feeding devices, shall not apply to...

  14. 27 CFR 478.153 - Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or imported for the purposes of testing... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.153 Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity... weapon, and § 478.40a with respect to large capacity ammunition feeding devices, shall not apply to...

  15. 27 CFR 478.153 - Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or imported for the purposes of testing... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.153 Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity... weapon, and § 478.40a with respect to large capacity ammunition feeding devices, shall not apply to...

  16. Sexual Assault and Rape Perpetration by College Men: The Role of the Big Five Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voller, Emily K.; Long, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 521 college men completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and an expanded version of the Sexual Experiences Survey to examine whether variation in the Big Five personality traits in a normal, college population provides any insight into the nature of sexual assault and rape perpetrators. Rape perpetrators reported lower levels of…

  17. Use of a Panel of Experts to Establish Validity for Patient Assault Vignettes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanza, Marilyn Lewis; Carifio, James

    1992-01-01

    The validity of vignettes used to elicit subject responses in social science research is examined in a study of the validity of a group of patient assault vignettes seen by 12 persons with experience in patient care. A model for establishing the validity of vignettes is proposed. (SLD)

  18. Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault: College Women's Risk Perception and Behavioral Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Emily; Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Birchmeier, Zachary

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated relationships among prior victimization, risk perceptions, and behavioral choices in responding to drug-facilitated sexual assault in a college party where alcohol is available. Participants and Methods: From fall 2003 to spring 2004, over 400 female undergraduates rated risk perception following an acquaintance…

  19. Premilitary Adult Sexual Assault Victimization and Perpetration in a Navy Recruit Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stander, Valerie A.; Merrill, Lex L.; Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Milner, Joel S.

    2008-01-01

    Female (n = 5,226) and male (n = 5,969) U.S. Navy recruits completed a survey assessing their premilitary histories of adult sexual assault (SA), defined as attempted or completed rape since the age of 14. The survey was completed under anonymous or identified conditions. Overall, 39% of women reported premilitary SA victimization and 13% of men…

  20. "I Have the Power to Change This": College Women's Agency and Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Lauren J.

    2012-01-01

    Noting the prevalence of sexual violence at American Institutions of Higher Education (IHEs), this study aims to inform discourse on college women's post-assault experiences and perceptions of the institution. Using a feminist, post-structuralist framework, this study examines the narratives of 26 traditionally-aged college women who…

  1. Incorporating Social Norms into Sexual Assault Interventions: Effects on Belief and Behavior Change among College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    A sexual assault intervention was designed using applicable research from social psychology (i.e., social norms). Undergraduate men were randomly assigned to the experimental intervention or an active control condition. Attitudinal and behavioral data were collected preintervention, post-intervention and at a one month follow-up. Significant…

  2. Physical and Psychological Health Following Military Sexual Assault: Recommendations for Care, Research, and Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    assault are more likely to experience chronic medi- cal conditions, such as fibromyalgia , gastrointestinal symptoms associated with irritable bowel...Physical Abuse in Women with Fibromyalgia Syndrome: A Test of the Trauma Hypothesis,” The Clinical Journal of Pain, Vol. 21, No. 5, September

  3. Prediction of Women's Utilization of Resistance Strategies in a Sexual Assault Situation: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidycz, Christine A.; Van Wynsberghe, Amy; Edwards, Katie M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study prospectively explored the predictors of resistance strategies to a sexual assault situation. Participants were assessed at the beginning of an academic quarter on a number of variables, including past history of sexual victimization, perceived risk of sexual victimization, and intentions to use specific types of resistance…

  4. Unexpected changes in urinary catecholamines and vanillylmandelic acid following rape assault.

    PubMed

    Ende, N; Gertner, S B; Socha, B

    1990-03-01

    Although psychological changes are recognized to occur in rape assault survivors there is no information on the biochemical changes in these victims. This study compares urinary catecholamines and metabolites in 17 rape victims to two female control groups (one of which engaged in normal sexual intercourse and the other did not). We found, in the rape victims, unexpected changes in the excretion pattern of catecholamines and metabolites as compared to the various control groups. The most significant difference was the dramatic increase in urinary conjugated dopamine (P less than 0.01) in the rape victims which remained elevated for over 24 hr. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) rose significantly in rape assault victims when compared to the normal control group. The VMA levels in rape victims were significantly lower, however, than in the women who had undergone (normal) sexual intercourse (P less than 0.01). Urinary free epinephrine showed a marked decline and remained depressed for over 24 hr in the rape assault victims (P less than 0.01) compared to normal controls. Some possible reasons for these patterns in catecholamines and metabolite excretion are suggested. These changes may be of importance in the poststress syndrome that occurs following the rape assault. In summary, a different profile of catecholamine and metabolite excretion patterns was found in rape compared to normal sexual intercourse. The enhanced dopamine excretion is contrary to the expected change of enhanced epinephrine secretion in severe stress.

