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Sample records for aggregate batch vent

  1. 40 CFR 63.1408 - Aggregate batch vent stream provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aggregate batch vent stream provisions... Resins § 63.1408 Aggregate batch vent stream provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of aggregate batch vent streams at a new or existing affected source shall comply with either paragraph...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1408 - Aggregate batch vent stream provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aggregate batch vent stream provisions... § 63.1408 Aggregate batch vent stream provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of aggregate batch vent streams at a new or existing affected source shall comply with either paragraph...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1408 - Aggregate batch vent stream provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aggregate batch vent stream provisions... Resins § 63.1408 Aggregate batch vent stream provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of aggregate batch vent streams at a new or existing affected source shall comply with either paragraph...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1408 - Aggregate batch vent stream provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Aggregate batch vent stream provisions... § 63.1408 Aggregate batch vent stream provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of aggregate batch vent streams at a new or existing affected source shall comply with either paragraph...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1408 - Aggregate batch vent stream provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Aggregate batch vent stream provisions... § 63.1408 Aggregate batch vent stream provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of aggregate batch vent streams at a new or existing affected source shall comply with either paragraph...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1321 - Batch process vents provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vent streams except as specified in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(2) of this section. For continuous... and aggregate batch vent streams, the control requirements for individual batch process vents or aggregate batch vent streams (e.g., 90 percent emission reduction) as specified in § 63.1322(a)(1),...

  7. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nitrogen flow, or pressure for each carbon bed regeneration cycle.2. Record and report the total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or pressure during carbon bed regeneration cycle measured during the... firebox temperature measured during the performance test—NCS. c 3. Record the batch cycle daily...

  8. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nitrogen flow, or pressure for each carbon bed regeneration cycle. 2. Record and report the total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or pressure during each carbon bed regeneration cycle during the... measured during the performance test—NCS. c 3. Record the batch cycle daily average firebox temperature...

  9. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nitrogen flow, or pressure for each carbon bed regeneration cycle.2. Record and report the total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or pressure during carbon bed regeneration cycle measured during the... firebox temperature measured during the performance test—NCS. c 3. Record the batch cycle daily...

  10. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nitrogen flow, or pressure for each carbon bed regeneration cycle.2. Record and report the total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or pressure during carbon bed regeneration cycle measured during the... measured during the performance test—NCS. c 3. Record the batch cycle daily average firebox temperature...

  11. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nitrogen flow, or pressure for each carbon bed regeneration cycle. 2. Record and report the total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or pressure during each carbon bed regeneration cycle during the... measured during the performance test—NCS. c 3. Record the batch cycle daily average firebox temperature...

  12. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nitrogen flow, or pressure for each carbon bed regeneration cycle.2. Record and report the total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or pressure during carbon bed regeneration cycle measured during the... measured during the performance test—NCS. c 3. Record the batch cycle daily average firebox temperature...

  13. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nitrogen flow, or pressure for each carbon bed regeneration cycle. 2. Record and report the total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or pressure during each carbon bed regeneration cycle during the... measured during the performance test—NCS. c 3. Record the batch cycle daily average firebox temperature...

  14. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nitrogen flow, or pressure for each carbon bed regeneration cycle. 2. Record and report the total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or pressure during each carbon bed regeneration cycle during the... measured during the performance test—NCS. c 3. Record the batch cycle daily average firebox temperature...

  15. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nitrogen flow, or pressure for each carbon bed regeneration cycle. 2. Record and report the total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or pressure during each carbon bed regeneration cycle during the... measured during the performance test—NCS. c 3. Record the batch cycle daily average firebox temperature...

  16. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nitrogen flow, or pressure for each carbon bed regeneration cycle.2. Record and report the total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or pressure during carbon bed regeneration cycle measured during the... measured during the performance test—NCS. c 3. Record the batch cycle daily average firebox temperature...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1327 - Batch process vents-reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Batch process vents-reporting... Batch process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the information specified in paragraphs...

  18. 40 CFR 63.492 - Batch front-end process vents-reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents... § 63.492 Batch front-end process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch front-end process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the...

  19. 40 CFR 63.492 - Batch front-end process vents-reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents... § 63.492 Batch front-end process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch front-end process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the...

  20. 40 CFR 63.492 - Batch front-end process vents-reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reporting... Batch front-end process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch front-end process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the information...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1327 - Batch process vents-reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch process vents-reporting... Batch process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the information specified in paragraphs...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1327 - Batch process vents-reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batch process vents-reporting... § 63.1327 Batch process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the information specified...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1327 - Batch process vents-reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-reporting... Batch process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the information specified in paragraphs...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1326 - Batch process vents-recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., readily accessible: (1) The annual mass emissions of halogen atoms in the batch process vent or aggregate...) Definition of the operating year, for the purposes of determining compliance with the batch mass...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1326 - Batch process vents-recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., readily accessible: (1) The annual mass emissions of halogen atoms in the batch process vent or aggregate...) Definition of the operating year, for the purposes of determining compliance with the batch mass...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1326 - Batch process vents-recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., readily accessible: (1) The annual mass emissions of halogen atoms in the batch process vent or aggregate...) Definition of the operating year, for the purposes of determining compliance with the batch mass...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1326 - Batch process vents-recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., readily accessible: (1) The annual mass emissions of halogen atoms in the batch process vent or aggregate...) Definition of the operating year, for the purposes of determining compliance with the batch mass...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1326 - Batch process vents-recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., readily accessible: (1) The annual mass emissions of halogen atoms in the batch process vent or aggregate...) Definition of the operating year, for the purposes of determining compliance with the batch mass...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1321 - Batch process vents provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batch process vents provisions. 63... Batch process vents provisions. (a) Batch process vents. Except as specified in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section, owners and operators of new and existing affected sources with batch...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1321 - Batch process vents provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch process vents provisions. 63... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1321 Batch process vents provisions. (a) Batch process vents. Except as specified in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Reactor batch process vent provisions... § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources shall comply with paragraph (a)(1) or...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reactor batch process vent provisions... Resins § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources shall comply with paragraph...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reactor batch process vent provisions... § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources shall comply with paragraph (a)(1) or...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1321 - Batch process vents provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Batch process vents provisions. 63.1321... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1321 Batch process vents provisions. (a) Batch process vents. Except as specified in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reactor batch process vent provisions... § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources shall comply with paragraph (a)(1) or...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1321 - Batch process vents provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents provisions. 63.1321... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1321 Batch process vents provisions. (a) Batch process vents. Except as specified in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reactor batch process vent provisions... Resins § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources shall comply with paragraph...

  18. 40 CFR 63.486 - Batch front-end process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batch front-end process vent... Batch front-end process vent provisions. (a) Batch front-end process vents. Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, owners and operators of new and existing affected sources with batch...

  19. 40 CFR 63.486 - Batch front-end process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vent provisions... Batch front-end process vent provisions. (a) Batch front-end process vents. Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, owners and operators of new and existing affected sources with batch...

  20. 40 CFR 63.486 - Batch front-end process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batch front-end process vent... Batch front-end process vent provisions. (a) Batch front-end process vents. Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, owners and operators of new and existing affected sources with batch...

  1. 40 CFR 63.486 - Batch front-end process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch front-end process vent provisions... Batch front-end process vent provisions. (a) Batch front-end process vents. Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, owners and operators of new and existing affected sources with batch...

  2. 40 CFR 63.486 - Batch front-end process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batch front-end process vent... Batch front-end process vent provisions. (a) Batch front-end process vents. Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, owners and operators of new and existing affected sources with batch...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1407 - Non-reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Non-reactor batch process vent... § 63.1407 Non-reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. (1) Owners or operators of non-reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources with 0.25 tons per year...

  4. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Batch Process Vents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Requirements for Batch Process Vents 2 Table 2 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... of Part 63—Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Batch Process Vents As required in § 63.11496, you must comply with the requirements for batch process vents as shown in the following...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1407 - Non-reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Non-reactor batch process vent... § 63.1407 Non-reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. (1) Owners or operators of non-reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources with 0.25 tons per year...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1407 - Non-reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Non-reactor batch process vent... Resins § 63.1407 Non-reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. (1) Owners or operators of non-reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources with 0.25 tons...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1407 - Non-reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Non-reactor batch process vent... § 63.1407 Non-reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. (1) Owners or operators of non-reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources with 0.25 tons per year...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1407 - Non-reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Non-reactor batch process vent... Resins § 63.1407 Non-reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. (1) Owners or operators of non-reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources with 0.25 tons...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch process vents-reference control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Batch process vents-reference control technology. 63.1322 Section 63.1322 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Batch process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch process vents. The owner or operator of...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch process vents-reference control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batch process vents-reference control technology. 63.1322 Section 63.1322 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 63.1322 Batch process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch process vents. The owner...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch process vents-reference control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-reference control technology. 63.1322 Section 63.1322 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Batch process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch process vents. The owner or operator of...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch process vents-reference control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch process vents-reference control technology. 63.1322 Section 63.1322 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Batch process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch process vents. The owner or operator of...

  13. 40 CFR 63.491 - Batch front-end process vents-recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... records, as applicable, readily accessible: (1) The annual mass emissions of halogen atoms in the batch... products for the batch front-end process vent as allowed under § 63.488(a)(1). (3) Definition of...

  14. 40 CFR 63.491 - Batch front-end process vents-recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... records, as applicable, readily accessible: (1) The annual mass emissions of halogen atoms in the batch... products for the batch front-end process vent as allowed under § 63.488(a)(1). (3) Definition of...

  15. 40 CFR 63.491 - Batch front-end process vents-recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... records, as applicable, readily accessible: (1) The annual mass emissions of halogen atoms in the batch... products for the batch front-end process vent as allowed under § 63.488(a)(1). (3) Definition of...

  16. 40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end process vents-reference control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reduce the halogen atom mass emission rate to less than 3,750 kg/yr for batch front-end process vents or... combined vent stream being routed to a control device. In this paragraph (e)(1)(ii), the definition of... definition of recovery device as it relates to continuous front-end process vents shall be used....

  17. 40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end process vents-reference control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reduce the halogen atom mass emission rate to less than 3,750 kg/yr for batch front-end process vents or... combined vent stream being routed to a control device. In this paragraph (e)(1)(ii), the definition of... definition of recovery device as it relates to continuous front-end process vents shall be used....

  18. 40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end process vents-reference control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reference control technology. 63.487 Section 63.487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.487 Batch front-end process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch front-end process...

  19. 40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end process vents-reference control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reference control technology. 63.487 Section 63.487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.487 Batch front-end process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch front-end process...

  20. 40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end process vents-reference control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reference control technology. 63.487 Section 63.487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Resins § 63.487 Batch front-end process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch front-end...

  1. 12. Interior view of cement and aggregate batch plant showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view of cement and aggregate batch plant showing storage bins. Photographer unknown, c. 1926. Source: Ralph Pleasant. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Batch Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Process Vents From Batch Unit... Subpart PPP of Part 63—Process Vents From Batch Unit Operations—Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting... monitor was continuously operating during batch emission episodes selected for control and whether a...

  3. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Batch Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Process Vents From Batch Unit... Subpart PPP of Part 63—Process Vents From Batch Unit Operations—Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting... monitor was continuously operating during batch emission episodes selected for control and whether a...

  4. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Batch Process Vents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... organic HAP or total organic carbon (TOC); andii. As specified in § 63.11496(g). b. Route emissions from... the total organic HAP emissions are equal to or greater than 10,000 lb/yr a. Reduce collective uncontrolled total organic HAP emissions from the sum of all batch process vents by ≥85 percent by weight or...

  5. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Batch Process Vents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vent system to any combination of control devices (except a flare) in accordance with the requirements... closed-vent system to a flare (except that a flare may not be used to control halogenated vent streams... instead of 85 percent reduction in Item 1.a, and 90 percent of the emissions must be routed to a...

  6. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Batch Process Vents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vent system to any combination of control devices (except a flare) in accordance with the requirements... closed-vent system to a flare (except that a flare may not be used to control halogenated vent streams... instead of 85 percent reduction in Item 1.a, and 90 percent of the emissions must be routed to a...

  7. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Batch Process Vents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vent system to any combination of control devices (except a flare) in accordance with the requirements... closed-vent system to a flare (except that a flare may not be used to control halogenated vent streams... instead of 85 percent reduction in Item 1.a, and 90 percent of the emissions must be routed to a...

  8. 40 CFR 63.491 - Batch front-end process vents-recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and the total emissions associated with one batch cycle, as described in either paragraph (a)(2)(i) or... with § 63.487(a)(2), records documenting the batch cycle percent reduction as specified in § 63.490(c... place of continuous records. (ii) For carbon adsorbers, the records specified in Table 6 of this...

  9. 40 CFR 63.491 - Batch front-end process vents-recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and the total emissions associated with one batch cycle, as described in either paragraph (a)(2)(i) or... with § 63.487(a)(2), records documenting the batch cycle percent reduction as specified in § 63.490(c... place of continuous records. (ii) For carbon adsorbers, the records specified in Table 6 of this...

  10. Improvement of biohydrogen production from solid wastes by intermittent venting and gas flushing of batch reactors headspace.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Vazquez, Idania; Ríos-Leal, Elvira; Carmona-Martínez, Alessandro; Muñoz-Páez, Karla M; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2006-05-15

    Headspace of batch minireactors was intermittently vented and gas flushed with N2 in order to enhance H2 production (PH) by anaerobic consortia degrading organic solid wastes. Type of inocula (meso and thermophilic), induction treatment (heat-shock pretreatment, HSP, and acetylene, Ac), and incubation temperature (37 and 55 degrees C) were studied by means of a factorial design. On average, it was found that mesophilic incubation had the most significant positive effect on PH followed by treatment with Ac, although the units with the best performance (high values of PH, initial hydrogen production rate, and short lag time) were those HSP-induced units incubated at 37 degrees C (type of inocula was not significant). In this way, after 720 h of incubation PH was inhibited in those units by H2 partial pressure (pH2) of 0.54 atm. Venting and gas flushing with N2 was efficient to eliminate that inhibition achieving additional hydrogen generation in subsequent incubation cycles although smaller than the first one. Thus, four cycles of PH were obtained from the same substrate with neither addition of inocula nor application of induction treatment obtaining an increment of 100% in the generated H2. In those subsequent cycles there was a positive correlation between PH and organic acids/solvent ratio; maximum values were found in the first cycle. Solventogenesis could be clearly distinguished in third and fourth production cycles, probably due to a metabolic shift originated by high organic acid concentrations.

  11. Hydrothermal vent meiobenthos associated with mytilid mussel aggregations from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zekely, J.; Van Dover, C. L.; Nemeschkal, H. L.; Bright, M.

    2006-08-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents occur along the mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins around the globe. There are very few community analyses of vent meiobenthos. The central objectives of this study were to identify and quantify for the first time the entire metazoan meiobenthic community associated with mussel aggregations of Bathymodiolus thermophilus Kenk and Wilson, 1985 from the EPR, 11°N and of Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis Cosel et al., 1994 from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), 23°N. Using a quantitative sampling method, abundance, biomass, sex ratio, species richness, diversity, evenness, and trophic structure were studied based on three samples from each site. Meiobenthic abundance in each sample was unexpectedly low, but similar between sites. The community was composed of nematodes, copepods, ostracods, and mites, with a total of 24 species at EPR vents, and 15 species at MAR vents. While most copepod species were vent endemics within the family Dirivultidae, nematodes and harpacticoid copepods belonged to generalist genera, which occur at a variety of habitats and are not restricted to hydrothermal vents or the deep sea. The meiobenthos of hydrothermal-vent mussel beds constitutes a unique community unlike those of other sulfidic habitats, including the thiobios of shallow-water sediments and the meiobenthos of deep-sea, cold-seep sediments. The trophic structure was dominated by primary consumers, mainly deposit feeders, followed by parasites. Predatory meiofaunal species were absent.

  12. Ilchulbong tuff cone, Jeju Island, Korea, revisited: A compound monogenetic volcano involving multiple magma batches, shifting vents, and discrete eruptive phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Y.; Brenna, M.; Smith, I. E.; Nemeth, K.; White, J. D.; Murtagh, R.; Jeon, Y.; Kwon, C.; Cronin, S. J.

    2010-12-01

    Ilchulbong (Sunrise Peak) tuff cone is a UNESCO World Heritage site that owes its scientific importance to the outstanding coastal exposures that surround it. It is also one of the classic sites that provided the sedimentary evidence for the primary pyroclastic processes that occur during phreatomagmatic basaltic eruptions. It has been long considered, based on the cone morphology, that this classic cone was produced via eruption from a single vent site. Reanalysis of the detailed sedimentary sequence has now revealed that two subtle paraconformities occur in this deposition sequence, one representing a significant time break of perhaps days to weeks or months, during which erosion and compaction of the lower cone occurred, the conduit cooled and solidified and a subsequent resumption of eruption took place in a new vent location. Detailed geochemical study of the juvenile clasts through this cone reveals that three separate alkali basaltic magma batches were erupted, the first and third erupted may be genetically related, with the latter showing evidence for longer periods of shallow-level fractionation. The second magma batch erupted was generated in a different mantle source area. Reconstructing the eruption sequence, the lower Ilchulbong cone was formed by eruption of magma 1. Cessation of eruption was accompanied by erosion to generate a volcano-wide unconformity, associated with reworked deposits in the lower cone flanks. The eruption resumed with magma 2 that, due to the cooled earlier conduit, was forced to erupt in a new site to the west of the initial vent. This formed the middle cone sequence over the initially formed structure. The third magma batch erupted with little or no interval after magma 2 from the same vent location, associated with cone instability and slumping, and making up the deposits of the upper cone. These results demonstrate how critical the examination for sedimentary evidence for time breaks in such eruption sequences is for

  13. Repeated-batch operation for the synthesis of lactulose with β-galactosidase immobilized by aggregation and crosslinking.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Cecilia; Vera, Carlos; Araya, Erick; Conejeros, Raúl; Illanes, Andrés

    2015-08-01

    Synthesis of lactulose under repeated-batch operation was done with cross-linked aggregates of Aspergillus oryzae β-galactosidase (CLAGs). The effect of the crosslinking agent to enzyme mass ratio and cross-linking time were first evaluated. Best results were obtained at 5.5gdeglutaraldehyde/g enzyme at 5h of cross-linking, obtaining a specific activity of 15,000IUg(-1), with 30% immobilization yield. CLAG was more stable than the free enzyme under non-reactive conditions with a half-life of 123h at 50°C and when operated in repeated-batch mode, yield and productivity was 3.8 and 4.3 times higher. Maximum number of batches was determined considering biocatalyst replacement at 50% residual activity. 98 and 27 batches could be performed under such criterion at fructose/lactose molar ratio of 4 and 20 respectively, reflecting that enzyme stability is strongly affected by the sugars distribution in the reaction medium.

  14. 40 CFR 63.488 - Methods and procedures for batch front-end process vent group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 40 CFR part 63, appendix A. (2) The annual mass emissions of halogen atoms for a batch front-end.... (i) Method 1 or 1A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as appropriate, shall be used for selection of the..., 40 CFR part 60, appendix A is used to determine gas stream volumetric flow rate. (ii) Annual...

  15. 40 CFR 63.488 - Methods and procedures for batch front-end process vent group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 40 CFR part 63, appendix A. (2) The annual mass emissions of halogen atoms for a batch front-end.... (i) Method 1 or 1A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as appropriate, shall be used for selection of the..., 40 CFR part 60, appendix A is used to determine gas stream volumetric flow rate. (ii) Annual...

  16. 40 CFR 63.488 - Methods and procedures for batch front-end process vent group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 40 CFR part 63, appendix A. (2) The annual mass emissions of halogen atoms for a batch front-end.... (i) Method 1 or 1A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as appropriate, shall be used for selection of the..., 40 CFR part 60, appendix A is used to determine gas stream volumetric flow rate. (ii) Annual...

  17. 40 CFR 63.488 - Methods and procedures for batch front-end process vent group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the expected mix of products. For each product, emission characteristics of the single highest-HAP... highest-HAP recipe, as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section, considering all products produced or processed in the batch unit operation. The annualized production of the highest-HAP recipe...

  18. Prolonged ascent and episodic venting of discrete magma batches at the onset of the Huckleberry Ridge supereruption, Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Madison L.; Wallace, Paul J.; Wilson, Colin J. N.; Morter, Beth K.; Swallow, Elliot J.

    2016-10-01

    geochemically distinct magma domains. The compositions of REs and obsidian pyroclasts, by comparison, show that by the onset of eruption, the quartz had been brought together into three discrete magma bodies, which we interpret to have been cupolas on the roof of the main magma body. These cupolas were erupted sequentially and episodically from separate vents to generate the fall deposits before escalating activity led to generation of voluminous pyroclastic flows, and this pattern of activity suggests that tectonic triggering may have destabilized multiple magma bodies. Supereruptions as large as the Huckleberry Ridge event may start hesitatingly if the parental magma bodies are not strongly overpressured, with small-scale episodic activity that is modulated by external controls that may leave no other geological evidence for their presence.

  19. Free-living bacterial communities associated with tubeworm (Ridgeia piscesae) aggregations in contrasting diffuse flow hydrothermal vent habitats at the Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge.

    PubMed

    Forget, Nathalie L; Kim Juniper, S

    2013-04-01

    We systematically studied free-living bacterial diversity within aggregations of the vestimentiferan tubeworm Ridgeia piscesae sampled from two contrasting flow regimes (High Flow and Low Flow) in the Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents Marine Protected Area (MPA) on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (Northeast Pacific). Eight samples of particulate detritus were recovered from paired tubeworm grabs from four vent sites. Most sequences (454 tag and Sanger methods) were affiliated to the Epsilonproteobacteria, and the sulfur-oxidizing genus Sulfurovum was dominant in all samples. Gammaproteobacteria were also detected, mainly in Low Flow sequence libraries, and were affiliated with known methanotrophs and decomposers. The cooccurrence of sulfur reducers from the Deltaproteobacteria and the Epsilonproteobacteria suggests internal sulfur cycling within these habitats. Other phyla detected included Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Deinococcus-Thermus. Statistically significant relationships between sequence library composition and habitat type suggest a predictable pattern for High Flow and Low Flow environments. Most sequences significantly more represented in High Flow libraries were related to sulfur and hydrogen oxidizers, while mainly heterotrophic groups were more represented in Low Flow libraries. Differences in temperature, available energy for metabolism, and stability between High Flow and Low Flow habitats potentially explain their distinct bacterial communities.

  20. Free-living bacterial communities associated with tubeworm (Ridgeia piscesae) aggregations in contrasting diffuse flow hydrothermal vent habitats at the Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge.

    PubMed

    Forget, Nathalie L; Kim Juniper, S

    2013-04-01

    We systematically studied free-living bacterial diversity within aggregations of the vestimentiferan tubeworm Ridgeia piscesae sampled from two contrasting flow regimes (High Flow and Low Flow) in the Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents Marine Protected Area (MPA) on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (Northeast Pacific). Eight samples of particulate detritus were recovered from paired tubeworm grabs from four vent sites. Most sequences (454 tag and Sanger methods) were affiliated to the Epsilonproteobacteria, and the sulfur-oxidizing genus Sulfurovum was dominant in all samples. Gammaproteobacteria were also detected, mainly in Low Flow sequence libraries, and were affiliated with known methanotrophs and decomposers. The cooccurrence of sulfur reducers from the Deltaproteobacteria and the Epsilonproteobacteria suggests internal sulfur cycling within these habitats. Other phyla detected included Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Deinococcus-Thermus. Statistically significant relationships between sequence library composition and habitat type suggest a predictable pattern for High Flow and Low Flow environments. Most sequences significantly more represented in High Flow libraries were related to sulfur and hydrogen oxidizers, while mainly heterotrophic groups were more represented in Low Flow libraries. Differences in temperature, available energy for metabolism, and stability between High Flow and Low Flow habitats potentially explain their distinct bacterial communities. PMID:23401293

  1. Free-living bacterial communities associated with tubeworm (Ridgeia piscesae) aggregations in contrasting diffuse flow hydrothermal vent habitats at the Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Forget, Nathalie L; Kim Juniper, S

    2013-01-01

    We systematically studied free-living bacterial diversity within aggregations of the vestimentiferan tubeworm Ridgeia piscesae sampled from two contrasting flow regimes (High Flow and Low Flow) in the Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents Marine Protected Area (MPA) on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (Northeast Pacific). Eight samples of particulate detritus were recovered from paired tubeworm grabs from four vent sites. Most sequences (454 tag and Sanger methods) were affiliated to the Epsilonproteobacteria, and the sulfur-oxidizing genus Sulfurovum was dominant in all samples. Gammaproteobacteria were also detected, mainly in Low Flow sequence libraries, and were affiliated with known methanotrophs and decomposers. The cooccurrence of sulfur reducers from the Deltaproteobacteria and the Epsilonproteobacteria suggests internal sulfur cycling within these habitats. Other phyla detected included Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Deinococcus–Thermus. Statistically significant relationships between sequence library composition and habitat type suggest a predictable pattern for High Flow and Low Flow environments. Most sequences significantly more represented in High Flow libraries were related to sulfur and hydrogen oxidizers, while mainly heterotrophic groups were more represented in Low Flow libraries. Differences in temperature, available energy for metabolism, and stability between High Flow and Low Flow habitats potentially explain their distinct bacterial communities. PMID:23401293

  2. Physiological aggregation of maltodextrin phosphorylase from Pyrococcus furiosus and its application in a process of batch starch degradation to alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Nahálka, Jozef

    2008-04-01

    Maltodextrin phosphorylase from Pyrococcus furiosus (PF1535) was fused with the cellulose-binding domain of Clostridium cellulovorans serving as an aggregation module. After molecular cloning of the corresponding gene fusion construct and controlled expression in Escherichia coli BL21, 83% of total maltodextrin phosphorylase activity (0.24 U/mg of dry cell weight) was displayed in active inclusion bodies. These active inclusion bodies were easily isolated by nonionic detergent treatment and directly used for maltodextrin conversion to alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate in a repetitive batch mode. Only 10% of enzyme activity was lost after ten conversion cycles at optimum conditions.

  3. Vented Capacitor

    DOEpatents

    Brubaker, Michael Allen; Hosking, Terry Alan

    2006-04-11

    A technique of increasing the corona inception voltage (CIV), and thereby increasing the operating voltage, of film/foil capacitors is described. Intentional venting of the capacitor encapsulation improves the corona inception voltage by allowing internal voids to equilibrate with the ambient environment.

  4. Long-Term Aspect of 1980's Submersible-Observed Methane Venting on the Northern Gulf of Mexico Upper Continental Slope: Mapping of Areal Extent and Aggregation: R/V Okeanos Explorer EX1203

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, R. S.; Roberts, H. H.; Malik, M.

    2012-12-01

    Since the initial discovery of hydrocarbon seeps and associated communities on the upper Louisiana continental slope in 1984 there has been extensive and nearly continuous multidisciplinary exploration of these systems for scientific and regulatory purposes. Four sites within a 45km by 25km rectangle centered at 27° 41' 26.92"N, 91° 28' 4.26"W in the Green Canyon seafloor leasing area were the initial sites confirmed as seep systems by direct observation using the submersible Johnson SeaLink. Hydrocarbon gas venting at these sites ranged from small volume intermittent flow to continuous bubble plumes. The points of emergence ranged from consolidated sediment in mineral-prone environments to fluid muds and brine. The latter two fluid-prone environments represented an active and a quiescent expulsion features. The NOAA Okeanos Explorer Program 2012 expedition 1203 carried out multibeam mapping of this region 6-8 May using both a Konsberg EM 302 288 beam system and a Simrad EK60 scientific echo sounder. Returns from both systems were processed for water column signals. More than 75 indications of bubble plumes were observed representing one of the highest densities as well as magnitudes of individual plumes found to date in the Gulf of Mexico. The plumes were aggregated on the flanks of salt diapirs, ridges between salt-withdrawal basins and areas of multiple slope failures. Correlation with observations begun in the 1980's is good indicating long-term venting. Previous research on gas mix and isotopic content indicated a regionally complex pattern of biogenic and thermogenic methane sources.

  5. Volcano Vents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 5 May 2003

    This low-relief shield volcano imaged with the THEMIS visible camera has two large vents which have erupted several individual lava flows. The positions of the origins of many of the flows indicate that it is probable that the vents are secondary structures that formed only after the shield was built up by eruptions from a central caldera.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 17.6, Longitude 243.6 East (116.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Gas venting system

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Amjad; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; White, Erik James

    2010-06-29

    A system to vent a moist gas stream is disclosed. The system includes an enclosure and an electrochemical cell disposed within the enclosure, the electrochemical cell productive of the moist gas stream. A first vent is in fluid communication with the electrochemical cell for venting the moist gas stream to an exterior of the enclosure, and a second vent is in fluid communication with an interior of the enclosure and in thermal communication with the first vent for discharging heated air to the exterior of the enclosure. At least a portion of the discharging heated air is for preventing freezing of the moist gas stream within the first vent.

  7. 40 CFR 63.1430 - Process vent reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... carbon adsorbers used for process vents from batch unit operations, the records specified in Table 5 of...). If carbon adsorber regeneration stream flow and carbon bed regeneration temperature are monitored...) that increase the process vent stream flow rate; (ii) Any recalculation or measurement of the flow...

  8. Bioremediated soil venting of light hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Ostendorf, D.W.; Kampbell, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness and feasibility of bioremediated soil venting of light hydrocarbons in the unsaturated zone was investigated. Degradation mechanics were considered as a one dimensional balance of storage, linear sorption, vertical advection, and Michaelis-Menton kinetics. The resulting analytical solution was tested successfully against field performance data of an unsaturated clay soil bioreactor for a propellant waste gas mixture of propane, n-butane, and isobutane. A series of venting simulations was run to assess the biodegradation of vapors above an aviation gasoline spill in sandy soil at Traverse City, Michigan, based on field and microcosm estimates of the kinetic parameters. Acclimated, nutrient rich soil effectively and feasibly reduced effluent vapor concentration from the strong influent concentration associated with dispersed residual gasoline in the contaminated capillary fringe. Aggregated residual contamination required a stronger airflow for a longer duration while natural kinetics were too slow for feasible and effective treatment by bioremediated soil venting at Traverse City.

  9. Battery venting system and method

    DOEpatents

    Casale, Thomas J.; Ching, Larry K. W.; Baer, Jose T.; Swan, David H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  10. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    DOEpatents

    Ching, Larry K. W.

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  11. Battery venting system and method

    DOEpatents

    Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

  12. 24 CFR 3280.611 - Vents and venting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 73986, Dec. 9, 2013. (a) General. Each plumbing fixture trap... more than one fixture, or, (iii) Two or more vented drains when at least one is wet-vented, or 2-inch.... Each individually vented fixture with a 11/2 inch or smaller trap shall be provided with a vent...

  13. Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

    2012-12-01

    Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within <1 km of the vent. The deposits within the A418 pipe, Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (<62 μm). Secondly, the ash aggregates indicate the involvement of moisture coupled with the presence of dilute expanded eruption clouds. The structure and distribution of these deposits throughout the kimberlite conduit demand that aggregation and deposition operate entirely within the confines of the vent; this indicates that aggregation is a rapid process. Ash aggregates within glaciovolcanic sequences are also rarely documented. The

  14. Parachute having improved vent line stacking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hengel, John E.

    1994-01-01

    A parachute having an improved vent line stacking wherein the parachute is provided with a canopy having a central vent opening and a vent band secured to the canopy around the periphery of the vent opening, with a plurality of vent lines each lying on a diameter of the vent opening and having its ends secured to the vent band on opposite sides of the vent opening is described. The vent lines are sewed to the vent band in an order such that the end of a first vent line is sewed to the vent band at a starting point with the end of a second vent band then being sewed to the vent band adjacent to and counterclockwise from the first band. A third vent band is sewed to the vent band adjacent to and clockwise from the first band, with a fourth vent band being sewed to the vent band adjacent to and counterclockwise from the second vent band. It can be seen that, if the vent lines are numbered in the order of being sewed to the vent band, the odd numbered vent lines will run consecutively in a clockwise direction and the even numbered lines will run consecutively in a counterclockwise direction from the starting point. With this order of assembly, each and every vent line will be separated from adjacent vent lines by no more than one vent line in the center of the vent opening where the vent lines cross.

  15. Coil spring venting arrangement

    DOEpatents

    McCugh, R.M.

    1975-10-21

    A simple venting device for trapped gas pockets in hydraulic systems is inserted through a small access passages, operated remotely, and removed completely. The device comprises a small diameter, closely wound coil spring which is pushed through a guide temporarily inserted in the access passage. The guide has a central passageway which directs the coil spring radially upward into the pocket, so that, with the guide properly positioned for depth and properly oriented, the coil spring can be pushed up into the top of the pocket to vent it. By positioning a seal around the free end of the guide, the spring and guide are removed and the passage is sealed.

  16. 24 CFR 3280.611 - Vents and venting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (a) General. Each plumbing fixture trap shall be protected against siphonage and back pressure, and... 2-inch wet vented drain that carries the waste of not more than one fixture, or, (iii) Two or more... § 3280.611(c)(5) for 3-inch trap arms. (2) Vent pipe areas. Each individually vented fixture with a...

  17. 24 CFR 3280.611 - Vents and venting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) General. Each plumbing fixture trap shall be protected against siphonage and back pressure, and... 2-inch wet vented drain that carries the waste of not more than one fixture, or, (iii) Two or more... § 3280.611(c)(5) for 3-inch trap arms. (2) Vent pipe areas. Each individually vented fixture with a...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.611 - Vents and venting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) General. Each plumbing fixture trap shall be protected against siphonage and back pressure, and... 2-inch wet vented drain that carries the waste of not more than one fixture, or, (iii) Two or more... § 3280.611(c)(5) for 3-inch trap arms. (2) Vent pipe areas. Each individually vented fixture with a...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.611 - Vents and venting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (a) General. Each plumbing fixture trap shall be protected against siphonage and back pressure, and... 2-inch wet vented drain that carries the waste of not more than one fixture, or, (iii) Two or more... § 3280.611(c)(5) for 3-inch trap arms. (2) Vent pipe areas. Each individually vented fixture with a...

  20. Vent Relief Valve Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is the disassembly, examination, refurbishment and testing of the LH2 ( liquid hydrogen) and LOX (liquid oxygen) vent and relief valves for the S-IVB-211 engine stage in support of the Constellation/Ares project. This image is extracted from high definition video and is the highest resolution available.

