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Sample records for aggregate biodiesel production

  1. Prospects for microbial biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuobo; Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-03-01

    As the demand for biofuels for transportation is increasing, it is necessary to develop technologies that will allow for low-cost production of biodiesel. Conventional biodiesel is mainly produced from vegetable oil by chemical transesterification. This production, however, has relatively low land-yield and is competing for agricultural land that can be used for food production. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in developing microbial fermentation processes for production of biodiesel as this will allow for the use of a wide range of raw-materials, including sugar cane, corn, and biomass. Production of biodiesel by microbial fermentation can be divided into two different approaches, (1) indirect biodiesel production from oleaginous microbes by in vitro transesterification, and (2) direct biodiesel production from redesigned cell factories. This work reviews both microbial approaches for renewable biodiesel production and evaluates the existing challenges in these two strategies.

  2. Enzymatic approach to biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Akoh, Casimir C; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2007-10-31

    The need for alternative energy sources that combine environmental friendliness with biodegradability, low toxicity, renewability, and less dependence on petroleum products has never been greater. One such energy source is referred to as biodiesel. This can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, microalgal oils, waste products of vegetable oil refinery or animal rendering, and used frying oils. Chemically, they are known as monoalkyl esters of fatty acids. The conventional method for producing biodiesel involves acid and base catalysts to form fatty acid alkyl esters. Downstream processing costs and environmental problems associated with biodiesel production and byproducts recovery have led to the search for alternative production methods and alternative substrates. Enzymatic reactions involving lipases can be an excellent alternative to produce biodiesel through a process commonly referred to alcoholysis, a form of transesterification reaction, or through an interesterification (ester interchange) reaction. Protein engineering can be useful in improving the catalytic efficiency of lipases as biocatalysts for biodiesel production. The use of recombinant DNA technology to produce large quantities of lipases, and the use of immobilized lipases and immobilized whole cells, may lower the overall cost, while presenting less downstream processing problems, to biodiesel production. In addition, the enzymatic approach is environmentally friendly, considered a "green reaction", and needs to be explored for industrial production of biodiesel.

  3. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    SciTech Connect

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese

  4. Genetic engineering of microorganisms for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Shen, Qi; Zhan, Jumei; Zhao, Yuhua

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, as one type of renewable energy, is an ideal substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel and is usually made from triacylglycerides by transesterification with alcohols. Biodiesel production based on microbial fermentation aiming to establish more efficient, less-cost and sustainable biodiesel production strategies is under current investigation by various start-up biotechnology companies and research centers. Genetic engineering plays a key role in the transformation of microbes into the desired cell factories with high efficiency of biodiesel production. Here, we present an overview of principal microorganisms used in the microbial biodiesel production and recent advances in metabolic engineering for the modification required. Overexpression or deletion of the related enzymes for de novo synthesis of biodiesel is highlighted with relevant examples.

  5. Genetic engineering of microorganisms for biodiesel production

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Shen, Qi; Zhan, Jumei; Zhao, Yuhua

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, as one type of renewable energy, is an ideal substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel and is usually made from triacylglycerides by transesterification with alcohols. Biodiesel production based on microbial fermentation aiming to establish more efficient, less-cost and sustainable biodiesel production strategies is under current investigation by various start-up biotechnology companies and research centers. Genetic engineering plays a key role in the transformation of microbes into the desired cell factories with high efficiency of biodiesel production. Here, we present an overview of principal microorganisms used in the microbial biodiesel production and recent advances in metabolic engineering for the modification required. Overexpression or deletion of the related enzymes for de novo synthesis of biodiesel is highlighted with relevant examples. PMID:23222170

  6. Genetic Engineering Strategies for Enhanced Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Krishnamoorthy; Chandra, Niharika; Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Veeranki, Venkata Dasu

    2015-07-01

    The focus on biodiesel research has shown a tremendous growth over the last few years. Several microbial and plant sources are being explored for the sustainable biodiesel production to replace the petroleum diesel. Conventional methods of biodiesel production have several limitations related to yield and quality, which led to development of new engineering strategies to improve the biodiesel production in plants, and microorganisms. Substantial progress in utilizing algae, yeast, and Escherichia coli for the renewable production of biodiesel feedstock via genetic engineering of fatty acid metabolic pathways has been reported in the past few years. However, in most of the cases, the successful commercialization of such engineering strategies for sustainable biodiesel production is yet to be seen. This paper systematically presents the drawbacks in the conventional methods for biodiesel production and an exhaustive review on the present status of research in genetic engineering strategies for production of biodiesel in plants, and microorganisms. Further, we summarize the technical challenges need to be tackled to make genetic engineering technology economically sustainable. Finally, the need and prospects of genetic engineering technology for the sustainable biodiesel production and the recommendations for the future research are discussed.

  7. Biodiesel production by transesterification using immobilized lipase.

    PubMed

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Reena

    2013-04-01

    Biodiesel can be produced by transesterification of vegetable or waste oil catalysed by lipases. Biodiesel is an alternative energy source to conventional fuel. It combines environmental friendliness with biodegradability, low toxicity and renewability. Biodiesel transesterification reactions can be broadly classified into two categories: chemical and enzymatic. The production of biodiesel using the enzymatic route eliminates the reactions catalysed under acid or alkali conditions by yielding product of very high purity. The modification of lipases can improve their stability, activity and tolerance to alcohol. The cost of lipases and the relatively slower reaction rate remain the major obstacles for enzymatic production of biodiesel. However, this problem can be solved by immobilizing the enzyme on a suitable matrix or support, which increases the chances of re-usability. The main factors affecting biodiesel production are composition of fatty acids, catalyst, solvents, molar ratio of alcohol and oil, temperature, water content, type of alcohol and reactor configuration. Optimization of these parameters is necessary to reduce the cost of biodiesel production.

  8. Biodiesel production by transesterification using immobilized lipase.

    PubMed

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Reena

    2013-04-01

    Biodiesel can be produced by transesterification of vegetable or waste oil catalysed by lipases. Biodiesel is an alternative energy source to conventional fuel. It combines environmental friendliness with biodegradability, low toxicity and renewability. Biodiesel transesterification reactions can be broadly classified into two categories: chemical and enzymatic. The production of biodiesel using the enzymatic route eliminates the reactions catalysed under acid or alkali conditions by yielding product of very high purity. The modification of lipases can improve their stability, activity and tolerance to alcohol. The cost of lipases and the relatively slower reaction rate remain the major obstacles for enzymatic production of biodiesel. However, this problem can be solved by immobilizing the enzyme on a suitable matrix or support, which increases the chances of re-usability. The main factors affecting biodiesel production are composition of fatty acids, catalyst, solvents, molar ratio of alcohol and oil, temperature, water content, type of alcohol and reactor configuration. Optimization of these parameters is necessary to reduce the cost of biodiesel production. PMID:23247566

  9. Biodiesel production from municipal secondary sludge.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Ghosh, Pooja; Khosla, Khushboo; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of biodiesel production from freeze dried sewage sludge was studied and its yield was enhanced by optimization of the in situ transesterification conditions (temperature, catalyst and concentration of sludge solids). Optimized conditions (45°C, 5% catalyst and 0.16g/mL sludge solids) resulted in a 20.76±0.04% biodiesel yield. The purity of biodiesel was ascertained by GC-MS, FT-IR and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) spectroscopy. The biodiesel profile obtained revealed the predominance of methyl esters of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic, myristic, stearic, lauric, palmitoleic and linoleic acids indicating potential use of sludge as a biodiesel feedstock. PMID:27240231

  10. Survey of alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summarized will be results obtained from the production of biodiesel from several alternative feedstocks with promising agronomic characteristics. Such feedstocks include camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (Limnanth...

  11. Biodiesel: Small Scale Production and Quality Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gerpen, Jon

    Biodiesel is produced by reacting vegetable oils or animal fats with alcohol in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. The resulting methyl esters, which are the biodiesel fuel, are separated from the by-product glycerin, and then washed with water and dehydrated to produce fuel that must meet standardized specifications. Degraded oils containing high levels of free fatty acids can also be converted to biodiesel, but pretreatment with acid-catalyzed esterification is required. The resulting fuel is suitable for use as a neat fuel in diesel engines or blended with conventional diesel fuel.

  12. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  13. Engineering challenges in biodiesel production from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Ana-Maria; Bassi, Amarjeet; Saxena, Priyanka

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, the not too distant exhaustion of fossil fuels is becoming apparent. Apart from this, the combustion of fossil fuels leads to environmental concerns, the emission of greenhouse gases and issues with global warming and health problems. Production of biodiesel from microalgae may represent an attractive solution to the above mentioned problems, and can offer a renewable source of fuel with fewer pollutants. This review presents a compilation of engineering challenges related to microalgae as a source of biodiesel. Advantages and current limitations for biodiesel production are discussed; some aspects of algae cells biology, with emphasis on cell wall composition, as it represents a barrier for fatty acid extraction and lipid droplets are also presented. In addition, recent advances in the different stages of the manufacturing process are included, starting from the strain selection and finishing in the processing of fatty acids into biodiesel. PMID:22804334

  14. Biodiesel production with immobilized lipase: A review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tianwei; Lu, Jike; Nie, Kaili; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid alkyl esters, also called biodiesel, are environmentally friendly and show great potential as an alternative liquid fuel. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils or fats with chemical catalysts or lipase. Immobilized lipase as the biocatalyst draws high attention because that process is "greener". This article reviews the current status of biodiesel production with immobilized lipase, including various lipases, immobilization methods, various feedstocks, lipase inactivation caused by short chain alcohols and large scale industrialization. Adsorption is still the most widely employed method for lipase immobilization. There are two kinds of lipase used most frequently especially for large scale industrialization. One is Candida antartica lipase immobilized on acrylic resin, and the other is Candida sp. 99-125 lipase immobilized on inexpensive textile membranes. However, to further reduce the cost of biodiesel production, new immobilization techniques with higher activity and stability still need to be explored. PMID:20580809

  15. Biodiesel production with immobilized lipase: A review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tianwei; Lu, Jike; Nie, Kaili; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid alkyl esters, also called biodiesel, are environmentally friendly and show great potential as an alternative liquid fuel. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils or fats with chemical catalysts or lipase. Immobilized lipase as the biocatalyst draws high attention because that process is "greener". This article reviews the current status of biodiesel production with immobilized lipase, including various lipases, immobilization methods, various feedstocks, lipase inactivation caused by short chain alcohols and large scale industrialization. Adsorption is still the most widely employed method for lipase immobilization. There are two kinds of lipase used most frequently especially for large scale industrialization. One is Candida antartica lipase immobilized on acrylic resin, and the other is Candida sp. 99-125 lipase immobilized on inexpensive textile membranes. However, to further reduce the cost of biodiesel production, new immobilization techniques with higher activity and stability still need to be explored.

  16. Process for biodiesel production from Cryptococcus curvatus.

    PubMed

    Thiru, Meikandhan; Sankh, Santosh; Rangaswamy, Vidhya

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the current report is process optimization for economical production of lipids by the well known oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus and conversion of the lipids to biodiesel. A high cell density fed-batch cultivation on low cost substrate viz. crude glycerol resulted in a dry biomass and oil yield of up to 69 g/L and 48% (w/w), respectively. The process was scaled up easily to 26 L. The oil extraction process was also optimized using environmentally safe solvents. The oil profile indicated a high oleic acid content followed by palmitic acid, stearic acid and linoleic acid. The oil was trans-esterified to biodiesel and thoroughly characterized. This is the first end to end report on production of biodiesel from the C. curvatus oil.

  17. Evaluation of hydrolysis-esterification biodiesel production from wet microalgae.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Li, Shuhong; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Wet microalgae hydrolysis-esterification route has the advantage to avoid the energy-intensive units (e.g. drying and lipid extraction) in the biodiesel production process. In this study, techno-economic evaluation of hydrolysis-esterification biodiesel production process was carried out and compared with conventional (usually including drying, lipid extraction, esterification and transesterification) biodiesel production process. Energy and material balance of the conventional and hydrolysis-esterification processes was evaluated by Aspen Plus. The simulation results indicated that drying (2.36MJ/L biodiesel) and triolein transesterification (1.89MJ/L biodiesel) are the dominant energy-intensive stages in the conventional route (5.42MJ/L biodiesel). By contrast, the total energy consumption of hydrolysis-esterification route can be reduced to 1.81MJ/L biodiesel, and approximately 3.61MJ can be saved to produce per liter biodiesel.

  18. Evaluation of hydrolysis-esterification biodiesel production from wet microalgae.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Li, Shuhong; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Wet microalgae hydrolysis-esterification route has the advantage to avoid the energy-intensive units (e.g. drying and lipid extraction) in the biodiesel production process. In this study, techno-economic evaluation of hydrolysis-esterification biodiesel production process was carried out and compared with conventional (usually including drying, lipid extraction, esterification and transesterification) biodiesel production process. Energy and material balance of the conventional and hydrolysis-esterification processes was evaluated by Aspen Plus. The simulation results indicated that drying (2.36MJ/L biodiesel) and triolein transesterification (1.89MJ/L biodiesel) are the dominant energy-intensive stages in the conventional route (5.42MJ/L biodiesel). By contrast, the total energy consumption of hydrolysis-esterification route can be reduced to 1.81MJ/L biodiesel, and approximately 3.61MJ can be saved to produce per liter biodiesel. PMID:27209457

  19. A fuzzy goal programming model for biodiesel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutero, D. S.; Pangue, EMU; Tubay, J. M.; Lubag, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    A fuzzy goal programming (FGP) model for biodiesel production in the Philippines was formulated with Coconut (Cocos nucifera) and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) as sources of biodiesel. Objectives were maximization of feedstock production and overall revenue and, minimization of energy used in production and working capital for farming subject to biodiesel and non-biodiesel requirements, and availability of land, labor, water and machine time. All these objectives and constraints were assumed to be fuzzy. Model was tested for different sets of weights. Results for all sets of weights showed the same optimal allocation. Coconut alone can satisfy the biodiesel requirement of 2% per volume.

  20. Production of biodiesel using immobilized lipase--a critical review.

    PubMed

    Jegannathan, Kenthorai Raman; Abang, Sariah; Poncelet, Denis; Chan, Eng Seng; Ravindra, Pogaku

    2008-01-01

    Increase in volume of biodiesel production in the world scenario proves that biodiesel is accepted as an alternative to conventional fuel. Production of biodiesel using alkaline catalyst has been commercially implemented due to its high conversion and low production time. For the product and process development of biodiesel, enzymatic transesterification has been suggested to produce a high purity product with an economic, environment friendly process at mild reaction conditions. The enzyme cost being the main hurdle can be overcome by immobilization. Immobilized enzyme, which has been successfully used in various fields over the soluble counterpart, could be employed in biodiesel production with the aim of reducing the production cost by reusing the enzyme. This review attempts to provide an updated compilation of the studies reported on biodiesel production by using lipase immobilized through various techniques and the parameters, which affect their functionality.

  1. Progress and Challenges in Microalgal Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Nirupama; Bagchi, Sourav K; Koley, Shankha; Singh, Akhilesh K

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a tremendous impetus on biofuel research due to the irreversible diminution of fossil fuel reserves for enormous demands of transportation vis-a-vis escalating emissions of green house gasses (GHGs) into the atmosphere. With an imperative need of CO2 reduction and considering the declining status of crude oil, governments in various countries have not only diverted substantial funds for biofuel projects but also have introduced incentives to vendors that produce biofuels. Currently, biodiesel production from microalgal biomass has drawn an immense importance with the potential to exclude high-quality agricultural land use and food safe-keeping issues. Moreover, microalgae can grow in seawater or wastewater and microalgal oil can exceed 50-60% (dry cell weight) as compared with some best agricultural oil crops of only 5-10% oil content. Globally, microalgae are the highest biomass producers and neutral lipid accumulators contending any other terrestrial oil crops. However, there remain many hurdles in each and every step, starting from strain selection and lipid accumulation/yield, algae mass cultivation followed by the downstream processes such as harvesting, drying, oil extraction, and biodiesel conversion (transesterification), and overall, the cost of production. Isolation and screening of oleaginous microalgae is one pivotal important upstream factor which should be addressed according to the need of freshwater or marine algae with a consideration that wild-type indigenous isolate can be the best suited for the laboratory to large scale exploitation. Nowadays, a large number of literature on microalgal biodiesel production are available, but none of those illustrate a detailed step-wise description with the pros and cons of the upstream and downstream processes of biodiesel production from microalgae. Specifically, harvesting and drying constitute more than 50% of the total production costs; however, there are quite a less number

  2. Progress and Challenges in Microalgal Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Nirupama; Bagchi, Sourav K.; Koley, Shankha; Singh, Akhilesh K.

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a tremendous impetus on biofuel research due to the irreversible diminution of fossil fuel reserves for enormous demands of transportation vis-a-vis escalating emissions of green house gasses (GHGs) into the atmosphere. With an imperative need of CO2 reduction and considering the declining status of crude oil, governments in various countries have not only diverted substantial funds for biofuel projects but also have introduced incentives to vendors that produce biofuels. Currently, biodiesel production from microalgal biomass has drawn an immense importance with the potential to exclude high-quality agricultural land use and food safe-keeping issues. Moreover, microalgae can grow in seawater or wastewater and microalgal oil can exceed 50–60% (dry cell weight) as compared with some best agricultural oil crops of only 5–10% oil content. Globally, microalgae are the highest biomass producers and neutral lipid accumulators contending any other terrestrial oil crops. However, there remain many hurdles in each and every step, starting from strain selection and lipid accumulation/yield, algae mass cultivation followed by the downstream processes such as harvesting, drying, oil extraction, and biodiesel conversion (transesterification), and overall, the cost of production. Isolation and screening of oleaginous microalgae is one pivotal important upstream factor which should be addressed according to the need of freshwater or marine algae with a consideration that wild-type indigenous isolate can be the best suited for the laboratory to large scale exploitation. Nowadays, a large number of literature on microalgal biodiesel production are available, but none of those illustrate a detailed step-wise description with the pros and cons of the upstream and downstream processes of biodiesel production from microalgae. Specifically, harvesting and drying constitute more than 50% of the total production costs; however, there are quite a less

  3. Process simulation and economical evaluation of enzymatic biodiesel production plant.

    PubMed

    Sotoft, Lene Fjerbaek; Rong, Ben-Guang; Christensen, Knud V; Norddahl, Birgir

    2010-07-01

    Process simulation and economical evaluation of an enzymatic biodiesel production plant has been carried out. Enzymatic biodiesel production from high quality rapeseed oil and methanol has been investigated for solvent free and cosolvent production processes. Several scenarios have been investigated with different production scales (8 and 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year) and enzyme price. The cosolvent production process is found to be most expensive and is not a viable choice, while the solvent free process is viable for the larger scale production of 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year with the current enzyme price. With the suggested enzyme price of the future, both the small and large scale solvent free production proved viable. The product price was estimated to be 0.73-1.49 euro/kg biodiesel with the current enzyme price and 0.05-0.75 euro/kg with the enzyme price of the future for solvent free process.

  4. A First Law Thermodynamic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Soybean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patzek, Tad W.

    2009-01-01

    A proper First Law energy balance of the soybean biodiesel cycle shows that the overall efficiency of biodiesel production is 0.18, i.e., only 1 in 5 parts of the solar energy sequestered as soya beans, plus the fossil energy inputs, becomes biodiesel. Soybean meal is produced with an overall energetic efficiency of 0.38, but it is not a fossil…

  5. Genomic Prospecting for Microbial Biodiesel Production

    SciTech Connect

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Lykidis, Athanasios; Ivanova, Natalia

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is defined as fatty acid mono-alkylesters and is produced from triacylglycerols. In the current article we provide an overview of the structure, diversity and regulation of the metabolic pathways leading to intracellular fatty acid and triacylglycerol accumulation in three types of organisms (bacteria, algae and fungi) of potential biotechnological interest and discuss possible intervention points to increase the cellular lipid content. The key steps that regulate carbon allocation and distribution in lipids include the formation of malonyl-CoA, the synthesis of fatty acids and their attachment onto the glycerol backbone, and the formation of triacylglycerols. The lipid biosynthetic genes and pathways are largely known for select model organisms. Comparative genomics allows the examination of these pathways in organisms of biotechnological interest and reveals the evolution of divergent and yet uncharacterized regulatory mechanisms. Utilization of microbial systems for triacylglycerol and fatty acid production is in its infancy; however, genomic information and technologies combined with synthetic biology concepts provide the opportunity to further exploit microbes for the competitive production of biodiesel.

  6. Economic assessment of biodiesel production from waste frying oils.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Victor Kraemer Wermelinger Sancho; Hamacher, Silvio; Scavarda, Luiz Felipe

    2010-06-01

    Waste frying oils (WFO) can be a good source for the production of biodiesel because this raw material is not part of the food chain, is low cost and can be used in a way that resolves environmental problems (i.e. WFO is no longer thrown into the sewage network). The goal of this article is to propose a method to evaluate the costs of biodiesel production from WFO to develop an economic assessment of this alternative. This method embraces a logistics perspective, as the cost of collection of oil from commercial producers and its delivery to biodiesel depots or plants can be relevant and is an issue that has been little explored in the academic literature. To determine the logistics cost, a mathematical programming model is proposed to solve the vehicle routing problem (VRP), which was applied in an important urban center in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), a relevant and potential center for biodiesel production and consumption. Eighty-one biodiesel cost scenarios were compared with information on the commercialization of biodiesel in Brazil. The results obtained demonstrate the economic viability of biodiesel production from WFO in the urban center studied and the relevance of logistics in the total biodiesel production cost.

  7. Biodiesel production using waste frying oil

    SciTech Connect

    Charpe, Trupti W.; Rathod, Virendra K.

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Waste sunflower frying oil is successfully converted to biodiesel using lipase as catalyst. {yields} Various process parameters that affects the conversion of transesterification reaction such as temperature, enzyme concentration, methanol: oil ratio and solvent are optimized. {yields} Inhibitory effect of methanol on lipase is reduced by adding methanol in three stages. {yields} Polar solvents like n-hexane and n-heptane increases the conversion of tranesterification reaction. - Abstract: Waste sunflower frying oil is used in biodiesel production by transesterification using an enzyme as a catalyst in a batch reactor. Various microbial lipases have been used in transesterification reaction to select an optimum lipase. The effects of various parameters such as temperature, methanol:oil ratio, enzyme concentration and solvent on the conversion of methyl ester have been studied. The Pseudomonas fluorescens enzyme yielded the highest conversion. Using the P. fluorescens enzyme, the optimum conditions included a temperature of 45 deg. C, an enzyme concentration of 5% and a methanol:oil molar ratio 3:1. To avoid an inhibitory effect, the addition of methanol was performed in three stages. The conversion obtained after 24 h of reaction increased from 55.8% to 63.84% because of the stage-wise addition of methanol. The addition of a non-polar solvent result in a higher conversion compared to polar solvents. Transesterification of waste sunflower frying oil under the optimum conditions and single-stage methanol addition was compared to the refined sunflower oil.

  8. Biodiesel production from waste frying oils and its quality control.

    PubMed

    Sabudak, T; Yildiz, M

    2010-05-01

    The use of biodiesel as fuel from alternative sources has increased considerably over recent years, affording numerous environmental benefits. Biodiesel an alternative fuel for diesel engines is produced from renewable sources such as vegetable oils or animal fats. However, the high costs implicated in marketing biodiesel constitute a major obstacle. To this regard therefore, the use of waste frying oils (WFO) should produce a marked reduction in the cost of biodiesel due to the ready availability of WFO at a relatively low price. In the present study waste frying oils collected from several McDonald's restaurants in Istanbul, were used to produce biodiesel. Biodiesel from WFO was prepared by means of three different transesterification processes: a one-step base-catalyzed, a two-step base-catalyzed and a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by base transesterification. No detailed previous studies providing information for a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by a base (CH(3)ONa) transesterification are present in literature. Each reaction was allowed to take place with and without tetrahydrofuran added as a co-solvent. Following production, three different procedures; washing with distilled water, dry wash with magnesol and using ion-exchange resin were applied to purify biodiesel and the best outcome determined. The biodiesel obtained to verify compliance with the European Standard 14214 (EN 14214), which also corresponds to Turkish Biodiesel Standards. PMID:20100653

  9. Polymeric efficiency in remove impurities during cottonseed biodiesel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H. L.; Liang, Y. H.; Yan, J.; Lin, H. D.; Espinosa, A. R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a new process for developing biodiesel by polymer from crude cottonseed oil. The study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the alkali transesterification-flocculation-sedimentation process on fast glycerol and other impurities in the separation from biodiesel by using quaternary polyamine-based cationic polymers SL2700 and polyacylamide cationic polymer SAL1100. The settling velocity of glycerol and other impurities in biodiesel was investigated through settling test experiments; the quality of the biodiesel was investigated by evaluating the viscosity and density. The results revealed that SL2700, SAL1100 and their combination dramatically improved the settling velocity of glycerol and other impurities materials than traditional method. SL 2700 with molecular weight of 0.2 million Da and charge density of 50% then plus SAL1100 with molecular weight of 11 million Da and charge density of 10% induced observable particle aggregation with the best settling performance.

  10. An investigation of biodiesel production from wastes of seafood restaurants.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh; Hamdy, A; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2014-01-01

    This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp.) in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield) and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst. PMID:25400665

  11. An Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Wastes of Seafood Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh.; Hamdy, A.; Abu Amr, Salem S.

    2014-01-01

    This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp.) in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield) and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst. PMID:25400665

  12. Utilization of Biodiesel By-Products for Biogas Production

    PubMed Central

    Kolesárová, Nina; Hutňan, Miroslav; Bodík, Igor; Špalková, Viera

    2011-01-01

    This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-products from biodiesel production as substrates for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The process of biodiesel production is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other products, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple of studies have demonstrated the possibility of biogas production, using g-phase as a single substrate, and it has also shown a great potential as a cosubstrate by anaerobic treatment of different types of organic waste or energy crops. Oil cakes or oil meals are solid residues obtained after oil extraction from the seeds. Another possible by-product is the washing water from raw biodiesel purification, which is an oily and soapy liquid. All of these materials have been suggested as feasible substrates for anaerobic degradation, although some issues and inhibitory factors have to be considered. PMID:21403868

  13. Biodiesel production--current state of the art and challenges.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Palligarnai T; Briggs, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning fuel produced from grease, vegetable oils, or animal fats. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils with short-chain alcohols or by the esterification of fatty acids. The transesterification reaction consists of transforming triglycerides into fatty acid alkyl esters, in the presence of an alcohol, such as methanol or ethanol, and a catalyst, such as an alkali or acid, with glycerol as a byproduct. Because of diminishing petroleum reserves and the deleterious environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum diesel, biodiesel has attracted attention during the past few years as a renewable and environmentally friendly fuel. Since biodiesel is made entirely from vegetable oil or animal fats, it is renewable and biodegradable. The majority of biodiesel today is produced by alkali-catalyzed transesterification with methanol, which results in a relatively short reaction time. However, the vegetable oil and alcohol must be substantially anhydrous and have a low free fatty acid content, because the presence of water or free fatty acid or both promotes soap formation. In this article, we examine different biodiesel sources (edible and nonedible), virgin oil versus waste oil, algae-based biodiesel that is gaining increasing importance, role of different catalysts including enzyme catalysts, and the current state-of-the-art in biodiesel production.

  14. Thermally assisted sensor for conformity assessment of biodiesel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, M. S.; Kamikawachi, R. C.; Fabris, J. L.; Muller, M.

    2015-02-01

    Although biodiesel can be intentionally tampered with, impairing its quality, ineffective production processes may also result in a nonconforming final fuel. For an incomplete transesterification reaction, traces of alcohol (ethanol or methanol) or remaining raw material (vegetable oil or animal fats) may be harmful to consumers, the environment or to engines. Traditional methods for biodiesel assessment are complex, time consuming and expensive, leading to the need for the development of new and more versatile processes for quality control. This work describes a refractometric fibre optic based sensor that is thermally assisted, developed to quantify the remaining methanol or vegetable oil in biodiesel blends. The sensing relies on a long period grating to configure an in-fibre interferometer. A complete analytical routine is demonstrated for the sensor allowing the evaluation of the biodiesel blends without segregation of the components. The results show the sensor can determine the presence of oil or methanol in biodiesel with a concentration ranging from 0% to 10% v/v. The sensor presented a resolution and standard combined uncertainty of 0.013% v/v and 0.62% v/v for biodiesel-oil samples, and 0.007% v/v and 0.22% v/v for biodiesel-methanol samples, respectively.

  15. Biodiesel production from low cost and renewable feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gude, Veera G.; Grant, Georgene E.; Patil, Prafulla D.; Deng, Shuguang

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable biodiesel production should: a) utilize low cost renewable feedstock; b) utilize energy-efficient, nonconventional heating and mixing techniques; c) increase net energy benefit of the process; and d) utilize renewable feedstock/energy sources where possible. In this paper, we discuss the merits of biodiesel production following these criteria supported by the experimental results obtained from the process optimization studies. Waste cooking oil, non-edible (low-cost) oils (Jatropha curcas and Camelina Sativa) and algae were used as feedstock for biodiesel process optimization. A comparison between conventional and non-conventional methods such as microwaves and ultrasound was reported. Finally, net energy scenarios for different biodiesel feedstock options and algae are presented.

  16. Production of bioethanol and biodiesel using instant noodle waste.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Lee, Ja Hyun; Yoo, Hah Young; Shin, Hyun Yong; Thapa, Laxmi Prasad; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-08-01

    Instant noodle manufacturing waste was used as feedstock to convert it into two products, bioethanol and biodiesel. The raw material was pretreated to separate it into two potential feedstocks, starch residues and palm oil, for conversion to bioethanol and biodiesel, respectively. For the production of bioethanol, starch residues were converted into glucose by α-amylase and glucoamylase. To investigate the saccharification process of the pretreated starch residues, the optimal pretreatment conditions were determined. The bioethanol conversion reached 98.5 % of the theoretical maximum by Saccharomyces cerevisiae K35 fermentation after saccharification under optimized pretreatment conditions. Moreover, palm oil, isolated from the instant noodle waste, was converted into valuable biodiesel by use of immobilized lipase (Novozym 435). The effects of four categories of alcohol, oil-to-methanol ratio, reaction time, lipase concentration and water content on the conversion process were investigated. The maximum biodiesel conversion was 95.4 %.

  17. Supercritical biodiesel production and power cogeneration: technical and economic feasibilities.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, A; Anitescu, G; Rice, P A; Tavlarides, L L

    2010-03-01

    An integrated supercritical fluid technology with power cogeneration to produce biodiesel fuels, with no need for the costly separations involved with the conventional technology, is proposed, documented for technical and economic feasibility, and preliminarily designed. The core of the integrated system consists of the transesterification of various triglyceride sources (e.g., vegetable oils and animal fats) with supercritical methanol/ethanol. Part of the reaction products can be combusted by a diesel power generator integrated in the system which, in turn, provides the power needed to pressurize the system and the heat of the exhaust gases necessary in the transesterification step. The latter energy demand can also be satisfied by a fired heater, especially for higher plant capacities. Different versions of this system can be implemented based on the main target of the technology: biodiesel production or diesel engine applications, including power generation. The process options considered for biodiesel fuel production estimate break-even processing costs of biodiesel as low as $0.26/gal ($0.07/L) with a diesel power generator and $0.35/gal ($0.09/L) with a fired heater for a plant capacity of 15,000 gal/day (56,775 L/day). Both are significantly lower than the current processing costs of approximately $0.51/gal ($0.13/L) of biodiesel produced by conventional catalytic methods. A retail cost of biodiesel produced by the proposed method is likely to be competitive with the prices of diesel fuels.

  18. Process optimization and kinetics of biodiesel production from neem oil using copper doped zinc oxide heterogeneous nanocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Baskar; Ravi, Aiswarya

    2015-08-01

    Heterogeneous nanocatalyst has become the choice of researchers for better transesterification of vegetable oils to biodiesel. In the present study, transesterification reaction was optimized and kinetics was studied for biodiesel production from neem oil using CZO nanocatalyst. The highly porous and non-uniform surface of the CZO nanocatalyst was confirmed by AFM analysis, which leads to the aggregation of CZO nanoparticles in the form of multi layered nanostructures. The 97.18% biodiesel yield was obtained in 60min reaction time at 55°C using 10% (w/w) CZO nanocatalyst and 1:10 (v:v) oil:methanol ratio. Biodiesel yield of 73.95% was obtained using recycled nanocatalyst in sixth cycle. The obtained biodiesel was confirmed using GC-MS and (1)H NMR analysis. Reaction kinetic models were tested on biodiesel production, first order kinetic model was found fit with experimental data (R(2)=0.9452). The activation energy of 233.88kJ/mol was required for transesterification of neem oil into biodiesel using CZO nanocatalyst.

  19. Process optimization and kinetics of biodiesel production from neem oil using copper doped zinc oxide heterogeneous nanocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Baskar; Ravi, Aiswarya

    2015-08-01

    Heterogeneous nanocatalyst has become the choice of researchers for better transesterification of vegetable oils to biodiesel. In the present study, transesterification reaction was optimized and kinetics was studied for biodiesel production from neem oil using CZO nanocatalyst. The highly porous and non-uniform surface of the CZO nanocatalyst was confirmed by AFM analysis, which leads to the aggregation of CZO nanoparticles in the form of multi layered nanostructures. The 97.18% biodiesel yield was obtained in 60min reaction time at 55°C using 10% (w/w) CZO nanocatalyst and 1:10 (v:v) oil:methanol ratio. Biodiesel yield of 73.95% was obtained using recycled nanocatalyst in sixth cycle. The obtained biodiesel was confirmed using GC-MS and (1)H NMR analysis. Reaction kinetic models were tested on biodiesel production, first order kinetic model was found fit with experimental data (R(2)=0.9452). The activation energy of 233.88kJ/mol was required for transesterification of neem oil into biodiesel using CZO nanocatalyst. PMID:25958133

  20. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sai; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate energy, economic, and environmental performances of seven categories of biodiesel feedstocks by using the mixed-unit input-output life cycle assessment method. Various feedstocks have different environmental performances, indicating potential environmental problem-shift. Jatropha seed, castor seed, waste cooking oil, and waste extraction oil are preferred feedstocks for biodiesel production in the short term. Positive net energy yields and positive net economic benefits of biodiesel from these four feedstocks are 2.3-52.0% of their life cycle energy demands and 74.1-448.4% of their economic costs, respectively. Algae are preferred in the long term mainly due to their less arable land demands. Special attention should be paid to potential environmental problems accompanying feedstock choice: freshwater use, ecotoxicity potentials, photochemical oxidation potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Moreover, key processes are identified by sensitivity analysis to direct future technology improvements. Finally, supporting measures are proposed to optimize China's biodiesel development.

  1. Evaluation of Biodiesel Production, Engine Performance, and Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürü, Metin; Keskïn, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, to decrease environmental pollution and dependence on fossil-based fuels, research on alternative renewable energy sources has been increasing. One such renewable energy source is biodiesel, which is used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and environmentally friendly. Biodiesel is domestically produced from vegetable oil (edible or nonedible), animal fat, and used cooking oils. In the biodiesel production process, oil or fat undergoes transesterification reaction through use of simple alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, etc. Use of methanol is most feasible because of its low cost, and physical and chemical advantages. Acid catalysis, alkali catalysis, and enzyme catalysis are usually used to improve the reaction rate and yield. Glycerol is a byproduct of the reaction and can be used as an industrial raw material. In this study, biodiesel production methods (direct use, pyrolysis, microemulsion, transesterification, supercritical processes, ultrasound- assisted, and microwave-assisted) and types of catalyst (homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme) have been evaluated and compared. In addition, the effects of biodiesel and its blends on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions are described and reviewed.

  2. Sustainable Energy Production from Jatropha Bio-Diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Amit Kumar; Krishna, Vijai

    2012-10-01

    The demand for petroleum has risen rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization of the world. This economic development has led to a huge demand for energy, where the major part of that energy is derived from fossil sources such as petroleum, coal and natural gas. Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies. There is a growing interest in using Jatropha curcas L. oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production because it is non-edible and thus does not compromise the edible oils, which are mainly used for food consumption. Further, J. curcas L. seed has a high content of free fatty acids that is converted in to biodiesel by trans esterification with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The biodiesel produced has similar properties to that of petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel fuel has better properties than petro diesel fuel; it is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for future. Biodiesel has the potential to economically, socially, and environmentally benefit communities as well as countries, and to contribute toward their sustainable development.

  3. Biodiesel production from microalgae oil catalyzed by a recombinant lipase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinjin; Xia, Ji; Jiang, Wei; Li, Ying; Li, Jilun

    2015-03-01

    A recombinant Rhizomucor miehei lipase was constructed and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The target enzyme was termed Lipase GH2 and it can be used as a free enzyme for catalytic conversion of microalgae oil mixed with methanol or ethanol for biodiesel production in an n-hexane solvent system. Conversion rates of two major types of biodiesel, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE), reached maximal values (>90%) after 24h. The process of FAME production is generally more simple and economical than that of FAEE production, even though the two processes show similar conversion rates. In spite of the damaging effect of ethanol on enzyme activity, we successfully obtained ethyl ester by the enzymatic method. Our findings indicate that Lipase GH2 is a useful catalyst for conversion of microalgae oil to FAME or FAEE, and this system provides efficiency and reduced costs in biodiesel production.

  4. Biodiesel production from microalgae oil catalyzed by a recombinant lipase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinjin; Xia, Ji; Jiang, Wei; Li, Ying; Li, Jilun

    2015-03-01

    A recombinant Rhizomucor miehei lipase was constructed and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The target enzyme was termed Lipase GH2 and it can be used as a free enzyme for catalytic conversion of microalgae oil mixed with methanol or ethanol for biodiesel production in an n-hexane solvent system. Conversion rates of two major types of biodiesel, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE), reached maximal values (>90%) after 24h. The process of FAME production is generally more simple and economical than that of FAEE production, even though the two processes show similar conversion rates. In spite of the damaging effect of ethanol on enzyme activity, we successfully obtained ethyl ester by the enzymatic method. Our findings indicate that Lipase GH2 is a useful catalyst for conversion of microalgae oil to FAME or FAEE, and this system provides efficiency and reduced costs in biodiesel production. PMID:25585254

  5. Potential feedstock supply and costs for biodiesel production

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.G.; Howell, S.A.; Weber, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    Without considering technology constraints, tallows and waste greases have definite potential as feedstocks for the production of biodiesel in the United States. These materials are less expensive than most oils produced from oilseed crops such as soybeans, sunflowers, canola and rapeseed. At current crude petroleum prices, biodiesel derived from any of these materials will be more expensive than diesel derived from petroleum. However, when compared to other clean burning alternate fuels, recent data suggest biodiesel blends produced from any of these feedstocks may be the lowest total cost alternative fuel in certain areas of the United States. Economic feasibility analyses were performed to investigate the cost of producing biodiesel ($/gallon) subject to variances in feedstock cost, by-product credit (glycerol and meal) and capital costs. Cost of production per gallon of esterified biodiesel from soybean, sunflower, tallow and yellow grease ranged from $0.96 to $3.39 subject to feedstock and chemical costs, by-product credit and system capital cost.

  6. Biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofuels are continuously gaining importance in light of the dependence on diminishing and imported petroleum, coupled with rising energy prices, environmental issues and the need to strengthen the domestic agricultural economy. Biodiesel, which is obtained from vegetable oils, animal fats or used ...

  7. Extraction of oil from microalgae for biodiesel production: A review.

    PubMed

    Halim, Ronald; Danquah, Michael K; Webley, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    The rapid increase of CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere combined with depleted supplies of fossil fuels has led to an increased commercial interest in renewable fuels. Due to their high biomass productivity, rapid lipid accumulation, and ability to survive in saline water, microalgae have been identified as promising feedstocks for industrial-scale production of carbon-neutral biodiesel. This study examines the principles involved in lipid extraction from microalgal cells, a crucial downstream processing step in the production of microalgal biodiesel. We analyze the different technological options currently available for laboratory-scale microalgal lipid extraction, with a primary focus on the prospect of organic solvent and supercritical fluid extraction. The study also provides an assessment of recent breakthroughs in this rapidly developing field and reports on the suitability of microalgal lipid compositions for biodiesel conversion. PMID:22266377

  8. Whole-cell biocatalysts for biodiesel fuel production.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, H; Hama, S; Tamalampudi, S; Noda, H

    2008-12-01

    Biodiesel fuel (BDF), which refers to fatty acid alkyl esters, has attracted considerable attention as an environmentally friendly alternative fuel for diesel engines. Alkali catalysis is widely applied for the commercial production of BDF. However, enzymatic transesterification offers considerable advantages, including reducing process operations in biodiesel fuel production and an easy separation of the glycerol byproduct. The high cost of the lipase enzyme is the main obstacle for a commercially feasible enzymatic production of biodiesel fuels. To reduce enzyme associated process costs, the immobilization of fungal mycelium within biomass support particles (BSPs) as well as expression of the lipase enzyme on the surface of yeast cells has been developed to generate whole-cell biocatalysts for industrial applications.

  9. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Rahmath; Chan, Eng Seng; Ravindra, Pogaku

    2011-03-01

    The fuel crisis and environmental concerns, mainly due to global warming, have led researchers to consider the importance of biofuels such as biodiesel. Vegetable oils, which are too viscous to be used directly in engines, are converted into their corresponding methyl or ethyl esters by a process called transesterification. With the recent debates on "food versus fuel," non-edible oils, such as Jatropha curcas, are emerging as one of the main contenders for biodiesel production. Much research is still needed to explore and realize the full potential of a green fuel from J. curcas. Upcoming projects and plantations of Jatropha in countries such as India, Malaysia, and Indonesia suggest a promising future for this plant as a potential biodiesel feedstock. Many of the drawbacks associated with chemical catalysts can be overcome by using lipases for enzymatic transesterification. The high cost of lipases can be overcome, to a certain extent, by immobilization techniques. This article reviews the importance of the J. curcas plant and describes existing research conducted on Jatropha biodiesel production. The article highlights areas where further research is required and relevance of designing an immobilized lipase for biodiesel production is discussed.

  10. Biodiesel production from seed oil of Cleome viscosa L.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Rashmi; Jain, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Sushil

    2012-07-01

    Edible oil seed crops, such as rapeseed, sunflower, soyabean and safflower and non-edible seed oil plantation crops Jatropha and Pongamia have proved to be internationally viable commercial sources of vegetable oils for biodiesel production. Considering the paucity of edible oils and unsustainability of arable land under perennial plantation of Jatropha and Pongamia in countries such as India, the prospects of seed oil producing Cleome viscosa, an annual wild short duration plant species of the Indogangetic plains, were evaluated for it to serve as a resource for biodiesel. The seeds of C. viscosa resourced from its natural populations growing in Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi areas of Aravali range were solvent extracted to obtain the seed oil. The oil was observed to be similar in fatty acid composition to the non-edible oils of rubber, Jatropha and Pongamia plantation crops and soybean, sunflower, safflower, linseed and rapeseed edible oil plants in richness of unsaturated fatty acids. The Cleome oil shared the properties of viscosity, density, saponification and calorific values with the Jatropha and Pongamia oils, except that it was comparatively acidic. The C. viscosa biodiesel had the properties of standard biodiesel specified by ASTM and Indian Standard Bureau, except that it had low oxidation stability. It proved to be similar to Jatropha biodiesel except in cloud point, pour point, cold filter plugging point and oxidation stability. In view of the annual habit of species and biodiesel quality, it can be concluded that C. viscosa has prospects to be developed into a short-duration biodiesel crop.

  11. Biodiesel production from seed oil of Cleome viscosa L.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Rashmi; Jain, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Sushil

    2012-07-01

    Edible oil seed crops, such as rapeseed, sunflower, soyabean and safflower and non-edible seed oil plantation crops Jatropha and Pongamia have proved to be internationally viable commercial sources of vegetable oils for biodiesel production. Considering the paucity of edible oils and unsustainability of arable land under perennial plantation of Jatropha and Pongamia in countries such as India, the prospects of seed oil producing Cleome viscosa, an annual wild short duration plant species of the Indogangetic plains, were evaluated for it to serve as a resource for biodiesel. The seeds of C. viscosa resourced from its natural populations growing in Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi areas of Aravali range were solvent extracted to obtain the seed oil. The oil was observed to be similar in fatty acid composition to the non-edible oils of rubber, Jatropha and Pongamia plantation crops and soybean, sunflower, safflower, linseed and rapeseed edible oil plants in richness of unsaturated fatty acids. The Cleome oil shared the properties of viscosity, density, saponification and calorific values with the Jatropha and Pongamia oils, except that it was comparatively acidic. The C. viscosa biodiesel had the properties of standard biodiesel specified by ASTM and Indian Standard Bureau, except that it had low oxidation stability. It proved to be similar to Jatropha biodiesel except in cloud point, pour point, cold filter plugging point and oxidation stability. In view of the annual habit of species and biodiesel quality, it can be concluded that C. viscosa has prospects to be developed into a short-duration biodiesel crop. PMID:22822531

  12. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products. PMID:26776601

  13. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products.

  14. Integrated biodiesel production: a comparison of different homogeneous catalysts systems.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Gemma; Martínez, Mercedes; Aracil, José

    2004-05-01

    The most common catalysts for biodiesel production are homogeneous basic catalysts. In the present paper, a comparison is made of different basic catalysts (sodium methoxide, potassium methoxide, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide) for methanolysis of sunflower oil. All the reactions were carried out under the same experimental conditions in a batch stirred reactor and the subsequent separation and purification stages in a decanter. The analytical methods included gas chromatography and the determination of fat and oil conventional parameters. The biodiesel purity was near 100 wt.% for all catalysts. However, near 100 wt.% biodiesel yields were only obtained with the methoxide catalysts. According to the material balance of the process, yield losses were due to triglyceride saponification and methyl ester dissolution in glycerol. Obtained biodiesel met the measured specifications, except for the iodine value, according to the German and EU draft standards. Although all the transesterification reactions were quite rapid and the biodiesel layers achieved nearly 100% methyl ester concentrations, the reactions using sodium hydroxide turned out the fastest.

  15. Coagulation-flocculation of marine Chlorella sp. for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Sanyano, Naruetsawan; Chetpattananondh, Pakamas; Chongkhong, Sininart

    2013-11-01

    Harvesting of marine Chlorella sp. by autoflocculation and flocculation by addition of coagulant with pH adjustment was investigated in this study. Autoflocculation provided low efficiency. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the coagulant dosage and pH for flocculation. Aluminium sulfate and ferric chloride were investigated coagulants. The empirical models from RSM are in a good agreement with the experimental results. The optimum flocculation was achieved at ferric chloride dosage 143 mg/L, pH 8.1 and settling time 40 min. Biomass concentration also presented the significant effect on harvesting efficiency. Lipid extracted from marine Chlorella sp. cultivated in urea fertilizer medium with hexane as a solvent is suitable to produce biodiesel according to it contains high proportion of saturated fatty acids. The crude lipid should be purified to remove some impurities before making biodiesel. As the free fatty acid content was higher than 1% a two-step biodiesel production is recommended.

  16. Ultrasound assisted intensification of biodiesel production using enzymatic interesterification.

    PubMed

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound assisted intensification of synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using methyl acetate and immobilized lipase obtained from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TLIM) as a catalyst has been investigated in the present work. The reaction has also been investigated using the conventional approach based on stirring so as to establish the beneficial effects obtained due to the use of ultrasound. Effect of operating conditions such as reactant molar ratio (oil and methyl acetate), temperature and enzyme loading on the yield of biodiesel has been investigated. Optimum conditions for the conventional approach (without ultrasound) were established as reactant molar ratio of 1:12 (oil:methyl acetate), enzyme loading of 6% (w/v), temperature of 40 °C and reaction time of 24 h and under these conditions, 90.1% biodiesel yield was obtained. The optimum conditions for the ultrasound assisted approach were oil to methyl acetate molar ratio of 1:9, enzyme loading of 3% (w/v), and reaction time of 3 h and the biodiesel yield obtained under these conditions was 96.1%. Use of ultrasound resulted in significant reduction in the reaction time with higher yields and lower requirement of the enzyme loading. The obtained results have clearly established that ultrasound assisted interesterification was a fast and efficient approach for biodiesel production giving significant benefits, which can help in reducing the costs of production. Reusability studies for the enzyme were also performed but it was observed that reuse of the catalyst under the optimum experimental condition resulted in reduced enzyme activity and biodiesel yield.

  17. MCFC integrated system in a biodiesel production process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbani, F.; Freni, S.; Galvagno, A.; Chiodo, V.

    2011-03-01

    The continuous increasing in biodiesel production by transesterification process is leading to an excess of glycerol production as a byproduct. The utilization of this huge amount of glycerol appears as a not easy solvable problem and thus several authors have proposed alternative ways. The integration of the main production process with a glycerol feed molten carbonate fuel cells bottoming cycle, to satisfy plant energy requirements, seems to be one of the most promising one. The proposed paper reports the main results obtained by authors in the framework of an investigation on a possible use of glycerol as energy sources for a real pilot plant for biodiesel production. An overall evaluation of worldwide biodiesel production plants was made and especially about the production capacity in European Union in the last decade. To make a more detailed study, authors were taken into account a real production plant. After a preliminary step, purported to plant mass and energy flows determination, authors considered the integration of a bottoming cycle based on: (i) steam reforming of glycerol for syn-gas production; (ii) molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) system supplied by syn-gas for heat and electricity production. A mathematical model, based on experimental data, has been developed to calculate mass and energy balances for the proposed plant lay-out as well as plant energy efficiency enhancement has been determined. Results have evidenced the feasibility of this process and demonstrated that plant integrated with bottoming cycle can reach a very high level of energy self-production.

  18. Production and Use of Lipases in Bioenergy: A Review from the Feedstocks to Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Bernardo Dias; de Castro, Aline Machado; Coelho, Maria Alice Zarur; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    2011-01-01

    Lipases represent one of the most reported groups of enzymes for the production of biofuels. They are used for the processing of glycerides and fatty acids for biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters) production. This paper presents the main topics of the enzyme-based production of biodiesel, from the feedstocks to the production of enzymes and their application in esterification and transesterification reactions. Growing technologies, such as the use of whole cells as catalysts, are addressed, and as concluding remarks, the advantages, concerns, and future prospects of enzymatic biodiesel are presented. PMID:21785707

  19. A NOVEL OLEAGINOUS YEAST STRAIN WITH HIGH LIPID PRODUCTIVITY AND ITS APPLICATION TO ALTERNATIVE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION.

    PubMed

    Areesirisuk, A; Chiu, C H; Yen, T B; Liu, C H; Guo, J H

    2015-01-01

    Five lipid-producing yeast strains, CHC08, CHC11, CHC28, CHC34, and CHC35, were revealed by Sudan Black B staining to contain lipid droplets within cells. Molecular analysis demonstrated that they were 2 strains of Candida parapsilosis, Pseudozyma parantarctica, Pichia manshurica, and Pichia occidentalis. Following batch fermentation, P. parantarctica CHC28 was found to have the highest biomass concentration, total lipids and lipid content levels. The major fatty acids in the lipids of this yeast strain were C16 and C18. Predictions of the properties of yeast biodiesel using linear equations resulted in values similar to biodiesel made from plant oils. Preliminary production of yeast biodiesel from P. parantarctica CHC28 was accomplished through esterification and transesterification reactions. It was found that yeast lipids with high acid value are easily converted to biodiesel at an approximately 90% yield. Therefore, it is possible to use crude lipids as alternative raw materials for biodiesel production.

  20. Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas using Nano Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Bilal; Bahadar, Ali; Anjum, Waqas

    2009-09-01

    Biodiesel is proving to be a viable clean energy resource for conventional fuel as well as more exotic, value added jet fuel applications. Various non edible agriculture based sources are exploited to produce biodiesel with varying degrees of conversion and properties. Systematic studies carried out to date reveal that the oil extracted from Jatropha Curcas gives best results on yield basis (2800 kg oil/Hectare max). However the research is marred by the production of often undesirable and cumbersome byproducts, which needs multifarious purification steps with associated cost. Sponification step is a main hurdle in the old technology. We have made a paradigm shift by introducing nanomaterials which not only eliminate the cited side reactions/byproducts, but also yield higher conversion and lower costs. Typically we have reduced the reaction time from 90 min at 70° C to a gainful 5 min at ambient temperatures. The nanomaterial has been characterized by SEM and EDS (Electron Dispersion Scanning Analysis) which clearly shows bimodal distribution of the nonmaterial employed. Further characterization study was carried out by FTIR and the results are compared with petrodiesel and standard biodiesel in the important region of 2000-4000 cm-1. Perfect matching/finger printing was achieved. In this work we also report detailed comparative elemental and flash point analysis of the Biodiesel produced via various established roots.

  1. Utilization of biodiesel by-products for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Pant, Megha; Sharma, Satyawati; Dubey, Saurabh; Naik, Satya Narayan; Patanjali, Phool Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The current paper has elaborated the efficient utilization of non-edible oil seed cakes (NEOC), by-products of the bio-diesel extraction process to develop a herbal and novel mosquitocidal composition against the Aedes aegypti larvae. The composition consisted of botanical active ingredients, inerts, burning agents and preservatives; where the botanical active ingredients were karanja (Pongamia glabra) cake powder and jatropha (Jatropha curcas) cake powder, products left after the extraction of oil from karanja and jatropha seed. The percentage mortality value recorded for the combination with concentration, karanja cake powder (20%) and jatropha cake powder (20%), 1:1 was 96%. The coil formulations developed from these biodiesel by-products are of low cost, environmentally friendly and are less toxic than the synthetic active ingredients. PMID:26296531

  2. A recyclable enzymatic biodiesel production process in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    De Diego, Teresa; Manjón, Arturo; Lozano, Pedro; Iborra, José L

    2011-05-01

    Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B suspended in ionic liquids containing long alkyl-chain cations showed excellent synthetic activity and operational stability for biodiesel production. The interest of this process lies in the possibility of recycling the biocatalyst and the easy separation of the biodiesel from the reaction mixture. The ionic liquids used, 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium triflimide ([C(16)MIM][NTf(2)]) and 1-octadecyl-3-methylimidazolium triflimide ([C(18)MIM][NTf(2)]), produced homogeneous systems at the start of the reaction and, at the end of the same, formed a three-phase system, allowing the selective extraction of the products using straightforward separation techniques, and the recycling of both the ionic liquid and the enzyme. These are very important advantages which may be found useful in environmentally friendly production conditions.

  3. Utilization of biodiesel by-products for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Pant, Megha; Sharma, Satyawati; Dubey, Saurabh; Naik, Satya Narayan; Patanjali, Phool Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The current paper has elaborated the efficient utilization of non-edible oil seed cakes (NEOC), by-products of the bio-diesel extraction process to develop a herbal and novel mosquitocidal composition against the Aedes aegypti larvae. The composition consisted of botanical active ingredients, inerts, burning agents and preservatives; where the botanical active ingredients were karanja (Pongamia glabra) cake powder and jatropha (Jatropha curcas) cake powder, products left after the extraction of oil from karanja and jatropha seed. The percentage mortality value recorded for the combination with concentration, karanja cake powder (20%) and jatropha cake powder (20%), 1:1 was 96%. The coil formulations developed from these biodiesel by-products are of low cost, environmentally friendly and are less toxic than the synthetic active ingredients.

  4. Hydrogen production from biodiesel byproduct by immobilized Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Han, Jinmi; Lee, Dohoon; Cho, Jinku; Lee, Jeewon; Kim, Sangyong

    2012-01-01

    The recent rapid growth of the biodiesel industry has generated a significant amount of glycerol as a byproduct. As a result, the price of glycerol is currently relatively low, making it an attractive starting material for the production of chemicals with higher values. Crude glycerol can be directly converted through microbial fermentation into various chemicals such as hydrogen. In this study, we optimized immobilization of a facultative hydrogen producing microorganism, Enterobacter aerogenes, with the goal of developing biocatalysts that was appropriate for the continuous hydrogen production from glycerol. Several carriers were tested and agar was found to be the most effective. In addition, it was clearly shown that variables such as the carrier content and cell loading should be controlled for the immobilization of biocatalysts with high hydrogen productivity, stability, and reusability. After optimization of these variables, we were able to obtain reusable biocatalysts that could directly convert the byproduct stream from biodiesel processes into hydrogen in continuous processes.

  5. A process model to estimate biodiesel production costs.

    PubMed

    Haas, Michael J; McAloon, Andrew J; Yee, Winnie C; Foglia, Thomas A

    2006-03-01

    'Biodiesel' is the name given to a renewable diesel fuel that is produced from fats and oils. It consists of the simple alkyl esters of fatty acids, most typically the methyl esters. We have developed a computer model to estimate the capital and operating costs of a moderately-sized industrial biodiesel production facility. The major process operations in the plant were continuous-process vegetable oil transesterification, and ester and glycerol recovery. The model was designed using contemporary process simulation software, and current reagent, equipment and supply costs, following current production practices. Crude, degummed soybean oil was specified as the feedstock. Annual production capacity of the plant was set at 37,854,118 l (10 x 10(6)gal). Facility construction costs were calculated to be US dollar 11.3 million. The largest contributors to the equipment cost, accounting for nearly one third of expenditures, were storage tanks to contain a 25 day capacity of feedstock and product. At a value of US dollar 0.52/kg (dollar 0.236/lb) for feedstock soybean oil, a biodiesel production cost of US dollar 0.53/l (dollar 2.00/gal) was predicted. The single greatest contributor to this value was the cost of the oil feedstock, which accounted for 88% of total estimated production costs. An analysis of the dependence of production costs on the cost of the feedstock indicated a direct linear relationship between the two, with a change of US dollar 0.020/l (dollar 0.075/gal) in product cost per US dollar 0.022/kg (dollar 0.01/lb) change in oil cost. Process economics included the recovery of coproduct glycerol generated during biodiesel production, and its sale into the commercial glycerol market as an 80% w/w aqueous solution, which reduced production costs by approximately 6%. The production cost of biodiesel was found to vary inversely and linearly with variations in the market value of glycerol, increasing by US dollar 0.0022/l (dollar 0.0085/gal) for every US

  6. Biodiesel production from microalgae: co-location with sugar mills.

    PubMed

    Lohrey, Christian; Kochergin, Vadim

    2012-03-01

    Co-location of algae production facilities with cane sugar mills can be a technically advantageous path towards production of biodiesel. Algal biodiesel production was integrated with cane sugar production in the material and energy balance simulation program Sugars™. A model was developed that allowed comparison of production scenarios involving dewatering the algae to 20% ds (dry solids) or 30% ds prior to thermal drying. The net energy ratio, E(R) (energy produced/energy consumed) of the proposed process was found to be 1.5. A sensitivity analysis showed that this number ranged from 0.9 to 1.7 when the range of values for oil content, CO(2) utilization, oil conversion, and harvest density reported in the literature were evaluated. By utilizing available waste-resources from a 10,000 ton/d cane sugar mill, a 530 ha algae farm can produce 5.8 million L of biodiesel/yr and reduce CO(2) emissions of the mill by 15% without the need for fossil fuels.

  7. Biodiesel production from various feedstocks and their effects on the fuel properties.

    PubMed

    Canakci, M; Sanli, H

    2008-05-01

    Biodiesel, which is a new, renewable and biological origin alternative diesel fuel, has been receiving more attention all over the world due to the energy needs and environmental consciousness. Biodiesel is usually produced from food-grade vegetable oils using transesterification process. Using food-grade vegetable oils is not economically feasible since they are more expensive than diesel fuel. Therefore, it is said that the main obstacle for commercialization of biodiesel is its high cost. Waste cooking oils, restaurant greases, soapstocks and animal fats are potential feedstocks for biodiesel production to lower the cost of biodiesel. However, to produce fuel-grade biodiesel, the characteristics of feedstock are very important during the initial research and production stage since the fuel properties mainly depend on the feedstock properties. This review paper presents both biodiesel productions from various feedstocks and their effects on the fuel properties.

  8. Ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from Camelina sativa oil.

    PubMed

    Sáez-Bastante, J; Ortega-Román, C; Pinzi, S; Lara-Raya, F R; Leiva-Candia, D E; Dorado, M P

    2015-06-01

    The main drawbacks of biodiesel production are high reaction temperatures, stirring and time. These could be alleviated by aiding transesterification with alternative energy sources, i.e. ultrasound (US). In this study, biodiesel was obtained from Camelina sativa oil, aided with an ultrasonic probe (20kHz, 70% duty cycle, 50% amplitude). Design of experiments included the combination of sonication and agitation cycles, w/wo heating (50°C). To gain knowledge about the implications of the proposed methodology, conventional transesterification was optimized, resulting in higher needs on catalyst concentration and reaction time, compared to the proposed reaction. Although FAME content met EN 14103 standard, FAME yields were lower than those provided by US-assisted transesterification. Energy consumption measurements showed that ultrasound assisted transesterification required lower energy, temperature, catalyst and reaction time. PMID:25768413

  9. Production of biodiesel from lipid of phytoplankton Chaetoceros calcitrans through ultrasonic method.

    PubMed

    Kwangdinata, Raymond; Raya, Indah; Zakir, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    A research on production of biodiesel from lipid of phytoplankton Chaetoceros calcitrans through ultrasonic method has been done. In this research, we carried out a series of phytoplankton cultures to determine the optimum time of growth and biodiesel synthesis process from phytoplankton lipids. Process of biodiesel synthesis consists of two steps, that is, isolation of phytoplankton lipids and biodiesel synthesis from those lipids. Oil isolation process was carried out by ultrasonic extraction method using ethanol 96%, while biodiesel synthesis was carried out by transesterification reaction using methanol and KOH catalyst under sonication. Weight of biodiesel yield per biomass Chaetoceros calcitrans is 35.35%. Characterization of biodiesel was well carried out in terms of physical properties which are density and viscosity and chemical properties which are FFA content, saponification value, and iodine value. These values meet the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751) standard levels, except for the viscosity value which was 1.14 g · cm(-3).

  10. Direct Biodiesel Production from Wet Microalgae Biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through In Situ Transesterification

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hechun; Zhang, Zhiling; Wu, Xuwen; Miao, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    A one-step process was applied to directly converting wet oil-bearing microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa containing about 90% of water into biodiesel. In order to investigate the effects of water content on biodiesel production, distilled water was added to dried microalgae biomass to form wet biomass used to produce biodiesel. The results showed that at lower temperature of 90°C, water had a negative effect on biodiesel production. The biodiesel yield decreased from 91.4% to 10.3% as water content increased from 0% to 90%. Higher temperature could compensate the negative effect. When temperature reached 150°C, there was no negative effect, and biodiesel yield was over 100%. Based on the above research, wet microalgae biomass was directly applied to biodiesel production, and the optimal conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions of 100 mg dry weight equivalent wet microalgae biomass, 4 mL methanol, 8 mL n-hexane, 0.5 M H2SO4, 120°C, and 180 min reaction time, the biodiesel yield reached as high as 92.5% and the FAME content was 93.2%. The results suggested that biodiesel could be effectively produced directly from wet microalgae biomass and this effort may offer the benefits of energy requirements for biodiesel production. PMID:24195081

  11. Direct biodiesel production from wet microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through in situ transesterification.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hechun; Zhang, Zhiling; Wu, Xuwen; Miao, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    A one-step process was applied to directly converting wet oil-bearing microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa containing about 90% of water into biodiesel. In order to investigate the effects of water content on biodiesel production, distilled water was added to dried microalgae biomass to form wet biomass used to produce biodiesel. The results showed that at lower temperature of 90°C, water had a negative effect on biodiesel production. The biodiesel yield decreased from 91.4% to 10.3% as water content increased from 0% to 90%. Higher temperature could compensate the negative effect. When temperature reached 150°C, there was no negative effect, and biodiesel yield was over 100%. Based on the above research, wet microalgae biomass was directly applied to biodiesel production, and the optimal conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions of 100 mg dry weight equivalent wet microalgae biomass, 4 mL methanol, 8 mL n-hexane, 0.5 M H2SO4, 120°C, and 180 min reaction time, the biodiesel yield reached as high as 92.5% and the FAME content was 93.2%. The results suggested that biodiesel could be effectively produced directly from wet microalgae biomass and this effort may offer the benefits of energy requirements for biodiesel production.