  5. When nightclub security agents assault clients more insight through a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Romain-Glassey, Nathalie; Gut, Melody; De Puy, Jacqueline; Mangin, Patrice

    2014-08-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, aggressions by security agents of nightclubs on clients increased from 6% to 10% among community violence situations encountered at the Violence Medical Unit (VMU) at the Lausanne University Hospital in Switzerland. Most victims were young men who had been drinking alcohol before the assault. About one quarter (25.7%) presented with one or several fractures, all of them in the head area. (For more details, refer to the previous article "When nightclub security agents assault clients" published in 2012(1).) Following this first study, we performed a second qualitative study in order to bring more information about the context and highlight victims' behaviors and experiences. Four themes emerged: how the assault began; the assault itself; third-party involvement; and the psychological state of victims when they consulted the VMU. The findings of this second study complemented the statistical results of the first study by showing under what circumstances security agents of nightclubs respond with physical violence to situations they consider a threat to security. Furthermore, the study described consequences for the victims that could be quite serious. Our findings support the need for nightclubs to improve selection and training of security staff.

  6. "Yes Means Yes:" A New Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention and Positive Sexuality Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafrance, Dawn E.; Loe, Meika; Brown, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    "Yes Means Yes" (YMY) is an interdisciplinary, noncredit, five-week, positive sexuality seminar offered at a small liberal arts college as part of a campus-wide initiative to improve students' relationship skills and behaviors. Most university campuses employ some sort of sexual assault prevention program to help protect students from problematic…

  7. So What's It to Me? Sexual Assault Information for Guys: Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Gayle M.; Rants-Rodriguez, Deanna

    This document is a group leader activity guide to accompany a sexual assault prevention program focusing on information for male teenagers. Background information, large group activities, comments for small group leaders, extension activities, activity sheets, and transparency masters are included for 15 group activities. These topics are covered…

  8. How does alcohol contribute to sexual assault? Explanations from laboratory and survey data.

    PubMed

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O; Testa, Maria; Parks, Kathleen; Norris, Jeanette; Martin, Susan E; Livingston, Jennifer A; McAuslan, Pam; Clinton, A Monique; Kennedy, Cheryl L; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Martell, Joel

    2002-04-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium of the 2001 RSA Meeting in Montreal, Canada. The chair was Antonia Abbey and the organizers were Tina Zawacki and Philip O. Buck. There were four presentations and a discussant. The first presentation was made by Maria Testa whose interviews with sexual assault victims suggest that there may be differences in the characteristics of sexual assaults in which both the victim and perpetrator were using substances as compared to when only the perpetrator was using substances. The second presentation was made by Tina Zawacki whose research found that perpetrators of sexual assaults that involved alcohol were in most ways similar to perpetrators of sexual assaults that did not involve alcohol, although they differed on impulsivity and several alcohol measures. The third presentation was made by Kathleen Parks who described how alcohol consumption affected women's responses to a male confederate's behavior in a simulated bar setting. The fourth presentation was made by Jeanette Norris who found that alcohol and expectancies affected men's self-reported likelihood of acting like a hypothetical sexually aggressive man. Susan E. Martin discussed the implications of these studies and made suggestions for future research.

  9. Combining Primary Prevention and Risk Reduction Approaches in Sexual Assault Protection Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menning, Chadwick; Holtzman, Mellisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The object of this study is to extend prior evaluations of Elemental, a sexual assault protection program that combines primary prevention and risk reduction strategies within a single program. Participants and Methods: During 2012 and 2013, program group and control group students completed pretest, posttest, and 6-week and 6-month…

  10. College Women's Reactions to Sexual Assault Research Participation: Is It Distressing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Katie M.; Kearns, Megan C.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed college women's reactions to participating in sexual assault research. Women with sexual victimization histories reported more negative emotional reactions than nonvictimized women, but also greater benefits. Benefits to research participation outweighed costs for both women with and without sexual victimization histories.…

  11. Using a Social Marketing Approach to Advertise Sexual Assault Nurse Examination (SANE) Services to College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konradi, Amanda; DeBruin, Patty L.

    2003-01-01

    The authors report on an advertising campaign to communicate the availability and desirability of using Sexual Assault Nurse Examination (SANE) services. They used social marketing precepts to develop posters to educate college students about using SANE as a health service and as an arm of prosecution. After 2 advertising campaigns, they conducted…

  12. Health promotion messages in entertainment media: crime drama viewership and intentions to intervene in a sexual assault situation.

    PubMed

    Hust, Stacey J T; Marett, Emily Garrigues; Lei, Ming; Chang, Hua; Ren, Chunbo; McNab, Anna Lazárová; Adams, Paula M

    2013-01-01

    Popular crime dramas have tackled sensitive issues such as sexual assault with increasing frequency over the past 20 years. These popular programs increasingly demonstrate the emotional and physical effect of sexual assault on its victims, and in some instances they depict individuals being rewarded for intervening to prevent or stop an assault in progress. It is possible that this content could affect attitudes related to sexual assault prevention. However, no previous research has examined this possibility. In the fall 2008 semester, 508 undergraduates at a large northwestern university completed a questionnaire about media use and bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation. Results from hierarchical regressions lend support for the integrative model of behavioral prediction in that instrumentality, rape myth acceptance, perceived social norms, perceived efficacy related to intervening, and exposure to primetime crime dramas were associated with participants' intentions to intervene in a sexual assault. The results suggest that crime dramas may be a useful venue for prevention messages as exposure to crime dramas uniquely contributed to intentions to intervene in a sexual assault.