  1. Batch-to-batch reproducibility of Transferon™.

    PubMed

    Medina-Rivero, Emilio; Merchand-Reyes, Giovanna; Pavón, Lenin; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Salinas-Jazmín, Nohemí; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2014-01-01

    Human dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLEs) are heterogeneous mixtures of low-molecular-weight peptides that modulate immune responses in various diseases. Due their complexity, standardized methods to identify their physicochemical properties and determine that production batches are biologically active must be established. We aimed to develop and validate a size exclusion ultra performance chromatographic (SE-UPLC) method to characterize Transferon™, a DLE that is produced under good manufacturing practices (GMPs). We analyzed an internal human DLE standard and 10 representative batches of Transferon™, all of which had a chromatographic profile characterized by 8 main peaks and a molecular weight range between 17.0 and 0.2kDa. There was high homogeneity between batches with regard to retention times and area percentages, varying by less than 0.2% and 30%, respectively, and the control chart was within 3 standard deviations. To analyze the biological activity of the batches, we studied the ability of Transferon™ to stimulate IFN-γ production in vitro. Transferon™ consistently induced IFN-γ production in Jurkat cells, demonstrating that this method can be included as a quality control step in releasing Transferon™ batches. Because all analyzed batches complied with the quality attributes that were evaluated, we conclude that the DLE Transferon™ is produced with high homogeneity. PMID:24099727

  2. 14 CFR 29.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents... Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. (a) Fuel tank vents. Each fuel tank must be vented from the... addition— (1) The vents must be arranged to avoid stoppage by dirt or ice formation; (2) The...

  3. 14 CFR 25.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents... Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. (a) Fuel tank vents. Each fuel tank must be vented from the... addition— (1) Each vent must be arranged to avoid stoppage by dirt or ice formation; (2) The...

  4. 14 CFR 25.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents... Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. (a) Fuel tank vents. Each fuel tank must be vented from the... hazard; or (ii) From which fumes could enter personnel compartments. (b) Carburetor vapor vents....

  5. 14 CFR 29.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents... Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. (a) Fuel tank vents. Each fuel tank must be vented from the... during landing, ground operations, or a survivable impact. (b) Carburetor vapor vents. Each...

  6. Airbag vent valve and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Leslie D. (Inventor); Zimmermann, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An energy absorbing airbag system includes one or more vent valve assemblies for controlling the release of airbag inflation gases to maintain inflation gas pressure within an airbag at a substantially constant pressure during a ride-down of an energy absorbing event. Each vent valve assembly includes a cantilever spring that is flat in an unstressed condition and that has a free end portion. The cantilever spring is secured to an exterior surface of the airbag housing and flexed to cause the second free end portion of the cantilever spring to be pressed, with a preset force, against a vent port or a closure covering the vent port to seal the vent port until inflation gas pressure within the airbag reaches a preselected value determined by the preset force whereupon the free end portion of the cantilever spring is lifted from the vent port by the inflation gases within the airbag to vent the inflation gases from within the airbag. The resilience of the cantilever spring maintains a substantially constant pressure within the airbag during a ride-down portion of an energy absorbing event by causing the cantilever spring to vent gases through the vent port whenever the pressure of the inflation gases reaches the preselected value and by causing the cantilever spring to close the vent port whenever the pressure of the inflation gases falls below the preselected value.

  7. 12 Batch coalescing studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kourbanis, I.; Wildman, D.; /Fermilab

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify and correct the problems in the 12 batch coalescing. The final goal is to be able to coalesce 12 booster batches of 11 bunches each into 12 bunches spaced at 21 buckets apart with an average intensity of 200 E9 ppb.

  8. Tapped-Hole Vent Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Long helical vent path cools and releases hot pyrotechnical gas that exits along its spiraling threads. Current design uses 1/4-28 threads with outer diameter of stud reduced by 0.025 in. (0.62 mm). To open or close gassampler bottle, pyrotechnic charges on either one side or other of valve cylinder are actuated. Gases vented slowly over long path are cool enough to present no ignition hazard. Vent used to meter flow in refrigeration, pneumaticcontrol, and fluid-control systems by appropriately adjusting size and length of vent path.

  9. Safe venting of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.F.; Dewart, J.M.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The disposal of hydrogen is often required in the operation of an experimental facility that contains hydrogen. Whether the vented hydrogen can be discharged to the atmosphere safely depends upon a number of factors such as the flow rate and atmospheric conditions. Calculations have been made that predict the distance a combustible mixture can extend from the point of release under some specified atmospheric conditions. Also the quantity of hydrogen in the combustible cloud is estimated. These results can be helpful in deciding of the hydrogen can be released directly to the atmosphere, or if it must be intentionally ignited. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Tornado protection by venting

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability to protect a modern nuclear power plant from the effects of a tornado by the use of a system of venting in all safety-related structures outside of the containment. The paper demonstrates this by presenting a method of analysis and of equipment selection that fully complies with the intent and the letter of applicable federal regulatory guides. A report of an actual tornado in the City of Kalamazoo, Michigan, suggests that the concept of sealing a plant during a tornado may not always be applicable.

  11. EVALUATION OF SOIL VENTING APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of soil venting to inexpensively remove large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated soils is well established. However, the time required using venting to remediate soils to low contaminant levels often required by state and federal regulators...

  12. Characterization of an extremely thermostable but cold-adaptive β-galactosidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus for use as a recombinant aggregation for batch lactose degradation at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qing; Yan, Xufan; Zheng, Minhui; Yang, Ziwen

    2014-06-01

    β-Galactosidase (lactase), which catalyzes the hydrolysis of lactose into glucose and galactose, is one of the most important enzymes used in dairy processing. In this study, a gene that encoded an extremely thermostable β-galactosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus (Pflactase) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The recombinant enzyme was purified by heat treatment and Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The enzyme displayed optimal activity at 90°C and pH 7.0 in phosphate buffer. The specific activity of the recombinant enzyme on o-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside was 10.2 U/mg at 0°C and 130.0dU/mg at 90°C. The half-lives of the enzyme were 31423.4, 8168.3, 4017.7, 547.4, 309.6, and 203.5 min at 70°C, 80°C, 85°C, 90°C, 95°C, and 100°C, respectively. The recombinant enzyme exhibited both β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activity. The active inclusion bodies of β-galactosidase were easily isolated by nonionic detergent treatment and directly used for lactose conversion in a repetitive batch mode. More than 54% (90°C) or 88% (10°C) of the original enzyme activity was retained after 10 conversion cycles under optimum conditions. These results suggest that the recombinant thermostable β-galactosidase may be suitable for the hydrolysis of lactose in milk processing.

  13. Software for batch farms

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Bird; Bryan Hess; Andy Kowalski

    2000-02-01

    Over the past few years, LSF has become a standard for job management on batch farms. However, there are many instances where it cannot be deployed for a variety of reasons. In large farms the cost may be prohibitive for the set of features actually used; small university groups who wish to clone the farms and software of larger laboratories often have constraints which preclude the use of LSF. This paper discusses a generic interface developed at Jefferson Lab to provide a set of common services to the user, while using any one of a variety of underlying batch management software products. Initially the system provides an interface to LSF and an alternative--Portable Batch System (PBS) developed by NASA and freely available in source form. It is straightforward to extend this to other systems. Such a generic interface allows users to move from one location to another and run their jobs with no modification, and by extension provides a framework for a ''global'' batch system where jobs submitted at one site may be transparently executed at another. The interface also provides additional features not found in the underlying batch software. Being written in Java, the client can be easily installed anywhere and allows for authenticated remote job submission and manipulation, including a web interface. This paper will also discuss the problem of keeping a large batch farm occupied with work without waiting for slow tape access. The use of file caching, pre-staging of files from tape and the interconnection with the batch system will be discussed. As well as automated techniques, the provision of appropriate information to the user to allow optimization should not be overlooked.

  14. Debiasing Crowdsourced Batches

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Honglei; Parameswaran, Aditya; Roth, Dan; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is the de-facto standard for gathering annotated data. While, in theory, data annotation tasks are assumed to be attempted by workers independently, in practice, data annotation tasks are often grouped into batches to be presented and annotated by workers together, in order to save on the time or cost overhead of providing instructions or necessary background. Thus, even though independence is usually assumed between annotations on data items within the same batch, in most cases, a worker's judgment on a data item can still be affected by other data items within the batch, leading to additional errors in collected labels. In this paper, we study the data annotation bias when data items are presented as batches to be judged by workers simultaneously. We propose a novel worker model to characterize the annotating behavior on data batches, and present how to train the worker model on annotation data sets. We also present a debiasing technique to remove the effect of such annotation bias from adversely affecting the accuracy of labels obtained. Our experimental results on both synthetic data and real-world data demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method. PMID:26713175

  15. Bacterial Diets of Primary Consumers at Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govenar, B.; Shank, T. M.

    2008-12-01

    Chemical energy produced by mixing hydrothermal fluids and seawater supports dense biological communities on mid-ocean ridges. The base of the food web at deep-sea hydrothermal vents is formed by chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that use the energy from the oxidation of reduced chemicals to fix inorganic carbon into simple sugars. With the exception of a few species that have chemolithoautotropic bacterial symbionts, most of the vent-endemic macrofauna are heterotrophs that feed on free-living bacteria, protists, and other invertebrates. The most abundant and diverse group of primary consumers in hydrothermal vent communities belong to the Gastropoda, particularly the patellomorph limpets. Gastropod densities can be as high as 2000 individuals m-2, and there can be as many as 13 species of gastropods in a single aggregation of the siboglinid tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and more than 40 species along the East Pacific Rise. Some gastropods are ubiquitous and others are found in specific microhabitats, stages of succession, or associated with different foundation species. To determine the mechanisms of species coexistence (e.g. resource partitioning or competition) among hydrothermal vent primary consumers and to track the flow of energy in hydrothermal vent communities, we employed molecular genetic techniques to identify the gut contents of four species of co-occurring hydrothermal vent gastropods, Eulepetopsis vitrea, Lepetodrilus elevatus, Lepetodrilus ovalis and Lepetodrilus pustulosus, collected from a single diffuse-flow hydrothermal vent site on the East Pacific Rise. Unique haplotypes of the 16S gene that fell among the epsilon-proteobacteria were found in the guts of every species, and two species had gut contents that were similar only to epsilon-proteobacteria. Two species had gut contents that also included haplotypes that clustered with delta-proteobacteria, and one species had gut contents that clustered with alpha- proteobacteria. Differences in the diets

  16. Cement penetration after patella venting.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher W; Lam, Li-On; Butler, Adam; Wood, David J; Walsh, William R

    2009-01-01

    There is a high rate of patellofemoral complications following total knee arthroplasty. Optimization of the cement-bone interface by venting and suction of the tibial plateau has been shown to improve cement penetration. Our study was designed to investigate if venting the patella prior to cementing improved cement penetration. Ten paired cadaver patellae were allocated prior to resurfacing to be vented or non-vented. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by DEXA scanning. In vented specimens, a 1.6 mm Kirschner wire was used to breach the anterior cortex at the center. Specimens were resurfaced with standard Profix instrumentation and Versabond bone cement (Smith and Nephew PLC, UK). Cement penetration was assessed from Faxitron and sectioned images by a digital image software package (ImageJ V1.38, NIH, USA). Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess the difference in cement penetration between groups. The relationship between BMD and cement penetration was analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient. There was a strong negative correlation between peak BMD and cement penetration when analyzed independent of experimental grouping (r(2)=-0.812, p=0.004). Wilcoxon rank sum testing demonstrated no significant difference (rank sum statistic W=27, p=0.579) in cement penetration between vented (10.53%+/-4.66; mean+/-std dev) and non-vented patellae (11.51%+/-6.23; mean+/-std dev). Venting the patella using a Kirschner wire does not have a significant effect on the amount of cement penetration achieved in vitro using Profix instrumentation and Versabond cement.

  17. Cement penetration after patella venting.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher W; Lam, Li-On; Butler, Adam; Wood, David J; Walsh, William R

    2009-01-01

    There is a high rate of patellofemoral complications following total knee arthroplasty. Optimization of the cement-bone interface by venting and suction of the tibial plateau has been shown to improve cement penetration. Our study was designed to investigate if venting the patella prior to cementing improved cement penetration. Ten paired cadaver patellae were allocated prior to resurfacing to be vented or non-vented. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by DEXA scanning. In vented specimens, a 1.6 mm Kirschner wire was used to breach the anterior cortex at the center. Specimens were resurfaced with standard Profix instrumentation and Versabond bone cement (Smith and Nephew PLC, UK). Cement penetration was assessed from Faxitron and sectioned images by a digital image software package (ImageJ V1.38, NIH, USA). Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess the difference in cement penetration between groups. The relationship between BMD and cement penetration was analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient. There was a strong negative correlation between peak BMD and cement penetration when analyzed independent of experimental grouping (r(2)=-0.812, p=0.004). Wilcoxon rank sum testing demonstrated no significant difference (rank sum statistic W=27, p=0.579) in cement penetration between vented (10.53%+/-4.66; mean+/-std dev) and non-vented patellae (11.51%+/-6.23; mean+/-std dev). Venting the patella using a Kirschner wire does not have a significant effect on the amount of cement penetration achieved in vitro using Profix instrumentation and Versabond cement. PMID:19010682

  18. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using methanol and dichloromethane extracts of Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Chitsazi, Mohammad Reza; Korbekandi, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Bahri Najafi, Rahim; Badii, Akbar; Iravani, Siavash

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to study the potential of Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. aerial parts in production of nanoparticles and the effect of the extraction solvent on the produced nanoparticles. Methanol and dichloromethane extracts were prepared by percolation of the plant powder. Both the extracts of P. gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. successfully produced small and polydispersed nanoparticles with low aggregates in early hours of the biotransformation. Methanol extract produced spherical and many single nanoparticles, whereas dichloromethane produced porous polyhedral and more aggregated nanoparticles. Methanol extract of this plant seems to be quiet useful for industrial scale production of nanoparticles.

  19. GIDEP Batching Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Danny; Odell,Dorice; Barry, Peter; Abrahamian, Tomik

    2008-01-01

    This software provides internal, automated search mechanics of GIDEP (Government- Industry Data Exchange Program) Alert data imported from the GIDEP government Web site. The batching tool allows the import of a single parts list in tab-delimited text format into the local JPL GIDEP database. Delimiters from every part number are removed. The original part numbers with delimiters are compared, as well as the newly generated list without the delimiters. The two lists run against the GIDEP imports, and output any matches. This feature only works with Netscape 2.0 or greater, or Internet Explorer 4.0 or greater. The user selects the browser button to choose a text file to import. When the submit button is pressed, this script will import alerts from the text file into the local JPL GIDEP database. This batch tool provides complete in-house control over exported material and data for automated batch match abilities. The batching tool has the ability to match capabilities of the parts list to tables, and yields results that aid further research and analysis. This provides more control over GIDEP information for metrics and reports information not provided by the government site. This software yields results quickly and gives more control over external data from the government site in order to generate other reports not available from the external source. There is enough space to store years of data. The program relates to risk identification and management with regard to projects and GIDEP alert information encompassing flight parts for space exploration.

  20. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Part of the 1994 Industrial Minerals Review. The production, consumption, and applications of construction aggregates are reviewed. In 1994, the production of construction aggregates, which includes crushed stone and construction sand and gravel combined, increased 7.7 percent to 2.14 Gt compared with the previous year. These record production levels are mostly a result of funding for highway construction work provided by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Demand is expected to increase for construction aggregates in 1995.

  1. Vent for an electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.A.; Staniewicz, R.J.; Webber, B.; Allvey, G.W.

    1987-05-12

    A pressure relief vent is described for use with a container subjected to internal pressure by a fluid, the vent comprising: pressure relief means comprising a diaphragm essentially flat in shape fastened to the exterior of the container at the perimeter of the diaphragm and at a location within the perimeter of the diaphragm; an opening in the container disposed so that fluid from the container can pass between the diaphragm and the container and exert pressure on the diaphragm; and the pressure relief means being ruptured at a predetermined pressure exerted by the fluid on the diaphragm.

  2. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOEpatents

    Sawabe, James K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell.

  3. Modeling of zero gravity venting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merte, H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The venting of cylindrical containers partially filled with initially saturated liquids was conducted under zero gravity conditions and compared with an analytical model which determined the effect of interfacial mass transfer on the ullage pressure response during venting. A model is proposed to improve the estimation of the interfacial mass transfer. Duhammel's superposition integral is incorporated in this analysis to approximate the transient temperature response of the interface, treating the liquid as a semiinfinite solid with conduction heat transfer. This approach to estimating interfacial mass transfer gives improved response when compared to previous models. The model still predicts a pressure decrease greater than those in the experiments reported.

  4. 33 CFR 159.61 - Vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vents. 159.61 Section 159.61 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.61 Vents. Vents must be designed and...

  5. 33 CFR 159.61 - Vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vents. 159.61 Section 159.61 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.61 Vents. Vents must be designed and...

  6. Flow-batch miniaturization.

    PubMed

    Monte-Filho, Severino S; Lima, Marcelo B; Andrade, Stéfani I E; Harding, David P; Fagundes, Yebá N M; Santos, Sergio R B; Lemos, Sherlan G; Araújo, Mario C U

    2011-10-30

    This study introduces the first micro-flow-batch analyzer (μFBA). A simple, low-cost, deep urethane-acrylate photo-resist ultraviolet-lithographic technique was used in its development. Details of the microfabrication process are presented including; the use of two superimposed photo-masks to improve the micro-channel and stop chamber border definition, as well as integration of an LED/phototransistor photometric pair, while using an open nylon-thread (fishing line) micro-mixing system for solutions homogenization. The system was used for photometric determination of Fe(II) in oral solution iron supplements employing the well-known 1,10-phenanthroline method, with instantaneously prepared micro-chamber calibration solutions. All analytical processes were accomplished by simply changing the timing parameters in the control software. It must be emphasized here that there was no outside preparation of the standard calibration solutions; the mixing was all done in-chamber/in-line, with all solutions maintained flowing while being proportioned for the measurement processes. The μFBA results were acceptable when compared to the reference method, and comparable to normal flow-batch systems. It was possible both to project and build a low-cost probe with high sample throughput (about 120 h(-1)), low relative standard deviations (about 1.1%), and reduced reagent consumption (30 times less than the reference method). The μFBA system based on urethane-acrylate presented satisfactory physical and chemical properties while keeping the flexibility, versatility, robustness, and multi-task characteristics of normal flow-batch analyzers. The μFBA system contributes to the advance of micro-analytical instrumentation, while realizing the basic principles of "Green Chemistry". PMID:22063532

  7. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.; Tepordei, V.V.; Bolen, W.P.

    2000-01-01

    Construction aggregates consist primarily of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. Total estimated production of construction aggregates increased in 1999 by about 2% to 2.39 Gt (2.64 billion st) compared with 1998. This record production level continued an expansion that began in 1992. By commodities, crushed stone production increased 3.3%, while sand and gravel production increased by about 0.5%.

  8. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on industrial minerals in 1993. The 1993 production of construction aggregates increased 6.3 percent over the 1992 figure, to reach 2.01 Gt. This represents the highest estimated annual production of combined crushed stone and construction sand and gravel ever recorded in the U.S. The outlook for construction aggregates and the issues facing the industry are discussed.

  9. Space shuttle orbiter venting: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutfi, H. S.; Nieder, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The orbiter vent system provides dedicated vent areas to permit the gases trapped inside the vehicle to escape during accent. The same vent system also repressurizes the vehicle during entry. The vent system is one of six systems that constitutes the purge, vent and drain subsystem. The orbiter active vent system has been very adaptable to the changing requirements that have occurred during the development of the Space Shuttle orbiter. Good correlation has been obtained between predicted and measured compartment pressures during the orbital flight test (OFT) program. An investigation of the flight data showed that the difference between preflight prediction and the measured values were primarily due to the difference between the baseline external pressures, which was based on subscale wind tunnel test data, and the actual vehicle local external pressures measured during the flight. The current predictions are based on flight derived vent port pressure coefficients since the wind tunnel data does not adequately define the orbiter ascent pressure environment.

  10. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.D.

    1985-01-10

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  11. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, John D.

    1986-01-01

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  12. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOEpatents

    Sawabe, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell. 6 figures.

  13. Moytirra: Discovery of the first known deep-sea hydrothermal vent field on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge north of the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, A. J.; Murton, B.; Copley, J.; Lim, A.; Carlsson, J.; Collins, P.; Dorschel, B.; Green, D.; Judge, M.; Nye, V.; Benzie, J.; Antoniacomi, A.; Coughlan, M.; Morris, K.

    2013-10-01

    Geological, biological, morphological, and hydrochemical data are presented for the newly discovered Moytirra vent field at 45oN. This is the only high temperature hydrothermal vent known between the Azores and Iceland, in the North Atlantic and is located on a slow to ultraslow-spreading mid-ocean ridge uniquely situated on the 300 m high fault scarp of the eastern axial wall, 3.5 km from the axial volcanic ridge crest. Furthermore, the Moytirra vent field is, unusually for tectonically controlled hydrothermal vents systems, basalt hosted and perched midway up on the median valley wall and presumably heated by an off-axis magma chamber. The Moytirra vent field consists of an alignment of four sites of venting, three actively emitting "black smoke," producing a complex of chimneys and beehive diffusers. The largest chimney is 18 m tall and vigorously venting. The vent fauna described here are the only ones documented for the North Atlantic (Azores to Reykjanes Ridge) and significantly expands our knowledge of North Atlantic biodiversity. The surfaces of the vent chimneys are occupied by aggregations of gastropods (Peltospira sp.) and populations of alvinocaridid shrimp (Mirocaris sp. with Rimicaris sp. also present). Other fauna present include bythograeid crabs (Segonzacia sp.) and zoarcid fish (Pachycara sp.), but bathymodiolin mussels and actinostolid anemones were not observed in the vent field. The discovery of the Moytirra vent field therefore expands the known latitudinal distributions of several vent-endemic genera in the north Atlantic, and reveals faunal affinities with vents south of the Azores rather than north of Iceland.

  14. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  15. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Part of the Annual Commodities Review 1995. Production of construction aggregates such as crushed stone and construction sand and gravel showed a marginal increase in 1995. Most of the 1995 increases were due to funding for highway construction work. The major areas of concern to the industry included issues relating to wetlands classification and the classification of crystalline silica as a probable human carcinogen. Despite this, an increase in demand is anticipated for 1996.

  16. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Part of a special section on the market performance of industrial minerals in 1992. Production of construction aggregates increased by 4.6 percent in 1992. This increase was due, in part, to the increased funding for transportation and infrastructure projects. The U.S. produced about 1.05 Gt of crushed stone and an estimated 734 Mt of construction sand and gravel in 1992. Demand is expected to increase by about 5 percent in 1993.

  17. Explosive Volcanic Eruptions from Linear Vents on Earth, Venus and Mars: Comparisons with Circular Vent Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen M.; Wimert, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    Conditions required to support buoyant convective plumes are investigated for explosive volcanic eruptions from circular and linear vents on Earth, Venus, and Mars. Vent geometry (linear versus circular) plays a significant role in the ability of an explosive eruption to sustain a buoyant plume. On Earth, linear and circular vent eruptions are both capable of driving buoyant plumes to equivalent maximum rise heights, however, linear vent plumes are more sensitive to vent size. For analogous mass eruption rates, linear vent plumes surpass circular vent plumes in entrainment efficiency approximately when L(sub o) > 3r(sub o) owing to the larger entrainment area relative to the control volume. Relative to circular vents, linear vents on Venus favor column collapse and the formation of pyroclastic flows because the range of conditions required to establish and sustain buoyancy is narrow. When buoyancy can be sustained, however, maximum plume heights exceed those from circular vents. For current atmospheric conditions on Mars, linear vent eruptions are capable of injecting volcanic material slightly higher than analogous circular vent eruptions. However, both geometries are more likely to produce pyroclastic fountains, as opposed to convective plumes, owing to the low density atmosphere. Due to the atmospheric density profile and water content on Earth, explosive eruptions enjoy favorable conditions for producing sustained buoyant columns, while pyroclastic flows would be relatively more prevalent on Venus and Mars. These results have implications for the injection and dispersal of particulates into the planetary atmosphere and the ability to interpret the geologic record of planetary volcanism.

  18. Spatial variation in the population structure and reproductive biology of Rimicaris hybisae (Caridea: Alvinocarididae) at hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre.

    PubMed

    Nye, Verity; Copley, Jonathan T; Tyler, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics and microdistribution of faunal assemblages at hydrothermal vents often reflect the fine-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the vent environment. This study examined the reproductive development and population structure of the caridean shrimp Rimicaris hybisae at the Beebe and Von Damm Vent Fields (Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre, Caribbean) using spatially discrete samples collected in January 2012. Rimicaris hybisae is gonochoric and exhibits iteroparous reproduction. Oocyte size-frequency distributions (21-823 µm feret diameters) varied significantly among samples. Embryo development was asynchronous among females, which may result in asynchronous larval release for the populations. Specimens of R. hybisae from the Von Damm Vent Field (2294 m) were significantly larger than specimens from the Beebe Vent Field. Brooding females at Von Damm exhibited greater size-specific fecundity, possibly as a consequence of a non-linear relationship between fecundity and body size that was consistent across both vent fields. Samples collected from several locations at the Beebe Vent Field (4944-4972 m) revealed spatial variability in the sex ratios, population structure, size, and development of oocytes and embryos of this mobile species. Samples from the Von Damm Vent Field and sample J2-613-24 from Beebe Woods exhibited the highest frequencies of ovigerous females and significantly female-biased sex ratios. Environmental variables within shrimp aggregations may influence the distribution of ovigerous females, resulting in a spatially heterogeneous pattern of reproductive development in R. hybisae, as found in other vent taxa.

  19. Data-driven batch schuduling

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, John; Denehy, Tim; Arpaci - Dusseau, Remzi; Livny, Miron; Arpaci - Dusseau, Andrea C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop data-driven strategies for batch computing schedulers. Current CPU-centric batch schedulers ignore the data needs within workloads and execute them by linking them transparently and directly to their needed data. When scheduled on remote computational resources, this elegant solution of direct data access can incur an order of magnitude performance penalty for data-intensive workloads. Adding data-awareness to batch schedulers allows a careful coordination of data and CPU allocation thereby reducing the cost of remote execution. We offer here new techniques by which batch schedulers can become data-driven. Such systems can use our analytical predictive models to select one of the four data-driven scheduling policies that we have created. Through simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our predictive models and show how they can reduce time to completion for some workloads by as much as 80%.

  20. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolen, W.P.; Tepordei, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The estimated production during 2000 of construction aggregates, crushed stone, and construction sand and gravel increased by about 2.6% to 2.7 Gt (3 billion st), compared with 1999. The expansion that started in 1992 continued with record production levels for the ninth consecutive year. By commodity, construction sand and gravel production increased by 4.5% to 1.16 Gt (1.28 billion st), while crushed stone production increased by 1.3% to 1.56 Gt (1.72 billion st).

  1. 46 CFR 151.15-5 - Venting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Pressure-vacuum venting. A normally closed venting system fitted with a device to automatically limit the pressure or vacuum in the tank to design limits. Pressure-vacuum relief valves shall comply with the... devices in accordance with the requirements of § 54.15-13 of this chapter. (2) When a...

  2. Batch compositions for cordierite ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Hickman, David L.

    1994-07-26

    Ceramic products consisting principally of cordierite and a method for making them are provided, the method employing batches comprising a mineral component and a chemical component, the mineral component comprising clay and talc and the chemical component consisting essentially of a combination of the powdered oxides, hydroxides, or hydrous oxides of magnesium, aluminum and silicon. Ceramics made by extrusion and firing of the batches can exhibit low porosity, high strength and low thermal expansion coefficients.

  3. Adaptive Batch Mode Active Learning.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Shayok; Balasubramanian, Vineeth; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

    2015-08-01

    Active learning techniques have gained popularity to reduce human effort in labeling data instances for inducing a classifier. When faced with large amounts of unlabeled data, such algorithms automatically identify the exemplar and representative instances to be selected for manual annotation. More recently, there have been attempts toward a batch mode form of active learning, where a batch of data points is simultaneously selected from an unlabeled set. Real-world applications require adaptive approaches for batch selection in active learning, depending on the complexity of the data stream in question. However, the existing work in this field has primarily focused on static or heuristic batch size selection. In this paper, we propose two novel optimization-based frameworks for adaptive batch mode active learning (BMAL), where the batch size as well as the selection criteria are combined in a single formulation. We exploit gradient-descent-based optimization strategies as well as properties of submodular functions to derive the adaptive BMAL algorithms. The solution procedures have the same computational complexity as existing state-of-the-art static BMAL techniques. Our empirical results on the widely used VidTIMIT and the mobile biometric (MOBIO) data sets portray the efficacy of the proposed frameworks and also certify the potential of these approaches in being used for real-world biometric recognition applications.

  4. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Campana, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180.degree. rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements.

  5. 40 CFR 63.489 - Batch front-end process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pressure drop. (B) If the scrubber is subject to regulations in 40 CFR parts 264 through 266 that have..., nitrogen flow, or pressure monitoring device having an accuracy of ±10 percent of the flow rate, level, or pressure, or better, capable of recording the total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or...

  6. 40 CFR 63.489 - Batch front-end process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pressure drop. (B) If the scrubber is subject to regulations in 40 CFR parts 264 through 266 that have...) Where a carbon adsorber is used, an integrating regeneration steam flow, nitrogen flow, or pressure... of recording the total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or pressure (gauge or absolute)...

  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ooo of... - Batch Process Vent Monitoring Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in § 63.1416(d). a Carbon adsorber a Total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or pressure (gauge or absolute) during carbon bed regeneration cycle(s), and Record the total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or pressure for each carbon bed regeneration cycle. Temperature of the carbon...

  8. 40 CFR 63.489 - Batch front-end process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pressure drop. (B) If the scrubber is subject to regulations in 40 CFR parts 264 through 266 that have..., nitrogen flow, or pressure monitoring device having an accuracy of ±10 percent of the flow rate, level, or pressure, or better, capable of recording the total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1324 - Batch process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... appropriate adjustments for pressure drop. (B) If the scrubber is subject to regulations in 40 CFR parts 264.... (7) Where a carbon adsorber is used, an integrating regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or... better, capable of recording the total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or pressure (gauge...

  10. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ooo of... - Batch Process Vent Monitoring Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or nitrogen flow, or pressure (gauge or absolute) during carbon bed regeneration cycle(s), and Record the total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or pressure for each carbon bed regeneration cycle. Temperature of the carbon bed after regeneration and within 15 minutes of completing any cooling...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1324 - Batch process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... firebox or in the ductwork immediately downstream of the firebox in a position before any substantial heat... heater of less than 44 megawatts design heat input capacity is used, a temperature monitoring device in.... (B) If the scrubber is subject to regulations in 40 CFR parts 264 through 266 that have required...

  12. 40 CFR 63.489 - Batch front-end process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... firebox or in the ductwork immediately downstream of the firebox in a position before any substantial heat... heater of less than 44 megawatts design heat input capacity is used, a temperature monitoring device in... pressure drop. (B) If the scrubber is subject to regulations in 40 CFR parts 264 through 266 that...

  13. 40 CFR 63.489 - Batch front-end process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... firebox or in the ductwork immediately downstream of the firebox in a position before any substantial heat... heater of less than 44 megawatts design heat input capacity is used, a temperature monitoring device in... pressure drop. (B) If the scrubber is subject to regulations in 40 CFR parts 264 through 266 that...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1324 - Batch process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... position before any substantial heat exchange occurs. (ii) Where a catalytic incinerator is used... required. (3) Where a boiler or process heater of less than 44 megawatts design heat input capacity is used... appropriate adjustments for pressure drop. (B) If the scrubber is subject to regulations in 40 CFR parts...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1324 - Batch process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... firebox or in the ductwork immediately downstream of the firebox in a position before any substantial heat... heater of less than 44 megawatts design heat input capacity is used, a temperature monitoring device in.... (B) If the scrubber is subject to regulations in 40 CFR parts 264 through 266 that have required...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1324 - Batch process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... firebox or in the ductwork immediately downstream of the firebox in a position before any substantial heat... heater of less than 44 megawatts design heat input capacity is used, a temperature monitoring device in.... (B) If the scrubber is subject to regulations in 40 CFR parts 264 through 266 that have required...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch process vents-reference control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... before discharge to the atmosphere. (2) A halogen reduction device may be used to reduce the halogen atom... being routed to a control device. In this paragraph (e)(1)(ii), the definition of control device as it.... In this paragraph (e)(1)(iii), the definition of recovery device as it relates to continuous...

  18. 40 CFR 63.2460 - What requirements must I meet for batch process vents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 63, subpart GGG and the exit temperature and exit pressure conditions of the condenser or... liquid temperature in the receiver. (vi) You must conduct a subsequent performance test or compliance... temperature lower than the boiling point, you must use the procedures in § 63.1257(d)(2)(i)(C)(3). (2)...

  19. 40 CFR 63.2460 - What requirements must I meet for batch process vents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 63, subpart GGG and the exit temperature and exit pressure conditions of the condenser or... liquid temperature in the receiver. (vi) You must conduct a subsequent performance test or compliance... temperature lower than the boiling point, you must use the procedures in § 63.1257(d)(2)(i)(C)(3). (2)...

  20. 40 CFR 63.2460 - What requirements must I meet for batch process vents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 63, subpart GGG and the exit temperature and exit pressure conditions of the condenser or... liquid temperature in the receiver. (vi) You must conduct a subsequent performance test or compliance... temperature lower than the boiling point, you must use the procedures in § 63.1257(d)(2)(i)(C)(3). (2)...

  1. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ooo of... - Batch Process Vent Monitoring Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or nitrogen flow, or pressure (gauge or absolute) during carbon bed regeneration cycle(s), and Record the total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or pressure for each carbon bed regeneration cycle. Temperature of the carbon bed after regeneration and within 15 minutes of completing any cooling...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1323 - Batch process vents-methods and procedures for group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 60, appendix A is used to determine gas stream volumetric flow rate. (ii) Annual average... or operator shall calculate the cutoff flow rate using Equation 16 of this subpart. CFR = (0.00437) (AE) − 51.6 where: CFR = Cutoff flow rate, scmm. AE = Annual TOC or organic HAP emissions,...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1327 - Batch process vents-reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... description of the process change within 180 days after the process change is made or with the next Periodic... with the next Periodic Report, whichever is later. The following information shall be submitted: (1) A... description of the process change within 180 days after the process change is made or with the next...

  4. 40 CFR 63.492 - Batch front-end process vents-reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... days after the process change is made or with the next Periodic Report, whichever is later. The owner... next Periodic Report, whichever is later. The following information shall be submitted: (1) A... than those specified in § 63.489(b) and listed in Table 6 of this subpart or requests approval...