  12. Non-Edible Plant Oils as New Sources for Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Arjun B.; Tango, Martin S.; Budge, Suzanne M.; Watts, K. Chris; Islam, M. Rafiqul

    2008-01-01

    Due to the concern on the availability of recoverable fossil fuel reserves and the environmental problems caused by the use those fossil fuels, considerable attention has been given to biodiesel production as an alternative to petrodiesel. However, as the biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats, there are concerns that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long-term. Hence, the recent focus is to find oil bearing plants that produce non-edible oils as the feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, two plant species, soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) and jatropha (jatropha curcas, L.) are discussed as newer sources of oil for biodiesel production. Experimental analysis showed that both oils have great potential to be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from cold pressed soapnut seed oil was envisaged as biodiesel source for the first time. Soapnut oil was found to have average of 9.1% free FA, 84.43% triglycerides, 4.88% sterol and 1.59% others. Jatropha oil contains approximately 14% free FA, approximately 5% higher than soapnut oil. Soapnut oil biodiesel contains approximately 85% unsaturated FA while jatropha oil biodiesel was found to have approximately 80% unsaturated FA. Oleic acid was found to be the dominant FA in both soapnut and jatropha biodiesel. Over 97% conversion to FAME was achieved for both soapnut and jatropha oil. PMID:19325741

  13. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil by catalytic and non-catalytic approaches: an overview.

    PubMed

    Juan, Joon Ching; Kartika, Damayani Agung; Wu, Ta Yeong; Hin, Taufiq-Yap Yun

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel (fatty acids alkyl esters) is a promising alternative fuel to replace petroleum-based diesel that is obtained from renewable sources such as vegetable oil, animal fat and waste cooking oil. Vegetable oils are more suitable source for biodiesel production compared to animal fats and waste cooking since they are renewable in nature. However, there is a concern that biodiesel production from vegetable oil would disturb the food market. Oil from Jatropha curcas is an acceptable choice for biodiesel production because it is non-edible and can be easily grown in a harsh environment. Moreover, alkyl esters of jatropha oil meet the standard of biodiesel in many countries. Thus, the present paper provides a review on the transesterification methods for biodiesel production using jatropha oil as feedstock.

  14. Microbial biodiesel production by direct methanolysis of oleaginous biomass.

    PubMed

    Thliveros, Panagiotis; Uçkun Kiran, Esra; Webb, Colin

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel is usually produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats with methanol, catalyzed by strong acids or bases. This study introduces a novel biodiesel production method that features direct base-catalyzed methanolysis of the cellular biomass of oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides Y4. NaOH was used as catalyst for transesterification reactions and the variables affecting the esterification level including catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, solvent loading (methanol) and moisture content were investigated using the oleaginous yeast biomass. The most suitable pretreatment condition was found to be 4gL(-1) NaOH and 1:20 (w/v) dried biomass to methanol ratio for 10h at 50°C and under ambient pressure. Under these conditions, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was 97.7%. Therefore, the novel method of direct base-catalyzed methanolysis of R. toruloides is a much simpler, less tedious and time-consuming, process than the conventional processes with higher FAME (biodiesel) conversion yield.

  15. Efficiency of the biodiesel production from microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernova, N. I.; Kiseleva, S. V.; Popel', O. S.

    2014-06-01

    Biomass of the highly productive algae is a promising nontraditional raw material for biopower engineering, including production of energy and motor fuels from it. The paper presents an analysis of the efficiency of solar energy conversion to microalgae biofuel based both on the general theoretical approaches and on the experimental results obtained in various pilot projects. Some data on the economic efficiency of biofuel production from algae are also discussed. The possible ways to enhance the efficiency of microalgae energy use are formulated.

  16. Industrial Fermentation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides for Production of Biodiesel and Its Application in Vehicle Diesel Engines.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yibo; Lu, Yue; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae-derived biodiesel has been regarded as a promising alternative for fossil diesel. However, the commercial production of microalgal biodiesel was halted due to its high cost. Here, we presented a pilot study on the industrial production of algal biodiesel. We began with the heterotrophic cultivation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides in a 60-m(3) fermentor that produced biomass at 3.81 g L(-1) day(-1) with a neutral lipid content at 51%. Next, we developed plate-frame filter, natural drying, and ball milling methods to harvest, dry, and extract oil from the cells at low cost. Additionally, algal biodiesel was produced for a vehicle engine test, which indicated that the microalgal biodiesel was comparable to fossil diesel but resulted in fewer emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbon. Altogether, our data suggested that the heterotrophic fermentation of A. protothecoides could have the potential for the future industrial production of biodiesel.

  17. Industrial Fermentation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides for Production of Biodiesel and Its Application in Vehicle Diesel Engines.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yibo; Lu, Yue; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae-derived biodiesel has been regarded as a promising alternative for fossil diesel. However, the commercial production of microalgal biodiesel was halted due to its high cost. Here, we presented a pilot study on the industrial production of algal biodiesel. We began with the heterotrophic cultivation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides in a 60-m(3) fermentor that produced biomass at 3.81 g L(-1) day(-1) with a neutral lipid content at 51%. Next, we developed plate-frame filter, natural drying, and ball milling methods to harvest, dry, and extract oil from the cells at low cost. Additionally, algal biodiesel was produced for a vehicle engine test, which indicated that the microalgal biodiesel was comparable to fossil diesel but resulted in fewer emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbon. Altogether, our data suggested that the heterotrophic fermentation of A. protothecoides could have the potential for the future industrial production of biodiesel. PMID:26539434

  18. Industrial Fermentation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides for Production of Biodiesel and Its Application in Vehicle Diesel Engines

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yibo; Lu, Yue; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae-derived biodiesel has been regarded as a promising alternative for fossil diesel. However, the commercial production of microalgal biodiesel was halted due to its high cost. Here, we presented a pilot study on the industrial production of algal biodiesel. We began with the heterotrophic cultivation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides in a 60-m3 fermentor that produced biomass at 3.81 g L−1 day−1 with a neutral lipid content at 51%. Next, we developed plate-frame filter, natural drying, and ball milling methods to harvest, dry, and extract oil from the cells at low cost. Additionally, algal biodiesel was produced for a vehicle engine test, which indicated that the microalgal biodiesel was comparable to fossil diesel but resulted in fewer emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbon. Altogether, our data suggested that the heterotrophic fermentation of A. protothecoides could have the potential for the future industrial production of biodiesel. PMID:26539434

  19. Anaerobic treatment of crude glycerol from biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, M M; Silva Júnior, W R S; Kato, M T; Gavazza, S; Florencio, L

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the use of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to treat crude glycerol obtained from cottonseed biodiesel production. The laboratory-scale UASB reactor (7.0 L) was operated at ambient temperature of 26.5°C with chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations between 0.5 and 8.0 g/L. The volatile fatty acid contents, pH, inorganic salt contents and biogas production were monitored during a 280-day experimental period. Molecular biology techniques were used to assess the microbial diversity in the bioreactor. The reactor achieved COD removal efficiencies of up to 92% except during one phase when the efficiency decreased to 81%. Biogas production remained stable throughout the experimental period, when the fraction converted to methane reached values as high as 68%. The profile of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) bands suggested slight changes in the microbial community during reactor operation. The overall results indicated that the crude glycerol from biodiesel production can serve as a suitable substrate for anaerobic degradation with a stable reactor performance and biogas production as long as the applied organic loads are up to 8.06 kg COD/m3·d. PMID:26465309

  20. Enhancing clostridial acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production and improving fuel properties of ABE-enriched biodiesel by extractive fermentation with biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Cai, Hao; Hao, Bo; Zhang, Congling; Yu, Ziniu; Zhou, Shengde; Chenjuan, Liu

    2010-12-01

    The extractive acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentations of Clostridium acetobutylicum were evaluated using biodiesel as the in situ extractant. The biodiesel preferentially extracted butanol, minimized product inhibition, and increased production of butanol (from 11.6 to 16.5 g L⁻¹) and total solvents (from 20.0 to 29.9 g L⁻¹) by 42% and 50%, respectively. The fuel properties of the ABE-enriched biodiesel obtained from the extractive fermentations were analyzed. The key quality indicators of diesel fuel, such as the cetane number (increased from 48 to 54) and the cold filter plugging point (decreased from 5.8 to 0.2 °C), were significantly improved for the ABE-enriched biodiesel. Thus, the application of biodiesel as the extractant for ABE fermentation would increase ABE production, bypass the energy intensive butanol recovery process, and result in an ABE-enriched biodiesel with improved fuel properties.

  1. Biodiesel Production by the Green Microalga Scenedesmus obliquus in a Recirculatory Aquaculture System

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Shovon

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel production was examined with Scenedesmus obliquus in a recirculatory aquaculture system with fish pond discharge and poultry litter to couple with waste treatment. Lipid productivity of 14,400 liter ha−1 year−1 was projected with 11 cultivation cycles per year. The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced adhered to Indian and international standards. PMID:22660702

  2. Biodiesel production by the green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus in a recirculatory aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shovon; Mallick, Nirupama

    2012-08-01

    Biodiesel production was examined with Scenedesmus obliquus in a recirculatory aquaculture system with fish pond discharge and poultry litter to couple with waste treatment. Lipid productivity of 14,400 liter ha(-1) year(-1) was projected with 11 cultivation cycles per year. The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced adhered to Indian and international standards.

  3. Cultivation of Chlorella protothecoides in anaerobically treated brewery wastewater for cost-effective biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Darpito, Cornelius; Shin, Won-Sub; Jeon, Seungjib; Lee, Hansol; Nam, Kibok; Kwon, Jong-Hee; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-03-01

    The use of wastewater has been investigated to overcome the economic challenge involved with a production of microalgae-based biodiesel. In this study, to achieve economical biodiesel production along with effective wastewater treatment at the same time, anaerobically treated brewery wastewater (ABWW) was utilized as a low-cost nutrient source, in the cultivation of Chlorella protothecoides. About 96 and 90 % of total nitrogen and phosphorus in ABWW were removed, respectively, while C. protothecoides was accumulating 1.88 g L(-1) of biomass. The C. protothecoides grown in ABWW showed increases in cell size and cell aggregation, resulting in a near 80 % enhanced harvesting efficiency within 20 min, as compared with only 4 % in BG-11. In addition, the total fatty acid content of the C. protothecoides grown in ABWW increased by 1.84-fold (35.94 ± 1.54 % of its dry cell weight), relative to that of BG-11. PMID:25270406

  4. Magnetic Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregates (mCLEAs) of Candida antarctica Lipase: An Efficient and Stable Biocatalyst for Biodiesel Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Izquierdo, Álvaro; Picó, Enrique A.; López, Carmen; Serra, Juan L.; Llama, María J.

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme-catalyzed production of biodiesel is the object of extensive research due to the global shortage of fossil fuels and increased environmental concerns. Herein we report the preparation and main characteristics of a novel biocatalyst consisting of Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregates (CLEAs) of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) which are covalently bound to magnetic nanoparticles, and tackle its use for the synthesis of biodiesel from non-edible vegetable and waste frying oils. For this purpose, insolubilized CALB was covalently cross-linked to magnetic nanoparticles of magnetite which the surface was functionalized with –NH2 groups. The resulting biocatalyst combines the relevant catalytic properties of CLEAs (as great stability and feasibility for their reutilization) and the magnetic character, and thus the final product (mCLEAs) are superparamagnetic particles of a robust catalyst which is more stable than the free enzyme, easily recoverable from the reaction medium and reusable for new catalytic cycles. We have studied the main properties of this biocatalyst and we have assessed its utility to catalyze transesterification reactions to obtain biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oils including unrefined soybean, jatropha and cameline, as well as waste frying oil. Using 1% mCLEAs (w/w of oil) conversions near 80% were routinely obtained at 30°C after 24 h of reaction, this value rising to 92% after 72 h. Moreover, the magnetic biocatalyst can be easily recovered from the reaction mixture and reused for at least ten consecutive cycles of 24 h without apparent loss of activity. The obtained results suggest that mCLEAs prepared from CALB can become a powerful biocatalyst for application at industrial scale with better performance than those currently available. PMID:25551445

  5. Magnetic Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregates (mCLEAs) of Candida antarctica lipase: an efficient and stable biocatalyst for biodiesel synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Izquierdo, Álvaro; Picó, Enrique A; López, Carmen; Serra, Juan L; Llama, María J

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme-catalyzed production of biodiesel is the object of extensive research due to the global shortage of fossil fuels and increased environmental concerns. Herein we report the preparation and main characteristics of a novel biocatalyst consisting of Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregates (CLEAs) of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) which are covalently bound to magnetic nanoparticles, and tackle its use for the synthesis of biodiesel from non-edible vegetable and waste frying oils. For this purpose, insolubilized CALB was covalently cross-linked to magnetic nanoparticles of magnetite which the surface was functionalized with -NH2 groups. The resulting biocatalyst combines the relevant catalytic properties of CLEAs (as great stability and feasibility for their reutilization) and the magnetic character, and thus the final product (mCLEAs) are superparamagnetic particles of a robust catalyst which is more stable than the free enzyme, easily recoverable from the reaction medium and reusable for new catalytic cycles. We have studied the main properties of this biocatalyst and we have assessed its utility to catalyze transesterification reactions to obtain biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oils including unrefined soybean, jatropha and cameline, as well as waste frying oil. Using 1% mCLEAs (w/w of oil) conversions near 80% were routinely obtained at 30°C after 24 h of reaction, this value rising to 92% after 72 h. Moreover, the magnetic biocatalyst can be easily recovered from the reaction mixture and reused for at least ten consecutive cycles of 24 h without apparent loss of activity. The obtained results suggest that mCLEAs prepared from CALB can become a powerful biocatalyst for application at industrial scale with better performance than those currently available. PMID:25551445

  6. Magnetic Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregates (mCLEAs) of Candida antarctica lipase: an efficient and stable biocatalyst for biodiesel synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Izquierdo, Álvaro; Picó, Enrique A; López, Carmen; Serra, Juan L; Llama, María J

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme-catalyzed production of biodiesel is the object of extensive research due to the global shortage of fossil fuels and increased environmental concerns. Herein we report the preparation and main characteristics of a novel biocatalyst consisting of Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregates (CLEAs) of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) which are covalently bound to magnetic nanoparticles, and tackle its use for the synthesis of biodiesel from non-edible vegetable and waste frying oils. For this purpose, insolubilized CALB was covalently cross-linked to magnetic nanoparticles of magnetite which the surface was functionalized with -NH2 groups. The resulting biocatalyst combines the relevant catalytic properties of CLEAs (as great stability and feasibility for their reutilization) and the magnetic character, and thus the final product (mCLEAs) are superparamagnetic particles of a robust catalyst which is more stable than the free enzyme, easily recoverable from the reaction medium and reusable for new catalytic cycles. We have studied the main properties of this biocatalyst and we have assessed its utility to catalyze transesterification reactions to obtain biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oils including unrefined soybean, jatropha and cameline, as well as waste frying oil. Using 1% mCLEAs (w/w of oil) conversions near 80% were routinely obtained at 30°C after 24 h of reaction, this value rising to 92% after 72 h. Moreover, the magnetic biocatalyst can be easily recovered from the reaction mixture and reused for at least ten consecutive cycles of 24 h without apparent loss of activity. The obtained results suggest that mCLEAs prepared from CALB can become a powerful biocatalyst for application at industrial scale with better performance than those currently available.

  7. Development of heterogeneous base catalysts for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Ayato; Matsubara, Koh; Honda, Katsuhisa

    2008-06-01

    Investigations were conducted on heterogeneous base catalysts for the transesterification of oil aimed at effective production of biodiesel. Thirteen different kinds of metal oxides containing calcium, barium, magnesium, or lanthanum were prepared as catalysts. Their catalytic activities were tested for transesterification at 60 degrees C with a 6:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil and a reaction time of 10h. The calcium-containing catalysts - CaTiO3, CaMnO3, Ca2Fe2O5, CaZrO3, and CaO-CeO2 - showed high activities and approximately 90% yields of methyl ester. Furthermore, catalytic durability tests were performed by repeating the transesterification reaction several times with the calcium-containing catalysts recovered from the previous reaction mixture. It was found that CaZrO3 and CaO-CeO2 show high durability and have the potential to be used in biodiesel production processes as heterogeneous base catalysts.

  8. [Biodiesel fuel production from lipids of filamentous fungi].

    PubMed

    Lunin, V V; Sergeev, Ia É; Galanina, L A; Mysiakina, I S; Ivashechkin, A A; Bogdan, V I; Feofilova, E P

    2013-01-01

    The main stages in the production of biodiesel fuel from lipids of filamentous fungi belonging to the order Mucorales are described. Fungi of the family Cunninghamellaceae have been screened; the lipogenic activity of the examined strains has been assessed; and a producer generating up to 50% of lipids, represented by triacylglycerols, has been found. The substitution effect of a source of carbon and nitrogen with less expensive components (in particular, various industrial wastes) has been studied, as well as their influence on the quantity and major characteristics of the final product. An ecologically friendly method for extracting lipids from fungal mycelia, utilizing supercritical technologies, has been used. A correlation between the lipid content in the spore inoculum and the maximal lipid content in biomass has been discovered; this correlation is proposed for optimizing the biotechnology and increasing the yield of final products.

  9. A look at construction aggregates production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willett, Jason Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Construction aggregates are defined as the combination of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. Aggregates are one of the most accessible natural resources on Earth and one of the fundamental building blocks of our society. They have been used from the earliest times of our civilization for a variety of applications that have increased in number and complexity with time and technological progress. Despite the relatively low but increasing unit value of its basic products, the construction aggregates industry is a major contributor to and an indicator of the economic well-being of the nation.

  10. Production and Characterization of Biodiesel from Tung Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Deog-Keun; Wang, Zhong-Ming; Lu, Pengmei; Park, Soon-Chul; Lee, Jin-Suk

    The feasibility of biodiesel production from tung oil was investigated. The esterification reaction of the free fatty acids of rung oil was performed using Amberlyst-15. Optimal molar ratio of methanol to oil was determined to be 7.5:1, and Amberlyst-15 was 20.8wt% of oil by response surface methodology. Under these reaction conditions, the acid value of rung oil was reduced to 0.72mg KOH/g. In the range of the molar equivalents of methanol to oil under 5, the esterification was strongly affected by the amount of methanol but not the catalyst. When the molar ratio of methanol to oil was 4.1:1 and Amberlyst-15 was 29.8wt% of the oil, the acid value decreased to 0.85mg KOH/g. After the transesterification reaction of pretreated rung oil, the purity of rung biodiesel was 90.2wt%. The high viscosity of crude rung oil decreased to 9.8mm2/s at 40 °C. Because of the presence of eleostearic acid, which is a main component of tung oil, the oxidation stability as determined by the Rancimat method was very low, 0.5h, but the cold filter plugging point, -11 °C, was good. The distillation process did not improve the fatty acid methyl ester content and the viscosity.

  11. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil catalyzed by immobilized Burkholderia cepacia lipase on modified attapulgite.

    PubMed

    You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Zhao, Yuping; Zhang, Yan

    2013-11-01

    Lipase from Burkholderia cepacia was immobilized on modified attapulgite by cross-linking reaction for biodiesel production with jatropha oil as feedstock. Effects of various factors on biodiesel production were studied by single-factor experiment. Results indicated that the best conditions for biodiesel preparation were: 10 g jatropha oil, 2.4 g methanol (molar ratio of oil to methanol is 1:6.6) being added at 3h intervals, 7 wt% water, 10 wt% immobilized lipase, temperature 35°C, and time 24h. Under these conditions, the maximum biodiesel yield reached 94%. The immobilized lipase retained 95% of its relative activity during the ten repeated batch reactions. The half-life time of the immobilized lipase is 731 h. Kinetics was studied and the Vmax of the immobilized lipases were 6.823 mmol L(-1). This immobilized lipase catalyzed process has potential industrial use for biodiesel production to replace chemical-catalyzed method.

  12. Scale-up and economic analysis of biodiesel production from municipal primary sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Olkiewicz, Magdalena; Torres, Carmen M; Jiménez, Laureano; Font, Josep; Bengoa, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    Municipal wastewater sludge is a promising lipid feedstock for biodiesel production, but the need to eliminate the high water content before lipid extraction is the main limitation for scaling up. This study evaluates the economic feasibility of biodiesel production directly from liquid primary sludge based on experimental data at laboratory scale. Computational tools were used for the modelling of the process scale-up and the different configurations of lipid extraction to optimise this step, as it is the most expensive. The operational variables with a major influence in the cost were the extraction time and the amount of solvent. The optimised extraction process had a break-even price of biodiesel of 1232 $/t, being economically competitive with the current cost of fossil diesel. The proposed biodiesel production process from waste sludge eliminates the expensive step of sludge drying, lowering the biodiesel price. PMID:27131292

  13. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil catalyzed by immobilized Burkholderia cepacia lipase on modified attapulgite.

    PubMed

    You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Zhao, Yuping; Zhang, Yan

    2013-11-01

    Lipase from Burkholderia cepacia was immobilized on modified attapulgite by cross-linking reaction for biodiesel production with jatropha oil as feedstock. Effects of various factors on biodiesel production were studied by single-factor experiment. Results indicated that the best conditions for biodiesel preparation were: 10 g jatropha oil, 2.4 g methanol (molar ratio of oil to methanol is 1:6.6) being added at 3h intervals, 7 wt% water, 10 wt% immobilized lipase, temperature 35°C, and time 24h. Under these conditions, the maximum biodiesel yield reached 94%. The immobilized lipase retained 95% of its relative activity during the ten repeated batch reactions. The half-life time of the immobilized lipase is 731 h. Kinetics was studied and the Vmax of the immobilized lipases were 6.823 mmol L(-1). This immobilized lipase catalyzed process has potential industrial use for biodiesel production to replace chemical-catalyzed method. PMID:24055964

  14. Process intensification of biodiesel production by using microwave and ionic liquids as catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, Prima Astuti; Abdullah, dan Hadiyanto

    2015-12-01

    The energy crisis pushes the development and intensification of biodiesel production process. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats and conventionally produced by using acid/base catalyst. However, the conventional method requires longer processing time and obtains lower yield of biodiesel. The microwave has been intensively used to accelerate production process and ionic liquids has been introduced as source of catalyst. This paper discusses the overview of the development of biodiesel production through innovation using microwave irradiation and ionic liquids catalyst to increase the yield of biodiesel. The potential microwave to reduce the processing time will be discussed and compared with other energy power, while the ionic liquids as a new generation of catalysts in the chemical industry will be also discussed for its use. The ionic liquids has potential to enhance the economic and environmental aspects because it has a low corrosion effect, can be recycled, and low waste form.

  15. Process intensification of biodiesel production by using microwave and ionic liquids as catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Handayani, Prima Astuti; Abdullah; Hadiyanto, Dan

    2015-12-29

    The energy crisis pushes the development and intensification of biodiesel production process. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats and conventionally produced by using acid/base catalyst. However, the conventional method requires longer processing time and obtains lower yield of biodiesel. The microwave has been intensively used to accelerate production process and ionic liquids has been introduced as source of catalyst. This paper discusses the overview of the development of biodiesel production through innovation using microwave irradiation and ionic liquids catalyst to increase the yield of biodiesel. The potential microwave to reduce the processing time will be discussed and compared with other energy power, while the ionic liquids as a new generation of catalysts in the chemical industry will be also discussed for its use. The ionic liquids has potential to enhance the economic and environmental aspects because it has a low corrosion effect, can be recycled, and low waste form.

  16. Acceleration of biodiesel-glycerol decantation through NaCl-assisted gravitational settling: a strategy to economize biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Mohammad Mahdi A; Kargari, Ali; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Mostafaeid, Boyuk; Akia, Mandana; Barkhi, Mohammad; Shirazi, Mohammad Javad A

    2013-04-01

    When making biodiesel, slow separation of glycerol; the main by-product of the transesterification reaction, could lead to longer operating times, bigger equipment and larger amount of steel and consequently increased production cost. Therefore, acceleration of glycerol/biodiesel decantation could play an important role in the overall biodiesel refinery process. In this work, NaCl-assisted gravitational settling was considered as an economizing strategy. The results obtained indicated that the addition of conventional NaCl salt decreased the glycerol settling time significantly up to more than five times. However, NaCl inclusion rates of more than 3g to the mixture (i.e. 5 and 10 g) resulted in significantly less methyl ester purity due to the occurrence of miniemulsion phenomenon. Overall, addition of 1g NaCl/100 ml glycerol-biodiesel mixture was found as optimal by accelerating the decantation process by 100% while maintaining the methyl ester purity as high as the control (0 g NaCl).

  17. Production of prone-to-aggregate proteins.

    PubMed

    Lebendiker, Mario; Danieli, Tsafi

    2014-01-21

    Expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli (E. coli) remains the most popular and cost-effective method for producing proteins in basic research and for pharmaceutical applications. Despite accumulating experience and methodologies developed over the years, production of recombinant proteins prone to aggregate in E. coli-based systems poses a major challenge in most research applications. The challenge of manufacturing these proteins for pharmaceutical applications is even greater. This review will discuss effective methods to reduce and even prevent the formation of aggregates in the course of recombinant protein production. We will focus on important steps along the production path, which include cloning, expression, purification, concentration, and storage. PMID:24211444

  18. Microtox aquatic toxicity of petrodiesel and biodiesel blends: the role of biodiesel's autoxidation products.

    PubMed

    Yassine, Mohamad H; Wu, Shuyun; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2012-12-01

    The acute Microtox toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of six commercial soybean biodiesel/petrodiesel blends was investigated at different oil loads. We analyzed five fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), C10-C24 n-alkanes, four aromatics, methanol, and total organic carbon (TOC) content. At high oil loads, the WAFs' toxicity was significantly higher for blends containing biodiesel. At the lowest load, the WAFs' toxicity decreased almost linearly with decreasing biodiesel in the blend. At intermediate loads, the WAFs of all the blends appeared to have a similar toxicity. Analysis of WAFs confirmed the presence of autoxidation byproducts of FAMEs at high oil loads. Pure unsaturated FAMEs and n-alkanes were nontoxic when present in water at their reported solubility limits. However, 24-h equilibrated WAFs of pure FAMEs were highly toxic for C18:1 and C18:3, but not for C18:2. The authors concluded that at high oil loads, the acute toxicity of the WAFs was caused by FAMEs' autoxidation byproducts, whereas at low oil loads, the toxicity appeared to be caused primarily by the aromatic compounds present in petrodiesel. The addition of a synthetic antioxidant in biodiesel did not appear to affect the concentration of autoxidation byproducts in the WAF but resulted in a slight decrease in its toxicity. The major autoxidation byproducts identified in the WAF of commercial biodiesel were present neither in the WAFs of pure unsaturated FAMEs nor in the WAF of a different soybean biodiesel that was transesterified in our laboratory, which was nontoxic. We concluded that the process of transesterification of biodiesel might be a more critical factor in determining the aquatic toxicity of the fuel than the source of feedstock itself.

  19. Value-added uses for crude glycerol--a byproduct of biodiesel production

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel is a promising alternative, and renewable, fuel. As its production increases, so does production of the principle co-product, crude glycerol. The effective utilization of crude glycerol will contribute to the viability of biodiesel. In this review, composition and quality factors of crude glycerol are discussed. The value-added utilization opportunities of crude glycerol are reviewed. The majority of crude glycerol is used as feedstock for production of other value-added chemicals, followed by animal feeds. PMID:22413907

  20. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence of fossil fuel prices, because biofuels are substitutes and have to compete in price. The second involves biofuel manufacturing technology, principally the feedstock-to-biofuel conversion rates, and the biofuel manufacturing costs. The third involves prices for greenhouse gas offsets. The fourth involves the agricultural commodity markets for feedstocks, and biofuel byproducts. This dissertation uses the Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model-Greenhouse Gas (FASOM-GHG) to quantitatively examine these issues and calculates equilibrium prices and quantities, given market interactions, fossil fuel prices, carbon dioxide equivalent prices, government biofuel subsidies, technological improvement, and crop yield gains. The results indicate that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production is highly responsive to gasoline prices and increases over time. (Diesel fuel price is proportional to the gasoline price). Carbon dioxide equivalent prices expand the biodiesel industry, but have no impact on ethanol aggregate production when gasoline prices are high again because of refinery capacity expansion. Improvement of crop yields shows a similar pattern, expanding ethanol production when the gasoline price is low and expanding biodiesel. Technological improvement, where biorefinery production costs decrease over time, had minimal impact on aggregate ethanol and biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government subsidies have a large expansionary impact on aggregate biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government

  1. Biotechnological processes for biodiesel production using alternative oils.

    PubMed

    Azócar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo; Heipieper, Hermann J; Navia, Rodrigo

    2010-10-01

    As biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) is mainly produced from edible vegetable oils, crop soils are used for its production, increasing deforestation and producing a fuel more expensive than diesel. The use of waste lipids such as waste frying oils, waste fats, and soapstock has been proposed as low-cost alternative feedstocks. Non-edible oils such as jatropha, pongamia, and rubber seed oil are also economically attractive. In addition, microalgae, bacteria, yeast, and fungi with 20% or higher lipid content are oleaginous microorganisms known as single cell oil and have been proposed as feedstocks for FAME production. Alternative feedstocks are characterized by their elevated acid value due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) content, causing undesirable saponification reactions when an alkaline catalyst is used in the transesterification reaction. The production of soap consumes the conventional catalyst, diminishing FAME production yield and simultaneously preventing the effective separation of the produced FAME from the glycerin phase. These problems could be solved using biological catalysts, such as lipases or whole-cell catalysts, avoiding soap production as the FFAs are esterified to FAME. In addition, by-product glycerol can be easily recovered, and the purification of FAME is simplified using biological catalysts.

  2. Biotechnological processes for biodiesel production using alternative oils.

    PubMed

    Azócar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo; Heipieper, Hermann J; Navia, Rodrigo

    2010-10-01

    As biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) is mainly produced from edible vegetable oils, crop soils are used for its production, increasing deforestation and producing a fuel more expensive than diesel. The use of waste lipids such as waste frying oils, waste fats, and soapstock has been proposed as low-cost alternative feedstocks. Non-edible oils such as jatropha, pongamia, and rubber seed oil are also economically attractive. In addition, microalgae, bacteria, yeast, and fungi with 20% or higher lipid content are oleaginous microorganisms known as single cell oil and have been proposed as feedstocks for FAME production. Alternative feedstocks are characterized by their elevated acid value due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) content, causing undesirable saponification reactions when an alkaline catalyst is used in the transesterification reaction. The production of soap consumes the conventional catalyst, diminishing FAME production yield and simultaneously preventing the effective separation of the produced FAME from the glycerin phase. These problems could be solved using biological catalysts, such as lipases or whole-cell catalysts, avoiding soap production as the FFAs are esterified to FAME. In addition, by-product glycerol can be easily recovered, and the purification of FAME is simplified using biological catalysts. PMID:20697706

  3. Microtox Aquatic Toxcity of Petrodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: The Role of Biodiesel's Autoxidation Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acute Microtox toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of six commercial soybean biodiesel/petrodiesel blends was investigated at different oil loads. We analyzed five fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), C10 - C24 n-alkanes, four aromatics, methanol, and tota...

  4. Membrane technology as a promising alternative in biodiesel production: a review.

    PubMed

    Shuit, Siew Hoong; Ong, Yit Thai; Lee, Keat Teong; Subhash, Bhatia; Tan, Soon Huat

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, environmental problems caused by the use of fossil fuels and the depletion of petroleum reserves have driven the world to adopt biodiesel as an alternative energy source to replace conventional petroleum-derived fuels because of biodiesel's clean and renewable nature. Biodiesel is conventionally produced in homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic catalysed processes, as well as by supercritical technology. All of these processes have their own limitations, such as wastewater generation and high energy consumption. In this context, the membrane reactor appears to be the perfect candidate to produce biodiesel because of its ability to overcome the limitations encountered by conventional production methods. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review the production of biodiesel with a membrane reactor by examining the fundamental concepts of the membrane reactor, its operating principles and the combination of membrane and catalyst in the catalytic membrane. In addition, the potential of functionalised carbon nanotubes to serve as catalysts while being incorporated into the membrane for transesterification is discussed. Furthermore, this paper will also discuss the effects of process parameters for transesterification in a membrane reactor and the advantages offered by membrane reactors for biodiesel production. This discussion is followed by some limitations faced in membrane technology. Nevertheless, based on the findings presented in this review, it is clear that the membrane reactor has the potential to be a breakthrough technology for the biodiesel industry. PMID:22366515

  5. Transesterification catalyzed by Lipozyme TLIM for biodiesel production from low cost feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, Siti Fatimah Abdul; Hassan, Hamizura; Amri, Nurulhuda; Bashah, Nur Alwani Ali

    2015-05-01

    The development of new strategies to efficiently synthesize biodiesel is of extreme important. This is because biodiesel has been accepted worldwide as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel as alkyl ester derived from vegetable oil has considerable advantages in terms of environmental protection. The diminishing petroleum reserves are the major driving force for researchers to look for better strategies in producing biodiesel. The main hurdle to commercialization of biodiesel is the cost of the raw material. Biodiesel is usually produced from food-grade vegetable oil that is more expensive than diesel fuel. Therefore, biodiesel produced from food-grade vegetable oil is currently not economically feasible. Use of an inexpensive raw material such as waste cooking palm oil and non edible oil sea mango are an attractive option to lower the cost of biodiesel. This study addresses an alternative method for biodiesel production which is to use an enzymatic approach in producing biodiesel fuel from low cost feedstock waste cooking palm oil and unrefined sea mango oil using immobilized lipase Lipozyme TL IM. tert-butanol was used as the reaction medium, which eliminated both negative effects caused by excessive methanol and glycerol as the byproduct. Two variables which is methanol to oil molar ratio and enzyme loading were examine in a batch system. Transesterification of waste cooking palm oil reach 65% FAME yield (methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1 and 10% Novozyme 435 based on oil weight), while transesterification of sea mango oil can reach 90% FAME yield (methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1 and 10% Lipozyme TLIM based on oil weight).

  6. Treatment of glycerol phase formed by biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Hájek, Martin; Skopal, Frantisek

    2010-05-01

    Glycerol is a by-product of biodiesel produced by transesterification and is contained in the glycerol phase together with many other materials such as soaps, remaining catalyst, water, and esters formed during the process. The content of glycerol is approximately 30-60 wt.%. In this paper, treatments of the glycerol phase to obtain glycerol with a purity of 86 wt.% (without distillation) and a mixture of fatty acids with esters (1:1) or only a mixture of fatty acids with a purity of 99 wt.% are presented. The treatment was carried out by removing of alkaline substances and esters. Fatty acids were produced by saponification of the remaining esters and subsequent neutralization of alkaline substances by phosphoric, sulfuric, hydrochloric, or acetic acids. Salts are by-products and, in the case of phosphoric acid can be used as potash-phosphate fertilizer. The process of treatment is easy and environmentally friendly, because no special chemicals or equipment are required and all products are utilizable.

  7. Optimisation of biodiesel production by sunflower oil transesterification.

    PubMed

    Antolín, G; Tinaut, F V; Briceño, Y; Castaño, V; Pérez, C; Ramírez, A I

    2002-06-01

    In this work the transformation process of sunflower oil in order to obtain biodiesel by means of transesterification was studied. Taguchi's methodology was chosen for the optimisation of the most important variables (temperature conditions, reactants proportion and methods of purification), with the purpose of obtaining a high quality biodiesel that fulfils the European pre-legislation with the maximum process yield. Finally, sunflower methyl esters were characterised to test their properties as fuels in diesel engines, such as viscosity, flash point, cold filter plugging point and acid value. Results showed that biodiesel obtained under the optimum conditions is an excellent substitute for fossil fuels.

  8. Continuous Production of Biodiesel Via an Intensified Reactive/Extractive Process

    SciTech Connect

    Tsouris, Costas; McFarlane, Joanna; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F; Jennings, Hal L

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered as a means to diversify our supply of transportation fuel, addressing the goal of reducing our dependence on oil. For a number of reasons ranging from production issues to end use, biodiesel represents only a small fraction of the transportation fuel used worldwide. This work addresses the aspect of biodiesel production that limits it to a slow batch process. Conventional production methods are batch in nature, based on the assumption that the rates of the key chemical reactions are slow. The hypothesis motivating this work is that the reaction kinetics for the transesterification of the reagent triglyceride is sufficiently fast, particularly in an excess of catalyst, and that interfacial mass transfer and phase separation control the process. If this is the case, an intensified two-phase reactor adapted from solvent extraction equipment may be utilized to greatly increase biodiesel production rates by increasing interphase transport and phase separation. To prove this idea, we are investigating two aspects: (1) determining the rate-limiting step in biodiesel production by evaluating the reaction kinetics, and (2) enhancing biodiesel production rates by using an intensified reactor. A centrifugal contactor combining interphase mass transfer, chemical reaction, and phase separation is employed for process intensification.

  9. Biodiesel production process from microalgae oil by waste heat recovery and process integration.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunfeng; Chen, Guanyi; Ji, Na; Liu, Qingling; Kansha, Yasuki; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the optimization of microalgae oil (MO) based biodiesel production process is carried out by waste heat recovery and process integration. The exergy analysis of each heat exchanger presented an efficient heat coupling between hot and cold streams, thus minimizing the total exergy destruction. Simulation results showed that the unit production cost of optimized process is 0.592$/L biodiesel, and approximately 0.172$/L biodiesel can be avoided by heat integration. Although the capital cost of the optimized biodiesel production process increased 32.5% and 23.5% compared to the reference cases, the operational cost can be reduced by approximately 22.5% and 41.6%.

  10. An economic, sustainability, and energetic model of biodiesel production from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Delrue, F; Setier, P-A; Sahut, C; Cournac, L; Roubaud, A; Peltier, G; Froment, A-K

    2012-05-01

    A new process evaluation methodology of microalgae biodiesel has been developed. Based on four evaluation criteria, i.e. the net energy ratio (NER), biodiesel production costs, greenhouse gases (GHG) emission rate and water footprint, the model compares various technologies for each step of the process, from cultivation to oil upgrading. An innovative pathway (hybrid raceway/PBR cultivation system, belt filter press for dewatering, wet lipid extraction, oil hydrotreating and anaerobic digestion of residues) shows good results in comparison to a reference pathway (doubled NER, lower GHG emission rate and water footprint). The production costs are still unfavourable (between 1.94 and 3.35 €/L of biodiesel). The most influential parameters have been targeted through a global sensitivity analysis and classified: (i) lipid productivity, (ii) the cultivation step, and (iii) the downstream processes. The use of low-carbon energy sources is required to achieve significant reductions of the biodiesel GHG emission rate compared to petroleum diesel.

  11. Catalytic properties of a lipase from Photobacterium lipolyticum for biodiesel production containing a high methanol concentration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kyung Seok; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

    2009-06-01

    Biodiesel, an alternative fuel, is generated via the transesterification reaction of vegetable oil or animal oil with alcohol. Currently, many reports have noted that microbial lipases might be utilized for the production of biodiesel. Among them, immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym435) is frequently utilized for its biocatalytic efficiency and availability. However, as the enzyme is unstable in a medium containing high concentrations of methanol, a multi-stepwise methanol supply is required for the efficient production of biodiesel. Photobacterium lipolyticum lipase (M37) was determined to be quite stable in a medium containing a high concentration of methanol. The enzyme activity was maintained for longer than 48 h without any loss at a methanol concentration of 10%. In an effort to evaluate enzyme performance in the production of biodiesel, we have compared M37 lipase and Novozym435 in the biodiesel production reaction using fresh or waste oil and methanol. In the 3-stepwise methanol feeding method generally conducted for Novozym435 in biodiesel production, the M37 lipase showed a similar or superior conversion yield to Novozym435. However, the M37 lipase evidenced significantly higher conversion yields in the 2 and 1 step methanol feeding reactions. Particularly in the 1 step process using 10% of methanol where almost no conversion was detected by Novozym435, the biodiesel yield achieved with M37 lipase reached a level of up to 70% of the possible maximum yield. Consequently, this methanol-tolerant lipase, M37, has been shown to be a suitable enzyme for use in the biodiesel production process.

  12. In-situ pyrogenic production of biodiesel from swine fat.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jechan; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Jung, Jong-Min; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-11-01

    In-situ production of fatty acid methyl esters from swine fat via thermally induced pseudo-catalytic transesterification on silica was investigated in this study. Instead of methanol, dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was used as acyl acceptor to achieve environmental benefits and economic viability. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of swine fat reveals that swine fat contains 19.57wt.% of water and impurities. Moreover, the fatty acid profiles obtained under various conditions (extracted swine oil+methanol+NaOH, extracted swine oil+DMC+pseudo-catalytic, and swine fat+DMC+pseudo-catalytic) were compared. These profiles were identical, showing that the introduced in-situ transesterification is technically feasible. This also suggests that in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification has a high tolerance against impurities. This study also shows that FAME yield via in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification of swine fat reached up to 97.2% at 380°C. Therefore, in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification can be applicable to biodiesel production of other oil-bearing biomass feedstocks. PMID:27611027

  13. In-situ pyrogenic production of biodiesel from swine fat.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jechan; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Jung, Jong-Min; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-11-01

    In-situ production of fatty acid methyl esters from swine fat via thermally induced pseudo-catalytic transesterification on silica was investigated in this study. Instead of methanol, dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was used as acyl acceptor to achieve environmental benefits and economic viability. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of swine fat reveals that swine fat contains 19.57wt.% of water and impurities. Moreover, the fatty acid profiles obtained under various conditions (extracted swine oil+methanol+NaOH, extracted swine oil+DMC+pseudo-catalytic, and swine fat+DMC+pseudo-catalytic) were compared. These profiles were identical, showing that the introduced in-situ transesterification is technically feasible. This also suggests that in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification has a high tolerance against impurities. This study also shows that FAME yield via in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification of swine fat reached up to 97.2% at 380°C. Therefore, in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification can be applicable to biodiesel production of other oil-bearing biomass feedstocks.

  14. Biodiesel From Alternative Oilseed Feedstocks: Production and Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels from several alternative oilseed feedstocks, which included camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field mustard (Brassica juncea L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (L...

  15. Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Bruederle, Cathrin E.; Hnasko, Robert M.; Kraemer, Thomas; Garcia, Rafael A.; Haas, Michael J.; Marmer, William N.; Carter, John Mark

    2008-01-01

    The epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has led to a world-wide drop in the market for beef by-products, such as Meat-and-Bone Meal (MBM), a fat-containing but mainly proteinaceaous product traditionally used as an animal feed supplement. While normal rendering is insufficient, the production of biodiesel from MBM has been suggested to destroy infectivity from transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). In addition to producing fuel, this method simultaneously generates a nutritious solid residue. In our study we produced biodiesel from MBM under defined conditions using a modified form of alkaline methanolysis. We evaluated the presence of prion in the three resulting phases of the biodiesel reaction (Biodiesel, Glycerol and Solid Residue) in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of the reaction products from 263K scrapie infected MBM led to no detectable immunoreactivity by Western Blot. Importantly, and in contrast to the biochemical results the solid MBM residue from the reaction retained infectivity when tested in an animal bioassay. Histochemical analysis of hamster brains inoculated with the solid residue showed typical spongiform degeneration and vacuolation. Re-inoculation of these brains into a new cohort of hamsters led to onset of clinical scrapie symptoms within 75 days, suggesting that the specific infectivity of the prion protein was not changed during the biodiesel process. The biodiesel reaction cannot be considered a viable prion decontamination method for MBM, although we observed increased survival time of hamsters and reduced infectivity greater than 6 log orders in the solid MBM residue. Furthermore, results from our study compare for the first time prion detection by Western Blot versus an infectivity bioassay for analysis of biodiesel reaction products. We could show that biochemical analysis alone is insufficient for detection of prion infectivity after a biodiesel process. PMID:18698417

  16. Production of Biodiesel from Lipid of Phytoplankton Chaetoceros calcitrans through Ultrasonic Method

    PubMed Central

    Kwangdinata, Raymond; Raya, Indah; Zakir, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    A research on production of biodiesel from lipid of phytoplankton Chaetoceros calcitrans through ultrasonic method has been done. In this research, we carried out a series of phytoplankton cultures to determine the optimum time of growth and biodiesel synthesis process from phytoplankton lipids. Process of biodiesel synthesis consists of two steps, that is, isolation of phytoplankton lipids and biodiesel synthesis from those lipids. Oil isolation process was carried out by ultrasonic extraction method using ethanol 96%, while biodiesel synthesis was carried out by transesterification reaction using methanol and KOH catalyst under sonication. Weight of biodiesel yield per biomass Chaetoceros calcitrans is 35.35%. Characterization of biodiesel was well carried out in terms of physical properties which are density and viscosity and chemical properties which are FFA content, saponification value, and iodine value. These values meet the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751) standard levels, except for the viscosity value which was 1.14 g·cm−3. PMID:24688372

  17. Reduction of environmental and energy footprint of microalgal biodiesel production through material and energy integration.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Raja; Viamajala, Sridhar; Gerlach, Robin

    2012-03-01

    The life cycle impacts were assessed for an integrated microalgal biodiesel production system that facilitates energy- and nutrient- recovery through anaerobic digestion, and utilizes glycerol generated within the facility for additional heterotrophic biodiesel production. Results show that when external fossil energy inputs are lowered through process integration, the energy demand, global warming potential (GWP), and process water demand decrease significantly and become less sensitive to algal lipid content. When substitution allocation is used to assign additional credit for avoidance of fossil energy use (through utilization of recycled nutrients and biogas), GWP and water demand can, in fact, increase with increase in lipid content. Relative to stand-alone algal biofuel facilities, energy demand can be lowered by 3-14 GJ per ton of biodiesel through process integration. GWP of biodiesel from the integrated system can be lowered by up to 71% compared to petroleum fuel. Evaporative water loss was the primary water demand driver.

  18. Techno-economic evaluation of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil--a case study of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Patria, Raffel Dharma; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-02-18

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR) sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices.

  19. Biodiesel production from various oils under supercritical fluid conditions by Candida antartica lipase B using a stepwise reaction method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Ho; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Kang, Jeong Won; Park, Chulhwan; Tae, Bumseok; Kim, Seung Wook

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we evaluate the effects of various reaction factors, including pressure, temperature, agitation speed, enzyme concentration, and water content to increase biodiesel production. In addition, biodiesel was produced from various oils to establish the optimal enzymatic process of biodiesel production. Optimal conditions were determined to be as follows: pressure 130 bar, temperature 45 degrees C, agitation speed 200 rpm, enzyme concentration 20%, and water contents 10%. Among the various oils used for production, olive oil showed the highest yield (65.18%) upon transesterification. However, when biodiesel was produced using a batch system, biodiesel conversion yield was not increased over 65%; therefore, a stepwise reaction was conducted to increase biodiesel production. When a reaction medium with an initial concentration of methanol of 60 mmol was used and adjusted to maintain this concentration of methanol every 1.5 h during biodiesel production, the conversion yield of biodiesel was 98.92% at 6 h. Finally, reusability was evaluated using immobilized lipase to determine if this method was applicable for industrial biodiesel production. When biodiesel was produced repeatedly, the conversion rate was maintained at over 85% after eight reuses. PMID:19132555

  20. Biodiesel production from various oils under supercritical fluid conditions by Candida antartica lipase B using a stepwise reaction method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Ho; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Kang, Jeong Won; Park, Chulhwan; Tae, Bumseok; Kim, Seung Wook

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we evaluate the effects of various reaction factors, including pressure, temperature, agitation speed, enzyme concentration, and water content to increase biodiesel production. In addition, biodiesel was produced from various oils to establish the optimal enzymatic process of biodiesel production. Optimal conditions were determined to be as follows: pressure 130 bar, temperature 45 degrees C, agitation speed 200 rpm, enzyme concentration 20%, and water contents 10%. Among the various oils used for production, olive oil showed the highest yield (65.18%) upon transesterification. However, when biodiesel was produced using a batch system, biodiesel conversion yield was not increased over 65%; therefore, a stepwise reaction was conducted to increase biodiesel production. When a reaction medium with an initial concentration of methanol of 60 mmol was used and adjusted to maintain this concentration of methanol every 1.5 h during biodiesel production, the conversion yield of biodiesel was 98.92% at 6 h. Finally, reusability was evaluated using immobilized lipase to determine if this method was applicable for industrial biodiesel production. When biodiesel was produced repeatedly, the conversion rate was maintained at over 85% after eight reuses.

  1. Techno-economic evaluation of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil--a case study of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Patria, Raffel Dharma; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-01-01

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR) sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices. PMID:25809602

  2. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil—A Case Study of Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Patria, Raffel Dharma; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-01-01

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR) sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices. PMID:25809602

  3. Enhancement of lipid production and fatty acid profiling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Karpagam, R; Preeti, R; Ashokkumar, B; Varalakshmi, P

    2015-11-01

    Lipid from microalgae is one of the putative oil resources to facilitate the biodiesel production during this era of energy dissipation and environmental pollution. In this study, the key parameters such as biomass productivity, lipid productivity and lipid content were evaluated at the early stationary phase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 cultivated in nutrient starved (nitrogen, phosphorous), glucose (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2%) and vitamin B12 supplementation (0.001%, 0.002% and 0.003%) in Tris-Acetate-Phosphate (TAP) medium. The lipid content in nitrogen starved media was 61% which is 2.34 folds higher than nutrient sufficient TAP medium. Glucose supplementation has lead to proportional increase in biomass productivity with the increasing concentration of glucose whereas vitamin B12 supplementations had not shown any influence in lipid and biomass production. Further, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of C. reinhardtii, CC 1010 has revealed more than 80% of total SFA (saturated fatty acid) and MUFA (mono unsaturated fatty acid) content. Quality checking parameters of biodiesel like cetane number, saponification value, iodine number and degree of unsaturation were analyzed and the biodiesel fuel properties were found to be appropriate as per the international standards, EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. Conclusively, among all the treatments, nitrogen starvation with 0.1% glucose supplementation had yielded high lipid content in C. reinhardtii, CC 1010.

  4. Enhancement of lipid production and fatty acid profiling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Karpagam, R; Preeti, R; Ashokkumar, B; Varalakshmi, P

    2015-11-01

    Lipid from microalgae is one of the putative oil resources to facilitate the biodiesel production during this era of energy dissipation and environmental pollution. In this study, the key parameters such as biomass productivity, lipid productivity and lipid content were evaluated at the early stationary phase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 cultivated in nutrient starved (nitrogen, phosphorous), glucose (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2%) and vitamin B12 supplementation (0.001%, 0.002% and 0.003%) in Tris-Acetate-Phosphate (TAP) medium. The lipid content in nitrogen starved media was 61% which is 2.34 folds higher than nutrient sufficient TAP medium. Glucose supplementation has lead to proportional increase in biomass productivity with the increasing concentration of glucose whereas vitamin B12 supplementations had not shown any influence in lipid and biomass production. Further, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of C. reinhardtii, CC 1010 has revealed more than 80% of total SFA (saturated fatty acid) and MUFA (mono unsaturated fatty acid) content. Quality checking parameters of biodiesel like cetane number, saponification value, iodine number and degree of unsaturation were analyzed and the biodiesel fuel properties were found to be appropriate as per the international standards, EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. Conclusively, among all the treatments, nitrogen starvation with 0.1% glucose supplementation had yielded high lipid content in C. reinhardtii, CC 1010. PMID:25838071

  5. Catalyst-free ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Afifudin, Riza; Amalia, Rizky

    2015-12-01

    In-situ ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical water and ethanol with no catalyst was employed. This process is environmentally friendly and is very flexible in term of feedstock utilization since it can handle relatively high moisture and free fatty acids (FFAs) contents. In addition, the alcohol, i.e. bioethanol, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, and green raw material when produced from non-edible biomass residues, leading to a 100% renewable biodiesel. The fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, ethyl biodiesel) are better than fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, methyl biodiesel) in terms of fuel properties, including cetane number, oxidation stability and cold flow properties. The influences of the operating variables such as reaction time (1 - 10 h), ethanol concentration (12.5 - 87.5%), and pressurizing gas (N2 and CO2) on the ethyl biodiesel yield and purity have been investigated systematically while the temperature and pressure were kept constant at 200 °C and 40 bar. The optimum results were obtained at 5 h reaction time and 75% ethanol concentration using CO2 as compressing gas. Ethyl biodiesel yield and purity of 58.78% and 61.35%, respectively, were obtained using rice bran with initial FFAs content of 37.64%. FFAs level was reduced to 14.22% with crude ethyl biodiesel recovery of 95.98%. Increasing the reaction time up to 10 h only increased the yield and purity by only about 3%. Under N2 atmosphere and at the same operating conditions (5h and 75% ethanol), ethyl biodiesel yield and purity decreased to 54.63% and 58.07%, respectively, while FFAs level was increased to 17.93% and crude ethyl biodiesel recovery decreased to 87.32%.

  6. Reducing electrocoagulation harvesting costs for practical microalgal biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Dassey, Adam J; Theegala, Chandra S

    2014-01-01

    Electrocoagulation has shown potential to be a primary microalgae harvesting technique for biodiesel production. However, methods to reduce energy and electrode costs are still necessary for practical application. Electrocoagulation tests were conducted on Nannochloris sp. and Dunaliella sp. using perforated aluminium and iron electrodes under various charge densities. Aluminium electrodes were shown to be more efficient than iron electrodes when harvesting both algal species. Despite the lower harvesting efficiency, however, the iron electrodes were more energy and cost efficient. Operational costs of less than $0.03/L oil were achieved when harvesting Nannochloris sp. with iron electrodes at 35% harvest efficiency, whereas aluminium electrodes cost $0.75/L oil with 42% harvesting efficiency. Increasing the harvesting efficiencies for both aluminium and iron electrodes also increased the overall cost per litre of oil, therefore lower harvesting efficiencies with lower energy inputs was recommended. Also, increasing the culturing salinity to 2 ppt sodium chloride for freshwater Nannochloris sp. was determined practical to improve the electrocoagulation energy efficiency despite a 25% reduction in cell growth.

  7. Ferric chloride based downstream process for microalgae based biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yeong Hwan; Sung, Mina; Kim, Bohwa; Oh, You-Kwan; Kim, Dong Yeon; Han, Jong-In

    2015-04-01

    In this study, ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used to integrate downstream processes (harvesting, lipid extraction, and esterification). At concentration of 200 mg/L and at pH 3, FeCl3 exhibited an expected degree of coagulation and an increase in cell density of ten times (170 mg/10 mL). An iron-mediated oxidation reaction, Fenton-like reaction, was used to extract lipid from the harvested biomass, and efficiency of 80% was obtained with 0.5% H2O2 at 90 °C. The iron compound was also employed in the esterification step, and converted free fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters under acidic conditions; thus, the fatal problem of saponification during esterification with alkaline catalysts was avoided, and esterification efficiency over 90% was obtained. This study clearly showed that FeCl3 in the harvesting process is beneficial in all downstream steps and have a potential to greatly reduce the production cost of microalgae-originated biodiesel.

  8. Exploration of upstream and downstream process for microwave assisted sustainable biodiesel production from microalgae Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Sahoo, Pradeepta Kumar; Singhal, Shailey; Joshi, Girdhar

    2016-09-01

    The present study explores the integrated approach for the sustainable production of biodiesel from Chlorella vulgaris microalgae. The microalgae were cultivated in 10m(2) open raceway pond at semi-continuous mode with optimum volumetric and areal production of 28.105kg/L/y and 71.51t/h/y, respectively. Alum was used as flocculent for harvesting the microalgae and optimized at different pH. Lipid was extracted using chloroform: methanol (2:1) and having 12.39% of FFA. Effect of various reaction conditions such as effect of catalyst, methanol:lipid ratio, reaction temperature and time on biodiesel yields were studied under microwave irradiation; and 84.01% of biodiesel yield was obtained under optimized reaction conditions. A comparison was also made between the biodiesel productions under conventional heating and microwave irradiation. The synthesized biodiesel was characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, FTIR and GC; however, fuel properties of biodiesel were also studied using specified test methods as per ASTM and EN standards. PMID:27318156

  9. A study on production of biodiesel using a novel solid oxide catalyst derived from waste.

    PubMed

    Majhi, Samrat; Ray, Srimanta

    2016-05-01

    The issues of energy security, dwindling supply and inflating price of fossil fuel have shifted the global focus towards fuel of renewable origin. Biodiesel, having renewable origin, has exhibited great potential as substitute for fossil fuels. The most common route of biodiesel production is through transesterification of vegetable oil in presence of homogeneous acid or base or solid oxide catalyst. But, the economics of biodiesel is not competitive with respect to fossil fuel due to high cost of production. The vegetable oil waste is a potential alternative for biodiesel production, particularly when disposal of used vegetable oil has been restricted in several countries. The present study evaluates the efficacy of a low-cost solid oxide catalyst derived from eggshell (a food waste) in transesterification of vegetable oil and simulated waste vegetable oil (SWVO). The impact of thermal treatment of vegetable oil (to simulate frying operation) on transesterification using eggshell-derived solid oxide catalyst (ESSO catalyst) was also evaluated along with the effect of varying reaction parameters. The study reported that around 90 % biodiesel yield was obtained with vegetable oil at methanol/oil molar ratio of 18:1 in 3 h reaction time using 10 % ESSO catalyst. The biodiesel produced with ESSO catalyst from SWVO, thermally treated at 150 °C for 24 h, was found to conform with the biodiesel standard, but the yield was 5 % lower compared to that of the untreated oil. The utilization of waste vegetable oil along with waste eggshell as catalyst is significant for improving the overall economics of the biodiesel in the current market. The utilization of waste for societal benefit with the essence of sustainable development is the novelty of this work.

  10. Optimization of process configuration and strain selection for microalgae-based biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nan; Dieu, Linus Tao Jie; Harvey, Simon; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2015-10-01

    A mathematical model was developed for the design of microalgae-based biodiesel production system by systematically integrating all the production stages and strain properties. Through the hypothetical case study, the model suggested the most economical system configuration for the selected microalgae strains from the available processes at each stage, thus resulting in the cheapest biodiesel production cost, S$2.66/kg, which is still higher than the current diesel price (S$1.05/kg). Interestingly, the microalgae strain properties, such as lipid content, effective diameter and productivity, were found to be one of the major factors that significantly affect the production cost as well as system configuration.

  11. Assessment of four biodiesel production processes using HYSYS.Plant.

    PubMed

    West, Alex H; Posarac, Dusko; Ellis, Naoko

    2008-09-01

    Four continuous biodiesel processes were designed and simulated in HYSYS. The first two employed traditional homogeneous alkali and acid catalysts. The third and fourth processes used a heterogeneous acid catalyst and a supercritical method to convert a waste vegetable oil feedstock into biodiesel. While all four processes were capable of producing biodiesel at high purity, the heterogeneous and supercritical processes were the least complex and had the smallest number of unit operations. Material and energy flows, as well as sized unit operation blocks, were used to conduct an economic assessment of each process. Total capital investment, total manufacturing cost and after tax rate-of-return were calculated for each process. The heterogeneous acid catalyst process had the lowest total capital investment and manufacturing costs, and had the only positive after tax rate-of-return.

  12. Screening of freshwater and seawater microalgae strains in fully controlled photobioreactors for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Taleb, A; Kandilian, R; Touchard, R; Montalescot, V; Rinaldi, T; Taha, S; Takache, H; Marchal, L; Legrand, J; Pruvost, J

    2016-10-01

    Strain selection is one of the primary hurdles facing cost-effective microalgal biodiesel production. Indeed, the strain used affects both upstream and downstream biodiesel production processes. This study presents a screening procedure that considers the most significant criteria in microalgal biodiesel production including TAG production and wet extraction and recovery of TAGs. Fourteen freshwater and seawater strains were investigated. Large variation was observed between the strains in all the screening criteria. The overall screening procedure ultimately led to the identification of Parachlorella kessleri UTEX2229 and Nannochloropsis gaditana CCMP527 as the best freshwater and seawater strains, respectively. They featured the largest areal TAG productivity equal to 2.7×10(-3) and 2.3×10(-3)kgm(-2)d(-1), respectively. These two strains also displayed encouraging cell fragility in a high pressure bead milling process with 69% and 98% cell disruption at 1750bar making them remarkable strains for TAG extraction in wet environment.

  13. Biodiesel production from hydrolysate of Cyperus esculentus waste by Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenrui; Zhou, Wenwen; Liu, Jing; Li, Yonghong; Zhang, Yongkui

    2013-05-01

    To reduce the cost of algal-based biodiesel, a waste material from oil industry, Cyperus esculentus waste, was used as the carbon source of the oleaginous microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. It demonstrated that C. vulgaris grew better in C. esculentus waste hydrolysate (CEWH(1)) than in glucose medium under the same reducing sugar concentration. CEWH concentration influenced the cell growth and lipid production significantly. The maximum lipid productivity 438.85 mg l(-1) d(-1) was achieved at 40 g l(-1). Fed-batch culture was performed to further enhance lipid production. The maximum biomass, lipid content and lipid productivity were 20.75 g l(-1), 36.52%, and 621.53 mg l(-1) d(-1), respectively. The produced biodiesel was analyzed by GC-MS and the results suggested that lipids produced from CEWH could be a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. PMID:23548401

  14. A COMBINED REACTION/PRODUCT RECOVERY PROCESS FOR THE CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect

    Birdwell, J.F., Jr.; McFarlane, J.; Schuh, D.L.; Tsouris, C; Day, J.N.; Hullette, J.N.

    2009-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nu-Energie, LLC entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for the purpose of demonstrating and deploying a novel technology for the continuous synthesis and recovery of biodiesel from the transesterification of triglycerides. The focus of the work was the demonstration of a combination Couette reactor and centrifugal separator - an invention of ORNL researchers - that facilitates both product synthesis and recovery from reaction byproducts in the same apparatus. At present, transesterification of triglycerides to produce biodiesel is performed in batch-type reactors with an excess of a chemical catalyst, which is required to achieve high reactant conversions in reasonable reaction times (e.g., 1 hour). The need for long reactor residence times requires use of large reactors and ancillary equipment (e.g., feed and product tankage), and correspondingly large facilities, in order to obtain the economy of scale required to make the process economically viable. Hence, the goal of this CRADA was to demonstrate successful, extended operation of a laboratory-scale reactor/separator prototype to process typical industrial reactant materials, and to design, fabricate, and test a production-scale unit for deployment at the biodiesel production site. Because of its ease of operation, rapid attainment of steady state, high mass transfer and phase separation efficiencies, and compact size, a centrifugal contactor was chosen for intensification of the biodiesel production process. The unit was modified to increase the residence time from a few seconds to minutes*. For this application, liquid phases were introduced into the reactor as separate streams. One was composed of the methanol and base catalyst and the other was the soy oil used in the experiments. Following reaction in the mixing zone, the immiscible glycerine and methyl ester products were separated in the high speed rotor and collected from separate

  15. Evaluation of the potential of 9 Nannochloropsis strains for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yubin; Wang, Zhiyao; Yu, Changjiang; Yin, Yehu; Zhou, Gongke

    2014-09-01

    Nannochloropsis have attracted sustained interest from algal biodiesel researchers due to their high biomass accumulation rate and high lipid content. There are six recognized species in the Nannochloropsis genus that are phylogenetically divided into Nannochloropsis gaditana, Nannochloropsis salina, Nannochloropsis granulata, Nannochloropsis limnetica, Nannochloropsis oceanica and Nannochloropsis oculata. In this study, the potential of 9 Nannochloropsis species from the 6 genus for biodiesel production was evaluated by determining their growth rate, biomass accumulation, lipid productivity, lipid composition, fatty acid profiles and biodiesel properties. The results showed that the best strain was N. oceanica IMET1, with lipid productivity of 158.76 ± 13.83 mg L(-1)day(-1), TAG production of 1.67 ± 0.20 g/L, favorable fatty acid profiles of C16-C18 (56.62 ± 1.96%) as well as suitable biodiesel properties of higher cetane number (54.61 ± 0.25), lower iodine number (104.85 ± 2.80 g I2/100g) and relative low cloud point (3.45 ± 0.50°C). N. oceanica IMET1 could be consider as valuable feedstock for microalgal biodiesel production.