  13. Sexual assault and posttraumatic stress disorder: a review of the biological, psychological and sociological factors and treatments.

    PubMed

    Chivers-Wilson, Kaitlin A

    2006-07-01

    Sexual assault occurs with alarming frequency in Canada. The prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in assault survivors is drastically higher than the national prevalence of the disorder, which is a strong indication that the current therapies for sexual-assault-related PTSD are in need of improvement. Increasing knowledge and understanding of the pathologies associated with rape trauma in biological, psychological and sociological domains will help to develop more effective treatments for survivors. A dysregulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis is observed in survivors of sexual assault and this may be a fundamental cause of the structural and functional abnormalities contributing to PTSD symptoms. Pharmacotherapies are available to treat PTSD; however, they are often inadequate or unwanted by the survivor. Psychological health is compromised following interpersonal trauma and many psychological therapies are available, but with varying efficacy. A person's cognitions have a dramatic effect on the onset, severity, and progress of PTSD following sexual assault. Sociological impacts of assault influence the development of PTSD through victim-blaming attitudes and the perpetuation of rape myths. Perceived positive regard and early social support is shown to be important to successful recovery. Education is vital in rape prevention and to foster a supportive environment for survivors. The biological, psychological and sociological impacts and treatments should not remain mutually exclusive. A better appreciation of the biopsychosocial repercussions of sexual assault will aid in developing a more holistic and individualized therapy to help alleviate the physical and emotional pain following the trauma of rape.

  14. Why women don't report sexual assault to the police: the influence of psychosocial variables and traumatic injury.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeffrey S; Alexander, Carmen; Wynn, Barbara N; Rossman, Linda; Dunnuck, Chris

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the variables that acutely influence reporting practices in female sexual assault victims presenting to an urban clinic or Emergency Department. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of consecutive female victims during an 18-month study period. Patient demographics, assault characteristics, and injury patterns were recorded in all eligible patients using a standardized classification system. At the completion of the forensic examination, victims were asked to complete a psychosocial questionnaire designed to determine specific reasons why women reported or did not report their sexual assault to police. During the study period, 424 women were eligible to participate in the study; 318 (75%) reported the sexual assault to police. One hundred six (25%) did not file a police report, but consented to a medical-legal examination. Women not reporting sexual assault were typically employed, had a history of recent alcohol or drug use, a known assailant, and prolonged time intervals between the assault and forensic evaluation (p < 0.001). There were no differences in the extent of non-genital injuries or anogenital injuries between the two groups. Thirty-six percent (152/424) of the eligible population agreed to complete the questionnaire. Only three of the 20 psychosocial variables examined were found to be significantly different in women not reporting sexual assault compared to reporters. The reasons for not reporting were primarily environmental factors (prior relationship with assailant) rather than internal psychological barriers (shame, anxiety, fear).

  15. Tested at Last: How DNA Evidence in Untested Rape Kits Can Identify Offenders and Serial Sexual Assaults.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rebecca; Feeney, Hannah; Pierce, Steven J; Sharma, Dhruv B; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina

    2016-03-27

    An increasing number of U.S. law enforcement agencies have disclosed that they have large numbers of untested sexual assault kits (SAKs; also called "rape kits") in police property storage. Whether previously untested SAKs should be tested for DNA evidence has been the subject of considerable public debate. To inform policy and practice regarding rape kit testing, the current study tested a sample of 900 previously unsubmitted SAKs from Detroit, Michigan, and documented the DNA forensic testing outcomes associated with those kits. We assessed how many SAKs yielded DNA profiles eligible for upload into CODIS (Combined DNA Index System), the federal DNA criminal database; how many resulted in a DNA match (termed a "CODIS hit"); and how many of those hits were associated to other sexual assault crimes (i.e., serial sexual assault hits). Overall, there were 259 CODIS hits, 69 of which had DNA matches to another sexual assault case. The potential utility of a DNA profile and CODIS hit may vary depending on whether offender was known or unknown to the victim, so we examined these outcomes separately for SAKs associated with stranger- and non-stranger-perpetrated sexual assaults. We also present six case study examples of how DNA testing and CODIS hits helped identify serial sexual assaults in both stranger and non-stranger sexual assault cases. Implications for rape kit testing policies are discussed.

  16. Sexual assault resistance education for university women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (SARE trial)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victims of rape or attempted rape. The associated physical and mental health effects are extensive and the social and economic costs are staggering. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether a novel, small-group sexual assault resistance education program can reduce the incidence of sexual assault among university-attending women, when compared to current university practice of providing informational brochures. Methods/Design The trial will evaluate a theoretically and empirically sound four-unit, 12-hour education program that has been demonstrated in pilot studies to have short-term efficacy. Three of the four units provide information, skills, and practice aimed at decreasing the time needed for women to assess situations with elevated risk of acquaintance sexual assault as dangerous and to take action, reducing emotional obstacles to taking action, and increasing the use of the most effective methods of verbal and physical self-defense. The fourth unit focuses on facilitating a stronger positive sexuality from which women may resist sexual coercion by male intimates more successfully. The trial will extend the pilot evaluations by expanding the participant pool and examining the long term efficacy of the program. A total of 1716 first-year female students (age 17 to 24 years) from three Canadian universities will be enrolled. The primary outcome is completed sexual assault, measured by The Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization instrument. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the process of sexual assault resistance. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 week, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Discussion The results of the trial will be used to produce a maximally