  5. 40 CFR 63.492 - Batch front-end process vents-reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... change within 180 days after the process change is made or with the next Periodic Report, whichever is... made or with the next Periodic Report, whichever is later. The following information shall be submitted... control device other than those specified in § 63.489(b) and listed in Table 6 of this subpart or...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1323 - Batch process vents-methods and procedures for group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Method 1 or 1A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A as appropriate, shall be used for selection of the sampling... CFR part 60, appendix A is used to determine gas stream volumetric flow rate. (ii) Annual average... or Method 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, shall be used to determine the concentration of TOC...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1323 - Batch process vents-methods and procedures for group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Method 1 or 1A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A as appropriate, shall be used for selection of the sampling... CFR part 60, appendix A is used to determine gas stream volumetric flow rate. (ii) Annual average... or Method 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, shall be used to determine the concentration of TOC...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1323 - Batch process vents-methods and procedures for group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Method 1 or 1A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A as appropriate, shall be used for selection of the sampling... CFR part 60, appendix A is used to determine gas stream volumetric flow rate. (ii) Annual average... or Method 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, shall be used to determine the concentration of TOC...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1323 - Batch process vents-methods and procedures for group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Method 1 or 1A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A as appropriate, shall be used for selection of the sampling... CFR part 60, appendix A is used to determine gas stream volumetric flow rate. (ii) Annual average... or Method 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, shall be used to determine the concentration of TOC...

  10. 40 CFR 63.2460 - What requirements must I meet for batch process vents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (iv) For the emissions from gas evolution, the term for time, t, must be used in Equation 12 to 40 CFR... CFR part 63, subpart GGG, are defined as follows: Psystem = absolute pressure of the receiving vessel... section. (i) You must determine the flowrate of gas (or volume of gas), partial pressures of...

  11. 40 CFR 63.2460 - What requirements must I meet for batch process vents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (iv) For the emissions from gas evolution, the term for time, t, must be used in Equation 12 to 40 CFR... CFR part 63, subpart GGG, are defined as follows: Psystem = absolute pressure of the receiving vessel... section. (i) You must determine the flowrate of gas (or volume of gas), partial pressures of...

  12. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ooo of... - Batch Process Vent Monitoring Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (gauge or absolute) during carbon bed regeneration cycle(s), and Record the total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or pressure for each carbon bed regeneration cycle. Temperature of the carbon bed... the carbon bed after each regeneration and within 15 minutes of completing any cooling...

  13. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ooo of... - Batch Process Vent Monitoring Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in § 63.1416(d). a Carbon adsorber a Total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or pressure (gauge or absolute) during carbon bed regeneration cycle(s), and Record the total regeneration steam flow or nitrogen flow, or pressure for each carbon bed regeneration cycle. Temperature of the carbon...

  14. 46 CFR 153.358 - Venting system flow capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Venting system flow capacity. 153.358 Section 153.358... Venting Systems § 153.358 Venting system flow capacity. (a) The cross-sectional flow area of any vent system segment, including any PV or SR valve, must at no point be less than that of a pipe whose...

  15. 40 CFR 65.62 - Process vent group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process vent group determination. 65... (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Process Vents § 65.62 Process vent group determination. (a) Group status. The owner or operator of a process vent shall determine the group status (i.e., Group 1, Group...

  16. 14 CFR 125.159 - Vent and drain lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vent and drain lines. 125.159 Section 125... Requirements § 125.159 Vent and drain lines. All vent and drain lines, and their fittings, that are located in... Administrator finds that the rupture or breakage of any vent or drain line may result in a fire hazard....

  17. MBASIC batch processor architectural overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    The MBASIC (TM) batch processor, a language translator designed to operate in the MBASIC (TM) environment is described. Features include: (1) a CONVERT TO BATCH command, usable from the ready mode; and (2) translation of the users program in stages through several levels of intermediate language and optimization. The processor is to be designed and implemented in both machine-independent and machine-dependent sections. The architecture is planned so that optimization processes are transparent to the rest of the system and need not be included in the first design implementation cycle.

  18. Permeability-porosity relationships in seafloor vent deposits: Dependence on pore evolution processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenlu; Tivey, Margaret K.; Gittings, Hilary; Craddock, Paul R.

    2007-05-01

    Systematic laboratory measurements of permeability and porosity were conducted on three large vent structures from the Mothra Hydrothermal vent field on the Endeavor segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Geometric means of permeability values obtained from a probe permeameter are 5.9 × 10-15 m2 for Phang, a tall sulfide-dominated spire that was not actively venting when sampled; 1.4 × 10-14 m2 for Roane, a lower-temperature spire with dense macrofaunal communities growing on its sides that was venting diffuse fluid of <300°C and 1.6 × 10-14 m2 for Finn, an active black smoker with a well-defined inner conduit that was venting 302°C fluids prior to recovery. Twenty-three cylindrical cores were then taken from these vent structures. Permeability and porosity of the drill cores were determined on the basis of Darcy's law and Boyle's law, respectively. Permeability values range from ˜10-15 to 10-13 m2 for core samples from Phang, from ˜10-15 to 10-12 m2 for cores from Roane, and from ˜10-15 to 3 × 10-13 m2 for cores from Finn, in good agreement with the probe permeability measurements. Permeability and porosity relationships are best described by two different power law relationships with exponents of ˜9 (group I) and ˜3 (group II). Microstructural analyses reveal that the difference in the two permeability-porosity relationships reflects different mineral precipitation processes as pore space evolves within different parts of the vent structures, either with angular sulfide grains depositing as aggregates that block fluid paths very efficiently (group I), or by late stage amorphous silica that coats existing grains and reduces fluid paths more gradually (group II). The results suggest that quantification of permeability and porosity relationships leads to a better understanding of pore evolution processes. Correctly identifying permeability and porosity relationships is an important first step toward accurately estimating fluid distribution, flow rate, and

  19. The importance of hydrothermal venting to water-column secondary production in the northeast Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burd, Brenda J.; Thomson, Richard E.

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to show that seafloor hydrothermal venting in the open northeast Pacific Ocean has a marked impact on secondary biomass and production within the overlying water column. Specifically, we use net tows and concurrently measured acoustic backscatter data collected over six summers to examine the effects of hydrothermal venting from the Endeavour Segment of Juan de Fuca Ridge on macro-zooplankton biomass and production throughout the entire 2000 m depth range. Previous research shows that ontogenetic diapausing migrators and their predators from the upper ocean aggregate above the neutrally buoyant plumes in summer and resume feeding on plume and bottom upwelled particles, resulting in increased zooplankton reproductive output to the upper ocean. Within the limitations of our sampling methodology, net tows reveal a statistically significant exponential decline in total water-column biomass with increasing lateral distance from the vent fields. The acoustic backscatter data show a similar decline, but only below 800 m depth. Near-surface biomass was highly variable throughout the region, but values near vents consistently ranged higher than summer values found elsewhere in the offshore northeast Pacific. Water-column biomass was similar in magnitude above and below 800 m depth throughout the region. Because epiplume biomass can be advected a considerable distance from vent fields, biomass enhancement of the water column from hydrothermal venting may extend considerable distances to the west and northwest of the vent sites, in the prevailing directions of the subsurface flow. Based on the extensive acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data collected, and the strong correlation between zooplankton production derived from net sample biomass and acoustic backscatter intensity, we estimate that daily macro-zooplankton production in the upper 400 m of the water column within 10 km of the vent fields averages approximately 16% of photosynthetic

  20. The geochemical controls on vent fluids from the Lucky Strike vent field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Von Damm, K. L.; Bray, A. M.; Buttermore, L. G.; Oosting, S. E.

    1998-08-01

    Hydrothermal vent fluids were collected from the Lucky Strike site at 37°17'N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in both 1993 and 1996. Seven vents were sampled with the DSV Alvin in 1993 and six vents were sampled in 1996 using the ROV Jason during the LUSTRE '96 Cruise. As three of the vents were sampled in both 1993 and in 1996, a time series of vent fluid chemistry is also reported. Measured temperatures ranged from 202 to 333°C at the 1618-1726 m depth of the vent field, which is located on Lucky Strike Seamount. These fluids are either equal to or less than the local bottom seawater in chlorinity. While the range in fluid compositions at Lucky Strike is generally within that observed elsewhere, the unusual aspects of the fluid chemistries are the relatively high pH and low Fe, Mn, Li and Zn. We attribute this, as well as an usually low Sr/Ca ratio, to reaction with a highly altered substrate. The high Si and Cu contents suggest a deep, as well as hot, source for these fluids. The fluid compositions therefore suggest formation by super-critical phase separation at a depth not less than 1300 m below the seafloor, and reaction with a relatively oxic, and previously altered, substrate. There is temporal variability in some of the vent fluid compositions as Li, K, Ca and Fe concentrations have increased in some of the vents, as has the Fe/Mn (molar) ratio, although the chlorinities have remained essentially constant from 1993 to 1996. While there is not a simple relationship between vent fluid compositions (or temperatures) and distance from the lava lake at the summit of the seamount, the vent fluids from many of the vents can be shown to be related to others, often at distances >200 m. The most southeasterly vents (Eiffel Tower and the Marker/Mounds vents) are distinct in chlorinity and other chemical parameters from the rest of the vents, although closely related to each other within the southeastern area. Similarly all of the vents not in this one area, appear

  1. The vent microbiome: patterns and drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachiadaki, M.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial processes within deep-sea hydrothermal vents affect the global biogeochemical cycles. Still, there are significant gaps in our understanding of the microbiology and the biogeochemistry of deep-sea hydrothermal systems. Vents differ in temperature, host rock composition and fluid chemistry; factors that are hypothesized to shape the distribution of the microbial communities, their metabolic capabilities and their activities. Using large-scale single cell genomics, we obtained insights into the genomic content of several linkages of a diffuse flow vent. The genomes show high metabolic versatility. Sulfur oxidation appears to be predominant but there is the potential of using a variety of e- donors and acceptors to obtain energy. To further assess the ecological importance of the vent auto- and heterotrophs, the global biogeography of the analyzed lineages will be investigated by fragment recruitment of metagenomes produced from the same site as well as other hydrothermal systems. Metatranscriptomic and metaproteomic data will be integrated to examine the expression of the predominant metabolic pathways and thus the main energy sources driving chemoautotrophic production. The comparative analysis of the key players and associated pathways among various vent sites that differ in physicochemical characteristics is anticipated to decipher the patterns and drivers of the global dispersion and the local diversification of the vent microbiome.

  2. NDA BATCH 2002-02

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-12-09

    QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

  3. Simulated Batch Production of Penicillin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, A.; Walker, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a program in applied biology in which the simulation of the production of penicillin in a batch fermentor is used as a teaching technique to give students experience before handling a genuine industrial fermentation process. Details are given for the calculation of minimum production cost. (JR)

  4. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches.

    PubMed

    Medina-Rivero, Emilio; Vallejo-Castillo, Luis; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Favari, Liliana; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Pavón, Lenin; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2016-01-01

    Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes. PMID:27525277

  5. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Favari, Liliana; Estrada-Parra, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes. PMID:27525277

  6. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches.

    PubMed

    Medina-Rivero, Emilio; Vallejo-Castillo, Luis; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Favari, Liliana; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Pavón, Lenin; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2016-01-01

    Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes.

  7. Batching System for Superior Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Veridian's Portable Batch System (PBS) was the recipient of the 1997 NASA Space Act Award for outstanding software. A batch system is a set of processes for managing queues and jobs. Without a batch system, it is difficult to manage the workload of a computer system. By bundling the enterprise's computing resources, the PBS technology offers users a single coherent interface, resulting in efficient management of the batch services. Users choose which information to package into "containers" for system-wide use. PBS also provides detailed system usage data, a procedure not easily executed without this software. PBS operates on networked, multi-platform UNIX environments. Veridian's new version, PBS Pro,TM has additional features and enhancements, including support for additional operating systems. Veridian distributes the original version of PBS as Open Source software via the PBS website. Customers can register and download the software at no cost. PBS Pro is also available via the web and offers additional features such as increased stability, reliability, and fault tolerance.A company using PBS can expect a significant increase in the effective management of its computing resources. Tangible benefits include increased utilization of costly resources and enhanced understanding of computational requirements and user needs.

  8. Batch manufacturing: Six strategic needs

    SciTech Connect

    Ash, R.H.; Chappell, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    Since the advent of industrial digital control systems in the mid-1970s, industry has had the promise of integrated, configurable digital batch control systems to replace the morass of electromechanical devices like relays and stepping switches, recorders, and indicators which comprised the components of previous generations of batch control systems - the {open_quotes}monolithic monsters{close_quotes} of the 1960s and earlier. To help fulfill that promise, there have been many wide-ranging proprietary automation solutions for batch control since 1975, many of them technically excellent. However, even the best examples suffered from the lack of a common language and unifying concept permitting separate systems to be interconnected and work together. Today, some 20 years after the digital revolution began, industry has microprocessors, memory chips, data highways, and other marvelous technology to help automate the control of discontinuous processes. They also are on the way to having an accepted standard for batch automation, ISA S88. Batching systems are at once conceptually simple but executionally complex. The notion of adding ingredients one at a time to a vat, mixing, and then processing into final form is as old as the stone age. Every homemaker on earth, male or female, is familiar with how to follow a recipe to create some sumptuous item of culinary delight. Food recipes, so familiar and ubiquitous, are really just microcosms of the S88 recipe standard. They contain the same components: (1) Header (name and description of item being prepared, sometimes serving size); (2) Formula (list and amount of ingredients); (3) Equipment requirements (pans, mixing and cooking equipment); (4) Procedure (description of order of ingredient addition, mixing and other processing steps, baking/cooling time, and other processing steps); and (5) Other information (safety, cautions, and other miscellaneous instructions).

  9. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  10. Characterization of miRNAs from hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yadong; He, Yaodong; Wang, Chunsheng; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2015-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata is a dominant species aggregating in vent fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ocean Ridge. MicroRNAs play important roles in life cycles of eukaryotes. However, little is known about miRNAs of vent animals. In the present study, a small RNA cDNA library from the muscle of R. exoculata was constructed and the miRNA sequencing was performed. The results indicated that a total of 7,983,331 raw reads were obtained, representing 569,354 unique sequences. Based on sequence analysis, R. exoculata contained 159 conserved miRNAs and 34 novel miRNAs. The conserved miRNAs included 54 families belonging to three different taxonomic units (bilaterian, protostomes and arthropods). The results also showed that miR-2001, a lost miRNA in crustaceans, existed in R. exoculata. Among the conserved miRNAs, iso-miRs were detected. Therefore, this study presented the first insight into the miRNAs of deep-sea hydrothermal vent animals. PMID:26439286

  11. Examination of frit vent from Sixty-Watt Heat Source simulant fueled clad vent set

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, G.B.

    1995-11-01

    The flow rate and the metallurgical condition of a frit vent from a simulant-fueled clad vent set (CVS) that had been hot isostatically pressed (HIP) for the Sixty-Watt Heat Source program were evaluated. The flow rate form the defueled vent cup subassembly was reduced approximately 25% from the original flow rate. No obstructions were found to account for the reduced flow rate. Measurements indicate that the frit vent powder thickness was reduced about 30%. Most likely, the powder was compressed during the HIP operation, which increased the density of the powder layer and thus reduced the flow rate of the assembly. All other observed manufacturing attributes appeared to be normal, but the vent hole activation technique needs further refinement before it is used in applications requiring maximum CVS integrity.

  12. NDA Batch 2002-13

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, R

    2009-09-17

    QC sample results (daily background check drum and 100-gram SGS check drum) were within acceptance criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on drum LL85501243TRU. Replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. HWM NCAR No. 02-1000168 issued on 17-Oct-2002 regarding a partially dislodged Cd sheet filter on the HPGe coaxial detector. This physical geometry occurred on 01-Oct-2002 and was not corrected until 10-Oct-2002, during which period is inclusive of the present batch run of drums. Per discussions among the Independent Technical Reviewer, Expert Reviewer and the Technical QA Supervisor, as well as in consultation with John Fleissner, Technical Point of Contact from Canberra, the analytical results are technically reliable. All QC standard runs during this period were in control. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-13 generated using passive gamma-ray spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with establiShed control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable.

  13. Automatic venting valve for gas storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, H.

    1986-12-02

    A control valve is described for blocking atmospheric venting of gas fumes contained within a gasoline storage tank during tanker refill operations. The gasoline tank includes a venting tube coupled to open space within the top of the tank to provide air intake for pressure equalization as gasoline is gradually removed from the tank, the control valve comprising: a. a rigid, tubular valve casing having a top opening, a bottom opening and a flow channel therebetween; b. means for attaching the bottom end of the casing to an upper end of the venting tube such that the valve flow channel forms a continuation venting path for the venting tube; c. first and second valve seats and an intermediate seating member coupled to the casing and at least partially contained within the flow channel. The seating member is configured in shape and size to form restricted air space between the seating member and a surrounding wall of the flow channel to be reversibly displaceable in response to fume exhaust expelled during refill operations.

  14. Medium Fidelity Simulation of Oxygen Tank Venting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, Adam; Kurien, James; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The item to he cleared is a medium-fidelity software simulation model of a vented cryogenic tank. Such tanks are commonly used to transport cryogenic liquids such as liquid oxygen via truck, and have appeared on liquid-fueled rockets for decades. This simulation model works with the HCC simulation system that was developed by Xerox PARC and NASA Ames Research Center. HCC has been previously cleared for distribution. When used with the HCC software, the model generates simulated readings for the tank pressure and temperature as the simulated cryogenic liquid boils off and is vented. Failures (such as a broken vent valve) can be injected into the simulation to produce readings corresponding to the failure. Release of this simulation will allow researchers to test their software diagnosis systems by attempting to diagnose the simulated failure from the simulated readings. This model does not contain any encryption software nor can it perform any control tasks that might be export controlled.

  15. On Small Disturbance Ascent Vent Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    As a spacecraft undergoes ascent in a launch vehicle, its ambient pressure environment transitions from one atmosphere to high vacuum in a matter of a few minutes. Venting of internal cavities is necessary to prevent the buildup of pressure differentials across cavity walls. These pressure differentials are often restricted to low levels to prevent violation of container integrity. Such vents usually consist of fixed orifices, ducts, or combinations of both. Duct conductance behavior is fundamentally different from that for orifices in pressure driven flows governing the launch vehicle ascent depressurization environment. Duct conductance is governed by the average pressure across its length, while orifice conductance is dictated by a pressure ratio. Hence, one cannot define a valid equivalent orifice for a given duct across a range of pressure levels. This presentation discusses development of expressions for these two types of vent elements in the limit of small pressure differentials, explores conditions for their validity, and compares their features regarding ascent depressurization performance.

  16. Controls on the evolving grain size distribution of ash in explosive eruptions and feedback in vent proximal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufek, J.

    2012-12-01

    The dispersal range of eruptive products and types of hazards they present is determined in large part by the volume and size fraction of particles that exit the volcanic vent and how this grain size distribution changes during transport. This talk will examine the physical processes that modify the grain size distribution of particles across a spectrum of energies due to eruptive processes from the conduit, multiphase interaction in the plume, and due to microscale aggregation of ash. The size distribution of volcanic particles has widely been interpreted to be associated with the initial fragmentation process, where particle size has been attributed to fragmentation style and efficiency. Here we evaluate the likelihood that pumice particles survive intact the high-energy environment of the volcanic conduit from the point of initial fragmentation to ejection into the atmosphere. We show that the probability of particles surviving intact is strongly controlled by the particles initial size and the depth of the fragmentation level, with large particles and deep fragmentation producing the most disruption events. The consequence of numerous high-energy collisions results in a more homogeneous, fine-grained mixture of particles leaving the volcanic vent for volcanoes with deep fragmentation levels. These fine particles are well coupled to the magmatic gases exiting the vent, can reduce their sound speed and influence the ability of the mixture to entrain ambient air, thus influencing eruptive style. After exiting the volcanic vent, ash is subject to a range of microphysical processes such adsorption of water and aggregation. After briefly reviewing recent experimental advances in ash microphysical phenomena we will illustrate how these processes can influence near vent dynamics by incorporating these microphysical experimental results into a high resolution Eulerian-Eulerian-Lagrangian (EEL) model. We will particularly focus on the dual roles of aggregation and

  17. Vent conditions for expected eruptions at Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papale, Paolo; Longo, Antonella

    2008-12-01

    Determining consistent sets of vent conditions for next expected eruptions at Vesuvius is crucial for the simulation of the sub-aerial processes originating the volcanic hazard and the eruption impact. Here we refer to the expected eruptive scales and conditions defined in the frame of the EC Exploris project, and simulate the dynamics of magma ascent along the volcanic conduit for sub-steady phases of next eruptions characterized by intensities of the Violent Strombolian (VS), Sub-Plinian 2 (SP2), and Sub-Plinian 1 (SP1) scale. Sets of conditions for the simulations are determined on the basis of the bulk of knowledge on the past history of Vesuvius [Cioni, R., Bertagnini, A., Santacroce, R., Andronico, D., Explosive activity and eruption scenarios at Somma-Vesuvius (Italy): towards a new classification scheme. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, this issue.]. Volatile contents (H 2O and CO 2) are parameterized in order to account for the uncertainty in their expected amounts for a next eruption. In all cases the flow in the conduit is found to be choked, with velocities at the conduit exit or vent corresponding to the sonic velocity in the two-phase non-equilibrium magmatic mixture. Conduit diameters and vent mixture densities are found to display minimum overlapping between the different eruptive scales, while exit gas and particle velocities, as well as vent pressures, largely overlap. Vent diameters vary from as low as about 5 m for VS eruptions, to 35-55 m for the most violent SP1 eruption scale. Vent pressures can be as low as less than 1 MPa for the lowest volatile content employed of 2 wt.% H 2O and no CO 2, to 7-8 MPa for highest volatile contents of 5 wt.% H 2O and 2 wt.% CO 2 and large eruptive scales. Gas and particle velocities at the vent range from 100-250 m/s, with a tendency to decrease, and to increase the mechanical decoupling between the phases, with increasing eruptive scale. Except for velocities, all relevant vent quantities are

  18. Vented Cavity Radiant Barrier Assembly And Method

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.; Jackaway, Adam D.

    2000-05-16

    A vented cavity radiant barrier assembly (2) includes a barrier (12), typically a PV module, having inner and outer surfaces (18, 22). A support assembly (14) is secured to the barrier and extends inwardly from the inner surface of the barrier to a building surface (14) creating a vented cavity (24) between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. A low emissivity element (20) is mounted at or between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. At least part of the cavity exit (30) is higher than the cavity entrance (28) to promote cooling air flow through the cavity.

  19. Mixing efficiency in side-vented coating equipment.

    PubMed

    Smith, George W; Macleod, Graeme S; Fell, John T

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate tablet mixing within side-vented coating equipment by assessing the development of color uniformity during coating. A colorimetric method was used to evaluate the time for uniform coating for different mixing baffle systems at different scales of equipment. The influence of tablet size was also determined. The inclusion of rabbit ear baffles in the small-scale equipment reduced the time to achieve color uniformity by 20 minutes. The design of baffle influenced the time for uniform color with a mixing efficiency rank order of tubular > ploughshare > rabbit ear. Upon scale-up, the efficiency of mixing seen at development scale remained equivalent in terms of the influence of baffle design. The study into the influence of tablet size revealed the importance that the total batch surface area has on the time taken to achieve color uniformity, with 7-mm diameter tablets having a higher surface area for an equivalent volume of product and taking 15 to 20 minutes longer to achieve color uniformity than 16-mm diameter tablets.

  20. Quantifying diffuse and discrete venting at the Tour Eiffel vent site, Lucky Strike hydrothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstaedt, Eric; EscartíN, Javier; Gracias, Nuno; Olive, Jean-Arthur; Barreyre, Thibaut; Davaille, Anne; Cannat, Mathilde; Garcia, Rafael

    2012-04-01

    The relative heat carried by diffuse versus discrete venting of hydrothermal fluids at mid-ocean ridges is poorly constrained and likely varies among vent sites. Estimates of the proportion of heat carried by diffuse flow range from 0% to 100% of the total axial heat flux. Here, we present an approach that integrates imagery, video, and temperature measurements to accurately estimate this partitioning at a single vent site, Tour Eiffel in the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Fluid temperatures, photographic mosaics of the vent site, and video sequences of fluid flow were acquired during the Bathyluck'09 cruise (Fall, 2009) and the Momarsat'10 cruise (Summer, 2010) to the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field by the ROV Victor6000 aboard the French research vessel the "Pourquoi Pas"? (IFREMER, France). We use two optical methods to calculate the velocities of imaged hydrothermal fluids: (1) for diffuse venting, Diffuse Flow Velocimetry tracks the displacement of refractive index anomalies through time, and (2) for discrete jets, Particle Image Velocimetry tracks eddies by cross-correlation of pixel intensities between subsequent images. To circumvent video blurring associated with rapid velocities at vent orifices, exit velocities at discrete vents are calculated from the best fit of the observed velocity field to a model of a steady state turbulent plume where we vary the model vent radius and fluid exit velocity. Our results yield vertical velocities of diffuse effluent between 0.9 cm s-1 and 11.1 cm s-1 for fluid temperatures between 3°C and 33.5°C above that of ambient seawater, and exit velocities of discrete jets between 22 cm s-1 and 119 cm s-1 for fluid temperatures between 200°C and 301°C above ambient seawater. Using the calculated fluid velocities, temperature measurements, and photo mosaics of the actively venting areas, we calculate a heat flux due to diffuse venting from thin fractures of 3.15 ± 2.22 MW, discrete venting of

  1. 30 CFR 77.304 - Explosion release vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Dryers § 77.304 Explosion release vents. Drying chambers, dry-dust collectors, ductwork connecting dryers to dust collectors, and ductwork between dust collectors and discharge stacks shall be protected with... vent dry dust collectors....

  2. 46 CFR 38.20-1 - Venting-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Vents and headers shall be so installed as to prevent excessive stresses on safety relief valve... entrance of rain or snow. (g) No valve of any type shall be fitted in the vent pipe between the...

  3. 46 CFR 153.463 - Vent system discharges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.463 Vent system discharges. The discharge of a venting... to carry a flammable or combustible cargo; and (b) Table 1 requires the cargo to have a PV...

  4. 46 CFR 153.463 - Vent system discharges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.463 Vent system discharges. The discharge of a venting... to carry a flammable or combustible cargo; and (b) Table 1 requires the cargo to have a PV...

  5. Assessing the influence of physical, geochemical and biological factors on anaerobic microbial primary productivity within hydrothermal vent chimneys.

    PubMed

    Olins, H C; Rogers, D R; Frank, K L; Vidoudez, C; Girguis, P R

    2013-05-01

    Chemosynthetic primary production supports hydrothermal vent ecosystems, but the extent of that productivity and its governing factors have not been well constrained. To better understand anaerobic primary production within massive vent deposits, we conducted a series of incubations at 4, 25, 50 and 90 °C using aggregates recovered from hydrothermal vent structures. We documented in situ geochemistry, measured autochthonous organic carbon stable isotope ratios and assessed microbial community composition and functional gene abundances in three hydrothermal vent chimney structures from Middle Valley on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Carbon fixation rates were greatest at lower temperatures and were comparable among chimneys. Stable isotope ratios of autochthonous organic carbon were consistent with the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle being the predominant mode of carbon fixation for all three chimneys. Chimneys exhibited marked differences in vent fluid geochemistry and microbial community composition, with structures being differentially dominated by gamma (γ) or epsilon (ε) proteobacteria. Similarly, qPCR analyses of functional genes representing different carbon fixation pathways showed striking differences in gene abundance among chimney structures. Carbon fixation rates showed no obvious correlation with observed in situ vent fluid geochemistry, community composition or functional gene abundance. Together, these data reveal that (i) net anaerobic carbon fixation rates among these chimneys are elevated at lower temperatures, (ii) clear differences in community composition and gene abundance exist among chimney structures, and (iii) tremendous spatial heterogeneity within these environments likely confounds efforts to relate the observed rates to in situ microbial and geochemical factors. We also posit that microbes typically thought to be mesophiles are likely active and growing at cooler temperatures, and that their activity at these temperatures comprises the

  6. Assessing the influence of physical, geochemical and biological factors on anaerobic microbial primary productivity within hydrothermal vent chimneys.

    PubMed

    Olins, H C; Rogers, D R; Frank, K L; Vidoudez, C; Girguis, P R

    2013-05-01

    Chemosynthetic primary production supports hydrothermal vent ecosystems, but the extent of that productivity and its governing factors have not been well constrained. To better understand anaerobic primary production within massive vent deposits, we conducted a series of incubations at 4, 25, 50 and 90 °C using aggregates recovered from hydrothermal vent structures. We documented in situ geochemistry, measured autochthonous organic carbon stable isotope ratios and assessed microbial community composition and functional gene abundances in three hydrothermal vent chimney structures from Middle Valley on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Carbon fixation rates were greatest at lower temperatures and were comparable among chimneys. Stable isotope ratios of autochthonous organic carbon were consistent with the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle being the predominant mode of carbon fixation for all three chimneys. Chimneys exhibited marked differences in vent fluid geochemistry and microbial community composition, with structures being differentially dominated by gamma (γ) or epsilon (ε) proteobacteria. Similarly, qPCR analyses of functional genes representing different carbon fixation pathways showed striking differences in gene abundance among chimney structures. Carbon fixation rates showed no obvious correlation with observed in situ vent fluid geochemistry, community composition or functional gene abundance. Together, these data reveal that (i) net anaerobic carbon fixation rates among these chimneys are elevated at lower temperatures, (ii) clear differences in community composition and gene abundance exist among chimney structures, and (iii) tremendous spatial heterogeneity within these environments likely confounds efforts to relate the observed rates to in situ microbial and geochemical factors. We also posit that microbes typically thought to be mesophiles are likely active and growing at cooler temperatures, and that their activity at these temperatures comprises the

  7. "Venting" in the Workplace: An Ethnographic Study among Resident Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchard, Brendon

    The term "venting" has been used interchangeably with negatively-connotated words like "outburst,""bitching,""complaining," and with more functional words like "disclosing." A literature review of venting showed that researchers have approached the term from multiple perspectives. Because of the ambiguity of what venting is or is not, why it is…

  8. 24 CFR 3280.710 - Venting, ventilation and combustion air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... manufactured home. (d) Venting system terminations shall be not less than three feet from any motor-driven air... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.710 Venting, ventilation and combustion air. (a) The venting as required...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.710 - Venting, ventilation and combustion air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... manufactured home. (d) Venting system terminations shall be not less than three feet from any motor-driven air... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.710 Venting, ventilation and combustion air. (a) The venting as required...

  10. 24 CFR 3280.710 - Venting, ventilation and combustion air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manufactured home. (d) Venting system terminations shall be not less than three feet from any motor-driven air... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.710 Venting, ventilation and combustion air. (a) The venting as required...

  11. 24 CFR 3280.710 - Venting, ventilation and combustion air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... manufactured home. (d) Venting system terminations shall be not less than three feet from any motor-driven air... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.710 Venting, ventilation and combustion air. (a) The venting as required...

  12. 24 CFR 3280.710 - Venting, ventilation and combustion air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... manufactured home. (d) Venting system terminations shall be not less than three feet from any motor-driven air... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.710 Venting, ventilation and combustion air. (a) The venting as required...

  13. 46 CFR 153.358 - Venting system flow capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Venting system flow capacity. 153.358 Section 153.358 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Venting Systems § 153.358 Venting system flow capacity. (a) The cross-sectional flow area of any...

  14. 46 CFR 153.358 - Venting system flow capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Venting system flow capacity. 153.358 Section 153.358 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Venting Systems § 153.358 Venting system flow capacity. (a) The cross-sectional flow area of any...

  15. 46 CFR 153.358 - Venting system flow capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Venting system flow capacity. 153.358 Section 153.358 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Venting Systems § 153.358 Venting system flow capacity. (a) The cross-sectional flow area of any...

  16. 46 CFR 153.358 - Venting system flow capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Venting system flow capacity. 153.358 Section 153.358 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.358 Venting system...

  17. 46 CFR 56.50-85 - Tank-vent piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... applies to vents for all independent, fixed, non-pressure tanks or containers or for spaces in which... liquids, such as lubricating oil, may terminate in the machinery space, provided— (i) The vents are... combustible liquids are not heated; and (iii) The vents terminate above the deep load waterline if the...

  18. 46 CFR 56.50-85 - Tank-vent piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... applies to vents for all independent, fixed, non-pressure tanks or containers or for spaces in which... liquids, such as lubricating oil, may terminate in the machinery space, provided— (i) The vents are... combustible liquids are not heated; and (iii) The vents terminate above the deep load waterline if the...

  19. 46 CFR 56.50-85 - Tank-vent piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... applies to vents for all independent, fixed, non-pressure tanks or containers or for spaces in which... liquids, such as lubricating oil, may terminate in the machinery space, provided— (i) The vents are... combustible liquids are not heated; and (iii) The vents terminate above the deep load waterline if the...

  20. 46 CFR 56.50-85 - Tank-vent piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... applies to vents for all independent, fixed, non-pressure tanks or containers or for spaces in which... liquids, such as lubricating oil, may terminate in the machinery space, provided— (i) The vents are... combustible liquids are not heated; and (iii) The vents terminate above the deep load waterline if the...

  1. 14 CFR 121.261 - Vent and drain lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vent and drain lines. 121.261 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.261 Vent and drain lines. All vent and drain lines and their fittings, that are located in a designated fire...

  2. 14 CFR 27.975 - Fuel tank vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank vents. 27.975 Section 27.975... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.975 Fuel tank vents. (a) Each fuel tank... flight conditions. Each vent must minimize the probability of stoppage by dirt or ice. (b) The...

  3. 40 CFR 65.143 - Closed vent systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Process § 65.143 Closed vent systems. (a) Closed vent system equipment and operating requirements. The... storage vessel, process vent, transfer rack, or equipment leaks. (1) Collection of emissions. Each closed... operate a flow indicator that takes a reading at least once every 15 minutes. Records shall be...

  4. 14 CFR 34.11 - Standard for fuel venting emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Engine Fuel Venting Emissions (New and In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.11 Standard for fuel venting emissions. (a) No... turbine engine subject to the subpart. This paragraph is directed at the elimination of...

  5. 14 CFR 34.11 - Standard for fuel venting emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Engine Fuel Venting Emissions (New and In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.11 Standard for fuel venting emissions. (a) No... turbine engine subject to the subpart. This paragraph is directed at the elimination of...

  6. 14 CFR 34.11 - Standard for fuel venting emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Engine Fuel Venting Emissions (New and In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.11 Standard for fuel venting emissions. (a) No... turbine engine subject to the subpart. This paragraph is directed at the elimination of...

  7. 14 CFR 34.11 - Standard for fuel venting emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Engine Fuel Venting Emissions (New and In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.11 Standard for fuel venting emissions. (a) No... discharge to the atmosphere of fuel drained from fuel nozzle manifolds after engines are shut down and...

  8. 14 CFR 27.975 - Fuel tank vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank vents. 27.975 Section 27.975... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.975 Fuel tank vents. (a) Each fuel tank... system must be designed to minimize spillage of fuel through the vents to an ignition source in the...

  9. 40 CFR 63.983 - Closed vent systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... bypass lines that could divert a vent stream to the atmosphere. (i) Properly install, maintain, and... loading arm in the rack to the atmosphere. (5) Pressure relief devices in a transfer rack's closed vent... that no pressure relief device in the transfer rack's closed vent system shall open to the...