  16. Evaluation of the potential of 9 Nannochloropsis strains for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yubin; Wang, Zhiyao; Yu, Changjiang; Yin, Yehu; Zhou, Gongke

    2014-09-01

    Nannochloropsis have attracted sustained interest from algal biodiesel researchers due to their high biomass accumulation rate and high lipid content. There are six recognized species in the Nannochloropsis genus that are phylogenetically divided into Nannochloropsis gaditana, Nannochloropsis salina, Nannochloropsis granulata, Nannochloropsis limnetica, Nannochloropsis oceanica and Nannochloropsis oculata. In this study, the potential of 9 Nannochloropsis species from the 6 genus for biodiesel production was evaluated by determining their growth rate, biomass accumulation, lipid productivity, lipid composition, fatty acid profiles and biodiesel properties. The results showed that the best strain was N. oceanica IMET1, with lipid productivity of 158.76 ± 13.83 mg L(-1)day(-1), TAG production of 1.67 ± 0.20 g/L, favorable fatty acid profiles of C16-C18 (56.62 ± 1.96%) as well as suitable biodiesel properties of higher cetane number (54.61 ± 0.25), lower iodine number (104.85 ± 2.80 g I2/100g) and relative low cloud point (3.45 ± 0.50°C). N. oceanica IMET1 could be consider as valuable feedstock for microalgal biodiesel production. PMID:25013933

  17. Production characterization and working characteristics in DICI engine of Pongamia biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa Rao, M; Anand, R B

    2015-11-01

    Renewable energy plays a predominant role in solving the current energy requirement problems and biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to tide over the energy crisis and conserve fossil fuels. The present work investigates an eco-friendly substitute for the replacement of fossil fuels and the experiments are designed to determine the effects of a catalyst in the biodiesel production processes. Pongamia pinnata oil was utilized to produce the biodiesel by using catalysts namely KOH and NaOH and the properties of the fuel were found by using Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Sulfur (CHNS) elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography & Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) Spectroscopy and the thermophysical properties were compared with those of neat diesel. In continuation, the working characteristics of the biodiesel and biodiesel-water emulsions were accomplished in a four stroke compression ignition engine and the results were compared to those of neat diesel. It was found that the exhaust emission characteristics like brake specific carbon monoxide (BSCO), brake specific hydrocarbons (BSHC) and smoke opacity were better for neat biodiesel (except brake specific nitric oxide BSNO) than those of neat diesel.

  18. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards.

  19. Production characterization and working characteristics in DICI engine of Pongamia biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa Rao, M; Anand, R B

    2015-11-01

    Renewable energy plays a predominant role in solving the current energy requirement problems and biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to tide over the energy crisis and conserve fossil fuels. The present work investigates an eco-friendly substitute for the replacement of fossil fuels and the experiments are designed to determine the effects of a catalyst in the biodiesel production processes. Pongamia pinnata oil was utilized to produce the biodiesel by using catalysts namely KOH and NaOH and the properties of the fuel were found by using Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Sulfur (CHNS) elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography & Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) Spectroscopy and the thermophysical properties were compared with those of neat diesel. In continuation, the working characteristics of the biodiesel and biodiesel-water emulsions were accomplished in a four stroke compression ignition engine and the results were compared to those of neat diesel. It was found that the exhaust emission characteristics like brake specific carbon monoxide (BSCO), brake specific hydrocarbons (BSHC) and smoke opacity were better for neat biodiesel (except brake specific nitric oxide BSNO) than those of neat diesel. PMID:26242967

  20. Use of Ceramic Material (cement Clinker) for the Production of Biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Sunny; Agarwal, Madhu

    Biodiesel is a renewable liquid fuel made from natural, renewable biological sources such as edible and non edible oils. Over the last years, biodiesel has gained more market due to its benefits and because it appears as the natural substitute for diesel. Reasons for growing interest in biodiesel include its potential for reducing noxious emissions, potential contributions to rural economic development, as an additional demand center for agricultural commodities, and as a way to reduce reliance on foreign oil. Biodiesel was prepared from soybean oil by transesterification with methanol in the presence of cement clinker. Cement clinker was examined as a catalyst for a conversion of soybean oil to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). It can be a promising heterogeneous catalyst for the production of biodiesel fuels from soybean oil because of high activity in the conversion and no leaching in the transesterification reaction. The reaction conditions were optimized. A study for optimizing the reaction parameters such as the reaction temperature, and reaction time, was carried out. The catalyst cement clinker composition was characterized by XRF. The results demonstrate that the cement clinker shows high catalytic performance & it was found that the yield of biodiesel can reach as high as 84.52% after 1 h reaction at 65°C, with a 6:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil, 21 wt% KOH/cement clinker as catalyst.

  1. Comparing Ultrasound and Mechanical Steering in a Biodiesel Production Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa-Felix, Rodrigo P. B.; Ferreira, Jerusa R. L.

    The analysis of the kinetics of the transesterification reaction is crucial to compare different routes or routes with different catalysts or reaction accelerators. The use of ultrasound is considereda method for accelerating the biodiesel production. However, little effort has been done and is reported in the literature about how and under what conditions the use of ultrasound really speeds up the process, or the conditions under which its use is unnecessary or even harmful, burdening the process. Two dissimilar energy injections into a typical route were tested: ultrasound (@ 1 MHz and no heating) and mechanical steering (with heating), both applied in an 8:1 ratio of soybean oil and methanol, adding 1% of KOH as catalyzer. As results, during the first 10 minutes of reaction ultrasound showed unbearable effect on the transesterification, whilst mechanical steering and heating achieved almost 70% of conversion ratio. However, during the following 10 minutes, the mechanical steering and heating got nothing more than 80% of conversion, a considerable less efficient process than ultrasound assisted one, which achieved more than 90%. The straightforward explanation is that ultrasound continually inserts energy in a slower rate, what can result in a more stable conversion scenario. On the other hand, mechanical steering and heating provides more energy at a glance, but cannot push the final conversion rate beyond a limit, as the transesterification is a double-way chemical process. The instability mechanical steering and heating settles in the reaction medium pulls the components back to their original states more than pushes than to the converted equilibrium state of the matter.

  2. Cryptococcus terricola is a promising oleaginous yeast for biodiesel production from starch through consolidated bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Ayumi; Takashima, Masako; Sugita, Takashi; Endoh, Rikiya; Kikukawa, Minako; Yamaguchi, Shino; Sakuradani, Eiji; Ogawa, Jun; Ohkuma, Moriya; Shima, Jun

    2014-04-24

    Starch is considered a potential feedstock for biofuel production, particularly in light of the large-scale landfilling of food waste and other starchy materials worldwide. Lipid accumulation by oleaginous yeast is a promising method for biodiesel production from starch. However, most oleaginous yeasts are grown on monosaccharides or oligosaccharides because they cannot directly utilize starch. We therefore investigated the starch-assimilation ability of 1,200 yeasts. We found that Cryptococcus terricola could be used for fuel production through consolidated bioprocessing. C. terricola JCM 24523 exhibited the highest lipid content of 61.96% on medium with 5% starch at 10 days. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis showed that this strain produced high proportions of C16:0 and C18 fatty acids when grown on starch, which are ideal for use in biodiesel. Considering the yield and cost, lipids derived from starch using C. terricola would be a promising alternative source for biodiesel production.

  3. Enhanced biodiesel production in Neochloris oleoabundans by a semi-continuous process in two stage photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Se Young; Hong, Min Eui; Chang, Won Seok; Sim, Sang Jun

    2015-07-01

    Under autotrophic conditions, highly productive biodiesel production was achieved using a semi-continuous culture system in Neochloris oleoabundans. In particular, the flue gas generated by combustion of liquefied natural gas and natural solar radiation were used for cost-effective microalgal culture system. In semi-continuous culture, the greater part (~80%) of the culture volume containing vegetative cells grown under nitrogen-replete conditions in a first photobioreactor (PBR) was directly transferred to a second PBR and cultured sequentially under nitrogen-deplete conditions for accelerating oil accumulation. As a result, in semi-continuous culture, the productivities of biomass and biodiesel in the cells were increased by 58% (growth phase) and 51% (induction phase) compared to the cells in batch culture, respectively. The semi-continuous culture system using two stage photobioreactors is a very efficient strategy to further improve biodiesel production from microalgae under photoautotrophic conditions.

  4. Enhanced biodiesel production in Neochloris oleoabundans by a semi-continuous process in two stage photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Se Young; Hong, Min Eui; Chang, Won Seok; Sim, Sang Jun

    2015-07-01

    Under autotrophic conditions, highly productive biodiesel production was achieved using a semi-continuous culture system in Neochloris oleoabundans. In particular, the flue gas generated by combustion of liquefied natural gas and natural solar radiation were used for cost-effective microalgal culture system. In semi-continuous culture, the greater part (~80%) of the culture volume containing vegetative cells grown under nitrogen-replete conditions in a first photobioreactor (PBR) was directly transferred to a second PBR and cultured sequentially under nitrogen-deplete conditions for accelerating oil accumulation. As a result, in semi-continuous culture, the productivities of biomass and biodiesel in the cells were increased by 58% (growth phase) and 51% (induction phase) compared to the cells in batch culture, respectively. The semi-continuous culture system using two stage photobioreactors is a very efficient strategy to further improve biodiesel production from microalgae under photoautotrophic conditions. PMID:25740458

  5. Biodiesel production in a semiarid environment: a life cycle assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Wahidul K; Barton, Louise; Carter, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    While the use of biodiesel appears to be a promising alternative to petroleum fuel, the replacement of fossil fuel by biofuel may not bring about the intended climate cooling because of the increased soil N2O emissions due to N-fertilizer applications. Using a life cycle assessment approach, we assessed the influence of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions on the life cycle global warming potential of the production and combustion of biodiesel from canola oil produced in a semiarid climate. Utilizing locally measured soil N2O emissions, rather than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) default values, decreased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the production and combustion of 1 GJ biodiesel from 63 to 37 carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-e)/GJ. GHG were 1.1 to 2.1 times lower than those from petroleum or petroleum-based diesel depending on which soil N2O emission factors were included in the analysis. The advantages of utilizing biodiesel rapidly declined when blended with petroleum diesel. Mitigation strategies that decrease emissions from the production and application of N fertilizers may further decrease the life cycle GHG emissions in the production and combustion of biodiesel. PMID:21381655

  6. Response surface methodology assisted biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using encapsulated mixed enzyme.

    PubMed

    Razack, Sirajunnisa Abdul; Duraiarasan, Surendhiran

    2016-01-01

    In the recent scenario, consumption of petroleum fuels has increased to greater height which has led to deforestation and decline in fossil fuels. In order to tackle the perilous situation, alternative fuel has to be generated. Biofuels play a vital role in substituting the diesel fuels as they are renewable and ecofriendly. Biodiesel, often referred to as green fuel, could be a potential replacement as it could be synthesized from varied substrates, advantageous being the microalgae in several ways. The present investigation was dealt with the interesterification of waste cooking oil using immobilised lipase from mixed cultures for biodiesel production. In order to standardize the production for a scale up process, the parameters necessary for interesterification had been optimized using the statistical tool, Central Composite Design - Response Surface Methodology. The optimal conditions required to generate biodiesel were 2 g enzyme load, 1:12 oil to methyl acetate ratio, 60 h reaction time and 35 °C temperature, yielding a maximum of 93.61% biodiesel. The immobilised lipase beads remain stable without any changes in their function and structure even after 20 cycles which made this study, less cost intensive. In conclusion, the study revealed that the cooking oil, a residue of many dining centers, left as waste product, can be used as a potential raw material for the production of ecofriendly and cost effective biofuel, the biodiesel.

  7. Biodiesel Production using Heterogeneous Catalyst in CSTR: Sensitivity Analysis and Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keong, L. S.; Patle, D. S.; Shukor, S. R.; Ahmad, Z.

    2016-03-01

    Biodiesel as a renewable fuel has emerged as a potential replacement for petroleum-based diesels. Heterogeneous catalyst has become the focus of researches in biodiesel production with the intention to overcome problems associated with homogeneous catalyzed processes. The simulation of heterogeneous catalyzed biodiesel production has not been thoroughly studied. Hence, a simulation of carbon-based solid acid catalyzed biodiesel production from waste oil with high FFA content (50 weight%) was developed in the present work to study the feasibility and potential of the simulated process. The simulated process produces biodiesel through simultaneous transesterification and esterification with the consideration of reaction kinetics. The developed simulation is feasible and capable to produce 2.81kmol/hr of FAME meeting the international standard (EN 14214). Yields of 68.61% and 97.19% are achieved for transesterification and esterification respectively. Sensitivity analyses of FFA composition in waste oil, methanol to oil ratio, reactor pressure and temperature towards FAME yield from both reactions were carried out. Optimization of reactor temperature was done to maximize FAME products.

  8. Production and optimization of biodiesel using mixed immobilized biocatalysts in packed bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Bakkiyaraj, S; Syed, Mahin Basha; Devanesan, M G; Thangavelu, Viruthagiri

    2016-05-01

    Vegetable oils are used as raw materials for biodiesel production using transesterification reaction. Several methods for the production of biodiesel were developed using chemical (alkali and acidic compounds) and biological catalysts (lipases). Biodiesel production catalyzed by lipases is energy and cost-saving processes and is carried out at normal temperature and pressure. The need for an efficient method for screening larger number of variables has led to the adoption of statistical experimental design. In the present study, packed bed reactor was designed to study with mixed immobilized biocatalysts to have higher productivity under optimum conditions. Contrary to the single-step acyl migration mechanism, a two-step stepwise reaction mechanism involving immobilized Candida rugosa lipase and immobilized Rhizopus oryzae cells was employed for the present work. This method was chosen because enzymatic hydrolysis followed by esterification can tolerate high free fatty acid containing oils. The effects of flow rate and bed height on biodiesel yield were studied using two factors five-level central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). Maximum biodiesel yield of 85 and 81 % was obtained for jatropha oil and karanja oil with the optimum bed height and optimum flow rate of 32.6 cm and 1.35 L/h, and 32.6 cm and 1.36 L/h, respectively.

  9. Biological butanol production from microalgae-based biodiesel residues by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Chan, Kun-Chi; Chung, Man-Chien; Wu, Shu-Hsien; Liu, Cheng-Pin; Tien, Shih-Yuan; Chen, Shan-Yuan; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lee, Wen-Jhy

    2015-05-01

    This study conducted batch experiments to evaluate the potential of butanol production from microalgae biodiesel residues by Clostridium acetobutylicum. The results indicated that with 90 g/L of glucose as the sole substrate the highest butanol yield of 0.2 g/g-glucose was found, but the addition of butyrate significantly enhanced the butanol yield. The highest butanol yield of 0.4 g/g-glucose was found with 60 g/L of glucose and 18 g/L of butyrate. Using microalgae biodiesel residues as substrate, C. acetobutylicum produced 3.86 g/L of butanol and achieved butanol yield of 0.13 g/g-carbohydrate via ABE fermentation, but the results indicated that approximately one third of carbohydrate was not utilized by C. acetobutylicum. Biological butanol production from microalgae biodiesel residues can be possible, but further research on fermentation strategies are required to improve production yield.

  10. Screening, growth medium optimisation and heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zongchao; Liu, Ying; Daroch, Maurycy; Geng, Shu; Cheng, Jay J

    2014-08-01

    This article presents a study on screening of microalgal strains from the Peking University Algae Collection and heterotrophic cultivation for biodiesel production of a selected microalgal strain. Among 89 strains, only five were capable of growing under heterotrophic conditions in liquid cultures and Chlorella sp. PKUAC 102 was found the best for the production of heterotrophic algal biodiesel. Composition of the growth medium was optimised using response surface methodology and optimised growth conditions were successfully used for cultivation of the strain in a fermentor. Conversion of algal lipids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) showed that the lipid profile of the heterotrophically cultivated Chlorella sp. PKUAC 102 contains fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production.

  11. Biodiesel production from marine cyanobacteria cultured in plate and tubular photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Selvan, B Karpanai; Revathi, M; Piriya, P Sobana; Vasan, P Thirumalai; Prabhu, D Immuanual Gilwax; Vennison, S John

    2013-03-01

    Carbon (neutral) based renewable liquid biofuels are alternative to petroleum derived transport fuels that contribute to global warming and are of a limited availability. Microalgae based biofuels are considered as promising source of energy. Lyngbya sp. and Synechococcus sp. were studied for the possibility of biodiesel production in different media such as ASNIII, sea water enrichment medium and BG11. The sea water enrichment medium was found superior in enhancing the growth rate of these microalgae. Nitrogen depletion has less effect in total chlorophyll a content, at the same time the lipid content was increased in both Lyngbya sp. and Synechococcus sp. by 1.4 and 1.2 % respectively. Increase in salinity from 0.5-1.0 M also showed an increase in the lipid content to 2.0 and 0.8 % in these strains; but a salinity of 1.5 M has a total inhibitory effect in the growth. The total biomass yield was comparatively higher in tubular LED photobioreactor than the fluorescent flat plated photobioreactor. Lipid extraction was obtained maximum at 60 degrees C in 1:10 sample: solvent ratio. GC-MS analysis of biodiesel showed high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; 4.86 %) than saturated fatty acid (SFA; 4.10 %). Biodiesel production was found maximum in Synechococcus sp. than Lyngbya sp. The viscosity of the biodiesel was closely related to conventional diesel. The results strongly suggest that marine microalgae could be used as a renewable energy source for biodiesel production.

  12. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from microalgal oil using ethyl acetate as an acyl acceptor.

    PubMed

    Alavijeh, Razieh Shafiee; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Omid; Karkhane, Aliasghar; Shariati, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have become an important source of biomass for biodiesel production. In enzymatic transesterification reaction, the enzyme activity is decreased in presence of alcohols. The use of different acyl acceptors such as methyl/ethyl acetate is suggested as an alternative and effective way to overcome this problem. In this study, ethyl acetate was used for the first time in the enzymatic production of biodiesel by using microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, as a triglyceride source. Enzymatic conversion of such fatty acids to biodiesel was catalyzed by Novozym 435 as an efficient immobilized lipase which is extensively used in biodiesel production. The best conversion yield of 66.71% was obtained at the ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 13:1 and Novozym 435 concentration of 40%, based on the amount of oil, and a time period of 72 h at 40℃. The results showed that ethyl acetate have no adverse effect on lipase activity and the biodiesel amount was not decreased even after seven transesterification cycles, so ethyl acetate has a great potential to be substituted for short-chain alcohols in transesterification reaction. PMID:25742923

  13. Integration process of biodiesel production from filamentous oleaginous microalgae Tribonema minus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Gao, Lili; Chen, Lin; Guo, Fajin; Liu, Tianzhong

    2013-08-01

    Biodiesel production from microalgae has been receiving considerable attention. Past studies mainly relied on tiny sized single-cell oleaginous microalgal species, the biodiesel based on filamentous oleaginous microalgae was rarely reported. Thus, integrated process of biodiesel production from filamentous oleaginous microalgal strain Tribonema minus was studied in this work. The filamentous microalgae was cultivated for 21 days in 40 L glass panel, microalgae cells was harvested by DAF without any flocculants after the lipid content was 50.23%. After that, total lipid was extracted by subcritical ethanol from wet algal paste and 44.55% of crude lipid was triacylglycerols. Two-step catalytic conversion of pre-esterification and transesterification was adopted to convert the crude algal oil to biodiesel. The conversion rate of triacylglycerols reached 96.52% under the methanol to oil molar ratio of 12:1 during catalysis with 2% potassium hydroxide at 65°C for 30 min. The biodiesel product from T. minus conformed to Chinese National Standards. PMID:23735788

  14. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from microalgal oil using ethyl acetate as an acyl acceptor.

    PubMed

    Alavijeh, Razieh Shafiee; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Omid; Karkhane, Aliasghar; Shariati, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have become an important source of biomass for biodiesel production. In enzymatic transesterification reaction, the enzyme activity is decreased in presence of alcohols. The use of different acyl acceptors such as methyl/ethyl acetate is suggested as an alternative and effective way to overcome this problem. In this study, ethyl acetate was used for the first time in the enzymatic production of biodiesel by using microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, as a triglyceride source. Enzymatic conversion of such fatty acids to biodiesel was catalyzed by Novozym 435 as an efficient immobilized lipase which is extensively used in biodiesel production. The best conversion yield of 66.71% was obtained at the ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 13:1 and Novozym 435 concentration of 40%, based on the amount of oil, and a time period of 72 h at 40℃. The results showed that ethyl acetate have no adverse effect on lipase activity and the biodiesel amount was not decreased even after seven transesterification cycles, so ethyl acetate has a great potential to be substituted for short-chain alcohols in transesterification reaction.

  15. Integration process of biodiesel production from filamentous oleaginous microalgae Tribonema minus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Gao, Lili; Chen, Lin; Guo, Fajin; Liu, Tianzhong

    2013-08-01

    Biodiesel production from microalgae has been receiving considerable attention. Past studies mainly relied on tiny sized single-cell oleaginous microalgal species, the biodiesel based on filamentous oleaginous microalgae was rarely reported. Thus, integrated process of biodiesel production from filamentous oleaginous microalgal strain Tribonema minus was studied in this work. The filamentous microalgae was cultivated for 21 days in 40 L glass panel, microalgae cells was harvested by DAF without any flocculants after the lipid content was 50.23%. After that, total lipid was extracted by subcritical ethanol from wet algal paste and 44.55% of crude lipid was triacylglycerols. Two-step catalytic conversion of pre-esterification and transesterification was adopted to convert the crude algal oil to biodiesel. The conversion rate of triacylglycerols reached 96.52% under the methanol to oil molar ratio of 12:1 during catalysis with 2% potassium hydroxide at 65°C for 30 min. The biodiesel product from T. minus conformed to Chinese National Standards.

  16. Biodiesel exhaust-induced cytotoxicity and proinflammatory mediator production in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Benjamin J; Kicic, Anthony; Ling, Kak-Ming; Mead-Hunter, Ryan; Larcombe, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Increasing use of biodiesel has prompted research into the potential health effects of biodiesel exhaust exposure. Few studies directly compare the health consequences of mineral diesel, biodiesel, or blend exhaust exposures. Here, we exposed human epithelial cell cultures to diluted exhaust generated by the combustion of Australian ultralow-sulfur-diesel (ULSD), unprocessed canola oil, 100% canola biodiesel (B100), and a blend of 20% canola biodiesel mixed with 80% ULSD. The physicochemical characteristics of the exhaust were assessed and we compared cellular viability, apoptosis, and levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) in exposed cultured cells. Different fuel types produced significantly different amounts of exhaust gases and different particle characteristics. All exposures resulted in significant apoptosis and loss of viability when compared with control, with an increasing proportion of biodiesel being correlated with a decrease in viability. In most cases, exposure to exhaust resulted in an increase in mediator production, with the greatest increases most often in response to B100. Exposure to pure canola oil (PCO) exhaust did not increase mediator production, but resulted in a significant decrease in IL-8 and RANTES in some cases. Our results show that canola biodiesel exhaust exposure elicits inflammation and reduces viability of human epithelial cell cultures in vitro when compared with ULSD exhaust exposure. This may be related to an increase in particle surface area and number in B100 exhaust when compared with ULSD exhaust. Exposure to PCO exhaust elicited the greatest loss of cellular viability, but virtually no inflammatory response, likely due to an overall increase in average particle size.

  17. In-situ biodiesel and sugar production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Rahkadima, Yulia Tri

    2015-12-01

    An integrated method of producing biodiesel and sugar using subcritical water and methanol has been employed as a potential way to reduce the high cost of single biofuel production from rice bran. The effects of temperature, methanol to water ratio and reaction time on the biodiesel yield and purity, and the concentration of sugar in hydrolysate were investigated systematically. Biodiesel with yield and purity of 65.21%and 73.53%, respectively, was obtained from rice bran with initial free fatty acid (FFA) content of 37.64% under the following conditions: T= 200 oC, P= 4.0 MPa (using CO2 as pressurizing gas), ratio of rice bran/water/methanol of 1/2/6 (g/mL/mL), and 3 h of reaction time. FFAs level was reduced to 10.00% with crude biodiesel recovery of 88.69%. However, the highest biodiesel yield (67.39%) and crude biodiesel recovery (100.00%) were obtained by decreasing the amount of methanol so that the ratio of rice bran/water/methanol became 1/4/4, g/mL/mL. In addition, the highest sugar concentration of 0.98 g/L was obtained at 180 oC and 4.0 MPa with ratio of rice bran/water/methanol of 1/4/4 (g/mL/mL) and reaction time of 3 h. Since no catalyst was employed and the biodiesel and reducing sugar were produced directly from rice bran with high water and FFA contents, the process was simple and environmentally friendly, which would make the production of biofuel more economical and sustainable.

  18. Biodiesel production using fatty acids from food industry waste using corona discharge plasma technology.

    PubMed

    Cubas, A L V; Machado, M M; Pinto, C R S C; Moecke, E H S; Dutra, A R A

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe an alternative and innovative methodology to transform waste, frying oil in a potential energy source, the biodiesel. The biodiesel was produced from fatty acids, using a waste product of the food industry as the raw material. The methodology to be described is the corona discharge plasma technology, which offers advantages such as acceleration of the esterification reaction, easy separation of the biodiesel and the elimination of waste generation. The best conditions were found to be an oil/methanol molar ratio of 6:1, ambient temperature (25 °C) and reaction time of 110 min and 30 mL of sample. The acid value indicates the content of free fatty acids in the biodiesel and the value obtained in this study was 0.43 mg KOH/g. Peaks corresponding to octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester, from the biodiesel composition, were identified using GC-MS. A major advantage of this process is that the methyl ester can be obtained in the absence of chemical catalysts and without the formation of the co-product (glycerin).

  19. Pilot-scale production of biodiesel from waste fats and oils using tetramethylammonium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Šánek, Lubomír; Pecha, Jiří; Kolomazník, Karel; Bařinová, Michaela

    2016-02-01

    Annually, a great amount of waste fats and oils not suitable for human consumption or which cannot be further treated are produced around the world. A potential way of utilizing this low-cost feedstock is its conversion into biodiesel. The majority of biodiesel production processes today are based on the utilization of inorganic alkali catalysts. However, it has been proved that an organic base - tetramethylammonium hydroxide - can be used as a very efficient transesterification catalyst. Furthermore, it can be employed for the esterification of free fatty acids - reducing even high free fatty acid contents to the required level in just one step. The work presented herein, is focused on biodiesel production from waste frying oils and animal fats using tetramethylammonium hydroxide at the pilot-plant level. The results showed that the process performance in the pilot unit - using methanol and TMAH as a catalyst, is comparable to the laboratory procedure, even when the biodiesel is produced from waste vegetable oils or animal fats with high free fatty acid content. The reaction conditions were set at: 1.5% w/w of TMAH, reaction temperature 65°C, the feedstock to methanol molar ratio to 1:6, and the reaction time to 120min. The conversion of triglycerides to FAME was approximately 98%. The cloud point of the biodiesel obtained from waste animal fat was also determined.

  20. Biodiesel production using fatty acids from food industry waste using corona discharge plasma technology.

    PubMed

    Cubas, A L V; Machado, M M; Pinto, C R S C; Moecke, E H S; Dutra, A R A

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe an alternative and innovative methodology to transform waste, frying oil in a potential energy source, the biodiesel. The biodiesel was produced from fatty acids, using a waste product of the food industry as the raw material. The methodology to be described is the corona discharge plasma technology, which offers advantages such as acceleration of the esterification reaction, easy separation of the biodiesel and the elimination of waste generation. The best conditions were found to be an oil/methanol molar ratio of 6:1, ambient temperature (25 °C) and reaction time of 110 min and 30 mL of sample. The acid value indicates the content of free fatty acids in the biodiesel and the value obtained in this study was 0.43 mg KOH/g. Peaks corresponding to octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester, from the biodiesel composition, were identified using GC-MS. A major advantage of this process is that the methyl ester can be obtained in the absence of chemical catalysts and without the formation of the co-product (glycerin). PMID:26159043

  1. Pilot-scale production of biodiesel from waste fats and oils using tetramethylammonium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Šánek, Lubomír; Pecha, Jiří; Kolomazník, Karel; Bařinová, Michaela

    2016-02-01

    Annually, a great amount of waste fats and oils not suitable for human consumption or which cannot be further treated are produced around the world. A potential way of utilizing this low-cost feedstock is its conversion into biodiesel. The majority of biodiesel production processes today are based on the utilization of inorganic alkali catalysts. However, it has been proved that an organic base - tetramethylammonium hydroxide - can be used as a very efficient transesterification catalyst. Furthermore, it can be employed for the esterification of free fatty acids - reducing even high free fatty acid contents to the required level in just one step. The work presented herein, is focused on biodiesel production from waste frying oils and animal fats using tetramethylammonium hydroxide at the pilot-plant level. The results showed that the process performance in the pilot unit - using methanol and TMAH as a catalyst, is comparable to the laboratory procedure, even when the biodiesel is produced from waste vegetable oils or animal fats with high free fatty acid content. The reaction conditions were set at: 1.5% w/w of TMAH, reaction temperature 65°C, the feedstock to methanol molar ratio to 1:6, and the reaction time to 120min. The conversion of triglycerides to FAME was approximately 98%. The cloud point of the biodiesel obtained from waste animal fat was also determined. PMID:26459188

  2. Concurrent extraction and reaction for the production of biodiesel from wet microalgae.

    PubMed

    Im, Hanjin; Lee, HanSol; Park, Min S; Yang, Ji-Won; Lee, Jae W

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses a reliable in situ transesterification process which integrates lipid extraction from wet microalgae, and its conversion to biodiesel, with a yield higher than 90 wt.%. This process enables single-step production of biodiesel from microalgae by mixing wet microalgal cells with solvent, methanol, and acid catalyst; and then heating them in one pot. The effects of reaction parameters such as reaction temperature, wet cell weight, reaction time, and catalyst volume on the conversion yield are investigated. This simultaneous extraction and transesterification of wet microalgae may enable a significant reduction in energy consumption by eliminating the drying process of algal cells and realize the economic production of biodiesel using wet microalgae.

  3. Uncertainty analysis and global sensitivity analysis of techno-economic assessments for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhang-Chun; Zhenzhou, Lu; Zhiwen, Liu; Ningcong, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    There are various uncertain parameters in the techno-economic assessments (TEAs) of biodiesel production, including capital cost, interest rate, feedstock price, maintenance rate, biodiesel conversion efficiency, glycerol price and operating cost. However, fewer studies focus on the influence of these parameters on TEAs. This paper investigated the effects of these parameters on the life cycle cost (LCC) and the unit cost (UC) in the TEAs of biodiesel production. The results show that LCC and UC exhibit variations when involving uncertain parameters. Based on the uncertainty analysis, three global sensitivity analysis (GSA) methods are utilized to quantify the contribution of an individual uncertain parameter to LCC and UC. The GSA results reveal that the feedstock price and the interest rate produce considerable effects on the TEAs. These results can provide a useful guide for entrepreneurs when they plan plants.

  4. Two-step supercritical dimethyl carbonate method for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil.

    PubMed

    Ilham, Zul; Saka, Shiro

    2010-04-01

    This study reports on a novel two-step process for biodiesel production consisting of hydrolysis of oils in sub-critical water and subsequent supercritical dimethyl carbonate esterification. This process found to occur optimally at the sub-critical water treatment (270 degrees Celsius/27 MPa) for 25 min followed by a subsequent supercritical dimethyl carbonate treatment (300 degrees Celsius/9 MPa) for 15 min to achieve a comparably high yield of fatty acid methyl esters, at more than 97 wt%. In addition, the fatty acid methyl esters being produced satisfied the international standard specifications for use as biodiesel fuel. This new process for biodiesel production offers milder reaction condition (lower temperature and lower pressure), non-acidic, non-catalytic and applicable to feedstock with high amount of free fatty acids such as crude Jatropha curcas oil. PMID:19932022

  5. Development of a novel integrated continuous reactor system for biocatalytic production of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Soham; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2013-11-01

    A novel integrated immobilized enzyme-reactor system involving a continuous stirred tank reactor with two packed bed reactors in series was developed for the continuous production of biodiesel. The problem of methanol solubility into oil was solved by introducing a stirred tank reactor to dissolve methanol into partially converted oil. This step made the process perfectly continuous without requiring any organic solvent and intermittent methanol addition in the process. The substrate feeding rate of 0.74 mL/min and enzyme loading of 0.75 g per reactor were determined to be optimum for maximum biodiesel yield. The integrated continuous process was stable up to 45 cycles with biodiesel productivity of 137.2 g/L/h, which was approximately 5 times higher than solvent free batch process. In comparison with the processes reported in literature using expensive Novozyme 435 and hazardous organic solvent, the present process is completely green and perfectly continuous with economic and environmental advantages.

  6. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: 1. Process design and technological assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Dubé, M A; McLean, D D; Kates, M

    2003-08-01

    Four different continuous process flowsheets for biodiesel production from virgin vegetable oil or waste cooking oil under alkaline or acidic conditions on a commercial scale were developed. Detailed operating conditions and equipment designs for each process were obtained. A technological assessment of these four processes was carried out to evaluate their technical benefits and limitations. Analysis showed that the alkali-catalyzed process using virgin vegetable oil as the raw material required the fewest and smallest process equipment units but at a higher raw material cost than the other processes. The use of waste cooking oil to produce biodiesel reduced the raw material cost. The acid-catalyzed process using waste cooking oil proved to be technically feasible with less complexity than the alkali-catalyzed process using waste cooking oil, thereby making it a competitive alternative to commercial biodiesel production by the alkali-catalyzed process.

  7. Extraction of brewer's yeasts using different methods of cell disruption for practical biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Matoulková, Dagmar; Kolouchová, Irena; Masák, Jan; Viden, Ivan; Sigler, Karel

    2015-05-01

    The methods of preparation of fatty acids from brewer's yeast and its use in production of biofuels and in different branches of industry are described. Isolation of fatty acids from cell lipids includes cell disintegration (e.g., with liquid nitrogen, KOH, NaOH, petroleum ether, nitrogenous basic compounds, etc.) and subsequent processing of extracted lipids, including analysis of fatty acid and computing of biodiesel properties such as viscosity, density, cloud point, and cetane number. Methyl esters obtained from brewer's waste yeast are well suited for the production of biodiesel. All 49 samples (7 breweries and 7 methods) meet the requirements for biodiesel quality in both the composition of fatty acids and the properties of the biofuel required by the US and EU standards.

  8. Cyanobacteria cultivation in industrial wastewaters and biodiesel production from their biomass: a review.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Lavanya; Subramanian, Geetha; Nazeer, Thayiba Thanveer; Simpson, Hannah Shalini; Rahuman, Shifina T; Raju, Preetha

    2011-01-01

    As an alternative fuel biodiesel has become increasingly important due to diminishing petroleum reserves and adverse environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum-fueled engines. Recently, research interest has focused on the production of biofuel from microalgae. Cyanobacteria appeared to be suitable candidates for cultivation in wastes and wastewaters because they produce biomass in satisfactory quantity and can be harvested relatively easily due to their size and structure. In addition, their biomass composition can be manipulated by several environmental and operational factors to produce biomass with concrete characteristics. Herein, we review the culture of cyanobacteria in wastewaters and also the potential resources that can be transformed into biodiesel successfully for meeting the ever-increasing demand for biodiesel production. PMID:21838795

  9. Uncertainty analysis and global sensitivity analysis of techno-economic assessments for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhang-Chun; Zhenzhou, Lu; Zhiwen, Liu; Ningcong, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    There are various uncertain parameters in the techno-economic assessments (TEAs) of biodiesel production, including capital cost, interest rate, feedstock price, maintenance rate, biodiesel conversion efficiency, glycerol price and operating cost. However, fewer studies focus on the influence of these parameters on TEAs. This paper investigated the effects of these parameters on the life cycle cost (LCC) and the unit cost (UC) in the TEAs of biodiesel production. The results show that LCC and UC exhibit variations when involving uncertain parameters. Based on the uncertainty analysis, three global sensitivity analysis (GSA) methods are utilized to quantify the contribution of an individual uncertain parameter to LCC and UC. The GSA results reveal that the feedstock price and the interest rate produce considerable effects on the TEAs. These results can provide a useful guide for entrepreneurs when they plan plants. PMID:25459861

  10. Thermal analysis on the process of microwave-assisted biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li; Zhu, Huacheng; Huang, Kama

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work was firstly to do a precise thermal analysis of microwave assisted production of biodiesel. In this paper, the effective permittivity of biodiesel synthesis was updated with two methods: a traditional method and a bivariate function of temperature and concentration of one component, then the thermal analysis of the reaction process were accomplished with multi-physics calculation. The results show that there exists large distinction in temperature between these two simulation results calculated by the two methods. The two hot spots locate in the opposite side and their temperature's difference is up to 9°C when the reaction is just carried out for 18s. But the temperature risings and distributions calculated by the new method are closer to the measured results. The thermal analysis based on the new method will be helpful for the industrial design of biodiesel production.

  11. Life cycle assessment on microalgal biodiesel production using a hybrid cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Adesanya, Victoria O; Cadena, Erasmo; Scott, Stuart A; Smith, Alison G

    2014-07-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed on a putative biodiesel production plant in which the freshwater alga Chlorella vulgaris, was grown using an existing system similar to a published commercial-scale hybrid cultivation. The hybrid system couples airlift tubular photobioreactors with raceway ponds in a two-stage process for high biomass growth and lipid accumulation. The results show that microalgal biodiesel production would have a significantly lower environmental impact than fossil-derived diesel. Based on the functional unit of 1 ton of biodiesel produced, the hybrid cultivation system and hypothetical downstream process (base case) would have 42% and 38% savings in global warming potential (GWP) and fossil-energy requirements (FER) when compared to fossil-derived diesel, respectively. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most influential process parameters on the LCA results. The maximum reduction in GWP and FER was observed under mixotrophic growth conditions with savings of 76% and 75% when compared to conventional diesel, respectively.

  12. Microwave assisted alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ritesh; Kumar, G Ravi; Chandrashekar, N

    2011-06-01

    In this study, microwave assisted transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil was carried out for the production of biodiesel. The experiments were carried out using methanol and two alkali catalysts i.e., sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The experiments were carried out at 6:1 alcohol/oil molar ratio and 60°C reaction temperature. The effect of catalyst concentration and reaction time on the yield and quality of biodiesel was studied. The result of the study suggested that 0.5% sodium hydroxide and 1.0% potassium hydroxide catalyst concentration were optimum for biodiesel production from P. pinnata oil under microwave heating. There was a significant reduction in reaction time for microwave induced transesterification as compared to conventional heating. PMID:21482464

  13. Experimental Protocol for Biodiesel Production with Isolation of Alkenones as Coproducts from Commercial Isochrysis Algal Biomass

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Gregory W.; Williams, John R.; Wilson-Peltier, Julia; Knothe, Gerhard; Reddy, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The need to replace petroleum fuels with alternatives from renewable and more environmentally sustainable sources is of growing importance. Biomass-derived biofuels have gained considerable attention in this regard, however first generation biofuels from edible crops like corn ethanol or soybean biodiesel have generally fallen out of favor. There is thus great interest in the development of methods for the production of liquid fuels from domestic and superior non-edible sources. Here we describe a detailed procedure for the production of a purified biodiesel from the marine microalgae Isochrysis. Additionally, a unique suite of lipids known as polyunsaturated long-chain alkenones are isolated in parallel as potentially valuable coproducts to offset the cost of biodiesel production. Multi-kilogram quantities of Isochrysis are purchased from two commercial sources, one as a wet paste (80% water) that is first dried prior to processing, and the other a dry milled powder (95% dry). Lipids are extracted with hexanes in a Soxhlet apparatus to produce an algal oil ("hexane algal oil") containing both traditional fats (i.e., triglycerides, 46-60% w/w) and alkenones (16-25% w/w). Saponification of the triglycerides in the algal oil allows for separation of the resulting free fatty acids (FFAs) from alkenone-containing neutral lipids. FFAs are then converted to biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) by acid-catalyzed esterification while alkenones are isolated and purified from the neutral lipids by crystallization. We demonstrate that biodiesel from both commercial Isochrysis biomasses have similar but not identical FAME profiles, characterized by elevated polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (approximately 40% w/w). Yields of biodiesel were consistently higher when starting from the Isochrysis wet paste (12% w/w vs. 7% w/w), which can be traced to lower amounts of hexane algal oil obtained from the powdered Isochrysis product. PMID:27404113

  14. Experimental Protocol for Biodiesel Production with Isolation of Alkenones as Coproducts from Commercial Isochrysis Algal Biomass.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Gregory W; Williams, John R; Wilson-Peltier, Julia; Knothe, Gerhard; Reddy, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The need to replace petroleum fuels with alternatives from renewable and more environmentally sustainable sources is of growing importance. Biomass-derived biofuels have gained considerable attention in this regard, however first generation biofuels from edible crops like corn ethanol or soybean biodiesel have generally fallen out of favor. There is thus great interest in the development of methods for the production of liquid fuels from domestic and superior non-edible sources. Here we describe a detailed procedure for the production of a purified biodiesel from the marine microalgae Isochrysis. Additionally, a unique suite of lipids known as polyunsaturated long-chain alkenones are isolated in parallel as potentially valuable coproducts to offset the cost of biodiesel production. Multi-kilogram quantities of Isochrysis are purchased from two commercial sources, one as a wet paste (80% water) that is first dried prior to processing, and the other a dry milled powder (95% dry). Lipids are extracted with hexanes in a Soxhlet apparatus to produce an algal oil ("hexane algal oil") containing both traditional fats (i.e., triglycerides, 46-60% w/w) and alkenones (16-25% w/w). Saponification of the triglycerides in the algal oil allows for separation of the resulting free fatty acids (FFAs) from alkenone-containing neutral lipids. FFAs are then converted to biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) by acid-catalyzed esterification while alkenones are isolated and purified from the neutral lipids by crystallization. We demonstrate that biodiesel from both commercial Isochrysis biomasses have similar but not identical FAME profiles, characterized by elevated polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (approximately 40% w/w). Yields of biodiesel were consistently higher when starting from the Isochrysis wet paste (12% w/w vs. 7% w/w), which can be traced to lower amounts of hexane algal oil obtained from the powdered Isochrysis product. PMID:27404113

  15. Experimental Protocol for Biodiesel Production with Isolation of Alkenones as Coproducts from Commercial Isochrysis Algal Biomass.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Gregory W; Williams, John R; Wilson-Peltier, Julia; Knothe, Gerhard; Reddy, Christopher M

    2016-06-24

    The need to replace petroleum fuels with alternatives from renewable and more environmentally sustainable sources is of growing importance. Biomass-derived biofuels have gained considerable attention in this regard, however first generation biofuels from edible crops like corn ethanol or soybean biodiesel have generally fallen out of favor. There is thus great interest in the development of methods for the production of liquid fuels from domestic and superior non-edible sources. Here we describe a detailed procedure for the production of a purified biodiesel from the marine microalgae Isochrysis. Additionally, a unique suite of lipids known as polyunsaturated long-chain alkenones are isolated in parallel as potentially valuable coproducts to offset the cost of biodiesel production. Multi-kilogram quantities of Isochrysis are purchased from two commercial sources, one as a wet paste (80% water) that is first dried prior to processing, and the other a dry milled powder (95% dry). Lipids are extracted with hexanes in a Soxhlet apparatus to produce an algal oil ("hexane algal oil") containing both traditional fats (i.e., triglycerides, 46-60% w/w) and alkenones (16-25% w/w). Saponification of the triglycerides in the algal oil allows for separation of the resulting free fatty acids (FFAs) from alkenone-containing neutral lipids. FFAs are then converted to biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) by acid-catalyzed esterification while alkenones are isolated and purified from the neutral lipids by crystallization. We demonstrate that biodiesel from both commercial Isochrysis biomasses have similar but not identical FAME profiles, characterized by elevated polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (approximately 40% w/w). Yields of biodiesel were consistently higher when starting from the Isochrysis wet paste (12% w/w vs. 7% w/w), which can be traced to lower amounts of hexane algal oil obtained from the powdered Isochrysis product.

  16. Optimization of biodiesel production process using recycled vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, Yarely

    Petro diesel toxic emissions and its limited resources have created an interest for the development of new energy resources, such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is traditionally produced by a transesterification reaction between vegetable oil and an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. However, this process is slow and expensive due to the high cost of raw materials. Low costs feedstock oils such as recycled and animal fats are available but they cannot be transesterified with alkaline catalysts due to high content of free fatty acids, which can lead to undesirable reactions such as saponification. In this study, we reduce free fatty acids content by using an acid pre-treatment. We compare sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and ptoluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) to pre-treat recycled vegetable oil. PTSA removes water after 60 minutes of treatment at room temperature or within 15 minutes at 50°C. The pretreatment was followed by a transesterification reaction using alkaline catalyst. To minimize costs and accelerate reaction, the pretreatment and transesterification reaction of recycle vegetable oil was conducted at atmospheric pressure in a microwave oven. Biodiesel was characterized using a GC-MS method.

  17. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel and ethanol from spent coffee grounds.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; de Matos, Leonardo José Brandão Lima; Lima, Larissa Pinto de; Figueiredo, Pablo Marciano da Silva; Lucena, Izabelly Larissa; Fernandes, Fabiano André Narciso; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha Barros

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates the production of biodiesel and ethanol from spent coffee grounds (SCG). The extraction of oil from SCG, biodiesel production and ethanol production processes were studied. The liquid-to-solid ratio and temperature were evaluated in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of the oil from SCG. The highest yield (12%) was obtained using 4 mL g(-1) liquid-to-solid ratio at 60°C for 45 min. The process to produce biodiesel showed a yield of 97% into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The highest glucose yield (192 mg g SCG(-1)) was obtained by hydrolysis with 0.4 mol L(-1) sulfuric acid at 121°C for 15 min. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation medium for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtaining 19.0 g L(-1) at 10h of process of ethanol with a yield of ethanol and productivity of 0.50 g g(-1) and 1.90 g L(-1)h(-1), respectively. Spent coffee grounds were considered a potential feedstock for biodiesel and ethanol production.

  18. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel and ethanol from spent coffee grounds.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; de Matos, Leonardo José Brandão Lima; Lima, Larissa Pinto de; Figueiredo, Pablo Marciano da Silva; Lucena, Izabelly Larissa; Fernandes, Fabiano André Narciso; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha Barros

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates the production of biodiesel and ethanol from spent coffee grounds (SCG). The extraction of oil from SCG, biodiesel production and ethanol production processes were studied. The liquid-to-solid ratio and temperature were evaluated in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of the oil from SCG. The highest yield (12%) was obtained using 4 mL g(-1) liquid-to-solid ratio at 60°C for 45 min. The process to produce biodiesel showed a yield of 97% into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The highest glucose yield (192 mg g SCG(-1)) was obtained by hydrolysis with 0.4 mol L(-1) sulfuric acid at 121°C for 15 min. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation medium for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtaining 19.0 g L(-1) at 10h of process of ethanol with a yield of ethanol and productivity of 0.50 g g(-1) and 1.90 g L(-1)h(-1), respectively. Spent coffee grounds were considered a potential feedstock for biodiesel and ethanol production. PMID:24997378

  19. Life cycle assessment of the transesterification double step process for biodiesel production from refined soybean oil in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Monica; da Silva, Elson Santos; Andersen, Silvia L F; Abrahão, Raphael

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel has been attracting considerable attention as being a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic fuel that can contribute to the solution of some energy issues as it presents potential to help mitigate climate change. The Life Cycle Assessment of biodiesel from soybean oil (transesterification double step process) was carried out herein. A pilot plant was considered, designed to produce 72 L of biodiesel in daily continuous flow, throughout a lifetime of 15 years (8000 annual hours). The materials and equipment utilized in the construction of the plant were considered as well as the energy and substances required for the production of biodiesel. Environmental impact assessment method IPCC 2013 GWP 100a was utilized within the SimaPro software to express the final result in kg CO2-equivalent. The results quantified the CO2 emissions associated with biodiesel production throughout the lifetime of the production plant (15 years), resulting in a total value of 1,441,426.05 kg CO2-eq. (96,095.07 kg CO2-eq. per year), which was equivalent to 4.01 kg CO2-eq. per liter of biodiesel produced. Decrease of environmental loads associated with the production of biodiesel could include improvements on the handling of biomass agriculture and on the technology production of biodiesel.

  20. Life cycle assessment of the transesterification double step process for biodiesel production from refined soybean oil in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Monica; da Silva, Elson Santos; Andersen, Silvia L F; Abrahão, Raphael

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel has been attracting considerable attention as being a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic fuel that can contribute to the solution of some energy issues as it presents potential to help mitigate climate change. The Life Cycle Assessment of biodiesel from soybean oil (transesterification double step process) was carried out herein. A pilot plant was considered, designed to produce 72 L of biodiesel in daily continuous flow, throughout a lifetime of 15 years (8000 annual hours). The materials and equipment utilized in the construction of the plant were considered as well as the energy and substances required for the production of biodiesel. Environmental impact assessment method IPCC 2013 GWP 100a was utilized within the SimaPro software to express the final result in kg CO2-equivalent. The results quantified the CO2 emissions associated with biodiesel production throughout the lifetime of the production plant (15 years), resulting in a total value of 1,441,426.05 kg CO2-eq. (96,095.07 kg CO2-eq. per year), which was equivalent to 4.01 kg CO2-eq. per liter of biodiesel produced. Decrease of environmental loads associated with the production of biodiesel could include improvements on the handling of biomass agriculture and on the technology production of biodiesel. PMID:26903132

  1. Selection of oleaginous yeasts with high lipid productivity for practical biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Ayumi; Takashima, Masako; Sugita, Takashi; Endoh, Rikiya; Kikukawa, Minako; Yamaguchi, Shino; Sakuradani, Eiji; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

    2014-02-01

    The lipid-accumulating ability of 500 yeast strains isolated in Japan was evaluated. Primary screening revealed that 31 strains were identified as potential lipid producers, from which 12 strains were cultivated in a medium containing 3% glucose. It was found that JCM 24511 accumulated the highest lipid content, up to 61.53%, while JCM 24512 grew the fastest. They were tentatively identified as Cryptococcus sp. and Cryptococcus musci, respectively. The maximum lipid concentration of 1.49g/L was achieved by JCM 24512. Similarly, JCM 24511 also achieved a high lipid production of 1.37g/L. High lipid productivity is the most important characteristic of oleaginous yeasts from the viewpoint of practical production. Among the strains tested here, JCM 24512 had the best lipid productivity, 0.37g/L/day. The results show that the isolated yeasts could be promising candidates for biodiesel production.

  2. High-purity biodiesel production from microalgae and added-value lipid extraction: a new process.

    PubMed

    Veillette, M; Giroir-Fendler, A; Faucheux, N; Heitz, M

    2015-01-01

    A new process was tested in order to produce and purify biodiesel from microalgae lipids and to recover unsaponifiable (added-value) lipids. This process is a two-step biodiesel production including a saponification reaction step followed by an esterification reaction step. The process includes a recovery of the unsaponified lipids between both reaction steps. Among the conditions tested, the following conditions were found to be the best: temperature for both steps (90 °C), saponification time (30 min), esterification time (30 min), sulfuric acid/potassium hydroxide (1.21, w/w), and methanol-lipid ratio (13.3 mL/g). Under these conditions, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield and the biodiesel purity were, respectively, 32% (g FAME/g lipid) and 77% (g FAME/g biodiesel). This study also showed that the two-step biodiesel process allows a FAME mass composition rich in palmitate (27.9-29.4 wt%), palmitoleate (24.9-26.0 wt%), elaidate (14.8-15.2 wt%), and myristate (12.1-13.0 wt%).

  3. Biodiesel production process intensification using a rotor-stator type generator of hydrodynamic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Crudo, Daniele; Bosco, Valentina; Cavaglià, Giuliano; Grillo, Giorgio; Mantegna, Stefano; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2016-11-01

    Triglyceride transesterification for biodiesel production is a model reaction which is used to compare the conversion efficiency, yield, reaction time, energy consumption, scalability and cost estimation of different reactor technology and energy source. This work describes an efficient, fast and cost-effective procedure for biodiesel preparation using a rotating generator of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC). The base-catalyzed transesterification (methanol/sodium hydroxide) has been carried out using refined and bleached palm oil and waste vegetable cooking oil. The novel HC unit is a continuous rotor-stator type reactor in which reagents are directly fed into the controlled cavitation chamber. The high-speed rotation of the reactor creates micron-sized droplets of the immiscible reacting mixture leading to outstanding mass and heat transfer and enhancing the kinetics of the transesterification reaction which completes much more quickly than traditional methods. All the biodiesel samples obtained respect the ASTM standard and present fatty acid methyl ester contents of >99% m/m in both feedstocks. The electrical energy consumption of the HC reactor is 0.030kWh per L of produced crude biodiesel, making this innovative technology really quite competitive. The reactor can be easily scaled-up, from producing a few hundred to thousands of liters of biodiesel per hour while avoiding the risk of orifices clogging with oil impurities, which may occur in conventional HC reactors. Furthermore it requires minimal installation space due to its compact design, which enhances overall security. PMID:27245973

  4. Biodiesel production process intensification using a rotor-stator type generator of hydrodynamic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Crudo, Daniele; Bosco, Valentina; Cavaglià, Giuliano; Grillo, Giorgio; Mantegna, Stefano; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2016-11-01

    Triglyceride transesterification for biodiesel production is a model reaction which is used to compare the conversion efficiency, yield, reaction time, energy consumption, scalability and cost estimation of different reactor technology and energy source. This work describes an efficient, fast and cost-effective procedure for biodiesel preparation using a rotating generator of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC). The base-catalyzed transesterification (methanol/sodium hydroxide) has been carried out using refined and bleached palm oil and waste vegetable cooking oil. The novel HC unit is a continuous rotor-stator type reactor in which reagents are directly fed into the controlled cavitation chamber. The high-speed rotation of the reactor creates micron-sized droplets of the immiscible reacting mixture leading to outstanding mass and heat transfer and enhancing the kinetics of the transesterification reaction which completes much more quickly than traditional methods. All the biodiesel samples obtained respect the ASTM standard and present fatty acid methyl ester contents of >99% m/m in both feedstocks. The electrical energy consumption of the HC reactor is 0.030kWh per L of produced crude biodiesel, making this innovative technology really quite competitive. The reactor can be easily scaled-up, from producing a few hundred to thousands of liters of biodiesel per hour while avoiding the risk of orifices clogging with oil impurities, which may occur in conventional HC reactors. Furthermore it requires minimal installation space due to its compact design, which enhances overall security.

  5. A microalgae residue based carbon solid acid catalyst for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaobo; Li, Dianhong; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Yuanming; Huang, Weiya; Zhu, Yi; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Chengwu

    2013-10-01

    Biodiesel production from microalgae is recognized as one of the best solutions to deal with the energy crisis issues. However, after the oil extraction from the microalgae, the microalgae residue was generally discarded or burned. Here a novel carbon-based solid acid catalyst derived from microalgae residue by in situ hydrothermal partially carbonization were synthesized. The obtained catalyst was characterized and subjected to both the esterification of oleic acid and transesterification of triglyceride to produce biodiesel. The catalyst showed high catalytic activity and can be regenerated while its activity can be well maintained after five cycles.

  6. Analysis of a reactive extraction process for biodiesel production using a lipase immobilized on magnetic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Dussan, K J; Cardona, C A; Giraldo, O H; Gutiérrez, L F; Pérez, V H

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by coprecipitating Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) ions in a sodium hydroxide solution and used as support for lipase. The lipase-coated particles were applied in a reactive extraction process that allowed separation of the products formed during transesterification. Kinetics data for triolein and ethanol consumption during biodiesel (ethyl oleate) synthesis together with a thermodynamic phase equilibrium model (liquid-liquid) were used for simulation of batch and continuous processes. The analysis demonstrated the possibility of applying this biocatalytic system in the reactive zone using external magnetic fields. This approach implies new advantages in efficient location and use of lipases in column reactors for producing biodiesel. PMID:20716486

  7. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using copper doped zinc oxide nanocomposite as heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Baskar; Ravi, Aiswarya

    2015-01-01

    A novel CZO nanocomposite was synthesized and used as heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification of waste cooking oil into biodiesel using methanol as acyl acceptor. The synthesized CZO nanocomposite was characterized in FESEM with an average size of 80 nm as nanorods. The XRD patterns indicated the substitution of ZnO in the hexagonal lattice of Cu nanoparticles. The 12% (w/w) nanocatalyst concentration, 1:8 (v:v) O:M ratio, 55 °C temperature and 50 min of reaction time were found as optimum for maximum biodiesel yield of 97.71% (w/w). Hence, the use of CZO nanocomposite can be used as heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil.

  8. Biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate enhanced by counter-current pulsed ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Ma, Haile; Dai, Chunhua; Zhang, Henan; Li, Kexin; Li, Yunliang

    2015-03-01

    Biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate enhanced by counter-current pulsed ultrasound was studied. Effect of static probe ultrasonic enhanced transesterification (SPUE) and counter-current probe ultrasonic enhanced transesterification (CCPUE) on the biodiesel conversion were compared. The results indicated that CCPUE was a better method for enhancing transesterification. The working conditions of CCPUE were studied by single-factor experiment design and the results showed that the optimal conditions were: initial temperature 25 °C, methanol to triglyceride molar ratio 10:1, flow rate 200 mL/min, catalyst content 1.8%, ultrasound working on-time 4 s, off-time 2 s, total working time 50 min. Under these conditions, the average biodiesel conversion of three experiments was 96.1%.

  9. Biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate enhanced by counter-current pulsed ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Ma, Haile; Dai, Chunhua; Zhang, Henan; Li, Kexin; Li, Yunliang

    2015-03-01

    Biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate enhanced by counter-current pulsed ultrasound was studied. Effect of static probe ultrasonic enhanced transesterification (SPUE) and counter-current probe ultrasonic enhanced transesterification (CCPUE) on the biodiesel conversion were compared. The results indicated that CCPUE was a better method for enhancing transesterification. The working conditions of CCPUE were studied by single-factor experiment design and the results showed that the optimal conditions were: initial temperature 25 °C, methanol to triglyceride molar ratio 10:1, flow rate 200 mL/min, catalyst content 1.8%, ultrasound working on-time 4 s, off-time 2 s, total working time 50 min. Under these conditions, the average biodiesel conversion of three experiments was 96.1%. PMID:25199445

  10. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production from algal bio-crude oils extracted under subcritical water conditions.

    PubMed

    Ponnusamy, Sundaravadivelnathan; Reddy, Harvind Kumar; Muppaneni, Tapaswy; Downes, Cara Meghan; Deng, Shuguang

    2014-10-01

    A life cycle assessment study is performed for the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions in an algal biodiesel production system. Subcritical water (SCW) extraction was applied for extracting bio-crude oil from algae, and conventional transesterification method was used for converting the algal oil to biodiesel. 58MJ of energy is required to produce 1kg of biodiesel without any co-products management, of which 36% was spent on cultivation and 56% on lipid extraction. SCW extraction with thermal energy recovery reduces the energy consumption by 3-5 folds when compared to the traditional solvent extraction. It is estimated that 1kg of algal biodiesel fixes about 0.6kg of CO2. An optimized case considering the energy credits from co-products could further reduce the total energy demand. The energy demand for producing 1kg of biodiesel in the optimized case is 28.23MJ.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE NEW BIOCATALYST METHOD FOR BIODIESEL-FUEL BASED ON THE LIPASE PRODUCTION FUNGUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Toshiro; Shimada, Miki; Toida, Jinichi

    This paper describes how to develop and evaluate a new biocatalyst method for biodiesel fuel based on the lipase production fungus. This method can convert waste vegetable oil into biodiesel fuel without alkaline waste fluid and byproducts (gly cerine). The main outcomes of this research were: (1) The biodiesel fuel can be manufactured from lipase production fungus (Rhizupus oryzae NBRC 9364). (2) The lipase activity can be enhanced by adding glucose and oil. (3) Phased addition of the methanol enhances the conversion rate of the biodiesel fuel (Maximum conversion rate is 85%). (4) The proposed method can improve vehicle exhaust emission and reduce byproducts (glycerine). We concluded that our proposed methods are effective for the production of biodiesel fuel from waste vegetable oil.

  12. Production of FAME biodiesel in E. coli by direct methylation with an insect enzyme

    DOE PAGES

    Sherkhanov, Saken; Korman, Tyler P.; Clarke, Steven G.; Bowie, James U.

    2016-04-07

    Here, most biodiesel currently in use consists of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) produced by transesterification of plant oils with methanol. To reduce competition with food supplies, it would be desirable to directly produce biodiesel in microorganisms. To date, the most effective pathway for the production of biodiesel in bacteria yields fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) at up to ~1.5 g/L. A much simpler route to biodiesel produces FAMEs by direct S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) dependent methylation of free fatty acids, but FAME production by this route has been limited to only ~16 mg/L. Here we employ an alternative, broad spectrum methyltransferase,more » Drosophila melanogaster Juvenile Hormone Acid O-Methyltransferase (DmJHAMT). By introducing DmJHAMT in E. coli engineered to produce medium chain fatty acids and overproduce SAM, we obtain medium chain FAMEs at titers of 0.56 g/L, a 35-fold increase over titers previously achieved. Although considerable improvements will be needed for viable bacterial production of FAMEs and FAEEs for biofuels, it may be easier to optimize and transport the FAME production pathway to other microorganisms because it involves fewer enzymes.« less

  13. Combinatorial life cycle assessment to inform process design of industrial production of algal biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Brentner, Laura B; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2011-08-15

    The use of algae as a feedstock for biodiesel production is a rapidly growing industry, in the United States and globally. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is presented that compares various methods, either proposed or under development, for algal biodiesel to inform the most promising pathways for sustainable full-scale production. For this analysis, the system is divided into five distinct process steps: (1) microalgae cultivation, (2) harvesting and/or dewatering, (3) lipid extraction, (4) conversion (transesterification) into biodiesel, and (5) byproduct management. A number of technology options are considered for each process step and various technology combinations are assessed for their life cycle environmental impacts. The optimal option for each process step is selected yielding a best case scenario, comprised of a flat panel enclosed photobioreactor and direct transesterification of algal cells with supercritical methanol. For a functional unit of 10 GJ biodiesel, the best case production system yields a cumulative energy demand savings of more than 65 GJ, reduces water consumption by 585 m(3) and decreases greenhouse gas emissions by 86% compared to a base case scenario typical of early industrial practices, highlighting the importance of technological innovation in algae processing and providing guidance on promising production pathways. PMID:21662987

  14. Biodiesel production from integration between reaction and separation system: reactive distillation process.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nívea de Lima; Santander, Carlos Mario Garcia; Batistella, César Benedito; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf

    2010-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean burning fuel derived from a renewable feedstock such as vegetable oil or animal fat. It is biodegradable, non-inflammable, non-toxic, and produces lesser carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons than petroleum-based fuel. The purpose of the present work is to present an efficient process using reactive distillation columns applied to biodiesel production. Reactive distillation is the simultaneous implementation of reaction and separation within a single unit of column. Nowadays, it is appropriately called "Intensified Process". This combined operation is especially suited for the chemical reaction limited by equilibrium constraints, since one or more of the products of the reaction are continuously separated from the reactants. This work presents the biodiesel production from soybean oil and bioethanol by reactive distillation. Different variables affect the conventional biodiesel production process such as: catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, level of agitation, ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio, reaction time, and raw material type. In this study, the experimental design was used to optimize the following process variables: the catalyst concentration (from 0.5 wt.% to 1.5 wt.%), the ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio (from 3:1 to 9:1). The reactive column reflux rate was 83 ml/min, and the reaction time was 6 min.

  15. Production of FAME biodiesel in E. coli by direct methylation with an insect enzyme.

    PubMed

    Sherkhanov, Saken; Korman, Tyler P; Clarke, Steven G; Bowie, James U

    2016-01-01

    Most biodiesel currently in use consists of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) produced by transesterification of plant oils with methanol. To reduce competition with food supplies, it would be desirable to directly produce biodiesel in microorganisms. To date, the most effective pathway for the production of biodiesel in bacteria yields fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) at up to ~1.5 g/L. A much simpler route to biodiesel produces FAMEs by direct S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) dependent methylation of free fatty acids, but FAME production by this route has been limited to only ~16 mg/L. Here we employ an alternative, broad spectrum methyltransferase, Drosophila melanogaster Juvenile Hormone Acid O-Methyltransferase (DmJHAMT). By introducing DmJHAMT in E. coli engineered to produce medium chain fatty acids and overproduce SAM, we obtain medium chain FAMEs at titers of 0.56 g/L, a 35-fold increase over titers previously achieved. Although considerable improvements will be needed for viable bacterial production of FAMEs and FAEEs for biofuels, it may be easier to optimize and transport the FAME production pathway to other microorganisms because it involves fewer enzymes. PMID:27053100

  16. Combinatorial life cycle assessment to inform process design of industrial production of algal biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Brentner, Laura B; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2011-08-15

    The use of algae as a feedstock for biodiesel production is a rapidly growing industry, in the United States and globally. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is presented that compares various methods, either proposed or under development, for algal biodiesel to inform the most promising pathways for sustainable full-scale production. For this analysis, the system is divided into five distinct process steps: (1) microalgae cultivation, (2) harvesting and/or dewatering, (3) lipid extraction, (4) conversion (transesterification) into biodiesel, and (5) byproduct management. A number of technology options are considered for each process step and various technology combinations are assessed for their life cycle environmental impacts. The optimal option for each process step is selected yielding a best case scenario, comprised of a flat panel enclosed photobioreactor and direct transesterification of algal cells with supercritical methanol. For a functional unit of 10 GJ biodiesel, the best case production system yields a cumulative energy demand savings of more than 65 GJ, reduces water consumption by 585 m(3) and decreases greenhouse gas emissions by 86% compared to a base case scenario typical of early industrial practices, highlighting the importance of technological innovation in algae processing and providing guidance on promising production pathways.