  17. Prevalence and pattern of sexual assault in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mairo; Awosan, Kehinde Joseph; Panti, Abubakar Abubakar; Nasir, Sadiya; Tunau, Karima; Umar, Amina Gambo; Shehu, Constance Egondu; Ukwu, Aeron Eze; Sulaiman, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexual violence is an important public health problem of growing concern all over the world. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and pattern of sexual assault managed in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital Sokoto, Nigeria. Methods It was a retrospective study that looked into cases of sexual assault admitted into the hospital between January 2010 and December 2014. Information on patients’ biodata, and relevant details on the cases were extracted from the patients’ case files and analyzed. Results Out of the 5317 gynecological admissions during the period under study, 45 (0.84%) were cases of sexual assault. Of these, only 34 case files were available for data extraction. The patients’ ages ranged from 2 to 37 years (mean = 12.6 + 8.3). About two thirds (61.8%) of those affected were young children (aged 12 years and below). In majority of cases (70.6%) the assault was penetrative, and in most of the cases (91.2%) only a single assailant was involved. In close to two thirds of cases, the assailant was either an acquaintance (38.2%) or a family member (20.6%). Although law enforcement agents were informed in majority (58.8%) of cases, arrests were made in less than half (41.2%). Conclusion Although the prevalence of sexual assault in this study appears to be low, a major cause for concern is the fact that those affected were predominantly young children. Parents should be more vigilant in monitoring their children’s movement, and stringent laws should be enacted and enforced to curb this heinous act. PMID:28154687

  18. Effect of urban closed circuit television on assault injury and violence detection

    PubMed Central

    Sivarajasingam, V; Shepherd, J; Matthews, K

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of closed circuit television (CCTV) surveillance on levels of assault injury and violence detection. Design: Intervention versus control study design. Setting: Five town/cities with CCTV surveillance and five, matched control centres without CCTV surveillance in England. Intervention: CCTV installation and surveillance. Methods: Assault related emergency department attendances and violent offences recorded by the police in CCTV and control centres in the four years, 1995–99, two years before and two years after CCTV installation, were compared. Results: Assault related emergency department attendances decreased in intervention centres (3% decrease, ratio 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 0.99) and increased in control centres (11% increase, ratio 1.11; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.14). Overall, changes in emergency department assault attendance in CCTV and control centres were significantly different (t test, p<0.05). Police recorded violence increased in CCTV (11% increase, ratio 1.16; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.24) and control centres (5% increase, ratio 1.06; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.13). Overall, changes in police recording in CCTV and control centres were not significantly different (t test, p>0.05). In CCTV centres, decreases in assault related emergency department attendances and increases in police violence detection were not uniform. Conclusion: CCTV surveillance was associated with increased police detection of violence and reductions in injury or severity of injury. CCTV centre variation deserves further study. PMID:14693891

  19. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... are more concentrated in the tear film of dry eye patients. In hot weather, sleep with the windows shut and keep cool with air conditioning. • Dry eye patients often develop or aggravate allergies. An ...

  20. Comparing Help-Seeking Behavior of Male and Female Survivors of Sexual Assault: A Content Analysis of a Hotline.

    PubMed

    Young, Stephen M; Pruett, Jana A; Colvin, Marianna L

    2016-11-18

    This content analysis examines written documentation of telephone calls to a regional sexual assault hotline over a 5-year period. All male callers identified as primary victims were selected for analysis (n = 58) and a corresponding sample of female primary victims (n = 58) were randomly selected for comparison to better understand the help-seeking behavior of sexual assault survivors and inform services accordingly. A summative content analysis revealed significant contrasting themes between male and female victims, including females significantly receiving more referrals and males accessing the hotline to tell their experience of being sexually assaulted due to perceived limited support. Implications for training, practice, and future research are discussed.

  1. Surviving the Storm: The Role of Social Support and Religious Coping in Sexual Assault Recovery of African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E.; Tsong, Yuying; Gobin, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    African American women are at high risk for sexual assault. In addition, many African American women endorse use of social support and religiosity to cope with life stressors. The current study investigates the relationship between these two coping strategies and post-trauma symptoms (depression and PTSD) in a sample of 413 African American female sexual assault survivors using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Findings indicated that African American assault survivors who have greater social support were less likely to endorse symptoms of depression and PTSD. Conversely, increased use of religious coping was related to greater endorsement of depression and PTSD symptoms. Counseling and research implications are explored. PMID:22410773

  2. Precipitants to psychiatric patient assaults on staff: review of empirical findings, 1990-2003, and risk management implications.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Raymond B

    2005-01-01

    Psychiatric patient assaults on staff are a serious and continuing problem in health care settings. Over thirty years of empirical research have documented the characteristics of both patient assailants and staff victims. Notably absent from this literature have been similar empirical studies on the nature of patient precipitants to these assaults. This paper reviewed empirical studies of patient assault precipitants from 1990-2003. Six studies from three countries were reviewed. Common precipitants included staff restrictions on patient behaviors, denial of services, excessive sensory overload, and provocation by others. The clinical, methodological, and risk management implications are examined.