  10. 40 CFR 63.983 - Closed vent systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... bypass lines that could divert a vent stream to the atmosphere. (i) Properly install, maintain, and... loading arm in the rack to the atmosphere. (5) Pressure relief devices in a transfer rack's closed vent... that no pressure relief device in the transfer rack's closed vent system shall open to the...

  11. 33 CFR 183.520 - Fuel tank vent systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tank vent systems. 183.520...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.520 Fuel tank vent systems. (a) Each fuel tank must have a vent system that prevents pressure in the tank from exceeding...

  12. Discovery of a black smoker vent field and vent fauna at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Rolf B.; Rapp, Hans Tore; Thorseth, Ingunn H.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Barriga, Fernando J. A. S.; Baumberger, Tamara; Flesland, Kristin; Fonseca, Rita; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Jorgensen, Steffen L.

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) represents one of the most slow-spreading ridge systems on Earth. Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting, as well as the provenance of vent fauna at this northern and insular termination of the global ridge system, have been unsuccessful. Here, we report the first discovery of a black smoker vent field at the AMOR. The field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge (AVR) and is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting and long-lived hydrothermal systems exist at ultraslow-spreading ridges, despite their strongly reduced volcanic activity. The vent field hosts a distinct vent fauna that differs from the fauna to the south along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The novel vent fauna seems to have developed by local specialization and by migration of fauna from cold seeps and the Pacific. PMID:21119639

  13. Discovery of a black smoker vent field and vent fauna at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Rolf B; Rapp, Hans Tore; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Lilley, Marvin D; Barriga, Fernando J A S; Baumberger, Tamara; Flesland, Kristin; Fonseca, Rita; Früh-Green, Gretchen L; Jorgensen, Steffen L

    2010-11-23

    The Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) represents one of the most slow-spreading ridge systems on Earth. Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting, as well as the provenance of vent fauna at this northern and insular termination of the global ridge system, have been unsuccessful. Here, we report the first discovery of a black smoker vent field at the AMOR. The field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge (AVR) and is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting and long-lived hydrothermal systems exist at ultraslow-spreading ridges, despite their strongly reduced volcanic activity. The vent field hosts a distinct vent fauna that differs from the fauna to the south along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The novel vent fauna seems to have developed by local specialization and by migration of fauna from cold seeps and the Pacific.

  14. Electrochemical cell having improved pressure vent

    DOEpatents

    Dean, Kevin; Holland, Arthur; Fillmore, Donn

    1993-01-01

    The electrochemical cell of the instant invention includes a case having a gas outlet, one or more positive electrodes positioned within the case, one or more negative electrodes positioned within the case electrode separators positioned between the positive and negative electrodes, electrolyte positioned within the case, and a pressure vent for releasing internal pressure occurring in the case to the surrounding atmosphere. The pressure vent is affixed to the case covering the gas outlet, the pressure vent includes a vent housing having a hollow interior area in gaseous communication with the surrounding atmosphere and the interior of the case via the gas outlet, a pressure release piston positioned within the hollow interior area, the pressure release piston sized to surround the gas outlet and having a seal groove configured to encapsulate all but one surface of a seal mounted within the seal groove, leaving the non-encapsulated surface of the seal exposed, and a compression spring positioned to urge the pressure release piston to compress the seal in the seal groove and block the gas outlet in the case.

  15. Flow fields of low pressure vent exhausts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1989-01-01

    The flow field produced by low pressure gas vents are described based on experimental data obtained from tests in a large vacuum chamber. The gas density, pressure, and flux at any location in the flow field are calculated based on the vent plume description and the knowledge of the flow rate and velocity of the venting gas. The same parameters and the column densities along a specified line of sight traversing the plume are also obtained and shown by a computer-generated graphical representation. The fields obtained with a radially scanning Pitot probe within the exhausting gas are described by a power of the cosine function, the mass rate and the distance from the exit port. The field measurements were made for gas at pressures ranging from 2 to 50 torr venting from pipe fittings with diameters of 3/16 inch to 1-1/2 inches I.D. (4.76 mm to 38.1 mm). The N(2) mass flow rates ranged from 2E-4 to 3.7E-1 g/s.

  16. 46 CFR 98.25-70 - Venting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Venting. 98.25-70 Section 98.25-70 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk §...

  17. 46 CFR 98.25-70 - Venting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Venting. 98.25-70 Section 98.25-70 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk §...

  18. 46 CFR 98.25-70 - Venting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Venting. 98.25-70 Section 98.25-70 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk §...

  19. 46 CFR 98.25-70 - Venting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Venting. 98.25-70 Section 98.25-70 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk §...

  20. 46 CFR 98.25-70 - Venting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Venting. 98.25-70 Section 98.25-70 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk §...

  1. 49 CFR 229.95 - Venting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Venting. 229.95 Section 229.95 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Internal Combustion Equipment §...

  2. 49 CFR 229.95 - Venting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Venting. 229.95 Section 229.95 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Internal Combustion Equipment §...

  3. 49 CFR 229.95 - Venting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Venting. 229.95 Section 229.95 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Internal Combustion Equipment §...

  4. 49 CFR 229.95 - Venting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Venting. 229.95 Section 229.95 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Internal Combustion Equipment §...

  5. 49 CFR 229.95 - Venting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Venting. 229.95 Section 229.95 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Internal Combustion Equipment §...

  6. Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  7. Evidence for Hydrothermal Vents as "Biogeobatteries" (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, M. E.; Girguis, P. R.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrothermal vents are unique systems that play an important role in oceanic biogeochemical cycles. As chemically reduced hydrothermal fluid mixes with cold oxic seawater, minerals precipitate out of solution resulting in chimney structures composed largely of metal sulfides and anhydrite. Pyrite, which is a natural semi-conductor, is the primary sulfide mineral, but other minerals within chimneys are also conductive (e.g. chalcopyrite, wurtzite, and some iron oxides). Sulfide chimneys are also known to host an extensive endolithic microbial community. Accordingly, submarine hydrothermal systems appear to be examples of biogeobatteries, wherein conductive mineral assemblages span naturally occuring redox gradients and enable anaerobic microbes to access oxygen as an oxidant via extracellular electron transfer (or EET). To test this hypothesis, we ran a series of electrochemical laboratory experiments in which pyrite was used as an anode (in a vessel flushed with hydrothermal-like fluid). When placed in continuity with a carbon fiber cathode, pyrite was found to accept and conduct electrons from both abiotic and biological processes (microbial EET). Specifically, electrical current increased 4-fold (5 nA/m2 to 20 nA/m2) in response to inoculation with a slurry prepared from a hydrothermal vent sample. Inspection of the pyrite anode with SEM revealed ubiquitous coverage by microbes. DNA was extracted from the anodes and the inoculum, and was subjected to pyrosequencing to examine prokaryotic diversity. These data suggest that key microbial phylotypes were enriched upon the pyrite, implicating them in EET. In addition, we deployed an in situ experiment based on microbial fuel cell architecture with a graphite anode inserted into a vent wall coupled to a carbon fiber cathode outside the vent. We observed current production over the course of one year, implying microbial EET in situ. Via pyrosequencing, we observed that the microbial community on the anode was

  8. Safety Testing of Left Ventricular Vent Valves.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Caroline; Coblentz, John; Acsell, Jeffrey R; Shackelford, Anthony G; Sistino, Joseph J

    2015-03-01

    Vent vacuum relief valves (VRVs) are used to limit the negative pressure at the ventricular vent catheter tip as well as prevent reversal of blood flow and prevention of air embolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of three commercially available ventricular vent valves. The negative pressure at which the vent valve opened was measured at the valve inlet using high-fidelity pressure transducers. Also, the flow rate at which air entrainment occurred due to valve opening was recorded. Using a 51.5 cm column of saline, the resistance for each valve was calculated. The mean ± SD opening negative pressures were -231.3 ± 35.2 mmHg for the Quest Medical valve, -219.8 mmHg ± 17.2 for the Sorin valve, and -329.6 · 38.0 mmHg for the Terumo valve. The red Quest Medical valve opened at a lower flow (1.44 ± .03 L/min) than the dark blue Sorin valve (2.93 ± .01 L/min) and light blue LH130 Terumo valve (2.36 ± .02 L/min). The Sorin valve had the least resistance of 34.1 dyn-s/cm, followed by the Terumo LH130 valve resistance of 58.1 dyn·s/cm5, and the Quest Medical VRV-II valve with a resistance of 66.5 dyn·s/cm. We found that the valves are significantly different in the negative pressure generated. Understanding the limitations of these devices is important to reduce the occurrence of adverse events associated with venting and to select the best device for a specific clinical application.

  9. Thermodynamics of Protein Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Kenneth L.; Barz, Bogdan; Bachmann, Michael; Strodel, Birgit

    Amyloid protein aggregation characterizes many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Creutz- feldt-Jakob disease. Evidence suggests that amyloid aggregates may share similar aggregation pathways, implying simulation of full-length amyloid proteins is not necessary for understanding amyloid formation. In this study we simulate GNNQQNY, the N-terminal prion-determining domain of the yeast protein Sup35 to investigate the thermodynamics of structural transitions during aggregation. We use a coarse-grained model with replica-exchange molecular dynamics to investigate the association of 3-, 6-, and 12-chain GNNQQNY systems and we determine the aggregation pathway by studying aggregation states of GN- NQQNY. We find that the aggregation of the hydrophilic GNNQQNY sequence is mainly driven by H-bond formation, leading to the formation of /3-sheets from the very beginning of the assembly process. Condensation (aggregation) and ordering take place simultaneously, which is underpinned by the occurrence of a single heat capacity peak only.

  10. Inside the Vent of the 2011-2012 Cordón Caulle Eruption, Chile: The Nature of a Rhyolitic Ash Plume Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuffen, H.; Castro, J. M.; Schipper, C. I.; Wadsworth, F. B.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011-2012 activity at Cordon Caulle has provided an unprecedented opportunity to observe a sustained explosive rhyolitic eruption. An initial 27 hour Plinian phase commenced on 4 June 2011, followed by ten months of hybrid explosive-effusive activity, which generated disruptive ≤6 km ash plumes. In January 2012 our close observations of the active vent[1] revealed how episodic release of gas and ash from several sub-vents on an incipient lava dome (Fig. 1b) merged to form a sustained ash plume. Sub-vents ranged from metric point sources to arcuate fractures (>10 m) in the dome carapace. We visited the vent in January 2014, and found two ~50 m-wide, rubble-strewn vent areas adjacent to pancake-like obsidian domes, all within a breached, ~100 m-high tuff cone. Vent areas consist of fractured obsidian lava strewn by loose, rotated lava blocks ≤5 m across. Prominent red fracture surfaces (Fig. 1 d,e) occur in both the in-situ lava and the blocky veneer; these closely correspond to the type of sub-vents observed in 2012[1]. They range from smooth, curviplanar surfaces extending over several m to complex smaller-scale surfaces that follow pre-existing cooling joints in the lava carapace. In-situ fracture surfaces display prominent, predominantly vertical grooves and impact marks, but negligible displacement. Surfaces are coated by μm-mm thick veneers of fine-grained ash, to which larger ash-coated clasts have adhered. Veneer thickness and sintering degree strongly decrease towards the upper carapace of the lava. SEM analysis of ash veneers reveals 1) a high proportion of sub-micron clasts, 2) strong clast sintering, 3) abundant ash aggregation textures spanning submicron-mm scales, and 4) local surface scouring and corrosion of glass and phenocrysts. During ash venting the smallest particles are preferentially trapped on fracture surfaces and rapidly sintered, encouraging sub-vent blockage. Extensive ash aggregation may have been electrostatically aided, with

  11. Adding coal dust to coal batch

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. Shved; A.V.Berezin

    2009-05-15

    The granulometric composition of coke dust from the dry-slaking machine is determined. The influence of additions of 3-7% coke dust on the quality of industrial coking batch and the coke obtained by box coking is estimated. Adding 1% coke dust to coking batch does not markedly change the coke quality. Industrial equipment for the supply of dry-slaking dust to the batch is described.

  12. Plutonium immobilization feed batching system concept report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.

    2000-07-19

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Feed batching is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. It will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization feed batching process preliminary concept, batch splitting concepts, and includes a process block diagram, concept descriptions, a preliminary equipment list, and feed batching development areas.

  13. Synthesis of azeotropic batch distillation separation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Safrit, B.T.; Westerberg, A.W.

    1997-05-01

    The sequencing of batch distillation systems, in particular batch distillation columns, can be complicated by the existence of azeotropes in the mixture. These azeotropes can form batch distillation regions where, depending on the initial feed to the batch column, the types of feasible products and separations are limited. It is very important that these distillation regions are known while attempting to synthesize sequences of batch columns so infeasible designs can be eliminated early on in the design phase. The distillation regions also give information regarding the feasible products that can be obtained when the mixture is separated by using a variety of batch column configurations. The authors will show how a tool for finding the batch distillation regions of a particular mixture can be used in the synthesis of batch distillation column sequences. These sequences are determined by the initial feed composition to the separation network. The network of all possible sequences will be generated by using state-task networks when batch rectifying, stripping, middle vessel, and extractive middle vessel columns are allowed. The authors do not determine which sequence is the best, as the best sequence will depend on the particular application to which one is applying the algorithms. They show an example problem for illustration of this technique.

  14. Ecology of deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, R.A.; Kennish, M.J. )

    1993-08-01

    The present article reviews studies of the past 15 years of active and inactive hydrothermal vents. The focus of the discussion is on the ecology of the biological communities inhabiting hydrothermal vents. These communities exhibit high densities and biomass, low species diversity, rapid growth rates, and high metabolic rates. The authors attempt to relate the biology of hydrothermal vent systems to geology. Future directions for hydrothermal vent research are suggested. Since many vent populations are dependent on hydrothermal fluids and are consequently unstable, both short- and long-term aspects of the ecology of the vent organisms and the influence of chemical and geological factors on the biology of vent systems need to be established. 200 refs., 28 figs.

  15. Microbial isotopic signatures in calcareous tufa from Punta Mita coastal vents, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canet, C.; Prol-Ledesma, R. M.; Melgarejo, J. C.; Reyes, A.

    2002-12-01

    Numerous small calcareous mounds accompanied by Ba, Hg and Tl mineralization occur in shallow submarine hydrothermal manifestations on the sea bottom, at 10 m depth, in Punta Mita (Western coast of Mexico). The formation of calcite mounds in these coastal vents provides an uncommon example of calcareous tufa deposits in a submarine hydrothermal environment. The hydrothermal activity consists in water and gas (essentially nitrogen and methane) venting at 85°C, through a 100 m fissure hosted in basaltic rocks and partially covered by unconsolidated sediments. The mounds consist of travertine-like metre-sized calcite aggregates that develop around the main submarine hot springs. Barite, sulphides (mostly pyrite and cinnabar) and phosphates (carbonate-hydroxylapatite) are also present in these mounds. Two main calcite types are texturally distinguished: firstly an earlier radial-fibrous generation, and a later fine-grained calcite generation that cements the detrital grains and fills the pore spaces. Stable isotope analyses were performed in calcite from these mounds. The δ13C measured values show a strong depletion in 13C, with values as low as -39.2 per mil (PDB). These values agree with a microbially mediated calcite mineralization process, by means of bacterial oxidation of vent derived methane. In contrast to most known cases of microbial methane oxidation, in Punta Mita this process took place under hydrothermal conditions.

  16. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-08-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The effects of vent-notch area on bulging and thinning during the clad vent test closure-weld operation

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, G.B.

    1996-09-01

    The internal gas pressure during clad vent set (CVS) welding is vented through aligned vent notches in each cup. For Galileo, Ulysses, and most of Cassini CVS production, the vent-notch dimensional requirements for both cups were as follows: (1) vent-notch depth, 0.15/0.20 mm; (2) vent-notch width, 0.25/0.35 nun; (3) bottom of vent-notch comers, sharp to full radius; (4) top of vent-notch edge, 0.05 mm maximum break; and (5) maximum variation between vent notch and grit-blasted triangle centerlines, 3{degrees}. During the fuel encapsulation operation (with {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellets) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), excessive bulges or blowouts at the CVS closure-weld tie-in location occurred with 11.8% (27 out of 229) of the flight-quality welds made with the aforementioned standard vent-notch dimensions. These bulges and blowouts are primarily the result of inadequate venting of the increased gas pressure during the thermal cycle of the closure-weld operation. Proper venting is dependent mostly upon the weld parameters and the total vent-notch area. Because of the increased incidence of bulges/blowouts in the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}-fueled CVS units, LANL personnel requested that consideration be given to increasing the vent-notch size to minimize further the loss of CVS hardware and the potential loss of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} pellets. Thus, increasing further the production yield of the closure-weld operation would avoid potentially severe schedule delays.

  18. Comparative Study of Vented vs. Unvented Crawlspaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Christian, Jeffrey E; Gehl, Anthony C

    2011-10-01

    There has been a significant amount of research in the area of building energy efficiency and durability. However, well-documented quantitative information on the impact of crawlspaces on the performance of residential structures is lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of two crawlspace strategies on the whole-house performance of a pair of houses in a mixed humid climate. These houses were built with advanced envelope systems to provide energy savings of 50% or more compared to traditional 2010 new construction. One crawlspace contains insulated walls and is sealed and semi-conditioned. The other is a traditional vented crawlspace with insulation in the crawlspace ceiling. The vented (traditional) crawlspace contains fiberglass batts installed in the floor chase cavities above the crawl, while the sealed and insulated crawlspace contains foil-faced polyisocyanurate foam insulation on the interior side of the masonry walls. Various sensors to measure temperatures, heat flux through crawlspace walls and ceiling, and relative humidity were installed in the two crawlspaces. Data from these sensors have been analyzed to compare the performance of the two crawlspace designs. The analysis results indicated that the sealed and insulated crawlspace design is better than the traditional vented crawlspace in the mixed humid climate.

  19. Computer Batch Files Shorten Many Complicated Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deppa, Joan

    1987-01-01

    Defines "batch files," claiming that they can shorten many complicated computer procedures. Describes how batch file was created using the computer program "PC-Write" to streamline the process of creating a work disk and increase students' computer literacy. Lists and discusses each element in the file. Provides references for more information.…

  20. Method and apparatus for melting glass batch

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alexander G.; Walkup, Paul C.; Mudge, Lyle K.

    1988-01-01

    A glass melting system involving preheating, precalcining, and prefluxing of batch materials prior to injection into a glass furnace. The precursors are heated by convection rather than by radiation in present furnaces. Upon injection into the furnace, batch materials are intimately coated with molten flux so as to undergo or at least begin the process of dissolution reaction prior to entering the melt pool.

  1. Ecology of deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Richard A.; Kennish, Michael J.

    1993-08-01

    Studies of the many active and inactive hydrothermal vents found during the past 15 years have radically altered views of biological and geological processes in the deep sea. The biological communities occupying the vast and relatively stable soft bottom habitats of the deep sea are characterized by low population densities, high species diversity, and low biomass. In contrast, those inhabiting the generally unstable conditions of hydrothermal vent environments exhibit high densities and biomass, low species diversity, rapid growth rates, and high metabolic rates. Biological processes, such as rates of metabolism and growth, in vent organisms are comparable to those observed in organisms from shallow-water ecosystems. An abundant energy source is provided by chemosynthetic bacteria that constitute the primary producers sustaining the lush communities at the hydrothermal sites. Fluxes in vent flow and fluid chemistry cause changes in growth rates, reproduction, mortality, and/or colonization of vent fauna, leading to temporal and spatial variation of the vent communities. Vent populations that cannot adapt to modified flow rates are adversely affected, as is evidenced by high mortality or lower rates of colonization, growth, or reproduction. Substantial changes in biota have been witnessed at several vents, and successional cycles have been proposed for the Galapagos vent fields. Dramatic temporal and spatial variations in vent community structure may also relate to variations in larval dispersal and chance recruitment, as well as biotic interactions.

  2. [Governmental batch sample testing of allergen products].

    PubMed

    Bartel, D; Führer, F; Vieths, S

    2012-03-01

    Allergen products for specific immunotherapy of type I allergies were first authorized for the German market in the 1970s. In addition to finished products manufactured in advance and in batches, so-called named patient products have recently been defined as Medicinal Products by the German Medicinal Products Act ("Arzneimittelgesetz", AMG 14th Revision 2005). Some allergen products previously marketed as named patient products are now required to obtain marketing authorization according to the German ordinance for therapy allergens. Products have to be batch released by the competent German Federal Agency, the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI). Samples of product batches are delivered to the PEI in order to perform experimental quality controls. With regard to named patient products, PEI tests batch samples of the bulk extract preparations used for manufacturing of the respective, named patient products. The institute releases approximately 2,800 allergen product batches annually.

  3. Batch Scheduling a Fresh Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Network Queueing System (NQS) was designed to schedule jobs based on limits within queues. As systems obtain more memory, the number of queues increased to take advantage of the added memory resource. The problem now becomes too many queues. Having a large number of queues provides users with the capability to gain an unfair advantage over other users by tailoring their job to fit in an empty queue. Additionally, the large number of queues becomes confusing to the user community. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center developed a new approach to batch job scheduling. This new method reduces the number of queues required by eliminating the need for queues based on resource limits. The scheduler examines each request for necessary resources before initiating the job. Also additional user limits at the complex level were added to provide a fairness to all users. Additional tools which include user job reordering are under development to work with the new scheduler. This paper discusses the objectives, design and implementation results of this new scheduler

  4. Characterization of Large, Autotrophic Beggiatoa spp. Abundant at Hydrothermal Vents of the Guaymas Basin.

    PubMed

    Nelson, D C; Wirsen, C O; Jannasch, H W

    1989-11-01

    Filamentous bacteria, identified as members of the genus Beggiatoa by gliding motility and internal globules of elemental sulfur, occur in massive aggregations at the deep-sea hydrothermal vents of the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Cell aggregates covering the surface of sulfide-emanating sediments and rock chimneys were collected by DS R/V Alvin and subjected to shipboard and laboratory experiments. Each sample collected contained one to three discrete width classes of this organism usually accompanied by a small number of "flexibacteria" (width, 1.5 to 4 mum). The average widths of the Beggiatoa classes were 24 to 32, 40 to 42, and 116 to 122 mum. As indicated by electron microscopy and cell volume/protein ratios, the dominant bacteria are hollow cells, i.e., a thin layer of cytoplasm surrounding a large central liquid vacuole. Activities of Calvin-cycle enzymes indicated that at least two of the classes collected possess autotrophic potential. Judging from temperature dependence of enzyme activities and whole-cell CO(2) incorporation, the widest cells were mesophiles. The narrowest Beggiatoa sp. was either moderately thermophilic or mesophilic with unusually thermotolerant enzymes. This was consistent with its occurrence on the flanks of hot smoker chimneys with highly variable exit temperatures. In situ CO(2) fixation rates, sulfide stimulation of incorporation, and autoradiographic studies suggest that these Beggiatoa spp. contribute significantly as lithoautrophic primary producers to the Guaymas Basin vent ecosystems.

  5. Characterization of large, autotrophic Beggiatoa spp. abundant at hydrothermal vents of the Guaymas Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.C. ); Wirsen, C.O.; Jannasch, H.W. )

    1989-11-01

    Filamentous bacteria, identified as members of the genus Beggiatoa by gliding motility and internal globules of elemental sulfur, occur in massive aggregations at the deep-sea hydrothermal vents of the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Cell aggregates covering the surface of sulfide-emanating sediments and rock chimneys were collected by DS R/V Alvin and subjected to shipboard and laboratory experiments. Each sample collected contained one to three discrete width classes of this organism usually accompanied by a small number of flexibacteria (width, 1.5 to 4 {mu}m). The average widths of the Beggiatoa classes were 24 to 32, 40 to 42, and 116 to 122 {mu}m. As indicated by electron microscopy and cell volume/protein ratios, the dominant bacteria are hollow cells, i.e., a thin layer of cytoplasm surrounding a large central liquid vacuole. Activities of Calvin-cycle enzymes indicated that at least two of the classes collected possess autotrophic potential. Judging from temperature dependence of enzyme activities and whole-cell CO{sub 2} incorporation, the widest cells were mesophiles. The narrowest Beggiatoa sp. was either moderately thermophilic or mesophilic with unusually thermotolerant enzymes. This was consistent with its occurrence on the flanks of hot smoker chimneys with highly variable exit temperatures. In situ CO{sub 2} fixation rates, sulfide stimulation of incorporation, and autoradiographic studies suggest that these Beggiatoa spp. contribute significantly as lithoautrophic primary producers to the Guaymas Basin vent ecosystems.

  6. 40 CFR 63.1313 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subpart for each kind of emission in the stream as specified in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(7) of this... requirements. (b) When emissions of different kinds (i.e., emissions from continuous process vents subject to either § 63.1315 or §§ 63.1316 through 63.1320, batch process vents, aggregate batch vent...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1313 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart for each kind of emission in the stream as specified in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(7) of this... requirements. (b) When emissions of different kinds (i.e., emissions from continuous process vents subject to either § 63.1315 or §§ 63.1316 through 63.1320, batch process vents, aggregate batch vent...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1313 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subpart for each kind of emission in the stream as specified in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(7) of this... requirements. (b) When emissions of different kinds (i.e., emissions from continuous process vents subject to either § 63.1315 or §§ 63.1316 through 63.1320, batch process vents, aggregate batch vent...

  9. Thermal Analysis of Waste Glass Batches: Effect of Batch Makeup on Gas-Evolving Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, David A.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Marcial, Jose

    2013-01-21

    Batches made with a variety of precursors were subjected to thermo-gravimetric analysis. The baseline modifications included all-nitrate batch with sucrose addition, all-carbonate batch, and batches with different sources of alumina. All batches were formulated for a single glass composition (a vitrified simulated high-alumina high-level waste). Batch samples were heated from the ambient temperature to 1200°C at constant heating rates ranging from 1 K/min to 50 K/min. Major gas evolving reactions began at temperatures just above 100°C and were virtually complete by 650°C. Activation energies for major reactions were obtained with the Kissinger’s method. A rough model for the overall kinetics of the batch-conversion was developed to be eventually applied to a mathematical model of the cold cap.

  10. Sizing an emergency venting system for a cryogenic dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. K.; Naes, L. G.; Manikowski, A. F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    If the vacuum vessel that insulates a cryogenic dewar for a spaceborne experiment prior to launch is damaged, air will leak into the vacuum insulation space. As the sudden heat load causes the pressure to rise in the dewar, a safety disk in the emergency vent line will burst at the design pressure differential to allow vaporized cryogenic fluid to escape. The emergency vent line should be sized such that sufficient gaseous cryogen will be vented to keep the pressure inside the dewar below the design limit. On the other hand, the line should not be so large as to impose an unnecessary heat load on the dewar filled with cryogenic fluid. A vent-line computer program was generated to compute the maximum flow rate allowed for a proposed vent-line system. Parametric studies have been carried out for different burst disk pressure differentials, liquid cryogen ullage, and vent-line sizes.

  11. Experimental investigation of external explosion in the venting process*

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhi-min; Jin, Xin-qiao; Cui, Dong-ming; Ye, Jing-fang

    2005-01-01

    Experimental investigations were conducted on the process of combustion and explosion vent in a 200 mm (diameter)×400 mm (length) vertical cylindrical vessel. When CH4-air mixture gases were used and the vent diameter was 55 mm, conditions of Φ (equivalent ratio)=0.8, Φ=1.0 and Φ=1.3 and two ignition positions (at the cylinder center and bottom) were selected. The venting processes and the correlated factors are discussed in this paper. PMID:15822147

  12. 46 CFR 153.353 - High velocity vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false High velocity vents. 153.353 Section 153.353 Shipping... Systems § 153.353 High velocity vents. The discharge point of a B/3 or 4m venting system must be located..., unimpeded jet; (b) The jet has a minimum exit velocity of 30 m/sec (approx. 98.4 ft/sec); and (c) The...

  13. 46 CFR 153.353 - High velocity vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false High velocity vents. 153.353 Section 153.353 Shipping... Systems § 153.353 High velocity vents. The discharge point of a B/3 or 4m venting system must be located..., unimpeded jet; (b) The jet has a minimum exit velocity of 30 m/sec (approx. 98.4 ft/sec); and (c) The...

  14. 46 CFR 153.353 - High velocity vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High velocity vents. 153.353 Section 153.353 Shipping... Systems § 153.353 High velocity vents. The discharge point of a B/3 or 4m venting system must be located..., unimpeded jet; (b) The jet has a minimum exit velocity of 30 m/sec (approx. 98.4 ft/sec); and (c) The...

  15. 46 CFR 153.353 - High velocity vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false High velocity vents. 153.353 Section 153.353 Shipping... Systems § 153.353 High velocity vents. The discharge point of a B/3 or 4m venting system must be located..., unimpeded jet; (b) The jet has a minimum exit velocity of 30 m/sec (approx. 98.4 ft/sec); and (c) The...

  16. 46 CFR 153.353 - High velocity vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false High velocity vents. 153.353 Section 153.353 Shipping... Systems § 153.353 High velocity vents. The discharge point of a B/3 or 4m venting system must be located..., unimpeded jet; (b) The jet has a minimum exit velocity of 30 m/sec (approx. 98.4 ft/sec); and (c) The...

  17. Adsorption of Magnesium Sulfate from Desulfurization Industrial Wastewater by Nano-Cerium Loaded Recycled Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung-Sun; Bak, Somi; Seo, Seong-Gyu; Choi, Jeongdong; Kim, Eun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    In this research, the recycled aggregates (RAs) from blast furnace were solidified with nano-cerium (Ce), and applied to reduce the ionic species (e.g., magnesium sulfate) in the desulfurization industrial wastewater. Static batch experiments were performed based on different loading of recycled aggregates. Sulfate sorption isotherm studies were performed by Langmuir adsorption model. The physical morphologies were determined using scanning electron microscope. The results presented that the partial ions were captured with the different loading of the recycled aggregates during the batch tests. It was observed that 8 hr batch reaction equilibrated the electrical conductivity reduction, and 13% mass loading was estimated an optimal dosage of adsorbent. This study showed the nano-Ce loaded RAs could reduce ionic species in wastewater, and expected to be an economical adsorbent for wastewater treatment process.

  18. Adsorption of Magnesium Sulfate from Desulfurization Industrial Wastewater by Nano-Cerium Loaded Recycled Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung-Sun; Bak, Somi; Seo, Seong-Gyu; Choi, Jeongdong; Kim, Eun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    In this research, the recycled aggregates (RAs) from blast furnace were solidified with nano-cerium (Ce), and applied to reduce the ionic species (e.g., magnesium sulfate) in the desulfurization industrial wastewater. Static batch experiments were performed based on different loading of recycled aggregates. Sulfate sorption isotherm studies were performed by Langmuir adsorption model. The physical morphologies were determined using scanning electron microscope. The results presented that the partial ions were captured with the different loading of the recycled aggregates during the batch tests. It was observed that 8 hr batch reaction equilibrated the electrical conductivity reduction, and 13% mass loading was estimated an optimal dosage of adsorbent. This study showed the nano-Ce loaded RAs could reduce ionic species in wastewater, and expected to be an economical adsorbent for wastewater treatment process. PMID:27433701

  19. Scientists as stakeholders in conservation of hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Godet, Laurent; Zelnio, Kevin A; VAN Dover, Cindy L

    2011-04-01

    Hydrothermal vents are deep-sea ecosystems that are almost exclusively known and explored by scientists rather than the general public. Continuing scientific discoveries arising from study of hydrothermal vents are concommitant with the increased number of scientific cruises visiting and sampling vent ecosystems. Through a bibliometric analysis, we assessed the scientific value of hydrothermal vents relative to two of the most well-studied marine ecosystems, coral reefs and seagrass beds. Scientific literature on hydrothermal vents is abundant, of high impact, international, and interdisciplinary and is comparable in these regards with literature on coral reefs and seagrass beds. Scientists may affect hydrothermal vents because their activities are intense and spatially and temporally concentrated in these small systems. The potential for undesirable effects from scientific enterprise motivated the creation of a code of conduct for environmentally and scientifically benign use of hydrothermal vents for research. We surveyed scientists worldwide engaged in deep-sea research and found that scientists were aware of the code of conduct and thought it was relevant to conservation, but they did not feel informed or confident about the respect other researchers have for the code. Although this code may serve as a reminder of scientists' environmental responsibilities, conservation of particular vents (e.g., closures to human activity, specific human management) may effectively ensure sustainable use of vent ecosystems for all stakeholders.

  20. Aggregate particles in the plumes of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peter; Kopparla, Pushkar; Zhang, Xi; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of the total particulate mass of the plumes of Enceladus are important to constrain theories of particle formation and transport at the surface and interior of the satellite. We revisit the calculations of Ingersoll and Ewald (Ingersoll, A.P., Ewald, S.P. [2011]. Icarus 216(2), 492-506), who estimated the particulate mass of the Enceladus plumes from strongly forward scattered light in Cassini ISS images. We model the plume as a combination of spherical particles and irregular aggregates resulting from the coagulation of spherical monomers, the latter of which allows for plumes of lower particulate mass. Though a continuum of solutions are permitted by the model, the best fits to the ISS data consist either of low mass plumes composed entirely of small aggregates or high mass plumes composed of mostly spheres. The high particulate mass plumes have total particulate masses of (166 ± 42) × 103 kg, consistent with the results of Ingersoll and Ewald (Ingersoll, A.P., Ewald, S.P. [2011]. Icarus 216(2), 492-506). The low particulate mass plumes have masses of (25 ± 4) × 103 kg, leading to a solid to vapor mass ratio of 0.07 ± 0.01 for the plume. If indeed the plumes are made of such aggregates, then a vapor-based origin for the plume particles cannot be ruled out. Finally, we show that the residence time of the monomers inside the plume vents is sufficiently long for Brownian coagulation to form the aggregates before they are ejected to space.

  1. Batch Proving and Proof Scripting in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.

    2007-01-01

    The batch execution modes of PVS are powerful, but highly technical, features of the system that are mostly accessible to expert users. This paper presents a PVS tool, called ProofLite, that extends the theorem prover interface with a batch proving utility and a proof scripting notation. ProofLite enables a semi-literate proving style where specification and proof scripts reside in the same file. The goal of ProofLite is to provide batch proving and proof scripting capabilities to regular, non-expert, users of PVS.

  2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MIXER LOCATED ON SECOND FLOOR OF BATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF MIXER LOCATED ON SECOND FLOOR OF BATCH PLANT. RECENTLY PURCHASED TO REPLACE OLD MIXER. USED TO MIX THE BATCH - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Batch Plant, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  3. DETAIL VIEW OF BATCH CAR, BUILT BY ATLAS CAR & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BATCH CAR, BUILT BY ATLAS CAR & MANUFACTURING COMPANY. BATCH STORAGE SILOS IN BACKGROUND - Chambers Window Glass Company, Batch Plant, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  4. Response of key stress-related genes of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica in the vicinity of submarine volcanic vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauritano, C.; Ruocco, M.; Dattolo, E.; Buia, M. C.; Silva, J.; Santos, R.; Olivé, I.; Costa, M. M.; Procaccini, G.