  17. Acetone cataluminescence as an indicator for evaluation of heterogeneous base catalysts in biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijuan; Chen, Yingchun; He, Nan; Lu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Rapid and effective evaluation techniques for heterogeneous base catalysts in biodiesel production are highly desirable with increased global demand for biofuels. In this work, we have discovered direct connections between the number of medium-strength basic sites of heterogeneous base catalysts in biodiesel production and cataluminescence intensity in acetone aldol condensation reactions. Accordingly, acetone cataluminescence has been employed as an indicator for rapid evaluation of heterogeneous base catalysts in biodiesel production. Its practical feasibility has been first established using commercially available heterogeneous base catalysts in biodiesel production (including MgO, Al2O3, TiO2, and ZnO), indicating a good matching between the proposed cataluminescence screening method and routine temperature-programmed desorption measurements. Subsequently, the proposed cataluminescence method can be used to effectively distinguish a set of layered double hydroxides and layered double oxide with fewer differences of basic sites, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the proposed method is 2.90%. The developed cataluminescence platform is able to take advantage of low cost, simple configuration, fast response, long-term stability, and easy operation. This work has a great potential in distinguishing weak/strong basic sites and even acidic sites of each catalyst system by tuning molecular probes. PMID:24325398

  18. Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) as a salt-tolerant feedstock for production of biodiesel and ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) is a non-invasive perennial nonclonal halophytic oilseed-producing dicot that was investigated as a feedstock for production of biodiesel from seeds and ethanol from residual stem biomass. Seashore mallow seeds contained 19.3 mass % oil, which after extract...

  19. Biodiesel production from integration between reaction and separation system: reactive distillation process.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nívea de Lima; Santander, Carlos Mario Garcia; Batistella, César Benedito; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf

    2010-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean burning fuel derived from a renewable feedstock such as vegetable oil or animal fat. It is biodegradable, non-inflammable, non-toxic, and produces lesser carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons than petroleum-based fuel. The purpose of the present work is to present an efficient process using reactive distillation columns applied to biodiesel production. Reactive distillation is the simultaneous implementation of reaction and separation within a single unit of column. Nowadays, it is appropriately called "Intensified Process". This combined operation is especially suited for the chemical reaction limited by equilibrium constraints, since one or more of the products of the reaction are continuously separated from the reactants. This work presents the biodiesel production from soybean oil and bioethanol by reactive distillation. Different variables affect the conventional biodiesel production process such as: catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, level of agitation, ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio, reaction time, and raw material type. In this study, the experimental design was used to optimize the following process variables: the catalyst concentration (from 0.5 wt.% to 1.5 wt.%), the ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio (from 3:1 to 9:1). The reactive column reflux rate was 83 ml/min, and the reaction time was 6 min. PMID:20221864

  20. Production of FAME biodiesel in E. coli by direct methylation with an insect enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Sherkhanov, Saken; Korman, Tyler P.; Clarke, Steven G; Bowie, James U.

    2016-01-01

    Most biodiesel currently in use consists of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) produced by transesterification of plant oils with methanol. To reduce competition with food supplies, it would be desirable to directly produce biodiesel in microorganisms. To date, the most effective pathway for the production of biodiesel in bacteria yields fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) at up to ~1.5 g/L. A much simpler route to biodiesel produces FAMEs by direct S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) dependent methylation of free fatty acids, but FAME production by this route has been limited to only ~16 mg/L. Here we employ an alternative, broad spectrum methyltransferase, Drosophila melanogaster Juvenile Hormone Acid O-Methyltransferase (DmJHAMT). By introducing DmJHAMT in E. coli engineered to produce medium chain fatty acids and overproduce SAM, we obtain medium chain FAMEs at titers of 0.56 g/L, a 35-fold increase over titers previously achieved. Although considerable improvements will be needed for viable bacterial production of FAMEs and FAEEs for biofuels, it may be easier to optimize and transport the FAME production pathway to other microorganisms because it involves fewer enzymes. PMID:27053100

  1. Immobilization of Lipase on Silver Nanoparticles via Adhesive Polydopamine for Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Dumri, Kanchana; Hung Anh, Dau

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel production technology is competitive in terms of low cost and alternative source of energy which should be not only sustainable but also environmentally friendly. Designing of the lipase immobilization for biodiesel production has a remarkable impact and is still challenging. In this work, biodiesel production from soybean oil was enhanced and facilitated by using a novel biocatalyst consisting of commercial lipase (EC 3.1.1.3), silver nanoparticles, and polydopamine. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized with a size range of 10–20 nm. Polydopamine (PD) was delivered by the self-polymerization of dopamine in 10 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.5 and simultaneously coated the AgNPs to form a PD/AgNPs complex. Lipase was immobilized on the PD/AgNPs complex surface via covalent bonds to form a tailor-made biocatalyst consisting of immobilized lipase/PD/AgNPs complex (LPA). The formation and morphology of each composition were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Significantly, gas chromatography analysis showed a remarkable biodiesel production yield of 95% by using the LPA complex at 40°C for 6-hours reaction time, whereas the yield was 86% when using free lyophilized lipase. The LPA complex was apparently reusable after 7 batches and the latter conversion rate of soybean oil was decreased by only 27%. PMID:25328685

  2. Non-catalytic alcoholysis process for production of biodiesel fuel by using bubble column reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, S.; Nabetani, H.; Nakajima, M.

    2015-04-01

    Biodiesel fuel is a replacement for diesel as a fuel produced from biomass resources. It is usually defined as a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) derived from vegetable oil or animal fat. In European countries, such as Germany and France, biodiesel fuel is commercially produced mainly from rapeseed oil, whereas in the United States and Argentina, soybean oil is more frequently used. In many other countries such as Japan and countries in Southeast Asia, lipids that cannot be used as a food source could be more suitable materials for the production of biodiesel fuel because its production from edible oils could result in an increase in the price of edible oils, thereby increasing the cost of some foodstuffs. Therefore, used edible oil, lipids contained in waste effluent from the oil milling process, byproducts from oil refining process and crude oils from industrial crops such as jatropha could be more promising materials in these countries. The materials available in Japan and Southeast Asia for the production of biodiesel fuel have common characteristics; they contain considerable amount of impurities and are high in free fatty acids (FFA). Superheated methanol vapor (SMV) reactor might be a promising method for biodiesel fuel production utilizing oil feedstock containing FFA such as waste vegetable oil and crude vegetable oil. In the conventional method using alkaline catalyst, FFA contained in waste vegetable oil is known to react with alkaline catalyst such as NaOH and KOH generating saponification products and to inactivate it. Therefore, the FFA needs to be removed from the feedstock prior to the reaction. Removal of the alkaline catalyst after the reaction is also required. In the case of the SMV reactor, the processes for removing FFA prior to the reaction and catalyst after the reaction can be omitted because it requires no catalyst. Nevertheless, detailed study on the productivity of biodiesel fuel produced from waste vegetable oils and other non

  3. Biodiesel production from Vietnam heterotrophic marine microalga Schizochytrium mangrovei PQ6.

    PubMed

    Hong, Dang Diem; Mai, Dinh Thi Ngoc; Thom, Le Thi; Ha, Nguyen Cam; Lam, Bui Dinh; Tam, Luu Thi; Anh, Hoang Thi Lan; Thu, Ngo Thi Hoai

    2013-08-01

    This work is to explore the potential of producing biodiesel and valuable co-products from the biomass of Schizochytrium mangrovei PQ6 which was isolated from Phu Quoc Island, Kien Giang province, Vietnam. This microalga contains high lipid content (up to 70% of dry cell weight) and high level of total fatty acids, which is ideal for making biodiesel. The production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from this marine microalga resulted in a yield of 88% based on algal oil and 44% based on algal biomass. The process of separating the obtained FAME into a first fraction enriched with saturated FAME (SFAME) and a second fraction enriched with unsaturated FAME (UFAME) was then investigated to exploit the valuable co-products. The obtained results shown that the mass fraction of SFAME and UFAME were 70% and 30%, respectively. The UFAME fraction contains a high content of DHA (accounting for 69.000% of TFAs). The test results of the SFAME fraction indicated that specific gravity at 15°C, flash point, water and sediment, kinematic viscosity at 40°C, sulfated ash, sulfur, copper strip corrosion at 50°C, cetane number, carbon residue, iodine number, workmanship meet Vietnam Biodiesel B100 Standard. Moreover, the utilization of waste glycerol from biodiesel process as carbon source for the cultivation of the microalgae S. mangrovei PQ6 and Spirulina platensis was also investigated. PMID:23628218

  4. Biochemical Modulation of Lipid Pathway in Microalgae Dunaliella sp. for Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Ahmad Farhad; Tohidfar, Masoud; Mousavi Derazmahalleh, Seyedeh Mahsa; Sulaiman, Alawi; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Tabatabaei, Meisam

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of renewable sources of energy such as algal biodiesel could turn energy supplies problem around. Studies on a locally isolated strain of Dunaliella sp. showed that the mean lipid content in cultures enriched by 200 mg L−1 myoinositol was raised by around 33% (1.5 times higher than the control). Similarly, higher lipid productivity values were achieved in cultures treated by 100 and 200 mg L−1 myoinositol. Fluorometry analyses (microplate fluorescence and flow cytometry) revealed increased oil accumulation in the Nile red-stained algal samples. Moreover, it was predicted that biodiesel produced from myoinositol-treated cells possessed improved oxidative stability, cetane number, and cloud point values. From the genomic point of view, real-time analyses revealed that myoinositol negatively influenced transcript abundance of AccD gene (one of the key genes involved in lipid production pathway) due to feedback inhibition and that its positive effect must have been exerted through other genes. The findings of the current research are not to interprete that myoinositol supplementation could answer all the challenges faced in microalgal biodiesel production but instead to show that “there is a there there” for biochemical modulation strategies, which we achieved, increased algal oil quantity and enhanced resultant biodiesel quality. PMID:26146623

  5. Biochemical Modulation of Lipid Pathway in Microalgae Dunaliella sp. for Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Ahmad Farhad; Tohidfar, Masoud; Mousavi Derazmahalleh, Seyedeh Mahsa; Sulaiman, Alawi; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Tabatabaei, Meisam

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of renewable sources of energy such as algal biodiesel could turn energy supplies problem around. Studies on a locally isolated strain of Dunaliella sp. showed that the mean lipid content in cultures enriched by 200 mg L(-1) myoinositol was raised by around 33% (1.5 times higher than the control). Similarly, higher lipid productivity values were achieved in cultures treated by 100 and 200 mg L(-1) myoinositol. Fluorometry analyses (microplate fluorescence and flow cytometry) revealed increased oil accumulation in the Nile red-stained algal samples. Moreover, it was predicted that biodiesel produced from myoinositol-treated cells possessed improved oxidative stability, cetane number, and cloud point values. From the genomic point of view, real-time analyses revealed that myoinositol negatively influenced transcript abundance of AccD gene (one of the key genes involved in lipid production pathway) due to feedback inhibition and that its positive effect must have been exerted through other genes. The findings of the current research are not to interprete that myoinositol supplementation could answer all the challenges faced in microalgal biodiesel production but instead to show that "there is a there there" for biochemical modulation strategies, which we achieved, increased algal oil quantity and enhanced resultant biodiesel quality.

  6. Biochemical Modulation of Lipid Pathway in Microalgae Dunaliella sp. for Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Ahmad Farhad; Tohidfar, Masoud; Mousavi Derazmahalleh, Seyedeh Mahsa; Sulaiman, Alawi; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Tabatabaei, Meisam

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of renewable sources of energy such as algal biodiesel could turn energy supplies problem around. Studies on a locally isolated strain of Dunaliella sp. showed that the mean lipid content in cultures enriched by 200 mg L(-1) myoinositol was raised by around 33% (1.5 times higher than the control). Similarly, higher lipid productivity values were achieved in cultures treated by 100 and 200 mg L(-1) myoinositol. Fluorometry analyses (microplate fluorescence and flow cytometry) revealed increased oil accumulation in the Nile red-stained algal samples. Moreover, it was predicted that biodiesel produced from myoinositol-treated cells possessed improved oxidative stability, cetane number, and cloud point values. From the genomic point of view, real-time analyses revealed that myoinositol negatively influenced transcript abundance of AccD gene (one of the key genes involved in lipid production pathway) due to feedback inhibition and that its positive effect must have been exerted through other genes. The findings of the current research are not to interprete that myoinositol supplementation could answer all the challenges faced in microalgal biodiesel production but instead to show that "there is a there there" for biochemical modulation strategies, which we achieved, increased algal oil quantity and enhanced resultant biodiesel quality. PMID:26146623

  7. Green biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using an environmentally benign acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thi Tuong Vi; Kaiprommarat, Sunanta; Kongparakul, Suwadee; Reubroycharoen, Prasert; Guan, Guoqing; Nguyen, Manh Huan; Samart, Chanatip

    2016-06-01

    The application of an environmentally benign sulfonated carbon microsphere catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil was investigated. This catalyst was prepared by the sequential hydrothermal carbonization and sulfonation of xylose. The morphology, surface area, and acid properties were analyzed. The surface area and acidity of the catalyst were 86m(2)/g and 1.38mmol/g, respectively. In addition, the presence of sulfonic acid on the carbon surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic activity was tested for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via a two-step reaction to overcome reaction equilibrium. The highest biodiesel yield (89.6%) was obtained at a reaction temperature of 110°C, duration time of 4h, and catalyst loading of 10wt% under elevated pressure 2.3bar and 1.4bar for first and second step, respectively. The reusability of the catalyst was investigated and showed that the biodiesel yield decreased by 9% with each cycle; however, this catalyst is still of interest because it is an example of green chemistry, is nontoxic, and makes use of xylose waste. PMID:27053375

  8. Sequential co-production of biodiesel and bioethanol with spent coffee grounds.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Yi, Haakrho; Jeon, Young Jae

    2013-05-01

    The sequential co-production of bioethanol and biodiesel from spent coffee grounds was investigated. The direct conversion of bioethanol from spent coffee grounds was not found to be a desirable option because of the relatively slow enzymatic saccharification behavior in the presence of triglycerides and the free fatty acids (FFAs) found to exist in the raw materials. Similarly, the direct transformation of the spent coffee grounds into ethanol without first extracting lipids was not found to be a feasible alternative. However, the crude lipids extracted from the spent coffee grounds were themselves converted into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via the non-catalytic biodiesel transesterification reaction. The yields of bioethanol and biodiesel were 0.46 g g(-1) and 97.5±0.5%, which were calculated based on consumed sugar and lipids extracted from spent coffee grounds respectively. Thus, this study clearly validated our theory that spent coffee grounds could be a strong candidate for the production of bioethanol and biodiesel. PMID:23567719

  9. Relation between quality and production cost for pure biodiesel bases on the mixes of raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsanaktsidis, C. G.; Spinthiropoulos, K. G.; Guliyev, Fariz; Dimitriou, D.; Euthaltsidou, K.; Tzilantonis, G. T.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays biodiesel has become more attractive because it is made from renewable resources. The main ingredients of industrial biodiesel are rap oil, sun oil, fat acid, olive oil cooked. In this study we verify that, the proportion of these components sets the qualitative composition and energy efficiency of the final product. Essential we link the raw materials (rap oil, sun oil, fat acid, olive oil cooked) used in the manufacture of industrial biodiesel the proportion of mixes, with the variation of physicochemical properties of biodiesel produced. According to the quantitative analysis we notice that the physiochemical properties which alter the value for example humidity, acidity, while a large number of physicochemical properties do not change their value depending on the ratio of raw materials in each mixture. The analysis of these changes seems that the presence of fat acids is negative for the quality of the mixture. From the analysis of the cost of the final mixtures that lower cost is achieved in the mixture was 10 and the highest cost was in the mixture 3. Based on a study of the cost of the mixtures can determine a basic relation between the quality and the cost of the final product.

  10. Green biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using an environmentally benign acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thi Tuong Vi; Kaiprommarat, Sunanta; Kongparakul, Suwadee; Reubroycharoen, Prasert; Guan, Guoqing; Nguyen, Manh Huan; Samart, Chanatip

    2016-06-01

    The application of an environmentally benign sulfonated carbon microsphere catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil was investigated. This catalyst was prepared by the sequential hydrothermal carbonization and sulfonation of xylose. The morphology, surface area, and acid properties were analyzed. The surface area and acidity of the catalyst were 86m(2)/g and 1.38mmol/g, respectively. In addition, the presence of sulfonic acid on the carbon surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic activity was tested for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via a two-step reaction to overcome reaction equilibrium. The highest biodiesel yield (89.6%) was obtained at a reaction temperature of 110°C, duration time of 4h, and catalyst loading of 10wt% under elevated pressure 2.3bar and 1.4bar for first and second step, respectively. The reusability of the catalyst was investigated and showed that the biodiesel yield decreased by 9% with each cycle; however, this catalyst is still of interest because it is an example of green chemistry, is nontoxic, and makes use of xylose waste.

  11. 21 CFR 1303.11 - Aggregate production quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aggregate production quotas. 1303.11 Section 1303.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Aggregate Production... manufacturing and for inventory purposes, yield and stability problems, potential disruptions to...

  12. 21 CFR 1303.11 - Aggregate production quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aggregate production quotas. 1303.11 Section 1303.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Aggregate Production... manufacturing and for inventory purposes, yield and stability problems, potential disruptions to...

  13. Biodiesel production from indigenous microalgae grown in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Komolafe, Oladapo; Velasquez Orta, Sharon B; Monje-Ramirez, Ignacio; Yáñez Noguez, Isaura; Harvey, Adam P; Orta Ledesma, María T

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a process for producing biodiesel sustainably from microalgae grown in wastewater, whilst significantly reducing the wastewater's nutrients and total coliform. Furthermore, ozone-flotation harvesting of the resultant biomass was investigated, shown to be viable, and resulted in FAMEs of greater oxidation stability. Desmodesmus sp. and two mixed cultures were successfully grown on wastewater. Desmodesmus sp. grew rapidly, to a higher maximum biomass concentration of 0.58 g/L. A native mixed culture dominated by Oscillatoria and Arthrospira, reached 0.45 g/L and exhibited the highest lipid and FAME yield. The FAME obtained from ozone-flotation exhibited the greatest oxidative stability, as the degree of saturation was high. In principle ozone could therefore be used as a combined method of harvesting and reducing FAME unsaturation. During microalgae treatment, the total nitrogen in wastewater was reduced by 55.4-83.9%. More importantly, total coliform removal was as high as 99.8%.

  14. Culture modes and financial evaluation of two oleaginous microalgae for biodiesel production in desert area with open raceway pond.

    PubMed

    He, Qiaoning; Yang, Haijian; Hu, Chunxiang

    2016-10-01

    Cultivation modes of autotrophic microalgae for biodiesel production utilizing open raceway pond were analyzed in this study. Five before screened good microalgae were tested their lipid productivity and biodiesel quality again in outdoor 1000L ORP. Then, Chlorella sp. L1 and Monoraphidium dybowskii Y2 were selected due to their stronger environmental adaptability, higher lipid productivity and better biodiesel properties. Further scale up cultivation for two species with batch and semi-continuous culture was conducted. In 40,000L ORP, higher lipid productivity (5.15 versus 4.06gm(-2)d(-1) for Chlorella sp. L1, 5.35 versus 3.00gm(-2)d(-1) for M. dybowskii Y2) was achieved in semi-continuous mode. Moreover, the financial costs of 14.18$gal(-1) and 13.31$gal(-1) for crude biodiesel in two microalgae with semi-continuous mode were more economically feasible for commercial production on large scale outdoors.

  15. Biodiesel production from microalgal isolates of southern Pakistan and quantification of FAMEs by GC-MS/MS analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Microalgae have attracted major interest as a sustainable source for biodiesel production on commercial scale. This paper describes the screening of six microalgal species, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Scenedesmus acuminatus, Nannochloropsis sp., Anabaena sp., Chlorella sp. and Oscillatoria sp., isolated from fresh and marine water resources of southern Pakistan for biodiesel production and the GC-MS/MS analysis of their fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). Results Growth rate, biomass productivity and oil content of each algal species have been investigated under autotrophic condition. Biodiesel was produced from algal oil by acid catalyzed transesterification reaction and resulting fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content was analyzed by GC/MS. Fatty acid profiling of the biodiesel, obtained from various microalgal oils showed high content of C-16:0, C-18:0, cis-Δ9C-18:1, cis-Δ11C-18:1 (except Scenedesmus quadricauda) and 10-hydroxyoctadecanoic (except Scenedesmus acuminatus). Absolute amount of C-14:0, C-16:0 and C-18:0 by a validated GC-MS/MS method were found to be 1.5-1.7, 15.0-42.5 and 4.2-18.4 mg/g, respectively, in biodiesel obtained from various microalgal oils. Biodiesel was also characterized in terms of cetane number, kinematic viscosity, density and higher heating value and compared with the standard values. Conclusion Six microalgae of local origin were screened for biodiesel production. A method for absolute quantification of three important saturated fatty acid methyl esters (C-14, C-16 and C-18) by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), using multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode, was employed for the identification and quantification of biodiesels obtained from various microalgal oils. The results suggested that locally found microalgae can be sustainably harvested for the production of biodiesel. This offers the tremendous economic opportunity for an energy-deficient nation. PMID:23216896

  16. The Production of Biodiesel and Bio-kerosene from Coconut Oil Using Microwave Assisted Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAIFUDDIN, N.; SITI FAZLILI, A.; KUMARAN, P.; PEI-JUA, N.; PRIATHASHINI, P.

    2016-03-01

    Biofuels including biodiesel, an alternative fuel, is renewable, environmentally friendly, non-toxic and low emissions. The raw material used in this work was coconut oil, which contained saturated fatty acids about 90% with high percentage of medium chain (C8-C12), especially lauric acid and myristic acid. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of power and NaOH catalyst in transesterification assisted by microwave for production of biofuels (biodiesel and bio-kerosene) derived from coconut oil. The reaction was performed with oil and methanol using mole ratio of 1:6, catalyst concentration of 0.6% with microwave power at 100W, 180W, 300W, 450W, 600W, and 850W. The reaction time was set at of 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 min. The results showed that microwave could accelerate the transesterification process to produce biodiesel and bio-kerosene using NaOH catalyst. The highest yield of biodiesel was 97.17 %, or 99.05 % conversion at 5 min and 100W microwave power. Meanwhile, the bio-kerosene obtained was 65% after distillation.

  17. Process optimization for biodiesel production from mahua (Madhuca indica) oil using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ghadge, Shashikant Vilas; Raheman, Hifjur

    2006-02-01

    A central composite rotatable design was used to study the effect of methanol quantity, acid concentration and reaction time on the reduction of free fatty acids content of mahua oil during its pretreatment for making biodiesel. All the three variables significantly affected the acid value of the product, methanol being the most effective followed by reaction time and acid catalyst concentration. Using response surface methodology, a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for acid value by multiple regression analysis. Verification experiments confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The optimum combinations for reducing the acid level of mahua oil to less than 1% after pretreatment was 0.32 v/v methanol-to-oil ratio, 1.24% v/v H2SO4 catalyst and 1.26 h reaction time at 60 degrees C. After the pretreatment of mahua oil, transesterification reaction was carried out with 0.25 v/v methanol-to-oil ratio (6:1 molar ratio) and 0.7% w/v KOH as an alkaline catalyst to produce biodiesel. The fuel properties of mahua biodiesel so obtained complied the requirements of both the American and European standards for biodiesel. PMID:15908200

  18. Biodiesel production potential of mixed microalgal culture grown in domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Soydemir, Gulfem; Keris-Sen, Ulker Diler; Sen, Unal; Gurol, Mirat D

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a mixed microalgal culture grown in secondarily treated domestic wastewater effluent was investigated for biodiesel production using in situ transesterification method with conventional heating. The total lipid content of the mixed culture was found as 26.2% ± 0.6 by weight of dry biomass, and 74% of the lipids were contributed by total glycerides. In situ transesterification with conventional heating process under acidic conditions produced higher biodiesel yield with chloroform as the co-solvent (82.1% ± 3.9) compared to hexane (55.3% ± 3.9) under the same reaction conditions. The gas chromatography analysis showed that FAME composition was mainly composed of palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid methyl esters., and thus the mixed microalgal culture fed by domestic wastewaters has had comparable biodiesel conversion yields and FAME composition to mono-culture and pure cultures fed by synthetic culture media. Hence, this study showed that secondarily treated domestic wastewater could potentially be a suitable and sustainable medium for microalgae grown to be used as biodiesel feedstock.

  19. Fast, easy ethanolysis of coconut oil for biodiesel production assisted by ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Kumar, Gajendra; Poonam; Singh, C P

    2010-03-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel, consistituting an alternative to petroleum-based diesel fuel. It is non-toxic and biodegradable and has a low emission profile, is better from environmentally sensitive areas. Research study on alternative fuels is essential for increased energy security. Presently, biodiesel is produced mainly is batch reactor. In this process the required energy is given by heating accompanied by mechanical stirring which has several disadvantages because of time consuming high labour cost. Being methanol is a toxic chemical; the objective of this work is to produce coconut oil ethyl ester by using ultrasonic irradiation. The advantages of ethanol are non-toxic domestic all available, having higher carbon atoms which provide higher heat content. The optical conditions for biodiesel production is the molar ratio oil to ethanol 1:6, KOH catalyst 0.75wt.% of oil and 7min reaction time. The reaction time reduced 15-40 times comparing to the conventional batch processes and found >or=98% biodiesel yield. PMID:19945331

  20. Strategies for Lipid Production Improvement in Microalgae as a Biodiesel Feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Li, Z. H.; Hiltunen, E.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the energy crisis, global warming, and climate changes, microalgae have received a great deal of attention as a biofuel feedstock. Due to a high lipid content in microalgal cells, microalgae present as a promising alternative source for the production of biodiesel. Environmental and culturing condition variations can alter lipid production as well as chemical compositions of microalgae. Therefore, application of the strategies to activate lipid accumulation opens the door for lipid overproduction in microalgae. Until now, many original studies regarding the approaches for enhanced microalgal lipid production have been reported in an effort to push forward the production of microalgal biodiesel. However, the current literature demonstrates fragmented information available regarding the strategies for lipid production improvement. From the systematic point of view, the review highlights the main approaches for microalgal lipid accumulation induction to expedite the application of microalgal biodiesel as an alternative to fossil diesel for sustainable environment. Of the several strategies discussed, the one that is most commonly applied is the design of nutrient (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur) starvation or limitation. Other viable approaches such as light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, salinity stress, and metal influence can also achieve enhanced microalgal lipid production. PMID:27725942

  1. Heterotrophic microalgae cultivation to synergize biodiesel production with waste remediation: progress and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Rohit, M V; Chiranjeevi, P; Chandra, Rashmi; Navaneeth, B

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae are inexhaustible feedstock for synthesis of biodiesel rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and valuable bioactive compounds. Their cultivation is critical in sustaining the global economy in terms of human consumption of food and fuel. When compared to autotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic systems are more suitable for producing high cell densities of microalgae for accumulation of large quantities of lipids (triacylglycerols) which can be converted into biodiesel. Consorted efforts are made in this communication to converge recent literature on heterotrophic cultivation systems with simultaneous wastewater treatment and algal oil production. Challenges faced during large scale production and limiting factors which hinder the microalgae growth are enumerated. A strategic deployment of integrated closed loop biorefinery concept with multi-product recovery is proposed to exploit the full potential of algal systems. Sustainable algae cultivation is essential to produce biofuels leading to green future.

  2. Dimethyl carbonate as potential reactant in non-catalytic biodiesel production by supercritical method.

    PubMed

    Ilham, Zul; Saka, Shiro

    2009-03-01

    In this study, the non-catalytic supercritical method has been studied in utilizing dimethyl carbonate. It was demonstrated that, the supercritical dimethyl carbonate process without any catalysts applied, converted triglycerides to fatty acid methyl esters with glycerol carbonate and citramalic acid as by-products, while free fatty acids were converted to fatty acid methyl esters with glyoxal. After 12 min of reaction at 350 degrees C/20 MPa, rapeseed oil treated with supercritical dimethyl carbonate reached 94% (w/w) yield of fatty acid methyl ester. The by-products from this process which are glycerol carbonate and citramalic acid are much higher in value than glycerol produced by the conventional process. In addition, the yield of the fatty acid methyl esters as biodiesel was almost at par with supercritical methanol method. Therefore, supercritical dimethyl carbonate process can be a good candidate as an alternative biodiesel production process. PMID:18990561

  3. Materials flow modeling of nutrient recycling in biodiesel production from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Rösch, Christine; Skarka, Johannes; Wegerer, Nadja

    2012-03-01

    Biodiesel production based on microalgae as feedstock is associated with a high demand of nutrients, respectively nitrogen and phosphorus. The production of 1l biodiesel requires between 0.23 and 1.55 kg nitrogen and 29-145 g of phosphorus depending of the cultivation conditions for microalgae. The supply of nutrients can be expected to severely limit the extent to which the production of biofuels from microalgae can be sustainably expanded. The nutrient demand can be reduced if the nutrients in the residual algae biomass after oil extraction are reused for algae cultivation. This modeling work illustrates that for the investigated process chains and scenarios the nutrient recycling rates are in the range from 30% to 90% for nitrogen and from 48% to 93% for phosphorus. The highest recycling values can be achieved by hydrothermal gasification of the oil-free residues.

  4. Energy analysis for the production of biodiesel in a spiral reactor using supercritical tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE).

    PubMed

    Farobie, Obie; Matsumura, Yukihiko

    2015-11-01

    In this study, energy analysis was conducted for the production of biodiesel in a spiral reactor using supercritical tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE). This study aims to determine the net energy ratio (NER) and energy efficiency for the production of biodiesel using supercritical MTBE and to verify the effectiveness of the spiral reactor in terms of heat recovery efficiency. The analysis results revealed that the NER for this process was 0.92. Meanwhile, the energy efficiency was 0.98, indicating that the production of biodiesel in a spiral reactor using supercritical MTBE is an energy-efficient process. By comparing the energy supply required for biodiesel production between spiral and conventional reactors, the spiral reactor was more efficient than the conventional reactor.

  5. Selection of elite microalgae for biodiesel production in tropical conditions using a standardized platform.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shih-hsin; Lai, Yen-Ying; Chiang, Chun-Yu; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2013-11-01

    Four thermotolerant microalgae were isolated from tropical Taiwan and classified as members of Desmodesmus based on morphological and molecular studies. A platform was established to evaluate their biodiesel production-related traits, including thermotolerance, lipid productivity, lipid oxidative stability and auto-sedimentation. The findings demonstrated thermotolerance of all four species was at the same level, as all could live at 45 °C for 24 h and 50 °C for 8 h with mortality rates below 5% of cells. The lipid productivity of Desmodesmus sp. F2 reached 113 mg/L/d. Its saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids accounted for 75% of the FAMEs, and it required only 3.1 h to achieve 85% sedimentation. Comparing these traits to those of the other three Desmodesmus and microalgae in the literature, Desmodesmus sp. F2 is one of the best candidates for biodiesel production in tropical and subtropical areas. This platform effectively assessed traits of microalgae related to biodiesel production.

  6. Screening of freshwater and seawater microalgae strains in fully controlled photobioreactors for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Taleb, A; Kandilian, R; Touchard, R; Montalescot, V; Rinaldi, T; Taha, S; Takache, H; Marchal, L; Legrand, J; Pruvost, J

    2016-10-01

    Strain selection is one of the primary hurdles facing cost-effective microalgal biodiesel production. Indeed, the strain used affects both upstream and downstream biodiesel production processes. This study presents a screening procedure that considers the most significant criteria in microalgal biodiesel production including TAG production and wet extraction and recovery of TAGs. Fourteen freshwater and seawater strains were investigated. Large variation was observed between the strains in all the screening criteria. The overall screening procedure ultimately led to the identification of Parachlorella kessleri UTEX2229 and Nannochloropsis gaditana CCMP527 as the best freshwater and seawater strains, respectively. They featured the largest areal TAG productivity equal to 2.7×10(-3) and 2.3×10(-3)kgm(-2)d(-1), respectively. These two strains also displayed encouraging cell fragility in a high pressure bead milling process with 69% and 98% cell disruption at 1750bar making them remarkable strains for TAG extraction in wet environment. PMID:27394994

  7. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste.

    PubMed

    Almeida, João R M; Fávaro, Léia C L; Quirino, Betania F

    2012-01-01

    The considerable increase in biodiesel production worldwide in the last 5 years resulted in a stoichiometric increased coproduction of crude glycerol. As an excess of crude glycerol has been produced, its value on market was reduced and it is becoming a "waste-stream" instead of a valuable "coproduct". The development of biorefineries, i.e. production of chemicals and power integrated with conversion processes of biomass into biofuels, has been singled out as a way to achieve economically viable production chains, valorize residues and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated. This review summarizes different strategies employed to produce biofuels and chemicals (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, n-butanol, organic acids, polyols and others) by microbial fermentation of glycerol. Initially, the industrial use of each chemical is briefly presented; then we systematically summarize and discuss the different strategies to produce each chemical, including selection and genetic engineering of producers, and optimization of process conditions to improve yield and productivity. Finally, the impact of the developments obtained until now are placed in perspective and opportunities and challenges for using crude glycerol to the development of biodiesel-based biorefineries are considered. In conclusion, the microbial fermentation of glycerol represents a remarkable alternative to add value to the biodiesel production chain helping the development of biorefineries, which will allow this biofuel to be more competitive. PMID:22809320

  8. A comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) of Jatropha biodiesel production in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Jasvinder; Nanoti, S M; Garg, M O

    2012-04-01

    A life cycle approach was adopted for energy, green house gas (GHG) emissions and renewability assessment for production of 1ton of Jatropha biodiesel. Allocation and displacement approaches were applied for life cycle inventory, process energy and process GHG emission attribution to co-products. The results of process energy and GHG emission analyses revealed that the amount of process energy consumption and GHG emission in the individual stages of the life cycle assessment (LCA) were a strong function of co-product handling and irrigation. The GHG emission reduction with respect to petroleum diesel for generating 1GJ energy varied from 40% to 107% and NER values from 1.4 to 8.0 depending upon the methodology used for energy and emission distribution between product and co-products as well as irrigation applied. However, GHG emission reduction values of 54 and 40 and NER (net energy ratio) values of 1.7 and 1.4 for irrigated and rain-fed scenarios, respectively indicate the eco-friendly nature and renewability of biodiesel even in the worst scenario where total life cycle inventory (LCI), process energy and GHG emission were allocated to biodiesel only.

  9. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transesterification catalyzed by solid base catalyst is a brilliant technology for the noble process featuring the fast reaction under mild reacting condition in biodiesel production. Heterogeneous base catalysts are generally more reactive than solid acid catalysts which require extreme operating condition for high conversion and biodiesel yield. In the present study, synthesis of biodiesel was studied by using edible (palm) or non-edible (Jatropha) feedstock catalyzed by heterogeneous base catalysts such as supported alkali metal (NaOH/Al2O3), alkaline-earth metal oxide (MgO, CaO and SrO) and mixed metal oxides catalysts (CaMgO and CaZnO). Results The chemical characteristic, textural properties, basicity profile and leaching test of synthesized catalysts were studied by using X-ray diffraction, BET measurement, TPD-CO2 and ICP-AES analysis, respectively. Transesterification activity of solid base catalysts showed that > 90% of palm biodiesel and > 80% of Jatropha biodiesel yield under 3 wt.% of catalyst, 3 h reaction time, methanol to oil ratio of 15:1 under 65°C. This indicated that other than physicochemical characteristic of catalysts; different types of natural oil greatly influence the catalytic reaction due to the presence of free fatty acids (FFAs). Conclusions Among the solid base catalysts, calcium based mixed metal oxides catalysts with binary metal system (CaMgO and CaZnO) showed capability to maintain the transesterification activity for 3 continuous runs at ~ 80% yield. These catalysts render high durability characteristic in transesterification with low active metal leaching for several cycles. PMID:24812574

  10. Combining phospholipases and a liquid lipase for one-step biodiesel production using crude oils

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Enzymatic biodiesel is becoming an increasingly popular topic in bioenergy literature because of its potential to overcome the problems posed by chemical processes. However, the high cost of the enzymatic process still remains the main drawback for its industrial application, mostly because of the high price of refined oils. Unfortunately, low cost substrates, such as crude soybean oil, often release a product that hardly accomplishes the final required biodiesel specifications and need an additional pretreatment for gums removal. In order to reduce costs and to make the enzymatic process more efficient, we developed an innovative system for enzymatic biodiesel production involving a combination of a lipase and two phospholipases. This allows performing the enzymatic degumming and transesterification in a single step, using crude soybean oil as feedstock, and converting part of the phospholipids into biodiesel. Since the two processes have never been studied together, an accurate analysis of the different reaction components and conditions was carried out. Results Crude soybean oil, used as low cost feedstock, is characterized by a high content of phospholipids (900 ppm of phosphorus). However, after the combined activity of different phospholipases and liquid lipase Callera Trans L, a complete transformation into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs >95%) and a good reduction of phosphorus (P <5 ppm) was achieved. The combination of enzymes allowed avoidance of the acid treatment required for gums removal, the consequent caustic neutralization, and the high temperature commonly used in degumming systems, making the overall process more eco-friendly and with higher yield. Once the conditions were established, the process was also tested with different vegetable oils with variable phosphorus contents. Conclusions Use of liquid lipase Callera Trans L in biodiesel production can provide numerous and sustainable benefits. Besides reducing the costs derived from

  11. Final Technical Report on Development of an Economic and Efficient Biodiesel production Process (NC)

    SciTech Connect

    Tirla, Cornelia; Dooling, Thomas A.; Smith, Rachel B.; Shi, Xinyan; Shahbazi, Abolghasem

    2014-03-19

    The Biofuels Team at The University of North Carolina at Pembroke and North Carolina A&T State University carried out a joint research project aimed at developing an efficient process to produce biodiesel. In this project, the team developed and tested various types of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts which could replace the conventionally used soluble potassium hydroxide catalyst which, traditionally, must be separated and disposed of at the end of the process. As a result of this screening, the homogeneous catalyst choline hydroxide was identified as a potential replacement for the traditional catalyst used in this process, potassium hydroxide, due to its decreased corrosiveness and toxicity. A large number of heterogeneous catalysts were produced and tested in order to determine the scaffold, ion type and ion concentration which would produce optimum yield of biodiesel. The catalyst with 12% calcium on Zeolite β was identified as being highly effective and optimal reaction conditions were identified. Furthermore, a packed bed reactor utilizing this type of catalyst was designed, constructed and tested in order to further optimize the process. An economic analysis of the viability of the project showed that the cost of an independent farmer to produce the fuelstock required to produce biodiesel exceeds the cost of petroleum diesel under current conditions and that therefore without incentives, farmers would not be able to benefit economically from producing their own fuel. An educational website on biodiesel production and analysis was produced and a laboratory experiment demonstrating the production of biodiesel was developed and implemented into the Organic Chemistry II laboratory curriculum at UNCP. Five workshops for local farmers and agricultural agents were held in order to inform the broader community about the various fuelstock available, their cultivation and the process and advantages of biodiesel use and production. This project fits both

  12. Production of Truncated Candida antarctica Lipase B Gene Using Automated PCR Gene Assembly Protocol and Expression in Yeast for use in Ethanol and Biodiesel Production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An improved column-based process for production of biodiesel was developed using a column containing a strongly basic anion-exchange resin in sequence with a column containing a resin to which a lipase biocatalyst is bound. Currently most biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglyceride...

  13. Biodiesel production and Environmental CO2 cleanup using Oleaginous Microorganisms from Al-Hassa area in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sinawi, Abdulaziz; Shathele, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    Biodiesel production is rapidly moving towards the mainstream as an alternative source of energy. Algae oil is one of the viable feed stocks among others to produce Biodiesel. However the difficulties in efficient biodiesel production from algae lie not in the extraction of the oil, but in finding an algal strain with a high lipid content and fast growth rate. This paper presents an experimental work performed to study the production of biodiesel from local algae strains in Al-Hassa territory of the eastern province in Saudi Arabia which was found to contain high lipid contents and show rapid growth. The collected results predict that those types of desert algae are promising and are considered to be a potential feedstock for biofuels.

  14. Biodiesel production from indigenous microalgae grown in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Komolafe, Oladapo; Velasquez Orta, Sharon B; Monje-Ramirez, Ignacio; Yáñez Noguez, Isaura; Harvey, Adam P; Orta Ledesma, María T

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a process for producing biodiesel sustainably from microalgae grown in wastewater, whilst significantly reducing the wastewater's nutrients and total coliform. Furthermore, ozone-flotation harvesting of the resultant biomass was investigated, shown to be viable, and resulted in FAMEs of greater oxidation stability. Desmodesmus sp. and two mixed cultures were successfully grown on wastewater. Desmodesmus sp. grew rapidly, to a higher maximum biomass concentration of 0.58 g/L. A native mixed culture dominated by Oscillatoria and Arthrospira, reached 0.45 g/L and exhibited the highest lipid and FAME yield. The FAME obtained from ozone-flotation exhibited the greatest oxidative stability, as the degree of saturation was high. In principle ozone could therefore be used as a combined method of harvesting and reducing FAME unsaturation. During microalgae treatment, the total nitrogen in wastewater was reduced by 55.4-83.9%. More importantly, total coliform removal was as high as 99.8%. PMID:24412481

  15. Oleaginous yeasts for biodiesel: current and future trends in biology and production.

    PubMed

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Garay, Luis A; Sestric, Ryan; Levin, David; Block, David E; German, J Bruce; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    2014-11-15

    Production of biodiesel from edible plant oils is quickly expanding worldwide to fill a need for renewable, environmentally-friendly liquid transportation fuels. Due to concerns over use of edible commodities for fuels, production of biodiesel from non-edible oils including microbial oils is being developed. Microalgae biodiesel is approaching commercial viability, but has some inherent limitations such as requirements for sunlight. While yeast oils have been studied for decades, recent years have seen significant developments including discovery of new oleaginous yeast species and strains, greater understanding of the metabolic pathways that determine oleaginicity, optimization of cultivation processes for conversion of various types of waste plant biomass to oil using oleaginous yeasts, and development of strains with enhanced oil production. This review examines aspects of oleaginous yeasts not covered in depth in other recent reviews. Topics include the history of oleaginous yeast research, especially advances in the early 20th century; the phylogenetic diversity of oleaginous species, beyond the few species commonly studied; and physiological characteristics that should be considered when choosing yeast species and strains to be utilized for conversion of a given type of plant biomass to oleochemicals. Standardized terms are proposed for units that describe yeast cell mass and lipid production.

  16. Microwave-assisted biodiesel production by esterification of palm fatty acid distillate.

    PubMed

    Lokman, Ibrahim M; Rashid, Umer; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Yunus, Robiah; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2014-01-01

    In the current research work, effect of microwave irradiation energy on the esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) to produce PFAD methyl ester / biodiesel was intensively appraised. The PFAD is a by-product from refinery of crude palm oil consisting >85% of free fatty acid (FFA). The esterification reaction process with acid catalyst is needed to convert the FFA into fatty acid methyl ester or known as biodiesel. In this work, fabricated microwave-pulse width modulation (MPWM) reactor with controlled temperature was designed to be capable to increase the PFAD biodiesel production rate. The classical optimization technique was used in order to study the relationship and the optimum condition of variables involved. Consequently, by using MPWM reactor, mixture of methanol-to-PFAD molar ratio of 9:1, 1 wt.% of sulfuric acid catalyst, at 55°C reaction temperature within 15 min reaction time gave 99.5% of FFA conversion. The quality assessment and properties of the product were analyzed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), European (EN) standard methods and all results were in agreement with the standard requirements. It revealed that the use of fabricated MPWM with controlled temperature was significantly affecting the rate of esterification reaction and also increased the production yield of PFAD methyl ester.

  17. Screening of industrial wastewaters as feedstock for the microbial production of oils for biodiesel production and high-quality pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Teresa; Graeff-Honninger, Simone; French, William Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Claupein, Wilhelm; Holmes, William E.; Merkt, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    The production of biodiesel has notably increased over the past decade. Currently, plant oil is the main feedstock for biodiesel production, but, due to concerns related to the competition with food production, alternative oil feedstocks have to be found. Oleaginous yeasts are known to produce high amounts of lipids, but no integrated process from microbial fermentation to final biodiesel production has reached commercial realization yet due to economic constraints. Therefore, growth and lipid production of red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis was tested on low-cost substrates, namely, wastewaters from potato, fruit juice, and lettuce processing. Additionally, the production of carotenoids as high-value by-products was examined. All evaluated wastewaters met the general criteria for microbial lipid production. However, no significant increase in lipid content was observed, probably due to lack of available carbon in wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing, and excess of available nitrogen in potato processing wastewater, respectively. During growth on wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing the carotenoid content increased significantly in the first 48 hours. The relations between carbon content, nitrogen content, and carotenoid production need to be further assessed. For economic viability, lipid and carotenoid production needs to be increased significantly. Lastly, the screening of feedstocks should be extended to other wastewaters.

  18. Screening of industrial wastewaters as feedstock for the microbial production of oils for biodiesel production and high-quality pigments

    DOE PAGES

    Schneider, Teresa; Graeff-Honninger, Simone; French, William Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Claupein, Wilhelm; Holmes, William E.; Merkt, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    The production of biodiesel has notably increased over the past decade. Currently, plant oil is the main feedstock for biodiesel production, but, due to concerns related to the competition with food production, alternative oil feedstocks have to be found. Oleaginous yeasts are known to produce high amounts of lipids, but no integrated process from microbial fermentation to final biodiesel production has reached commercial realization yet due to economic constraints. Therefore, growth and lipid production of red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis was tested on low-cost substrates, namely, wastewaters from potato, fruit juice, and lettuce processing. Additionally, the production of carotenoids as high-valuemore » by-products was examined. All evaluated wastewaters met the general criteria for microbial lipid production. However, no significant increase in lipid content was observed, probably due to lack of available carbon in wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing, and excess of available nitrogen in potato processing wastewater, respectively. During growth on wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing the carotenoid content increased significantly in the first 48 hours. The relations between carbon content, nitrogen content, and carotenoid production need to be further assessed. For economic viability, lipid and carotenoid production needs to be increased significantly. Lastly, the screening of feedstocks should be extended to other wastewaters.« less

  19. Effects of methanol on lipases: molecular, kinetic and process issues in the production of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Lotti, Marina; Pleiss, Jürgen; Valero, Francisco; Ferrer, Pau

    2015-01-01

    The biotechnological production of biodiesel is based on transesterification/esterification reactions between a source of fatty acids and a short-chain alcohol, usually methanol, catalysed by enzymes belonging to the class known as lipases. Several lipases used in industrial processes, although stable in the presence of other organic solvents, are inactivated by methanol at or below the concentration optimal for biodiesel production, making it necessary to use stepwise methanol feeding or pre-treatment of the enzyme. In this review article we focus on what is currently know about methanol inactivation of lipases, a phenomenon which is not common to all lipase enzymes, with the goal of improving the biocatalytic process. We suggest that different mechanisms can lead to inactivation of different lipases, in particular substrate inhibition and protein unfolding. Attempts to improve the performances of methanol sensitive lipases by mutagenesis as well as process engineering approaches are also summarized.

  20. Esterification of glycerol from biodiesel production to glycerol carbonate in non-catalytic supercritical dimethyl carbonate.

    PubMed

    Ilham, Zul; Saka, Shiro

    2016-01-01

    Conversion of glycerol from biodiesel production to glycerol carbonate was studied by esterification with dimethyl carbonate in a non-catalytic supercritical condition. It was found that in a non-catalytic supercritical condition, glycerol at higher purity gave higher yield of glycerol carbonate at 98 wt% after reaction at 300 °C/20-40 MPa/15 min. The yield of glycerol carbonate was observed to increase with molar ratio, temperature, pressure and time until a certain equilibrium limit. The existence of impurities such as water and remnants of alkaline catalyst in crude glycerol will direct the reaction to produce glycidol. Although impurities might not be desirable, the non-catalytic supercritical dimethyl carbonate could be an alternative method for conversion of glycerol from biodiesel production to value-added glycerol carbonate.Graphical abstractPlausible reaction scheme for conversion of glycerol to glycerol carbonate in non-catalytic supercritical dimethyl carbonate.

  1. Production of biodiesel and lactic acid from rapeseed oil using sodium silicate as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Long, Yun-Duo; Guo, Feng; Fang, Zhen; Tian, Xiao-Fei; Jiang, Li-Qun; Zhang, Fan

    2011-07-01

    Biodiesel and lactic acid from rapeseed oil was produced using sodium silicate as catalyst. The transesterification in the presence of the catalyst proceeded with a maximum yield of 99.6% under optimized conditions [3% (w/w) sodium silicate, methanol/oil molar ratio 9/1, reaction time 60 min, reaction temperature 60°C, and stirring rate 250 rpm]. After six consecutive transesterification reactions, the catalyst was collected and used for catalysis of the conversion of glycerol to lactic acid. A maximum yield of 80.5% was achieved when the reaction was carried out at a temperature of 300°C for 90 min. Thus, sodium silicate is an effective catalyst for transesterification and lactic acid production from the biodiesel by-product, glycerol. PMID:21530245

  2. Lipid extraction and esterification for microalgae-based biodiesel production using pyrite (FeS2).

    PubMed

    Seo, Yeong Hwan; Sung, Mina; Oh, You-Kwan; Han, Jong-In

    2015-09-01

    In this study, pyrite (FeS2) was used for lipid extraction as well as esterification processes for microalgae-based biodiesel production. An iron-mediated oxidation reaction, Fenton-like reaction, produced an expected degree of lipid extraction, but pyrite was less effective than FeCl3 commercial powder. That low efficiency was improved by using oxidized pyrite, which showed an equivalent lipid extraction efficiency to FeCl3, about 90%, when 20 mM of catalyst was used. Oxidized pyrite was also employed in the esterification step, and converted free fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters under acidic conditions; thus, the fatal problem of saponification during esterification with alkaline catalysts was avoided, and esterification efficiency over 90% was obtained. This study clearly showed that pyrite could be utilized as a cheap catalyst in the lipid extraction and esterification steps for microalgae-based biodiesel production.

  3. Esterification of glycerol from biodiesel production to glycerol carbonate in non-catalytic supercritical dimethyl carbonate.

    PubMed

    Ilham, Zul; Saka, Shiro

    2016-01-01

    Conversion of glycerol from biodiesel production to glycerol carbonate was studied by esterification with dimethyl carbonate in a non-catalytic supercritical condition. It was found that in a non-catalytic supercritical condition, glycerol at higher purity gave higher yield of glycerol carbonate at 98 wt% after reaction at 300 °C/20-40 MPa/15 min. The yield of glycerol carbonate was observed to increase with molar ratio, temperature, pressure and time until a certain equilibrium limit. The existence of impurities such as water and remnants of alkaline catalyst in crude glycerol will direct the reaction to produce glycidol. Although impurities might not be desirable, the non-catalytic supercritical dimethyl carbonate could be an alternative method for conversion of glycerol from biodiesel production to value-added glycerol carbonate.Graphical abstractPlausible reaction scheme for conversion of glycerol to glycerol carbonate in non-catalytic supercritical dimethyl carbonate. PMID:27386367

  4. Dyeing industry effluent system as lipid production medium of Neochloris sp. for biodiesel feedstock preparation.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Vidyadharani; Ramamurthy, Dhandapani

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb) concentration from 0.002 ppm to 0.001 ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (specific algal medium) produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC) with oleic acid pure (98%) control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae.

  5. Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Ramamurthy, Dhandapani

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb) concentration from 0.002 ppm to 0.001 ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (specific algal medium) produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC) with oleic acid pure (98%) control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae. PMID:25247176

  6. A two-stage enzymatic ethanol-based biodiesel production in a packed bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M

    2012-12-31

    A two-stage enzymatic process for producing fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) in a packed bed reactor is reported. The process uses an experimental immobilized lipase (NS 88001) and Novozym 435 to catalyze transesterification (first stage) and esterification (second stage), respectively. Both stages were conducted in a simulated series of reactors by repeatedly passing the reaction mixture through a single reactor, with separation of the by-product glycerol and water between passes in the first and second stages, respectively. The second stage brought the major components of biodiesel to 'in-spec' levels according to the European biodiesel specifications for methanol-based biodiesel. The highest overall productivity achieved in the first stage was 2.52 kg FAEE(kg catalyst)⁻¹ h⁻¹ at a superficial velocity of 7.6 cm min⁻¹, close to the efficiency of a stirred tank reactor under similar conditions. The overall productivity of the proposed two-stage process was 1.56 kg FAEE(kg catalyst)⁻¹ h⁻¹. Based on this process model, the challenges of scale-up have been addressed and potential continuous process options have been proposed.

  7. Seed Oil from Ten Algerian Peanut Landraces for Edible Use and Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Giuffrè, Angelo Maria; Tellah, Sihem; Capocasale, Marco; Zappia, Clotilde; Latati, Mourad; Badiani, Maurizio; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    As a result of a recent ad hoc prospection of the Algerian territory, a collection of peanut (groundnut; Arachis hypogaea L.) landraces was established, covering a remarkable array of diversity in terms of morphological and physiological features, as well as of adaptation to local bioclimatic conditions. In the present work, the oils extracted from the seeds of these landraces were evaluated in terms of edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production. As for edible use, a low free acidity (ranging from 0.62 to 1.21%) and a high oleic acid content (44.61-50.94%) were common features, although a poor stability to oxidation [high peroxide values, high spectrophotometric indices, and low % of inhibition in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH)· test] was observed in a few cases. As for biodiesel production, low values of acidity [1.23-2.40 mg KOH (g oil)(-1)], low iodine values [90.70-101.54 g I2 (g oil)(-1)], high cetane numbers (56.95-58.88) and high calorific values (higher heating value 37.34-39.27 MJ kg(-1)) were measured. Edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production were discussed with respect to the German standard DIN 51605 for rapeseed oil and to the EN 14214 standard, respectively. One way ANOVA and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed significant differences among the oils from the Algerian peanut landraces.

  8. Joint production of biodiesel and bioethanol from filamentous oleaginous microalgae Tribonema sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Ji, Chunli; Bi, Shenglei; Zhou, Peng; Chen, Lin; Liu, Tianzhong

    2014-11-01

    Making full use of lipid and carbohydrate in microalgae for joint production of biodiesel and bioethanol may create a potential way to cut the high cost of single biofuel production from microalgae. Compared with conventional unicellular oleaginous microalgae, filamentous microalgae Tribonema sp. is richer in lipid and carbohydrate contents and lower protein content, thus, this study explores the suitability of Tribonema sp. as a substrate for joint production of biodiesel and bioethanol. Acid hydrolysis is the key step to saccharify wall cell into fermentable sugar and release lipid. Microalgae biomass (50g/L) was acid (3% H2SO4) hydrolyzed at 121°C for 45min to reach the maximum hydrolysis efficiency (81.48%). Subsequently, the lipid separated with hexane-ethanol from the hydrolysate was converted into microalgae biodiesel and the conversion rate was 98.47%. With yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the maximum ethanol yield of 56.1% was reached from 14.5g/L glucose in hydrolysate. PMID:25260180

  9. Joint production of biodiesel and bioethanol from filamentous oleaginous microalgae Tribonema sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Ji, Chunli; Bi, Shenglei; Zhou, Peng; Chen, Lin; Liu, Tianzhong

    2014-11-01

    Making full use of lipid and carbohydrate in microalgae for joint production of biodiesel and bioethanol may create a potential way to cut the high cost of single biofuel production from microalgae. Compared with conventional unicellular oleaginous microalgae, filamentous microalgae Tribonema sp. is richer in lipid and carbohydrate contents and lower protein content, thus, this study explores the suitability of Tribonema sp. as a substrate for joint production of biodiesel and bioethanol. Acid hydrolysis is the key step to saccharify wall cell into fermentable sugar and release lipid. Microalgae biomass (50g/L) was acid (3% H2SO4) hydrolyzed at 121°C for 45min to reach the maximum hydrolysis efficiency (81.48%). Subsequently, the lipid separated with hexane-ethanol from the hydrolysate was converted into microalgae biodiesel and the conversion rate was 98.47%. With yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the maximum ethanol yield of 56.1% was reached from 14.5g/L glucose in hydrolysate.

  10. In vitro Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Olivares-Palma, S. M.; Meale, S. J.; Pereira, L. G. R.; Machado, F. S.; Carneiro, H.; Lopes, F. C. F.; Maurício, R. M.; Chaves, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM) and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestion kinetics and CH4 production. Moringa press oil seeds exhibited the greatest in sacco effective degradability (ED) of DM and CP (p<0.05). In vitro gas production (ml/g digested DM) was not affected (p = 0.70) by supplement at 48 h of incubation. In vitro DMD was increased with the supplementation of glycerine and SBM at all levels of inclusion. Moringa oilseed press cakes produced the lowest CH4 (mg/g digested DM) at 6 and 12 h of incubation (p<0.05). The findings suggest that moringa oilseed press cake at 400 g/kg DM has the greatest potential of the oilseed press cakes examined in this study, to reduce CH4 production, without adversely affecting nutrient degradability. PMID:25049890

  11. In vitro Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Palma, S M; Meale, S J; Pereira, L G R; Machado, F S; Carneiro, H; Lopes, F C F; Maurício, R M; Chaves, A V

    2013-08-01

    Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM) and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestion kinetics and CH4 production. Moringa press oil seeds exhibited the greatest in sacco effective degradability (ED) of DM and CP (p<0.05). In vitro gas production (ml/g digested DM) was not affected (p = 0.70) by supplement at 48 h of incubation. In vitro DMD was increased with the supplementation of glycerine and SBM at all levels of inclusion. Moringa oilseed press cakes produced the lowest CH4 (mg/g digested DM) at 6 and 12 h of incubation (p<0.05). The findings suggest that moringa oilseed press cake at 400 g/kg DM has the greatest potential of the oilseed press cakes examined in this study, to reduce CH4 production, without adversely affecting nutrient degradability. PMID:25049890

  12. In vitro Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Palma, S M; Meale, S J; Pereira, L G R; Machado, F S; Carneiro, H; Lopes, F C F; Maurício, R M; Chaves, A V

    2013-08-01

    Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM) and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestion kinetics and CH4 production. Moringa press oil seeds exhibited the greatest in sacco effective degradability (ED) of DM and CP (p<0.05). In vitro gas production (ml/g digested DM) was not affected (p = 0.70) by supplement at 48 h of incubation. In vitro DMD was increased with the supplementation of glycerine and SBM at all levels of inclusion. Moringa oilseed press cakes produced the lowest CH4 (mg/g digested DM) at 6 and 12 h of incubation (p<0.05). The findings suggest that moringa oilseed press cake at 400 g/kg DM has the greatest potential of the oilseed press cakes examined in this study, to reduce CH4 production, without adversely affecting nutrient degradability.

  13. A comparative study of biodiesel production using methanol, ethanol, and tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) under supercritical conditions.

    PubMed

    Farobie, Obie; Matsumura, Yukihiko

    2015-09-01

    In this study, biodiesel production under supercritical conditions among methanol, ethanol, and tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) was compared in order to elucidate the differences in their reaction behavior. A continuous reactor was employed, and experiments were conducted at various reaction temperatures (270-400 °C) and reaction times (3-30 min) and at a fixed pressure of 20 MPa and an oil-to-reactant molar ratio of 1:40. The results showed that under the same reaction conditions, the supercritical methanol method provided the highest yield of biodiesel. At 350 °C and 20 MPa, canola oil was completely converted to biodiesel after 10, 30, and 30 min in the case of - supercritical methanol, ethanol, and MTBE, respectively. The reaction kinetics of biodiesel production was also compared for supercritical methanol, ethanol, and MTBE.

  14. In situ self-catalyzed reactive extraction of germinated oilseed with short-chained dialkyl carbonates for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanjun; Li, Dan; Li, Yang; Gao, Jing; Zhou, Liya; He, Ying

    2013-12-01

    In order to eliminate the expense associated with solvent extraction and oil cleanup, and reduce the processing steps in biodiesel production, reactive extraction has become a focus of research in recent years. In this study, germinated castor seed was used as substrate and catalyst, dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was used as acyl acceptor and oil extractant to produce biodiesel. The optimum conditions were as follows: the germination time of castor seed was 72 h, DMC/germinated seed ratio was 12.5 ml/g, reaction temperature was 35°C, and water content was 2.11%. The biodiesel yield could reach as much as 87.41% under the optimized conditions. This germinated oilseed self-catalyzed reactive extraction can be a promising route for biodiesel production. PMID:24144599

  15. Biodiesel production by two-stage transesterification with ethanol by washing with neutral water and water saturated with carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Mendow, G; Veizaga, N S; Sánchez, B S; Querini, C A

    2012-08-01

    Industrial production of ethyl esters is impeded by difficulties in purifying the product due to high amounts of soap formed during transesterification. A simple biodiesel wash process was developed that allows successful purification of samples containing high amounts of soap. The key step was a first washing with neutral water, which removed the soaps without increasing the acidity or affecting the process yield. Afterward, the biodiesel was washed with water saturated with CO(2), a mild acid that neutralized the remaining soaps and extracted impurities. The acidity, free-glycerine, methanol and soaps concentrations were reduced to very low levels with high efficiency, and using non-corrosive acids. Independently of the initial acidity, it was possible to obtain biodiesel within EN14214 specifications. The process included the recovery of soaps by hydrolysis and esterification, making it possible to obtain the theoretical maximum amount of biodiesel.

  16. A multi-criteria analysis approach for ranking and selection of microorganisms for the production of oils for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farah B; Zhang, Zhanying; Doherty, William O S; O'Hara, Ian M

    2015-08-01

    Oleaginous microorganisms have potential to be used to produce oils as alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. Microalgae (Chlorella protothecoides and Chlorella zofingiensis), yeasts (Cryptococcus albidus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa), and fungi (Aspergillus oryzae and Mucor plumbeus) were investigated for their ability to produce oil from glucose, xylose and glycerol. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and preference ranking organization method for the enrichment of evaluations (PROMETHEE) with graphical analysis for interactive aid (GAIA), was used to rank and select the preferred microorganisms for oil production for biodiesel application. This was based on a number of criteria viz., oil concentration, content, production rate and yield, substrate consumption rate, fatty acids composition, biomass harvesting and nutrient costs. PROMETHEE selected A. oryzae, M. plumbeus and R. mucilaginosa as the most prospective species for oil production. However, further analysis by GAIA Webs identified A. oryzae and M. plumbeus as the best performing microorganisms.

  17. Biodiesel production from waste frying oil using waste animal bone and solar heat.

    PubMed

    Corro, Grisel; Sánchez, Nallely; Pal, Umapada; Bañuelos, Fortino

    2016-01-01

    A two-step catalytic process for the production of biodiesel from waste frying oil (WFO) at low cost, utilizing waste animal-bone as catalyst and solar radiation as heat source is reported in this work. In the first step, the free fatty acids (FFA) in WFO were esterified with methanol by a catalytic process using calcined waste animal-bone as catalyst, which remains active even after 10 esterification runs. The trans-esterification step was catalyzed by NaOH through thermal activation process. Produced biodiesel fulfills all the international requirements for its utilization as a fuel. A probable reaction mechanism for the esterification process is proposed considering the presence of hydroxyapatite at the surface of calcined animal bones.