  3. PTSD in victims of sexual assault: test of a major component of the Ehlers-Clark theory.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Nichole; Rachman, S

    2006-06-01

    We investigated a major component of the Ehlers-Clark theory of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of 50 female victims of sexual assault. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that the victims' appraisals of the trauma and its consequences contribute significantly to the persistence of PTSD symptoms. The results indicated that the victims' appraisals of the sexual assault and its sequelae are strongly and positively related to PTSD symptoms. This finding remained significant after statistically controlling for the perceived severity of the assault. Most of the results are consistent with the Ehlers-Clark theory.

  4. The Deficiency of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Aggravates the CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ogiso, Hideyuki; Ito, Hiroyasu; Ando, Tatsuya; Arioka, Yuko; Kanbe, Ayumu; Ando, Kazuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Saito, Kuniaki; Hara, Akira; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Shimizu, Masahito; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the development of CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis. The liver fibrosis induced by repetitive administration with CCl4 was aggravated in IDO-KO mice compared to WT mice. In IDO-KO mice treated with CCl4, the number of several inflammatory cells and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines increased in the liver. In the results, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and fibrogenic factors on HSCs increased after repetitive CCl4 administration in IDO-KO mice compared to WT mice. Moreover, the treatment with l-tryptophan aggravated the CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in WT mice. Our findings demonstrated that the IDO deficiency enhanced the inflammation in the liver and aggravated liver fibrosis in repetitive CCl4-treated mice. PMID:27598994

  5. Didymin reverses phthalate ester-associated breast cancer aggravation in the breast cancer tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    HSU, YA-LING; HSIEH, CHIA-JUNG; TSAI, EING-MEI; HUNG, JEN-YU; CHANG, WEI-AN; HOU, MING-FENG; KUO, PO-LIN

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrated two novel findings. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first study to demonstrate that regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), produced by breast tumor-associated monocyte-derived dendritic cells (TADCs) following breast cancer cell exposure to phthalate esters, may contribute to the progression of cancer via enhancement of cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, the present study revealed that didymin, a dietary flavonoid glycoside present in citrus fruits, was able to reverse phthalate ester-mediated breast cancer aggravation. MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) or di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Subsequently, the conditioned medium (CM) was harvested and cultured with monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mdDCs). Cultures of MDA-MB-231 cells with the conditioned medium of BBP-, DBP- or DEHP-MDA-MB-231 tumor-associated mdDCs (BBP-, DBP- or DEHP-MDA-TADC-CM) demonstrated enhanced proliferation, migration and invasion. Exposure of the MDA-MB-231 cells to DBP induced the MDA-TADCs to produce the inflammatory cytokine RANTES, which subsequently induced MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Depleting RANTES reversed the effects of DBP-MDA-TADC-mediated MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In addition, didymin was observed to suppress phthalate-mediated breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. The present study suggested that didymin was capable of preventing phthalate ester-associated cancer aggravation. PMID:26893687

  6. In Utero Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke Aggravates Adult Responses to Irritants

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Rui; Perveen, Zakia; Paulsen, Daniel; Rouse, Rodney; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Kearney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In utero exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) is associated with exacerbated asthmatic responses in children. We tested the hypothesis that in utero SHS will aggravate the lung responses of young adult mice re-exposed to SHS. We exposed Balb/c mice in utero to SHS (S) or filtered air (AIR; A), and re-exposed the male offspring daily from 11–15 weeks of age to either SHS (AS and SS) or AIR (AA and SA). After the adult exposures, we analyzed samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), examined the results of histopathology, and assessed pulmonary function and gene expression changes in lung samples. In SS mice, compared with the other three groups (AA, AS, and SA), we found decreases in breathing frequency and increases in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), as well as low but significantly elevated concentrations of BALF proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1b, IL-6, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine). Lung morphometric analyses revealed enlarged airspaces and arteries in SA and SS mice compared with their in utero AIR counterparts, as well as increased collagen deposition in AS and SS mice. Unique gene expression profiles were found for in utero, adult, and combined exposures, as well as for mice with elevated AHR responses. The profibrotic metalloprotease genes, Adamts9 and Mmp3, were up-regulated in the SS and AHR groups, suggesting a role for in utero SHS exposure on the adult development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Our results indicate that in utero exposures to environmentally relevant concentrations of SHS alter lung structure more severely than do adult SHS exposures of longer duration. These in utero exposures also aggravate AHR and promote a profibrotic milieu in adult lungs. PMID:22962063

  7. Postpartum autoimmune thyroid syndrome: a model of aggravation of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Amino, N; Tada, H; Hidaka, Y