    2015-07-01

    Submarine volcanic vents are being used as natural laboratories to assess the effects of increased ocean acidity and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on marine organisms and communities. However, in the vicinity of volcanic vents other factors in addition to CO2, which is the main gaseous component of the emissions, may directly or indirectly confound the biota responses to high CO2. Here we used for the first time the expression of antioxidant and stress-related genes of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica to assess the stress levels of the species. Our hypothesis is that unknown factors are causing metabolic stress that may confound the putative effects attributed to CO2 enrichment only. We analyzed the expression of 35 antioxidant and stress-related genes of P. oceanica in the vicinity of submerged volcanic vents located in the islands of Ischia and Panarea, Italy, and compared them with those from control sites away from the influence of vents. Reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to characterize gene expression patterns. Fifty-one percent of genes analyzed showed significant expression changes. Metal detoxification genes were mostly down-regulated in relation to controls at both Ischia and Panarea, indicating that P. oceanica does not increase the synthesis of heavy metal detoxification proteins in response to the environmental conditions present at the two vents. The up-regulation of genes involved in the free radical detoxification response (e.g., CAPX, SODCP and GR) indicates that, in contrast with Ischia, P. oceanica at the Panarea site faces stressors that result in the production of reactive oxygen species, triggering antioxidant responses. In addition, heat shock proteins were also activated at Panarea and not at Ischia. These proteins are activated to adjust stress-accumulated misfolded proteins and prevent their aggregation as a response to some stressors, not necessarily high temperature. This is the first

  5. Aggregations in Flatworms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Hunter, M.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a school project to investigate aggregations in flatworms which may be influenced by light intensity, temperature, and some form of chemical stimulus released by already aggregating flatworms. Such investigations could be adopted to suit many educational levels of science laboratory activities. (DS)

  6. 14 CFR 23.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... from the top part of the expansion space. In addition— (1) Each vent outlet must be located and... or level flight attitudes, unless drainage is provided. Any drain valve installed must be accessible... be arranged to prevent the loss of fuel, except fuel discharged because of thermal expansion,...

  7. 14 CFR 23.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... from the top part of the expansion space. In addition— (1) Each vent outlet must be located and... or level flight attitudes, unless drainage is provided. Any drain valve installed must be accessible... be arranged to prevent the loss of fuel, except fuel discharged because of thermal expansion,...

  8. Wisely use emergency scrubbers with vent systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bravo, F.; Cooper, R.S.; Contreras, D.

    1997-08-01

    Addressing the control of the gas stream constituents from emergency vents and their final disposal is an important consideration for chemical process industries (CPI) plant design and operation. Emergency scrubbing is a practical means of dealing with toxic, dangerous, or corrosive chemical products. The number of scrubber references is considerable and covers particulate and gaseous emissions. Applying scrubbers to mitigate the release of hazardous substances during emergency circumstances has been less well documented. This article reviews both the design and the operational considerations of scrubbers in emergency service.

  9. Treatment of wastewater by batches saves money

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-21

    This paper examines the Sequencing Batch Reactor which treats up to 6 million gal/d of wastewater in the batch mode rather than in the continuous stirred-tank reactor typical of biologically-based systems. It offers several advantages, chief of which is greater control over the biological reaction. The fully automatic system can quickly adapt to changing flow conditions, thereby contributing to the lower operating cost.

  10. Inferential estimation of polymer quality using bootstrap aggregated neural networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J

    1999-07-01

    Inferential estimation of polymer quality in a batch polymerisation reactor using bootstrap aggregated neural networks is studied in this paper. Number average molecular weight and weight average molecular weight are estimated from the on-line measurements of reactor temperature, jacket inlet and outlet temperatures, coolant flow rate through the jacket, monomer conversion, and the initial batch conditions. Bootstrap aggregated neural networks are used to enhance the accuracy and robustness of neural network models built from a limited amount of training data. The training data set is re-sampled using bootstrap re-sampling with replacement to form several sets of training data. For each set of training data, a neural network model is developed. The individual neural networks are then combined together to form a bootstrap aggregated neural network. Determination of appropriate weights for combining individual networks using principal component regression is proposed in this paper. Confidence bounds for neural network predictions can also be obtained using the bootstrapping technique. The techniques have been successfully applied to the simulation of a batch methyl methacrylate polymerisation reactor.

  11. Geomicrobiology of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannasch, Holger W.; Mottl, Michael J.

    1985-08-01

    During the cycling of seawater through the earth's crust along the midocean ridge system, geothermal energy is transferred into chemical energy in the form of reduced inorganic compounds. These compounds are derived from the reaction of seawater with crustal rocks at high temperatures and are emitted from warm (<= 25 degrees C) and hot (~ 350 degrees C) submarine vents at depths of 2000 to 3000 meters. Chemolithotrophic bacteria use these reduced chemical species as sources of energy for the reduction of carbon dioxide (assimilation) to organic carbon. These bacteria form the base of the food chain, which permits copious populations of certain specifically adapted invertebrates to grow in the immediate vicinity of the vents. Such highly prolific, although narrowly localized, deep-sea communities are thus maintained primarily by terrestrial rather than by solar energy. Reduced sulfur compounds appear to represent the major electron donors for aerobic microbial metabolism, but methane-, hydrogen-, iron-, and manganese-oxidizing bacteria have also been found. Methanogenic, sulfur-respiring, and extremely thermophilic isolates carry out anaerobic chemosynthesis. Bacteria grow most abundantly in the shallow crust where upwelling hot, reducing hydrothermal fluid mixes with downwelling cold, oxygenated seawater. The predominant production of biomass, however, is the result of symbiotic associations between chemolithotrophic bacteria and certain invertebrates, which have also been found as fossils in Cretaceous sulfide ores of ophiolite deposits.

  12. Diffuse flow from hydrothermal vents. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Trivett, D.A.

    1991-08-01

    The effluent from a collection of diffuse hydrothermal vents was modelled to determine the fate of the source of flow under typical environmental conditions at seafloor spreading centers. A laboratory simulation was conducted to test an analytic model of diffuse plume rise. The results showed that diffuse plumes are likely to remain near the seafloor, with their maximum rise height scaled with the diameter of the source of diffuse flow. The entrainment of ambient seawater into these plumes is limited by the proximity to the seafloor, thus slowing the rate of dilution. The model of diffuse plume behaviour was used to guide the design and implementation of a scheme for monitoring the flow from diffuse hydrothermal vents in the ocean. A deployment of an array at the Southern Juan de Fuca Ridge yielded measurements of a variety of diffuse plume properties, including total heat output. Two distinct sources of hydrothermal flow were detected during the field deployment. The larger source was 1-1.5km north of the instrument array, and its energy output was 450 + or - 270MW. A smaller source was located 100m east of one instrument in the array. The energy output of the source was 12 + or - 8MW. The rise heights of the centerlines of these plumes were 45m and 10m, respectively.

  13. Geomicrobiology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Jannasch, H W; Mottl, M J

    1985-08-23

    During the cycling of seawater through the earth's crust along the mid-ocean ridge system, geothermal energy is transferred into chemical energy in the form of reduced inorganic compounds. These compounds are derived from the reaction of seawater with crustal rocks at high temperatures and are emitted from warm (vents at depths of 2000 to 3000 meters. Chemolithotrophic bacteria use these reduced chemical species as sources of energy for the reduction of carbon dioxide (assimilation) to organic carbon. These bacteria form the base of the food chain, which permits copious populations of certain specifically adapted invertebrates to grow in the immediate vicinity of the vents. Such highly prolific, although narrowly localized, deep-sea communities are thus maintained primarily by terrestrial rather than by solar energy. Reduced sulfur compounds appear to represent the major electron donors for aerobic microbial metabolism, but methane-, hydrogen-, iron-, and manganese-oxidizing bacteria have also been found. Methanogenic, sulfur-respiring, and extremely thermophilic isolates carry out anaerobic chemosynthesis. Bacteria grow most abundantly in the shallow crust where upwelling hot, reducing hydrothermal fluid mixes with downwelling cold, oxygenated seawater. The predominant production of biomass, however, is the result of symbiotic associations between chemolithotrophic bacteria and certain invertebrates, which have also been found as fossils in Cretaceous sulfide ores of ophiolite deposits.

  14. MAVEN Contamination Venting and Outgassing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Elaine M.; Hughes, David W.; Secunda, Mark S.; Chen, Philip T.; Morrissey, James R.; Riegle, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) is the first mission to focus its study on the Mars upper atmosphere. MAVEN will study the evolution of the Mars atmosphere and climate, by examining the conduit through which the atmosphere has to pass as it is lost to the upper atmosphere. An analysis was performed for the MAVEN mission to address two distinct concerns. The first goal of the analysis was to perform an outgassing study to determine where species outgassed from spacecraft materials would redistribute to and how much of the released material might accumulate on sensitive surfaces. The second portion of the analysis serves to predict what effect, if any, Mars atmospheric gases trapped within the spacecraft could have on instrument measurements when re-released through vents. The re-release of atmospheric gases is of interest to this mission because vented gases from a higher pressure spacecraft interior could bias instrument measurements of the Mars atmosphere depending on the flow rates and directions.

  15. Conceptual design of soil venting systems

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.; Wilson, J.H.; Thomas, C.O.

    1996-05-01

    A method for economically based conceptual design of soil venting systems is described. The objective of this method is to provide a means of estimating the cost and schedule of site cleanup for the purposes of technology selection and for focusing detailed system design. Idealized treatments of contaminant volatilization and flow of gas in the soil are employed to obtain estimates of transient off-gas concentration and the vacuum required at the extraction vents for a given set of site and system design conditions. Capital and operating costs of blowers and emissions control devices are estimated using standard techniques, allowing comparison of the required processing cost for cleanup under various design strategies. The utility of this technique is illustrated for an example case of a 95,000-L (25,000-gal) JP-4 jet fuel spill. The results for this test case indicate that emissions control predictably increases cleanup cost, with carbon adsorption being more costly than catalytic oxidation. This treatment predicts that an optimum flow rate and system size exist for each design strategy at a particular site.

  16. Bathymodiolus growth dynamics in relation to environmental fluctuations in vent habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedoncelle, K.; Lartaud, F.; Contreira Pereira, L.; Yücel, M.; Thurnherr, A. M.; Mullineaux, L.; Le Bris, N.

    2015-12-01

    compared to long-term records of habitat temperature and oceanographic mooring data in the years following the eruption. Both shell growth and habitat temperature at V-vent varied over the spring-neap tidal cycle and over longer periods of c.a. 60 days. The correlation of growth rate with temperature and, for some individuals, with current velocities supports the idea that tidal forcing impacts growth. Its influence on habitat conditions includes the spring-neap cycle, which is not reflected in current velocities but influences the venting rate. Additionally, it is expected that mesoscale eddies periodically passing across the ridge imprint shell growth through the influence of bottom current on the decimeter-thick mixing interface where mussels thrive. We conclude that diurnal-semidiurnal tidal fluctuations exert major abiotic constraints on B. thermophilus mussels and that low-frequency fluctuations act as significant determinants on growth. Finally, we postulate that the modulation of tidal fluctuations by large-scale hydrodynamic forcing ultimately constrains the capacity of this mussel species to form high biomass aggregations. This study indeed shows that the absence of these strong hydrodynamic drivers would limit the alternance of oxic and sulfidic conditions and significantly affect the growth rate of this species over time.

  17. 46 CFR 38.20-1 - Venting-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Venting-T/ALL. 38.20-1 Section 38.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Venting and Ventilation § 38.20-1 Venting—T/ALL. (a) Each safety relief valve installed on a cargo tank shall be connected to...

  18. 46 CFR 38.20-5 - Venting-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Venting-T/ALL. 38.20-5 Section 38.20-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Venting and Ventilation § 38.20-5 Venting—T/ALL. (a) Safety relief valves on cargo tanks in barges may be connected...

  19. 40 CFR 264.1032 - Standards: Process vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Process Vents § 264.1032 Standards: Process vents. (a) The owner or... evaporation, solvent extraction, or air or steam stripping operations managing hazardous wastes with...

  20. 40 CFR 264.1032 - Standards: Process vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Process Vents § 264.1032 Standards: Process vents. (a) The owner or... evaporation, solvent extraction, or air or steam stripping operations managing hazardous wastes with...

  1. 40 CFR 264.1032 - Standards: Process vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Process Vents § 264.1032 Standards: Process vents. (a) The owner or... evaporation, solvent extraction, or air or steam stripping operations managing hazardous wastes with...

  2. 40 CFR 265.1032 - Standards: Process vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Process Vents § 265.1032 Standards: Process vents. (a) The...-film evaporation, solvent extraction or -air or steam stripping operations man-aging haz-ard-ous...

  3. 40 CFR 264.1032 - Standards: Process vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Process Vents § 264.1032 Standards: Process vents. (a) The owner or... evaporation, solvent extraction, or air or steam stripping operations managing hazardous wastes with...

  4. 40 CFR 265.1032 - Standards: Process vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Process Vents § 265.1032 Standards: Process vents. (a) The...-film evaporation, solvent extraction or -air or steam stripping operations man-aging haz-ard-ous...

  5. 40 CFR 265.1032 - Standards: Process vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Process Vents § 265.1032 Standards: Process vents. (a) The...-film evaporation, solvent extraction or -air or steam stripping operations man-aging haz-ard-ous...

  6. 40 CFR 264.1032 - Standards: Process vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Process Vents § 264.1032 Standards: Process vents. (a) The owner or... evaporation, solvent extraction, or air or steam stripping operations managing hazardous wastes with...

  7. 40 CFR 265.1032 - Standards: Process vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Process Vents § 265.1032 Standards: Process vents. (a) The...-film evaporation, solvent extraction or -air or steam stripping operations man-aging haz-ard-ous...

  8. 40 CFR 265.1032 - Standards: Process vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Process Vents § 265.1032 Standards: Process vents. (a) The...-film evaporation, solvent extraction or -air or steam stripping operations man-aging haz-ard-ous...

  9. Thermodynamic Vent System Test in a Low Earth Orbit Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanOverbeke, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    A thermodynamic vent system for a cryogenic nitrogen tank was tested in a vacuum chamber simulating oxygen storage in low earth orbit. The nitrogen tank was surrounded by a cryo-shroud at -40 F. The tank was insulated with two layers of multi-layer insulation. Heat transfer into cryogenic tanks causes phase change and increases tank pressure which must be controlled. A thermodynamic vent system was used to control pressure as the location of vapor is unknown in low gravity and direct venting would be wasteful. The thermodynamic vent system consists of a Joule-Thomson valve and heat exchanger installed on the inlet side of the tank mixer-pump. The combination is used to extract thermal energy from the tank fluid, reducing temperature and ullage pressure. The system was sized so that the tank mixer-pump operated a small fraction of the time to limit motor heating. Initially the mixer used sub-cooled liquid to cool the liquid-vapor interface inducing condensation and pressure reduction. Later, the thermodynamic vent system was used. Pressure cycles were performed until steady-state operation was demonstrated. Three test runs were conducted at tank fills of 97, 80, and 63 percent. Each test was begun with a boil-off test to determine heat transfer into the tank. The lower tank fills had time averaged vent rates very close to steady-state boil-off rates showing the thermodynamic vent system was nearly as efficient as direct venting in normal gravity.

  10. 46 CFR 38.20-5 - Venting-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Venting-T/ALL. 38.20-5 Section 38.20-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Venting and Ventilation § 38.20-5 Venting—T/ALL. (a) Safety relief valves on cargo tanks in barges may be connected...

  11. 46 CFR 38.20-5 - Venting-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Venting-T/ALL. 38.20-5 Section 38.20-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Venting and Ventilation § 38.20-5 Venting—T/ALL. (a) Safety relief valves on cargo tanks in barges may be connected...

  12. 46 CFR 38.20-5 - Venting-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Venting-T/ALL. 38.20-5 Section 38.20-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Venting and Ventilation § 38.20-5 Venting—T/ALL. (a) Safety relief valves on cargo tanks in barges may be connected...

  13. 46 CFR 38.20-5 - Venting-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Venting-T/ALL. 38.20-5 Section 38.20-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Venting and Ventilation § 38.20-5 Venting—T/ALL. (a) Safety relief valves on cargo tanks in barges may be connected...

  14. Hydrogen Vent Ground Umbilical Quick Disconnect - Flight Seal Advanced Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girard, Doug; Jankowski, Fred; Minich, Mark C.; Yu, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This project is a team effort between NASA Engineering (NE) and Team QNA Engineering personnel to provide support for the Umbilical Systems Development project which is funded by Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) and 21st Century Launch Complex. Specifically, this project seeks to develop a new interface between the PPBE baselined Legacy SSP LH2 Vent Arm QD probe and SLS vent seal.

  15. 46 CFR 182.450 - Vent pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (b) The net cross sectional area of the vent pipe for a gasoline fuel tank must not be less than that... thickness, 20 gauge), except that, where the tank is filled under pressure, the net cross sectional area of the vent pipe must be not less than that of the fill pipe. (c) The minimum net cross sectional area...

  16. 46 CFR 182.450 - Vent pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (b) The net cross sectional area of the vent pipe for a gasoline fuel tank must not be less than that... thickness, 20 gauge), except that, where the tank is filled under pressure, the net cross sectional area of the vent pipe must be not less than that of the fill pipe. (c) The minimum net cross sectional area...

  17. Antarctic marine biodiversity and deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Chown, Steven L

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of many marine benthic groups is unlike that of most other taxa. Rather than declining from the tropics to the poles, much of the benthos shows high diversity in the Southern Ocean. Moreover, many species are unique to the Antarctic region. Recent work has shown that this is also true of the communities of Antarctic deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Vent ecosystems have been documented from many sites across the globe, associated with the thermally and chemically variable habitats found around these, typically high temperature, streams that are rich in reduced compounds and polymetallic sulphides. The animal communities of the East Scotia Ridge vent ecosystems are very different to those elsewhere, though the microbiota, which form the basis of vent food webs, show less differentiation. Much of the biological significance of deep-sea hydrothermal vents lies in their biodiversity, the diverse biochemistry of their bacteria, the remarkable symbioses among many of the marine animals and these bacteria, and the prospects that investigations of these systems hold for understanding the conditions that may have led to the first appearance of life. The discovery of diverse and unusual Antarctic hydrothermal vent ecosystems provides opportunities for new understanding in these fields. Moreover, the Antarctic vents south of 60°S benefit from automatic conservation under the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources and the Antarctic Treaty. Other deep-sea hydrothermal vents located in international waters are not protected and may be threatened by growing interests in deep-sea mining.

  18. Where are the undiscovered hydrothermal vents on oceanic spreading ridges?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, Stace E.; Baker, Edward T.; German, Christopher R.

    2015-11-01

    In nearly four decades since the discovery of deep-sea vents, one-third of the length of global oceanic spreading ridges has been surveyed for hydrothermal activity. Active submarine vent fields are now known along the boundaries of 46 out of 52 recognized tectonic plates. Hydrothermal survey efforts over the most recent decade were sparked by national and commercial interests in the mineral resource potential of seafloor hydrothermal deposits, as well as by academic research. Here we incorporate recent data for back-arc spreading centers and ultraslow- and slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges (MORs) to revise a linear equation relating the frequency of vent fields along oceanic spreading ridges to spreading rate. We apply this equation globally to predict a total number of vent fields on spreading ridges, which suggests that ~900 vent fields remain to be discovered. Almost half of these undiscovered vent fields (comparable to the total of all vent fields discovered during 35 years of research) are likely to occur at MORs with full spreading rates less than 60 mm/yr. We then apply the equation regionally to predict where these hydrothermal vents may be discovered with respect to plate boundaries and national jurisdiction, with the majority expected to occur outside of states' exclusive economic zones. We hope that these predictions will prove useful to the community in the future, in helping to shape continuing ridge-crest exploration.

  19. Hermetically sealed galvanic cell having safety vent construction

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, E.J. Jr.

    1984-12-04

    An hermetically sealed galvanic cell having a safety vent assembly comprising a housing having a portion which is inwardly depressed and flexible, which portion surrounds an aperture. The aperture is filled with a layer of glass or ceramic material thus producing an hermetically sealed cell which exhibits increased mechanical strength coupled with reliable venting.

  20. An authoritative global database for active submarine hydrothermal vent fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, Stace E.; Baker, Edward T.; German, Christopher R.; Maffei, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    The InterRidge Vents Database is available online as the authoritative reference for locations of active submarine hydrothermal vent fields. Here we describe the revision of the database to an open source content management system and conduct a meta-analysis of the global distribution of known active vent fields. The number of known active vent fields has almost doubled in the past decade (521 as of year 2009), with about half visually confirmed and others inferred active from physical and chemical clues. Although previously known mainly from mid-ocean ridges (MORs), active vent fields at MORs now comprise only half of the total known, with about a quarter each now known at volcanic arcs and back-arc spreading centers. Discoveries in arc and back-arc settings resulted in an increase in known vent fields within exclusive economic zones, consequently reducing the proportion known in high seas to one third. The increase in known vent fields reflects a number of factors, including increased national and commercial interests in seafloor hydrothermal deposits as mineral resources. The purpose of the database now extends beyond academic research and education and into marine policy and management, with at least 18% of known vent fields in areas granted or pending applications for mineral prospecting and 8% in marine protected areas.

  1. 40 CFR 63.1254 - Standards: Process vents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards: Process vents. 63.1254... Standards for Pharmaceuticals Production § 63.1254 Standards: Process vents. (a) Existing sources. For each...-based emission reduction requirement. (i) Uncontrolled HAP emissions from the sum of all process...

  2. 40 CFR 63.983 - Closed vent systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 63.983 Closed vent systems. (a) Closed vent system equipment and operating... operate a flow indicator that is capable of taking periodic readings. Records shall be generated as... indicator is used, take a reading at least once every 15 minutes. (ii) If the bypass line valve is...

  3. Deep-sea primary production at the Galapagos hydrothermal vents

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, D.M.; Wirsen, C.O.; Jannasch, H.W.

    1980-03-21

    Dense animal populations surrounding recently discovered hydrothermal vents at the Galapagos Rift sea-floor spreading center, 2550 meters deep, are probably sustained by microbial primary production. Energy in the form of geothermically reduced sulfur compounds emitted from the vents is liberated during oxidation and used for the reduction of carbon dioxide to organic matter by chemosynthetic bacteria.

  4. 46 CFR 38.20-1 - Venting-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... special conditions will prevent the vent line header outlets being permanently installed at a height above... such that the back pressure in the relief valve discharge lines shall not be more than 10 percent of... extremely large diameter vent pipe, the back pressure may exceed 10 percent provided: (1) The pressure...

  5. 46 CFR 153.1500 - Venting system rupture disks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....1500 Venting system rupture disks. The master shall ensure that a relief valve exposed to a cargo after the failure of a rupture disk or breaking pin is cleaned and operates properly before the next cargo... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Venting system rupture disks. 153.1500 Section...

  6. 46 CFR 153.1500 - Venting system rupture disks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....1500 Venting system rupture disks. The master shall ensure that a relief valve exposed to a cargo after the failure of a rupture disk or breaking pin is cleaned and operates properly before the next cargo... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Venting system rupture disks. 153.1500 Section...

  7. 46 CFR 153.1500 - Venting system rupture disks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....1500 Venting system rupture disks. The master shall ensure that a relief valve exposed to a cargo after the failure of a rupture disk or breaking pin is cleaned and operates properly before the next cargo... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Venting system rupture disks. 153.1500 Section...

  8. 46 CFR 153.1500 - Venting system rupture disks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....1500 Venting system rupture disks. The master shall ensure that a relief valve exposed to a cargo after the failure of a rupture disk or breaking pin is cleaned and operates properly before the next cargo... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Venting system rupture disks. 153.1500 Section...

  9. 46 CFR 153.1500 - Venting system rupture disks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....1500 Venting system rupture disks. The master shall ensure that a relief valve exposed to a cargo after the failure of a rupture disk or breaking pin is cleaned and operates properly before the next cargo... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Venting system rupture disks. 153.1500 Section...

  10. Vents to the north of the south elevation, note the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vents to the north of the south elevation, note the hooded vents along the elevation - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Christmas Valley Radar Site Transmit Sector Six Transmitter Building, On unnamed road west of Lost Forest Road, Christmas Valley, Lake County, OR

  11. Vented piston seal prevents fluid leakage between two chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Glashan, W. F.; Morrison, R.

    1964-01-01

    To prevent fluid leakage around piston seals separating two fluids under differential pressure, a venting system has been devised. Two methods may be used for venting seals through internal passages to an external low-pressure area, O-ring or split-ring seals.

  12. Dispersal mechanisms of deep-sea hydrothermal vent fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullineaux, Lauren S.; France, Scott C.

    Species living at hydrothermal vents are faced with the problem of how to maintain their populations in a habitat that is patchy and ephemeral on time scales as short as decades. Because active hydrothermal venting is essential for the survival of vent communities, species must be capable of dispersing to a new location before a local vent closes. Many vent species are sessile or have limited mobility as adults, so dispersal can occur only in the larval stage of their life cycle. Larvae are typically small and are relatively weak swimmers, but they can potentially be transported long distances in oceanic currents. The range and frequency of larval dispersal influence how far away and how quickly a species can colonize a new vent habitat (i.e., will it be an opportunistic pioneer colonist or a later arrival), and constrain the amount of genetic exchange among existing vent populations. If dispersal between vent habitats is consistently impeded by geographic or physiological barriers, then gene flow will be reduced. Such barriers to dispersal can result in setting boundaries to a species' range and in genetic differentiation between previously interbreeding populations.

  13. Aggregate and the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sachs, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to help you understand our aggregate resources-their importance, where they come from, how they are processed for our use, the environmental concerns related to their mining and processing, how those concerns are addressed, and the policies and regulations designed to safeguard workers, neighbors, and the environment from the negative impacts of aggregate mining. We hope this understanding will help prepare you to be involved in decisions that need to be made-individually and as a society-to be good stewards of our aggregate resources and our living planet.

  14. Staged venting of fuel cell system during rapid shutdown

    DOEpatents

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2004-09-14

    A venting methodology and system for rapid shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in a vehicle propulsion system. H.sub.2 and air flows to the fuel cell stack are slowly bypassed to the combustor upon receipt of a rapid shutdown command. The bypass occurs over a period of time (for example one to five seconds) using conveniently-sized bypass valves. Upon receipt of the rapid shutdown command, the anode inlet of the fuel cell stack is instantaneously vented to a remote vent to remove all H.sub.2 from the stack. Airflow to the cathode inlet of the fuel cell stack gradually diminishes over the bypass period, and when the airflow bypass is complete the cathode inlet is also instantaneously vented to a remote vent to eliminate pressure differentials across the stack.

  15. Staged venting of fuel cell system during rapid shutdown

    DOEpatents

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Doan, Tien M.; Keskula, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    A venting methodology and system for rapid shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in a vehicle propulsion system. H.sub.2 and air flows to the fuel cell stack are slowly bypassed to the combustor upon receipt of a rapid shutdown command. The bypass occurs over a period of time (for example one to five seconds) using conveniently-sized bypass valves. Upon receipt of the rapid shutdown command, the anode inlet of the fuel cell stack is instantaneously vented to a remote vent to remove all H.sub.2 from the stack. Airflow to the cathode inlet of the fuel cell stack gradually diminishes over the bypass period, and when the airflow bypass is complete the cathode inlet is also instantaneously vented to a remote vent to eliminate pressure differentials across the stack.

  16. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  17. In situ venting of jet fuel-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, M.G.; DePaoli, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Air Force Engineering and Services center is performing a field demonstration of in situ soil venting at a 27,000-gallon jet fuel spill site at Hill AFB UT. In situ soil venting is a soil cleanup technique which uses vacuum blowers to pull large volumes of air through contaminated soil. The air flow sweeps out the soil gas, disrupting the equilibrium existing between the contaminants on the soil and in the vapor. This causes volatilization of the contaminants and subsequent removal in the air stream. In situ soil venting has been used for removing volatile contaminants such as gasoline and trichloroethylene, but a full-scale demonstration for removing jet fuel from soil has not been reported. This paper describes our initial site characterization, the one-vent pilot test, and the design and preliminary results of our full-scale in situ soil venting system. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  18. 40 CFR 63.118 - Process vent provisions-periodic reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.118 Process vent provisions—periodic reporting and recordkeeping requirements....

  19. 40 CFR 63.118 - Process vent provisions-periodic reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.118 Process vent provisions—periodic reporting and recordkeeping requirements....

  20. 40 CFR 63.118 - Process vent provisions-periodic reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.118 Process vent provisions—periodic reporting and recordkeeping requirements....

  1. Diffuse versus discrete venting at the Tour Eiffel vent site, Lucky Strike hydrothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstaedt, E. L.; Escartin, J.; Gracias, N.; Olive, J. L.; Barreyre, T.; Davaille, A. B.; Cannat, M.

    2010-12-01

    Two styles of fluid flow at the seafloor are widely recognized: (1) localized outflows of high temperature (>300°C) fluids, often black or grey color in color (“black smokers”) and (2) diffuse, lower temperature (<100°C), fluids typically transparent and which escape through fractures, porous rock, and sediment. The partitioning of heat flux between these two types of hydrothermal venting is debated and estimates of the proportion of heat carried by diffuse flow at ridge axes range from 20% to 90% of the total axial heat flux. Here, we attempt to improve estimates of this partitioning by carefully characterizing the heat fluxes carried by diffuse and discrete flows at a single vent site, Tour Eiffel in the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Fluid temperature and video data were acquired during the recent Bathyluck’09 cruise to the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field (September, 2009) by Victor aboard “Pourquoi Pas?” (IFREMER, France). Temperature measurements were made of fluid exiting discrete vents, of diffuse effluents immediately above the seafloor, and of vertical temperature gradients within discrete hydrothermal plumes. Video data allow us to calculate the fluid velocity field associated with these outflows: for diffuse fluids, Diffuse Flow Velocimetry tracks the displacement of refractive index anomalies through time; for individual hydrothermal plumes, Particle Image Velocimetry tracks eddies by cross-correlation of pixels intensities between subsequent images. Diffuse fluids exhibit temperatures of 8-60°C and fluid velocities of ~1-10 cm s-1. Discrete outflows at 204-300°C have velocities of ~1-2 m s-1. Combined fluid flow velocities, temperature measurements, and full image mosaics of the actively venting areas are used to estimate heat flux of both individual discrete vents and diffuse outflow. The total integrated heat flux and the partitioning between diffuse and discrete venting at Tour Eiffel, and its

  2. A population balance equation model of aggregation dynamics in Taxus suspension cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Kolewe, Martin E; Roberts, Susan C; Henson, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    The nature of plant cells to grow as multicellular aggregates in suspension culture has profound effects on bioprocess performance. Recent advances in the measurement of plant cell aggregate size allow for routine process monitoring of this property. We have exploited this capability to develop a conceptual model to describe changes in the aggregate size distribution that are observed over the course of a Taxus cell suspension batch culture. We utilized the population balance equation framework to describe plant cell aggregates as a particulate system, accounting for the relevant phenomenological processes underlying aggregation, such as growth and breakage. We compared model predictions to experimental data to select appropriate kernel functions, and found that larger aggregates had a higher breakage rate, biomass was partitioned asymmetrically following a breakage event, and aggregates grew exponentially. Our model was then validated against several datasets with different initial aggregate size distributions and was able to quantitatively predict changes in total biomass and mean aggregate size, as well as actual size distributions. We proposed a breakage mechanism where a fraction of biomass was lost upon each breakage event, and demonstrated that even though smaller aggregates have been shown to produce more paclitaxel, an optimum breakage rate was predicted for maximum paclitaxel accumulation. We believe this is the first model to use a segregated, corpuscular approach to describe changes in the size distribution of plant cell aggregates, and represents an important first step in the design of rational strategies to control aggregation and optimize process performance.

  3. Submarine radial vents on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanless, V. Dorsey; Garcia, M.O.; Trusdell, F.A.; Rhodes, J.M.; Norman, M.D.; Weis, Dominique; Fornari, D.J.; Kurz, M.D.; Guillou, Herve

    2006-01-01

    A 2002 multibeam sonar survey of Mauna Loa's western flank revealed ten submarine radial vents and three submarine lava flows. Only one submarine radial vent was known previously. The ages of these vents are constrained by eyewitness accounts, geologic relationships, Mn-Fe coatings, and geochemical stratigraphy; they range from 128 years B.P. to possibly 47 ka. Eight of the radial vents produced degassed lavas despite eruption in water depths sufficient to inhibit sulfur degassing. These vents formed truncated cones and short lava flows. Two vents produced undegassed lavas that created “irregular” cones and longer lava flows. Compositionally and isotopically, the submarine radial vent lavas are typical of Mauna Loa lavas, except two cones that erupted alkalic lavas. He-Sr isotopes for the radial vent lavas follow Mauna Loa's evolutionary trend. The compositional and isotopic heterogeneity of these lavas indicates most had distinct parental magmas. Bathymetry and acoustic backscatter results, along with photography and sampling during four JASON2 dives, are used to produce a detailed geologic map to evaluate Mauna Loa's submarine geologic history. The new map shows that the 1877 submarine eruption was much larger than previously thought, resulting in a 10% increase for recent volcanism. Furthermore, although alkalic lavas were found at two radial vents, there is no systematic increase in alkalinity among these or other Mauna Loa lavas as expected for a dying volcano. These results refute an interpretation that Mauna Loa's volcanism is waning. The submarine radial vents and flows cover 29 km2 of seafloor and comprise a total volume of ∼2×109 m3 of lava, reinforcing the idea that submarine lava eruptions are important in the growth of oceanic island volcanoes even after they emerged above sea level.

  4. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  5. Cell aggregation and sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Davis, R H

    1995-01-01

    The aggregation of cells into clumps or flocs has been exploited for decades in such applications as biological wastewater treatment, beer brewing, antibiotic fermentation, and enhanced sedimentation to aid in cell recovery or retention. More recent research has included the use of cell aggregation and sedimentation to selectively separate subpopulations of cells. Potential biotechnological applications include overcoming contamination, maintaining plasmid-bearing cells in continuous fermentors, and selectively removing nonviable hybridoma cells from perfusion cultures.

  6. 21 CFR 211.188 - Batch production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Batch production and control records. 211.188... Reports § 211.188 Batch production and control records. Batch production and control records shall be prepared for each batch of drug product produced and shall include complete information relating to...

  7. 21 CFR 211.188 - Batch production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Batch production and control records. 211.188... Reports § 211.188 Batch production and control records. Batch production and control records shall be prepared for each batch of drug product produced and shall include complete information relating to...