  18. High performance catalytic distillation using CNTs-based holistic catalyst for production of high quality biodiesel

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongdong; Wei, Dali; Li, Qi; Ge, Xin; Guo, Xuefeng; Xie, Zaiku; Ding, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    For production of biodiesel from bio oils by heterogeneous catalysis, high performance catalysts of transesterification and the further utilization of glycerol have been the two points of research. The process seemed easy, however, has never been well established. Here we report a novel design of catalytic distillation using hierachically integrated CNTs-based holistic catalyst to figure out the two points in one process, which shows high performance both for the conversion of bio oils to biodiesel and, unexpectedly, for the conversion of glycerol to more valuable chemicals at the same time. The method, with integration of nano, meso to macro reactor, has overwhelming advantages over common technologies using liquid acids or bases to catalyze the reactions, which suffer from the high cost of separation and unsolved utilization of glycerol. PMID:24503897

  19. Biodiesel and electrical power production through vegetable oil extraction and byproducts gasification: modeling of the system.

    PubMed

    Allesina, Giulio; Pedrazzi, Simone; Tebianian, Sina; Tartarini, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    Aim of this work is to introduce an alternative to the standard biodiesel production chain, presenting an innovative in situ system. It is based on the chemical conversion of vegetable oil from oleaginous crops in synergy with the gasification of the protein cake disposed by the seed press. The syngas from the gasifier is here used to produce electrical power while part of it is converted into methanol. The methanol is finally used to transform the vegetable oil into biodiesel. Through a coupled use of ASPEN PLUS(TM) and MATLAB(TM) codes, a rapeseed, soy and sunflower rotation, with a duration of three year, was simulated considering 15ha of soil. This surface resulted sufficient to feed a 7kWel power plant. Simulation outputs proven the system to be self-sustainable. In addition, economical NPV of the investment is presented. Finally the environmental, economical and social advantages related to this approach are discussed.

  20. High performance catalytic distillation using CNTs-based holistic catalyst for production of high quality biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongdong; Wei, Dali; Li, Qi; Ge, Xin; Guo, Xuefeng; Xie, Zaiku; Ding, Weiping

    2014-02-07

    For production of biodiesel from bio oils by heterogeneous catalysis, high performance catalysts of transesterification and the further utilization of glycerol have been the two points of research. The process seemed easy, however, has never been well established. Here we report a novel design of catalytic distillation using hierachically integrated CNTs-based holistic catalyst to figure out the two points in one process, which shows high performance both for the conversion of bio oils to biodiesel and, unexpectedly, for the conversion of glycerol to more valuable chemicals at the same time. The method, with integration of nano, meso to macro reactor, has overwhelming advantages over common technologies using liquid acids or bases to catalyze the reactions, which suffer from the high cost of separation and unsolved utilization of glycerol.

  1. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using a heterogeneous catalyst from pyrolyzed rice husk.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Zheng, Yan; Chen, Yixin; Zhu, Xifeng

    2014-02-01

    A solid acid catalyst was prepared by sulfonating pyrolyzed rice husk with concentrated sulfuric acid, and the physical and chemical properties of the catalyst were characterized in detail. The catalyst was then used to simultaneously catalyze esterification and transesterification to produce biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO). In the presence of the as-prepared catalyst, the free fatty acid (FFA) conversion reached 98.17% after 3h, and the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield reached 87.57% after 15 h. By contrast, the typical solid acid catalyst Amberlyst-15 obtained only 95.25% and 45.17% FFA conversion and FAME yield, respectively. Thus, the prepared catalyst had a high catalytic activity for simultaneous esterification and transesterification. In addition, the catalyst had excellent stability, thereby having potential use as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from WCO with a high FFA content. PMID:24405650

  2. High performance catalytic distillation using CNTs-based holistic catalyst for production of high quality biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Wei, Dali; Li, Qi; Ge, Xin; Guo, Xuefeng; Xie, Zaiku; Ding, Weiping

    2014-02-01

    For production of biodiesel from bio oils by heterogeneous catalysis, high performance catalysts of transesterification and the further utilization of glycerol have been the two points of research. The process seemed easy, however, has never been well established. Here we report a novel design of catalytic distillation using hierachically integrated CNTs-based holistic catalyst to figure out the two points in one process, which shows high performance both for the conversion of bio oils to biodiesel and, unexpectedly, for the conversion of glycerol to more valuable chemicals at the same time. The method, with integration of nano, meso to macro reactor, has overwhelming advantages over common technologies using liquid acids or bases to catalyze the reactions, which suffer from the high cost of separation and unsolved utilization of glycerol.

  3. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using a heterogeneous catalyst from pyrolyzed rice husk.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Zheng, Yan; Chen, Yixin; Zhu, Xifeng

    2014-02-01

    A solid acid catalyst was prepared by sulfonating pyrolyzed rice husk with concentrated sulfuric acid, and the physical and chemical properties of the catalyst were characterized in detail. The catalyst was then used to simultaneously catalyze esterification and transesterification to produce biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO). In the presence of the as-prepared catalyst, the free fatty acid (FFA) conversion reached 98.17% after 3h, and the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield reached 87.57% after 15 h. By contrast, the typical solid acid catalyst Amberlyst-15 obtained only 95.25% and 45.17% FFA conversion and FAME yield, respectively. Thus, the prepared catalyst had a high catalytic activity for simultaneous esterification and transesterification. In addition, the catalyst had excellent stability, thereby having potential use as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from WCO with a high FFA content.

  4. Biodiesel and electrical power production through vegetable oil extraction and byproducts gasification: modeling of the system.

    PubMed

    Allesina, Giulio; Pedrazzi, Simone; Tebianian, Sina; Tartarini, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    Aim of this work is to introduce an alternative to the standard biodiesel production chain, presenting an innovative in situ system. It is based on the chemical conversion of vegetable oil from oleaginous crops in synergy with the gasification of the protein cake disposed by the seed press. The syngas from the gasifier is here used to produce electrical power while part of it is converted into methanol. The methanol is finally used to transform the vegetable oil into biodiesel. Through a coupled use of ASPEN PLUS(TM) and MATLAB(TM) codes, a rapeseed, soy and sunflower rotation, with a duration of three year, was simulated considering 15ha of soil. This surface resulted sufficient to feed a 7kWel power plant. Simulation outputs proven the system to be self-sustainable. In addition, economical NPV of the investment is presented. Finally the environmental, economical and social advantages related to this approach are discussed. PMID:25151071

  5. Preparation and characterizaton of CaO nanoparticle for biodiesel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Jharna; Agarwal, Madhu

    2016-04-01

    Nanoparticle of CaO from calcium Nitrate (CaO/CaN) and Snail shell (CaO/SS) are successfully synthesized by method as described in the literature and used as an active and stable catalyst for the biodiesel production. These catalysts are characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The average crystalline size in nanometer was also calculated by Debye-Scherrer equation. The performance of the CaO/CaN and CaO/SS were tested for their catalytic activity via transesterification process and it was found that biodiesel yield has been increased from 93 to 96%. The optimum conditions for the highest yield were 8wt% catalyst loading, 65°C temperature, 12:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, and 6 h for reaction time. The nano catalyst from snail shell exhibits excellent catalytic activity and stability for the transesterification reaction, which suggested that this catalyst would be potentially used as a solid base nano catalyst for biodiesel production. In order to examine the reusability of catalyst developed from snail shell, five transesterification reaction cycles were also performed.

  6. Real-time model based process monitoring of enzymatic biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M; Huusom, Jakob K

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we extend our modelling work on the enzymatic production of biodiesel where we demonstrate the application of a Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter (a state estimator). The state estimator is used to correct for mismatch between the process data and the process model for Fed-batch production of biodiesel. For the three process runs investigated, using a single tuning parameter, qx  = 2 × 10(-2) which represents the uncertainty in the process model, it was possible over the entire course of the reaction to reduce the overall mean and standard deviation of the error between the model and the process data for all of the five measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acid methyl esters, and free fatty acid). The most significant reduction for the three process runs, were for the monoglyceride and free fatty acid concentration. For those components, there was over a ten-fold decrease in the overall mean error for the state estimator prediction compared with the predictions from the pure model simulations. It is also shown that the state estimator can be used as a tool for detection of outliers in the measurement data. For the enzymatic biodiesel process, given the infrequent and sometimes uncertain measurements obtained we see the use of the Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter as a viable tool for real time process monitoring.

  7. Application of Biotechnology to Construct a Sustainable Biodiesel Production System on Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaodan; Liu, Yuhuan; Xu, Erni; Liu, Jianqiang; Ruan, Roger; Fu, Guiming

    2010-11-01

    The potential of microalgae biodiesel is unlimited. The ingenious combination of microalgae biomass exploitation, decontamination of municipal wastewater, and CO2 fixation may gestate the ultimate hope for solving the problem of liquid alternative fuel. However, the municipal wastewater has some characteristics, such as high content of nitrogen and phosphorus, low C/N ratio, fluctuation of loading rate, toxicity of heavy metal, etc. To overcome these problems, studies are currently underway in our laboratory. In this paper, an idea of constructing a sustainable biodiesel production system from microalgae on wastewater is assumed. The system could realize CO2 fixation, decontamination of municipal wastewater, and production of high value-added biodiesel by microalgae. Firstly, municipal wastewater is used as the cultivation media and CO2 as gaseous fertilizer for mass culture of Shuihua microalgae. So with the harvest of large quantities of low-price Shuihua microalgae, the nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals can be removed from the wastewater, and the emission of greenhouse gas can be reduced. Secondly, try to breed a high-oil content engineering microalgae by heterotrophic cultivation which could realize high-density growth through the conjunction of the advanced methods of fermentation engineering with the microalgae breeding technology. Finally, make the high-oil content engineering microalgae cultivated on the decomposed Shuihua microalgae cells, and try to make the high-oil content engineering microalgae grow rapidly in the initial stage and start oil accumulation when nitrogen is exhausted by controlling the conditions of fermentation.

  8. Optimized production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil by lipase immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chi-Yang; Huang, Liang-Yu; Kuan, I-Ching; Lee, Shiow-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipase-bound MNP was 40% (w/w of oil) and there was little difference between stepwise addition of methanol at 12 h- and 24 h-intervals. Reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil), and water content (w/w of oil) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal reaction conditions were 44.2 °C, substrate molar ratio of 5.2, and water content of 12.5%. The predicted and experimental molar conversions of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were 80% and 79%, respectively. PMID:24336109

  9. Optimized Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil by Lipase Immobilized on Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chi-Yang; Huang, Liang-Yu; Kuan, I-Ching; Lee, Shiow-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipase-bound MNP was 40% (w/w of oil) and there was little difference between stepwise addition of methanol at 12 h- and 24 h-intervals. Reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil), and water content (w/w of oil) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal reaction conditions were 44.2 °C, substrate molar ratio of 5.2, and water content of 12.5%. The predicted and experimental molar conversions of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were 80% and 79%, respectively. PMID:24336109

  10. Synergistic dynamics of nitrogen and phosphorous influences lipid productivity in Chlorella minutissima for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Arora, Neha; Patel, Alok; Pruthi, Parul A; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-08-01

    The study synergistically optimized nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations for attainment of maximum lipid productivity in Chlorella minutissima. Nitrogen and phosphorous limited cells (N(L)P(L)) showed maximum lipid productivity (49.1±0.41mg/L/d), 1.47 folds higher than control. Nitrogen depletion resulted in reduced cell size with large sized lipid droplets encompassing most of the intracellular space while discrete lipid bodies were observed under nitrogen sufficiency. Synergistic N/P starvations showed more prominent effect on photosynthetic pigments as to individual deprivations. Phosphorous deficiency along with N starvation exhibited 17.12% decline in carbohydrate while no change in nitrogen sufficient cells were recorded. The optimum N(L)P(L) concentration showed balance between biomass and lipid by maintaining intermediate cell size, pigments, carbohydrate and proteins. FAME profile showed C14-C18 carbon chains in N(L)P(L) cells with biodiesel properties comparable to plant oil methyl esters. Hence, synergistic N/P limitation was effective for enhancing lipid productivity with reduced consumption of nutrients.

  11. Bio-hydrogen production by biodiesel-derived crude glycerol bioconversion: a techno-economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Le Bihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Global biodiesel production is continuously increasing and it is proportionally accompanied by a huge amount of crude glycerol (CG) as by-product. Due to its crude nature, CG has very less commercial interest; although its pure counterpart has different industrial applications. Alternatively, CG is a very good carbon source and can be used as a feedstock for fermentative hydrogen production. Further, a move of this kind has dual benefits, namely it offers a sustainable method for disposal of biodiesel manufacturing waste as well as produces biofuels and contributes in greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction. Two-stage fermentation, comprising dark and photo-fermentation is one of the most promising options available for bio-hydrogen production. In the present study, techno-economic feasibility of such a two-stage process has been evaluated. The analysis has been made based on the recent advances in fermentative hydrogen production using CG as a feedstock. The study has been carried out with special reference to North American biodiesel market; and more specifically, data available for Canadian province, Québec City have been used. Based on our techno-economic analysis, higher production cost was found to be the major bottleneck in commercial production of fermentative hydrogen. However, certain achievable alternative options for reduction of process cost have been identified. Further, the process was found to be capable in reducing GHG emissions. Bioconversion of 1 kg of crude glycerol (70 % w/v) was found to reduce 7.66 kg CO(2) eq (equivalent) GHG emission, and the process also offers additional environmental benefits. PMID:22644063

  12. Ionic liquid as a promising biobased green solvent in combination with microwave irradiation for direct biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Wahidin, Suzana; Idris, Ani; Shaleh, Sitti Raehanah Muhamad

    2016-04-01

    The wet biomass microalgae of Nannochloropsis sp. was converted to biodiesel using direct transesterification (DT) by microwave technique and ionic liquid (IL) as the green solvent. Three different ionic liquids; 1-butyl-3-metyhlimidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl], 1-ethyl-3-methylimmidazolium methyl sulphate [EMIM][MeSO4] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethane sulfonate [BMIM][CF3SO3]) and organic solvents (hexane and methanol) were used as co-solvents under microwave irradiation and their performances in terms of percentage disruption, cell walls ruptured and biodiesel yields were compared at different reaction times (5, 10 and 15 min). [EMIM][MeSO4] showed highest percentage cell disruption (99.73%) and biodiesel yield (36.79% per dried biomass) after 15 min of simultaneous reaction. The results demonstrated that simultaneous extraction-transesterification using ILs and microwave irradiation is a potential alternative method for biodiesel production. PMID:26851899

  13. A deterministic aggregate production planning model considering quality of products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madadi, Najmeh; Yew Wong, Kuan

    2013-06-01

    Aggregate Production Planning (APP) is a medium-term planning which is concerned with the lowest-cost method of production planning to meet customers' requirements and to satisfy fluctuating demand over a planning time horizon. APP problem has been studied widely since it was introduced and formulated in 1950s. However, in several conducted studies in the APP area, most of the researchers have concentrated on some common objectives such as minimization of cost, fluctuation in the number of workers, and inventory level. Specifically, maintaining quality at the desirable level as an objective while minimizing cost has not been considered in previous studies. In this study, an attempt has been made to develop a multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model that serves those companies aiming to incur the minimum level of operational cost while maintaining quality at an acceptable level. In order to obtain the solution to the multi-objective model, the Fuzzy Goal Programming approach and max-min operator of Bellman-Zadeh were applied to the model. At the final step, IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimization Studio software was used to obtain the experimental results based on the data collected from an automotive parts manufacturing company. The results show that incorporating quality in the model imposes some costs, however a trade-off should be done between the cost resulting from producing products with higher quality and the cost that the firm may incur due to customer dissatisfaction and sale losses.

  14. Scum sludge as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production from wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Feng, Sha; Bai, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Jingchan; Xia, Siqing

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare the component and yield of biodiesel obtained by different methods from different sludge in a wastewater treatment plant. Biodiesel was produced by ex-situ and in-situ transesterification of scum, primary and secondary sludge respectively. Results showed that scum sludge had a higher calorific value and neutral lipid than that of primary and secondary sludge. The lipid yield accounted for one-third of the dried scum sludge and the maximum yield attained 22.7% under in-situ transesterification. Furthermore the gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) revealed that all sludge contained a significant amount of palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) regardless of extraction solvents and sludge types used. However, the difference lay in that oleic acid methyl ester was the dominant component in FAMEs produced from scum sludge while palmitic acid methyl ester was the dominant component in FAMEs from primary and secondary sludge. In addition, the percentage of unsaturated fatty acid ester in FAMEs from scum sludge accounted for 57.5-64.1% of the total esters, which was higher than the equivalent derived from primary and secondary sludge. In brief, scum sludge is a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel and more work is needed in the future.

  15. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Marques, Roger Vasques; Paz, Matheus Francisco da; Duval, Eduarda Hallal; Corrêa, Luciara Bilhalva; Corrêa, Érico Kunde

    2016-01-01

    The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investigated as potential energy sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise the process of Staphylococcus xylosus mediated fermentation of pork fatty waste. We also wanted to explore the possibility of fermentation effecting a modification in the lipid carbon chain to reduce its melting point and thereby act directly on one of the main technical barriers to obtaining biodiesel from this abundant source of lipids. Pork fatty waste was obtained from slaughterhouses in southern Brazil during evisceration of the carcasses and the kidney casing of slaughtered animals was used as feedstock. Fermentation was performed in BHI broth with different concentrations of fatty waste and for different time periods which enabled evaluation of the effect of fermentation time on the melting point of swine fat. The lowest melting point was observed around 46°C, indicating that these chemical and biological reactions can occur under milder conditions, and that such pre-treatment may further facilitate production of biodiesel from fatty animal waste. PMID:27266633

  16. Biodiesel production using lipase immobilized on epoxychloropropane-modified Fe3O4 sub-microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Changxia; Liu, Chunqiao; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-04-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 sub-microspheres with diameters of approximately 200 nm were prepared via a solvothermal method, and then modified with epoxychloropropane. Lipase was immobilized on the modified sub-microspheres. The immobilized lipase was used in the production of biodiesel fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from acidified waste cooking oil (AWCO). The effects of the reaction conditions on the biodiesel yield were investigated using a combination of response surface methodology and three-level/three-factor Box-Behnken design (BBD). The optimum synthetic conditions, which were identified using Ridge max analysis, were as follows: immobilized lipase:AWCO mass ratio 0.02:1, fatty acid:methanol molar ratio 1:1.10, hexane:AWCO ratio 1.33:1 (mL/g), and temperature 40 °C. A 97.11% yield was obtained under these conditions. The BBD and experimental data showed that the immobilized lipase could generate biodiesel over a wide temperature range, from 0 to 40 °C. Consistently high FAME yields, in excess of 80%, were obtained when the immobilized lipase was reused in six replicate trials at 10 and 20 °C. PMID:26803008

  17. Sonication-assisted production of biodiesel using soybean oil and supercritical methanol.

    PubMed

    Gobikrishnan, Sriramulu; Park, Jae-Hee; Park, Seok-Hwan; Indrawan, Natarianto; Rahman, Siti Fauziyah; Park, Don-Hee

    2013-06-01

    High temperature and pressure are generally required to produce biodiesel using supercritical methanol. We reduced the harsh reaction conditions by means of sonicating the reaction mixture prior to transesterification using supercritical methanol. Soybean oil was selected as the raw material for transesterification. As soybean oil contains more unsaturated fatty acid triglycerides, the biodiesel degraded more at high temperature. The reactants were sonicated for 60 min at 35 °C prior to transesterification to avoid degradation of the product and to enhance biodiesel yield at temperatures <300 °C. The process parameters were optimized using central composite design. The variables selected for optimization were temperature, time, and the oil to methanol molar ratio. The temperature and oil to methanol molar ratios were varied from 250 to 280 °C and 1:40-1:50, respectively. The reaction time was tested between 4 and 12 min. The biodiesel was analyzed for any possible degradation by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and for the wt% of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) obtained. The maximum FAME yield (84.2 wt%) was obtained at a temperature of 265.7 °C, an oil to alcohol molar ratio of 1:44.7, and a time of 8.8 min. The optimum yield was obtained at a pressure of 1,500 psi. The pressure and optimum temperature used to obtain the maximum yield were the lowest reported so far without the use of a co-solvent. Thus, the severity of the supercritical reactions was reduced by adding sonication prior to the reaction. PMID:23380939

  18. Ceramic ware waste as coarse aggregate for structural concrete production.

    PubMed

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia M; Guerra-Romero, M Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture of any kind of product inevitably entails the production of waste. The quantity of waste generated by the ceramic industry, a very important sector in Spain, is between 5% and 8% of the final output and it is therefore necessary to find an effective waste recovery method. The aim of the study reported in the present article was to seek a sustainable means of managing waste from the ceramic industry through the incorporation of this type of waste in the total replacement of conventional aggregate (gravel) used in structural concrete. Having verified that the recycled ceramic aggregates met all the technical requirements imposed by current Spanish legislation, established in the Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08), then it is prepared a control concrete mix and the recycled concrete mix using 100% recycled ceramic aggregate instead of coarse natural aggregate. The concretes obtained were subjected to the appropriate tests in order to conduct a comparison of their mechanical properties. The results show that the concretes made using ceramic sanitary ware aggregate possessed the same mechanical properties as those made with conventional aggregate. It is therefore possible to conclude that the reuse of recycled ceramic aggregate to produce recycled concrete is a feasible alternative for the sustainable management of this waste. PMID:25188783

  19. Ceramic ware waste as coarse aggregate for structural concrete production.

    PubMed

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia M; Guerra-Romero, M Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture of any kind of product inevitably entails the production of waste. The quantity of waste generated by the ceramic industry, a very important sector in Spain, is between 5% and 8% of the final output and it is therefore necessary to find an effective waste recovery method. The aim of the study reported in the present article was to seek a sustainable means of managing waste from the ceramic industry through the incorporation of this type of waste in the total replacement of conventional aggregate (gravel) used in structural concrete. Having verified that the recycled ceramic aggregates met all the technical requirements imposed by current Spanish legislation, established in the Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08), then it is prepared a control concrete mix and the recycled concrete mix using 100% recycled ceramic aggregate instead of coarse natural aggregate. The concretes obtained were subjected to the appropriate tests in order to conduct a comparison of their mechanical properties. The results show that the concretes made using ceramic sanitary ware aggregate possessed the same mechanical properties as those made with conventional aggregate. It is therefore possible to conclude that the reuse of recycled ceramic aggregate to produce recycled concrete is a feasible alternative for the sustainable management of this waste.

  20. 1,3-Propanediol production from crude glycerol from Jatropha biodiesel process.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Anand; Kannabiran, Mithra; Rangaswamy, Vidhya

    2011-01-31

    The present report describes production of 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 15380 from crude glycerol from jatropha biodiesel process. Optimization resulted in a yield of up to 56g/L of 1,3-propanediol. A conversion rate of 0.85mol 1,3-propanediol/mol of glycerol has been obtained. Downstream processing to isolate 1,3-propanediol from the fermentation broth resulted in 99.7% pure product with a recovery of 34%. The pure 1,3-propanediol was polymerized with terephthalic acid successfully to yield polytrimethylene terephthalate.

  1. Co-utilization of corn stover hydrolysates and biodiesel-derived glycerol by Cryptococcus curvatus for lipid production.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhiwei; Zhou, Wenting; Shen, Hongwei; Zhao, Zongbao K; Yang, Zhonghua; Yan, Jiabao; Zhao, Mi

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, synergistic effects were observed when glycerol was co-fermented with glucose and xylose for lipid production by the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus. Glycerol was assimilated simultaneously with sugars at the beginning of the culture without adaption time. Furthermore, better lipid production results, i.e., lipid yield and lipid productivity of 18.0g/100g and 0.13g/L/h, respectively, were achieved when cells were cultured in blends of corn stover hydrolysates and biodiesel-derived glycerol than those in the hydrolysates alone. The lipid samples had fatty acid compositional profiles similar to those of vegetable oils, suggesting their potential for biodiesel production. This co-utilization strategy provides an extremely simple solution to advance lipid production from both lignocelluloses and biodiesel-derived glycerol in one step.

  2. Co-utilization of corn stover hydrolysates and biodiesel-derived glycerol by Cryptococcus curvatus for lipid production.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhiwei; Zhou, Wenting; Shen, Hongwei; Zhao, Zongbao K; Yang, Zhonghua; Yan, Jiabao; Zhao, Mi

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, synergistic effects were observed when glycerol was co-fermented with glucose and xylose for lipid production by the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus. Glycerol was assimilated simultaneously with sugars at the beginning of the culture without adaption time. Furthermore, better lipid production results, i.e., lipid yield and lipid productivity of 18.0g/100g and 0.13g/L/h, respectively, were achieved when cells were cultured in blends of corn stover hydrolysates and biodiesel-derived glycerol than those in the hydrolysates alone. The lipid samples had fatty acid compositional profiles similar to those of vegetable oils, suggesting their potential for biodiesel production. This co-utilization strategy provides an extremely simple solution to advance lipid production from both lignocelluloses and biodiesel-derived glycerol in one step. PMID:27529520

  3. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The considerable increase in biodiesel production worldwide in the last 5 years resulted in a stoichiometric increased coproduction of crude glycerol. As an excess of crude glycerol has been produced, its value on market was reduced and it is becoming a “waste-stream” instead of a valuable “coproduct”. The development of biorefineries, i.e. production of chemicals and power integrated with conversion processes of biomass into biofuels, has been singled out as a way to achieve economically viable production chains, valorize residues and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated. This review summarizes different strategies employed to produce biofuels and chemicals (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, n-butanol, organic acids, polyols and others) by microbial fermentation of glycerol. Initially, the industrial use of each chemical is briefly presented; then we systematically summarize and discuss the different strategies to produce each chemical, including selection and genetic engineering of producers, and optimization of process conditions to improve yield and productivity. Finally, the impact of the developments obtained until now are placed in perspective and opportunities and challenges for using crude glycerol to the development of biodiesel-based biorefineries are considered. In conclusion, the microbial fermentation of glycerol represents a remarkable alternative to add value to the biodiesel production chain helping the development of biorefineries, which will allow this biofuel to be more competitive. PMID:22809320

  4. Archaeal Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Co- and Terpolyesters from Biodiesel Industry-Derived By-Products

    PubMed Central

    Hermann-Krauss, Carmen; Koller, Martin; Stelzer, Franz; Braunegg, Gerhart

    2013-01-01

    The archaeon Haloferax mediterranei was selected for production of PHA co- and terpolyesters using inexpensive crude glycerol phase (CGP) from biodiesel production as carbon source. CGP was assessed by comparison with the application of pure glycerol. Applying pure glycerol, a copolyester with a molar fraction of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) of 0.90 mol/mol and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) of 0.10 mol/mol, was produced at a volumetric productivity of 0.12 g/Lh and an intracellular PHA content of 75.4 wt.-% in the sum of biomass protein plus PHA. Application of CGP resulted in the same polyester composition and volumetric productivity, indicating the feasibility of applying CGP as feedstock. Analysis of molar mass distribution revealed a weight average molar mass Mw of 150 kDa and polydispersity Pi of 2.1 for pure glycerol and 253 kDa and 2.7 for CGP, respectively; melting temperatures ranged between 130 and 140°C in both setups. Supplying γ-butyrolactone as 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) precursor resulted in a poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R)-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate] (PHBHV4HB) terpolyester containing 3HV (0.12 mol/mol) and 4HB (0.05 mol/mol) in the poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) matrix; in addition, this process runs without sterilization of the bioreactor. The terpolyester displayed reduced melting (melting endotherms at 122 and 137°C) and glass transition temperature (2.5°C), increased molar mass (391 kDa), and a polydispersity similar to the copolyesters. PMID:24453697

  5. Microalgae from the Selenastraceae as emerging candidates for biodiesel production: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Yee, Willy

    2016-04-01

    Over the years, microalgae have been identified to be a potential source of commercially important products such as pigments, polysaccharides, polyunsaturated fatty acids and in particular, biofuels. Current demands for sustainable fuel sources and bioproducts has led to an extensive search for promising strains of microalgae for large scale cultivation. Prospective strains identified for these purposes were among others, mainly from the genera Hematococcus, Dunaliella, Botryococcus, Chlorella, Scenedesmus and Nannochloropsis. Recently, microalgae from the Selenastraceae emerged as potential candidates for biodiesel production. Strains from the Selenastraceae such as Monoraphidium sp. FXY-10, M. contortum SAG 47.80, Ankistrodesmus sp. SP2-15 and M. minutum were high biomass and lipid producers when cultivated under optimal conditions. A number of Selenastraceae strains were also reported to be suitable for cultivation in wastewater. This review highlights recent reports on potential strains from the Selenastraceae for biodiesel production and contrasts their biomass productivity, lipid productivity as well as fatty acid profile. Cultivation strategies employed to enhance their biomass and lipid productivity as well as to reduce feedstock cost are also discussed in this paper. PMID:26931604

  6. Evaluation of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Pseudomonas putida LS46 using biodiesel by-product streams.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Umesh; Sparling, Richard; Cicek, Nazim; Levin, David B

    2014-07-01

    Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) production by Pseudomonas putida LS46 was analyzed in shake-flask-based batch reactions, using pure chemical-grade glycerol (PG), biodiesel-derived "waste" glycerol (WG), and biodiesel-derived "waste" free fatty acids (WFA). Cell growth, substrate consumption, mcl-PHA accumulation within the cells, and the monomer composition of the synthesized biopolymers were monitored. The patterns of mcl-PHA synthesis in P. putida LS46 cells grown on PG and WG were similar but differed from that of cells grown with WFA. Polymer accumulation in glycerol-based cultures was stimulated by nitrogen limitation and plateaued after 48 h in both PG and WG cultures, with a total accumulation of 17.9% cell dry mass and 16.3% cell dry mass, respectively. In contrast, mcl-PHA synthesis was independent of nitrogen concentration in P. putida LS46 cells cultured with WFA, which accumulated to 29% cell dry mass. In all cases, the mcl-PHAs synthesized consisted primarily of 3-hydroxyoctanoate (C(8)) and 3-hydroxydecanoate (C(10)). WG and WFA supported similar or greater cell growth and mcl-PHA accumulation than PG under the experimental conditions used. These results suggest that biodiesel by-product streams could be used as low-cost carbon sources for sustainable mcl-PHA production.

  7. Biodiesel Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2014-07-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends and specifications. It also covers how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance (including in cold weather) and whether there are adverse effects on engines or other systems. Finally, it discusses biodiesel fuel quality and standards, and compares biodiesel emissions to those of diesel fuel.

  8. Phytohormone supplementation significantly increases growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultivated for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Kun; Yoo, Gursong; Moon, Myounghoon; Kim, Chul Woong; Choi, Yoon-E; Yang, Ji-Won

    2013-11-01

    Cultivation is the most expensive step in the production of biodiesel from microalgae, and substantial research has been devoted to developing more cost-effective cultivation methods. Plant hormones (phytohormones) are chemical messengers that regulate various aspects of growth and development and are typically active at very low concentrations. In this study, we investigated the effect of different phytohormones on microalgal growth and biodiesel production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and their potential to lower the overall cost of commercial biofuel production. The results indicated that all five of the tested phytohormones (indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid, kinetin, 1-triacontanol, and abscisic acid) promoted microalgal growth. In particular, hormone treatment increased biomass production by 54 to 69 % relative to the control growth medium (Tris-acetate-phosphate, TAP). Phytohormone treatments also affected microalgal cell morphology but had no effect on the yields of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as a percent of biomass. We also tested the effect of these phytohormones on microalgal growth in nitrogen-limited media by supplementation in the early stationary phase. Maximum cell densities after addition of phytohormones were higher than in TAP medium, even when the nitrogen source was reduced to 40 % of that in TAP medium. Taken together, our results indicate that phytohormones significantly increased microalgal growth, particularly in nitrogen-limited media, and have potential for use in the development of efficient microalgal cultivation for biofuel production. PMID:23881782

  9. Phytohormone supplementation significantly increases growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultivated for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Kun; Yoo, Gursong; Moon, Myounghoon; Kim, Chul Woong; Choi, Yoon-E; Yang, Ji-Won

    2013-11-01

    Cultivation is the most expensive step in the production of biodiesel from microalgae, and substantial research has been devoted to developing more cost-effective cultivation methods. Plant hormones (phytohormones) are chemical messengers that regulate various aspects of growth and development and are typically active at very low concentrations. In this study, we investigated the effect of different phytohormones on microalgal growth and biodiesel production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and their potential to lower the overall cost of commercial biofuel production. The results indicated that all five of the tested phytohormones (indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid, kinetin, 1-triacontanol, and abscisic acid) promoted microalgal growth. In particular, hormone treatment increased biomass production by 54 to 69 % relative to the control growth medium (Tris-acetate-phosphate, TAP). Phytohormone treatments also affected microalgal cell morphology but had no effect on the yields of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as a percent of biomass. We also tested the effect of these phytohormones on microalgal growth in nitrogen-limited media by supplementation in the early stationary phase. Maximum cell densities after addition of phytohormones were higher than in TAP medium, even when the nitrogen source was reduced to 40 % of that in TAP medium. Taken together, our results indicate that phytohormones significantly increased microalgal growth, particularly in nitrogen-limited media, and have potential for use in the development of efficient microalgal cultivation for biofuel production.

  10. Assessment of Chemical and Physico-Chemical Properties of Cyanobacterial Lipids for Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Da Rós, Patrícia C. M.; Silva, Caroline S. P.; Silva-Stenico, Maria E.; Fiore, Marli F.; De Castro, Heizir F.

    2013-01-01

    Five non-toxin producing cyanobacterial isolates from the genera Synechococcus, Trichormus, Microcystis, Leptolyngbya and Chlorogloea were examined in terms of quantity and quality as lipid feedstock for biofuel production. Under the conditions used in this study, the biomass productivity ranged from 3.7 to 52.7 mg·L−1·day−1 in relation to dry biomass, while the lipid productivity varied between 0.8 and 14.2 mg·L−1·day−1. All cyanobacterial strains evaluated yielded lipids with similar fatty acid composition to those present in the seed oils successfully used for biodiesel synthesis. However, by combining biomass and lipid productivity parameters, the greatest potential was found for Synechococcus sp. PCC7942, M. aeruginosa NPCD-1 and Trichormus sp. CENA77. The chosen lipid samples were further characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), viscosity and thermogravimetry and used as lipid feedstock for biodiesel synthesis by heterogeneous catalysis. PMID:23880929

  11. Activated carbons from waste biomass: an alternative use for biodiesel production solid residues.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Anne A; Franca, Adriana S; Oliveira, Leandro S

    2009-03-01

    Defective coffee press cake, a residue from coffee oil biodiesel production, was evaluated as raw material for production of an adsorbent for removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. Batch adsorption tests were performed at 25 degrees C and the effects of particle size, contact time, adsorbent dosage and pH were investigated. Preliminary adsorption tests indicated that thermal treatment is necessary in order to improve adsorption capacity. Adsorption kinetics was determined by fitting first and second-order kinetic models to the experimental data, with the second-order model providing the best description of MB adsorption onto the prepared adsorbent. The experimental adsorption equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption models, with the last two providing the best fits. The experimental data obtained in the present study indicated that this type of waste material is a suitable candidate for use in the production of adsorbents for removal of cationic dyes, thus contributing for the implementation of sustainable development in both the coffee and biodiesel production chains.

  12. Biodiesel Production from Chlorella protothecoides Oil by Microwave-Assisted Transesterification

    PubMed Central

    Gülyurt, Mustafa Ömer; Özçimen, Didem; İnan, Benan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, biodiesel production from microalgal oil by microwave-assisted transesterification was carried out to investigate its efficiency. Transesterification reactions were performed by using Chlorella protothecoides oil as feedstock, methanol, and potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. Methanol:oil ratio, reaction time and catalyst:oil ratio were investigated as process parameters affected methyl ester yield. 9:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, 1.5% KOH catalyst/oil ratio and 10 min were optimum values for the highest fatty acid methyl ester yield. PMID:27110772

  13. Integration of algae cultivation as biodiesel production feedstock with municipal wastewater treatment: strains screening and significance evaluation of environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Li, Yecong; Zhou, Wenguang; Hu, Bing; Min, Min; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger R

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to find the robust strains for the centrate cultivation system and to evaluate the effect of environmental factors including light intensity, light-dark cycle, and exogenous CO2 concentration on biomass accumulation, wastewater nutrient removal and biodiesel production. The results showed that all 14 algae strains from the genus of Chlorella, Haematococcus, Scenedesmus, Chlamydomonas, and Chloroccum were able to grow on centrate. The highest net biomass accumulation (2.01 g/L) was observed with Chlorella kessleri followed by Chlorella protothecoides (1.31 g/L), and both of them were proved to be capable of mixotrophic growth when cultivated on centrate. Environmental factors had significant effect on algal biomass accumulation, wastewater nutrients removal and biodiesel production. Higher light intensity and exogenous CO2 concentration with longer lighting period promote biomass accumulation, biodiesel production, as well as the removal of chemical oxygen demand and nitrogen, while, lower exogenous CO2 concentration promotes phosphorus removal.

  14. Production of manufactured aggregates from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.M.; McCoy, D.C.; Fenger, M.L.; Scandrol, R.O.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Statnick, R.M.

    1999-07-01

    CONSOL R and D has developed a disk pelletization process to produce manufactured aggregates from the by-products of various technologies designed to reduce sulfur emissions produced from coal utilization. Aggregates have been produced from the by-products of the Coolside and LIMB sorbent injection, the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), spray dryer absorption (SDA), and lime and limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. The aggregates produced meet the general specifications for use as road aggregate in road construction and for use as lightweight aggregate in concrete masonry units. Small field demonstrations with 1200 lb to 5000 lb of manufactured aggregates were conducted using aggregates produced from FBC ash and lime wet FGD sludge in road construction and using aggregates made from SDA ash and lime wet FGD sludge to manufacture concrete blocks. The aggregates for this work were produced with a bench-scale (200--400 lb batch) unit. In 1999, CONSOL R and D constructed and operated a 500 lb/hr integrated, continuous pilot plant. A variety of aggregate products were produced from lime wet FGD sludge. The pilot plant test successfully demonstrated the continuous, integrated operation of the process. The pilot plant demonstration was a major step toward commercialization of manufactured aggregate production from FGD by-products. In this paper, progress made in the production of aggregates from dry FGD (Coolside, LIMB, SDA) and FBC by-products, and lime wet FGD sludge is discussed. The discussion covers bench-scale and pilot plant aggregate production and aggregate field demonstrations.

  15. Biodiesel fuel production from waste cooking oil by the inclusion complex of heteropoly acid with bridged bis-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Zou, Changjun; Zhao, Pinwen; Shi, Lihong; Huang, Shaobing; Luo, Pingya

    2013-10-01

    The inclusion complex of Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 with bridged bis-cyclodextrin (CsPW/B) is prepared as a highly efficient catalyst for the direct production of biodiesel via the transesterification of waste cooking oil. CsPW/B is characterized by X-ray diffraction, and the biodiesel is analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer. The conversion rate of waste cooking oil is up to 94.2% under the optimum experimental conditions that are methanol/oil molar ratio of 9:1, catalyst dosage of 3 wt%, temperature of 65 °C and reaction time of 180 min. The physical properties of biodiesel sample satisfy the requirement of ASTM D6751 standards. The novel CsPW/B catalyst used for the transesterification can lead to 96.9% fatty acid methyl esters and 86.5% of the biodiesel product can serve as the ideal substitute for diesel fuel, indicating its excellent potential application in biodiesel production.

  16. Whole-cell based solvent-free system for one-pot production of biodiesel from waste grease.

    PubMed

    Li, Aitao; Ngo, Thao P N; Yan, Jinyong; Tian, Kaiyuan; Li, Zhi

    2012-06-01

    A whole-cell based solvent-free system was developed for efficient conversion of waste grease to biodiesel via one-pot esterification and transesterification. By isolation and screening of lipase-producing strains from soil, Serratia marcescens YXJ-1002 was discovered for the biotransformation of grease to biodiesel. The lipase (SML) from this strain was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as an intracellular enzyme, showing 6 times higher whole-cell based hydrolysis activity than that of wild type strain. The recombinant cells were used for biodiesel production from waste grease in one-pot reactions containing no solvent with the addition of methanol in several small portions, and 97% yield of biodiesel (FAME) was achieved under optimized conditions. In addition, the whole-cell biocatalysts showed excellent reusability, retaining 74% productivity after 4 cycles. The developed system, biocatalyst, and process enable the efficient, low-cost, and green production of biodiesel from waste grease, providing with a potential industrial application. PMID:22483351

  17. Production of biodiesel from coastal macroalgae (Chara vulgaris) and optimization of process parameters using Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Siddiqua, Shaila; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Enayetul Babar, Sheikh Md

    2015-01-01

    Renewable biodiesels are needed as an alternative to petroleum-derived transport fuels, which contribute to global warming and are of limited availability. Algae biomass, are a potential source of renewable energy, and they can be converted into energy such as biofuels. This study introduces an integrated method for the production of biodiesel from Chara vulgaris algae collected from the coastal region of Bangladesh. The Box-Behnken design based on response surface methods (RSM) used as the statistical tool to optimize three variables for predicting the best performing conditions (calorific value and yield) of algae biodiesel. The three parameters for production condition were chloroform (X1), sodium chloride concentration (X2) and temperature (X3). Optimal conditions were estimated by the aid of statistical regression analysis and surface plot chart. The optimal condition of biodiesel production parameter for 12 g of dry algae biomass was observed to be 198 ml chloroform with 0.75 % sodium chloride at 65 °C temperature, where the calorific value of biodiesel is 9255.106 kcal/kg and yield 3.6 ml. PMID:26636008

  18. Isolation and characterization of microalgae for biodiesel production from seawater.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liu; Qi, Yun; Chen, Guanyi

    2015-05-01

    As green marine microalgae isolated from local seawater in Tianjin, China, Nannochloropsis gaditana Q6 was tolerant to the variation of salinity with the highest biomass and lipid concentration in natural seawater medium. Although this strain could grow mixotrophically with glycerol, the narrow gap between mixotrophic and autotrophic cultivation suggested that autotrophic cultivation was the optimal trophic type for N. gaditana Q6 growth. In addition, strain Q6 was more sensitive to the variance of NH4HCO3 concentration than NaH2PO4 concentration. Consequently, the lipid production could be maximized by the two-stage cultivation strategy, with an initial high NH4HCO3 concentration for biomass production followed by low NH4HCO3 concentration for lipid accumulation. PMID:25453432

  19. Cultivation Of Microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) For Biodiesel Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Gerulová, Kristína

    2015-06-01

    Production of biofuel from renewable sources is considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to petroleum sourced fuels. Biofuels are also viable means of environmental and economic sustainability. Biofuels are divided into four generations, depending on the type of biomass used for biofuels production. At present, microalgae are presented as an ideal third generation biofuel feedstock because of their rapid growth rate. They also do not compete with food or feed crops, and can be produced on non-arable land. Cultivation conditions (temperature, pH, light, nutrient quantity and quality, salinity, aerating) are the major factors that influence photosynthesis activity and behaviour of the microalgae growth rate. In this paper, we present an overview about the effect of cultivation conditions on microalgae growth.

  20. Comparison of oil refining and biodiesel production process between screw press and n-hexane techniques from beauty leaf feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiya, M. M. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K.; Ashwath, N.

    2016-07-01

    The Beauty Leaf Tree (Callophylum inophyllum) is regarded as an alternative source of energy to produce 2nd generation biodiesel due to its potentiality as well as high oil yield content in the seed kernels. The treating process is indispensable during the biodiesel production process because it can augment the yield as well as quality of the product. Oil extracted from both mechanical screw press and solvent extraction using n-hexane was refined. Five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for screw press and five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for n-hexane were selected for refining as well as biodiesel conversion processes. The oil refining processes consists of degumming, neutralization as well as dewaxing. The degumming, neutralization and dewaxing processes were performed to remove all the gums (phosphorous-based compounds), free fatty acids, and waxes from the fresh crude oil before the biodiesel conversion process carried out, respectively. The results indicated that up to 73% and 81% of mass conversion efficiency of the refined oil in the screw press and n-hexane refining processes were obtained, respectively. It was also found that up to 88% and 90% of biodiesel were yielded in terms of mass conversion efficiency in the transesterification process for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. While the entire processes (refining and transesterification) were considered, the conversion of beauty leaf tree (BLT) refined oil into biodiesel was yielded up to 65% and 73% of mass conversion efficiency for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. Physico-chemical properties of crude and refined oil, and biodiesel were characterized according to the ASTM standards. Overall, BLT has the potential to contribute as an alternative energy source because of high mass conversion efficiency.

  1. Effects of co-products on the life-cycle impacts of microalgal biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Soratana, Kullapa; Barr, William J; Landis, Amy E

    2014-05-01

    Microalgal biodiesel production has been investigated for decades, yet it is not commercially available. Part of the problem is that the production process is energy and chemical intensive due, in part, to the high portion of microalgal biomass left as residues. This study investigated cradle-to-gate life-cycle environmental impacts from six different scenarios of microalgal biodiesel and its co-products. Ozone depletion, global warming, photochemical smog formation, acidification and eutrophication potentials were assessed using the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI). Monte Carlo Analysis was conducted to investigate the processes with major contribution in each impact category. The market opportunity for each co-product was examined based on supply, demand and prices of the products that could potentially be substituted by the co-products. The results indicated that the scenario with the least life-cycle environmental impacts in all the five impact categories with the highest net energy ratio was the scenario utilizing a multitude of co-products including bioethanol from lipid-extracted microalgae (LEA), biomethane (to produce electricity and heat) from simultaneous saccharification-fermentation (SSF) residues, land-applied material from SSF residue anaerobic digestion (AD) solid digestate, recycling nutrients from SSF residue AD liquid digestate and CO2 recovered from SSF process contributed. Decreasing the energy consumption of the centrifuge in the land-applied material production process and increasing the lipid content of microalgae can reduce environmental footprints of the co-products. The same scenario also had the highest total income indicating their potential as co-products in the market.

  2. Effects of co-products on the life-cycle impacts of microalgal biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Soratana, Kullapa; Barr, William J; Landis, Amy E

    2014-05-01

    Microalgal biodiesel production has been investigated for decades, yet it is not commercially available. Part of the problem is that the production process is energy and chemical intensive due, in part, to the high portion of microalgal biomass left as residues. This study investigated cradle-to-gate life-cycle environmental impacts from six different scenarios of microalgal biodiesel and its co-products. Ozone depletion, global warming, photochemical smog formation, acidification and eutrophication potentials were assessed using the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI). Monte Carlo Analysis was conducted to investigate the processes with major contribution in each impact category. The market opportunity for each co-product was examined based on supply, demand and prices of the products that could potentially be substituted by the co-products. The results indicated that the scenario with the least life-cycle environmental impacts in all the five impact categories with the highest net energy ratio was the scenario utilizing a multitude of co-products including bioethanol from lipid-extracted microalgae (LEA), biomethane (to produce electricity and heat) from simultaneous saccharification-fermentation (SSF) residues, land-applied material from SSF residue anaerobic digestion (AD) solid digestate, recycling nutrients from SSF residue AD liquid digestate and CO2 recovered from SSF process contributed. Decreasing the energy consumption of the centrifuge in the land-applied material production process and increasing the lipid content of microalgae can reduce environmental footprints of the co-products. The same scenario also had the highest total income indicating their potential as co-products in the market. PMID:24650529

  3. Novel schemes for production of biodiesel and value-added co-products from microalgal oil using heterogeneous catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Tao

    Microalgae are promising sources of biofuels primarily because of their higher potential productivity compared to terrestrial biofuel crops. However, the production of liquid fuels from microalgae suffers from a lack of viable methods of extraction, conversion and fractionation of various components of the algal biomass. In this dissertation study, a rapid method was developed to accurately evaluate the biodiesel potential of microalgae biomass. The major advantage of this method is in situ fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) preparation directly from wet fresh microalgal and yeast biomass, without prior solvent extraction or dehydration. FAMEs were prepared by a sequential alkaline hydrolysis and acidic esterification process. This method can be used even with high amount of water in the biomass and is applicable to a vast range of microalgae and yeast species. A two-step in situ process was also investigated in this study to obtain a high FAME yield from microalgae biomass that had high free fatty acids (FFA) content. This process has the potential to reduce the production cost of microalgae-derived FAME and be more environmental compatible due to the higher FAME yield with reduced catalyst consumption. A cost-effective bio-char based catalyst was tested for the two-step biodiesel production. The results indicated that the bio-char catalyst was superior to commercial Amberly-15. A scalable chlorophyll remove process was also developed as a part of the system. The research resulted in a practical and cost-effective approach for producing biodiesel from crude microalgal oil. An integrated approach was explored in the fourth part of the study to produce biodiesel and fractionate high-value polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Zeolites were employed as the catalyst for selective esterification of fatty acids according to their chain length and degree of saturation. Low-value short chain FFA could be largely converted into FAME, while PUFA would remain unreacted due to

  4. Evaluation of malt spent rootlets biochar as catalyst for biodiesel production.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantiora, Dimitra

    2014-05-01

    Evaluation of malt spent rootlets biochar as catalyst for biodiesel production. Dimitra Pantiora1, Hrissi K. Karapanagioti1, Ioannis D. Manariotis2, Alexis Lycourghiotis1, Christos Kordulis1,3 (1) University of Patras, Department of Chemistry, GR 26500, Patras, Greece, (2) University of Patras, Department of Civil Engineering, Patras, Greece, (3) Institute of Chemical Engineering Science (FORTH/ ICE-HT), Stadiou Str., Platani, GR 26500, Patras, Greece Biodiesel is an attractive renewable fuel, environmentally friendly, and can readily be synthesized from the triglycerides found in animal fats and vegetable oils. It can be used in existing engines. Biodiesel consists of fatty acid alkyl esters. Conversion of triglycerides to biodiesel fuel is commonly achieved through a series of transesterification reactions involving the reaction of an alkoxy group of an ester (i.e., mono-, di-, or triglyceride) with that of a small alcohol (usually methanol). This reaction is traditionally catalyzed by homogeneous catalysts, such as bases or mineral acids. Basic catalysts have been proved to be much more active than acidic ones. However, due to environmental (waste water) and economic concerns (catalyst separation and product and by-product cleaning), heterogeneous catalysts are much more desirable. In the present study we have evaluated the use of biochar, produced from malt spent rootlets, as a potential basic catalyst, for transesterification of triglycerides using triacetin as a probe molecule. The biochar used in this study was prepared by heating malt spent rootlets in an oxygen-limited environment. It is a carbon rich material, containing 66% C, 22% O, 0.45% Mg, 0.86% Si, 5.7% K, 1.5% Cl, 0.61% Ca, and 2.4% P. Aqueous suspension of this material equilibrates at pH= 10. This is probably due to high K content. Furthermore, it exhibits high specific surface area (SSA= 183 m2g-1). The above described characteristics make this material very promising catalyst for

  5. Biorefining of by-product streams from sunflower-based biodiesel production plants for integrated synthesis of microbial oil and value-added co-products.

    PubMed

    Leiva-Candia, D E; Tsakona, S; Kopsahelis, N; García, I L; Papanikolaou, S; Dorado, M P; Koutinas, A A

    2015-08-01

    This study focuses on the valorisation of crude glycerol and sunflower meal (SFM) from conventional biodiesel production plants for the separation of value-added co-products (antioxidant-rich extracts and protein isolate) and for enhancing biodiesel production through microbial oil synthesis. Microbial oil production was evaluated using three oleaginous yeast strains (Rhodosporidium toruloides, Lipomyces starkeyi and Cryptococcus curvatus) cultivated on crude glycerol and nutrient-rich hydrolysates derived from either whole SFM or SFM fractions that remained after separation of value-added co-products. Fed-batch bioreactor cultures with R. toruloides led to the production of 37.4gL(-1) of total dry weight with a microbial oil content of 51.3% (ww(-1)) when a biorefinery concept based on SFM fractionation was employed. The estimated biodiesel properties conformed with the limits set by the EN 14214 and ASTM D 6751 standards. The estimated cold filter plugging point (7.3-8.6°C) of the lipids produced by R. toruloides is closer to that of biodiesel derived from palm oil.

  6. Catalysis in biodiesel processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A substantial industry has grown in recent years to achieve the industrial scale production of biodiesel, a renewable replacement for petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The prevalent technology for biodiesel production at this time involves use of the long known single-use catalysts sodium hydroxide (o...

  7. Microalgal species growing on piggery wastewater as a valuable candidate for nutrient removal and biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Ji, Min-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Paeng, Ki-Jung; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2013-01-30

    Six microalgal species were examined in this study to determine their effectiveness in the coupling of piggery wastewater treatment and biodiesel production. The dry biomasses of Ourococcus multisporus, Nitzschia cf. pusilla, Chlamydomonas mexicana, Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella vulgaris, and Micractinium reisseri were 0.34 ± 0.08, 0.37 ± 0.13, 0.56 ± 0.35, 0.53 ± 0.30, 0.49 ± 0.26, and 0.35 ± 0.08 g dwt/L, respectively. The highest removal of nitrogen (62%), phosphorus (28%), and inorganic carbon (29%) were achieved by C. mexicana. In the absence of microalgae, the spontaneous precipitation of phosphorus, calcium, and inorganic carbon occurred at slightly alkaline pH. The highest lipid productivity and lipid content (0.31 ± 0.03 g/L and 33 ± 3%, respectively) were found in C. mexicana. The fatty acid compositions of the studied species were mainly palmitic, linoleic, α-linolenic, and oleic. The results of our study suggest that C. mexicana is one of the most promising candidates for simultaneous nutrient removal and high-efficient biodiesel production.

  8. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Multivariate Analysis for Identification of Different Vegetable Oils Used in Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Daniela; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Marder, Luciano; da Costa, Adilson Ben; de Cássia de Souza Schneider, Rosana

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use infrared spectroscopy to identify vegetable oils used as raw material for biodiesel production and apply multivariate analysis to the data. Six different vegetable oil sources—canola, cotton, corn, palm, sunflower and soybeans—were used to produce biodiesel batches. The spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR). For the multivariate analysis principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), interval principal component analysis (iPCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used. The results indicate that is possible to develop a methodology to identify vegetable oils used as raw material in the production of biodiesel by FTIR-UATR applying multivariate analysis. It was also observed that the iPCA found the best spectral range for separation of biodiesel batches using FTIR-UATR data, and with this result, the SIMCA method classified 100% of the soybean biodiesel samples. PMID:23539030

  9. Ultrasound intensification suppresses the need of methanol excess during the biodiesel production with Lipozyme TL-IM.

    PubMed

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Botelho, Claudia; Ribeiro, Artur; Castro, Rita; Pereira, Maria Alcina; Gogate, Parag R; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis of biodiesel from sunflower oil and methanol based on transesterification using the immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL-IM) has been investigated under silent conditions and under an ultrasound field. Ultrasound assisted process led to reduced processing time and requirement of lower enzyme dosage. We found for the first time that oil to methanol ratio of 1:3 was favored for the ultrasound assisted enzymatic process which is lower than that observed for the case of conventional stirring based approach (ratio of 1.4). Our results indicate that intensification provided by ultrasound suppresses the need of the excess of the methanol reactant during the enzymatic biodiesel production. Ultrasound assisted enzymatic biodiesel production is therefore a faster and a cleaner processes.

  10. Ultrasound intensification suppresses the need of methanol excess during the biodiesel production with Lipozyme TL-IM.

    PubMed

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Botelho, Claudia; Ribeiro, Artur; Castro, Rita; Pereira, Maria Alcina; Gogate, Parag R; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis of biodiesel from sunflower oil and methanol based on transesterification using the immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL-IM) has been investigated under silent conditions and under an ultrasound field. Ultrasound assisted process led to reduced processing time and requirement of lower enzyme dosage. We found for the first time that oil to methanol ratio of 1:3 was favored for the ultrasound assisted enzymatic process which is lower than that observed for the case of conventional stirring based approach (ratio of 1.4). Our results indicate that intensification provided by ultrasound suppresses the need of the excess of the methanol reactant during the enzymatic biodiesel production. Ultrasound assisted enzymatic biodiesel production is therefore a faster and a cleaner processes. PMID:25934125

  11. Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis and kinetics of ultrasonic-assisted biodiesel production from waste tallow.

    PubMed

    Adewale, Peter; Dumont, Marie-Josée; Ngadi, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The use of ultrasonic processing was evaluated for its ability to achieve adequate mixing while providing sufficient activation energy for the enzymatic transesterification of waste tallow. The effects of ultrasonic parameters (amplitude, cycle and pulse) and major reaction factors (molar ratio and enzyme concentration) on the reaction kinetics of biodiesel generation from waste tallow bio-catalyzed by immobilized lipase [Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB)] were investigated. Three sets of experiments namely A, B, and C were conducted. In experiment set A, two factors (ultrasonic amplitude and cycle) were investigated at three levels; in experiment set B, two factors (molar ratio and enzyme concentration) were examined at three levels; and in experiment set C, two factors (ultrasonic amplitude and reaction time) were investigated at five levels. A Ping Pong Bi Bi kinetic model approach was employed to study the effect of ultrasonic amplitude on the enzymatic transesterification. Kinetic constants of transesterification reaction were determined at different ultrasonic amplitudes (30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50%) and enzyme concentrations (4, 6, and 8 wt.% of fat) at constant molar ratio (fat:methanol); 1:6, and ultrasonic cycle; 5 Hz. Optimal conditions for ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from waste tallow were fat:methanol molar ratio, 1:4; catalyst level 6% (w/w of fat); reaction time, 20 min (30 times less than conventional batch processes); ultrasonic amplitude 40% at 5 Hz. The kinetic model results revealed interesting features of ultrasound assisted enzyme-catalyzed transesterification (as compared to conventional system): at ultrasonic amplitude 40%, the reaction activities within the system seemed to be steady after 20 min which means the reaction could proceed with or without ultrasonic mixing. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography indicated the biodiesel yield to be 85.6±0.08%.

  12. Feasibility study of biodiesel production using lipids of Hermetia illucens larva fed with organic waste.

    PubMed

    Leong, Siew Yoong; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed; Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Tan, Chew Khun

    2016-01-01

    Hermetia illucens larvae by nature are a decomposer which fed on organic wastes. This study explores the potential of producing biodiesel using lipids from H. illucens larvae. Three types of organic wastes (sewage sludge, fruit waste and palm decanter cake from oil palm mill) were selected based on considerable generation and disposal concern in the area of study as well as lack of investigations as feed for Hermetia illucens larvae in current literatures. Growth rate of the larvae was determined with studying the changes in the biomass per day. H. illucens larvae fed with fruit waste and palm decanter cake have shown growth rates of 0.52±0.02 and 0.23±0.09 g d(-1), respectively. No positive sign of growth were observed in the larvae fed with treated sewage sludge (-0.04±0.01 g d(-1)). Biodiesel as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was synthesized by transesterification of the larvae lipid using sulphuric acid as catalyst in methanol. FAME produced was ascertained using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. The main compositions of fatty acid were found to be C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1n9c. Fatty acid composition of C12:0 fed with fruit waste, sewage sludge and palm decanter was found to be most abundant in the larvae lipid. The amount of C12:0 obtained was 76.13%, 58.31% and 48.06%, respectively. In addition, fatty acid of C16:0 was attained at 16.48% and 25.48% fed with sewage sludge and palm decanter, respectively. Based on the findings, FAME derived from larvae lipids is feasible to be used for biodiesel production.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of carbon cryogel microspheres from lignin-furfural mixtures for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Zainol, Muzakkir Mohammad; Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina; Asmadi, Mohd

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the potential of biofuel and biomass processing industry side-products as acid catalyst. The synthesis of carbon cryogel from lignin-furfural mixture, prepared via sol-gel polycondensation at 90°C for 0.5h, has been investigated for biodiesel production. The effect of lignin to furfural (L/F) ratios, lignin to water (L/W) ratios and acid concentration on carbon cryogel synthesis was studied. The carbon cryogels were characterized and tested for oleic acid conversion. The thermally stable amorphous spherical carbon cryogel has a large total surface area with high acidity. Experimental results revealed the optimum FAME yield and oleic acid conversion of 91.3wt.% and 98.1wt.%, respectively were attained at 65°C for 5h with 5wt.% catalyst loading and 20:1 methanol to oleic acid molar ratio. Therefore, carbon cryogel is highly potential for heterogeneous esterification of free fatty acid to biodiesel.

  14. Enhancement of CO2 and H2 Uptake for the Production of Biodiesel in Cupriavidus Necator

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R. P.; Eckert, C. A.; Balzer, G. J.; Yu, J.; Maness, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Cupriavidus necator fixes CO{sub 2} through the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle using electrons and energy obtained from the oxidation of H{sub 2}. Producing biodiesel-equivalent electrofuel from renewable CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} has immense potential, especially if the fuel is compatible with the existing fuel infrastructure. This research addressed enhanced substrate utilization by focusing on two strategies: (1) optimizing transcriptional regulations to afford over-expression of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), the enzyme responsible for assimilation of CO{sub 2} into the CBB cycle; and (2) hydrogenase over-expression by introduction of additional copies of genes encoding a membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH), a soluble hydrogenase (SH), and their maturation machinery to enhance oxidation of H{sub 2} to generate NAD(P)H and ATP required for CO{sub 2} fixation. Incorporation of these strategies into a single production strain resulted in 6-fold CO{sub 2} and 3-fold H{sub 2} uptake improvement, in vitro, with the overarching goal of providing abundant reducing equivalents towards the economic production of biodiesel in C. necator.

  15. Supercritical synthesis of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Juana M; Lozano, Pedro; García-Verdugo, Eduardo; Burguete, M Isabel; Sánchez-Gómez, Gregorio; López-López, Gregorio; Pucheault, Mathieu; Vaultier, Michel; Luis, Santiago V

    2012-07-23

    The synthesis of biodiesel fuel from lipids (vegetable oils and animal fats) has gained in importance as a possible source of renewable non-fossil energy in an attempt to reduce our dependence on petroleum-based fuels. The catalytic processes commonly used for the production of biodiesel fuel present a series of limitations and drawbacks, among them the high energy consumption required for complex purification operations and undesirable side reactions. Supercritical fluid (SCF) technologies offer an interesting alternative to conventional processes for preparing biodiesel. This review highlights the advances, advantages, drawbacks and new tendencies involved in the use of supercritical fluids (SCFs) for biodiesel synthesis.

  16. GPP estimates in a biodiesel crop using MERIS products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, M. L.; Pardo, N.; Pérez, I.; García, M. A.; Paredes, V.

    2012-04-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions in Spain in 2008-2009 were 34.3 % higher than the base-year level, significantly above the burden-sharing target of 15 % for the period 2008-2012. Based on this result, our country will need to make a major effort to meet the committed target on time using domestic measures as well as others foreseen in the Kyoto Protocol, such as LULUFC activities. In this framework, agrofuels, in other words biofuels produced by crops that contain high amounts of vegetable oil such as sorghum, sunflower, rape seed and jatropha, appear to be an interesting mitigation alternative. Bearing in mind the meteorological conditions in Spain, sunflower and rape seed in particular are considered the most viable crops. Sunflower cultivated surface in Spain has remained fairly constant in recent years, in contrast to rapeseed crop surface which, although still scarce, has followed an increasing trend. In order to assess rape seed ability as a CO2 sink as well as to describe GPP dynamic evolution, we installed an eddy correlation station in an agricultural plot of the Spanish plateau. Measurements at the plot consisted of 30-min NEE flux measurements (using a LI-7500 and a METEK USA-1 sonic anemometer) as well as other common meteorological variables. Measurements were performed from March to October. This paper presents the results of the GPP 8-d estimated values using a Light Use Efficiency Model, LUE. Input data for the LUE model were the FPAR 8-d products supplied by MERIS, the PAR in situ measurements, and a scalar f varying, between 0 and 1, to take into account the reduction of the maximum PAR conversion efficiency, ɛ0, under limiting environmental conditions. The f values were assumed to be dependent on air temperature and the evaporative fraction, EF, which was considered as a proxy of soil moisture. ɛ0, a key parameter, which depends on biome types, was derived through the results of a linear regression fit between the GPP 8-d eddy covariance composites

  17. 21 CFR 1303.13 - Adjustments of aggregate production quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustments of aggregate production quotas. 1303.13 Section 1303.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS... availability of raw materials for use in manufacturing and for inventory purposes, yield and stability...

  18. 21 CFR 1303.13 - Adjustments of aggregate production quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments of aggregate production quotas. 1303.13 Section 1303.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS... availability of raw materials for use in manufacturing and for inventory purposes, yield and stability...