    1999-07-01

    Postpartum thyroid dysfunction is rather a common problem during the postpartum period being found in approximately 5% of mothers in the general population. It occurs from subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis that is aggravated after parturition and causes various types of thyroid dysfunction. Immune activity is physiologically suppressed during pregnancy so that the fetus is not rejected, and rebounds above the normal level after parturition. Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis also spontaneously ameliorate during pregnancy, and are often aggravated after parturition. The high-risk mothers for postpartum thyroid dysfunction are well screened by antithyroid microsomal antibody (MCAb) and 60% to 70% of MCAb-positive mothers develop postpartum thyroid dysfunction, which is transient in most cases. New onset of Graves' disease may be screened by thyroid-stimulating antibody (TSAb) and 70% of TSAb-positive mothers develop either transient or persistent postpartum Graves' disease that usually occurs 3 to 6 months postpartum. Immune rebound after parturition may cause not only autoimmune thyroid diseases but other autoimmune diseases, which may be investigated with similar strategies to those in postpartum autoimmune thyroid disease. Thus, we found that postpartum onset of rheumatoid arthritis was found in 0.08% of women in the general population and could be partially predicted by measuring rheumatoid factors in early pregnancy. There are several case reports of other autoimmune diseases that develop after delivery; postpartum renal failure or postdelivery hemolytic-uremic syndrome, postpartum idiopathic polymyositis, postpartum syndrome with antiphospholipid antibodies, postpartum autoimmune myocarditis. Many other possible postpartum autoimmune diseases are still unexplored. Puerperal diseases should be carefully examined in relation to autoimmune abnormalities in the affected organs.

  8. Germline mitochondrial DNA mutations aggravate ageing and can impair brain development.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jaime M; Stewart, James B; Hagström, Erik; Brené, Stefan; Mourier, Arnaud; Coppotelli, Giuseppe; Freyer, Christoph; Lagouge, Marie; Hoffer, Barry J; Olson, Lars; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2013-09-19

    Ageing is due to an accumulation of various types of damage, and mitochondrial dysfunction has long been considered to be important in this process. There is substantial sequence variation in mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and the high mutation rate is counteracted by different mechanisms that decrease maternal transmission of mutated mtDNA. Despite these protective mechanisms, it is becoming increasingly clear that low-level mtDNA heteroplasmy is quite common and often inherited in humans. We designed a series of mouse mutants to investigate the extent to which inherited mtDNA mutations can contribute to ageing. Here we report that maternally transmitted mtDNA mutations can induce mild ageing phenotypes in mice with a wild-type nuclear genome. Furthermore, maternally transmitted mtDNA mutations lead to anticipation of reduced fertility in mice that are heterozygous for the mtDNA mutator allele (PolgA(wt/mut)) and aggravate premature ageing phenotypes in mtDNA mutator mice (PolgA(mut/mut)). Unexpectedly, a combination of maternally transmitted and somatic mtDNA mutations also leads to stochastic brain malformations. Our findings show that a pre-existing mutation load will not only allow somatic mutagenesis to create a critically high total mtDNA mutation load sooner but will also increase clonal expansion of mtDNA mutations to enhance the normally occurring mosaic respiratory chain deficiency in ageing tissues. Our findings suggest that maternally transmitted mtDNA mutations may have a similar role in aggravating aspects of normal human ageing.

  9. Subchondral bone microstructural damage by increased remodelling aggravates experimental osteoarthritis preceded by osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Osteoporosis (OP) increases cartilage damage in a combined rabbit model of OP and osteoarthritis (OA). Accordingly, we assessed whether microstructure impairment at subchondral bone aggravates cartilage damage in this experimental model. Methods OP was induced in 20 female rabbits, by ovariectomy and intramuscular injections of methylprednisolone hemisuccinate for four weeks. Ten healthy animals were used as controls. At week 7, OA was surgically induced in left knees of all rabbits. At 22 weeks, after sacrifice, microstructure parameters were assessed by micro-computed tomography, and osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) protein expressions were evaluated by Western Blot at subchondral bone. In addition, cartilage damage was estimated using the histopathological Mankin score. Mann-Whitney and Spearman statistical tests were performed as appropriate, using SPSS software v 11.0. Significant difference was established at P < 0.05. Results Subchondral bone area/tissue area, trabecular thickness and polar moment of inertia were diminished in OPOA knees compared with control or OA knees (P < 0.05). A decrease of plate thickness, ALP expression and OPG/RANKL ratio as well as an increased fractal dimension and MMP9 expression occurred at subchondral bone of OA, OP and OPOA knees vs. controls (P < 0.05). In addition, the severity of cartilage damage was increased in OPOA knees vs. controls (P < 0.05). Remarkably, good correlations were observed between structural and remodelling parameters at subchondral bone, and furthermore, between subchondral structural parameters and cartilage Mankin score. Conclusions Microstructure impairment at subchondral bone associated with an increased remodelling aggravated cartilage damage in OA rabbits with previous OP. Our results suggest that an increased subchondral bone resorption may account for the exacerbation of cartilage

  10. Bystander Attitudes to Prevent Sexual Assault: A Study of College Students in the United States, Japan, India, Vietnam, and China.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akiko; Trinh, Ha Ngoc; Nguyen, Hanh; Yamawaki, Niwako; Bhattacharya, Haimanti; Mo, Wenjing; Birkholz, Ryan; Makomenaw, Angie; Olson, Lenora M

    2016-01-01

    College women are at a high risk of sexual assault. Although programs that aim to change bystander behaviors have been shown to be potentially effective in preventing sexual assault on campuses in the United States, little is known about bystander behaviors outside of the United States. The purpose of this study was to explore and compare factors affecting bystander behaviors regarding sexual assault intervention and prevention among undergraduate students in the United States, Japan, India, Vietnam, and China. A total of 1,136 students participated in a self-reported survey. Results demonstrate substantial variations across countries. Bystander behaviors are associated with multilevel factors, including gender, knowledge of individuals who have experienced a sexual assault, and knowledge about campus or community organizations.