  8. 21 CFR 211.188 - Batch production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Batch production and control records. 211.188... Reports § 211.188 Batch production and control records. Batch production and control records shall be prepared for each batch of drug product produced and shall include complete information relating to...

  9. 21 CFR 211.188 - Batch production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Batch production and control records. 211.188... Reports § 211.188 Batch production and control records. Batch production and control records shall be prepared for each batch of drug product produced and shall include complete information relating to...

  10. 21 CFR 211.188 - Batch production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Batch production and control records. 211.188... Reports § 211.188 Batch production and control records. Batch production and control records shall be prepared for each batch of drug product produced and shall include complete information relating to...

  11. A Batch Feeder for Inhomogeneous Bulk Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vislov, I. S.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.; Bogdan, A. M.

    2016-04-01

    The work includes the mechanical analysis of mechanical feeders and batchers that find application in various technological processes and industrial fields. Feeders are usually classified according to their design features into two groups: conveyor-type feeders and non-conveyor feeders. Batchers are used to batch solid bulk materials. Less frequently, they are used for liquids. In terms of a batching method, they are divided into volumetric and weighting batchers. Weighting batchers do not provide for sufficient batching accuracy. Automatic weighting batchers include a mass controlling sensor and systems for automatic material feed and automatic mass discharge control. In terms of operating principle, batchers are divided into gravitational batchers and batchers with forced feed of material using conveyors and pumps. Improved consumption of raw materials, decreased loss of materials, ease of use in automatic control systems of industrial facilities allows increasing the quality of technological processes and improve labor conditions. The batch feeder suggested by the authors is a volumetric batcher that has no comparable counterparts among conveyor-type feeders and allows solving the problem of targeted feeding of bulk material batches increasing reliability and hermeticity of the device.

  12. Deep-Sea Hydrothermal-Vent Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Venkateswaran, Kasthur; Matthews, Jaret B.

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus is being developed for sampling water for signs of microbial life in an ocean hydrothermal vent at a depth of as much as 6.5 km. Heretofore, evidence of microbial life in deep-sea hydrothermal vents has been elusive and difficult to validate. Because of the extreme conditions in these environments (high pressures and temperatures often in excess of 300 C), deep-sea hydrothermal- vent samplers must be robust. Because of the presumed low density of biomass of these environments, samplers must be capable of collecting water samples of significant volume. It is also essential to prevent contamination of samples by microbes entrained from surrounding waters. Prior to the development of the present apparatus, no sampling device was capable of satisfying these requirements. The apparatus (see figure) includes an intake equipped with a temperature probe, plus several other temperature probes located away from the intake. The readings from the temperature probes are utilized in conjunction with readings from flowmeters to determine the position of the intake relative to the hydrothermal plume and, thereby, to position the intake to sample directly from the plume. Because it is necessary to collect large samples of water in order to obtain sufficient microbial biomass but it is not practical to retain all the water from the samples, four filter arrays are used to concentrate the microbial biomass (which is assumed to consist of particles larger than 0.2 m) into smaller volumes. The apparatus can collect multiple samples per dive and is designed to process a total volume of 10 L of vent fluid, of which most passes through the filters, leaving a total possibly-microbe-containing sample volume of 200 mL remaining in filters. A rigid titanium nose at the intake is used for cooling the sample water before it enters a flexible inlet hose connected to a pump. As the water passes through the titanium nose, it must be cooled to a temperature that is above a mineral

  13. Venting of CO2 at Enceladus’ Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Dennis L.; Davies, Ashley G.; Johnson, Torrence V.; Combe, Jean-Philippe; McCord, Tom B.; Radebaugh, Jani

    2015-11-01

    Enceladus has CO2 surface deposits in its South Polar Region that have been recently mapped by J.-P. Combe et al. (2015 AGU Fall Meeting). Assuming that these are CO2 frost, we show how they can be formed. We use an ocean-water circulation model [1] that specifies pressure gradients that drive water to the surface from a relatively gas-rich, subsurface ocean. We now examine the movement of CO2 to the surface; formation of shallow CO2 gas pockets in the ice; and the venting of CO2, when at least some of the gas freezes to form frost. If the local heat flow is known (cf. [2]), then the depths of the corresponding gas pockets can be calculated. References: [1] Matson et al. (2012) Icarus, 221, 53-62. [2] Howett et al. (2011) J. Geophys. Res. 116, E03003. Acknowledgements: AGD thanks the NASA OPR Program for support.

  14. Kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of olive oil in batch and fed-batch systems.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Paloma Souza; Filho, Arion Zandoná; Voll, Fernando Augusto Pedersen; Corazza, Marcos Lúcio

    2014-07-01

    This work reports experimental data, kinetic modeling, and simulations of enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of olive oil. This reaction was performed in batch system and an ordered-sequential Bi Bi model was used to model the kinetic mechanism. A fed-batch system was proposed and experimental data were obtained and compared to the simulated values. The kinetic model used was able to correlate the experimental data, in which a satisfactory agreement between the experimental data and modeling results was obtained under different enzyme concentration and initial free water content. Therefore, the modeling allowed a better understanding of the reaction kinetics and affords a fed-batch simulation for this system. From the results obtained, it was observed that the fed-batch approach showed to be more advantageous when compared to the conventional batch system. PMID:24793196

  15. Kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of olive oil in batch and fed-batch systems.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Paloma Souza; Filho, Arion Zandoná; Voll, Fernando Augusto Pedersen; Corazza, Marcos Lúcio

    2014-07-01

    This work reports experimental data, kinetic modeling, and simulations of enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of olive oil. This reaction was performed in batch system and an ordered-sequential Bi Bi model was used to model the kinetic mechanism. A fed-batch system was proposed and experimental data were obtained and compared to the simulated values. The kinetic model used was able to correlate the experimental data, in which a satisfactory agreement between the experimental data and modeling results was obtained under different enzyme concentration and initial free water content. Therefore, the modeling allowed a better understanding of the reaction kinetics and affords a fed-batch simulation for this system. From the results obtained, it was observed that the fed-batch approach showed to be more advantageous when compared to the conventional batch system.

  16. Previously unsuspected dietary habits of hydrothermal vent fauna: the bactivorous shrimp Rimicaris hybisae can be carnivorous or even cannibalistic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteegh, Emma; Van Dover, Cindy; Coleman, Max

    2014-05-01

    Most hydrothermal vents support productive communities, with chemosynthetic bacteria at the base of the food web. They form a potentially important link in global geochemical cycles. However, few data yet exist on their significance in ocean biogeochemistry and related ecological processes. We present results on the structure of part of the food web around hydrothermal vents of the Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR), revealing previously unknown life-history traits of the alvinocarid shrimp species Rimicaris hybisae. We also demonstrate that stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C values) are an excellent tracer of trophic positions in these ecosystems, in spite of recent findings arguing otherwise. Two hydrothermal vent fields have been described at the ultra-slow spreading ridge of the MCR. These include the world's deepest hydrothermal vents (Piccard field ~4985 m), which support a food web, which includes bactivorous shrimp and carnivorous anemones. The nearby Von Damm vent field (~2300 m) supports a more complex food web, with more primary producers, and probably some influx of photosynthetically produced carbon. Rimicaris hybisae is abundant at both known MCR vent fields and shows a high degree of spatial variability in population structure and reproductive features. In previous work it has been considered bactivorous. Large variations in tissue δ13C values remained largely unexplained, and it has been argued that δ13C values are not a good food web tracer in hydrothermal vent ecosystems. We observed that shrimp tended to be either in dense aggregations on active chimneys or more sparsely distributed, peripheral shrimp in ambient or near-ambient temperatures. With the hypothesis that varying δ13C values show real differences in food sources between individuals and that shrimp in different locales might have different diets, we collected shrimp from both environments at the Von Damm site during E/V Nautilus (NA034, August 2013) and examined their gut contents. Stomach

  17. Frozen Fractals All Around: Aggregate Particles in the Plumes of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, P.; Kopparla, P.; Zhang, X.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Estimates of the total particulate mass of the plumes of Enceladus are important to constrain theories of particle formation and transport at the surface and interior of the satellite. We revisit the calculations of Ingersoll & Ewald (2011), who estimated the particulate mass of the Enceladus plumes from strongly forward scattered light in Cassini ISS images. We model the plume as a combination of spherical particles and irregular aggregates resulting from the coagulation of spherical monomers, the latter of which allows for plumes of lower particulate mass. Though a continuum of solutions are permitted by the model, the best fits to the ISS data consist either of low mass plumes composed entirely of small aggregates or high mass plumes composed of large aggregates and spheres. The high mass plumes can be divided into a population of large aggregates with total particulate mass of 116 ± 12 × 103 kg, and a mixed population of spheres and aggregates consisting of a few large monomers that has a total plume particulate mass of 166 ± 42 × 103 kg, consistent with the results of Ingersoll & Ewald (2011). Meanwhile, the low particulate mass aggregate plumes have masses of 25 ± 4 × 103 kg, leading to a solid to vapor mass ratio of 0.07 ± 0.01 for the plume. If indeed the plumes are made of such aggregates, then a vapor-based origin for the plume particles is possible. The process of aggregate formation by the coagulation of monomers, which depends on the bulk monomer number density inside the plume vents, requires a total plume vent cross sectional area of at most 1800 m2 to allow for the aggregates to form before the monomers are ejected into space. Differentiation between the high mass and low mass solutions may be possible if forward scattering observations are taken at scattering angles <2°, or else an independent plume particulate mass measurement becomes available.

  18. Sample displacement batch chromatography of proteins.

    PubMed

    Kotasinska, Marta; Richter, Verena; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Schlüter, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    In downstream processing large scale chromatography plays an important role. For its development screening experiments followed by pilot plant chromatography are mandatory steps. Here we describe fast, simple, and inexpensive methods for establishing a preparative chromatography for the separation of complex protein mixtures, based on sample displacement batch chromatography. The methods are demonstrated by anion-exchange chromatography of a human plasma protein fraction (Cohn IV-4), including the screening step and scaling up of the chromatography by a factor of 100. The results of the screening experiments and the preparative chromatography are monitored by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. In summary we provide a protocol which should be easily adaptable for the chromatographic large scale purification of other proteins, in the laboratory as well as in industry for commercial manufacturing. For the latter these protocols cover the initial piloting steps for establishing a sample batch chromatography based on packed columns rather than batch chromatography. PMID:24648085

  19. Fibronectin Aggregation and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Tomoo; Erickson, Harold P.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of fibronectin (FN) assembly and the self-association sites are still unclear and contradictory, although the N-terminal 70-kDa region (I1–9) is commonly accepted as one of the assembly sites. We previously found that I1–9 binds to superfibronectin, which is an artificial FN aggregate induced by anastellin. In the present study, we found that I1–9 bound to the aggregate formed by anastellin and a small FN fragment, III1–2. An engineered disulfide bond in III2, which stabilizes folding, inhibited aggregation, but a disulfide bond in III1 did not. A gelatin precipitation assay showed that I1–9 did not interact with anastellin, III1, III2, III1–2, or several III1–2 mutants including III1–2KADA. (In contrast to previous studies, we found that the III1–2KADA mutant was identical in conformation to wild-type III1–2.) Because I1–9 only bound to the aggregate and the unfolding of III2 played a role in aggregation, we generated a III2 domain that was destabilized by deletion of the G strand. This mutant bound I1–9 as shown by the gelatin precipitation assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis, and it inhibited FN matrix assembly when added to cell culture. Next, we introduced disulfide mutations into full-length FN. Three disulfide locks in III2, III3, and III11 were required to dramatically reduce anastellin-induced aggregation. When we tested the disulfide mutants in cell culture, only the disulfide bond in III2 reduced the FN matrix. These results suggest that the unfolding of III2 is one of the key factors for FN aggregation and assembly. PMID:21949131

  20. Measurement of the velocity field behind the automotive vent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ležovič, Tomáš; Lízal, František; Jedelský, Jan; Jícha, Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Passenger comfort in a personal vehicle cabin strongly depends on the appropriate function of the cabin ventilation system. Great attention is therefore paid to the effective functioning of the automotive vents. Various techniques can be employed to evaluate the proper formation of the flow behind the ventilation outlet. Constant Temperature Anemometry (CTA) was used in our case for accurate measurement of the velocity field and consequent assessment of jet boundaries and jet axis. A novel methodology has been developed for the simulation of realistic conditions when using just a single vent under laboratory conditions instead of the complete vehicle ventilation system. A special technique has also been developed for determination of the terminal inclination angles of vent vanes for the particular vent type, which can be completely closed by the adjustable horizontal vanes. A two wire CTA probe was used for measurement of the actual velocity over predefined planes, which were specified according to smoke visualization. Mean velocities and the turbulence intensity were evaluated on the basis of the obtained data and are presented in a form of charts. Both jet boundary and orientation of the jet for a given setup of the vent are important characteristics of particular vent type. Effectiveness of different vents could be compared using our methodology and hence contribute to development of advanced ventilation system.

  1. 40 CFR 63.1325 - Batch process vents-performance test methods and procedures to determine compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... burning hazardous waste for which the owner or operator: (i) Has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (ii) Has certified compliance with the interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (5) A hazardous...

  2. 40 CFR 63.490 - Batch front-end process vents-performance test methods and procedures to determine compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (ii) Has certified compliance with the interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (5) A hazardous waste incinerator for which the owner or operator has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1325 - Batch process vents-performance test methods and procedures to determine compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... burning hazardous waste for which the owner or operator: (i) Has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (ii) Has certified compliance with the interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (5) A hazardous...

  4. 40 CFR 63.490 - Batch front-end process vents-performance test methods and procedures to determine compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (ii) Has certified compliance with the interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (5) A hazardous waste incinerator for which the owner or operator has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1325 - Batch process vents-performance test methods and procedures to determine compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... burning hazardous waste for which the owner or operator: (i) Has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (ii) Has certified compliance with the interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (5) A hazardous...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1325 - Batch process vents-performance test methods and procedures to determine compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... burning hazardous waste for which the owner or operator: (i) Has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (ii) Has certified compliance with the interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (5) A hazardous...

  7. 40 CFR 63.490 - Batch front-end process vents-performance test methods and procedures to determine compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (ii) Has certified compliance with the interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (5) A hazardous waste incinerator for which the owner or operator has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part...

  8. 40 CFR 63.490 - Batch front-end process vents-performance test methods and procedures to determine compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (ii) Has certified compliance with the interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (5) A hazardous waste incinerator for which the owner or operator has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part...

  9. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ffff of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Batch Process Vents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... halogen reduction device after the combustion control device; or i. Reduce overall emissions of hydrogen halide and halogen HAP by ≥99 percent; orii. Reduce overall emissions of hydrogen halide and halogen HAP to ≤0.45 kg/hr; or iii. Reduce overall emissions of hydrogen halide and halogen HAP to...

  10. 40 CFR 63.488 - Methods and procedures for batch front-end process vent group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 40 CFR part 60, appendix A is used to determine gas stream volumetric flow rate. (ii) Annual average..., 2A, 2C, or 2D of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as appropriate. (ii) The volumetric flow rate of a... using Equation 15. ER05SE96.015 where: CFR=Cutoff flow rate, scmm. AE=Annual TOC or organic...

  11. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ffff of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Batch Process Vents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... halogen reduction device after the combustion control device; or i. Reduce overall emissions of hydrogen halide and halogen HAP by ≥99 percent; orii. Reduce overall emissions of hydrogen halide and halogen HAP to ≤0.45 kg/hr; or iii. Reduce overall emissions of hydrogen halide and halogen HAP to...

  12. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ffff of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Batch Process Vents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to control organic HAP emissions a. Use a halogen reduction device after the combustion control device; or i. Reduce overall emissions of hydrogen halide and halogen HAP by ≥99 percent; orii. Reduce overall emissions of hydrogen halide and halogen HAP to ≤0.45 kg/hr; or iii. Reduce overall emissions...

  13. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ffff of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Batch Process Vents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to control organic HAP emissions a. Use a halogen reduction device after the combustion control device; or i. Reduce overall emissions of hydrogen halide and halogen HAP by ≥99 percent; orii. Reduce overall emissions of hydrogen halide and halogen HAP to ≤0.45 kg/hr; or iii. Reduce overall emissions...

  14. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Batch Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regeneration cycle(s), and 1. Record of total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow for each carbon bed... carbon bed regeneration cycle during the performance test—NCS. c 3. Report all carbon bed regeneration... 15 minutes of completing any cooling cycle(s) 1. Record the temperature of the carbon bed after...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1325 - Batch process vents-performance test methods and procedures to determine compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... burning hazardous waste for which the owner or operator: (i) Has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (ii) Has certified compliance with the interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (5) A hazardous...

  16. 40 CFR 63.490 - Batch front-end process vents-performance test methods and procedures to determine compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (ii) Has certified compliance with the interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (5) A hazardous waste incinerator for which the owner or operator has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part...

  17. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Batch Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... instances when monitoring data are not collected. e Boiler or Process Heater with a design heat input... all instances when monitoring data are not collected—PR. d,e If a base absorbent is used, report all pH values that are below the minimum operating values. If an acid absorbent is used, report all...

  18. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Batch Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regeneration cycle(s), and 1. Record of total regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow for each carbon bed... carbon bed regeneration cycle during the performance test—NCS. c 3. Report all carbon bed regeneration... 15 minutes of completing any cooling cycle(s) 1. Record the temperature of the carbon bed after...

  19. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ffff of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Batch Process Vents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... device; or i. Reduce overall emissions of hydrogen halide and halogen HAP by ≥99 percent; orii. Reduce overall emissions of hydrogen halide and halogen HAP to ≤0.45 kg/hr; or iii. Reduce overall emissions of hydrogen halide and halogen HAP to a concentration ≤20 ppmv. b. Use a halogen reduction device before...

  20. Biogeography of hydrothermal vent communities along seafloor spreading centers.

    PubMed

    Van Dover, C L

    1990-08-01

    Compared to terrestrial and shallow-water habitats, deep-sea hydrothermal vents are unique environments characterized by their local insularity, global distribution, individual ephemerality, collective geological longevity, geochemical homogeneity, and their physical and energetic isolation from the catastrophic events implicated in the extinction and speciation of terrestrial and shallow-water forms. Development of vent communities has thus occurred in novel biogeographical contexts that challenge our ability to understand evolutionary processes in the deep sea. Recent field work by French, Canadian, German, Japanese and American scientists has revealed intriguing patterns in the taxonomic composition and distribution of vent organisms at geographically disjunct study sites.

  1. Biogeography of hydrothermal vent communities along seafloor spreading centers.

    PubMed

    Van Dover, C L

    1990-08-01

    Compared to terrestrial and shallow-water habitats, deep-sea hydrothermal vents are unique environments characterized by their local insularity, global distribution, individual ephemerality, collective geological longevity, geochemical homogeneity, and their physical and energetic isolation from the catastrophic events implicated in the extinction and speciation of terrestrial and shallow-water forms. Development of vent communities has thus occurred in novel biogeographical contexts that challenge our ability to understand evolutionary processes in the deep sea. Recent field work by French, Canadian, German, Japanese and American scientists has revealed intriguing patterns in the taxonomic composition and distribution of vent organisms at geographically disjunct study sites. PMID:21232364

  2. Visualization of the air flow behind the automotive benchmark vent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pech, Ondrej; Jedelsky, Jan; Caletka, Petr; Jicha, Miroslav

    2015-05-01

    Passenger comfort in cars depends on appropriate function of the cabin HVAC system. A great attention is therefore paid to the effective function of automotive vents and proper formation of the flow behind the ventilation outlet. The article deals with the visualization of air flow from the automotive benchmark vent. The visualization was made for two different shapes of the inlet channel connected to the benchmark vent. The smoke visualization with the laser knife was used. The influence of the shape of the inlet channel to the airflow direction, its enlargement and position of air flow axis were investigated.

  3. Production of nattokinase by batch and fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Han; Song, Jae Yong; Kim, Kyung Mi; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, In Young; Kim, Sang Bum; Kim, Hyeon Shup; Han, Nam Soo; Lee, Bong Hee; Kim, Beom Soo

    2010-09-30

    Nattokinase was produced by batch and fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis in flask and fermentor. Effect of supplementing complex media (peptone, yeast extract, or tryptone) was investigated on the production of nattokinase. In flask culture, the highest cell growth and nattokinase activity were obtained with 50 g/L of peptone supplementation. In this condition, nattokinase activity was 630 unit/ml at 12 h. In batch culture of B. subtilis in fermentor, the highest nattokinase activity of 3400 unit/ml was obtained at 10h with 50 g/L of peptone supplementation. From the batch kinetics data, it was shown that nattokinase production was growth-associated and culture should be harvested before stationary phase for maximum nattokinase production. In fed-batch culture of B. subtilis using pH-stat feeding strategy, cell growth (optical density monitored at 600 nm) increased to ca. 100 at 22 h, which was 2.5 times higher than that in batch culture. The highest nattokinase activity was 7100 unit/ml at 19 h, which was also 2.1 times higher than that in batch culture.

  4. 40 CFR 63.7892 - What are my inspection and monitoring requirements for process vents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for process vents? 63.7892 Section 63.7892 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Process Vents § 63.7892 What are my inspection and monitoring requirements for process vents? For each closed vent system and control device you use to comply with § 63.7890(b), you must monitor and...

  5. 40 CFR 265.1060 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Closed-vent systems and...: Closed-vent systems and control devices. (a) Owners and operators of closed-vent systems and control... owner or operator of an existing facility who can not install a closed-vent system and control device...

  6. 40 CFR 63.172 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... olfactory indications of leaks. (2) If the vapor collection system or closed-vent system is constructed of... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Closed-vent systems and... Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices. (a) Owners or operators of closed-vent systems...

  7. Technology meets aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Swan, C.

    2007-07-01

    New technology carried out at Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts on synthetic lightweight aggregate has created material from various qualities of fly ash from coal-fired power plants for use in different engineered applications. In pilot scale manufacturing tests an 'SLA' containing 80% fly ash and 20% mixed plastic waste from packaging was produced by 'dry blending' mixed plastic with high carbon fly ash. A trial run was completed to produce concrete masonry unit (CMU) blocks at a full-scale facility. It has been shown that SLA can be used as a partial substitution of a traditional stone aggregate in hot asphalt mix. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  8. Optimal operation of multivessel batch distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Furlonge, H.I.; Pantelides, C.C.; Soerensen, E.

    1999-04-01

    Increased interest in unconventional batch distillation column configurations offers new opportunities for increasing the flexibility and energy efficiency of batch distillation. One configuration of particular interest is the multivessel column, which can be viewed as a generalization of all previously studied batch column configurations. A detailed dynamic model was used for comparing various optimal operating policies for a batch distillation column with two intermediate vessels. A wide variety of degrees of freedom including reflux ratios, product withdrawal rates, heat input to the reboiler, and initial feed distribution were considered. A mixture consisting of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and n-butanol was studied using an objective function relating to the economics of the column operation. Optimizing the initial distribution of the feed among the vessels improved column performance significantly. For some separations, withdrawing product from the vessels into accumulators was better than total reflux operation in terms of energy consumption. Open-loop optimal operation was also compared to a recently proposed feedback control strategy where the controller parameters are optimized. The energy consumption of a regular column was about twice that of a multivessel column having the same number of stages.

  9. JOB BUILDER remote batch processing subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlov, I. G.; Orlova, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The functions of the JOB BUILDER remote batch processing subsystem are described. Instructions are given for using it as a component of a display system developed by personnel of the System Programming Laboratory, Institute of Space Research, USSR Academy of Sciences.

  10. Batch testing for noroviruses in frozen raspberries.

    PubMed

    De Keuckelaere, Ann; Li, Dan; Deliens, Bart; Stals, Ambroos; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Berries, in particular raspberries, have been associated with multiple recalls due to norovirus contamination and were linked to a number of norovirus (NoV) outbreaks. In the present study a total of 130 samples of frozen raspberries were collected from 26 batches in four different raspberry processing companies. In two companies the samples consisted of bulk frozen raspberries serving as raw material for the production of raspberry puree (an intermediate food product in a business to business setting). In two other companies, the samples consisted of bulk individually quick frozen (IQF) raspberries serving as raw material for the production of frozen fruit mixes (as a final food product for consumer). Enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliforms was performed as well as real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) detection of GI and GII NoV (in 2 × 10 g). In addition, in cases where positive NoV GI or GII RT-qPCR signals were obtained, an attempt to sequence the amplicons was undertaken. Six out of 70 samples taken from the 14 batches of frozen raspberries serving raspberry puree production provided a NoV RT-qPCR signal confirmed by sequencing. Four of these six positive samples clustered in one batch whereas the other two positive samples clustered in another batch from the same company. All six positive samples showed NoV RT-qPCR signals above the limit of quantification of the RT-qPCR assay. These two positive batches of frozen raspberries can be classified as being of insufficient sanitary quality. The mean NoV level in 20 g of these raspberry samples was 4.3 log genomic copies NoV GI/20 g. The concern for public health is uncertain as NoV RT-qPCR detection is unable to discriminate between infectious and non-infectious virus particles. For the IQF raspberries, one batch out of 12 tested NoV positive, but only 1 out of the 5 samples analyzed in this batch showed a positive RT-qPCR GI NoV signal confirmed by sequencing. The RT-qPCR signal was below the

  11. Characterization of Six Vent Fields Within the Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivey, M. K.; Craddock, P.; Seewald, J.; Ferrini, V.; Kim, S.; Mottl, M.; Sterling, N. A.; Reysenbach, A.; Wheat, C. G.

    2005-12-01

    Six active vent fields on the Valu Fa Ridge and Eastern Lau Spreading Center were successfully characterized on R/V Melville cruise TUIM05MV. The Kilo Moana (20deg3.2'S), Tow Cam (20deg19'S), and ABE (20deg45.6-46'S) vent fields were first noted during two R/V Kilo Moana cruises (in April (F. Martinez, Chief Scientist) and Sept (C. Langmuir, Chief Scientist) 2004). A fourth vent field, Mariner at 22deg10.8'S, was located Sept 2004 during the Shinkai 6500 program (K. Takai, Chief Scientist) using data from previous cruises. The fifth vent field examined was the Vai Lili vent field at 22deg12.95'S (Fouquet et al., 1991, Nature 349). On the TUIM05MV cruise, a sixth large active vent field was found at 21deg59.4'S using Jason2 and data from multiple CTD tow-yos, following up on plume observations provided by the Martinez et al. cruise. Tasks conducted to characterize each vent field included 1) detailed SM2000 bathymetric surveys; 2) down-looking and/or forward-looking camera surveys to create photomosaics of megafauna distributions; 3) recovery of biological, rock (basalt and sulfide), and fluid samples, and microbiological sampling of sulfide and diffuse fluid samples; 4) MOCNESS tows to recover larval plankton from plumes; 5) CTD casts to collect plume particles. At the Kilo Moana, Tow Cam, ABE and Tui Malila vent fields, hydrothermal activity occurs in proximity to major faults. At Kilo Moana, active venting occurs in three areas from ~5m tall, branched structures as focused, high temperature flow (to 333C) through chalcopyrite (Cp)- and/or wurtzite (Zn)- lined conduits and as diffuse flow through beehive-type structures. At Tow Cam high temperature (to 330C) active venting occurs in two areas at the base of a western fault from Cp- and/or Zn-lined conduits; diffuse flow exits basalt east of the black smoker areas. Within the ABE vent field there are three large areas of active venting spaced 150 to 300 m apart along NNE trending faults and benches; fluid exits

  12. Vented Tank Resupply Experiment--Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.; Martin, Timothy A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the Vented Tank Resupply Experiment (VTRE) which was flown as a payload on STS 77. VTRE looks at the ability of vane Propellant Management Devices (PMD) to separate liquid and gas in low gravity. VTRE used two clear 0.8 cubic foot tanks one spherical and one with a short barrel section and transferred Refrigerant 113 between them as well as venting it to space. Tests included retention of liquid during transfer, liquid free venting, and recovery of liquid into the PMD after thruster firing. Liquid was retained successfully at the highest flow rate tested (2.73 gpm). Liquid free vents were achieved for both tanks, although at a higher flow rate (0.1591 cfm) for the spherical tank than the other (0.0400 cfm). Recovery from a thruster firing which moved the liquid to the opposite end of the tank from the PMD was achieved in 30 seconds.

  13. DETAIL OF WEST END SLIDING DOOR AND EAVE VENTS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF WEST END SLIDING DOOR AND EAVE VENTS ON THE SOUTH SIDE - Hickam Field, Practice Bomb Loading Shed, Bomb Storage Road near the intersection of Moffet and Kamakahi Streets, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Looking North at Reactor Number One and Air Vent on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking North at Reactor Number One and Air Vent on Fourth Floor of Oxide Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Oxide Building & Oxide Loading Dock, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  15. 46 CFR 119.450 - Vent pipes for fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... area of 16 millimeters (0.625 inches) outer diameter (O.D.) tubing (0.9 millimeter (0.035 inch) wall... practicable from opening into any enclosed spaces. Vent pipes terminating on the hull exterior must...

  16. 42. VIEW EAST OF PLASTIC STACK (PROBABLY PVC) WHICH VENTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VIEW EAST OF PLASTIC STACK (PROBABLY PVC) WHICH VENTED FUMES FROM THE DIPPING OPERATIONS IN BUILDING 49A; BUILDING 49 IS AT THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  17. 10. VIEW OF SILO DOORS, AIR VENTS, AND ESCAPE HATCH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF SILO DOORS, AIR VENTS, AND ESCAPE HATCH, LOOKING EAST. WHITE STRUCTURES BELONG TO CURRENT OCCUPANTS Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Los Pinetos Nike Missile Site, Santa Clara Road, Los Angeles National Forest, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 22. STEEL ARCH SEGMENT AND VENT IN OFFICE, ROOM 2351, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. STEEL ARCH SEGMENT AND VENT IN OFFICE, ROOM 2351, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH SIDE. - Hughes Aircraft Company, Processing & Electronics Building, 6775 Centinela Avenue, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Detail of the exterior "selfclosing" sliding door with vent above. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of the exterior "self-closing" sliding door with vent above. View facing northeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Paint & Oil Storehouse, Avenue D near Seventh Street intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. DETAIL OF SECOND STORY WINDOWS AND ROOF VENT ON SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF SECOND STORY WINDOWS AND ROOF VENT ON SOUTH END OF EAST ELEVATION; CAMERA WEST. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. DETAIL OF WINDOW AND ROOF VENT AT EAST ELEVATION GABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF WINDOW AND ROOF VENT AT EAST ELEVATION GABLE END; CAMERA FACING WEST. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. 13. DETAIL VIEW NORTHEAST OF BOILER VENTS (LOWER LEFT), BREECHING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW NORTHEAST OF BOILER VENTS (LOWER LEFT), BREECHING (CENTER LEFT AND CENTER), AND COAL BUNKERS (RIGHT) - Turners Falls Power & Electric Company, Hampden Station, East bank of Connecticut River, Chicopee, Hampden County, MA

  3. 7. Front of northern kiln group, looking north. Vents are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Front of northern kiln group, looking north. Vents are visible in all kilns, in two rows above present grade. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  4. 48. DETAIL VIEW OF AIR VENT AT 'CATFISH' LAUNCH PAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. DETAIL VIEW OF AIR VENT AT 'CATFISH' LAUNCH PAD Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 47. VIEW OF AIR VENT AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. VIEW OF AIR VENT AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ENTRANCE TO 'BRAVO' IN BACK Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Stove with co-axial vent and flue design

    SciTech Connect

    Hyatt, J.R.

    1983-02-15

    The present invention relates to a stove of the type having a firebox and a second outer wall that defines an air passageway around the fire-box. Provided with the stove is a fan for forcing air around the defined air passageway for collecting heat from a burning fire within the firebox. A flue is communicatively connected with the firebox and extends therefrom through the defined air passageway and on through the outer wall structure of the stove. Co-axially disposed around the flue and communicatively connected with the air passageway is a vent for directing heated air from the stove. The co-axial relationship of the vent and flue assures that the flue gases must pass within the heated air passing in the vent or vice versa, and this gives rise to a very efficient stove inasmuch as a substantial portion of the heat associated with the flue gases being exhausted is transferred to the vented air.

  7. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL ORIGINAL VENTING AND WINDOW, FACING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL ORIGINAL VENTING AND WINDOW, FACING NORTHWEST. - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  8. Turbofan Engine Core Compartment Vent Aerodynamic Configuration Development Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Leonard J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design methodology used in the development of the aerodynamic configuration of the nacelle core compartment vent for a typical Boeing commercial airplane together with design challenges for future design efforts. Core compartment vents exhaust engine subsystem flows from the space contained between the engine case and the nacelle of an airplane propulsion system. These subsystem flows typically consist of precooler, oil cooler, turbine case cooling, compartment cooling and nacelle leakage air. The design of core compartment vents is challenging due to stringent design requirements, mass flow sensitivity of the system to small changes in vent exit pressure ratio, and the need to maximize overall exhaust system performance at cruise conditions.

  9. Detail of southeast side of Facility 283. Compare roof vents ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of southeast side of Facility 283. Compare roof vents to those on Facility 226. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Storehouse for Defense Battalion Type, Between Port Royal Street & Fuller Way, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. View of building 11070 showing vents and forced air system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11070 showing vents and forced air system on east side, looking southwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Maintenance Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  11. Evaluation of soil-venting application. Ground-water issue

    SciTech Connect

    DiGiulio, D.C.

    1992-04-01

    The Regional Superfund Ground-Water Forum is a group of scientists, representing EPA's Regional Superfund Offices, organized to exchange up-to-date information related to ground-water remediation at Superfund sites. One of the major issues of concern to the Forum is the transport and fate of contaminants in soil and ground water as related to subsurface remediation. The ability of soil venting to inexpensively remove large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated soils is well established. However, the time required using venting to remediate soils to low contaminant levels often required by state and federal regulators has not been adequately investigated. Discussion is presented to aid in evaluating the feasibility of venting application. Methods to optimize venting application are also discussed.

  12. 40 CFR 87.11 - Standard for fuel venting emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fuel venting emissions shall be discharged into the atmosphere from any new or in-use aircraft gas... discharge to the atmosphere of fuel drained from fuel nozzle manifolds after engines are shut down and...

  13. 40 CFR 87.11 - Standard for fuel venting emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fuel venting emissions shall be discharged into the atmosphere from any new or in-use aircraft gas... discharge to the atmosphere of fuel drained from fuel nozzle manifolds after engines are shut down and...

  14. 40 CFR 87.11 - Standard for fuel venting emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... venting emissions shall be discharged into the atmosphere from any new or in-use aircraft gas turbine... the atmosphere of fuel drained from fuel nozzle manifolds after engines are shut down and does...

  15. 14 CFR 34.11 - Standard for fuel venting emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fuel venting emissions shall be discharged into the atmosphere from any new or in-use aircraft gas... discharge to the atmosphere of fuel drained from fuel nozzle manifolds after engines are shut down and...