  19. A novel and robust recombinant Pichia pastoris yeast whole cell biocatalyst with intracellular overexpression of a Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase: preparation, characterization and application in biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinyong; Zheng, Xianliang; Li, Shengying

    2014-01-01

    A novel and robust recombinant Pichia pastoris yeast whole cell catalyst (WCC) with functional intracellular expression of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (Tll) was constructed and characterized for biodiesel production from waste cooking oils. This permeabilized WCC was able to convert waste cooking oils to biodiesel with 82% yield within 84 h at 6% dosage whole cells. The WCC showed two fold catalytic activity of 0.73 U/mg DCW compared to its commercial counterpart Lipozyme TLIM (immobilized Tll). Short chain alcohol tolerance of this WCC was significantly improved compared to Lipozyme TLIM. This beneficial property enabled it to catalyze biodiesel production efficiently with one step addition of methanol. The reusability of this biocatalyst retained 78% activity after three batch cycles. This easily prepared and cost-effective WCC showed better catalytic performance than Lipozyme TLIM with respect to biodiesel yield and productivity, thus suggesting a promising cost-effective biocatalyst for biodiesel production.

  20. Biochemical Studies of Mycobacterial Fatty Acid Methyltransferase: A Catalyst for the Enzymatic Production of Biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Petronikolou, Nektaria; Nair, Satish K

    2015-11-19

    Transesterification of fatty acids yields the essential component of biodiesel, but current processes are cost-prohibitive and generate waste. Recent efforts make use of biocatalysts that are effective in diverting products from primary metabolism to yield fatty acid methyl esters in bacteria. These biotransformations require the fatty acid O-methyltransferase (FAMT) from Mycobacterium marinum (MmFAMT). Although this activity was first reported in the literature in 1970, the FAMTs have yet to be biochemically characterized. Here, we describe several crystal structures of MmFAMT, which highlight an unexpected structural conservation with methyltransferases that are involved in plant natural product metabolism. The determinants for ligand recognition are analyzed by kinetic analysis of structure-based active-site variants. These studies reveal how an architectural fold employed in plant natural product biosynthesis is used in bacterial fatty acid O-methylation.

  1. Biochemical Studies of Mycobacterial Fatty Acid Methyltransferase: A Catalyst for the Enzymatic Production of Biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Petronikolou, Nektaria; Nair, Satish K

    2015-11-19

    Transesterification of fatty acids yields the essential component of biodiesel, but current processes are cost-prohibitive and generate waste. Recent efforts make use of biocatalysts that are effective in diverting products from primary metabolism to yield fatty acid methyl esters in bacteria. These biotransformations require the fatty acid O-methyltransferase (FAMT) from Mycobacterium marinum (MmFAMT). Although this activity was first reported in the literature in 1970, the FAMTs have yet to be biochemically characterized. Here, we describe several crystal structures of MmFAMT, which highlight an unexpected structural conservation with methyltransferases that are involved in plant natural product metabolism. The determinants for ligand recognition are analyzed by kinetic analysis of structure-based active-site variants. These studies reveal how an architectural fold employed in plant natural product biosynthesis is used in bacterial fatty acid O-methylation. PMID:26526103

  2. Production of lightweight aggregates from washing aggregate sludge and fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Corrochano, Beatriz; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto; Rodas, Magdalena

    2010-05-01

    Increasing generation of wastes is one of the main environmental problems in industrialised countries. Heat treatment at high temperatures can convert some types of wastes into ceramic products with a wide range of microstructural features and properties (Bethanis et al., 2004). A lightweight aggregate (LWA) is a granular material with a bulk density (bd) not exceeding 1.20 g/cm3 or with a particle density not exceeding 2.00 g/cm3 (UNE-EN-13055-1, 2003). They have become a focus of interest because the low particle density and the low bulk density entail a decrease in the load transmitted to the ground, and less work and effort are required to transport them (De' Gennaro et al., 2004). The benefits associated with these low densities, which are due to the formation of voids and pores, are very good thermal and acoustic insulation and materials with a good resistance to fire (Benbow, 1987; Fakhfakh et al., 2007). The objective was to recycle fly ash, used motor oil from cars and mineral wastes from washing aggregate sludge, in order to obtain a usable material such as lightweight aggregates, and also to ensure that they are of good quality for different applications. Raw materials have been physically, chemically and mineralogically characterized. On the basis of the results obtained, they were mixed, milled to a grain size of less than 200 μm (Yasuda, 1991), formed into pellets, pre-heated for 5 min and sintered in a rotary kiln at 1150°C, 1175°C, 1200°C and 1225°C for 10 and 15 min at each temperature (Theating). Effects of raw material characteristics, heating temperature and dwell time on the following LWAs properties were determined: loss on ignition (LOI), bloating index (BI), loose bulk density (bd), apparent and dry particle density (ad, dd), voids (H), water absorption (WA24h) and compressive strength (S). The products obtained were lightweight aggregates in accordance with norm UNE-EN-13055-1 (bd ≤1.20 g/cm3 or particle density ≤2.00 g/cm3). LWAs

  3. L (+)-lactic acid production by pellet-form Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 395 on biodiesel crude glycerol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given its availability and low price, glycerol derived from biodiesel industry has become an ideal feedstock for the production of fuels and chemicals. A solution to reduce the negative environmental problems and the cost of biodiesel is to use crude glycerol as carbon source for microbial growth media in order to produce valuable organic chemicals. In the present paper, crude glycerol was used as carbon substrate for production of L (+)-lactic acid using pelletized fungus R. oryzae NRRL 395 on batch fermentation. More, the experiments were conducted on media supplemented with inorganic nutrients and lucerne green juice. Results Crude and pure glycerols were first used to produce the highest biomass yield of R. oryzae NRRL 395. An enhanced lactic acid production then followed up using fed-batch fermentation with crude glycerol, inorganic nutrients and lucerne green juice. The optimal crude glycerol concentration for cultivating R. oryzae NRRL 395 was 75 g l-1, which resulted in a fungal biomass yield of 0.72 g g-1 in trial without lucerne green juice addition and 0.83 g g-1 in trial with lucerne green juice. The glycerol consumption rate was 1.04 g l-1 h-1 after 48 h in trial with crude glycerol 75 g l-1 while in trial with crude glycerol 10 g l-1 the lowest rate of 0.12 g l-1 h-1 was registered. The highest L (+)-lactic acid yield (3.72 g g-1) was obtained at the crude glycerol concentration of 75 g l-1 and LGJ 25 g l-1, and the concentration of lactic acid was approximately 48 g l-1. Conclusions This work introduced sustainable opportunities for L (+)-lactic acid production via R. oryzae NRRL 395 fermentation on biodiesel crude glycerol media. The results showed good fungal growth on crude glycerol at 75 g l-1 concentration with lucerne green juice supplementation of 25 g l-1. Lucerne green juice provided a good source of nutrients for crude glycerol fermentation, without needs for supplementation with inorganic nutrients

  4. Across species-pool aggregation alters grassland productivity and diversity.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Thomas P; Yurkonis, Kathryn A

    2016-08-01

    Plant performance is determined by the balance of intra- and interspecific neighbors within an individual's zone of influence. If individuals interact over smaller scales than the scales at which communities are measured, then altering neighborhood interactions may fundamentally affect community responses. These interactions can be altered by changing the number (species richness), abundances (species evenness), and positions (species pattern) of the resident plant species, and we aimed to test whether aggregating species at planting would alter effects of species richness and evenness on biomass production at a common scale of observation in grasslands. We varied plant species richness (2, 4, or 8 species and monocultures), evenness (0.64, 0.8, or 1.0), and pattern (planted randomly or aggregated in groups of four individuals) within 1 × 1 m plots established with transplants from a pool of 16 tallgrass prairie species and assessed plot-scale biomass production and diversity over the first three growing seasons. As expected, more species-rich plots produced more biomass by the end of the third growing season, an effect associated with a shift from selection to complementarity effects over time. Aggregating conspecifics at a 0.25-m scale marginally reduced biomass production across all treatments and increased diversity in the most even plots, but did not alter biodiversity effects or richness-productivity relationships. Results support the hypothesis that fine-scale species aggregation affects diversity by promoting species coexistence in this system. However, results indicate that inherent changes in species neighborhood relationships along grassland diversity gradients may only minimally affect community (meter) - scale responses among similarly designed biodiversity-ecosystem function studies. Given that species varied in their responses to local aggregation, it may be possible to use such species-specific results to spatially design larger-scale grassland

  5. RSM Based Optimization of Chemical and Enzymatic Transesterification of Palm Oil: Biodiesel Production and Assessment of Exhaust Emission Levels

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2014-01-01

    Current study presents RSM based optimized production of biodiesel from palm oil using chemical and enzymatic transesterification. The emission behavior of biodiesel and its blends, namely, POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 was examined using diesel engine (equipped with tube well). Optimized palm oil fatty acid methyl esters (POFAMEs) yields were depicted to be 47.6 ± 1.5, 92.7 ± 2.5, and 95.4 ± 2.0% for chemical transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH, and NaOCH3, respectively, whereas for enzymatic transesterification reactions catalyzed by NOVOZYME-435 and A. n. lipase optimized biodiesel yields were 94.2 ± 3.1 and 62.8 ± 2.4%, respectively. Distinct decrease in particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO) levels was experienced in exhaust emissions from engine operating on biodiesel blends POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 comparative to conventional petroleum diesel. Percentage change in CO and PM emissions for different biodiesel blends ranged from −2.1 to −68.7% and −6.2 to −58.4%, respectively, relative to conventional diesel, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions. Only POB-5 and POB-20 showed notable reductions, whereas all other blends (POB-40 to POB-100) showed slight increase in NOx emission levels from 2.6 to 5.5% comparative to petroleum diesel. PMID:25162053

  6. RSM based optimization of chemical and enzymatic transesterification of palm oil: biodiesel production and assessment of exhaust emission levels.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Mukhtar, Hamid; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2014-01-01

    Current study presents RSM based optimized production of biodiesel from palm oil using chemical and enzymatic transesterification. The emission behavior of biodiesel and its blends, namely, POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 was examined using diesel engine (equipped with tube well). Optimized palm oil fatty acid methyl esters (POFAMEs) yields were depicted to be 47.6 ± 1.5, 92.7 ± 2.5, and 95.4 ± 2.0% for chemical transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH, and NaOCH3, respectively, whereas for enzymatic transesterification reactions catalyzed by NOVOZYME-435 and A. n. lipase optimized biodiesel yields were 94.2 ± 3.1 and 62.8 ± 2.4%, respectively. Distinct decrease in particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO) levels was experienced in exhaust emissions from engine operating on biodiesel blends POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 comparative to conventional petroleum diesel. Percentage change in CO and PM emissions for different biodiesel blends ranged from -2.1 to -68.7% and -6.2 to -58.4%, respectively, relative to conventional diesel, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions. Only POB-5 and POB-20 showed notable reductions, whereas all other blends (POB-40 to POB-100) showed slight increase in NOx emission levels from 2.6 to 5.5% comparative to petroleum diesel. PMID:25162053

  7. PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    M.M. Wu; D.C. McCoy; R.O. Scandrol; M.L. Fenger; J.A. Withum; R.M. Statnick

    2000-05-01

    The three main conclusions of this report are: (1) The pilot plant successfully demonstrated the continuous, fully-integrated, long-term process operation, including the mixing, pelletizing, and curing steps for aggregate production. The curing vessel, which was designed for the pilot plant test, was operated in a mass flow mode and performed well during pilot plant operation. (2) The pilot plant test demonstrated process flexibility. The same equipment was used to produce lightweight, medium-weight, and road aggregates. The only change was the mix formulation. Aggregates were produced from a variety of mix designs and from FGD sludge with solids concentrations between 45.0% and 56.7% and moisture contents between 55.0% and 43.3%. (3) The pilot plant provided operating data and experience to design and cost a commercial plant, which was not part of the cooperative agreement.

  8. Culture modes and financial evaluation of two oleaginous microalgae for biodiesel production in desert area with open raceway pond.

    PubMed

    He, Qiaoning; Yang, Haijian; Hu, Chunxiang

    2016-10-01

    Cultivation modes of autotrophic microalgae for biodiesel production utilizing open raceway pond were analyzed in this study. Five before screened good microalgae were tested their lipid productivity and biodiesel quality again in outdoor 1000L ORP. Then, Chlorella sp. L1 and Monoraphidium dybowskii Y2 were selected due to their stronger environmental adaptability, higher lipid productivity and better biodiesel properties. Further scale up cultivation for two species with batch and semi-continuous culture was conducted. In 40,000L ORP, higher lipid productivity (5.15 versus 4.06gm(-2)d(-1) for Chlorella sp. L1, 5.35 versus 3.00gm(-2)d(-1) for M. dybowskii Y2) was achieved in semi-continuous mode. Moreover, the financial costs of 14.18$gal(-1) and 13.31$gal(-1) for crude biodiesel in two microalgae with semi-continuous mode were more economically feasible for commercial production on large scale outdoors. PMID:27403859

  9. Production of biodiesel fuel from canola oil with dimethyl carbonate using an active sodium methoxide catalyst prepared by crystallization.

    PubMed

    Kai, Takami; Mak, Goon Lum; Wada, Shohei; Nakazato, Tsutomu; Takanashi, Hirokazu; Uemura, Yoshimitsu

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a novel method for the production of biodiesel under mild conditions using fine particles of sodium methoxide formed in dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is proposed. Biodiesel is generally produced from vegetable oils by the transesterification of triglycerides with methanol. However, this reaction produces glycerol as a byproduct, and raw materials are not effectively utilized. Transesterification with DMC has recently been studied because glycerol is not formed in the process. Although solid-state sodium methoxide has been reported to be inactive for this reaction, the catalytic activity dramatically increased with the preparation of fine catalyst powders by crystallization. The transesterification of canola oil with DMC was studied using this catalyst for the preparation of biodiesel. A conversion greater than 96% was obtained at 65°C for 2h with a 3:1M ratio of DMC and oil and 2.0 wt% catalyst. PMID:24813567

  10. Calcium oxide derived from waste shells of mussel, cockle, and scallop as the heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Buasri, Achanai; Chaiyut, Nattawut; Loryuenyong, Vorrada; Worawanitchaphong, Phatsakon; Trongyong, Sarinthip

    2013-01-01

    The waste shell was utilized as a bioresource of calcium oxide (CaO) in catalyzing a transesterification to produce biodiesel (methyl ester). The economic and environmen-friendly catalysts were prepared by a calcination method at 700-1,000°C for 4 h. The heterogeneous catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The effects of reaction variables such as reaction time, reaction temperature, methanol/oil molar ratio, and catalyst loading on the yield of biodiesel were investigated. Reusability of waste shell catalyst was also examined. The results indicated that the CaO catalysts derived from waste shell showed good reusability and had high potential to be used as biodiesel production catalysts in transesterification of palm oil with methanol.

  11. Functionalized Fe3O4@silica core-shell nanoparticles as microalgae harvester and catalyst for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ya-Dong; Dutta, Saikat; Chen, Ching-Tien; Huang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Kuen-Song; Wu, Jeffrey C S; Suzuki, Norihiro; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Wu, Kevin C-W

    2015-03-01

    Core-shell Fe3O4@silica magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with a strong base, triazabicyclodecene (TBD), were successfully synthesized for harvesting microalgae and for one-pot microalgae-to-fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, or so-called biodiesel) conversion. Three types of algae oil sources (i.e., dried algae, algae oil, and algae concentrate) were used and the reaction conditions were optimized to achieve the maximum biodiesel yield. The results obtained in this study show that our TBD-functionalized Fe3O4@silica nanoparticles could effectively convert algae oil to biodiesel with a maximum yield of 97.1 %. Additionally, TBD-Fe3O4@silica nanoparticles act as an efficient algae harvester because of their adsorption and magnetic properties. The method presented in this study demonstrates the wide scope for the use of covalently functionalized core-shell nanoparticles for the production of liquid transportation fuels from algal biomass. PMID:25477296

  12. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for production of biodiesel from fatty alcohols and acetyl-CoA.

    PubMed

    Guo, Daoyi; Pan, Hong; Li, Xun

    2015-09-01

    Microbial production of biodiesel from renewable feedstock has attracted intensive attention. Biodiesel is known to be produced from short-chain alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs through the expression of wax ester synthase/fatty acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase that catalyzes the esterification of short-chain alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs. Here, we engineered Escherichia coli to produce various fatty alcohol acetate esters, which depend on the expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol acetyltransferase ATF1 that catalyzes the esterification of fatty alcohols and acetyl-CoA. The fatty acid biosynthetic pathways generate fatty acyl-ACPs, fatty acyl-CoAs, or fatty acids, which can be converted to fatty alcohols by fatty acyl-CoA reductase, fatty acyl-ACP reductase, or carboxylic acid reductase, respectively. This study showed the biosynthesis of biodiesel from three fatty acid biosynthetic pathway intermediates.

  13. Production of biodiesel fuel from canola oil with dimethyl carbonate using an active sodium methoxide catalyst prepared by crystallization.

    PubMed

    Kai, Takami; Mak, Goon Lum; Wada, Shohei; Nakazato, Tsutomu; Takanashi, Hirokazu; Uemura, Yoshimitsu

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a novel method for the production of biodiesel under mild conditions using fine particles of sodium methoxide formed in dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is proposed. Biodiesel is generally produced from vegetable oils by the transesterification of triglycerides with methanol. However, this reaction produces glycerol as a byproduct, and raw materials are not effectively utilized. Transesterification with DMC has recently been studied because glycerol is not formed in the process. Although solid-state sodium methoxide has been reported to be inactive for this reaction, the catalytic activity dramatically increased with the preparation of fine catalyst powders by crystallization. The transesterification of canola oil with DMC was studied using this catalyst for the preparation of biodiesel. A conversion greater than 96% was obtained at 65°C for 2h with a 3:1M ratio of DMC and oil and 2.0 wt% catalyst.

  14. Calcium oxide derived from waste shells of mussel, cockle, and scallop as the heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Buasri, Achanai; Chaiyut, Nattawut; Loryuenyong, Vorrada; Worawanitchaphong, Phatsakon; Trongyong, Sarinthip

    2013-01-01

    The waste shell was utilized as a bioresource of calcium oxide (CaO) in catalyzing a transesterification to produce biodiesel (methyl ester). The economic and environmen-friendly catalysts were prepared by a calcination method at 700-1,000°C for 4 h. The heterogeneous catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The effects of reaction variables such as reaction time, reaction temperature, methanol/oil molar ratio, and catalyst loading on the yield of biodiesel were investigated. Reusability of waste shell catalyst was also examined. The results indicated that the CaO catalysts derived from waste shell showed good reusability and had high potential to be used as biodiesel production catalysts in transesterification of palm oil with methanol. PMID:24453854

  15. Functionalized Fe3O4@silica core-shell nanoparticles as microalgae harvester and catalyst for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ya-Dong; Dutta, Saikat; Chen, Ching-Tien; Huang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Kuen-Song; Wu, Jeffrey C S; Suzuki, Norihiro; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Wu, Kevin C-W

    2015-03-01

    Core-shell Fe3O4@silica magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with a strong base, triazabicyclodecene (TBD), were successfully synthesized for harvesting microalgae and for one-pot microalgae-to-fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, or so-called biodiesel) conversion. Three types of algae oil sources (i.e., dried algae, algae oil, and algae concentrate) were used and the reaction conditions were optimized to achieve the maximum biodiesel yield. The results obtained in this study show that our TBD-functionalized Fe3O4@silica nanoparticles could effectively convert algae oil to biodiesel with a maximum yield of 97.1 %. Additionally, TBD-Fe3O4@silica nanoparticles act as an efficient algae harvester because of their adsorption and magnetic properties. The method presented in this study demonstrates the wide scope for the use of covalently functionalized core-shell nanoparticles for the production of liquid transportation fuels from algal biomass.

  16. ZnO nanorods as catalyts for biodiesel production from olive oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Carmen Maria Miralda

    The motivation to determine a viable alternative to petroleum based energy has risen in recent years due to increased greenhouse gas emissions, environmental pollution, and the fear of exhausting oil and natural gas reserves. Biodiesel derived from the transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats has emerged as a viable alternative to petroleum diesel. However, for this to become an option available to the average consumer it is vital to find an effective catalyst. Metal oxides have emerged as potential heterogeneous catalysts. ZnO in particular is attractive because it is abundant. The use of nanostructures has been shown to improve the catalytic performance of ZnO. ZnO nanorods were synthesized using a solution approach. The crystalline structure, morphology, and surface area were confirmed using XRD, SEM, and BET surface area respectively. The characterized nanorods were used as catalysts for the production of biodiesel. The nanorods achieved conversions of 94.8% at 150°C for reaction times of eight hours. They also demonstrated better catalytic performance, attributed to their increased degree of crystallinity, than conventional ZnO. A kinetic study at 150°C to determine the reaction rate parameters was also conducted. Due to the presence of three distinct phases in the reaction, initially the reaction rate is dominated by mass transfer limitations. However, these are eventually overcome and the reaction proceeds with a pseudo-first order with respect to the oil and a reaction rate constant of 0.5136 h-1.

  17. Biodiesel production from palm oil using combined mechanical stirred and ultrasonic reactor.

    PubMed

    Choedkiatsakul, I; Ngaosuwan, K; Cravotto, G; Assabumrungrat, S

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the production of biodiesel from palm oil using a combined mechanical stirred and ultrasonic reactor (MS-US). The incorporation of mechanical stirring into the ultrasonic reactor explored the further improvement the transesterification of palm oil. Initial reaction rate values were 54.1, 142.9 and 164.2 mmol/L min for the mechanical-stirred (MS), ultrasonic (US) and MS-US reactors, respectively. Suitable methanol to oil molar ratio and the catalyst loading values were found to be 6 and 1 of oil, respectively. The effect of ultrasonic operating parameters; i.e. frequency, location, and number of transducer, has been investigated. Based on the conversion yield at the reactor outlet after 1 h, the number of transducers showed a relevant role in the reaction rate. Frequency and transducer location would appear to have no significant effect. The properties of the obtained biodiesel (density, viscosity, pour point, and flash point) satisfy the ASTM standard. The combined MS-US reactors improved the reaction rate affording the methyl esters in higher yield. PMID:24418101

  18. Efficient production of biodiesel from waste grease: one-pot esterification and transesterification with tandem lipases.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinyong; Li, Aitao; Xu, Yi; Ngo, Thao P N; Phua, Szechao; Li, Zhi

    2012-11-01

    A novel concept and efficient method for producing biodiesel (FAME) from grease (15-40wt% free fatty acid, FFA) were developed by using tandem lipases for one-pot esterification of FFA and transesterification of triglyceride with methanol in a solvent-free system. Combining immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) (Novozyme 435) favoring the esterification and immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) (Lipozyme TLIM) preferring the transesterification at 2:8 (wt/wt) gave FAME in 80% yield, being better than that with Novozyme 435 or Lipozyme TLIM. Recombinant Escherichia coli (Calb/Tll) co-expressing CALB and TLL was engineered as a more efficient tandem-lipases system. Using wet or dry cells (4wt%) gave FAME in 87% or 95% yield, which is much better than that with E. coli cells expressing either CALB or TLL alone. Cells of E. coli (Calb/Tll) were recycled for five times and retained 75% productivity, thus being practical for producing biodiesel from grease.

  19. Extraction of fleshing oil from waste limed fleshings and biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Sandhya, K V; Abinandan, S; Vedaraman, N; Velappan, K C

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was focused on extraction of fleshing oil from limed fleshings with different neutralization process by ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) followed by solvent extraction. The production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from limed fleshing oil by two stage process has also been investigated. The central composite design (CCD) was used to study the effect of process variables viz., amount of flesh, particle size and time of fleshing oil extraction. The maximum yield of fleshing oil from limed fleshings post neutralization by ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) was 26.32g and 12.43g obtained at 200g of flesh, with a particle size of 3.90mm in the time period of 2h. Gas chromatography analysis reveals that the biodiesel (FAME) obtained from limed fleshings is rich in oleic and palmitic acids with weight percentages 46.6 and 32.2 respectively. The resulting biodiesel was characterized for its physio-chemical properties of diesel as per international standards (EN14214).

  20. Comprehensive near infrared study of Jatropha oil esterification with ethanol for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alianda Dantas de; Sá, Ananda Franco de; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Pacheco, José Geraldo A; Pereira, Claudete Fernandes; Larrechi, Maria Soledad

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a comprehensive near infrared study for in-line monitoring of the esterification reaction of high acid oils, such as Jatropha curcas oil, using ethanol. Parallel reactions involved in the process were carried out to select a spectral region that characterizes the evolution of the esterification reaction. Using absorbance intensities at 5176cm(-1), the conversion and kinetic behaviors of the esterification reaction were estimated. This method was applied to evaluate the influence of temperature and catalyst concentration on the estimates of initial reaction rate and ester conversion as responses to a 2(2) factorial experimental design. Employment of an alcohol/oil ratio of 16:1, catalyst concentration of 1.5% w/w, and temperatures at 65°C or 75°C, made it possible to reduce the initial acidity from 18% to 1.3% w/w, which is suitable for transesterification of high free fatty acid oils for biodiesel production. Using the proposed analytical method in the esterification reaction of raw materials with high free fatty acid content for biodiesel makes the monitoring process inexpensive, fast, simple, and practical. PMID:27415971

  1. Comprehensive near infrared study of Jatropha oil esterification with ethanol for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alianda Dantas de; Sá, Ananda Franco de; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Pacheco, José Geraldo A; Pereira, Claudete Fernandes; Larrechi, Maria Soledad

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a comprehensive near infrared study for in-line monitoring of the esterification reaction of high acid oils, such as Jatropha curcas oil, using ethanol. Parallel reactions involved in the process were carried out to select a spectral region that characterizes the evolution of the esterification reaction. Using absorbance intensities at 5176cm(-1), the conversion and kinetic behaviors of the esterification reaction were estimated. This method was applied to evaluate the influence of temperature and catalyst concentration on the estimates of initial reaction rate and ester conversion as responses to a 2(2) factorial experimental design. Employment of an alcohol/oil ratio of 16:1, catalyst concentration of 1.5% w/w, and temperatures at 65°C or 75°C, made it possible to reduce the initial acidity from 18% to 1.3% w/w, which is suitable for transesterification of high free fatty acid oils for biodiesel production. Using the proposed analytical method in the esterification reaction of raw materials with high free fatty acid content for biodiesel makes the monitoring process inexpensive, fast, simple, and practical.

  2. Efficient production of biodiesel from waste grease: one-pot esterification and transesterification with tandem lipases.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinyong; Li, Aitao; Xu, Yi; Ngo, Thao P N; Phua, Szechao; Li, Zhi

    2012-11-01

    A novel concept and efficient method for producing biodiesel (FAME) from grease (15-40wt% free fatty acid, FFA) were developed by using tandem lipases for one-pot esterification of FFA and transesterification of triglyceride with methanol in a solvent-free system. Combining immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) (Novozyme 435) favoring the esterification and immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) (Lipozyme TLIM) preferring the transesterification at 2:8 (wt/wt) gave FAME in 80% yield, being better than that with Novozyme 435 or Lipozyme TLIM. Recombinant Escherichia coli (Calb/Tll) co-expressing CALB and TLL was engineered as a more efficient tandem-lipases system. Using wet or dry cells (4wt%) gave FAME in 87% or 95% yield, which is much better than that with E. coli cells expressing either CALB or TLL alone. Cells of E. coli (Calb/Tll) were recycled for five times and retained 75% productivity, thus being practical for producing biodiesel from grease. PMID:22940338

  3. Production and characterization of biodiesel from carbon dioxide concentrating chemolithotrophic bacteria, Serratia sp. ISTD04.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Randhir K; Srivastava, Shaili; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2014-02-01

    A chemolithotrophic bacterium, Serratia sp. ISTD04, enriched in the chemostat in presence of sodium bicarbonate as sole carbon source was evaluated for potential of carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and biofuel production. CO2 sequestration efficiency of the bacterium was determined by enzymatic activity of carbonic anhydrase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). Further, Western blot analysis confirmed presence of RuBisCO. The bacterium produced 0.487 and 0.647mgmg(-1) per unit cell dry weight of hydrocarbons and lipids respectively. The hydrocarbons were within the range of C13-C24 making it equivalent to light oil. GC-MS analysis of lipids produced by the bacterium indicated presence of C15-C20 organic compounds that made it potential source of biodiesel after transesterification. GC-MS, FTIR and NMR spectroscopic characterization of the fatty acid methyl esters revealed the presence of 55% and 45% of unsaturated and saturated organic compounds respectively, thus making it a balanced biodiesel composition. PMID:24365740

  4. [Progress and prospect of biodiesel industry in China].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zeng, Jing; Du, Wei; Liu, Dehua

    2015-06-01

    The development of biodiesel and production feedstock in China was introduced, and the biodiesel production technologies as well as corresponding representative enterprises were reviewed. In addition, the development prospect of biodiesel industry in China was addressed.

  5. The development of the super-biodiesel production continuously from Sunan pecan oil through the process of reactive distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohana, Eflita; Yulianto, Moh. Endy; Ikhsan, Diyono; Nanta, Aditya Marga; Puspitasari, Ristiyanti

    2016-06-01

    In general, a vegetable oil-based biodiesel production commercially operates a batch process with high investments and operational costs. Thus, it is necessary to develop super-biodiesel production from sunan pecan oil continuously through the process of reactive distillation. There are four advantages of the reactive distillation process for the biodiesel production, as follows: (i) it incorporates the process of transesterification reaction, and product separation of residual reactants become one stage of the process, so it saves the investment and operation costs, (ii) it reduces the need for raw materials because the methanol needed corresponds to the stoichiometry, so it also reduces the operation costs, (iii) the holdup time in the column is relatively short (5±0,5 minutes) compared to the batch process (1-2 hours), so it will reduce the operational production costs, and (iv) it is able to shift the reaction equilibrium, because the products and reactants that do not react are instantly separated (based on Le Chatelier's principles) so the conversion will be increased. However, the very crucial problem is determining the design tools and process conditions in order to maximize the conversion of the transesterification reaction in both phases. Thus, the purpose of this research was to design a continuous reactive distillation process by using a recycled condensate to increase the productivity of the super-biodiesel from sunan pecan oil. The research was carried out in three stages including (i) designing and fabricating the reactive distillation equipment, (ii) testing the tool performance and the optimization of the biodiesel production, and (iii) biodiesel testing on the diesel engine. These three stages were needed in designing and scaling-up the process tools and the process operation commercially. The reactive distillation process tools were designed and manufactured with reference to the design system tower by Kitzer, et.al. (2008). The manufactured

  6. Lipid extraction methods from microalgal biomass harvested by two different paths: screening studies toward biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Sergio D; Castañeda, Joandiet; Torras, Carles; Farriol, Xavier; Salvadó, Joan

    2013-04-01

    Microalgae can grow rapidly and capture CO2 from the atmosphere to convert it into complex organic molecules such as lipids (biodiesel feedstock). High scale economically feasible microalgae based oil depends on optimizing the entire process production. This process can be divided in three very different but directly related steps (production, concentration, lipid extraction and transesterification). The aim of this study is to identify the best method of lipid extraction to undergo the potentiality of some microalgal biomass obtained from two different harvesting paths. The first path used all physicals concentration steps, and the second path was a combination of chemical and physical concentration steps. Three microalgae species were tested: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Nannochloropsis gaditana, and Chaetoceros calcitrans One step lipid extraction-transesterification reached the same fatty acid methyl ester yield as the Bligh and Dyer and soxhlet extraction with n-hexane methods with the corresponding time, cost and solvent saving. PMID:23434816

  7. ZnO nanoparticle catalysts for use in biodiesel production and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Yan, Shuli; Salley, Steven O; Ng, K. Y. Simon

    2014-11-25

    A method of forming a biodiesel product and a heterogeneous catalyst system used to form said product that has a high tolerance for the presence of water and free fatty acids (FFA) in the oil feedstock is disclosed. This catalyst system may simultaneously catalyze both the esterification of FAA and the transesterification of triglycerides present in the oil feedstock. The catalyst system is comprised of a mixture of zinc oxide and a second metal oxide. The zinc oxide includes a mixture of amorphous zinc oxide and zinc oxide nanocrystals, the zinc nanocrystals having a mean grain size between about 20 and 80 nanometers with at least one of the nanocrystals including a mesopore having a diameter of about 5 to 15 nanometers. Preferably, the second metal oxide is a lanthanum oxide, the lanthanum oxide being selected as one from the group of La.sub.2CO.sub.5, LaOOH, and combinations or mixtures thereof.

  8. Long-term outdoor cultivation by perfusing spent medium for biodiesel production from Chlorella minutissima.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung Ho; Kwon, Min Chul; Choi, Woon Yong; Seo, Yong Chang; Kim, Ga Bin; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Shin Young; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2010-08-01

    A unique perfusion process was developed to maintain high concentrations of marine alga, Chlorella minutissima. This method is based on recycling cells by continuous feeding with warm spent sea water from nuclear power plants, which has very similar properties as sea water. A temperature of at least 30 degrees C in a 200 L photo-bioreactor was maintained in this system by perfusion of the thermal plume for 80 days in the coldest season. The maximum cell concentration and total lipid content was 8.3 g-dry wt./L and 23.2 %, w/w, respectively, under mixotrophic conditions. Lipid production was found to be due to a partially or non-growth related process, which implies that large amounts of biomass are needed for a high accumulation of lipids within the cells. At perfusion rates greater than 1.5 L/h, the temperature of the medium inside the reactor was around 30 degrees C, which was optimal for cell growth. For this system, a perfusion rate of 2.8 L/h was determined to be optimal for maintaining rapid cell growth and lipid production during outdoor cultivation. It was absolutely necessary to maintain the appropriate perfusion rate so that the medium temperature was optimal for cell growth. In addition, the lipids produced using this process were shown to be feasible for biodiesel production since the lipid composition of C. minutissima grown under these conditions consisted of 17 % (w/w) of C(16) and 47% (w/w) of C(18). The combined results of this study clearly demonstrated that the discharged energy of the thermal plume could be reused to cultivate marine alga by maintaining a relatively constant temperature in an outdoor photo-bioreactor without the need for supplying any extra energy, which could allow for cheap production of biodiesel from waste energy.

  9. By-products from the biodiesel chain as a substrate to citric acid production by solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Manuella; Zimmer, Gabriela F; Cremonese, Ezequiel B; de C de S Schneider, Rosana; Corbellini, Valeriano A

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we propose the use of tung cake for the production of organic acids, with an emphasis on citric acid by solid-state fermentation. We evaluated the conditions of production and the by-products from the biodiesel chain as raw materials involved in this bioprocess. First, we standardized the conditions of solid-state fermentation in tung cake with and without residual fat and with different concentrations of glycerine using the fungus Aspergillus niger The solid-state fermentation process was monitored for 7 days considering the biomass growth and pH level. Citric acid production was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Fungal development was better in the crude tung cake, consisting of 20% glycerine. The highest citric acid yield was 350 g kg(-1) of biomass. Therefore, the solid-state fermentation of the tung cake with glycerine led to citric acid production using the Aspergillus niger fungus.

  10. Optimization of lipid extraction from Salvinia molesta for biodiesel production using RSM and its FAME analysis.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, M; Shaija, A; Suchithra, T V

    2016-07-01

    The higher areal productivity and lipid content of microalgae and aquatic weed makes them the best alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production. Hence, an efficient and economic method of extracting lipid or oil from aquatic weed, Salvinia molesta is an important step towards biodiesel production. Since Salvinia molesta is an unexplored feedstock, its total lipid content was first measured as 16 % using Bligh and Dyer's method which was quite sufficient for further investigation. For extracting more amount of lipid from Salvinia molesta, methanol: chloroform in the ratio 2:1 v/v was identified as the most suitable solvent system using Soxhlet apparatus. Based on the literature and the preliminary experimentations, parameters such as solvent to biomass ratio, temperature, and time were identified as significant for lipid extraction. These parameters were then optimized using response surface methodology with central composite design, where experiments were performed using twenty combinations of these extraction parameters with Minitab-17 software. A lipid yield of 92.4 % from Salvinia molesta was obtained with Soxhlet apparatus using methanol and chloroform (2:1 v/v) as solvent system, at the optimized conditions of temperature (85 °C), solvent to biomass ratio (20:1), and time (137 min), whereas a predicted lipid yield of 93.5 % with regression model. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis of S. molesta lipid using gas chromatograph mass spectroscopy (GCMS) with flame ionization detector showed that fatty acids such as C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C18:2 contributed more than 9 % weight of total fatty acids. FAME consisted of 56.32, 28.08, and 15.59 % weight of monounsaturated, saturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Higher cetane number and superior oxidation stability of S. molesta FAME could be attributed to its higher monounsaturated content and lower polyunsaturated content as compared to biodiesels produced from C. vulgaris, Sunflower

  11. Biodiesel production from wet municipal sludge: evaluation of in situ transesterification using xylene as a cosolvent.

    PubMed

    Choi, O K; Song, J S; Cha, D K; Lee, J W

    2014-08-01

    This study proposes a method to produce biodiesel from wet wastewater sludge. Xylene was used as an alternative cosolvent to hexane for transesterification in order to enhance the biodiesel yield from wet wastewater sludge. The water present in the sludge could be separated during transesterification by employing xylene, which has a higher boiling point than water. Xylene enhanced the biodiesel yield up to 8.12%, which was 2.5 times higher than hexane. It was comparable to the maximum biodiesel yield of 9.68% obtained from dried sludge. Xylene could reduce either the reaction time or methanol consumption, when compared to hexane for a similar yield. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content of the biodiesel increased approximately two fold by changing the cosolvent from hexane to xylene. The transesterification method using xylene as a cosolvent can be applied effectively and economically for biodiesel recovery from wet wastewater sludge without drying process.

  12. Conversion of Solid Organic Wastes into Oil via Boettcherisca peregrine (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) Larvae and Optimization of Parameters for Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sen; Li, Qing; Zeng, Qinglan; Zhang, Jibin; Yu, Ziniu; Liu, Ziduo

    2012-01-01

    The feedstocks for biodiesel production are predominantly from edible oils and the high cost of the feedstocks prevents its large scale application. In this study, we evaluated the oil extracted from Boettcherisca peregrine larvae (BPL) grown on solid organic wastes for biodiesel production. The oil contents detected in the BPL converted from swine manure, fermentation residue and the degreased food waste, were 21.7%, 19.5% and 31.1%, respectively. The acid value of the oil is 19.02 mg KOH/g requiring a two-step transesterification process. The optimized process of 12∶1 methanol/oil (mol/mol) with 1.5% H2SO4 reacted at 70°C for 120 min resulted in a 90.8% conversion rate of free fatty acid (FFA) by esterification, and a 92.3% conversion rate of triglycerides into esters by alkaline transesterification. Properties of the BPL oil-based biodiesel are within the specifications of ASTM D6751, suggesting that the solid organic waste-grown BPL could be a feasible non-food feedstock for biodiesel production. PMID:23029331

  13. Flow injection analysis-based methodology for automatic on-line monitoring and quality control for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Pinzi, S; Priego Capote, F; Ruiz Jiménez, J; Dorado, M P; Luque de Castro, M D

    2009-01-01

    An automated on-line approach based on determination of free and bound glycerol was here proposed to monitor biodiesel production. The method was based on liquid-liquid extraction of glycerol from the biodiesel to an aqueous ethanolic phase in which glycerol is oxidized to formaldehyde with meta periodate with subsequent reaction with acetylacetone. The reaction product was photometrically measured at 410 nm. Free and bound glycerol were differentiated by glycerides hydrolysis with potassium ethylate. The experimental set-up consisted of a flow-injection manifold for liquid-liquid extraction without phase separation and iterative change of the flow direction that enabled: (a) filling the flow manifold with a meta periodate-acetylacetone acceptor phase; (b) sampling of small amounts (microl) from the reactor; (c) determination of free glycerol by extraction from biodiesel to the aqueous phase with simultaneous oxidation-reaction with acetylacetone in the acceptor phase; (d) continuous monitoring of the aqueous phase by passage through a photometric detector; (e) filling the flow manifold with a potassium ethylate-meta periodate-acetylacetone new acceptor phase; (d) repetition of steps b-to-d to determine total glycerol after saponification of the bound glycerol by potassium ethylate; and (f) determination of bound glycerol by difference between the second and first analyses. The results showed that the proposed automated on-line method is a suitable option in routine analysis during biodiesel production. PMID:18614358

  14. Enhancing growth and lipid production of marine microalgae for biodiesel production via the use of different LED wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Teo, Chee Loong; Atta, Madiha; Bukhari, Attaullah; Taisir, Mohamad; Yusuf, Afendi M; Idris, Ani

    2014-06-01

    Wavelength of light is a crucial factor which renders microalgae as the potential biodiesel. In this study, Tetraselmis sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. as famous targets were selected. The effect of different light wavelengths on growth rate and lipid production was studied. Microalgae were cultivated for 14 days as under blue, red, red-blue LED and white fluorescent light. The growth rate of microalgae was analyzed by spectrophotometer and cell counting while oil production under improved Nile red method. Optical density result showed the microalgae exhibited better growth curve under blue wavelength. Besides, Tetraselmis sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. under blue wavelength showed the higher growth rate (1.47 and 1.64 day(-1)) and oil production (102.954 and 702.366 a.u.). Gas chromatography analysis also showed that palmitic acid and stearic acid which were compulsory components for biodiesel contribute around 49-51% of total FAME from Nannochloropsis sp. and 81-83% of total FAME from Tetraselmis sp.

  15. Production and characterization of biodiesel using nonedible castor oil by immobilized lipase from Bacillus aerius.

    PubMed

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Saun, Nitin Kumar; Dogra, Priyanka; Chauhan, Ghanshyam; Gupta, Reena

    2015-01-01

    A novel thermotolerant lipase from Bacillus aerius was immobilized on inexpensive silica gel matrix. The immobilized lipase was used for the synthesis of biodiesel using castor oil as a substrate in a solvent free system at 55°C under shaking in a chemical reactor. Several crucial parameters affecting biodiesel yield such as incubation time, temperature, substrate molar ratio, and amount of lipase were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the highest biodiesel yield was up to 78.13%. The characterization of synthesized biodiesel was done through FTIR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectra, and gas chromatography.

  16. Production and Characterization of Biodiesel Using Nonedible Castor Oil by Immobilized Lipase from Bacillus aerius

    PubMed Central

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Saun, Nitin Kumar; Dogra, Priyanka; Chauhan, Ghanshyam

    2015-01-01

    A novel thermotolerant lipase from Bacillus aerius was immobilized on inexpensive silica gel matrix. The immobilized lipase was used for the synthesis of biodiesel using castor oil as a substrate in a solvent free system at 55°C under shaking in a chemical reactor. Several crucial parameters affecting biodiesel yield such as incubation time, temperature, substrate molar ratio, and amount of lipase were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the highest biodiesel yield was up to 78.13%. The characterization of synthesized biodiesel was done through FTIR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectra, and gas chromatography. PMID:25874205

  17. Production of tung oil biodiesel and variation of fuel properties during storage.

    PubMed

    Shang, Qiong; Lei, Jiao; Jiang, Wei; Lu, Houfang; Liang, Bin

    2012-09-01

    The crude Tung oil with 4.72 mg KOH/g of acid value (AV) was converted by direct transesterification, and the reaction mixture was quantified. The phase distribution data showed that 38.24% of excess methanol, 11.76% of KOH, 10.13% of soap and 4.36% of glycerol were in the biodiesel phase; 0.35% of biodiesel dissolved in the glycerol phase. Tung oil biodiesel as well as its blends with 0(#) diesel was investigated under different storage conditions. The results indicated that higher temperature greatly influenced the storage stability, especially when the volume fraction of Tung oil biodiesel is increased in the blends.

  18. Production and characterization of biodiesel using nonedible castor oil by immobilized lipase from Bacillus aerius.

    PubMed

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Saun, Nitin Kumar; Dogra, Priyanka; Chauhan, Ghanshyam; Gupta, Reena

    2015-01-01

    A novel thermotolerant lipase from Bacillus aerius was immobilized on inexpensive silica gel matrix. The immobilized lipase was used for the synthesis of biodiesel using castor oil as a substrate in a solvent free system at 55°C under shaking in a chemical reactor. Several crucial parameters affecting biodiesel yield such as incubation time, temperature, substrate molar ratio, and amount of lipase were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the highest biodiesel yield was up to 78.13%. The characterization of synthesized biodiesel was done through FTIR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectra, and gas chromatography. PMID:25874205

  19. Glucose supplementation-induced changes in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides fatty acid composition suitable for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Oleszek, Marta

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates the effect of different concentrations of glucose supplementation on growth, lipid accumulation, and the fatty acid profile in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides. Addition of glucose promoted the growth rate and decreased the chlorophyll content. Compared with photoautotrophic cells, an increase in the lipid content was observed in mixotrophic cells. The glucose addition induced changes in the fatty acid profile. Higher content of saturated fatty acids was found in the case of cells growing in the glucose-free medium. Oleic acid was the predominant component in mixotrophic cells supplemented with 5gL(-1) glucose, while linoleic acids dominated in cultures supplemented with both 1 and 3gL(-1) glucose. The use of glucose was associated with decreased levels of linolenic acid and PUFA. The changes in the fatty acid profile in mixotrophic cells are favourable for biodiesel production.

  20. Glucose supplementation-induced changes in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides fatty acid composition suitable for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Oleszek, Marta

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates the effect of different concentrations of glucose supplementation on growth, lipid accumulation, and the fatty acid profile in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides. Addition of glucose promoted the growth rate and decreased the chlorophyll content. Compared with photoautotrophic cells, an increase in the lipid content was observed in mixotrophic cells. The glucose addition induced changes in the fatty acid profile. Higher content of saturated fatty acids was found in the case of cells growing in the glucose-free medium. Oleic acid was the predominant component in mixotrophic cells supplemented with 5gL(-1) glucose, while linoleic acids dominated in cultures supplemented with both 1 and 3gL(-1) glucose. The use of glucose was associated with decreased levels of linolenic acid and PUFA. The changes in the fatty acid profile in mixotrophic cells are favourable for biodiesel production. PMID:27485282

  1. Two step esterification-transesterification process of wet greasy sewage sludge for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, C; Sangaletti-Gerhard, N; Cea, M; Suazo, A; Aliberti, A; Navia, R

    2016-01-01

    Sewage sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants was used as a feedstock for biodiesel production via esterification/transesterification in a two-step process. In the first esterification step, greasy and secondary sludge were tested using acid and enzymatic catalysts. The results indicate that both catalysts performed the esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) simultaneously with the transesterification of triacylglycerols (TAG). Acid catalyst demonstrated better performance in FFA esterification compared to TAG transesterification, while enzymatic catalyst showed the ability to first hydrolyze TAG in FFA, which were esterified to methyl esters. In addition, FAME concentration using greasy sludge were higher (63.9% and 58.7%), compared with those of secondary sludge (11% and 16%), using acid and enzymatic catalysts, respectively. Therefore, only greasy sludge was used in the second step of alkaline transesterification. The alkaline transesterification of the previously esterified greasy sludge reached a maximum FAME concentration of 65.4% when using acid catalyst.

  2. Supported catalyst systems and method of making biodiesel products using such catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Manhoe; Yan, Shuli; Salley, Steven O.; Ng, K. Y. Simon

    2015-10-20

    A heterogeneous catalyst system, a method of preparing the catalyst system and a method of forming a biodiesel product via transesterification reactions using the catalyst system is disclosed. The catalyst system according to one aspect of the present disclosure represents a class of supported mixed metal oxides that include at least calcium oxide and another metal oxide deposited on a lanthanum oxide or cerium oxide support. Preferably, the catalysts include CaO--CeO.sub.2ZLa.sub.2O.sub.3 or CaO--La.sub.2O.sub.3/CeO.sub.2. Optionally, the catalyst may further include additional metal oxides, such as CaO--La.sub.2O.sub.3--GdOxZLa.sub.2O.sub.3.

  3. Lipid accumulation from pinewood pyrolysates by Rhodosporidium diobovatum and Chlorella vulgaris for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Luque, Luis; Orr, Valerie C A; Chen, Sean; Westerhof, Roel; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Rossum, Guus van; Kersten, Sascha; Berruti, Franco; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the suitability of pinewood pyrolysates as a carbon source for lipid production and cultivation of the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium diobovatum and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. Thermal decomposition of pinewood and fractional condensation were used to obtain an oil rich in levoglucosan which was upgraded to glucose by acid hydrolysis. Blending of pyrolytic sugars with pure glucose in both nitrogen rich and nitrogen limited conditions was studied for R. diobovatum, and under nitrogen limited conditions for C. vulgaris. Glucose consumption rate decreased with increasing proportions of pyrolytic sugars increasing cultivation time. While R. diobovatum was capable of growth in 100% (v/v) pyrolytic sugars, C. vulgaris growth declined rapidly in blends greater than 20% (v/v) until no growth was detected in blends >40%. Finally, the effects of pyrolysis sugars on lipid composition was evaluated and biodiesel fuel properties were estimated based on the lipid profiles. PMID:27208736

  4. Production of technical-grade sodium citrate from glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Vinokurova, Natalia G; Lunina, Julia N; Zelenkova, Nina F; Morgunov, Igor G

    2015-10-01

    The production of technical-grade sodium citrate from the glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Yarrowia lipolytica was studied. Batch experiments showed that citrate was actively produced within 144 h, then citrate formation decreased presumably due to inhibition of enzymes involved in this process. In contrast, when the method of repeated batch cultivation was used, the formation of citrate continued for more than 500 h. In this case, the final concentration of citrate in the culture liquid reached 79-82 g/L. Trisodium citrate was isolated from the culture liquid filtrate by the addition of a small amount of NaOH, so that the pH of the filtrate increased to 7-8. This simple and economic isolation procedure gave the yield of crude preparation containing trisodium citrate 5.5-hydrate up to 82-86%.

  5. Biodiesel production using anionic ion-exchange resin as heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Honda, Hiroki; Kuribayashi, Homare; Toda, Takuji; Fukumura, Takuya; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2007-01-01

    The transesterification reactions of triolein with ethanol using various ion-exchange resin catalysts were conducted to produce ethyl oleate as a biodiesel. The anion-exchange resins exhibited much higher catalytic activities than the cation-exchange resin. The anion-exchange resin with a lower cross-linking density and a smaller particle size gave a high reaction rate as well as a high conversion. By combining the three-step regeneration method, the resin could be repeatedly used for the batch transesterification without any loss in the catalytic activity. A continuous transesterification reaction was carried out using an expanded bed reactor packed with the most active resin. The reactor system permitted the continuous production of ethyl oleate with a high conversion.

  6. Esterification of sludge palm oil as a pretreatment step for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Škrbić, Biljana; Predojević, Zlatica; Đurišić-Mladenović, Nataša

    2015-08-01

    Acid esterification of sludge palm oil, having 50 mas.% free fatty acids, i.e., 50 g of dominant free fatty acid per 100 g of oil, was investigated with the objective of determining conditions for the efficient reduction of free fatty acids. The influences of sulphuric acid dosage and molar ratio of methanol to oil were studied, with the final intention to obtain feedstock with a free fatty acids content acceptable for biodiesel production by alkali-transesterification. Esterification was performed using different molar ratios of methanol to oil (3:1, 6:1 and 9:1) and varying the amount of H2SO4 catalyst (0.92 mas.%, 1.84 mas.% and 4.60 mas.%). Under the applied conditions, the sulphuric acid dosage of 4.60 mas.% resulted in the satisfactory decrease of the feedstock's free fatty acids for 6:1 and 9:1 molar ratios of methanol to oil. Thus, taking into account the economic reasoning, it can be concluded that approximately 5 mas.% of H2SO4 with 6:1 molar ratio of methanol to oily feedstock, might be regarded as the dosage necessary for satisfactory pretreatment of the feedstock to be further subjected to the alkaline transesterification. Finally, the effort to consolidate the information on acid esterification available in literature was made, contributing to knowledge on sustainable biodiesel production using the low-grade and low-cost sources.

  7. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated.

  8. Enhancement of Biodiesel Production from Marine Alga, Scenedesmus sp. through In Situ Transesterification Process Associated with Acidic Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ga Vin; Choi, WoonYong; Kang, DoHyung; Lee, ShinYoung; Lee, HyeonYong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the yield of biodiesel produced by Scenedesmus sp. through in situ transesterification by optimizing various process parameters. Based on the orthogonal matrix analysis for the acidic catalyst, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of reaction temperature (47.5%) > solvent quantity (26.7%) > reaction time (17.5%) > catalyst amount (8.3%). Based on a Taguchi analysis, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of solvent ratio (34.36%) > catalyst (28.62%) > time (19.72%) > temperature (17.32%). The overall biodiesel production appeared to be better using NaOH as an alkaline catalyst rather than using H2SO4 in an acidic process, at 55.07 ± 2.18% (based on lipid weight) versus 48.41 ± 0.21%. However, in considering the purified biodiesel, it was found that the acidic catalyst was approximately 2.5 times more efficient than the alkaline catalyst under the following optimal conditions: temperature of 70°C (level 2), reaction time of 10 hrs (level 2), catalyst amount of 5% (level 3), and biomass to solvent ratio of 1 : 15 (level 2), respectively. These results clearly demonstrated that the acidic solvent, which combined oil extraction with in situ transesterification, was an effective catalyst for the production of high-quantity, high-quality biodiesel from a Scenedesmus sp. PMID:24689039

  9. Enhancement of biodiesel production from marine alga, Scenedesmus sp. through in situ transesterification process associated with acidic catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ga Vin; Choi, Woonyong; Kang, Dohyung; Lee, Shinyoung; Lee, Hyeonyong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the yield of biodiesel produced by Scenedesmus sp. through in situ transesterification by optimizing various process parameters. Based on the orthogonal matrix analysis for the acidic catalyst, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of reaction temperature (47.5%) > solvent quantity (26.7%) > reaction time (17.5%) > catalyst amount (8.3%). Based on a Taguchi analysis, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of solvent ratio (34.36%) > catalyst (28.62%) > time (19.72%) > temperature (17.32%). The overall biodiesel production appeared to be better using NaOH as an alkaline catalyst rather than using H2SO4 in an acidic process, at 55.07 ± 2.18% (based on lipid weight) versus 48.41 ± 0.21%. However, in considering the purified biodiesel, it was found that the acidic catalyst was approximately 2.5 times more efficient than the alkaline catalyst under the following optimal conditions: temperature of 70 °C (level 2), reaction time of 10 hrs (level 2), catalyst amount of 5% (level 3), and biomass to solvent ratio of 1 : 15 (level 2), respectively. These results clearly demonstrated that the acidic solvent, which combined oil extraction with in situ transesterification, was an effective catalyst for the production of high-quantity, high-quality biodiesel from a Scenedesmus sp.

  10. Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Solid acid catalyst was prepared from Kraft lignin by chemical activation with phosphoric acid, pyrolysis and sulfuric acid. This catalyst had high acid density as characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) method analyses. It was further used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid and one-step conversion of non-pretreated Jatropha oil to biodiesel. The effects of catalyst loading, reaction temperature and oil-to-methanol molar ratio, on the catalytic activity of the esterification were investigated. Results The highest catalytic activity was achieved with a 96.1% esterification rate, and the catalyst can be reused three times with little deactivation under optimized conditions. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil was studied under such conditions. It was found that 96.3% biodiesel yield from non-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (12.7 mg KOH/g) could be achieved. Conclusions The catalyst can be easily separated for reuse. This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high-acid value oil by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs. PMID:22145867

  11. Biodiesel from wastewater: lipid production in high rate algal pond receiving disinfected effluent.

    PubMed

    Assemany, Paula Peixoto; Calijuri, Maria Lucia; do Couto, Eduardo de Aguiar; Santiago, Aníbal Fonseca; Dos Reis, Alberto José Delgado

    2015-01-01

    The production of different species of microalgae in consortium with other micro-organisms from wastewaters may represent an alternative process, to reduce the costs, for obtaining biofuels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of pre-ultraviolet disinfection (UV) in the production of lipids from biomass produced in high rate ponds. Two high rate algal ponds were evaluated: a pond that received domestic sewage without disinfection and the other receiving domestic sewage previously disinfected by UV radiation (uvHRAP). The UV disinfection did not lead to significant differences in fatty acid profile and total lipid productivities, although it increased algal biomass concentration and productivity as well as lipid content. Moreover, the overall biomass concentrations and productivities decreased with the UV disinfection, mostly as a consequence of a loss in bacterial load. We thus conclude that uvHRAP disinfection may represent a potential strategy to promote the cleaner and safer growth of algal biomass when cultivated in consortium with other micro-organisms. Mainly regarding the use of wastewater as culture medium, together with a cheaper production of lipids for biodiesel, pre-disinfection may represent an advance since extraction costs could be significantly trimmed due to the increase in lipid content.

  12. 78 FR 48193 - Final Adjusted Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled Substances and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... Enforcement Administration Final Adjusted Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled.... SUMMARY: This notice establishes final adjusted 2013 aggregate production quotas for controlled substances... List I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine, as well as the 2013...

  13. Valorisation of biodiesel production wastes: Anaerobic digestion of residual Tetraselmis suecica biomass and co-digestion with glycerol.

    PubMed

    Santos-Ballardo, David U; Font-Segura, Xavier; Ferrer, Antoni Sánchez; Barrena, Raquel; Rossi, Sergio; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel

    2015-03-01

    One of the principal opportunity areas in the development of the microalgal biodiesel industry is the energy recovery from the solid microalgal biomass residues to optimise the fuel production. This work reports the cumulative methane yields reached from the anaerobic digestion of the solid microalgal biomass residues using different types of inocula, reporting also the improvement of biogas production using the co-digestion of microalgal biomass with glycerol. Results demonstrate that the solid microalgal biomass residues showed better biogas production using a mesophilic inoculum, reaching almost two-fold higher methane production than under thermophilic conditions. Furthermore, the solid microalgal biomass residues methane production rate showed an increase from 173.78 ± 9.57 to 438.46 ± 40.50 mL of methane per gram of volatile solids, when the co-digestion with glycerol was performed. These results are crucial to improve the energy balance of the biodiesel production from Tetraselmis suecica, as well as proposing an alternative way to treat the wastes derived from the microalgae biodiesel production.

  14. Lightweight aggregate production from claystone and shale in Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Norbert A.; Khan, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    Muffle furnace tests were made on samples of clay, claystone, and shale collected in the Chittagong and Dacca areas of East Pakistan to determine their amenability to bloating for the commercial production of light-weight aggregate. Several areas, sampled in some detail, were selected for investigation because of their proximity to market, and accessibility to fuel and electricity. Muffle furnace tests show that the clay, claystone, and shale are natural bloaters at temperatures in the 1700? to 2200? F range, and do not require additives. The most desirable deposit, insofar as producing a strong aggregate is concerned, can be determined only by pilot-kiln testing and by crushing-strength tests made on concrete test cylinders. Reserves of suitable raw material are large in both the Chittagong and Dacca areas.

  15. An ultrasound-assisted system for the optimization of biodiesel production from chicken fat oil using a genetic algorithm and response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Fayyazi, E; Ghobadian, B; Najafi, G; Hosseinzadeh, B; Mamat, R; Hosseinzadeh, J

    2015-09-01

    Biodiesel is a green (clean), renewable energy source and is an alternative for diesel fuel. Biodiesel can be produced from vegetable oil, animal fat and waste cooking oil or fat. Fats and oils react with alcohol to produce methyl ester, which is generally known as biodiesel. Because vegetable oil and animal fat wastes are cheaper, the tendency to produce biodiesel from these materials is increasing. In this research, the effect of some parameters such as the alcohol-to-oil molar ratio (4:1, 6:1, 8:1), the catalyst concentration (0.75%, 1% and 1.25% w/w) and the time for the transesterification reaction using ultrasonication on the rate of the fatty acids-to-methyl ester (biodiesel) conversion percentage have been studied (3, 6 and 9 min). In biodiesel production from chicken fat, when increasing the catalyst concentration up to 1%, the oil-to-biodiesel conversion percentage was first increased and then decreased. Upon increasing the molar ratio from 4:1 to 6:1 and then to 8:1, the oil-to-biodiesel conversion percentage increased by 21.9% and then 22.8%, respectively. The optimal point is determined by response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithms (GAs). The biodiesel production from chicken fat by ultrasonic waves with a 1% w/w catalyst percentage, 7:1 alcohol-to-oil molar ratio and 9 min reaction time was equal to 94.8%. For biodiesel that was produced by ultrasonic waves under a similar conversion percentage condition compared to the conventional method, the reaction time was decreased by approximately 87.5%. The time reduction for the ultrasonic method compared to the conventional method makes the ultrasonic method superior.

  16. An ultrasound-assisted system for the optimization of biodiesel production from chicken fat oil using a genetic algorithm and response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Fayyazi, E; Ghobadian, B; Najafi, G; Hosseinzadeh, B; Mamat, R; Hosseinzadeh, J

    2015-09-01

    Biodiesel is a green (clean), renewable energy source and is an alternative for diesel fuel. Biodiesel can be produced from vegetable oil, animal fat and waste cooking oil or fat. Fats and oils react with alcohol to produce methyl ester, which is generally known as biodiesel. Because vegetable oil and animal fat wastes are cheaper, the tendency to produce biodiesel from these materials is increasing. In this research, the effect of some parameters such as the alcohol-to-oil molar ratio (4:1, 6:1, 8:1), the catalyst concentration (0.75%, 1% and 1.25% w/w) and the time for the transesterification reaction using ultrasonication on the rate of the fatty acids-to-methyl ester (biodiesel) conversion percentage have been studied (3, 6 and 9 min). In biodiesel production from chicken fat, when increasing the catalyst concentration up to 1%, the oil-to-biodiesel conversion percentage was first increased and then decreased. Upon increasing the molar ratio from 4:1 to 6:1 and then to 8:1, the oil-to-biodiesel conversion percentage increased by 21.9% and then 22.8%, respectively. The optimal point is determined by response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithms (GAs). The biodiesel production from chicken fat by ultrasonic waves with a 1% w/w catalyst percentage, 7:1 alcohol-to-oil molar ratio and 9 min reaction time was equal to 94.8%. For biodiesel that was produced by ultrasonic waves under a similar conversion percentage condition compared to the conventional method, the reaction time was decreased by approximately 87.5%. The time reduction for the ultrasonic method compared to the conventional method makes the ultrasonic method superior. PMID:25870003

  17. A novel process for low-sulfur biodiesel production from scum waste.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huan; Addy, Min M; Anderson, Erik; Liu, Weiwei; Liu, Yuhuan; Nie, Yong; Chen, Paul; Cheng, Beijiu; Lei, Hanwu; Ruan, Roger

    2016-08-01

    Scum is an oil-rich waste from the wastewater treatment plants with a high-sulfur level. In this work, a novel process was developed to convert scum to high quality and low sulfur content biodiesel. A combination of solvent extraction and acid washing as pretreatment was developed to lower the sulfur content in the scum feedstock and hence improve biodiesel conversion yield and quality. Glycerin esterification was then employed to convert free fatty acids to glycerides. Moreover, a new distillation process integrating the traditional reflux distillation and adsorptive desulfurization was developed to further remove sulfur from the crude biodiesel. As a result, 70% of the filtered and dried scum was converted to biodiesel with sulfur content lower than 15ppm. The fatty acid methyl ester profiles showed that the refined biodiesel from the new process exhibited a higher quality and better properties than that from traditional process reported in previous studies.