  11. Strengthening Our Suspect-Focus: How the Department of Defense Can Improve Its Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention and Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-16

    Harned et al, “ Sexual Assault by Workplace Personnel and Other Types of Sexual Harassment: A Comparison of Antecedents and Consequences”, Journal of...and Nehama Babin. “ Sexual Harrassment and Sexual Assault: Research Reviews and Recommendations.” U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral... Workplace Personnel and Other Types of Sexual Harassment: A Comparison of Antecedents and Consequences.” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7

  12. Sink or Swim: The Marine Corps Capacity to Conduct a Marine Expeditionary Brigade Amphibious Assault using Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT...battle area.50 Moving the amphibious assault force ashore using traditional doctrine was controlled by several factors in addition to the capabilities...amphibious assault ships to support a Marine expeditionary brigade-sized mission is unknown. The United States Navy controls the quantity, location, and

  13. Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Highlights from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    members are subject to mistreatment on the basis of their gender that deprives them of equal opportunities within the military. RB-9841-OSD (2015) RAND’s...assault, sexual harassment, and gender discrimination in the military. The resulting study, the RAND Military Workplace Study (RMWS), invited close to...takes a new approach to counting individuals in the military who experienced sexual assault, sexual harassment, and gender discrimination in the

  14. Effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chen-Road

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing (BQC) aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: Male Wistar rats were challenged intravenously with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) to induce DM. Rats were fed with regular pellet food or BQC-containing diets. After 90 d, rats were deprived of food for 24 h. Rat stomachs were irrigated for 3 h with normal saline or simulated gastric juice. Rats were killed and gastric specimens were harvested. RESULTS: An enhancement of various gastric ulcerogenic parameters, including acid back-diffusion, mucosal lipid peroxide generation, as well as decreased glutathione levels and mucus content, were observed in DM rats. After feeding DM rats with BQC, an exacerbation of these ulcero-genic parameters was achieved. Gastric juice caused a further aggravation of these ulcerogenic parameters. Daily intragastric lysozyme chloride dose-dependently inhibited exacerbation of various ulcerogenic parameters in those BQC-fed DM rats. CONCLUSION: (1) Gastric juice could aggravate both DM and BQC-fed DM rat hemorrhagic ulcer; (2) BQC exacerbated gastric hemorrhagic ulcer in DM rats via enhancing oxidative stress and reducing defensive factors; (3) lysozyme chloride effectively protected BQC aggravated gastric damage in DM rats. PMID:16270397

  15. Contributions of Streptococcus mutans Cnm and PA antigens to aggravation of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Naka, Shuhei; Hatakeyama, Rina; Takashima, Yukiko; Matsumoto-Nakano, Michiyo; Nomura, Ryota; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of dental caries, can cause infective endocarditis after invading the bloodstream. Recently, intravenous administration of specific S. mutans strains was shown to aggravate non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in a mouse model fed a high-fat diet. Here, we investigated the mechanism of this aggravation in a NASH mouse model by focusing on the S. mutans cell surface collagen-binding protein (Cnm) and the 190-kDa protein antigen (PA). Mice that were intravenously administered a S. mutans strain with a defect in Cnm (TW871CND) or PA (TW871PD) did not show clinical or histopathological signs of NASH aggravation, in contrast to those administered the parent strain TW871. The immunochemical analyses demonstrated higher levels of interferon-γ and metallothionein expression in the TW871 group than in the TW871CND and TW871PD groups. Analysis of bacterial affinity to cultured hepatic cells in the presence of unsaturated fatty acids revealed that the incorporation rate of TW871 was significantly higher than those of TW871CND and TW871PD. Together, our results suggest that Cnm and PA are important cell surface proteins for the NASH aggravation caused by S. mutans adhesion and affinity for hepatic cells. PMID:27833139

  16. "It Happens to Girls All the Time": Examining Sexual Assault Survivors' Reasons for Not Using Campus Supports.

    PubMed

    Holland, Kathryn J; Cortina, Lilia M

    2017-03-06

    Sexual assault is a prevalent problem in higher education, and despite the increasing availability of formal supports on college campuses, few sexual assault survivors use them. Experiencing sexual assault can have devastating consequences on survivors' psychological and educational wellbeing, which may intensify if survivors do not receive adequate care. Drawing from existing theoretical frameworks and empirical research, this study used a mixed methodological approach to examine why survivors did not use three key campus supports-the Title IX Office, the sexual assault center, and housing staff-and if these reasons differed across the three supports. Using data from 284 women who experienced sexual assault in college, our qualitative findings identified four overarching themes, including logistical issues (e.g., lacking time and knowledge), feelings, beliefs, and responses that made it seem unacceptable to use campus supports, judgments about the appropriateness of the support, and alternative methods of coping. Quantitative findings revealed that survivors' reasons for not seeking help differed across supports. Collectively, our findings suggest that community norms and institutional policies can make it challenging for survivors to use campus supports. We propose several suggestions for institutional change (e.g., taking a stronger stance against "less serious" forms of sexual assault, reducing a quasi-criminal justice approach to investigation and adjudication, limiting mandated reporting).