  16. Optical Detection of Organic Chemical Biosignatures at Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, P. G.; Lane, A. L.; Bhartia, R.; Hug, W. H.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a non-contact, optical life detection instrument that can detect organic chemical biosignatures in a number of different environments, including dry land, shallow aqueous, deep marine or in ice. Hence, the instrument is appropriate as a biosignature survey tool both for Mars exploration or in situ experiments in an ice-covered ocean such as one might wish to explore on Europa. Here, we report the results we obtained on an expedition aboard the Russian oceanographic vessel Akademik Mstislav Keldysh to hydrothermal vent sites in the Pacific Ocean using our life detection instrument MCDUVE, a multichannel, deep ultraviolet excitation fluorescence detector. MCDUVE detected organic material distribution on rocks near the vent, as well as direct detection of organisms, both microbial and microscopic. We also were able to detect organic material issuing directly from vent chimneys, measure the organic signature of the water column as we ascended, and passively observe the emission of light directly from some vents.

  17. Potential biomass in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Since the first discovery of black smoker vents hosting chemosynthetic macrofaunal communities (Spiess et al., 1980), submarine hydrothermal systems and associated biota have attracted interest of many researchers (e.g., Humphris et al., 1995; Van Dover, 2000; Wilcock et al., 2004). In the past couple of decades, particular attention has been paid to chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms that sustain the hydrothermal vent-endemic animal communities as the primary producer. This type of microorganisms obtains energy from inorganic substances (e.g., sulfur, hydrogen, and methane) derived from hydrothermal vent fluids, and is often considered as an important modern analogue to the early ecosystems of the Earth as well as the extraterrestrial life in other planets and moons (e.g., Jannasch and Mottl, 1985; Nealson et al., 2005; Takai et al., 2006). Even today, however, the size of this type of chemosynthetic deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is largely unknown. Here, we present geophysical and geochemical constraints on potential biomass in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem. The estimation of the potential biomass in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is based on hydrothermal fluid flux calculated from heat flux (Elderfield and Schltz, 1996), maximum chemical energy available from metabolic reactions during mixing between hydrothermal vent fluids and seawater (McCollom, 2007), and maintenance energy requirements of the chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms (Hoehler, 2004). The result shows that the most of metabolic energy sustaining the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is produced by oxidation reaction of reduced sulfur, although some parts of the energy are derived from hydrogenotrophic and methanotrophic reactions. The overall total of the potential biomass in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is calculated to be much smaller than that in terrestrial ecosystems including terrestrial plants. The big difference in biomass between the

  18. The Implications of Flank Vents on Olympus Mons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Flank vents are a common feature on polygenetic volcanoes. They indicate that magma has propagated away from the main conduit and/or magma chamber. Flank vents and flank eruptions have been documented and studied on a number of terrestrial volcanoes and to a lesser degree on Mars. The distribution of volcanic vents about a central caldera can provide information on radial dikes and tectonic stresses acting on the volcano, and can constrain models involving the emplacement and flexure of the edifice (e.g. Nakamura, 1976; McGovern and Solomon, 1993). In the absence of spectral data (due to optically thick dust cover) and in situ observations, morphology is a powerful tool for ascertaining the eruptive and tectonic history of Olympus Mons. Approximately 190 high-resolution CTX (Context Camera) images covering Olympus Mons have been mosaicked together. The analysis of a CTX mosaic reveals Mars's largest shield volcano in stunning detail and allows for a thorough analysis of the targeted features. Preliminary results show numerous flank vents some of which produce leveed channels on the slopes of Olympus Mons. Some vents display varying morphologies, suggesting that the style of volcanism has evolved over time. Flank vents are observed to occur over a range of elevations, although a paucity of vents is observed on the lower flank. Analyses are ongoing and include mapping the spatial and elevation distribution of flank vents on the shield. Once mapped, the distribution of flank vents will define the orientation of tectonic stresses acting on Olympus Mons and help determine whether they are influenced by underlying topography, regional scale processes or a combination of both. In addition, these vents act as a window into the subsurface which can help characterize dike emplacement within the shield. Furthermore, the morphology of flank vents will provide information on the evolution of their eruptive styles. All of this information is crucial to help understand the

  19. Morphology and dynamics of explosive vents through cohesive rock formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Olivier; Gisler, Galen R.; Haug, Øystein T.

    2015-04-01

    Shallow explosive volcanic processes, such as kimberlite volcanism, phreatomagmatic and phreatic activity, produce volcanic vents exhibiting a wide variety of morphologies, including vertical pipes and V-shaped vents. In this study we report on experimental and numerical models designed to capture a range of vent morphologies in an eruptive system (Galland et al., 2014). Using dimensional analysis, we identified key governing dimensionless parameters, in particular the gravitational stress-to-fluid pressure ratio (Π2=P/rho.g.h), and the fluid pressure-to-host rock strength ratio (Π3=P/C). We used combined experimental and numerical models to test the effects of these parameters. The experiments were used to test the effect of Π2 on vent morphology and dynamics. A phase diagram demonstrates a separation between two distinct morphologies, with vertical structures occurring at high values of Π2, and diagonal ones at low values of Π2. The numerical simulations were used to test the effect of Π3 on vent morphology and dynamics. In the numerical models we see three distinct morphologies: vertical pipes are produced at high values of Π3, diagonal pipes at low values of Π3, while horizontal sills are produced for intermediate values of Π3. Our results show that vertical pipes form by plasticity-dominated yielding for high-energy systems (high Π2 and Π3), whereas diagonal and horizontal vents dominantly form by fracturing for lower-energy systems (low Π2 and Π3). Although our models are 2-dimensionnal, they suggest that circular pipes result from plastic yielding of the host rock in a high-energy regime, whereas V-shaped volcanic vents result from fracturing of the host rock in lower-energy systems. Galland, O., Gisler, G.R., Haug, Ø.T., 2014. Morphology and dynamics of explosive vents through cohesive rock formations. J. Geophys. Res. 119, 10.1002/2014JB011050.

  20. Antarctic Marine Biodiversity and Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents

    PubMed Central

    Chown, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of many marine benthic groups is unlike that of most other taxa. Rather than declining from the tropics to the poles, much of the benthos shows high diversity in the Southern Ocean. Moreover, many species are unique to the Antarctic region. Recent work has shown that this is also true of the communities of Antarctic deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Vent ecosystems have been documented from many sites across the globe, associated with the thermally and chemically variable habitats found around these, typically high temperature, streams that are rich in reduced compounds and polymetallic sulphides. The animal communities of the East Scotia Ridge vent ecosystems are very different to those elsewhere, though the microbiota, which form the basis of vent food webs, show less differentiation. Much of the biological significance of deep-sea hydrothermal vents lies in their biodiversity, the diverse biochemistry of their bacteria, the remarkable symbioses among many of the marine animals and these bacteria, and the prospects that investigations of these systems hold for understanding the conditions that may have led to the first appearance of life. The discovery of diverse and unusual Antarctic hydrothermal vent ecosystems provides opportunities for new understanding in these fields. Moreover, the Antarctic vents south of 60°S benefit from automatic conservation under the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources and the Antarctic Treaty. Other deep-sea hydrothermal vents located in international waters are not protected and may be threatened by growing interests in deep-sea mining. PMID:22235192

  1. The stability of amino acids at submarine hydrothermal vent temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bada, Jeffrey L.; Miller, Stanley L.; Zhao, Meixun

    1995-01-01

    It has been postulated that amino acid stability at hydrothermal vent temperatures is controlled by a metastable thermodynamic equilibrium rather than by kinetics. Experiments reported here demonstrate that the amino acids are irreversibly destroyed by heating at 240 C and that quasi-equilibrium calculations give misleading descriptions of the experimental observations. Equilibrium thermodynamic calculations are not applicable to organic compounds under high-temperature submarine vent conditions.

  2. Payload bay atmospheric vent airflow testing at the Vibration and Acoustic Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, James D., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Several concerns related to venting the Space Shuttle Orbiter payload bay during launch led to laboratory experiments with a flight-type vent box installed in the wall of a subsonic wind tunnel. This report describes the test setups and procedures used to acquire data for characterization of airflow through the vent box and acoustic tones radiated from the vent-box cavity. A flexible boundary-layer spoiler which reduced the vent-tone amplitude is described.

  3. 46 CFR 153.351 - Location of 4m vent discharges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of 4m vent discharges. 153.351 Section 153.351... Venting Systems § 153.351 Location of 4m vent discharges. Except as prescribed in § 153.353, a 4m venting...) any walkway that is within a 4m (approx. 13.1 ft) horizontal radius from the vent discharge. (b)...

  4. Aggregates, broccoli and cauliflower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.

    1989-09-01

    Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type aggregates. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.

  5. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la r

  6. Explosion testing for the container venting system

    SciTech Connect

    Cashdollar, K.L.; Green, G.M.; Thomas, R.A.; Demiter, J.A.

    1993-09-30

    As part of the study of the hazards of inspecting nuclear waste stored at the Hanford Site, the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Hanford Company have developed a container venting system to sample the gases that may be present in various metal drums and other containers. In support of this work, the US Bureau of Mines has studied the probability of ignition while drilling into drums and other containers that may contain flammable gas mixtures. The Westinghouse Hanford Company drilling procedure was simulated by tests conducted in the Bureau`s 8-liter chamber, using the same type of pneumatic drill that will be used at the Hanford Site. There were no ignitions of near-stoichiometric hydrogen-air or methane-air mixtures during the drilling tests. The temperatures of the drill bits and lids were measured by an infrared video camera during the drilling tests. These measured temperatures are significantly lower than the {approximately}500{degree}C autoignition temperature of uniformly heated hydrogen-air or the {approximately}600{degree}C autoignition temperature of uniformly heated methane-air. The temperatures are substantially lower than the 750{degree}C ignition temperature of hydrogen-air and 1,220{degree}C temperature of methane-air when heated by a 1-m-diameter wire.

  7. Cryptic species of Archinome (Annelida: Amphinomida) from vents and seeps

    PubMed Central

    Borda, Elizabeth; Kudenov, Jerry D.; Chevaldonné, Pierre; Blake, James A.; Desbruyères, Daniel; Fabri, Marie-Claire; Hourdez, Stéphane; Pleijel, Fredrik; Shank, Timothy M.; Wilson, Nerida G.; Schulze, Anja; Rouse, Greg W.

    2013-01-01

    Since its description from the Galapagos Rift in the mid-1980s, Archinome rosacea has been recorded at hydrothermal vents in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Only recently was a second species described from the Pacific Antarctic Ridge. We inferred the identities and evolutionary relationships of Archinome representatives sampled from across the hydrothermal vent range of the genus, which is now extended to cold methane seeps. Species delimitation using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) recovered up to six lineages, whereas concatenated datasets (COI, 16S, 28S and ITS1) supported only four or five of these as clades. Morphological approaches alone were inconclusive to verify the identities of species owing to the lack of discrete diagnostic characters. We recognize five Archinome species, with three that are new to science. The new species, designated based on molecular evidence alone, include: Archinome levinae n. sp., which occurs at both vents and seeps in the east Pacific, Archinome tethyana n. sp., which inhabits Atlantic vents and Archinome jasoni n. sp., also present in the Atlantic, and whose distribution extends to the Indian and southwest Pacific Oceans. Biogeographic connections between vents and seeps are highlighted, as are potential evolutionary links among populations from vent fields located in the east Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, and Atlantic and Indian Oceans; the latter presented for the first time. PMID:24026823

  8. Hydrogen is an energy source for hydrothermal vent symbioses.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jillian M; Zielinski, Frank U; Pape, Thomas; Seifert, Richard; Moraru, Cristina; Amann, Rudolf; Hourdez, Stephane; Girguis, Peter R; Wankel, Scott D; Barbe, Valerie; Pelletier, Eric; Fink, Dennis; Borowski, Christian; Bach, Wolfgang; Dubilier, Nicole

    2011-08-11

    The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in 1977 revolutionized our understanding of the energy sources that fuel primary productivity on Earth. Hydrothermal vent ecosystems are dominated by animals that live in symbiosis with chemosynthetic bacteria. So far, only two energy sources have been shown to power chemosynthetic symbioses: reduced sulphur compounds and methane. Using metagenome sequencing, single-gene fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, shipboard incubations and in situ mass spectrometry, we show here that the symbionts of the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge use hydrogen to power primary production. In addition, we show that the symbionts of Bathymodiolus mussels from Pacific vents have hupL, the key gene for hydrogen oxidation. Furthermore, the symbionts of other vent animals such as the tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata also have hupL. We propose that the ability to use hydrogen as an energy source is widespread in hydrothermal vent symbioses, particularly at sites where hydrogen is abundant. PMID:21833083

  9. Hydrogen is an energy source for hydrothermal vent symbioses.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jillian M; Zielinski, Frank U; Pape, Thomas; Seifert, Richard; Moraru, Cristina; Amann, Rudolf; Hourdez, Stephane; Girguis, Peter R; Wankel, Scott D; Barbe, Valerie; Pelletier, Eric; Fink, Dennis; Borowski, Christian; Bach, Wolfgang; Dubilier, Nicole

    2011-08-10

    The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in 1977 revolutionized our understanding of the energy sources that fuel primary productivity on Earth. Hydrothermal vent ecosystems are dominated by animals that live in symbiosis with chemosynthetic bacteria. So far, only two energy sources have been shown to power chemosynthetic symbioses: reduced sulphur compounds and methane. Using metagenome sequencing, single-gene fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, shipboard incubations and in situ mass spectrometry, we show here that the symbionts of the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge use hydrogen to power primary production. In addition, we show that the symbionts of Bathymodiolus mussels from Pacific vents have hupL, the key gene for hydrogen oxidation. Furthermore, the symbionts of other vent animals such as the tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata also have hupL. We propose that the ability to use hydrogen as an energy source is widespread in hydrothermal vent symbioses, particularly at sites where hydrogen is abundant.

  10. Cryptic species of Archinome (Annelida: Amphinomida) from vents and seeps.

    PubMed

    Borda, Elizabeth; Kudenov, Jerry D; Chevaldonné, Pierre; Blake, James A; Desbruyères, Daniel; Fabri, Marie-Claire; Hourdez, Stéphane; Pleijel, Fredrik; Shank, Timothy M; Wilson, Nerida G; Schulze, Anja; Rouse, Greg W

    2013-11-01

    Since its description from the Galapagos Rift in the mid-1980s, Archinome rosacea has been recorded at hydrothermal vents in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Only recently was a second species described from the Pacific Antarctic Ridge. We inferred the identities and evolutionary relationships of Archinome representatives sampled from across the hydrothermal vent range of the genus, which is now extended to cold methane seeps. Species delimitation using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) recovered up to six lineages, whereas concatenated datasets (COI, 16S, 28S and ITS1) supported only four or five of these as clades. Morphological approaches alone were inconclusive to verify the identities of species owing to the lack of discrete diagnostic characters. We recognize five Archinome species, with three that are new to science. The new species, designated based on molecular evidence alone, include: Archinome levinae n. sp., which occurs at both vents and seeps in the east Pacific, Archinome tethyana n. sp., which inhabits Atlantic vents and Archinome jasoni n. sp., also present in the Atlantic, and whose distribution extends to the Indian and southwest Pacific Oceans. Biogeographic connections between vents and seeps are highlighted, as are potential evolutionary links among populations from vent fields located in the east Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, and Atlantic and Indian Oceans; the latter presented for the first time.

  11. Experimentally constraining the boundary conditions for volcanic ash aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, U.; Auer, B.; Cimarelli, C.; Scolamacchia, T.; Guenthel, M.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic ash is the primary product of various volcanic processes. Due to its size, ash can remain in the atmosphere for a prolonged period of time. Aggregation processes are a first-order influence on the residence time of ash in the atmosphere and its dispersion from the vent. Due to their internal structure, ash aggregates have been classified as ash pellets or accretionary lapilli. Although several concomitant factors may play a role during aggregation, there is a broad consensus that both 1) particle collision and 2) humidity are required for particles to aggregate. However, direct observation of settling aggregates and record of the boundary conditions favourable to their formation are rare, therefore limiting our understanding of the key processes that determine ash aggregates formation. Here, we present the first results from experiments aimed at reproducing ash aggregation by constraining the required boundary conditions. We used a ProCell Lab System of Glatt Ingenieurtechnik GmbH that is conventionally used for food and chemical applications. We varied the following parameters: 1) air flow speed [40-120 m3/h], 2) air temperature [30-60°C], 3) relative humidity [20-50 %], and 4) liquid droplets composition [water and 25% water glass, Na2SiO3]. The starting material (125-90 μm) is obtained by milling natural basaltic lapilli (Etna, Italy). We found that the experimental duration and the chosen conditions were not favourable for the production of stable aggregates when using water as spraying liquid. Using a 25% water-glass solution as binder we could successfully generate and investigate aggregates of up to 2 mm size. Many aggregates are spherical and resemble ash pellets. In nature, ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are the product of complex processes taking place at very different conditions (temperature, humidity, ash concentration, degree of turbulence). These experiments shed some first light on the ash agglomeration process for which direct

  12. Revisiting Verhulst and Monod models: analysis of batch and fed-batch cultures.

    PubMed

    Shirsat, Nishikant; Mohd, Avesh; Whelan, Jessica; English, Niall J; Glennon, Brian; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    The paper re-evaluates Verhulst and Monod models. It has been claimed that standard logistic equation cannot describe the decline phase of mammalian cells in batch and fed-batch cultures and in some cases it fails to fit somatic growth data. In the present work Verhulst, population-based mechanistic growth model was revisited to describe successfully viable cell density (VCD) in exponential and decline phases of batch and fed-batch cultures of three different CHO cell lines. Verhulst model constants, K, carrying capacity (VCD/ml or μg/ml) and r, intrinsic growth factor (h(-1)) have physical meaning and they are of biological significance. These two parameters together define the course of growth and productivity and therefore, they are valuable in optimisation of culture media, developing feeding strategies and selection of cell lines for productivity. The Verhulst growth model approach was extended to develop productivity models for batch and fed-batch cultures. All Verhulst models were validated against blind data (R(2) > 0.95). Critical examination of theoretical approaches concluded that Monod parameters have no physical meaning. Monod-hybrid (pseudo-mechanistic) batch models were validated against specific growth rates of respective bolus and continuous fed-batch cultures (R(2) ≈ 0.90). The reduced form of Monod-hybrid model CL/(KL + CL) describes specific growth rate during metabolic shift (R(2) ≈ 0.95). Verhulst substrate-based growth models compared favourably with Monod-hybrid models. Thus, experimental evidence implies that the constants in the Monod-hybrid model may not have physical meaning but they behave similarly to the biological constants in Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics, the basis of the Monod growth model.

  13. Production of fructosyltransferase by Aureobasidium sp. ATCC 20524 in batch and two-step batch cultures.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Martín A; Perotti, Nora I

    2009-01-01

    A comparison of fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.9) production by Aureobasidium sp. ATCC 20524 in batch and two step batch cultures was investigated in a 1-l stirred tank reactor using a sucrose supply of 200 g/l. Results showed that the innovative cultivation in two step of Aureobasidium sp. produced more fructosyltransferase (FFase) than the single batch culture at the same sucrose concentration with a maximal enzyme production of 523 U/ml, which was 80.5% higher than the one obtained in the batch culture. The production of fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) was also analyzed; their concentration reached a maximum value of 160 g/l the first day in the two-step culture and 127 g/l in the single-batch mode. The use of the two-step batch culture with Aureobasidium sp. ATCC 20524 in allowing the microorganism to grow up prior to the induction of sucrose (second step), proved to be a powerful method for producing fructosyltransferase and FOSs. PMID:18810518

  14. Kinetics of steel slag leaching: Batch tests and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    De Windt, Laurent; Chaurand, Perrine; Rose, Jerome

    2011-02-15

    Reusing steel slag as an aggregate for road construction requires to characterize the leaching kinetics and metal releases. In this study, basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag were subjected to batch leaching tests at liquid to solid ratios (L/S) of 10 and 100 over 30 days; the leachate chemistry being regularly sampled in time. A geochemical model of the steel slag is developed and validated from experimental data, particularly the evolution with leaching of mineralogical composition of the slag and trace element speciation. Kinetics is necessary for modeling the primary phase leaching, whereas a simple thermodynamic equilibrium approach can be used for secondary phase precipitation. The proposed model simulates the kinetically-controlled dissolution (hydrolysis) of primary phases, the precipitation of secondary phases (C-S-H, hydroxide and spinel), the pH and redox conditions, and the progressive release of major elements as well as the metals Cr and V. Modeling indicates that the dilution effect of the L/S ratio is often coupled to solubility-controlled processes, which are sensitive to both the pH and the redox potential. A sensitivity analysis of kinetic uncertainties on the modeling of element releases is performed.

  15. Kinetics of steel slag leaching: Batch tests and modeling.

    PubMed

    De Windt, Laurent; Chaurand, Perrine; Rose, Jerome

    2011-02-01

    Reusing steel slag as an aggregate for road construction requires to characterize the leaching kinetics and metal releases. In this study, basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag were subjected to batch leaching tests at liquid to solid ratios (L/S) of 10 and 100 over 30 days; the leachate chemistry being regularly sampled in time. A geochemical model of the steel slag is developed and validated from experimental data, particularly the evolution with leaching of mineralogical composition of the slag and trace element speciation. Kinetics is necessary for modeling the primary phase leaching, whereas a simple thermodynamic equilibrium approach can be used for secondary phase precipitation. The proposed model simulates the kinetically-controlled dissolution (hydrolysis) of primary phases, the precipitation of secondary phases (C-S-H, hydroxide and spinel), the pH and redox conditions, and the progressive release of major elements as well as the metals Cr and V. Modeling indicates that the dilution effect of the L/S ratio is often coupled to solubility-controlled processes, which are sensitive to both the pH and the redox potential. A sensitivity analysis of kinetic uncertainties on the modeling of element releases is performed.

  16. Permeability-Porosity Relationships in Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Gittings, H.; Tivey, M. K.

    2003-12-01

    To map out the thermal and chemical regimes within vent deposits where micro-and macro-organisms reside requires accurate modeling of mixing and reaction between hydrothermal fluid and seawater within the vent structures. However, a critical piece of information, quantitative knowledge of the permeability of vent deposits, and how it relates to porosity and pore geometry, is still missing. To address this, systematic laboratory measurements of permeability and porosity were conducted on 3 large vent structures from the Mothra Hydrothermal vent field on the Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Twenty-five cylindrical cores with diameters of 2.54 cm and various lengths were taken from Phang (a tall sulfide-dominated spire that was not actively venting when sampled), Roane (a lower temperature spire with dense macrofaunal communities growing on its sides that was venting diffuse fluid of < 300° C) and Finn (an active black smoker with a well-defined inner conduit that was venting 302° C fluids prior to recovery (Delaney et al., 2000; Kelley et al, 2000)). Measurements were made to obtain porosity and permeability of these drill cores using a helium porosimeter (UltraPoreTM300) and a nitrogen permeameter (UltrapermTM400) from Core Laboratories Instruments. The porosimeter uses Boyle's law to determine pore volume from the expansion of a know mass of helium into a calibrated sample holder, whereas the permeameter uses Darcy's law to determine permeability by measuring the steady-state flow rate through the sample under a given pressure gradient. A moderate confining pressure of 1.38 MPa was applied during the measurements to prevent leakage between the sample surface and the sample holder. The permeability and porosity relationship is best described by two different power law relationships with exponents of ˜9 (group I) and ˜3 (group II), respectively. Microstructural observations suggest that the difference in the two permeability-porosity relationships

  17. Geology, sulfide geochemistry and supercritical venting at the Beebe Hydrothermal Vent Field, Cayman Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Alexander P.; Roberts, Stephen; Murton, Bramley J.; Hodgkinson, Matthew R. S.

    2015-09-01

    The Beebe Vent Field (BVF) is the world's deepest known hydrothermal system, at 4960 m below sea level. Located on the Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre, Caribbean, the BVF hosts high temperature (˜401°C) "black smoker" vents that build Cu, Zn and Au-rich sulfide mounds and chimneys. The BVF is highly gold-rich, with Au values up to 93 ppm and an average Au:Ag ratio of 0.15. Gold precipitation is directly associated with diffuse flow through "beehive" chimneys. Significant mass-wasting of sulfide material at the BVF, accompanied by changes in metal content, results in metaliferous talus and sediment deposits. Situated on very thin (2-3 km thick) oceanic crust, at an ultraslow spreading centre, the hydrothermal system circulates fluids to a depth of ˜1.8 km in a basement that is likely to include a mixture of both mafic and ultramafic lithologies. We suggest hydrothermal interaction with chalcophile-bearing sulfides in the mantle rocks, together with precipitation of Au in beehive chimney structures, has resulted in the formation of a Au-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit. With its spatial distribution of deposit materials and metal contents, the BVF represents a modern day analogue for basalt hosted, Au-rich VMS systems.

  18. 3. INSIDE BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT REGENERATIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INSIDE BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT REGENERATIVE BATCH FURNACES ON LEFT AND 5 TON CAPACITY CHARGING MACHINE ON RIGHT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  19. 7. NORTHWEST VIEW OF FLUX CONVEYORS FEEDING BATCH HOPPERS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NORTHWEST VIEW OF FLUX CONVEYORS FEEDING BATCH HOPPERS ON THE BATCHING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  20. Using Forensics to Untangle Batch Effects in TCGA Data - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    Rehan Akbani, Ph.D., and colleagues at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a tool called MBatch to detect, diagnose, and correct batch effects in TCGA data. Read more about batch effects in this Case Study.

  1. VIEW OF BATCH STORAGE SILOS LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM DREY STREET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BATCH STORAGE SILOS LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM DREY STREET, SHOWING RUINS OF BOILER HOUSE WITH SALVAGED MACHINERY IN FOREGROUND - Chambers Window Glass Company, Batch Plant, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  2. GENERAL VIEW OF BATCH PLANT, CONVEYOR AND GLASS FURNACE STACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF BATCH PLANT, CONVEYOR AND GLASS FURNACE STACK LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM DREY STREET - Chambers Window Glass Company, Batch Plant, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  3. DETAIL VIEW OF BATCH BIN AFTER PLANT DEMOLITION, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BATCH BIN AFTER PLANT DEMOLITION, LOOKING EAST TOWARD ARNOLD - Chambers Window Glass Company, Batch Plant, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  4. Job Scheduling Under the Portable Batch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Robert L.; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The typical batch queuing system schedules jobs for execution by a set of queue controls. The controls determine from which queues jobs may be selected. Within the queue, jobs are ordered first-in, first-run. This limits the set of scheduling policies available to a site. The Portable Batch System removes this limitation by providing an external scheduling module. This separate program has full knowledge of the available queued jobs, running jobs, and system resource usage. Sites are able to implement any policy expressible in one of several procedural language. Policies may range from "bet fit" to "fair share" to purely political. Scheduling decisions can be made over the full set of jobs regardless of queue or order. The scheduling policy can be changed to fit a wide variety of computing environments and scheduling goals. This is demonstrated by the use of PBS on an IBM SP-2 system at NASA Ames.

  5. Production of manufactured aggregates from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.M.; McCoy, D.C.; Fenger, M.L.; Scandrol, R.O.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Statnick, R.M.

    1999-07-01

    CONSOL R and D has developed a disk pelletization process to produce manufactured aggregates from the by-products of various technologies designed to reduce sulfur emissions produced from coal utilization. Aggregates have been produced from the by-products of the Coolside and LIMB sorbent injection, the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), spray dryer absorption (SDA), and lime and limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. The aggregates produced meet the general specifications for use as road aggregate in road construction and for use as lightweight aggregate in concrete masonry units. Small field demonstrations with 1200 lb to 5000 lb of manufactured aggregates were conducted using aggregates produced from FBC ash and lime wet FGD sludge in road construction and using aggregates made from SDA ash and lime wet FGD sludge to manufacture concrete blocks. The aggregates for this work were produced with a bench-scale (200--400 lb batch) unit. In 1999, CONSOL R and D constructed and operated a 500 lb/hr integrated, continuous pilot plant. A variety of aggregate products were produced from lime wet FGD sludge. The pilot plant test successfully demonstrated the continuous, integrated operation of the process. The pilot plant demonstration was a major step toward commercialization of manufactured aggregate production from FGD by-products. In this paper, progress made in the production of aggregates from dry FGD (Coolside, LIMB, SDA) and FBC by-products, and lime wet FGD sludge is discussed. The discussion covers bench-scale and pilot plant aggregate production and aggregate field demonstrations.

  6. Heat Integration in Batch Distillation Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Debadrita; Jana, Amiya K.; Samanta, Amar Nath

    2010-10-01

    A new heat integrated batch distillation column has been configured in this paper. Here the column and reboiler are connected in an annular arrangement and a compressor is positioned between them to maintain the pressure difference. The heat integration is between the rectifying batch column and one concentric reboiler. Ethanol-Water binary system is chosen as an example for the design and analysis of this heat integrated batch distillation column (HIBDiC). In this work, a sensitivity test for selecting the optimal value of the total number of trays and reboiler duty and a thermodynamic feasibility test for its design acceptability has been accomplished. The principal objective of this study is to investigate the influence of compression ratio (CR) on the energy consumption of distillation and to find out the optimal value of CR. Also a comparative analysis of HIBiDC on energy consumption in steady state as well as in dynamic state has been carried out on the basis of its conventional model. The proposed scheme is capable to save the energy up to 50.52% compared to its conventional one by selecting the CR of 1.4 as an optimal value.

  7. Pollution prevention applications in batch manufacturing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Derek W.; O'Shaughnessy, James

    2004-02-01

    Older, "low-tech" batch manufacturing operations are often fertile grounds for gains resulting from pollution prevention techniques. This paper presents a pollution prevention technique utilized for wastewater discharge permit compliance purposes at a batch manufacturer of detergents, deodorants, and floor-care products. This manufacturer generated industrial wastewater as a result of equipment rinses required after each product batch changeover. After investing a significant amount of capital on end of pip-line wastewater treatment technology designed to address existing discharge limits, this manufacturer chose to investigate alternate, low-cost approaches to address anticipated new permit limits. Mass balances using spreadsheets and readily available formulation and production data were conducted on over 300 products to determine how each individual product contributed to the total wastewater pollutant load. These mass balances indicated that 22 products accounted for over 55% of the wastewater pollutant. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine whether these same products could accept their individual changeover rinse water as make-up water in formulations without sacrificing product quality. This changeover reuse technique was then implement at the plant scale for selected products. Significant reductions in wastewater volume (25%) and wastewater pollutant loading (85+%) were realized as a direct result of this approach.

  8. Morphology and dynamics of explosive vents through cohesive rock formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, O.; Gisler, G. R.; Haug, Ø. T.

    2014-06-01

    Shallow explosive volcanic processes, such as kimberlite volcanism and phreatomagmatic and phreatic activity, produce volcanic vents exhibiting a wide variety of morphologies, including vertical pipes and V-shaped vents. In this study we report on experimental and numerical models designed to capture a range of vent morphologies in an eruptive system. Using dimensional analysis, we identified key governing dimensionless parameters, in particular the gravitational stress-to-fluid pressure ratio (Π2 = P/ρgh) and the fluid pressure-to-host rock strength ratio (Π3 = P/C). We used combined experimental and numerical models to test the effects of these parameters. The experiments were used to test the effect of Π2 on vent morphology and dynamics. A phase diagram demonstrates a separation between two distinct morphologies, with vertical structures occurring at high values of Π2 and diagonal ones at low values of Π2. The numerical simulations were used to test the effect of Π3 on vent morphology and dynamics. In the numerical models we see three distinct morphologies: vertical pipes are produced at high values of Π3, diagonal pipes at low values of Π3, and horizontal sills at intermediate values of Π3. Our results show that vertical pipes form by plasticity-dominated yielding in high-energy systems (high Π2 and Π3), whereas diagonal and horizontal vents dominantly form by fracturing in lower energy systems (low Π2 and Π3). Although our models are two-dimensional, they suggest that circular pipes result from plastic yielding of the host rock in a high-energy regime, whereas V-shaped volcanic vents result from fracturing of the host rock in lower energy systems.

  9. 40 CFR 63.462 - Batch cold cleaning machine standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batch cold cleaning machine standards... National Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.462 Batch cold cleaning machine standards. (a) Each owner or operator of an immersion batch cold solvent cleaning machine shall comply with...

  10. 40 CFR 63.462 - Batch cold cleaning machine standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batch cold cleaning machine standards... National Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.462 Batch cold cleaning machine standards. (a) Each owner or operator of an immersion batch cold solvent cleaning machine shall comply with...

  11. 40 CFR 63.462 - Batch cold cleaning machine standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch cold cleaning machine standards... National Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.462 Batch cold cleaning machine standards. (a) Each owner or operator of an immersion batch cold solvent cleaning machine shall comply with...

  12. 40 CFR 63.462 - Batch cold cleaning machine standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch cold cleaning machine standards... National Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.462 Batch cold cleaning machine standards. (a) Each owner or operator of an immersion batch cold solvent cleaning machine shall comply with...

  13. 40 CFR 63.462 - Batch cold cleaning machine standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batch cold cleaning machine standards... National Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.462 Batch cold cleaning machine standards. (a) Each owner or operator of an immersion batch cold solvent cleaning machine shall comply with...

  14. 21 CFR 80.38 - Treatment of batch after certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment of batch after certification. 80.38... COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.38 Treatment of batch after certification. (a) Immediately upon notification that a batch of color additive has been certified, the person...

  15. 21 CFR 80.37 - Treatment of batch pending certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment of batch pending certification. 80.37... COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.37 Treatment of batch pending certification. Immediately after the sample that is to accompany a request for certification of a batch of color additive...

  16. 21 CFR 80.37 - Treatment of batch pending certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of batch pending certification. 80.37... COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.37 Treatment of batch pending certification. Immediately after the sample that is to accompany a request for certification of a batch of color additive...

  17. 21 CFR 80.38 - Treatment of batch after certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of batch after certification. 80.38... COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.38 Treatment of batch after certification. (a) Immediately upon notification that a batch of color additive has been certified, the person...

  18. 21 CFR 80.37 - Treatment of batch pending certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of batch pending certification. 80.37... COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.37 Treatment of batch pending certification. Immediately after the sample that is to accompany a request for certification of a batch of color additive...

  19. 21 CFR 80.37 - Treatment of batch pending certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment of batch pending certification. 80.37... COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.37 Treatment of batch pending certification. Immediately after the sample that is to accompany a request for certification of a batch of color additive...

  20. 21 CFR 80.37 - Treatment of batch pending certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment of batch pending certification. 80.37... COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.37 Treatment of batch pending certification. Immediately after the sample that is to accompany a request for certification of a batch of color additive...

  1. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional ingredients, shall be thoroughly commingled and the contents pasteurized at a temperature of at least 158...

  2. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional ingredients, shall be thoroughly commingled and the contents pasteurized at a temperature of at least 158...