  18. A novel process for low-sulfur biodiesel production from scum waste.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huan; Addy, Min M; Anderson, Erik; Liu, Weiwei; Liu, Yuhuan; Nie, Yong; Chen, Paul; Cheng, Beijiu; Lei, Hanwu; Ruan, Roger

    2016-08-01

    Scum is an oil-rich waste from the wastewater treatment plants with a high-sulfur level. In this work, a novel process was developed to convert scum to high quality and low sulfur content biodiesel. A combination of solvent extraction and acid washing as pretreatment was developed to lower the sulfur content in the scum feedstock and hence improve biodiesel conversion yield and quality. Glycerin esterification was then employed to convert free fatty acids to glycerides. Moreover, a new distillation process integrating the traditional reflux distillation and adsorptive desulfurization was developed to further remove sulfur from the crude biodiesel. As a result, 70% of the filtered and dried scum was converted to biodiesel with sulfur content lower than 15ppm. The fatty acid methyl ester profiles showed that the refined biodiesel from the new process exhibited a higher quality and better properties than that from traditional process reported in previous studies. PMID:27241535

  19. Biodiscovery of new Australian thraustochytrids for production of biodiesel and long-chain omega-3 oils.

    PubMed

    Lee Chang, Kim Jye; Dunstan, Graeme A; Abell, Guy C J; Clementson, Lesley A; Blackburn, Susan I; Nichols, Peter D; Koutoulis, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    Heterotrophic growth of thraustochytrids has potential in co-producing a feedstock for biodiesel and long-chain (LC, ≥C(20)) omega-3 oils. Biodiscovery of thraustochytrids from Tasmania (temperate) and Queensland (tropical), Australia, covered a biogeographic range of habitats including fresh, brackish, and marine waters. A total of 36 thraustochytrid strains were isolated and separated into eight chemotaxonomic groups (A-H) based on fatty acid (FA) and sterol composition which clustered closely with four different genera obtained by 18S rDNA molecular identification. Differences in the relative proportions (%FA) of long-chain C(20), C(22), omega-3, and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and saturated FA, as well as the presence of odd-chain PUFA (OC-PUFA) were the major factors influencing the separation of these groups. OC-PUFA were detected in temperate strains of groups A, B, and C (Schizochytrium and Thraustochytrium). Group D (Ulkenia) had high omega-3 LC-PUFA (53% total fatty acids (TFA)) and EPA up to 11.2% TFA. Strains from groups E and F (Aurantiochytrium) contained DHA levels of 50-61% TFA after 7 days of growth in basal medium at 20 °C. Groups G and H (Aurantiochytrium) strains had high levels of 15:0 (20-30% TFA) and the sum of saturated FA was in the range of 32-51%. β,β-Carotene, canthaxanthin, and astaxanthin were identified in selected strains. Phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic groupings demonstrated similar patterns for the majority of strains. Our results demonstrate the potential of these new Australian thraustochytrids for the production of biodiesel in addition to omega-3 LC-PUFA-rich oils. PMID:22252264

  20. One-step production of biodiesel from oils with high acid value by activated Mg-Al hydrotalcite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Tong; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fan; Xue, Bao-Jin

    2015-10-01

    Activated Mg-Al hydrotalcite (HT-Ca) nanoparticles (<45 nm) were synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal activation with aqueous Ca(OH)2 solution. They were characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometer, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, scanning electronic microscope-X-ray energy dispersive analysis and temperature programmed desorption method. HT-Ca presented both acidic and basic due to the formation of Mg4Al2(OH)14 · 3H2O, Mg2Al(OH)7 and AlO(OH) nanocrystals to esterify and transesterify oils with high acid value (AV). Under conditions of 5 wt% HT-Ca, 160 °C, 30/1 methanol/oil molar ratio and 4h, 93.4% Jatropha biodiesel yield was obtained at AV of 6.3 mg KOH/g with 4 cycles (biodiesel yield>86%). It was further found that it can resist free fatty acids, and biodiesel yield reached 92.9% from soybean oil with high AV of 12.1. HT-Ca catalyst showed a potential practical application for direct production of biodiesel from oils with high AV without pretreatment.

  1. One-step production of biodiesel from oils with high acid value by activated Mg-Al hydrotalcite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Tong; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fan; Xue, Bao-Jin

    2015-10-01

    Activated Mg-Al hydrotalcite (HT-Ca) nanoparticles (<45 nm) were synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal activation with aqueous Ca(OH)2 solution. They were characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometer, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, scanning electronic microscope-X-ray energy dispersive analysis and temperature programmed desorption method. HT-Ca presented both acidic and basic due to the formation of Mg4Al2(OH)14 · 3H2O, Mg2Al(OH)7 and AlO(OH) nanocrystals to esterify and transesterify oils with high acid value (AV). Under conditions of 5 wt% HT-Ca, 160 °C, 30/1 methanol/oil molar ratio and 4h, 93.4% Jatropha biodiesel yield was obtained at AV of 6.3 mg KOH/g with 4 cycles (biodiesel yield>86%). It was further found that it can resist free fatty acids, and biodiesel yield reached 92.9% from soybean oil with high AV of 12.1. HT-Ca catalyst showed a potential practical application for direct production of biodiesel from oils with high AV without pretreatment. PMID:26117239

  2. Pickering emulsion stabilized by lipase-containing periodic mesoporous organosilica particles: a robust biocatalyst system for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanjun; Liu, Xinlong; Chen, Yafei; Zhou, Liya; He, Ying; Ma, Li; Gao, Jing

    2014-02-01

    A novel catalytic system of Pickering emulsion stabilized by lipase-containing periodic mesoporous organosilica was constructed (named LP@PE) and used as biocatalyst for biodiesel production. The reaction parameters were optimized and the optimum conditions were as follows: the water fraction 0.65%, molar ratio of ethanol to oleic acid 2:1, immobilized lipase particles 150mg, phosphate buffer pH 7.0 and temperature 30°C. Under these conditions, the maximum biodiesel yield obtained via esterification of oleic acid with ethanol could reach 95.8%. The biodiesel yield could maintain 88.6% after LP@PE was used 15times. The LP@PE was also used in the synthesis of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil. The highest yield could reach 87.1% and the yield was 73.0% after 10 cycles. All these results demonstrated that Pickering emulsion system stabilized by immobilized enzyme may possess much potential in many enzymatic industrial applications.

  3. Synthesis H-Zeolite catalyst by impregnation KI/KIO3 and performance test catalyst for biodiesel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayat, W.; Rizky Wicaksono, Adit; Hakim Firdaus, Lukman; Okvitarini, Ndaru

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this research is to produce H-catalyst catalyst that was impregnated with KI/KIO3. The catalyst was analyzed about surface area, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and performance test of catalyst for biodiesel production. An H-Zeolite catalyst was synthesized from natural zeolite with chemical treatment processing, impregnation KI/KIO3 and physical treatment. The results shows that the surface area of the catalyst by 27.236 m2/g at a concentration of 5% KI. XRD analysis shows peak 2-θ at 23.627o indicating that KI was impregnated on H-zeolite catalyst. The catalyst was tested in production of biodiesel using palm oil with conventional methods for 3 hour at temperature of 70-80 oC. The result for conversion Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) reached maximum value on 87.91% under production process using catalyst 5% KIO3-H zeolite.

  4. Biodiesel production in a magnetically-stabilized, fluidized bed reactor with an immobilized lipase in magnetic chitosan microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gui-Xiong; Chen, Guan-Yi; Yan, Bei-Bei

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel production by immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase in magnetic chitosan microspheres (MCMs) was carried out using soybean oil and methanol in a magnetically-stabilized, fluidized bed reactor (MSFBR). The maximum content of methyl ester in the reaction mixture reached 91.3 (w/v) at a fluid flow rate of 25 ml/min and a magnetic field intensity of 150 Oe. In addition, the MCMs-immobilized lipase in the reactor showed excellent reusability, retaining 82 % productivity even after six batches, which was much better than that in a conventional fluidized bed reactor. These results suggested that a MSFRB using MCMs-immobilized lipase is a promising method for biodiesel production. PMID:24062133

  5. Biodiesel production in a magnetically-stabilized, fluidized bed reactor with an immobilized lipase in magnetic chitosan microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gui-Xiong; Chen, Guan-Yi; Yan, Bei-Bei

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel production by immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase in magnetic chitosan microspheres (MCMs) was carried out using soybean oil and methanol in a magnetically-stabilized, fluidized bed reactor (MSFBR). The maximum content of methyl ester in the reaction mixture reached 91.3 (w/v) at a fluid flow rate of 25 ml/min and a magnetic field intensity of 150 Oe. In addition, the MCMs-immobilized lipase in the reactor showed excellent reusability, retaining 82 % productivity even after six batches, which was much better than that in a conventional fluidized bed reactor. These results suggested that a MSFRB using MCMs-immobilized lipase is a promising method for biodiesel production.

  6. Isolation of novel microalgae from acid mine drainage and its potential application for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Hongkyun; Park, Young-Tae; Ji, Min-Kyu; Kabra, Akhil N; Jeon, Chung; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2014-08-01

    Microalgae were selected and isolated from acid mine drainage in order to find microalgae species which could be cultivated in low pH condition. In the present investigation, 30 microalgae were isolated from ten locations of acid mine drainage in South Korea. Four microalgae were selected based on their growth rate, morphology, and identified as strains of KGE1, KGE3, KGE4, and KGE7. The dry biomass of microalgae species ranged between 1 and 2 g L(-1) after 21 days of cultivation. The growth kinetics of microalgae was well described by logistic growth model. Among these, KGE7 has the highest biomass production (2.05 ± 0.35 g L(-1)), lipid productivity (0.82 ± 0.14 g L(-1)), and C16-C18 fatty acid contents (97.6 %). These results suggest that Scenedesmus sp. KGE 7 can be utilized for biodiesel production based on its high biomass and lipid productivity.

  7. Isolation and characterization of microalgae for biodiesel production from Nisargruna biogas plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Tale, Manisha; Ghosh, Sukhendu; Kapadnis, Balasaheb; Kale, Sharad

    2014-10-01

    Increasing energy demand and depleting fossil fuel sources have intensified the focus on biofuel production. Microalgae have emerged as a desirable source for biofuel production because of high biomass and lipid production from waste water source. In this study, five microalgae were isolated from effluents of Nisargruna biogas plants. These isolates were identified based on morphology and partial 18S and 23S rRNA gene sequences. Growth and lipid accumulation potential of these microalgae were investigated. One isolate, Chlorella sp. KMN3, accumulated high biomass (1.59 ± 0.05 g L(-1)) with moderate lipid content (20%), while another isolate Monoraphidium sp. KMN5 showed moderate biomass accumulation of 0.65 ± 0.05 g L(-1) with a very high (35%) lipid content. The fatty acid methyl esters mainly composed of C-16:0, C-18:0, C-18:1 and C-18:2. This observation makes these microalgae immensely potential candidate for biodiesel production using the effluent of a biogas plant as feed stock.

  8. Production of aggregate from non-metallic automotive shredder residues.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Vito Alunno; Di Palma, Luca; Medici, Franco

    2006-09-21

    In this paper, the results of an experimentation on the production of granules suitable to be used as aggregates in cementitious or asphalt mixes are presented and discussed. The granules were obtained by granulating the non-metallic fraction of automotive shredder residues. In a preliminary separation step the fluff fraction containing mainly inert and non-metallic materials was sieved and analyzed for the metal content. In the following granulation step, the sieved fraction was mixed with binding materials, fly ash and a densifier agent, to produce granules of 5-30 mm of diameter and up to 1400 kg/m3 of specific weight. The granulation was carried out at room temperature in a rotating tank. Concrete samples prepared using as aggregates the produced granules showed a specific weight up to 1800 kg/m3 and a compressive strength up to about 55% of reference samples prepared using a calcareous aggregate, depending on the fluff content of the mixes, and on the nature of the binder and of the other components used.

  9. Low-quality vegetable oils as feedstock for biodiesel production using K-pumice as solid catalyst. Tolerance of water and free fatty acids contents.

    PubMed

    Díaz, L; Borges, M E

    2012-08-15

    Waste oils are a promising alternative feedstock for biodiesel production due to the decrease of the industrial production costs. However, feedstock with high free fatty acids (FFA) content presents several drawbacks when alkaline-catalyzed transesterification reaction is employed in biodiesel production process. Nowadays, to develop suitable processes capable of treating oils with high free fatty acids content, a two-step process for biodiesel production is being investigated. The major problem that it presents is that two catalysts are needed to carry out the whole process: an acidic catalyst for free fatty acids esterification (first step) and a basic catalyst for pretreated product transesterification (second step). The use of a bifunctional catalyst, which allows both reactions to take place simultaneously, could minimize the production costs and time. In the present study, the behavior of pumice, a natural volcanic material used as a heterogeneous catalyst, was tested using oils with several FFA and water contents as feedstock in the transesterification reaction to produce biodiesel. Pumice as a bifunctional solid catalyst, which can catalyze simultaneously the esterification of FFA and the transesterification of fatty acid glycerides into biodiesel, was shown to be an efficient catalyst for the conversion of low-grade, nonedible oil feedstock into biodiesel product. Using this solid catalyst for the transesterification reaction, high FAME yields were achieved when feedstock oils presented a FFA content until approximately 2% wt/wt and a water content until 2% wt/wt.

  10. Ethanol production from glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Klebsiella variicola shows maximum productivity under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshihiro; Nishikawa, Chiaki; Seta, Kohei; Shigeno, Toshiya; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki

    2014-05-25

    Biodiesel fuel (BDF) waste contains large amounts of crude glycerol as a by-product, and has a high alkaline pH. With regard to microbial conversion of ethanol from BDF-derived glycerol, bacteria that can produce ethanol at alkaline pH have not been reported to date. Isolation of bacteria that shows maximum productivity under alkaline conditions is essential to effective production of ethanol from BDF-derived glycerol. In this study, we isolated the Klebsiella variicola TB-83 strain, which demonstrated maximum ethanol productivity at alkaline pH. Strain TB-83 showed effective usage of crude glycerol with maximum ethanol production at pH 8.0-9.0, and the culture pH was finally neutralized by formate, a by-product. In addition, the ethanol productivity of strain TB-83 under various culture conditions was investigated. Ethanol production was more efficient with the addition of yeast extract. Strain TB-83 produced 9.8 g/L ethanol (0.86 mol/mol glycerol) from cooking oil-derived BDF waste. Ethanol production from cooking oil-derived BDF waste was higher than that of new frying oil-derived BDF and pure-glycerol. This is the first report to demonstrate that the K. variicola strain TB-83 has the ability to produce ethanol from glycerol at alkaline pH.

  11. Synergetic sustainability enhancement via current biofuel infrastructure: waste-to-energy concept for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eilhann; Yi, Haakrho; Jeon, Young Jae

    2013-03-19

    The concept of waste-to-energy (WtE) with regards to the utilization of byproducts from the bioethanol industry (e.g., distiller's dried grain with solubles: DDGS) was employed to enhance the renewability of biodiesel, which would be an initiative stage of a biorefinery due to the conjunction between bioethanol and biodiesel. For example, DDGS is a strong candidate for use as a biodiesel feedstock due to the tremendous amount that is regularly generated. On the basis of an estimation of possible lipid recovery from DDGS, ∼30% of the biodiesel feedstock demand in 2010 could be supported by the total DDGS generation in the same year. Considering the future expansion of the bioethanol industry up to 2020, the possible lipid recovery from DDGS would provide more than 6 times the biodiesel feedstock demand in 2010. In order to enhance the renewability of biodiesel, the transformation of lipid extracted from DDGS into fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via a noncatalytic transesterification reaction under ambient pressure was investigated in this work. The newly introduced method reported here enables the combination of the esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) and the transesterification of triglycerides into a single step. This was achieved in the presence of a porous material (i.e., charcoal), and the optimal conditions for transformation into biodiesel via this noncatalytic method were assessed at the fundamental level.

  12. Impact of policy on greenhouse gas emissions and economics of biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Olivetti, Elsa; Gülşen, Ece; Malça, João; Castanheira, Erica; Freire, Fausto; Dias, Luis; Kirchain, Randolph

    2014-07-01

    As an alternative transportation fuel to petrodiesel, biodiesel has been promoted within national energy portfolio targets across the world. Early estimations of low lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of biodiesel were a driver behind extensive government support in the form of financial incentives for the industry. However, studies consistently report a high degree of uncertainty in these emissions estimates, raising questions concerning the carbon benefits of biodiesel. Furthermore, the implications of feedstock blending on GHG emissions uncertainty have not been explicitly addressed despite broad practice by the industry to meet fuel quality standards and to control costs. This work investigated the impact of feedstock blending on the characteristics of biodiesel by using a chance-constrained (CC) blend optimization method. The objective of the optimization is minimization of feedstock costs subject to fuel standards and emissions constraints. Results indicate that blending can be used to manage GHG emissions uncertainty characteristics of biodiesel, and to achieve cost reductions through feedstock diversification. Simulations suggest that emissions control policies that restrict the use of certain feedstocks based on their GHG estimates overlook blending practices and benefits, increasing the cost of biodiesel. In contrast, emissions control policies which recognize the multifeedstock nature of biodiesel provide producers with feedstock selection flexibility, enabling them to manage their blend portfolios cost effectively, potentially without compromising fuel quality or emissions reductions.

  13. Production of fumaric acid from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by Rhizopus arrhizus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuqing; Nie, Kaili; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Shihong; Wang, Meng; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-07-01

    This work investigated the capability of Rhizopus arrhizus to assimilate biodiesel-derived crude glycerol and convert it into fumaric acid. After optimizing the initial glycerol concentration, spore inoculum and yeast extract concentration, smaller pellets (0.7 mm) and higher biomass (3.11 g/L) were obtained when R. arrhizus grew on crude glycerol. It was found that crude glycerol was more suitable than glucose for smaller R. arrhizus pellet forming. When 80 g/L crude glycerol was used as carbon source, the fumaric acid production of 4.37 g/L was obtained at 192 h. With a highest concentration of 22.81 g/L achieved in the co-fermentation of crude glycerol (40 g/L) and glucose (40 g/L) at 144 h, the fumaric acid production was enhanced by 553.6%, compared to the fermentation using glycerol (80 g/L) as sole carbon source. Moreover, the production cost of fumaric acid in co-fermentation was reduced by approximately 14% compared to glucose fermentation. PMID:24787316

  14. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production from waste activated bleaching earth as raw material in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Park, Enoch Y; Sato, Masayasu; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-05-01

    The production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from waste activated bleaching earth (ABE) discarded by the crude oil refining industry using lipase from Candida cylindracea was investigated in a 50-L pilot plant. Diesel oil or kerosene was used as an organic solvent for the transesterification of triglycerides embedded in the waste ABE. When 1% (w/w) lipase was added to waste ABE, the FAME content reached 97% (w/w) after reaction for 12 h at 25 degrees C with an agitation rate of 30 rpm. The FAME production rate was strongly dependent upon the amount of enzyme added. Mixtures of FAME and diesel oil at ratios of 45:55 (BDF-45) and 35:65 (BDF-35) were assessed and compared with the European specifications for biodiesel as automotive diesel fuel, as defined by pr EN 14214. The biodiesel quality of BDF-45 met the EN 14214 standard. BDF-45 was used as generator fuel, and the exhaust emissions were compared with those of diesel oil. The CO and SO2 contents were reduced, but nitrogen oxide emission increased by 10%. This is the first report of a pilot plant study of lipase-catalyzed FAME production using waste ABE as a raw material. This result demonstrates a promising reutilization method for the production of FAME from industrial waste resources containing vegetable oils for use as a biodiesel fuel.

  15. Study on membrane reactors for biodiesel production by phase behaviors of canola oil methanolysis in batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li-Hua; Yen, Shih-Yang; Su, Li-Sheng; Chen, Junghui

    2010-09-01

    In comparison with the general stirring batch reactor, the membrane reactor has been reported to have higher molar ratios of methanol to oil but ultralow catalyst concentration in the biodiesel production. In this research, the methanolysis of canola oil is conducted in a stirring batch reactor in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst. Based on the investigation of the effects of operating conditions, including methanol to oil molar ration, catalyst concentrations and temperatures, the time course of the reaction path for the reactant composition in the ternary phase diagram of oil-FAME-MeOH offers an effective way to understand the operation of membrane reactors in the biodiesel production. The results show that increasing the residence time of the whole reactant system within the two-phase zone is good for the separation operation through the membranes.

  16. Integrated lipase production and in situ biodiesel synthesis in a recombinant Pichia pastoris yeast: an efficient dual biocatalytic system composed of cell free enzymes and whole cell catalysts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lipase-catalyzed biotransformation of acylglycerides or fatty acids into biodiesel via immobilized enzymes or whole cell catalysts has been considered as one of the most promising methods to produce renewable and environmentally friendly alternative liquid fuels, thus being extensively studied so far. In all previously pursued approaches, however, lipase enzymes are prepared in an independent process separated from enzymatic biodiesel production, which would unavoidably increase the cost and energy consumption during industrial manufacture of this cost-sensitive energy product. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel cost-effective biocatalysts and biocatalytic processes with genuine industrial feasibility. Result Inspired by the consolidated bioprocessing of lignocellulose to generate bioethanol, an integrated process with coupled lipase production and in situ biodiesel synthesis in a recombinant P. pastoris yeast was developed in this study. The novel and efficient dual biocatalytic system based on Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase took advantage of both cell free enzymes and whole cell catalysts. The extracellular and intracellular lipases of growing yeast cells were simultaneously utilized to produce biodiesel from waste cooking oils in situ and in one pot. This integrated system effectively achieved 58% and 72% biodiesel yield via concurrent esterified-transesterified methanolysis and stepwise hydrolysis-esterification at 3:1 molar ratio between methanol and waste cooking oils, respectively. Further increasing the molar ratio of methanol to waste cooking oils to 6:1 led to an 87% biodiesel yield using the stepwise strategy. Both water tolerance and methanol tolerance of this novel system were found to be significantly improved compared to previous non-integrated biodiesel production processes using separately prepared immobilized enzymes or whole cell catalysts. Conclusion We have proposed a new concept of integrated biodiesel production

  17. Recycling harvest water to cultivate Chlorella zofingiensis under nutrient limitation for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L D; Takala, J; Hiltunen, E; Wang, Z M

    2013-09-01

    Harvest water recycling for Chlorella zofingiensis re-cultivation under nutrient limitation was investigated. Using 100% harvest water, four cultures were prepared: Full medium, P-limited medium, N-limited medium and N- and P-limited medium, while another full medium was also prepared using 50% harvest water. The results showed that the specific growth rate and biomass productivity ranged from 0.289 to 0.403 day(-1) and 86.30 to 266.66 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively. Nutrient-limited cultures witnessed much higher lipid content (41.21-46.21% of dry weight) than nutrient-full cultures (26% of dry weight). The N- and P-limited medium observed the highest FAME yield at 10.95% of dry weight, while the N-limited culture and P-limited culture shared the highest biodiesel productivity at 20.66 and 19.91 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively. The experiment on harvest water recycling times demonstrated that 100% of the harvest water could be recycled twice with the addition of sufficient nutrients.

  18. Biodiesel production from algae oil high in free fatty acids by two-step catalytic conversion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Liu, Tianzhong; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xiaolin; Wang, Junfeng

    2012-05-01

    The effect of storage temperature and time on lipid composition of Scenedesmus sp. was studied. When stored at 4°C or higher, the free fatty acid content in the wet biomass increased from a trace to 62.0% by day 4. Using two-step catalytic conversion, algae oil with a high free fatty acid content was converted to biodiesel by pre-esterification and transesterification. The conversion rate of triacylglycerols reached 100% under the methanol to oil molar ratio of 12:1 during catalysis with 2% potassium hydroxide at 65°C for 30 min. This process was scaled up to produce biodiesel from Scenedesmus sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. oil. The crude biodiesel was purified using bleaching earth. Except for moisture content, the biodiesel conformed to Chinese National Standards. PMID:22401712

  19. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: 2. Economic assessment and sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Dubé, M A; McLean, D D; Kates, M

    2003-12-01

    The economic feasibilities of four continuous processes to produce biodiesel, including both alkali- and acid-catalyzed processes, using waste cooking oil and the 'standard' process using virgin vegetable oil as the raw material, were assessed. Although the alkali-catalyzed process using virgin vegetable oil had the lowest fixed capital cost, the acid-catalyzed process using waste cooking oil was more economically feasible overall, providing a lower total manufacturing cost, a more attractive after-tax rate of return and a lower biodiesel break-even price. On the basis of these economic calculations, sensitivity analyses for these processes were carried out. Plant capacity and prices of feedstock oils and biodiesel were found to be the most significant factors affecting the economic viability of biodiesel manufacture.

  20. Optimisation of integrated biodiesel production. Part II: a study of the material balance.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Gemma; Martínez, Mercedes; Aracil, José

    2007-07-01

    A study was made of the material balance for the fatty acid methyl ester (biodiesel) synthesis from sunflower oil using potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. A factorial design of experiments and a central composite design have been used to evaluate the influence of operating conditions on the process material balance. The responses chosen were the biodiesel yield and the yield losses due to triglyceride saponification and methyl ester dissolution in glycerol, while the variables studied were temperature, initial catalyst concentration and the methanol:vegetable oil molar ratio. The biodiesel yield increased and therefore the yield losses decreased by decreasing catalyst concentration and temperature. However, the methanol:sunflower oil molar ratio did not affect the material balance variables significantly. Second-order models were obtained to predict the biodiesel yield and both yield losses. Within the experimental range studied, these models largely matched the results from the experiments.

  1. Fatty acid profile as a basis for screening feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) profile was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Coriandr...

  2. Fatty acid composition as a tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Cori...

  3. Optimisation of integrated biodiesel production. Part II: a study of the material balance.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Gemma; Martínez, Mercedes; Aracil, José

    2007-07-01

    A study was made of the material balance for the fatty acid methyl ester (biodiesel) synthesis from sunflower oil using potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. A factorial design of experiments and a central composite design have been used to evaluate the influence of operating conditions on the process material balance. The responses chosen were the biodiesel yield and the yield losses due to triglyceride saponification and methyl ester dissolution in glycerol, while the variables studied were temperature, initial catalyst concentration and the methanol:vegetable oil molar ratio. The biodiesel yield increased and therefore the yield losses decreased by decreasing catalyst concentration and temperature. However, the methanol:sunflower oil molar ratio did not affect the material balance variables significantly. Second-order models were obtained to predict the biodiesel yield and both yield losses. Within the experimental range studied, these models largely matched the results from the experiments. PMID:16934454

  4. Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Doon, Ben; Quintana, Dan

    2011-08-25

    The Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project has demonstrated the compatibility of biodiesel technology and economics on a local scale. The project has been committed to making homegrown biodiesel a viable form of community economic development. The project has benefited by reducing risks by building the facility gradually and avoiding large initial outlays of money for facilities and technologies. A primary advantage of this type of community-scale biodiesel production is that it allows for a relatively independent, local solution to fuel production. Successfully using locally sourced feedstocks and putting the fuel into local use emphasizes the feasibility of different business models under the biodiesel tent and that there is more than just a one size fits all template for successful biodiesel production.

  5. Novozym 435-catalysed transesterification of crude soya bean oils for biodiesel production in a solvent-free medium.

    PubMed

    Du, Wei; Xu, Yuan-yuan; Zeng, Jing; Liu, De-hua

    2004-10-01

    When crude soya-bean oil was used as the source for biodiesel production, the yield of methyl ester was significantly lower than that from refined soya-bean oil. The major difference between refined and crude soya-bean oils was found to be due to the contents of phospholipids, free acid and water, which have varied influences on biodiesel production. Phospholipid content was the most influential factor; the higher the phospholipid content in the oil, the lower is the methyl ester yield. The optimal water activity was found to be in the range 0.12-0.44, and free acid included in crude soya-bean oils showed no negative effect on enzymic transesterification. During our study of three-step methanolysis of crude soya-bean oils for biodiesel production, we noted that the second-step methanolysis was much faster than the first-step reaction. On the basis of this finding, the proposal that immersing pretreatment of lipase in oils contributes to improvement in enzyme activity has been put forward. In addition, it has been demonstrated that immersing pretreatment of lipase in oils could improve both the reaction rate and methyl ester yield significantly. A methyl ester yield of 94% could be achieved by immersing lipase in crude oils for 120 h and this was just as high as the yield for refined oils.

  6. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, J Bradley; Tonnis, Brandon; Pinnow, David; Davis, Jerry; Raymer, Paul; Pederson, Gary A

    2011-09-14

    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors determining the price for production and affecting the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There are 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the USDA germplasm collection. The entire castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with significant variability ranging from 37.2 to 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was composed primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability in fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the five other fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production.

  7. Biodiesel production from sunflower, soybean, and waste cooking oils by transesterification using lipase immobilized onto a novel microporous polymer.

    PubMed

    Dizge, Nadir; Aydiner, Coskun; Imer, Derya Y; Bayramoglu, Mahmut; Tanriseven, Aziz; Keskinler, Bülent

    2009-03-01

    This study aims at carrying out lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) from various vegetable oils using lipase immobilized onto a novel microporous polymeric matrix (MPPM) as a low-cost biocatalyst. The research is focused on three aspects of the process: (a) MPPM synthesis (monolithic, bead, and powder forms), (b) microporous polymeric biocatalyst (MPPB) preparation by immobilization of lipase onto MPPM, and (c) biodiesel production by MPPB. Experimental planning of each step of the study was separately carried out in accordance with design of experiment (DoE) based on Taguchi methodology. Microporous polymeric matrix (MPPM) containing aldehyde functional group was synthesized by polyHIPE technique using styrene, divinylbenzene, and polyglutaraldehyde. Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase was covalently attached onto MPPM with 80%, 85%, and 89% immobilization efficiencies using bead, powder, and monolithic forms, respectively. Immobilized enzymes were successfully used for the production of biodiesel using sunflower, soybean, and waste cooking oils. It was shown that immobilized enzymes retain their activities during 10 repeated batch reactions at 25 degrees C, each lasting 24h. Since the developed novel method is simple yet effective, it could have a potential to be used industrially for the production of chemicals requiring immobilized lipases. PMID:19028094

  8. An evaluation of a small-scale biodiesel production technology: Case study of Mango’o village, Center province, Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantopoulos, Ioannis; Che, Franklin; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Bakirtzoglou, Vagios; Azangue, Willy; Bienvenue, Donatien; Ndipen, Frankline Mulluh

    It is an undeniable fact that isolated areas lack sufficient energy resources and that energy supply is central in order to achieve sustainable development goals. On the other hand, agricultural materials, whose trade profit fluctuates in low levels, are produced locally in wide range. As a result, the implementation of an alternative, more effective approach, which ensures the sustainability in social, economical and environmental dimension, is a crucial issue for developing countries. In this particular study, in order to cover the local energy needs, the possibility of installing a small biodiesel plant in a rural area of Cameroon, has been analyzed. The final biodiesel product can also be disposed directly to the market leading to an additional local income. In this paper, both the monthly potential of palm oil in Mango’o region and the recommended biodiesel production process are presented. Some significant benefits that can be achieved are independence from fossil fuels, mechanization of palm oil production process and additional prevention of local depopulation.

  9. DURABILITY EVALUATION AND PRODUCTION OF MANUFACTURED AGGREGATES FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    M. M. Wu

    2005-02-01

    Under the cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Energy (CONSOL R&D), teamed with Universal Aggregates, LLC, to conduct a systematic study of the durability of aggregates manufactured using a variety of flue gas desulfurization (FGD), fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) and fly ash specimens with different chemical and physical properties and under different freeze/thaw, wet/dry and long-term natural weathering conditions. The objectives of the study are to establish the relationships among the durability and characteristics of FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash, and to identify the causes of durability problems, and, ultimately, to increase the utilization of FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash as a construction material. Manufactured aggregates made from FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash, and products made from those manufactured aggregates were used in the study. The project is divided into the following activities: sample collection and characterization; characterization and preparation of manufactured aggregates; determination of durability characteristics of manufactured aggregates; preparation and determination of durability characteristics of manufactured aggregate products; and data evaluation and reporting.

  10. Optimization of biodiesel production from castor oil using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2009-05-01

    The short supply of edible vegetable oils is the limiting factor in the progression of biodiesel technology; thus, in this study, we applied response surface methodology in order to optimize the reaction factors for biodiesel synthesis from inedible castor oil. Specifically, we evaluated the effects of multiple parameters and their reciprocal interactions using a five-level three-factor design. In a total of 20 individual experiments, we optimized the reaction temperature, oil-to-methanol molar ratio, and quantity of catalyst. Our model equation predicted that the following conditions would generate the maximum quantity of castor biodiesel (92 wt.%): a 40-min reaction at 35.5 degrees C, with an oil-to-methanol molar ratio of 1:8.24, and a catalyst concentration of 1.45% of KOH by weight of castor oil. Subsequent empirical analyses of the biodiesel generated under the predicted conditions showed that the model equation accurately predicted castor biodiesel yields within the tested ranges. The biodiesel produced from castor oil satisfied the relevant quality standards without regard to viscosity and cold filter plugging point.

  11. Extraction of squalene as value-added product from the residual biomass of Schizochytrium mangrovei PQ6 during biodiesel producing process.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Minh Hien; Ha, Nguyen Cam; Thom, Le Thi; Tam, Luu Thi; Anh, Hoang Thi Lan; Thu, Ngo Thi Hoai; Hong, Dang Diem

    2014-12-01

    Today microalgae represent a viable alternative source of squalene for commercial application. The species Schizochytrium mangrovei, a heterotrophic microalga, has been widely studied and provides a high amount of squalene, polyunsaturated fatty acids and has good profiles for biodiesel production. Our work was aimed at examining the squalene contents in Vietnam's heterotrophic marine microalga S. mangrovei PQ6 biomass and residues of the biodiesel process from this strain. Thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were successfully applied to the determination of squalene in S. mangrovei PQ6. The squalene content and production of S. mangrovei PQ6 reached 33.00 ± 0.02 and 33.04 ± 0.03 mg g(-1) of dry cell weight; and 0.992 g L(-1) and 1.019 g L(-1) in 30 and 150 L bioreactors, respectively after 96 h of fermentation. In addition, squalene was also detected in spent biomass (approximately 80.10 ± 0.03 mg g(-1) of spent biomass) from the S. mangrovei PQ6 biodiesel production process. The structure of squalene in residues of the biodiesel process was confirmed from its nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The results obtained from our work suggest that there is tremendous potential in the exploitation of squalene as a value-added by-product besides biodiesel from S. mangrovei PQ6 to reduce biodiesel price.

  12. Enhancing the various solvent extraction method via microwave irradiation for extraction of lipids from marine microalgae in biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Teo, Chee Loong; Idris, Ani

    2014-11-01

    The types of microalgae strains and the method used in lipid extraction have become crucial factors which influence the productivity of crude oil. In this paper, Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp. were chosen as the strains and four different methods were used to extract the lipids: Hara and Radin, Folch, Chen and Bligh and Dyer. These methods were performed by using conventional heating and microwave irradiation methods. Results revealed that highest lipid yield from the different species was obtained using different extraction methods; both under microwave irradiation. The lipid yield for Tetraselmis sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. was highest when Hara and Radin (8.19%), and Folch (8.47%) methods were used respectively under microwave irradiation. The lipids extracted were then transesterified to biodiesel and the quality of the biodiesel was analyzed using the gas chromatography.

  13. Isolation of a euryhaline microalgal strain, Tetraselmis sp. CTP4, as a robust feedstock for biodiesel production

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Hugo; Gangadhar, Katkam N.; Schulze, Peter S. C.; Santos, Tamára; de Sousa, Carolina Bruno; Schueler, Lisa M.; Custódio, Luísa; Malcata, F. Xavier; Gouveia, Luísa; Varela, João C. S.; Barreira, Luísa

    2016-01-01

    Bioprospecting for novel microalgal strains is key to improving the feasibility of microalgae-derived biodiesel production. Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 (Chlorophyta, Chlorodendrophyceae) was isolated using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) in order to screen novel lipid-rich microalgae. CTP4 is a robust, euryhaline strain able to grow in seawater growth medium as well as in non-sterile urban wastewater. Because of its large cell size (9–22 μm), CTP4 settles down after a six-hour sedimentation step. This leads to a medium removal efficiency of 80%, allowing a significant decrease of biomass dewatering costs. Using a two-stage system, a 3-fold increase in lipid content (up to 33% of DW) and a 2-fold enhancement in lipid productivity (up to 52.1 mg L−1 d−1) were observed upon exposure to nutrient depletion for 7 days. The biodiesel synthesized from the lipids of CTP4 contained high levels of oleic acid (25.67% of total fatty acids content) and minor amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids with ≥4 double bonds (<1%). As a result, this biofuel complies with most of the European (EN14214) and American (ASTM D6751) specifications, which commonly used microalgal feedstocks are usually unable to meet. In conclusion, Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 displays promising features as feedstock with lower downstream processing costs for biomass dewatering and biodiesel refining. PMID:27767051

  14. Energy and economical comparison of possible cultures for a total-integrated on-field biodiesel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allesina, G.; Pedrazzi, S.; Tebianian, S.; Muscio, A.; Tartarini, P.

    2014-04-01

    This work is aimed at investigating the energy conversion effectiveness and the economical advantages of a total integrated solution for on-field biodiesel and electrical energy production. The system proposed here is based on the synergy of four sub-systems: a seed press for oil production, a downdraft gasifier, a biodiesel conversion plant and a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). Two possible culture rotations, suggested by literature review, were analyzed here from economical and energy balance points of view. Both the rotations were composed of oleaginous crops only, therefore the seeds collected from the different cultures were pressed, then the protein cake produced in the process was gasified in the downdraft reactor. The gasification process was modeled here, and its output suggested that, for a precise number of hectares, the syngas obtained through the cake gasification was enough for producing methanol required for oil-biodiesel conversion and feeding a 10-kW SOFC. The purge line in the methanol reactor was used in the SOFC as well. The system was simulated using ASPEN PLUSTM and MATLABTM codes. Results of the SOFC and gasifier models underlined the capability of the fuel cell to work with this particular system, furthermore the whole system analysis suggested that the surface required for sustainability of the processes is a function of the rotation choice. In both cases little surfaces ranging from 11 to 21 hectares were found to be enough for system self-sustainability with a ROI under 7 years in all the operating conditions analyzed.

  15. Engineering soil organic matter quality: Biodiesel Co-Product (BCP) stimulates exudation of nitrogenous microbial biopolymers

    PubMed Central

    Redmile-Gordon, Marc A.; Evershed, Richard P.; Kuhl, Alison; Armenise, Elena; White, Rodger P.; Hirsch, Penny R.; Goulding, Keith W.T.; Brookes, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel Co-Product (BCP) is a complex organic material formed during the transesterification of lipids. We investigated the effect of BCP on the extracellular microbial matrix or ‘extracellular polymeric substance’ (EPS) in soil which is suspected to be a highly influential fraction of soil organic matter (SOM). It was hypothesised that more N would be transferred to EPS in soil given BCP compared to soil given glycerol. An arable soil was amended with BCP produced from either 1) waste vegetable oils or 2) pure oilseed rape oil, and compared with soil amended with 99% pure glycerol; all were provided with 15N labelled KNO3. We compared transfer of microbially assimilated 15N into the extracellular amino acid pool, and measured concomitant production of exopolysaccharide. Following incubation, the 15N enrichment of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAAs) indicated that intracellular anabolic products had incorporated the labelled N primarily as glutamine and glutamate. A greater proportion of the amino acids in EPS were found to contain 15N than those in the THAA pool, indicating that the increase in EPS was comprised of bioproducts synthesised de novo. Moreover, BCP had increased the EPS production efficiency of the soil microbial community (μg EPS per unit ATP) up to approximately double that of glycerol, and caused transfer of 21% more 15N from soil solution into EPS-amino acids. Given the suspected value of EPS in agricultural soils, the use of BCP to stimulate exudation is an interesting tool to consider in the theme of delivering sustainable intensification. PMID:26635420

  16. A solvent-free approach to extract the lipid fraction from sewer grease for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Tu, Qingshi; Wang, Jingjing; Lu, Mingming; Brougham, Andrew; Lu, Ting

    2016-08-01

    Fats, oils and greases (FOG) are the number one cause of sewer pipe blockage and have been mostly disposed of as a waste until recently. This study investigated a low cost and environmentally friendly approach to extract the lipid fraction (fatty acids and glycerides for biodiesel production) from sewer grease (SG), i.e., FOGs obtained from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The lipid fraction of the sewer grease was primarily in the form of free fatty acid (FFA), at 20.7wt%. An innovative solvent-free extraction approach was developed using waste cooking oil (WCO) to overcome the challenges of emulsion, impurities and high moisture content of the sewer grease. A 95% extraction yield of sewer grease was achieved under the optimum operating condition of 3.2:1 WCO-SG ratio (wt/wt), 70°C and 240min. In addition, the reusability of the WCO was also investigated. WCO can be used two to three times for sewer grease extraction with more than 90% extraction efficiency. PMID:27256783

  17. Production of Jatropha biodiesel fuel over sulfonic acid-based solid acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Yuan; Lao-Ubol, Supranee; Mochizuki, Takehisa; Abe, Yohko; Toba, Makoto; Yoshimura, Yuji

    2014-04-01

    Sulfonic acid-functionalized platelet SBA-15 mesoporous silica with an acid capacity of 2.44mmol H(+) g-cat(-1) (shortly termed 15SA-SBA-15-p) was one-pot synthesized by co-condensation method. When applied as solid acid catalyst in synthesis of Jatropha biodiesel fuel (BDF), the 15SA-SBA-15-p catalyst showed higher activity and resistances to water and free fatty acid (FFA) than commercial sulfonic resins of Amberlyst-15 and SAC-13. For the continuous Jatropha BDF production, a steady 75-78wt% of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content was obtained over 15SA-SBA-15-p catalyst at 150°C for 75h, whereas the Amberlyst-15 and SAC-13 catalysts were quickly deactivated due to the decomposition of thermally unstable framework and serious leaching of sulfonic acids. More importantly, the quality, stability and cold flow characteristic of Jatropha BDF synthesized by 15SA-SBA-15-p catalyst were better than those synthesized by Amberlyst-15 and SAC-13 catalysts, making the blending with petro-diesel an easy task.

  18. Glycerin esterification of scum derived free fatty acids for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Erik; Addy, Min; Xie, Qinglong; Ma, Huan; Liu, Yuhuan; Cheng, Yanling; Onuma, Nonso; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Scum is an oily waste stream of the wastewater treatment process that can be used to produce biodiesel. Combining acid hydrolysis and solvent extraction, a free fatty acid and acyl-glycerol rich product was produced. Free fatty acids (FFAs) present were converted to acyl-glycols via a high temperature (238°C) glycerin esterification process known as glycerolysis. The inorganic catalysts zinc aluminum oxide and sodium sulfate were tested during glycerolysis to compare the reaction kinetics of converting FFA to acyl-glycerols. It was concluded that the zinc-based catalyst increased the reaction rate significantly, from a "k" value of 2.57 (uncatalyzed) to 5.63, completing the reaction in 60min, half the time it took the uncatalyzed reaction (120min). Sodium sulfate's presence however slowed the reaction, resulting in a "k" value of 1.45, completing the reaction in 180min. Use of the external catalyst Zn-Al2O3 showed the greatest catalytic potential, but also assumes additional costs.

  19. Efficient lipid production with Trichosporon fermentans and its use for biodiesel preparation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L Y; Zong, M H; Wu, H

    2008-11-01

    Effects of medium components and culture conditions on biomass and lipid production of Trichosporon fermentans were studied. The optimal nitrogen source, carbon source and C/N molar ratio were peptone, glucose and 163, respectively. The favorable initial pH of the medium and temperature were 6.5 and 25 degrees C. Under the optimized conditions, a biomass of 28.1 g/l and a lipid content of 62.4% could be achieved after culture for 7 days, which were much higher than the original values (19.4 g/l and 50.8%) and the results reported by other groups. T. fermentans could grow well in pretreated waste molasses and a lipid yield of 12.8 g/l could be achieved with waste molasses of 15% total sugar concentration (w/v) at pH 6.0, representing the best result with oleaginous microorganisms on agro-industrial residues. Addition of various sugars to the pretreated molasses could efficiently enhance the accumulation of lipid and the lipid content reached as high as above 50%. Similar to vegetable oils, the lipid mainly contains palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid and the unsaturated fatty acids amount to about 64% of the total fatty acids. The microbial oil with an acid value of 5.6 mg KOH/g was transesterified to biodiesel by base catalysis after removal of free fatty acids and a high methyl ester yield of 92% was obtained.

  20. Effect of organic load on the performance and methane production of an AnSBBR treating effluent from biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Roberto Antonio; Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Ratusznei, Suzana Maria; Canto, Catarina Simone Andrade; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Currently, there is an increasing demand for the production of biodiesel and, consequently, there will be an increasing need to treat wastewaters resulting from the production process of this biofuel. The main objective of this work was, therefore, to investigate the effect of applied volumetric organic load (AVOL) on the efficiency, stability, and methane production of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor applied to the treatment of effluent from biodiesel production. As inert support, polyurethane foam cubes were used in the reactor and mixing was accomplished by recirculating the liquid phase. Increase in AVOL resulted in a drop in organic matter removal efficiency and increase in total volatile acids in the effluent. AVOLs of 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 g COD L(-1) day(-1) resulted in removal efficiencies of 92%, 81%, 67%, and 50%, for effluent filtered samples, and 91%, 80%, 63%, and 47%, for non-filtered samples, respectively, whereas total volatile acids concentrations in the effluent amounted to 42, 145, 386 and 729 mg HAc L(-1), respectively. Moreover, on increasing AVOL from 1.5 to 4.5 g COD L(-1) day(-1) methane production increased from 29.5 to 55.5 N mL CH(4) g COD(-1). However, this production dropped to 36.0 N mL CH(4) g COD(-1) when AVOL was increased to 6.0 g COD L(-1) day(-1), likely due to the higher concentration of volatile acids in the reactor. Despite the higher concentration of volatile acids at the highest AVOL, alkalinity supplementation to the influent, in the form of sodium bicarbonate, at a ratio of 0.5-1.3 g NaHCO(3) g COD (fed) (-1) , was sufficient to maintain the pH near neutral and guarantee process stability during reactor operation. PMID:21494753

  1. Dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems that treat wastewater and produce biodiesel and chemical products within a biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Eugenia J

    2012-01-01

    Excess greenhouse gas emissions and the concomitant effect on global warming have become significant environmental, social and economic threats. In this context, the development of renewable, carbon-neutral and economically feasible biofuels is a driving force for innovation worldwide. A lot of effort has been put into developing biodiesel from microalgae. However, there are still a number of technological, market and policy barriers that are serious obstacles to the economic feasibility and competitiveness of such biofuels. Conversely, there are also a number of business opportunities if the production of such alternative biofuel becomes part of a larger integrated system following the Biorefinery strategy. In this case, other biofuels and chemical products of high added value are produced, contributing to an overall enhancement of the economic viability of the whole integrated system. Additionally, dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems for treating wastewater and production of biofuels and chemical products significantly contribute to a substantial saving in the overall cost of microalgae biomass production. These types of systems could help to improve the competitiveness of biodiesel production from microalgae, according to some recent Life Cycle Analysis studies. Furthermore, they do not compete for fresh water resources for agricultural purposes and add value to treating the wastewater itself. This work reviews the most recent and relevant information about these types of dual purpose systems. Several aspects related to the treatment of municipal and animal wastewater with simultaneous recovery of microalgae with potential for biodiesel production are discussed. The use of pre-treated waste or anaerobic effluents from digested waste as nutrient additives for weak wastewater is reviewed. Isolation and screening of microalgae/cyanobacteria or their consortia from various wastewater streams, and studies related to population dynamics in mixed cultures

  2. Dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems that treat wastewater and produce biodiesel and chemical products within a biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Eugenia J

    2012-01-01

    Excess greenhouse gas emissions and the concomitant effect on global warming have become significant environmental, social and economic threats. In this context, the development of renewable, carbon-neutral and economically feasible biofuels is a driving force for innovation worldwide. A lot of effort has been put into developing biodiesel from microalgae. However, there are still a number of technological, market and policy barriers that are serious obstacles to the economic feasibility and competitiveness of such biofuels. Conversely, there are also a number of business opportunities if the production of such alternative biofuel becomes part of a larger integrated system following the Biorefinery strategy. In this case, other biofuels and chemical products of high added value are produced, contributing to an overall enhancement of the economic viability of the whole integrated system. Additionally, dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems for treating wastewater and production of biofuels and chemical products significantly contribute to a substantial saving in the overall cost of microalgae biomass production. These types of systems could help to improve the competitiveness of biodiesel production from microalgae, according to some recent Life Cycle Analysis studies. Furthermore, they do not compete for fresh water resources for agricultural purposes and add value to treating the wastewater itself. This work reviews the most recent and relevant information about these types of dual purpose systems. Several aspects related to the treatment of municipal and animal wastewater with simultaneous recovery of microalgae with potential for biodiesel production are discussed. The use of pre-treated waste or anaerobic effluents from digested waste as nutrient additives for weak wastewater is reviewed. Isolation and screening of microalgae/cyanobacteria or their consortia from various wastewater streams, and studies related to population dynamics in mixed cultures

  3. Cultivation of Scenedesmus dimorphus with domestic secondary effluent and energy evaluation for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S S; Liu, H; Fan, J F; Yu, H

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae cultivation in wastewater has gained significant attention as a cost-saving means for algae-based biofuel production. To evaluate the performance of Scenedesmus dimorphus cultivated in a 100-L continuously operated photobioreactor using domestic secondary effluent (DSE), algal growth, nutrients removal and energy evaluation were conducted in four scenarios. Prior to the application of continuous cultivation, S. dimorphus was grown in a batch operated 1.5-L bubble column photobioreactor to test the growth feasibility and lipids accumulation of S. dimorphus in DSE. The highest biomass achieved in DSE was 244 mg L(-1)with lipid content at 26.06%. Simultaneously, 98.72% of total phosphorus (TP) and 98.04% of total nitrogen (TN) in DSE were removed. Then, S. dimorphus were inoculated in the 100-L continuously operated photobioreactor using BG11, unsterilized DSE, N, P-added DSE and UV-sterilized DSE as the medium, respectively. Results showed that the highest biomass gained were 567, 174, 276 and 198 mg L(-1), respectively. TP removal rates in four scenarios were all above 90%. With adjustment to DSE, the overall TN removal rates increased up to 80%. Finally, energy evaluation demonstrated that although the case of BG11 as the medium provided the most energy production, the case using DSE with N and P supplementation was of the highest net energy rate, suggesting that microalgae cultivation for biodiesel production by DSE is of obvious potential and advantage over the synthesis medium like BG11. PMID:25253291

  4. Mine-to-Mill Optimization of Aggregate Production

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Adel; Toni Kojovic; Darren Thornton

    2006-09-30

    Mine-to-Mill optimization is a total systems approach to the reduction of energy and cost in mining and processing. Developed at the Julius Krutschnitt Mineral Research Center in Queensland, Australia, the Mine-to-Mill approach attempts to minimize energy consumption through optimization of all steps in the size reduction process. The approach involves sampling and modeling of blasting and processing, followed by computer simulation to optimize the operation and develop alternatives. The most promising alternatives are implemented, and sampling is conducted to quantify benefits. In the current project, the primary objective was to adapt Mine-to-Mill technology to the aggregates industry. The first phase of this work was carried out at the Bealeton Quarry near Fredericksburg, Virginia. The second phase was carried out at the Pittsboro Quarry south of Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Both quarries are operated by Luck Stone Corporation of Richmond, Virginia. As a result of the work, several conclusions can be drawn from the project which should assist DOE in assessing the applicability of the Mine-to-Mill approach to the aggregates industry. 1. Implementation of MTM guidelines at Pittsboro has resulted in tangible improvements in productivity. It is clear that MTM guidelines represent an energy savings of around 5% (primary and secondary) and an overall energy savings of 1%. This 1-5% energy savings is also consistent with simulated results for Bealeton had side-by-side shots used to evaluate the technology been carried out in the same rockmass. 2. Luck Stone clearly runs their operations at a high standard. Hence the percentage improvement realized in this project may represent the lower end of what might be expected overall in the aggregates industry. 3. Variability in ore types across both Bealeton and Pittsboro suggests a 2:1 difference in hardness which contradicts the misconception that quarry rock is homogenous. Therefore, the idea of comparing side-by-side blasts

  5. Volatile fatty acids derived from waste organics provide an economical carbon source for microbial lipids/biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Park, Gwon Woo; Fei, Qiang; Jung, Kwonsu; Chang, Ho Nam; Kim, Yeu-Chun; Kim, Nag-jong; Choi, Jin-dal-rae; Kim, Sangyong; Cho, Jaehoon

    2014-12-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) derived from organic waste, were used as a low cost carbon source for high bioreactor productivity and titer. A multi-stage continuous high cell density culture (MSC-HCDC) process was employed for economic assessment of microbial lipids for biodiesel production. In a simulation study we used a lipid yield of 0.3 g/g-VFAs, cell mass yield of 0.5 g/g-glucose or wood hydrolyzates, and employed process variables including lipid contents from 10-90% of cell mass, bioreactor productivity of 0.5-48 g/L/h, and plant capacity of 20000-1000000 metric ton (MT)/year. A production cost of USD 1.048/kg-lipid was predicted with raw material costs of USD 0.2/kg for wood hydrolyzates and USD 0.15/kg for VFAs; 9 g/L/h bioreactor productivity; 100, 000 MT/year production capacity; and 75% lipids content. The variables having the highest impact on microbial lipid production costs were the cost of VFAs and lipid yield, followed by lipid content, fermenter cost, and lipid productivity. The cost of raw materials accounted for 66.25% of total operating costs. This study shows that biodiesel from microbial lipids has the potential to become competitive with diesels from other sources.

  6. Lipase-catalysed production of biodiesel fuel from some Nigerian lauric oils.

    PubMed

    Abigor, R D; Uadia, P O; Foglia, T A; Haas, M J; Jones, K C; Okpefa, E; Obibuzor, J U; Bafor, M E

    2000-12-01

    Fatty acids esters were produced from two Nigerian lauric oils, palm kernel oil and coconut oil, by transesterification of the oils with different alcohols using PS30 lipase as a catalyst. In the conversion of palm kernel oil to alkyl esters (biodiesel), ethanol gave the highest conversion of 72%, t-butanol 62%, 1-butanol 42%, n-propanol 42% and iso-propanol 24%, while only 15% methyl ester was observed with methanol. With coconut oil, 1-butanol and iso-butanol achieved 40% conversion, 1-propanol 16% and ethanol 35%, while only traces of methyl esters were observed using methanol. Studies on some fuel properties of palm kernel oil and its biodiesel showed that palm kernel oil had a viscosity of 32.40 mm2/s, a cloud point of 28 degrees C and a pour point of 22 degrees C, while its biodiesel fuel had a viscosity of 9.33 mm2/s, a cloud point of 12 degrees C and a pour point of 8 degrees C. Coconut oil had a viscosity of 28.58 mm(2)/s, a cloud point of 27 degrees C and a pour point of 20 degrees C, while its biodiesel fuel had a viscosity of 7.34 mm2/s, a cloud point of 5 degrees C and a pour point of -8 degrees C. Some of the fuel properties compared favourably with international biodiesel specifications.

  7. Lipase-catalysed production of biodiesel fuel from some Nigerian lauric oils.

    PubMed

    Abigor, R D; Uadia, P O; Foglia, T A; Haas, M J; Jones, K C; Okpefa, E; Obibuzor, J U; Bafor, M E

    2000-12-01

    Fatty acids esters were produced from two Nigerian lauric oils, palm kernel oil and coconut oil, by transesterification of the oils with different alcohols using PS30 lipase as a catalyst. In the conversion of palm kernel oil to alkyl esters (biodiesel), ethanol gave the highest conversion of 72%, t-butanol 62%, 1-butanol 42%, n-propanol 42% and iso-propanol 24%, while only 15% methyl ester was observed with methanol. With coconut oil, 1-butanol and iso-butanol achieved 40% conversion, 1-propanol 16% and ethanol 35%, while only traces of methyl esters were observed using methanol. Studies on some fuel properties of palm kernel oil and its biodiesel showed that palm kernel oil had a viscosity of 32.40 mm2/s, a cloud point of 28 degrees C and a pour point of 22 degrees C, while its biodiesel fuel had a viscosity of 9.33 mm2/s, a cloud point of 12 degrees C and a pour point of 8 degrees C. Coconut oil had a viscosity of 28.58 mm(2)/s, a cloud point of 27 degrees C and a pour point of 20 degrees C, while its biodiesel fuel had a viscosity of 7.34 mm2/s, a cloud point of 5 degrees C and a pour point of -8 degrees C. Some of the fuel properties compared favourably with international biodiesel specifications. PMID:11171279

  8. Biodiesel production by combined fatty acids separation and subsequently enzymatic esterification to improve the low temperature properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Nie, Kaili; Cao, Hao; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-12-01

    The poor low-temperature properties of biodiesel, which provokes easy crystallization at low temperature, can cause fuel line plugging and limits its blending amount with petro-diesel. This work aimed to study the production of biodiesel with a new process of improving the low temperature performance of biodiesel. Waste cooking oil was first hydrolyzed into fatty acids (FAs) by 60g immobilized lipase and 240g RO water in 15h. Then, urea complexation was used to divide the FAs into saturated and unsaturated components. The conditions for complexation were: FA-to-urea ratio 1:2 (w/w), methanol to FA ratio 5:1 (v/v), duration 2h. The saturated and unsaturated FAs were then converted to iso-propyl and methyl esters by lipase, respectively. Finally, the esters were mixed together. The CFPP of this mixture was decreased from 5°C to -3°C. Hydrolysis, urea complexation and enzymic catalyzed esterification processes are discussed in this paper. PMID:25441717

  9. Economical and green biodiesel production process using river snail shells-derived heterogeneous catalyst and co-solvent method.

    PubMed

    Roschat, Wuttichai; Siritanon, Theeranun; Kaewpuang, Teadkait; Yoosuk, Boonyawan; Promarak, Vinich

    2016-06-01

    River snail shells-derived CaO was used as a heterogeneous catalyst to synthesize biodiesel via transesterification of palm oil with methanol. The shell materials were calcined in air at 600-1000°C for 3h. Physicochemical properties of the resulting catalysts were characterized by TGA-DTG, XRD, SEM, BET, XRF, FT-IR and TPD. CaO catalyzed transesterification mechanism of palm oil into biodiesel was verified. The effects of adding a co-solvent on kinetic of the reaction and %FAME yield were investigated. %FAME yield of 98.5%±1.5 was achieved under the optimal conditions of catalyst/oil ratio of 5wt.%; methanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1; reaction temperature of 65°C; 10%v/v of THF in methanol and reaction time of 90min. The results ascertained that river snail shells is a novel raw material for preparation of CaO catalyst and the co-solvent method successfully decreases the reaction time and biodiesel production cost. PMID:26995112

  10. One-step production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil with high-acid value in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Fang, Zhen; Tian, Xiao-Fei; Long, Yun-Duo; Jiang, Li-Qun

    2011-06-01

    Catalytic conversion of un-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (13.8 mg KOH/g) to biodiesel was studied in ionic liquids (ILs) with metal chlorides. Several commercial ILs were used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid. It was found that 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tosylate ([BMIm][CH(3)SO(3)]; a Brønsted acidic IL) had the highest catalytic activity with 93% esterification rate for oleic acid at 140°C but only 12% biodiesel yield at 120°C. When FeCl(3) was added to [BMIm][CH(3)SO(3)], a maximum biodiesel yield of 99.7% was achieved at 120°C. Because metal ions in ILs supplied Lewis acidic sites, and more of the sites could be provided by trivalent metallic ions than those of bivalent ones. It was also found that the catalytic activity with bivalent metallic ions increased with atomic radius. Mixture of [BMIm][CH(3)SO(3)] and FeCl(3) was easily separated from products for reuse to avoid producing pollutants. PMID:21420854

  11. Economical and green biodiesel production process using river snail shells-derived heterogeneous catalyst and co-solvent method.

    PubMed

    Roschat, Wuttichai; Siritanon, Theeranun; Kaewpuang, Teadkait; Yoosuk, Boonyawan; Promarak, Vinich

    2016-06-01

    River snail shells-derived CaO was used as a heterogeneous catalyst to synthesize biodiesel via transesterification of palm oil with methanol. The shell materials were calcined in air at 600-1000°C for 3h. Physicochemical properties of the resulting catalysts were characterized by TGA-DTG, XRD, SEM, BET, XRF, FT-IR and TPD. CaO catalyzed transesterification mechanism of palm oil into biodiesel was verified. The effects of adding a co-solvent on kinetic of the reaction and %FAME yield were investigated. %FAME yield of 98.5%±1.5 was achieved under the optimal conditions of catalyst/oil ratio of 5wt.%; methanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1; reaction temperature of 65°C; 10%v/v of THF in methanol and reaction time of 90min. The results ascertained that river snail shells is a novel raw material for preparation of CaO catalyst and the co-solvent method successfully decreases the reaction time and biodiesel production cost.

  12. L-lactate production from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by metabolically engineered Enterococcus faecalis: cytotoxic evaluation of biodiesel waste and development of a glycerol-inducible gene expression system.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yuki

    2015-03-01

    Biodiesel waste is a by-product of the biodiesel production process that contains a large amount of crude glycerol. To reuse the crude glycerol, a novel bioconversion process using Enterococcus faecalis was developed through physiological studies. The E. faecalis strain W11 could use biodiesel waste as a carbon source, although cell growth was significantly inhibited by the oil component in the biodiesel waste, which decreased the cellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio and then induced oxidative stress to cells. When W11 was cultured with glycerol, the maximum culture density (optical density at 600 nm [OD600]) under anaerobic conditions was decreased 8-fold by the oil component compared with that under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, W11 cultured with dihydroxyacetone (DHA) could show slight or no growth in the presence of the oil component with or without oxygen. These results indicated that the DHA kinase reaction in the glycerol metabolic pathway was sensitive to the oil component as an oxidant. The lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) activity of W11 during anaerobic glycerol metabolism was 4.1-fold lower than that during aerobic glycerol metabolism, which was one of the causes of low l-lactate productivity. The E. faecalis pflB gene disruptant (Δpfl mutant) expressing the ldhL1LP gene produced 300 mM l-lactate from glycerol/crude glycerol with a yield of >99% within 48 h and reached a maximum productivity of 18 mM h(-1) (1.6 g liter(-1) h(-1)). Thus, our study demonstrates that metabolically engineered E. faecalis can convert crude glycerol to l-lactate at high conversion efficiency and provides critical information on the recycling process for biodiesel waste.

  13. Fungal production of single cell oil using untreated copra cake and evaluation of its fuel properties for biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Khot, Mahesh; Gupta, Rohini; Barve, Kadambari; Zinjarde, Smita; Govindwar, Sanjay; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the microbial conversion of coconut oil waste, a major agro-residue in tropical countries, into single cell oil (SCO) feedstock for biodiesel production. Copra cake was used as a low-cost renewable substrate without any prior chemical or enzymatic pretreatment for submerged growth of an oleaginous tropical mangrove fungus, Aspergillus terreus IBB M1. The SCO extracted from fermented biomass was converted into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by transesterification and evaluated on the basis of fatty acid profiles and key fuel properties for biodiesel. The fungus produced a biomass (8.2 g/l) yielding 257 mg/g copra cake SCO with ~98% FAMEs. The FAMEs were mainly composed of saturated methyl esters (61.2%) of medium-chain fatty acids (C12-C18) with methyl oleate (C18:1; 16.57%) and methyl linoleate (C18:2; 19.97%) making up the unsaturated content. A higher content of both saturated FAMEs and methyl oleate along with the absence of polyunsaturated FAMEs with ≥4 double bonds is expected to impart good fuel quality. This was evident from the predicted and experimentally determined key fuel properties of FAMEs (density, kinematic viscosity, iodine value, acid number, cetane number), which were in accordance with the international (ASTM D6751, EN 14214) and national (IS 15607) biodiesel standards, suggesting their suitability as a biodiesel fuel. The low cost, renewable nature, and easy availability of copra cake, its conversion into SCO without any thermochemical pretreatment, and pelleted fungal growth facilitating easier downstream processing by simple filtration make this process cost effective and environmentally favorable. PMID:25341469

  14. Fungal production of single cell oil using untreated copra cake and evaluation of its fuel properties for biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Khot, Mahesh; Gupta, Rohini; Barve, Kadambari; Zinjarde, Smita; Govindwar, Sanjay; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the microbial conversion of coconut oil waste, a major agro-residue in tropical countries, into single cell oil (SCO) feedstock for biodiesel production. Copra cake was used as a low-cost renewable substrate without any prior chemical or enzymatic pretreatment for submerged growth of an oleaginous tropical mangrove fungus, Aspergillus terreus IBB M1. The SCO extracted from fermented biomass was converted into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by transesterification and evaluated on the basis of fatty acid profiles and key fuel properties for biodiesel. The fungus produced a biomass (8.2 g/l) yielding 257 mg/g copra cake SCO with ~98% FAMEs. The FAMEs were mainly composed of saturated methyl esters (61.2%) of medium-chain fatty acids (C12-C18) with methyl oleate (C18:1; 16.57%) and methyl linoleate (C18:2; 19.97%) making up the unsaturated content. A higher content of both saturated FAMEs and methyl oleate along with the absence of polyunsaturated FAMEs with ≥4 double bonds is expected to impart good fuel quality. This was evident from the predicted and experimentally determined key fuel properties of FAMEs (density, kinematic viscosity, iodine value, acid number, cetane number), which were in accordance with the international (ASTM D6751, EN 14214) and national (IS 15607) biodiesel standards, suggesting their suitability as a biodiesel fuel. The low cost, renewable nature, and easy availability of copra cake, its conversion into SCO without any thermochemical pretreatment, and pelleted fungal growth facilitating easier downstream processing by simple filtration make this process cost effective and environmentally favorable.