  17. The normalization of sibling violence: does gender and personal experience of violence influence perceptions of physical assault against siblings?

    PubMed

    Khan, Roxanne; Rogers, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Despite its pervasive and detrimental nature, sibling violence (SV) remains marginalized as a harmless and inconsequential form of familial aggression. The present study investigates the extent to which perceptions of SV differ from those of other types of interpersonal violence. A total of 605 respondents (197 males, 408 females) read one of four hypothetical physical assault scenarios that varied according to perpetrator-victim relationship type (i.e., sibling vs. dating partner vs. peer vs. stranger) before completing a series of 24 attribution items. Respondents also reported on their own experiences of interpersonal violence during childhood. Exploratory factor analysis reduced 23 attribution items to three internally reliable factors reflecting perceived assault severity, victim culpability, and victim resistance ratings. A 4 × 2 MANCOVA-controlling for respondent age-revealed several significant effects. Overall, males deemed the assault less severe and the victim more culpable than did females. In addition, the sibling assault was deemed less severe compared to assault on either a dating partner or a stranger, with the victim of SV rated just as culpable as the victim of dating, peer, or stranger-perpetrated violence. Finally, respondents with more (frequent) experiences of childhood SV victimization perceived the hypothetical SV assault as being less severe, and victim more culpable, than respondents with no SV victimization. Results are discussed in the context of SV normalization. Methodological limitations and applications for current findings are also outlined.

  18. The Influence of Parental Emotional Neglect on Assault Victims Seeking Treatment for Depressed Mood and Alcohol Misuse: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kylie A; Baker, Amanda L; McElduff, Patrick; Kavanagh, David J

    2016-10-09

    This study explores the relationship between reported parental emotional neglect when a child, assault type experienced, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, and alcohol consumption in treatment seekers for comorbid depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Participants (n = 220) with concurrent depression and alcohol misuse were recruited from the DAISI (Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single-focussed Interventions) project. Assault type and PTSS were retrospectively assessed by the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. The Measure of Parenting Style is a self-report measure that retrospectively assessed emotional neglect experienced as a child. An exploratory factor analysis using the tetrachoric correlation matrix (applying principal factor extraction with a varimax rotation) identified the two assault factors of sexual assault (SA) and physical assault (PA). A path analysis revealed that Maternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PTSS and depression. Paternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PA on PTSS and alcohol dependence symptoms. There appears to be differential effects of assault type and Maternal/Paternal emotional neglect on depression and alcohol misuse, suggesting that parenting roles serve distinct protective functions.

  19. Criminal history and assault of dating partners: the role of type of prior crime, age of onset, and gender.

    PubMed

    Straus, Murray A; Ramirez, I Luis

    2004-08-01

    Some studies of assaults on intimate partners have found that most of the perpetrators are not violent outside the family, which suggests a specialized type of crime. However, other studies found domestic violence offenders tend to have extensive criminal histories. To further investigate the extent to which partner assaults are part of a more general pattern of criminal behavior or a specialized type of crime, we studied the dating relationships of 653 university students. Thirty-one percent reported assaulting a partner in the previous 12 months. The rate of assault on partners by females did not differ significantly for males (29%) and females (32%). We also found high rates of other self-reported crime, and much higher rates by males. For example, over one half of the male students and almost one third of the female students reported having stolen money. The male students reported an average of 3.4 crimes committed, and the female students an average of 1.4 crimes. These high crime rates and gender differences are consistent with many previous studies. Logistic regression analysis revealed that a history of prior criminal acts is associated with an increased probability of assaulting a partner. The relationship was greater when there was prior violent crime compared to property crime, when there was early onset of criminal behavior, and when the offender was female. The implications of the findings for understanding partner assaults, criminal careers, and gender differences in the etiology of violence against intimate partners are discussed.

  20. The Influence of Parental Emotional Neglect on Assault Victims Seeking Treatment for Depressed Mood and Alcohol Misuse: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Kylie A.; Baker, Amanda L.; McElduff, Patrick; Kavanagh, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between reported parental emotional neglect when a child, assault type experienced, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, and alcohol consumption in treatment seekers for comorbid depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Participants (n = 220) with concurrent depression and alcohol misuse were recruited from the DAISI (Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single-focussed Interventions) project. Assault type and PTSS were retrospectively assessed by the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. The Measure of Parenting Style is a self-report measure that retrospectively assessed emotional neglect experienced as a child. An exploratory factor analysis using the tetrachoric correlation matrix (applying principal factor extraction with a varimax rotation) identified the two assault factors of sexual assault (SA) and physical assault (PA). A path analysis revealed that Maternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PTSS and depression. Paternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PA on PTSS and alcohol dependence symptoms. There appears to be differential effects of assault type and Maternal/Paternal emotional neglect on depression and alcohol misuse, suggesting that parenting roles serve distinct protective functions. PMID:27735838