  3. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional ingredients, shall be thoroughly commingled and the contents pasteurized at a temperature of at least 158...

  4. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional ingredients, shall be thoroughly commingled and the contents pasteurized at a temperature of at least 158...

  5. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional ingredients, shall be thoroughly commingled and the contents pasteurized at a temperature of at least 158...

  6. A Semi-Batch Reactor Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derevjanik, Mario; Badri, Solmaz; Barat, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This experiment and analysis offer an economic yet challenging semi-batch reactor experience. Household bleach is pumped at a controlled rate into a batch reactor containing pharmaceutical hydrogen peroxide solution. Batch temperature, product molecular oxygen, and the overall change in solution conductivity are metered. The reactor simulation…

  7. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Alteromonas infernus sp. nov., a new polysaccharide-producing bacterium isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

    PubMed

    Raguénès, G H; Peres, A; Ruimy, R; Pignet, P; Christen, R; Loaec, M; Rougeaux, H; Barbier, G; Guezennec, J G

    1997-04-01

    A deep-sea, aerobic, mesophilic and heterotrophic new bacterium was isolated from a sample of fluid collected among a dense population of Riftia pachyptila, in the vicinity of an active hydrothermal vent of the Southern depression of the Guaymas basin (Gulf of California). On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses and DNA/DNA relatedness, the strain GY785 was recognized as a new species of the genus Alteromonas and the name of Alteromonas infernus is proposed. During the stationary phase in batch cultures in the presence of glucose, this bacterium secreted two unusual polysaccharides. The water-soluble exopolysaccharide-1 produced contained glucose, galactose, galacturonic and glucuronic acids as monosaccharides. The gel-forming exopolysaccharide-2 was separated from the bacterial cells by dialysis against distilled water and partially characterized. PMID:9134716

  9. Semiautomated, Reproducible Batch Processing of Soy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thoerne, Mary; Byford, Ivan W.; Chastain, Jack W.; Swango, Beverly E.

    2005-01-01

    A computer-controlled apparatus processes batches of soybeans into one or more of a variety of food products, under conditions that can be chosen by the user and reproduced from batch to batch. Examples of products include soy milk, tofu, okara (an insoluble protein and fiber byproduct of soy milk), and whey. Most processing steps take place without intervention by the user. This apparatus was developed for use in research on processing of soy. It is also a prototype of other soy-processing apparatuses for research, industrial, and home use. Prior soy-processing equipment includes household devices that automatically produce soy milk but do not automatically produce tofu. The designs of prior soy-processing equipment require users to manually transfer intermediate solid soy products and to press them manually and, hence, under conditions that are not consistent from batch to batch. Prior designs do not afford choices of processing conditions: Users cannot use previously developed soy-processing equipment to investigate the effects of variations of techniques used to produce soy milk (e.g., cold grinding, hot grinding, and pre-cook blanching) and of such process parameters as cooking times and temperatures, grinding times, soaking times and temperatures, rinsing conditions, and sizes of particles generated by grinding. In contrast, the present apparatus is amenable to such investigations. The apparatus (see figure) includes a processing tank and a jacketed holding or coagulation tank. The processing tank can be capped by either of two different heads and can contain either of two different insertable mesh baskets. The first head includes a grinding blade and heating elements. The second head includes an automated press piston. One mesh basket, designated the okara basket, has oblong holes with a size equivalent to about 40 mesh [40 openings per inch (.16 openings per centimeter)]. The second mesh basket, designated the tofu basket, has holes of 70 mesh [70 openings

  10. Instrumentation and measurement of airflow and temperature in attics fitted with ridge and soffit vents

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, M.I.; Brenner, R.J.

    1998-12-31

    This study established a research facility where airflow velocities, temperature, and differential pressures could be measured at the ridge of an attic. Following the construction of a test building, sensors were constructed, calibrated, and installed inside the attic. Paired tests were performed for three different ridge vent treatments; two were rolled type vents and one was a baffled vent. When both attics were fitted with the same ridge vent, the airspeed and differential pressure profiles at the ridge were very similar for both attics, indicating that any observed differences in airspeed and differential pressure were caused by the ridge vent treatment used. The baffled vent and rolled vents were then installed on the ridge of the west and east attics, respectively. The data demonstrated that the baffled ridge vent provided a minimum of twice the ridge airspeed of the rolled vents, when all wind conditions were considered. On the day selected to study the direction of the airflows at the ridge, the baffled vent had airflow speeds at the ridge similar to the rolled vent without fabric backing. The baffled vent allowed air to come out of the attic through both sides of the ridge (negative differential pressures on both sides), while the rolled vent without fabric backing caused air to enter through the south side of the ridge and exit through the north side (positive differential pressure on the south side and negative differential pressure on the north), in effect short-circuiting the vent. The fabric-backed rolled vent allowed attic air to come out of the attic through both sides of the ridge, as did the baffled vent, but the airspeed was slower. The baffled vent was the one with the highest airspeed at the ridge and also had both sides of the vent under negative differential pressure, providing the most effective ventilation.

  11. SLUDGE BATCH 5 SIMULANT FLOWSHEET STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M; Bradley Pickenheim, B; David Best, D; David Koopman, D

    2008-10-03

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will transition from Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) processing to Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in early fiscal year 2009. Tests were conducted using non-radioactive simulants of the expected SB5 composition to determine the impact of varying the acid stoichiometry during the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) processes. The work was conducted to meet the Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2007-0007, Rev. 1 and followed the guidelines of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT&QAP). The flowsheet studies are performed to evaluate the potential chemical processing issues, hydrogen generation rates, and process slurry rheological properties as a function of acid stoichiometry. Initial SB5 flowsheet studies were conducted to guide decisions during the sludge batch preparation process. These studies were conducted with the estimated SB5 composition at the time of the study. The composition has changed slightly since these studies were completed due to changes in the washing plan to prepare SB5 and the estimated SB4 heel mass. Nine DWPF process simulations were completed in 4-L laboratory-scale equipment using both a batch simulant (Tank 51 simulant after washing is complete) and a blend simulant (Tank 40 simulant after Tank 51 transfer is complete). Each simulant had a set of four SRAT and SME simulations at varying acid stoichiometry levels (115%, 130%, 145% and 160%). One additional run was made using blend simulant at 130% acid that included additions of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) waste prior to acid addition and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) waste following SRAT dewatering. There are several parameters that are noteworthy concerning SB5 sludge: (1) This is the first batch DWPF will be processing that contains sludge that has had a significant fraction of aluminum removed through aluminum dissolution. (2) The sludge is high in mercury

  12. Zero-Gravity Vortex Vent and PVT Gaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, M. G.; Trevathan, J. T.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station and satellite reservicing will require the ability to vent gas on orbit from liquid supply or storage tanks and to gage liquid quantity under microgravity conditions. In zero gravity, (zero-g) the vortex vent is capable of venting gas from a tank of liquid containing gas randomly distributed as bubbles. The concept uses a spinning impeller to create centrifugal force inside a vortex tube within a tank. This creates a gas pocket and forces the liquid through a venturi and back into the tank. Gas is then vented from the gas pocket through a liquid detector and then out through an exhaust port. If the liquid detector senses liquid in the vent line, the fluid is directed to the low-pressure port on the venturi and is returned to the tank. The advantages of this system is that it has no rotating seals and is compatible with most corrosive and cryogenic fluids. A prototype was designed and built at the NASA Johnson Space Center and flown on the KC-135 zero-g aircraft. During these test flights, where microgravity conditions are obtained for up to 30 sec, the prototype demonstrated that less than 0.10 percent of the volume of fluid vented was liquid when the tank was half full of liquid. The pressure volume temperature (PVT) gaging system is used in conjunction with the vortex vent to calculate the amount of liquid remaining in a tank under microgravity conditions. The PVT gaging system is used in conjunction with the vortex vent to gage liquid quantity in zero or low gravity. The system consists of a gas compressor, accumulator, and temperature and pressure instrumentation. To measure the liquid in a tank a small amount of gas is vented from the tank to the compressor and compressed into the accumulator. Pressure and temperature in the tank and accumulator are measured before and after the gas transfer occurs. Knowing the total volume of the tank, the volume of the accumulator, the volume of the intermediate lines, and initial and final pressures and

  13. BATCH-GE: Batch analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing data for genome editing assessment

    PubMed Central

    Boel, Annekatrien; Steyaert, Woutert; De Rocker, Nina; Menten, Björn; Callewaert, Bert; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Willaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system is currently revolutionizing genetics. The ease of this technique has enabled genome engineering in-vitro and in a range of model organisms and has pushed experimental dimensions to unprecedented proportions. Due to its tremendous progress in terms of speed, read length, throughput and cost, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used for the analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments. However, the current tools for genome editing assessment lack flexibility and fall short in the analysis of large amounts of NGS data. Therefore, we designed BATCH-GE, an easy-to-use bioinformatics tool for batch analysis of NGS-generated genome editing data, available from https://github.com/WouterSteyaert/BATCH-GE.git. BATCH-GE detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel. Furthermore, this new tool provides flexibility by allowing the user to adapt a number of input variables. The performance of BATCH-GE was evaluated in two genome editing experiments, aiming to generate knock-out and knock-in zebrafish mutants. This tool will not only contribute to the evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9-based experiments, but will be of use in any genome editing experiment and has the ability to analyze data from every organism with a sequenced genome. PMID:27461955

  14. BATCH-GE: Batch analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing data for genome editing assessment.

    PubMed

    Boel, Annekatrien; Steyaert, Woutert; De Rocker, Nina; Menten, Björn; Callewaert, Bert; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Willaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system is currently revolutionizing genetics. The ease of this technique has enabled genome engineering in-vitro and in a range of model organisms and has pushed experimental dimensions to unprecedented proportions. Due to its tremendous progress in terms of speed, read length, throughput and cost, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used for the analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments. However, the current tools for genome editing assessment lack flexibility and fall short in the analysis of large amounts of NGS data. Therefore, we designed BATCH-GE, an easy-to-use bioinformatics tool for batch analysis of NGS-generated genome editing data, available from https://github.com/WouterSteyaert/BATCH-GE.git. BATCH-GE detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel. Furthermore, this new tool provides flexibility by allowing the user to adapt a number of input variables. The performance of BATCH-GE was evaluated in two genome editing experiments, aiming to generate knock-out and knock-in zebrafish mutants. This tool will not only contribute to the evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9-based experiments, but will be of use in any genome editing experiment and has the ability to analyze data from every organism with a sequenced genome.

  15. BATCH-GE: Batch analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing data for genome editing assessment.

    PubMed

    Boel, Annekatrien; Steyaert, Woutert; De Rocker, Nina; Menten, Björn; Callewaert, Bert; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Willaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system is currently revolutionizing genetics. The ease of this technique has enabled genome engineering in-vitro and in a range of model organisms and has pushed experimental dimensions to unprecedented proportions. Due to its tremendous progress in terms of speed, read length, throughput and cost, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used for the analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments. However, the current tools for genome editing assessment lack flexibility and fall short in the analysis of large amounts of NGS data. Therefore, we designed BATCH-GE, an easy-to-use bioinformatics tool for batch analysis of NGS-generated genome editing data, available from https://github.com/WouterSteyaert/BATCH-GE.git. BATCH-GE detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel. Furthermore, this new tool provides flexibility by allowing the user to adapt a number of input variables. The performance of BATCH-GE was evaluated in two genome editing experiments, aiming to generate knock-out and knock-in zebrafish mutants. This tool will not only contribute to the evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9-based experiments, but will be of use in any genome editing experiment and has the ability to analyze data from every organism with a sequenced genome. PMID:27461955

  16. In vitro comparison tests of three LV vent valves.

    PubMed

    Lewis, G S; Czaplicka, C

    1990-01-01

    Many surgical teams employ a sump pump to vent the left ventricle (LV). The problems associated with this technique are related to safety and convenience. If the flow is accidentally reversed in the LV vent line, air embolism accidents and subsequent litigation may be the result. If the cannula is occluded, it is inconvenient to juggle pump speed to prevent the line from collapsing while maintaining gentle but adequate suction. In this study we in vitro tested three commercially available LV vent valves (RLV-2100 "B," VRV-200 B, H-130) (GLV did not wish to send samples for comparison at the time of this study). Each valve was designed to: regulate suction in the LV vent line; prevent the flow of air towards the heart; and vent downstream pressure to the atmosphere. Each valve was tested for suction at various flow rates, pressure heads, and for the presence of air leakage during reversed flow conditions. The results of pressure and suction tests during normal flow and occluded line conditions have been tabulated. We found the RLV-2100 "B" offers the safest combination of suction control and pressure relief. The most astonishing fact learned was the RLV-2100 "B" was the only valve which prevented the flow of air towards the heart during reversed flow. As a result, we elected to use only this valve in our clinical practice.

  17. A ubiquitous thermoacidophilic archaeon from deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reysenbach, A.-L.; Liu, Yajing; Banta, A.B.; Beveridge, T.J.; Kirshtein, J.D.; Schouten, S.; Tivey, M.K.; Von Damm, K. L.; Voytek, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are important in global biogeochemical cycles, providing biological oases at the sea floor that are supported by the thermal and chemical flux from the Earth's interior. As hot, acidic and reduced hydrothermal fluids mix with cold, alkaline and oxygenated sea water, minerals precipitate to form porous sulphide-sulphate deposits. These structures provide microhabitats for a diversity of prokaryotes that exploit the geochemical and physical gradients in this dynamic ecosystem. It has been proposed that fluid pH in the actively venting sulphide structures is generally low (pH < 4.5), yet no extreme thermoacidophile has been isolated from vent deposits. Culture-independent surveys based on ribosomal RNA genes from deep-sea hydrothermal deposits have identified a widespread euryarchaeotal lineage, DHVE2 (deep-sea hydrothermal vent euryarchaeotic 2). Despite the ubiquity and apparent deep-sea endemism of DHVE2, cultivation of this group has been unsuccessful and thus its metabolism remains a mystery. Here we report the isolation and cultivation of a member of the DHVE2 group, which is an obligate thermoacidophilic sulphur- or iron-reducing heterotroph capable of growing from pH 3.3 to 5.8 and between 55 and 75??C. In addition, we demonstrate that this isolate constitutes up to 15% of the archaeal population, providing evidence that thermoacidophiles may be key players in the sulphur and iron cycling at deep-sea vents. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  18. Steam chugging analysis in single-vent vapor injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. K. B.; Chan, C. K.

    1982-01-01

    A complete cycle of the periodic steam chugging phenomenon is analyed. Steam velocity and pressure variations in the vent are described by one-dimensional conservation equations. This is coupled either to the water slug model when water is in the vent, or, the infinite pool spherical bubble model at the vent exit during bubble growth. An isolated spherical bubble model is used for computing the collapse pressures. Comparisons of the model predictions with the UCLA 1/12-scale and the Japan 1/6-scale data indicate that the vent-pipe model predicts the vent-clearing times and the bubble growth times well. In addition, the predicted maximum chugging heights compared well with those measured in the Japan data. On bubble collapse pressures, the comparison with the spherical bubble model predictions is only fair. The model generally overpredicts the magnitude of the spikes. On examining the effects of pool subcooling and steam mass flux, general agreement is found between the predicted trends and those measured.

  19. Dynamics of fire ant aggregations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennenbaum, Michael; Hu, David; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    Fire ant aggregations are an inherently active system. Each ant harvests its own energy and can convert it into motion. The motion of individual ants contributes non-trivially to the bulk material properties of the aggregation. We have measured some of these properties using plate-plate rheology, where the response to an applied external force or deformation is measured. In this talk, we will present data pertaining to the aggregation behavior in the absence of any external force. We quantify the aggregation dynamics by monitoring the rotation of the top plate and by measuring the normal force. We then compare the results with visualizations of 2D aggregations.

  20. Differences in recovery between deep-sea hydrothermal vent and vent-proximate communities after a volcanic eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollner, Sabine; Govenar, Breea; Arbizu, Pedro Martinez; Mills, Susan; Le Bris, Nadine; Weinbauer, Markus; Shank, Timothy M.; Bright, Monika

    2015-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents and the surrounding basalt seafloor are subject to major natural disturbance events such as volcanic eruptions. In the near future, anthropogenic disturbance in the form of deep-sea mining could also significantly affect the faunal communities of hydrothermal vents. In this study, we monitor and compare the recovery of insular, highly productive vent communities and vent-proximate basalt communities following a volcanic eruption that destroyed almost all existing communities at the East Pacific Rise, 9°50‧N in 2006. To study the recovery patterns of the benthic communities, we placed settlement substrates at vent sites and their proximate basalt areas and measured the prokaryotic abundance and compared the meio- and macrofaunal species richness and composition at one, two and four years after the eruption. In addition, we collected samples from the overlying water column with a pelagic pump, at one and two years after the volcanic eruption, to determine the abundance of potential meiofauna colonisers. One year after eruption, mean meio- and macrofaunal abundances were not significantly different from pre-eruption values in vent habitats (meio: 8-1838 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 3-6246 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2001/02; macro: 95-1600 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 205-4577 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2001/02) and on non-vent basalt habitats (meio: 10-1922 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 8-328 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2003/04; macro: 14-3351 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 2-63 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2003/04), but species recovery patterns differed between the two habitat types. In the vent habitat, the initial community recovery was relatively quick but incomplete four years after eruption, which may be due to the good dispersal capabilities of vent endemic macrofauna and vent endemic dirivultid copepods. At vents, 42% of the pre-eruption meio- and 39% of macrofaunal species had returned. In addition, some new species not evident prior to the eruption were found. At the tubeworm site Tica, a total of 26

  1. Post-drilling hydrothermal vent and associated biological activities seen through artificial hydrothermal vents in the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, K.; Kawagucci, S.; Miyazaki, J.; Watsuji, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Yamamoto, H.; Nozaki, T.; Kashiwabara, T.; Shibuya, T.

    2012-12-01

    In 2010, IODP Expedition 331 was conducted in the Iheya North Field, the Okinawa Trough and drilled several sites in hydrothermally active subseafloor. In addition, during the IODP Expedition 331, four new hydrothermal vents were created. These post-drilling artificial hydrothermal vents provide excellent opportunities to investigate the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the previously unexplored subseafloor hydrothermal fluid reservoirs, and to monitor and estimate how the anthropogenic drilling behaviors affect the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem. We were very much interested in the difference of hydrothermal fluid chemistry between the natural hydrothermal vents and the artificial hydrothermal vents. The IODP porewater chemistry of the cores pointed to the density-driven stratification of the phase-separated hydrothermal fluids and the natural vent fluids were likely derived only from the shallower vapor-enriched phases. However, the artificial hydrothermal vents had deeper fluid sources in the subseafloor hydrothermal fluid reservoirs composed of vapor-lost (Cl-enriched) phases. The fluids from the artificial hydrothermal vents were sampled by ROV at 5, 12 and 18 months after the IODP expedition. The artificial hydrothermal vent fluids were slightly enriched with Cl as compared to the natural hydrothermal vent fluids. Thus, the artificial hydrothermal vents successfully entrained the previously unexplored subseafloor hydrothermal fluids. The newly created hydrothermal vents also hosted the very quickly grown, enormous chimney structures, of which mineral compositions were highly variable among the vents. However, the quickly grown C0016B and C0016D vent chimneys were found to be typical Kuroko ore even though the chimney growth rates in the artificial vents were extremely faster than those in the natural vents. In addition, the IODP drilling operation not only created new hydrothermal vents by deep drilling but also induced the

  2. Naked in toxic fluids: A nudibranch mollusc from hydrothermal vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, Ángel; Bouchet, Philippe

    1998-01-01

    A new species of the nudibranch genus Dendronotus (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia) is reported from a hydrothermal vent at the Lucky Strike area, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This is the first species of nudibranch recorded with certainty from a vent site. Other species of Dendronotus are distributed in temperate waters on the continental shelf of the northern hemisphere. Two factors that probably account for the occurrence of a nudibranch in this hydrothermal field are that the Lucky Strike area presents potential hydroid prey, and that nudibranchs apparently inhabit a lower activity area. It is hypothesized that the new species, which lacks eyes, is a permanent resident of vent fields on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, but is probably not restricted to that environment.

  3. Bus Vent Design Evolution for the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    As a spacecraft undergoes ascent in a launch vehicle, its pressure environment transitions from one atmosphere to high vacuum in a matter of minutes. Venting of internal cavities is necessary to prevent the buildup of pressure differentials across cavity walls. Opposing the need to vent these volumes freely into space are thermal, optical, and electrostatic requirements for limiting or prohibiting the intrusion of unwanted energy into the same cavities. Bus vent design evolution is discussed for the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Design changes were influenced by a number of factors and concerns, such as contamination control, electrostatic discharge, changes in bus material, and driving fairing ascent pressure for a launch vehicle that was just entering service as this satellite project had gotten underway.

  4. In Brief: Volcanic vents found in deep Caribbean waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-04-01

    Scientists surveying the Cayman Trough in the Caribbean Sea have discovered the world's deepest undersea volcanic vents, or “black smokers,” the National Oceanography Center (NOC) in Southampton, UK, announced on 11 April. The vents were found at a depth of 5000 meters, about 800 meters deeper than any previously discovered. Jon Copley, a marine biologist at the University of Southampton's School of Ocean and Earth Science, said, “Seeing the world's deepest black-smoker vents looming out of the darkness was awe-inspiring.” Geochemist Doug Connelly of NOC, principal scientist of the expedition, noted, “We hope our discovery will yield new insights into biogeochemically important elements in one of the most extreme naturally occurring environments on our planet.” Researchers used an NOC-developed Autosub6000 robot submarine, which was remotely controlled from the Royal Research Ship James Cook. For more information, visit http://www.thesearethevoyages.net/.

  5. Vents Pattern Analysis at Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brancato, Alfonso; Tusa, Giuseppina; Coltelli, Mauro; Proietti, Cristina; Branca, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Mount Etna is a composite stratovolcano located along the Ionian coast of eastern Sicily. It is characterized by basaltic eruptions, both effusive and explosive, occurred during a complex eruptive history over the last 500 ka. Flank eruptions occur at an interval of decades, mostly concentrated along the NE, S and W rift zones. A vent clustering at various scales is a common feature in many volcanic settings. In order to identify the clusters within the studied area, a spatial point pattern analysis is undertaken using vent positions, both known and reconstructed. It reveals both clustering and spatial regularity in the Etna region at different distances. The visual inspection of the vent spatial distribution suggests a clustering on the rift zones of Etna volcano. To confirm this evidence, a coarse analysis is performed by the application of Ξ2- and t-test simple statistics. Then, a refined analysis is performed by using the Ripley K-function (Ripley, 1976), whose estimator K(d), knowing the area of the study region and the number of vents, allow us to calculate the distance among two different location of events. The above estimator can be easier transformed by using the Besag L-function (Besag, 1977); the peaks of positive L(d)=[K(d)/π]1/2 -d values indicate clustering while troughs of negative values stand for regularity for their corresponding distances d (L(d)=0 indicates complete spatial randomness). Spatial pattern of flank vents is investigated in order to model the spatial distribution of likely eruptive vents for the next event, basically in terms of relative probabilities. For this, a Gaussian kernel technique is used, and the L(d) function is adopted to generate an optimal smoothing bandwidth based on the clustering behaviour of the Etna volcano. A total of 154 vents (among which 36 are reconstructed), related to Etna flank activity of the last 4.0 ka, is used to model future vent opening. The investigated region covers an area of 850 km2, divided

  6. Kinetics of protein aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, Tuomas

    2015-03-01

    Aggregation into linear nanostructures, notably amyloid and amyloid-like fibrils, is a common form of behaviour exhibited by a range of peptides and proteins. This process was initially discovered in the context of the aetiology of a range of neurodegenerative diseases, but has recently been recognised to of general significance and has been found at the origin of a number of beneficial functional roles in nature, including as catalytic scaffolds and functional components in biofilms. This talk discusses our ongoing efforts to study the kinetics of linear protein self-assembly by using master equation approaches combined with global analysis of experimental data.

  7. Structure of Viral Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Stephen; Luijten, Erik

    2010-03-01

    The aggregation of virus particles is a particular form of colloidal self-assembly, since viruses of a give type are monodisperse and have identical, anisotropic surface charge distributions. In small-angle X-ray scattering experiments, the Qbeta virus was found to organize in different crystal structures in the presence of divalent salt and non-adsorbing polymer. Since a simple isotropic potential cannot explain the occurrence of all observed phases, we employ computer simulations to investigate how the surface charge distribution affects the virus interactions. Using a detailed model of the virus particle, we find an asymmetric ion distribution around the virus which gives rise to the different phases observed.

  8. NASA/JPL hydrothermal vent bio-sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, J.; Behar, A.; Bruckner, J.; Matthews, J.

    pagestyle empty begin document On the bottom of the oceans with volcanic activity present hydrothermal vents can be found which spew out mineral rich superheated water from the porous seafloor crust Some of these vents are situated several thousands of meters below the surface where the sunlight never reaches Yet life thrives here on the minerals and chemical compounds that the vent water brings up with it This chemosynthetic microbial community forms the basis of some of the most interesting ecosystems on our planet and could possibly also be found on other water rich planets and moons in the solar system Perhaps under the icy surface of the moon Europa there exist hydrothermal vents with such biota thriving independently of the solar energy The Hydrothermal Vent Bio-sampler HVB is a system which will be used to collect pristine samples of the water emanating from hydrothermal vents An array of temperature and flow sensors will monitor the sampling conditions This will allow for the samples to be collected from defined locations within the plume and the diversity and distribution of the chemosynthetic communities that might live there can be accurately described The samples will have to be taken without any contamination from the surrounding water thus the pristine requirement Monitoring the flow will assure that enough water has been sampled to account for the low biomass of these environments The system will be using a series of filters down to 0 2 mu m in pore size and the samples can be directly collected from the system for both culture-

  9. Hydrothermal vents of Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplinski, M.A.; Morgan, P. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    Hydrothermal vent systems within Yellowstone Lake are located within the Yellowstone caldera in the northeastern and West Thumb sections of the lake. The vent systems lie within areas of extremely high geothermal gradients (< 1,000 C/km) in the lake sediments and occur as clusters of individual vents that expel both hydrothermal fluids and gas. Regions surrounding the vents are colonized by unique, chemotropic biologic communities and suggest that hydrothermal input plays an important role in the nutrient dynamics of the lake's ecosystem. The main concentration of hydrothermal activity occurs in the northeast region of the main lake body in a number of locations including: (1) along the shoreline from the southern edge of Sedge Bay to the inlet of Pelican Creek; (2) the central portion of the partially submerged Mary Bay phreatic explosion crater, within deep (30--50 m) fissures; (3) along the top of a 3 km long, steep-sided ridge that extends from the southern border of Mary Bay, south-southeast into the main lake basin; and (4) east of Stevenson Island along the lower portion of the slope (50--107 m) into the lake basin, within an anastomosing series of north to northwest trending, narrow troughs or fissures. Hydrothermal vents were also located within, and surrounding the West Thumb of Yellowstone Lake, with the main concentration occurring the offshore of the West Thumb and Potts Geyser Basin. Hydrothermal vents in Yellowstone Lake occur along fractures that have penetrated the lake sediments or along the tops of ridges and near shore areas. Underneath the lake, rising hydrothermal fluids encounter a semi-permeable cap of lake sediments. Upwardly convecting hydrothermal fluid flow may be diverted by the impermeable lake sediments along the buried, pre-existing topography. These fluids may continue to rise along topography until fractures are encountered, or the lake sediment cover is thinned sufficiently to allow egress of the fluids.

  10. Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachbart, Robin H.; Holt, James B.; Hastings, Leon J.

    1999-01-01

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy is required. a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point. the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating, boil-off losses.

  11. Batch treatment controls corrosion in pumping wells

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, S.; Doran, C.R.

    1984-02-01

    Conoco recently developed a batch treatment program to control corrosion in sucker rod pumped wells. The program was intended to prolong equipment life, reduce pulling jobs and cut operating costs. Tested on MCA Unit near Maljamar in southeast New Mexico, and since applied to more than 400 producing wells near Hobbs, the new program has been remarkably successful. Pulling jobs, which had totaled 178 a year at MCA Unit, dropped to 50 a year, reduced inhibitor requirements cut treatment costs by an estimated $6,100 per month and production increased.

  12. Pressure Venting Tests of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max L.; Knutson, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    A series of tests was devised to investigate the pressure venting behavior of one of the candidate ablators for the Orion capsule heat shield. Three different specimens of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA) were instrumented with internal pressure taps and subjected to rapid pressure changes from near vacuum to one atmosphere and simulated Orion ascent pressure histories. The specimens vented rapidly to ambient pressure and sustained no detectable damage during testing. Peak pressure differences through the thickness of a 3-inch-thick specimen were less than 1 psi during a simulated ascent pressure history.

  13. Hydrothermal vents and methane seeps: Rethinking the sphere of influence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levin, Lisa A.; Baco, Amy; Bowden, David; Colaco, Ana; Cordes, Erik E.; Cunha, Marina; Demopoulos, Amanda; Gobin, Judith; Grupe, Ben; Le, Jennifer; Metaxas, Anna; Netburn, Amanda; Rouse, Greg; Thurber, Andrew; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Van Dover, Cindy L.; Vanreusel, Ann; Watling, Les

    2016-01-01

    Although initially viewed as oases within a barren deep ocean, hydrothermal vent and methane seep communities are now recognized to interact with surrounding ecosystems on the sea floor and in the water column, and to affect global geochemical cycles. The importance of understanding these interactions is growing as the potential rises for disturbance from oil and gas extraction, seabed mining and bottom trawling. Here we synthesize current knowledge of the nature, extent and time and space scales of vent and seep interactions with background systems. We document an expanded footprint beyond the site of local venting or seepage with respect to elemental cycling and energy flux, habitat use, trophic interactions, and connectivity. Heat and energy are released, global biogeochemical and elemental cycles are modified, and particulates are transported widely in plumes. Hard and biotic substrates produced at vents and seeps are used by “benthic background” fauna for attachment substrata, shelter, and access to food via grazing or through position in the current, while particulates and fluid fluxes modify planktonic microbial communities. Chemosynthetic production provides nutrition to a host of benthic and planktonic heterotrophic background species through multiple horizontal and vertical transfer pathways assisted by flow, gamete release, animal movements, and succession, but these pathways remain poorly known. Shared species, genera and families indicate that ecological and evolutionary connectivity exists among vents, seeps, organic falls and background communities in the deep sea; the genetic linkages with inactive vents and seeps and background assemblages however, are practically unstudied. The waning of venting or seepage activity generates major transitions in space and time that create links to surrounding ecosystems, often with identifiable ecotones or successional stages. The nature of all these interactions is dependent on water depth, as well as

  14. Taurine and platelet aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Nauss-Karol, C.; VanderWende, C.; Gaut, Z.N.

    1986-03-01

    Taurine is a putative neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. The endogenous taurine concentration in human platelets, determined by amino acid analysis, is 15 ..mu..M/g. In spite of this high level, taurine is actively accumulated. Uptake is saturable, Na/sup +/ and temperature dependent, and suppressed by metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and several classes of centrally active substances. High, medium and low affinity transport processes have been characterized, and the platelet may represent a model system for taurine transport in the CNS. When platelets were incubated with /sup 14/C-taurine for 30 minutes, then resuspended in fresh medium and reincubated for one hour, essentially all of the taurine was retained within the cells. Taurine, at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 ..mu..M, had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP or epinephrine. However, taurine may have a role in platelet aggregation since 35-39% of the taurine taken up by human platelets appears to be secreted during the release reaction induced by low concentrations of either epinephrine or ADP, respectively. This release phenomenon would imply that part of the taurine taken up is stored directly in the dense bodies of the platelet.

  15. Transfer of Campylobacter from a Positive Batch to Broiler Carcasses of a Subsequently Slaughtered Negative Batch: A Quantitative Approach.

    PubMed

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Van Damme, Inge; Gisbert Algaba, Ignacio; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify Campylobacter cross-contamination from a positive batch of broiler chicken carcasses to a negative batch at selected processing steps and to evaluate the duration of this cross-contamination. During each of nine visits conducted in three broiler slaughterhouses, Campylobacter levels were determined on broiler carcasses originating from Campylobacter-negative batches processed immediately after Campylobacter-positive batches. Data were collected after four steps during the slaughter process (scalding, plucking, evisceration, and washing) at 1, 10, and 20 min after the start of the slaughter of the batches. Campylobacter levels in ceca of birds from Campylobacter-positive batches ranged from 5.62 to 9.82 log CFU/g. When the preceding positive batch was colonized at a low level, no (enumerable) carcass contamination was found in a subsequent negative batch. However, when Campylobacter levels were high in the positive batch, Campylobacter was found on carcasses of the subsequent negative batch but at levels significantly lower than those found on carcasses from the preceding positive batch. The scalding and the evisceration process contributed the least (< 1.5 log CFU/g) and the most (up to 4 log CFU/ g), respectively, to the Campylobacter transmission from a positive batch to a negative batch. Additionally, the number of Campylobacter cells transferred from positive to negative batches decreased over the first 20 min of sampling time. However, the reduction was slower than previously estimated in risk assessment studies, suggesting that pathogen transfer during crosscontamination is a complex process.

  16. 40 CFR 60.692-5 - Standards: Closed vent systems and control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-5 Standards: Closed vent... shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR 60.18. (d) Closed vent systems and control devices used...

  17. An overview of BWR Mark-I containment venting risk implications

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, K.C.; Dallman, R.J.; Galyean, W.J.

    1988-11-01

    Venting of boiling water reactors with Mark-I containments has been suggested as a way to prevent catastrophic failure and/or mitigate the consequences resulting from a severe accident. Based on phenomenological, human factors, and risk considerations, the potential benefits and downsides of venting Mark-I containments were analyzed. Several generic venting systems and two proposed utility systems were reviewed. Based on generic considerations, the offsite consequences during risk dominant accidents were qualitatively assessed for four different vent systems. A quantitative risk study of an early venting strategy was performed, based on the existing Peach Bottom hardware and the draft NUREG-1150 results for Peach Bottom. Appendices are also included which contain reviews of the Pilgrim and Vermont Yankee venting submitals, a response to the seven questions from the NRC about the Pilgrim venting strategy, and a review of the venting strategy directed by Revision 4 of the Boiling Water Reactor Emergency Procedures Guidelines. 16 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Continuous Process Vents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of control devices (except a flare) in accordance with the requirements of § 63.982(c)(2) and the... closed-vent system to a flare (except that a flare may not be used to control halogenated vent...

  19. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Continuous Process Vents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of control devices (except a flare) in accordance with the requirements of § 63.982(c)(2) and the... closed-vent system to a flare (except that a flare may not be used to control halogenated vent...

  20. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Continuous Process Vents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of control devices (except a flare) in accordance with the requirements of § 63.982(c)(2) and the... closed-vent system to a flare (except that a flare may not be used to control halogenated vent...