  15. Application of a Burkholderia cepacia lipase-immobilized silica monolith to batch and continuous biodiesel production with a stoichiometric mixture of methanol and crude Jatropha oil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The enzymatic production of biodiesel through alcoholysis of triglycerides has become more attractive because it shows potential in overcoming the drawbacks of chemical processes. In this study, we investigate the production of biodiesel from crude, non-edible Jatropha oil and methanol to characterize Burkholderia cepacia lipase immobilized in an n-butyl-substituted hydrophobic silica monolith. We also evaluate the performance of a lipase-immobilized silica monolith bioreactor in the continuous production of biodiesel. Results The Jatropha oil used contained 18% free fatty acids, which is problematic in a base-catalyzed process. In the lipase-catalyzed reaction, the presence of free fatty acids made the reaction mixture homogeneous and allowed bioconversion to proceed to 90% biodiesel yield after a 12 hour reaction time. The optimal molar ratio of methanol to oil was 3.3 to 3.5 parts methanol to one part oil, with water content of 0.6% (w/w). Further experiments revealed that B. cepacia lipase immobilized in hydrophobic silicates was sufficiently tolerant to methanol, and glycerol adsorbed on the support disturbed the reaction to some extent in the present reaction system. The continuous production of biodiesel was performed at steady state using a lipase-immobilized silica monolith bioreactor loaded with 1.67 g of lipase. The yield of 95% was reached at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/h, although the performance of the continuous bioreactor was somewhat below that predicted from the batch reactor. The bioreactor was operated successfully for almost 50 days with 80% retention of the initial yield. Conclusions The presence of free fatty acids originally contained in Jatropha oil improved the reaction efficiency of the biodiesel production. A combination of B. cepacia lipase and its immobilization support, n-butyl-substituted silica monolith, was effective in the production of biodiesel. This procedure is easily applicable to the design of a continuous flow

  16. The Production of Biodiesel from Cottonseed Oil Using Rhizopus oryzae Whole Cell Biocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athalye, Sneha Kishor

    Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels which have become increasingly expensive in recent times. An alternate approach to alkaline biodiesel production is needed as catalyst miscibility with the glycerol by-product, generation of large amounts of waste water, and saponification of the feedstock are major disadvantages associated with the process. Lipases are water soluble enzymes which act as catalysts in many lipid based reactions. Reuse of lipases can significantly reduce cost of enzymatic biodiesel production; however retention of lipolytic activity still remains a challenge. Use of microbial cells immobilized on various surfaces like sponge, foam and plastics as biocatalysts instead of extracted enzyme could help overcome this problem. A novel, rigid biomass support with high surface area made from recyclable polyethylene (Bioblok(TM)) was used in this study. Several fungal and bacterial species have been reported to possess appreciable levels of lipase activity. The biomass production and immobilization as well as lipase activity of three different species; Candida rugosa (ATCC #38772), Aspergillus oryzae (ATCC #58299), and Rhizopus oryzae (ATTC #34612) were tested. C. rugosa did not attach well to the support particles while A.oryzae had lower biomass accumulation of 6.1 g (dry cell wt)/L compared to 11.8 g (dry cell wt)/L for R.oryzae. Hence Rhizopus oryzae, fungal specie with cell surface bound lipase was selected for the current study. The study investigated the influence of media composition and growth time of the R.oryzae whole cell biocatalysts, immobilized on the BSPs, for FAME production from cottonseed oil. R.oryzae BSPs grown in basal media supplemented with 1% (w/v) of glucose or oil or both for 48 h, 72 h or 90 h were used in a 36 h transesterification reaction with cottonseed oil and methanol. BSPs grown in both glucose and oil supplemented medium for 72 h had the highest conversion of 22.4% (wt/wt) and a biomass

  17. The Production of Biodiesel from Cottonseed Oil Using Rhizopus oryzae Whole Cell Biocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athalye, Sneha Kishor

    Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels which have become increasingly expensive in recent times. An alternate approach to alkaline biodiesel production is needed as catalyst miscibility with the glycerol by-product, generation of large amounts of waste water, and saponification of the feedstock are major disadvantages associated with the process. Lipases are water soluble enzymes which act as catalysts in many lipid based reactions. Reuse of lipases can significantly reduce cost of enzymatic biodiesel production; however retention of lipolytic activity still remains a challenge. Use of microbial cells immobilized on various surfaces like sponge, foam and plastics as biocatalysts instead of extracted enzyme could help overcome this problem. A novel, rigid biomass support with high surface area made from recyclable polyethylene (Bioblok(TM)) was used in this study. Several fungal and bacterial species have been reported to possess appreciable levels of lipase activity. The biomass production and immobilization as well as lipase activity of three different species; Candida rugosa (ATCC #38772), Aspergillus oryzae (ATCC #58299), and Rhizopus oryzae (ATTC #34612) were tested. C. rugosa did not attach well to the support particles while A.oryzae had lower biomass accumulation of 6.1 g (dry cell wt)/L compared to 11.8 g (dry cell wt)/L for R.oryzae. Hence Rhizopus oryzae, fungal specie with cell surface bound lipase was selected for the current study. The study investigated the influence of media composition and growth time of the R.oryzae whole cell biocatalysts, immobilized on the BSPs, for FAME production from cottonseed oil. R.oryzae BSPs grown in basal media supplemented with 1% (w/v) of glucose or oil or both for 48 h, 72 h or 90 h were used in a 36 h transesterification reaction with cottonseed oil and methanol. BSPs grown in both glucose and oil supplemented medium for 72 h had the highest conversion of 22.4% (wt/wt) and a biomass

  18. Production of mineral aggregates in quartz tumbling experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nørnberg, Per; Finster, Kai; Pall Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur; Knak Jensen, Svend; Merrison, Jonathan Peter

    2013-04-01

    Introduction Tumbling experiments with quartz sand with the purpose of tracing the effect of broken bonds in mineral surfaces resulted in an unexpected production of aggregates. These aggregates are a few microns in diameter, spherical and resembling tiny white "snowballs." Particle comminution by aeolian and other natural weathering processes are known in soil science and is often seen as an increase of fine particles towards the top of soil profiles (Nørnberg, P. 1987, 1988, 2002, J.S. Wright 2007). When mineral grains collide in aeolian processes they break up along weakness zones in the crystal lattice. This mechanism causes broken bonds between atoms in the crystal lattice and results in reactive groups in the mineral surface. This mechanism provides the background for experiments to investigate the oxidation processes of magnetite on the planet Mars. The primary magnetic iron oxide phase on Mars is to day known to be magnetite and the colour of the dust on Mars is most likely due to hematite. To investigate if the oxidation process could take place without going over dissolution and precipitation in water, experiments with tumbling of quartz grains in sealed glass containers along with magnetite were started. The idea was that activated bonds at the surface of quartz could oxidize magnetite and convert it to hematite over time. This proved to be the case (Merrison, J.P. et al. 2010). However, in these experiments we observed the formation of the white aggregates which has been the subject of the study that we present here. Results of tumbling experiments Commercially available quarts (Merck) was sieved to obtain the fraction between 125 and 1000 µm. This fraction was tumbled in glass containers for months and resulted in production of a significant amount of fine grained material (Merrison, J.P et al. 2010). A part of this fine fraction consists of the "snowball"-like aggregates which is a fragile element with relatively high specific surface. The physical

  19. Biodiesel production from multi feedstock as feed with direct ultrasound assisted

    SciTech Connect

    Widayat; Satriadi, H.; Nafiega, N. Favian; Dipo, Rheza; Okvitarini; Alimin, A. J.; Ali, Mas Fawzi Mohd

    2015-12-29

    The objective of this study was to optimize of ratio oil type, ratio oil to methanol and catalyst concentration. The optimization was used Central Composite Design (CCD). Biodiesel was produced with multi stock oil as feed and conducted in direct ultrasonic radiation. Biosonic equiped with ultrasonic generator with a frequency of 28 kHz. Biodiesel produced at a pressure of 1 atm, reaction time of 60 min and temperature 60 ° C. The optimum conditions of volume ratio for Palm and Coconut oil 4:1, KOH catalyst concentration 0.3% and methanol to oil mole ratio 7:1. Biodiesel yield was determined under this condition and obtained 81.105%.

  20. Biodiesel production from multi feedstock as feed with direct ultrasound assisted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayat, Satriadi, H.; Nafiega, N. Favian; Dipo, Rheza; Okvitarini, Alimin, A. J.; Ali, Mas Fawzi Mohd

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize of ratio oil type, ratio oil to methanol and catalyst concentration. The optimization was used Central Composite Design (CCD). Biodiesel was produced with multi stock oil as feed and conducted in direct ultrasonic radiation. Biosonic equiped with ultrasonic generator with a frequency of 28 kHz. Biodiesel produced at a pressure of 1 atm, reaction time of 60 min and temperature 60 ° C. The optimum conditions of volume ratio for Palm and Coconut oil 4:1, KOH catalyst concentration 0.3% and methanol to oil mole ratio 7:1. Biodiesel yield was determined under this condition and obtained 81.105%.

  1. Potential biodiesel and biogas production from corncob by anaerobic fermentation and black soldier fly.

    PubMed

    Li, Wu; Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jibin; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Yanlin

    2015-10-01

    Bioenergy has become attractive as alternatives of gradually exhausted fossil fuel. Obtaining high grade bioenergy from lignocellulose is attractive that can gradually meet the demand. This study reported biogas and biodiesel were produced from corncob by a two-step bioprocess, biogas was produced from corncob by anaerobic fermentation, then biogas residue was converted by black soldier fly larvae, and then biodiesel was produced from larvae grease. 86.70 L biogas was obtained from 400 g corncob with the accumulation of biogas yield of 220.71 mL/g VS(added) by anaerobic digestion. Besides, 3.17 g of biodiesel was produced from grease after inoculating black soldier fly larvae into 400 g biogas residue. Meanwhile, the results showed that the addition of black soldier fly larvae could be effective for the degradation of lignocellulose and the accumulation of grease.

  2. Brief report: hazardous materials release resulting from home production of biodiesel--Colorado, May 2006.

    PubMed

    2006-11-17

    On May 7, 2006, a hazardous materials (HazMat) release occurred in a residential area of Colorado when a homeowner who was processing a tank of homemade biodiesel fuel forgot to turn off the tank's heating element and left for the weekend. The heating element overheated and caused a fire that burned the surrounding shed and equipment. The shed had contained >600 gallons of biodiesel and recycled restaurant cooking oil, smaller amounts of glycerin and sodium hydroxide, and 1-gallon containers of sulfuric and phosphoric acid; a mixture of these ingredients seeped into the ground during the fire. A certified HazMat team and the local fire department responded. Investigators found seven 55-gallon barrels of methanol and other hazardous materials outside the shed. No injuries or evacuations occurred. To prevent potential injuries, biodiesel should be purchased from a licensed commercial source. PMID:17108892

  3. A cost analysis of microalgal biomass and biodiesel production in open raceways treating municipal wastewater and under optimum light wavelength.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zion; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Ramanan, Rishiram; Choi, Jong-Eun; Yang, Ji-Won; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Open raceway ponds are cost-efficient for mass cultivation of microalgae compared with photobioreactors. Although low-cost options like wastewater as nutrient source is studied to overcome the commercialization threshold for biodiesel production from microalgae, a cost analysis on the use of wastewater and other incremental increases in productivity has not been elucidated. We determined the effect of using wastewater and wavelength filters on microalgal productivity. Experimental results were then fitted into a model, and cost analysis was performed in comparison with control raceways. Three different microalgal strains, Chlorella vulgaris AG10032, Chlorella sp. JK2, and Scenedesmus sp. JK10, were tested for nutrient removal under different light wavelengths (blue, green, red, and white) using filters in batch cultivation. Blue wavelength showed an average of 27% higher nutrient removal and at least 42% higher chemical oxygen demand removal compared with white light. Naturally, the specific growth rate of microalgae cultivated under blue wavelength was on average 10.8% higher than white wavelength. Similarly, lipid productivity was highest in blue wavelength, at least 46.8% higher than white wavelength, whereas FAME composition revealed a mild increase in oleic and palmitic acid levels. Cost analysis reveals that raceways treating wastewater and using monochromatic wavelength would decrease costs from 2.71 to 0.73 $/kg biomass. We prove that increasing both biomass and lipid productivity is possible through cost-effective approaches, thereby accelerating the commercialization of low-value products from microalgae, like biodiesel.

  4. Dual-mode cultivation of Chlorella protothecoides applying inter-reactors gas transfer improves microalgae biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Santos, C A; Nobre, B; Lopes da Silva, T; Pinheiro, H M; Reis, A

    2014-08-20

    Chlorella protothecoides, a lipid-producing microalga, was grown heterotrophically and autotrophically in separate reactors, the off-gases exiting the former being used to aerate the latter. Autotrophic biomass productivity with the two-reactor association, 0.0249gL(-1)h(-1), was 2.2-fold the value obtained in a control autotrophic culture, aerated with ambient air. Fatty acid productivity was 1.7-fold the control value. C. protothecoides heterotrophic biomass productivity was 0.229gL(-1)h(-1). This biomass' fatty acid content was 34.5% (w/w) with a profile suitable for biodiesel production, according to European Standards. The carbon dioxide fixed by the autotrophic biomass was 45mgCO2L(-1)h(-1) in the symbiotic arrangement, 2.1 times the control reactor value. The avoided CO2 atmospheric emission represented 30% of the CO2 produced in the heterotrophic stage, while the released O2 represented 49% of the oxygen demand in that stage. Thus, an increased efficiency in the glucose carbon source use and a higher environmental sustainability were achieved in microalgal biodiesel production using the proposed assembly.

  5. An assessment of the economic aspects of CO2 sequestration in a route for biodiesel production from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Soares, Fabio Rubens; Martins, Gilberto; Seo, Emília Satoshi Miyamaru

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae are unicellular organisms that, during their cultivation, can fix carbon dioxide efficiently from various sources, including the air and exhaust gases from industrial processes. This feature can lead to economic benefits in the production process of biodiesel by way of the clean development mechanism, for which carbon credits for environmental benefits may be granted and which will contribute towards reducing costs in the production process. This study seeks to quantify the contribution of carbon credits in the operating costs of a route for biodiesel production from microalgae, as proposed by Davis et al. [Techno-economic analysis ofautotrophic microalgae for fuel production. Appl Energy. 2011; 88:3524-3531]. The results showed a reduction in annual operating costs by around 5%. This figure may be conservative, since the production process considered can be further improved to reduce operating costs and thus increase the contribution margin of carbon credits, which will reduce costs. On the other hand, the price of carbon may also rise in the future, thereby increasing its contribution towards a reduction in operating costs.

  6. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  7. Biodiesel: an alternative fuel.

    PubMed

    Manzanera, Maximino; Molina-Muñoz, Maria L; González-López, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative energy source and could be a substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. Most of the sources, methods and apparatus to produce biodiesel are reviewed here. Some of the patents propose the use of oils and fats of animal or vegetal origin and other kind of sources. Many others focus on the methods for the production or oxidation stability of the biofuel in order to make its production economically competitive. Several apparatus comprising reactors and refineries are also presented. This review article summarizes recent and important patents relating to the production of biodiesel to make its production a viable alternative.

  8. The enhancement of butanol production by in situ butanol removal using biodiesel extraction in the fermentation of ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol).

    PubMed

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yi-Cheng

    2013-10-01

    High butanol accumulation is due to feedback inhibition which leads to the low butanol productivity observed in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The aim of this study is to use biodiesel as an extractant for the in situ removal of butanol from the broth. The results indicate that adding biodiesel as an extractant at the beginning of fermentation significantly enhances butanol production. No significant toxicity of biodiesel on the growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum is observed. In the fed-batch operation with glucose feeding, the maximum total butanol obtained is 31.44 g/L, as compared to the control batch (without the addition of biodiesel) at 9.85 g/L. Moreover, the productivity obtained is 0.295 g/L h in the fed-batch, which is higher than that of 0.185 g/L h for the control batch. The in situ butanol removal by the addition of biodiesel has great potential for commercial ABE production.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of Sr3Al2O6 nanocomposite as catalyst for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Rashtizadeh, Elnaz; Farzaneh, Faezeh; Talebpour, Zahra

    2014-02-01

    Sr-Al mixed oxides nanocomposite as Sr3Al2O6 was prepared by sol-gel method and used as a basic heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil to methyl esters (biodiesel) by methanol. The prepared catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA), temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption techniques. The response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken design was employed to investigate the effects of methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction time, catalyst amount and specifically the effect of interaction between process variables on the conversion of oil to biodiesel. Results from this study revealed that individual as well as bilateral variables interactions significantly affect the yield of biodiesel. With this information, it was found that utilization of methanol to oil molar ratio of 25 and 1.3 wt.% of catalyst within reaction time of 61 min and gave the biodiesel yield of 95.7 ± 0.5%.

  10. A Graduate Laboratory Course on Biodiesel Production Emphasizing Professional, Teamwork, and Research Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavesley, West

    2011-01-01

    In this article we report on the use of a graduate "Special Topics" course to provide vital research and practical laboratory experience, within the context of developing a chemical process to manufacture biodiesel from algal sources. This course contained several key components that we believe are necessary skills in graduate research: 1) a…

  11. Enhanced Lipid and Biodiesel Production from Glucose-Fed Activated Sludge: Kinetics an Microbial Community Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    An innovative approach to increase biofuel feedstock lipid yields from municipal sewage sludge via manipulation of carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio and glucose loading in activated sludge bioreactors was investigated. Sludge lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (biodiesel) yields (% cel...

  12. Diatom aggregation and dimethylsulfide production in phytoplankton blooms

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are crucial links in many of the earth's biogeochemical cycles. Blooms take up atmospheric carbon through photosynthesis, and sequester it on the ocean floor by sinking. Aggregation of single cells into [open quote]marine snow[close quote] particles speeds up the sinking of algal cells. Laboratory studies investigating the process of aggregation show that some species have a higher probability of aggregating than others, and that there exist several mechanisms for causing aggregation. Field studies confirm that some species are more likely to be found in aggregates than in the surrounding seawater. High latitude Premnesiophyte blooms are found to produce large amounts of dimethylsulflde (DMS), believed to be an important chemical in global thermoregulation. DMS is found to vary diurnally, possibly due to photooxidation by ultraviolet light. This possibility links the effects of DMS on cloud formation with the effects of increased ultraviolet light penetrating the earths ozone layer.

  13. Wastewater treatment from biodiesel production via a coupled photo-Fenton-aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) system.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Ximena María Vargas; Mejía, Gina Maria Hincapié; López, Kelly Viviana Patiño; Vásquez, Gloria Restrepo; Sepúlveda, Juan Miguel Marín

    2012-01-01

    A coupled system of the photo-Fenton advanced oxidation technique and an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) was used to treat wastewater from biodiesel production using either palm or castor oil. The photo-Fenton reaction and biological process were evaluated individually and were effective at treating the wastewater; nevertheless, each process required longer degradation times for the wastewater pollutants compared with the coupled system. The proposed coupled photo-Fenton/aerobic SBR system obtained a 90% reduction of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in half of the time required for the biological system individually. PMID:22766873

  14. Brassica carinata as an alternative oil crop for the production of biodiesel in Italy: engine performance and regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions.

    PubMed

    Cardone, Massimo; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Rocco, Vittorio; Seggiani, Maurizia; Senatore, Adolfo; Vitoloi, Sandra

    2002-11-01

    A comparison of the performance of Brassica carinata oil-derived biodiesel with a commercial rapeseed oil-derived biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel is discussed as regards engine performance and regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions. B. carinata is an oil crop that can be cultivated in coastal areas of central-southern Italy, where it is more difficult to achieve the productivity potentials of Brassica napus (by far the most common rapeseed cultivated in continental Europe). Experimental tests were carried out on a turbocharged direct injection passenger car diesel engine fueled with 100% biodiesel. The unregulated exhaust emissions were characterized by determining the SOOT and soluble organic fraction content in the particulate matter, together with analysis of the content and speciation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, some of which are potentially carcinogenic, and of carbonyl compounds (aldehydes, ketones) that act as ozone precursors. B. carinata and commercial biodiesel behaved similarly as far as engine performance and regulated and unregulated emissions were concerned. When compared with petroleum diesel fuel, the engine test bench analysis did not show any appreciable variation of output engine torque values, while there was a significant difference in specific fuel consumption data at the lowest loads for the biofuels and petroleum diesel fuel. The biofuels were observed to produce higher levels of NOx concentrations and lower levels of PM with respect to the diesel fuel. The engine heat release analysis conducted shows that there is a potential for increased thermal NOx generation when firing biodiesel with no prior modification to the injection timing. It seems that, for both the biofuels, this behavior is caused by an advanced combustion evolution, which is particularly apparent at the higher loads. When compared with petroleum diesel fuel, biodiesel emissions contain less SOOT, and a greater fraction of the particulate was soluble. The

  15. Brassica carinata as an alternative oil crop for the production of biodiesel in Italy: engine performance and regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions.

    PubMed

    Cardone, Massimo; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Rocco, Vittorio; Seggiani, Maurizia; Senatore, Adolfo; Vitoloi, Sandra

    2002-11-01

    A comparison of the performance of Brassica carinata oil-derived biodiesel with a commercial rapeseed oil-derived biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel is discussed as regards engine performance and regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions. B. carinata is an oil crop that can be cultivated in coastal areas of central-southern Italy, where it is more difficult to achieve the productivity potentials of Brassica napus (by far the most common rapeseed cultivated in continental Europe). Experimental tests were carried out on a turbocharged direct injection passenger car diesel engine fueled with 100% biodiesel. The unregulated exhaust emissions were characterized by determining the SOOT and soluble organic fraction content in the particulate matter, together with analysis of the content and speciation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, some of which are potentially carcinogenic, and of carbonyl compounds (aldehydes, ketones) that act as ozone precursors. B. carinata and commercial biodiesel behaved similarly as far as engine performance and regulated and unregulated emissions were concerned. When compared with petroleum diesel fuel, the engine test bench analysis did not show any appreciable variation of output engine torque values, while there was a significant difference in specific fuel consumption data at the lowest loads for the biofuels and petroleum diesel fuel. The biofuels were observed to produce higher levels of NOx concentrations and lower levels of PM with respect to the diesel fuel. The engine heat release analysis conducted shows that there is a potential for increased thermal NOx generation when firing biodiesel with no prior modification to the injection timing. It seems that, for both the biofuels, this behavior is caused by an advanced combustion evolution, which is particularly apparent at the higher loads. When compared with petroleum diesel fuel, biodiesel emissions contain less SOOT, and a greater fraction of the particulate was soluble. The

  16. Application of high-content image analysis for quantitatively estimating lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeasts with potential for use in biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Capus, Aurélie; Monnerat, Marianne; Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos; de Souza, Wanderley; Martins, Juliana Lopes; Sant'Anna, Celso

    2016-03-01

    Biodiesel from oleaginous microorganisms is a viable substitute for a fossil fuel. Current methods for microorganism lipid productivity evaluation do not analyze lipid dynamics in single cells. Here, we described a high-content image analysis (HCA) as a promising strategy for screening oleaginous microorganisms for biodiesel production, while generating single-cell lipid dynamics data in large cell density. Rhodotorula slooffiae yeast were grown in standard (CTL) or lipid trigger medium (LTM), and lipid droplet (LD) accumulation was analyzed in deconvolved confocal microscopy images of cells stained with the lipophilic fluorescent Nile red (NR) dye using automated cell and LD segmentation. The 'vesicle segmentation' method yielded valid morphometric results for limited lipid accumulation in smaller LDs (CTL samples) and for high lipid accumulation in larger LDs (LTM samples), and detected LD localization changes. Thus, HCA can be used to analyze the lipid accumulation patterns likely to be encountered in screens for biodiesel production.

  17. Coupled production of single cell oil as biodiesel feedstock, xylitol and xylanase from sugarcane bagasse in a biorefinery concept using fungi from the tropical mangrove wetlands.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Srijay; Khot, Mahesh; Zinjarde, Smita; RaviKumar, Ameeta; Gade, Wasudeo Namdeo

    2013-05-01

    This work evaluates sugarcane bagasse (SCB) conversion, in a biorefinery approach, to coproduce biodiesel and high value products using two novel mangrove fungi. On acid pre-treatment, sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate (SCBH) resulted in a xylitol yield of 0.51 g/g xylose consumed in 72 h by Williopsis saturnus. After SCB pretreatment, sugarcane bagasse residue (SCBR) was utilized using Aspergillus terreus for production of xylanase (12.74 U/ml) and cell biomass (9.8 g/L) which was extracted for single cell oil (SCO; 0.19 g/g) and transesterified to biodiesel. The FAME profile exhibited long chain SFAs and PUFAs with predicted biodiesel properties lying within the range specified by international standards. This biorefining approach of SCB utilization for co-production of xylitol, xylanase and SCO gains importance in terms of sustainability and eco-friendliness.

  18. Scale-up of industrial biodiesel production to 40 m(3) using a liquid lipase formulation.

    PubMed

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Martel, Hannah H; Chrabas, Brent; Wang, Huali; Nielsen, Per Munk; Woodley, John M

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the scale-up from an 80 L fed-batch scale to 40 m(3) along with the design of a 4 m(3) continuous process for enzymatic biodiesel production catalyzed by NS-40116 (a liquid formulation of a modified Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase). Based on the analysis of actual pilot plant data for the transesterification of used cooking oil and brown grease, we propose a method applying first order integral analysis to fed-batch data based on either the bound glycerol or free fatty acid content in the oil. This method greatly simplifies the modeling process and gives an indication of the effect of mixing at the various scales (80 L to 40 m(3) ) along with the prediction of the residence time needed to reach a desired conversion in a CSTR. Suitable process metrics reflecting commercial performance such as the reaction time, enzyme efficiency, and reactor productivity were evaluated for both the fed-batch and CSTR cases. Given similar operating conditions, the CSTR operation on average, has a reaction time which is 1.3 times greater than the fed-batch operation. We also showed how the process metrics can be used to quickly estimate the selling price of the enzyme. Assuming a biodiesel selling price of 0.6 USD/kg and a one-time use of the enzyme (0.1% (w/woil ) enzyme dosage); the enzyme can then be sold for 30 USD/kg which ensures that that the enzyme cost is not more than 5% of the biodiesel revenue. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1719-1728. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Scale-up of industrial biodiesel production to 40 m(3) using a liquid lipase formulation.

    PubMed

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Martel, Hannah H; Chrabas, Brent; Wang, Huali; Nielsen, Per Munk; Woodley, John M

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the scale-up from an 80 L fed-batch scale to 40 m(3) along with the design of a 4 m(3) continuous process for enzymatic biodiesel production catalyzed by NS-40116 (a liquid formulation of a modified Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase). Based on the analysis of actual pilot plant data for the transesterification of used cooking oil and brown grease, we propose a method applying first order integral analysis to fed-batch data based on either the bound glycerol or free fatty acid content in the oil. This method greatly simplifies the modeling process and gives an indication of the effect of mixing at the various scales (80 L to 40 m(3) ) along with the prediction of the residence time needed to reach a desired conversion in a CSTR. Suitable process metrics reflecting commercial performance such as the reaction time, enzyme efficiency, and reactor productivity were evaluated for both the fed-batch and CSTR cases. Given similar operating conditions, the CSTR operation on average, has a reaction time which is 1.3 times greater than the fed-batch operation. We also showed how the process metrics can be used to quickly estimate the selling price of the enzyme. Assuming a biodiesel selling price of 0.6 USD/kg and a one-time use of the enzyme (0.1% (w/woil ) enzyme dosage); the enzyme can then be sold for 30 USD/kg which ensures that that the enzyme cost is not more than 5% of the biodiesel revenue. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1719-1728. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26806356

  20. Co-culturing Chlorella minutissima with Escherichia coli can increase neutral lipid production and improve biodiesel quality.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Brendan T; Labavitch, John M; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2015-09-01

    Lipid productivity and fatty acid composition are important metrics for the production of high quality biodiesel from algae. Our previous results showed that co-culturing the green alga Chlorella minutissima with Escherichia coli under high-substrate mixotrophic conditions enhanced both culture growth and crude lipid content. To investigate further, we analyzed neutral lipid content and fatty acid content and composition of axenic cultures and co-cultures produced under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. We found that co-culturing C. minutissima with E. coli under high substrate conditions (10 g/L) increased neutral lipid content 1.9- to 3.1-fold and fatty acid content 1.5- to 2.6-fold compared to equivalent axenic C. minutissima cultures. These same co-cultures also exhibited a significant fatty acid shift away from trienoic and toward monoenoic fatty acids thereby improving the quality of the synthesized fatty acids for biodiesel production. Further investigation suggested that E. coli facilitates substrate uptake by the algae and that the resulting growth enhancement induces a nitrogen-limited condition. Enhanced carbon uptake coupled with nitrogen limitation is the likely cause of the observed neutral lipid accumulation and fatty acid profile changes.

  1. High-cell-density cultivation of oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus for biodiesel production using organic waste from the brewery industry.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Byung-Gon; Kim, Jungmin; Kim, Kyochan; Choi, Yoon-E; Han, Jong-In; Yang, Ji-Won

    2013-05-01

    Waste spent yeast from brewery industry was used as a sole growth substrate to grow an oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus for the purpose of biodiesel production. Approximately 7 g/l/d of biomass productivity was obtained using only spent yeast (30 g/l) without additional nutrients and pretreatment of any kind. To make best use of available nutrients in the spent yeast, stepwise cultivation was carried out in a batch culture mode and the highest biomass and lipid content, which were 50.4 g/l and 37.7%, respectively, were obtained at 35:1 of C/N ratio. Lipid from C. curvatus was found to be a quality-sufficient source of oil as a transportation fuel in terms of cetane, iodine values, and oxidation stability, although the values of cold filter plugging point were less desirable. Economic evaluation revealed that the use of the spent yeast could significantly reduce the unit cost of yeast-based biodiesel production. PMID:23177209

  2. Life cycle assessment of a palm oil system with simultaneous production of biodiesel and cooking oil in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Achten, Wouter M J; Vandenbempt, Pieter; Almeida, Joana; Mathijs, Erik; Muys, Bart

    2010-06-15

    The use of palm oil as a biofuel has been heavily debated for its land-use conflict with nature and its competition with food production, being the number one cooking oil worldwide. In that context, we present a life cycle assessment of a palm oil production process yielding both biodiesel and cooking oil, incorporating the land-use impact and evaluating the effect of treating the palm oil mill effluent (POME) prior to disposal. The results show that the nonrenewable energy requirement, global warming potential (GWP; exclusive land-use change), and acidification potential are lower than those of the fossil alternative. However, the system triggers an increase in eutrophication potential (EP) compared to the fossil fuel reference. This system shows less energy requirement, global warming and acidification reduction, and less eutrophication increase compared to the reference than the same system converting all palm oil into biodiesel (no cooking oil production). The land occupation of palm oil triggers ecosystem quality (EQ) loss of 30-45% compared to the potential natural vegetation. Furthermore, such land-use change triggers a carbon debt neutralizing the GWP reduction for 45-53 years. The POME treatment scenarios reveal a trade-off between GWP and EP. PMID:20496929

  3. Optimizing biodiesel production in marine Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 through metabolic profiling and an innovative salinity-gradient strategy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biodiesel production from marine microalgae has received much attention as microalgae can be cultivated on non-arable land without the use of potable water, and with the additional benefits of mitigating CO2 emissions and yielding biomass. However, there is still a lack of effective operational strategies to promote lipid accumulation in marine microalgae, which are suitable for making biodiesel since they are mainly composed of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, the regulatory mechanisms involved in lipid biosynthesis in microalgae under environmental stress are not well understood. Results In this work, the combined effects of salinity and nitrogen depletion stresses on lipid accumulation of a newly isolated marine microalga, Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4, were explored. Metabolic intermediates were profiled over time to observe transient changes during the lipid accumulation triggered by the combination of the two stresses. An innovative cultivation strategy (denoted salinity-gradient operation) was also employed to markedly improve the lipid accumulation and lipid quality of the microalga, which attained an optimal lipid productivity of 223.2 mg L-1 d-1 and a lipid content of 59.4% per dry cell weight. This performance is significantly higher than reported in most related studies. Conclusions This work demonstrated the synergistic integration of biological and engineering technologies to develop a simple and effective strategy for the enhancement of oil production in marine microalgae. PMID:25002905

  4. Microbial lipid produced by Yarrowia lipolytica QU21 using industrial waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Poli, Jandora Severo; da Silva, Mirra Angelina Neres; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Pasa, Vânya M D; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Valente, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of medium composition and culture conditions on lipid content, fatty acid profile and biomass production by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica QU21. Lipid production by the yeast growing on glycerol/(NH4)2SO4 (10%/0.1%) reached 1.48g/L (30.1% according to total cell dry weight). When glycerol was replaced by crude glycerol (industrial waste), the lipid yield was 1.27g/L, with no significant difference. Some particular fatty acids were found when crude glycerol was combined with fresh yeast extract (FYE, brewery waste), as linolenic acid (C18:3n3), eicosadienoic acid (C20:2), eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3n3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3). In addition, the FYE promoted an increase of more than 300% on polyunsaturated fatty acid content (PUFA), which is an undesirable feature for biodiesel production. The fatty acid composition of the oil produced by Y. lipolytica QU21 growing on crude glycerol/(NH4)2SO4 presented a potential use as biodiesel feedstock, with low PUFA content. PMID:24727354

  5. 78 FR 37237 - Proposed Adjustments to the Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Enforcement Administration Proposed Adjustments to the Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II... request for comments. SUMMARY: This notice proposes to adjust the 2013 aggregate production quotas for... of annual needs for the list I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine, as...

  6. Preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of moisture removal and energy usage in pretreatment module of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanisamy, K.; Idlan, M. K.; Saifudin, N.

    2013-06-01

    Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) is a plausible low cost biodiesel feedstock but it exhibits few unfavorable parameters for conversion into biodiesel. One of the parameter is the presence of high moisture content which will inhibit or retard catalyst during the acid esterification or base transesterification causing lower purity and yield of biodiesel. This will effect the post processing and escalate production cost making WCO a not favorable biodiesel feedstock. Therefore, it is important to have an effective moisture removal method to reduce the moisture content below 0.05%wt or 500 ppm in WCO for an efficient biodiesel production. In this work, the effectiveness of moisture removal and the energy usage of a newly develop innovative pretreatment module has been evaluated and reported. Results show that the pretreatment module is able to reduce up to 85% to effectively reduce the moisture content to below 500ppm of the initial moisture content of WCO and only consume 157 Wh/l energy compared to conventional heating that consume 386 Wh/l and only remove 67.6% moisture in 2 hours.

  7. A simple and fast method for the production and characterization of methylic and ethylic biodiesels from tucum oil via an alkaline route.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcelo Firmino; Vieira, Andressa Tironi; Batista, Antônio Carlos Ferreira; de Souza Rodrigues, Hugo; Stradiotto, Nelson Ramos

    2011-01-01

    A simple, fast, and complete route for the production of methylic and ethylic biodiesel from tucum oil is described. Aliquots of the oil obtained directly from pressed tucum (pulp and almonds) were treated with potassium methoxide or ethoxide at 40°C for 40 min. The biodiesel form was removed from the reactor and washed with 0.1 M HCl aqueous solution. A simple distillation at 100°C was carried out in order to remove water and alcohol species from the biodiesel. The oxidative stability index was obtained for the tucum oil as well as the methylic and ethylic biodiesel at 6.13, 2.90, and 2.80 h, for storage times higher than 8 days. Quality control of the original oil and of the methylic and ethylic biodiesels, such as the amount of glycerin produced during the transesterification process, was accomplished by the TLC, GC-MS, and FT-IR techniques. The results obtained in this study indicate a potential biofuel production by simple treatment of tucum, an important Amazonian fruit. PMID:21629751

  8. A Simple and Fast Method for the Production and Characterization of Methylic and Ethylic Biodiesels from Tucum Oil via an Alkaline Route

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcelo Firmino; Vieira, Andressa Tironi; Batista, Antônio Carlos Ferreira; Rodrigues, Hugo de Souza; Stradiotto, Nelson Ramos

    2011-01-01

    A simple, fast, and complete route for the production of methylic and ethylic biodiesel from tucum oil is described. Aliquots of the oil obtained directly from pressed tucum (pulp and almonds) were treated with potassium methoxide or ethoxide at 40°C for 40 min. The biodiesel form was removed from the reactor and washed with 0.1 M HCl aqueous solution. A simple distillation at 100°C was carried out in order to remove water and alcohol species from the biodiesel. The oxidative stability index was obtained for the tucum oil as well as the methylic and ethylic biodiesel at 6.13, 2.90, and 2.80 h, for storage times higher than 8 days. Quality control of the original oil and of the methylic and ethylic biodiesels, such as the amount of glycerin produced during the transesterification process, was accomplished by the TLC, GC-MS, and FT-IR techniques. The results obtained in this study indicate a potential biofuel production by simple treatment of tucum, an important Amazonian fruit. PMID:21629751

  9. A simple and fast method for the production and characterization of methylic and ethylic biodiesels from tucum oil via an alkaline route.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcelo Firmino; Vieira, Andressa Tironi; Batista, Antônio Carlos Ferreira; de Souza Rodrigues, Hugo; Stradiotto, Nelson Ramos

    2011-01-01

    A simple, fast, and complete route for the production of methylic and ethylic biodiesel from tucum oil is described. Aliquots of the oil obtained directly from pressed tucum (pulp and almonds) were treated with potassium methoxide or ethoxide at 40°C for 40 min. The biodiesel form was removed from the reactor and washed with 0.1 M HCl aqueous solution. A simple distillation at 100°C was carried out in order to remove water and alcohol species from the biodiesel. The oxidative stability index was obtained for the tucum oil as well as the methylic and ethylic biodiesel at 6.13, 2.90, and 2.80 h, for storage times higher than 8 days. Quality control of the original oil and of the methylic and ethylic biodiesels, such as the amount of glycerin produced during the transesterification process, was accomplished by the TLC, GC-MS, and FT-IR techniques. The results obtained in this study indicate a potential biofuel production by simple treatment of tucum, an important Amazonian fruit.

  10. Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Peter J; Hills, Colin D; Carey, Paula J

    2009-10-01

    The concomitant recycling of waste and carbon dioxide emissions is the subject of developing technology designed to close the industrial process loop and facilitate the bulk-re-use of waste in, for example, construction. The present work discusses a treatment step that employs accelerated carbonation to convert gaseous carbon dioxide into solid calcium carbonate through a reaction with industrial thermal residues. Treatment by accelerated carbonation enabled a synthetic aggregate to be made from thermal residues and waste quarry fines. The aggregates produced had a bulk density below 1000 kg/m(3) and a high water absorption capacity. Aggregate crushing strengths were between 30% and 90% stronger than the proprietary lightweight expanded clay aggregate available in the UK. Cast concrete blocks containing the carbonated aggregate achieve compressive strengths of 24 MPa, making them suitable for use with concrete exposed to non-aggressive service environments. The energy intensive firing and sintering processes traditionally required to produce lightweight aggregates can now be augmented by a cold-bonding, low energy method that contributes to the reduction of green house gases to the atmosphere. PMID:19577916

  11. Harvesting green algae from eutrophic reservoir by electroflocculation and post-use for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Valero, Enrique; Álvarez, Xana; Cancela, Ángeles; Sánchez, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Each year there are more frequent blooms of green algae and cyanobacteria, representing a serious environmental problem of eutrophication. Electroflocculation (EF) was studied to harvest the algae which are present in reservoirs, as well as different factors which may influence on the effectiveness of the process: the voltage applied to the culture medium, run times, electrodes separation and natural sedimentation. Finally, the viability of its use to obtain biodiesel was studied by direct transesterification. The EF process carried out at 10V for 1min, with an electrode separation of 5.5cm and a height of 4cm in culture vessel, obtained a recovery efficiency greater than 95%, and octadecenoic and palmitic acids were obtained as the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). EF is an effective method to harvest green algae during the blooms, obtaining the greatest amount of biomass for subsequent use as a source of biodiesel.

  12. Biodiesel production from non-edible Silybum marianum oil using heterogeneous solid base catalyst under ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Takase, Mohammed; Chen, Yao; Liu, Hongyang; Zhao, Ting; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate modified TiO2 doped with C4H4O6HK as heterogeneous solid base catalyst for transesterification of non-edible, Silybum marianum oil to biodiesel using methanol under ultrasonication. Upon screening the catalytic performance of modified TiO2 doped with different K-compounds, 0.7 C4H4O6HK doped on TiO2 was selected. The preparation of the catalyst was done using incipient wetness impregnation method. Having doped modified TiO2 with C4H4O6HK, followed by impregnation, drying and calcination at 600 °C for 6 h, the catalyst was characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, BET, TGA, UV and the Hammett indicators. The yield of the biodiesel was proportional to the catalyst basicity. The catalyst had granular and porous structures with high basicity and superior performance. Combined conditions of 16:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil, 5 wt.% catalyst amount, 60 °C reaction temperature and 30 min reaction time was enough for maximum yield of 90.1%. The catalyst maintained sustained activity after five cycles of use. The oxidative stability which was the main problem of the biodiesel was improved from 2.0 h to 3.2h after 30 days using ascorbic acid as antioxidant. The other properties including the flash point, cetane number and the cold flow ones were however, comparable to international standards. The study indicated that Ti-0.7-600-6 is an efficient, economical and environmentally, friendly catalyst under ultrasonication for producing biodiesel from S. marianum oil with a substantial yield.

  13. Biodiesel production from non-edible Silybum marianum oil using heterogeneous solid base catalyst under ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Takase, Mohammed; Chen, Yao; Liu, Hongyang; Zhao, Ting; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate modified TiO2 doped with C4H4O6HK as heterogeneous solid base catalyst for transesterification of non-edible, Silybum marianum oil to biodiesel using methanol under ultrasonication. Upon screening the catalytic performance of modified TiO2 doped with different K-compounds, 0.7 C4H4O6HK doped on TiO2 was selected. The preparation of the catalyst was done using incipient wetness impregnation method. Having doped modified TiO2 with C4H4O6HK, followed by impregnation, drying and calcination at 600 °C for 6 h, the catalyst was characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, BET, TGA, UV and the Hammett indicators. The yield of the biodiesel was proportional to the catalyst basicity. The catalyst had granular and porous structures with high basicity and superior performance. Combined conditions of 16:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil, 5 wt.% catalyst amount, 60 °C reaction temperature and 30 min reaction time was enough for maximum yield of 90.1%. The catalyst maintained sustained activity after five cycles of use. The oxidative stability which was the main problem of the biodiesel was improved from 2.0 h to 3.2h after 30 days using ascorbic acid as antioxidant. The other properties including the flash point, cetane number and the cold flow ones were however, comparable to international standards. The study indicated that Ti-0.7-600-6 is an efficient, economical and environmentally, friendly catalyst under ultrasonication for producing biodiesel from S. marianum oil with a substantial yield. PMID:24768105

  14. Treatment of biodiesel production wastes with simultaneous electricity generation using a single-chamber microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yujie; Yang, Qiao; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yankun; Lee, He; Ren, Nanqi

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel production through transesterification of lipids generates large quantity of biodiesel waste (BW) containing mainly glycerin. BW can be treated in various ways including distillation to produce glycerin, use as substrate for fermentative propanediol production and discharge as wastes. This study examined microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to treat BW with simultaneous electricity generation. The maximum power density using BW was 487 ± 28 mW/m(2) cathode (1.5A/m(2) cathode) with 50mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS) as the electrolyte, which was comparable with 533 ± 14 mW/m(2) cathode obtained from MFCs fed with glycerin medium (COD 1400 mg/L). The power density increased from 778 ± 67 mW/m(2) cathode using carbon cloth to 1310 ± 15 mW/m(2) cathode using carbon brush as anode in 200 mM PBS electrolyte. The power density was further increased to 2110 ± 68 mW/m(2) cathode using the heat-treated carbon brush anode. Coulombic efficiencies (CEs) increased from 8.8 ± 0.6% with carbon cloth anode to 10.4 ± 0.9% and 18.7 ± 0.9% with carbon brush anode and heat-treated carbon brush anode, respectively. PMID:20889062

  15. Lipid production in the under-characterized oleaginous yeasts, Rhodosporidium babjevae and Rhodosporidium diobovatum, from biodiesel-derived waste glycerol.

    PubMed

    Munch, Garret; Sestric, Ryan; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B; Cicek, Nazim

    2015-06-01

    The growth, lipid production, and carbon use efficiency of two oleaginous yeasts, Rhodosporidium babjevae and Rhodosporidium diobovatum, were compared under nitrogen-limiting conditions with glycerol as the carbon source. Final biomass concentrations of R. babjevae and R. diobovatum were 9.4±0.80g/L and 12.0±0.82g/L, respectively, after 120h of growth. Final lipid accumulation in for R. babjevae and R. diobovatum were 34.9±3.0% cell dry weight (cdw) and 63.7±4.5% cdw, respectively. Biomass production increased to 9.9±0.2g/L for R. babjevae and 14.1±0.2g/L for R. diobovatum in medium containing biodiesel-derived waste glycerol, but lipid accumulation decreased in both species. In a 7L bioreactor with biodiesel-derived glycerol as carbon source, R. diobovatum produced 13.6±0.4g/L biomass and accumulated lipids to 50.7±2.2% cdw, matching flask experiments.

  16. Production of biodiesel from vegetable oil and microalgae by fatty acid extraction and enzymatic esterification.

    PubMed

    Castillo López, Beatriz; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Robles Medina, Alfonso; Navarro López, Elvira; Martín Valverde, Lorena; Hita Peña, Estrella; González Moreno, Pedro A; Molina Grima, Emilio

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain biodiesel (methyl esters) from the saponifiable lipids (SLs) fraction of the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana, whose biomass dry weight contains 12.1 wt% of these lipids. SLs were extracted from the microalga as free fatty acids (FFAs) for subsequent transformation to methyl esters (biodiesel) by enzymatic esterification. Extraction as FFAs rather than as SLs allows them to be obtained with higher purity. Microalgal FFAs were obtained by direct saponification of lipids in the biomass and subsequent extraction-purification with hexane. Esterification of FFAs with methanol was catalysed by lipase Novozym 435 from Candida antarctica. Stability studies of this lipase in the operational conditions showed that the esterification degree (ED) attained with the same batch of lipase remained constant over six reaction cycles (36 h total reaction time). The optimal conditions attained for 4 g of FFAs were 25°C, 200 rpm, methanol/FFA molar ratio of 1.5:1, Novozym 435/FFA ratio of 0.025:1 w/w and 4 h reaction time. In these conditions the ED attained was 92.6%, producing a biodiesel with 83 wt% purity from microalgal FFAs. Several experimental scales were tested (from 4 to 40 g FFAs), and in all cases similar EDs were obtained.

  17. Biodiesel production from Nannochloropsis gaditana lipids through transesterification catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae lipase.

    PubMed

    Navarro López, Elvira; Robles Medina, Alfonso; González Moreno, Pedro Antonio; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Martín Valverde, Lorena; Molina Grima, Emilio

    2016-03-01

    Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) was produced from saponifiable lipids (SLs) extracted from wet Nannochloropsis gaditana biomass using methanolysis catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae intracellular lipase. SLs were firstly extracted with ethanol to obtain 31 wt% pure SLs. But this low SL purity also gave a low biodiesel conversion (58%). This conversion increased up to 80% using SLs purified by crystallization in acetone (95 wt% purity). Polar lipids play an important role in decreasing the reaction velocity - using SLs extracted with hexane, which have lower polar lipid content (37.4% versus 49.0% using ethanol), we obtained higher reaction velocities and less FAME conversion decrease when the same lipase batch was reused. 83% of SLs were transformed to biodiesel using a 70 wt% lipase/SL ratio, 11:1 methanol/SL molar ratio, 10 mL t-butanol/g SLs after 72 h. The FAME conversion decreased to 71% after catalyzing three reactions with the same lipase batch. PMID:26735878

  18. Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalu, E. Eric; Chen, Ken Shuang

    2008-01-01

    This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

  19. Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar production.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Qiu, Ning; Cai, Hao; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-06-01

    Modern dairies cause the accumulation of considerable quantity of dairy manure which is a potential hazard to the environment. Dairy manure can also act as a principal larval resource for many insects such as the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens. The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are considered as a new biotechnology to convert dairy manure into biodiesel and sugar. BSFL are a common colonizer of large variety of decomposing organic material in temperate and tropical areas. Adults do not need to be fed, except to take water, and acquired enough nutrition during larval development for reproduction. Dairy manure treated by BSFL is an economical way in animal facilities. Grease could be extracted from BSFL by petroleum ether, and then be treated with a two-step method to produce biodiesel. The digested dairy manure was hydrolyzed into sugar. In this study, approximately 1248.6g fresh dairy manure was converted into 273.4 g dry residue by 1200 BSFL in 21 days. Approximately 15.8 g of biodiesel was gained from 70.8 g dry BSFL, and 96.2g sugar was obtained from the digested dairy manure. The residual dry BSFL after grease extraction can be used as protein feedstuff. PMID:21367596

  20. Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar production.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Qiu, Ning; Cai, Hao; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-06-01

    Modern dairies cause the accumulation of considerable quantity of dairy manure which is a potential hazard to the environment. Dairy manure can also act as a principal larval resource for many insects such as the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens. The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are considered as a new biotechnology to convert dairy manure into biodiesel and sugar. BSFL are a common colonizer of large variety of decomposing organic material in temperate and tropical areas. Adults do not need to be fed, except to take water, and acquired enough nutrition during larval development for reproduction. Dairy manure treated by BSFL is an economical way in animal facilities. Grease could be extracted from BSFL by petroleum ether, and then be treated with a two-step method to produce biodiesel. The digested dairy manure was hydrolyzed into sugar. In this study, approximately 1248.6g fresh dairy manure was converted into 273.4 g dry residue by 1200 BSFL in 21 days. Approximately 15.8 g of biodiesel was gained from 70.8 g dry BSFL, and 96.2g sugar was obtained from the digested dairy manure. The residual dry BSFL after grease extraction can be used as protein feedstuff.

  1. Comparative assessment of various lipid extraction protocols and optimization of transesterification process for microalgal biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shovon; Patnaik, Reeza; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mallick, Nirupama

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, using microalgae as feedstocks, is being explored as the most potent form of alternative diesel fuel for sustainable economic development. A comparative assessment of various protocols for microalgal lipid extraction was carried out using five green algae, six blue-green algae and two diatom species treated with different single and binary solvents both at room temperature and using a soxhlet. Lipid recovery was maximum with chloroform-methanol in the soxhlet extractor. Pretreatments ofbiomass, such as sonication, homogenization, bead-beating, lyophilization, autoclaving, microwave treatment and osmotic shock did not register any significant rise in lipid recovery. As lipid recovery using chloroform-methanol at room temperature demonstrated a marginally lower value than that obtained under the soxhlet extractor, on economical point of view, the former is recommended for microalgal total lipid extraction. Transesterification process enhances the quality of biodiesel. Experiments were designed to determine the effects of catalyst type and quantity, methanol to oil ratio, reaction temperature and time on the transesterification process using response surface methodology. Fatty acid methyl ester yield reached up to 91% with methanol:HCl:oil molar ratio of 82:4:1 at 65 degrees C for 6.4h reaction time. The biodiesel yield relative to the weight of the oil was found to be 69%.

  2. Production of biodiesel from vegetable oil and microalgae by fatty acid extraction and enzymatic esterification.

    PubMed

    Castillo López, Beatriz; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Robles Medina, Alfonso; Navarro López, Elvira; Martín Valverde, Lorena; Hita Peña, Estrella; González Moreno, Pedro A; Molina Grima, Emilio

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain biodiesel (methyl esters) from the saponifiable lipids (SLs) fraction of the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana, whose biomass dry weight contains 12.1 wt% of these lipids. SLs were extracted from the microalga as free fatty acids (FFAs) for subsequent transformation to methyl esters (biodiesel) by enzymatic esterification. Extraction as FFAs rather than as SLs allows them to be obtained with higher purity. Microalgal FFAs were obtained by direct saponification of lipids in the biomass and subsequent extraction-purification with hexane. Esterification of FFAs with methanol was catalysed by lipase Novozym 435 from Candida antarctica. Stability studies of this lipase in the operational conditions showed that the esterification degree (ED) attained with the same batch of lipase remained constant over six reaction cycles (36 h total reaction time). The optimal conditions attained for 4 g of FFAs were 25°C, 200 rpm, methanol/FFA molar ratio of 1.5:1, Novozym 435/FFA ratio of 0.025:1 w/w and 4 h reaction time. In these conditions the ED attained was 92.6%, producing a biodiesel with 83 wt% purity from microalgal FFAs. Several experimental scales were tested (from 4 to 40 g FFAs), and in all cases similar EDs were obtained. PMID:25575971

  3. Two-step biodiesel production from crude Jatropha curcas L. oil using ultrasonic irradiation assisted.

    PubMed

    Worapun, Ittipon; Pianthong, Kulachate; Thaiyasuit, Prachasanti

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of crude Jatropha curcas L. oil (CJCO) as raw material to produce biodiesel under low-frequency ultrasonic irradiation (40 kHz) assisted is examined. A two-step transesterification process (acid catalyzed esterification followed by alkaline catalyzed transesterification) is employed to produce biodiesel. In the first step, the high level of free fatty acid (FFA), 12.5%, of CJCO is successfully reduced to less than 3% by acid catalyzed esterification with 15% w/w methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration 3.0% w/w, ultrasonic irradiation time 20 min at under reaction temperature 30°C, which are selected as optimum conditions for the acid catalyzed esterification. Then, the second step, alkaline catalyzed transesterification is carried out as methanol to oil ratio 15% w/w, catalyst concentration 1% w/w, reaction temperature 30°C and ultrasonic irradiation time 30 min. This results to high percentage of conversion to biodiesel about 98%. Comparing the results obtained under the ultrasonic irradiation in this study with those under conventional stirring conditions, ultrasonic irradiation technique significantly illustrated the higher efficiency than the conventional method, especially for the high FFA oil. PMID:22450117

  4. Regulatory function of organic carbon supplementation on biodiesel production during growth and nutrient stress phases of mixotrophic microalgae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Rashmi; Rohit, M V; Swamy, Y V; Venkata Mohan, S

    2014-08-01

    Critical role of organic carbon supplementation on the lipid synthesis during growth and nutrient deprived stress phase was investigated in present study. Mixotrophic cultivation showed relatively higher biomass productivity at lower carbon loading condition (500mgCOD/l). Nutrient deprivation induced physiological stress and glucose supplementation with 2000mgCOD/l supported higher lipid accumulation (26%). Glucose supplementation in mixotrophic growth phase showed distinct influence on biomass growth whereas glucose supplementation in nutrient starvation resulted in higher lipid storage. Compositional variation in FAME profile was observed with respect to saturated fatty acids when operated with increasing glucose concentrations. Mixotrophic mode of cultivation showed remarkable benefits of nutrient removal and organic carbon supplementation influenced greatly on biodiesel production which can be easily scaled up to pilot plant and large scale production facilities.

  5. Enzymatic production of glycerol carbonate from by-product after biodiesel manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hongsub; Lee, Youngrak; Kim, Daeheum; Han, Sung Ok; Kim, Seung Wook; Lee, Jinwon; Kim, Yong Hwan; Park, Chulhwan

    2012-08-10

    Glycerol carbonate is one of the higher value-added products derived from glycerol. In this study, glycerol carbonate (GC) was synthesized by transesterification of glycerol and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) using Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica Lipase B) at various conditions. For the enzymatic production of GC, the optimum conditions were the amount of enzyme (75 g/L), DMC/glycerol molar ratio (2.00), reaction temperature (60°C) and organic solvent (acetonitrile). Experimental investigation of the effect of water content revealed that the conversion of GC was maximized with no added water. The addition of surfactant such as Tween 80 increased the GC conversion, which finally reached 96.25% under the optimum condition and with surfactant addition. PMID:22759533

  6. Effective heterogeneous transition metal glycerolates catalysts for one-step biodiesel production from low grade non-refined Jatropha oil and crude aqueous bioethanol

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Pak-Chung; Kwong, Tsz-Lung; Yung, Ka-Fu

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of bioethanol as the alcohol source for biodiesel production is more environmentally advantageous over methanol owing to its lower toxicity, lower flammability and its sustainable supply from renewable agricultural resources. However, as the presence of water in crude bioethanol is the critical factor limiting the biodiesel production process, the energy-intensive and costly purification of bioethanol is necessary for biodiesel application. Manganese glycerolate (MnGly) is reported the first time here as a robust heterogeneous catalyst that exhibited over 90% conversion by using aqueous ethanol containing 80 wt.% of water in the production of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE). The employment of 95 wt.% ethanol with respect to water could achieve 99.7% feedstock conversion in 6 hours under the optimal reaction conditions: reaction temperature (150 °C), feedstock-to-ethanol molar ratio (1:20) and catalyst loading (6 wt.%). Commercially available low grade crude bioethanol with the presence of impurities like sugars were applied which demonstrated remarkable catalytic activity in 24 hours. The high water tolerance of MnGly towards biodiesel production could eventually simplify the purification of bioethanol that consumes less energy and production cost. PMID:27029238

  7. Effective heterogeneous transition metal glycerolates catalysts for one-step biodiesel production from low grade non-refined Jatropha oil and crude aqueous bioethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Pak-Chung; Kwong, Tsz-Lung; Yung, Ka-Fu

    2016-03-01

    The utilization of bioethanol as the alcohol source for biodiesel production is more environmentally advantageous over methanol owing to its lower toxicity, lower flammability and its sustainable supply from renewable agricultural resources. However, as the presence of water in crude bioethanol is the critical factor limiting the biodiesel production process, the energy-intensive and costly purification of bioethanol is necessary for biodiesel application. Manganese glycerolate (MnGly) is reported the first time here as a robust heterogeneous catalyst that exhibited over 90% conversion by using aqueous ethanol containing 80 wt.% of water in the production of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE). The employment of 95 wt.% ethanol with respect to water could achieve 99.7% feedstock conversion in 6 hours under the optimal reaction conditions: reaction temperature (150 °C), feedstock-to-ethanol molar ratio (1:20) and catalyst loading (6 wt.%). Commercially available low grade crude bioethanol with the presence of impurities like sugars were applied which demonstrated remarkable catalytic activity in 24 hours. The high water tolerance of MnGly towards biodiesel production could eventually simplify the purification of bioethanol that consumes less energy and production cost.

  8. Effective heterogeneous transition metal glycerolates catalysts for one-step biodiesel production from low grade non-refined Jatropha oil and crude aqueous bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Lau, Pak-Chung; Kwong, Tsz-Lung; Yung, Ka-Fu

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of bioethanol as the alcohol source for biodiesel production is more environmentally advantageous over methanol owing to its lower toxicity, lower flammability and its sustainable supply from renewable agricultural resources. However, as the presence of water in crude bioethanol is the critical factor limiting the biodiesel production process, the energy-intensive and costly purification of bioethanol is necessary for biodiesel application. Manganese glycerolate (MnGly) is reported the first time here as a robust heterogeneous catalyst that exhibited over 90% conversion by using aqueous ethanol containing 80 wt.% of water in the production of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE). The employment of 95 wt.% ethanol with respect to water could achieve 99.7% feedstock conversion in 6 hours under the optimal reaction conditions: reaction temperature (150 °C), feedstock-to-ethanol molar ratio (1:20) and catalyst loading (6 wt.%). Commercially available low grade crude bioethanol with the presence of impurities like sugars were applied which demonstrated remarkable catalytic activity in 24 hours. The high water tolerance of MnGly towards biodiesel production could eventually simplify the purification of bioethanol that consumes less energy and production cost. PMID:27029238

  9. Optimization of biodiesel production process from soybean oil using the sodium potassium tartrate doped zirconia catalyst under Microwave Chemical Reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Yihuai; Ye, Bin; Shen, Jiaowen; Tian, Zhen; Wang, Lijun; Zhu, Luping; Ma, Teng; Yang, Dongya; Qiu, Fengxian

    2013-06-01

    A solid base catalyst was prepared by the sodium potassium tartrate doped zirconia and microwave assisted transesterification of soybean oil was carried out for the production of biodiesel. It was found that the catalyst of 2.0(n(Na)/n(Zr)) and calcined at 600°C showed the optimum activity. The base strength of the catalysts was tested by the Hammett indicator method, and the results showed that the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was related to their total basicity. The catalyst was also characterized by FTIR, TGA, XRD and TEM. The experimental results showed that a 2.0:1 volume ratio of methanol to oil, 65°C reaction temperature, 30 min reaction time and 10 wt.% catalyst amount gave the highest the yield of biodiesel. Compared to conventional method, the reaction time of the way of microwave assisted transesterification was shorter. The catalyst had longer lifetime and maintained sustained activity after being used for four cycles.

  10. Application of kaolin-based catalysts in biodiesel production via transesterification of vegetable oils in excess methanol.

    PubMed

    Dang, Tan Hiep; Chen, Bing-Hung; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2013-10-01

    Biodiesel production from transesterification of vegetable oils in excess methanol was performed by using as-prepared catalyst from low-cost kaolin clay. This effective heterogeneous catalyst was successfully prepared from natural kaolin firstly by dehydroxylation at 800°C for 10h and, subsequently, by NaOH-activation hydrothermally at 90°C for 24h and calcined again at 500°C for 6h. The as-obtained catalytic material was characterized with instruments, including FT-IR, XRD, SEM, and porosimeter (BET/BJH analysis). The as-prepared catalyst was advantageous not only for its easy preparation, but also for its cost-efficiency and superior catalysis in transesterification of vegetable oils in excess methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). Conversion efficiencies of soybean and palm oils to biodiesel over the as-prepared catalysts reached 97.0±3.0% and 95.4±3.7%, respectively, under optimal conditions. Activation energies of transesterification reactions of soybean and palm oils in excess methanol using these catalysts are 14.09 kJ/mol and 48.87 kJ/mol, respectively.

  11. Life cycle assessment of hydrogenated biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using the catalytic cracking and hydrogenation method.

    PubMed

    Yano, Junya; Aoki, Tatsuki; Nakamura, Kazuo; Yamada, Kazuo; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2015-04-01

    There is a worldwide trend towards stricter control of diesel exhaust emissions, however presently, there are technical impediments to the use of FAME (fatty acid methyl esters)-type biodiesel fuel (BDF). Although hydrogenated biodiesel (HBD) is anticipated as a new diesel fuel, the environmental performance of HBD and its utilization system have not been adequately clarified. Especially when waste cooking oil is used as feedstock, not only biofuel production but also the treatment of waste cooking oil is an important function for society. A life cycle assessment (LCA), including uncertainty analysis, was conducted to determine the environmental benefits (global warming, fossil fuel consumption, urban air pollution, and acidification) of HBD produced from waste cooking oil via catalytic cracking and hydrogenation, compared with fossil-derived diesel fuel or FAME-type BDF. Combined functional unit including "treatment of waste cooking oil" and "running diesel vehicle for household waste collection" was established in the context of Kyoto city, Japan. The calculation utilized characterization, damage, and integration factors identified by LIME2, which was based on an endpoint modeling method. The results show that if diesel vehicles that comply with the new Japanese long-term emissions gas standard are commonly used in the future, the benefit of FAME-type BDF will be relatively limited. Furthermore, the scenario that introduced HBD was most effective in reducing total environmental impact, meaning that a shift from FAME-type BDF to HBD would be more beneficial. PMID:25670164

  12. Life cycle assessment of hydrogenated biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using the catalytic cracking and hydrogenation method.

    PubMed

    Yano, Junya; Aoki, Tatsuki; Nakamura, Kazuo; Yamada, Kazuo; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2015-04-01

    There is a worldwide trend towards stricter control of diesel exhaust emissions, however presently, there are technical impediments to the use of FAME (fatty acid methyl esters)-type biodiesel fuel (BDF). Although hydrogenated biodiesel (HBD) is anticipated as a new diesel fuel, the environmental performance of HBD and its utilization system have not been adequately clarified. Especially when waste cooking oil is used as feedstock, not only biofuel production but also the treatment of waste cooking oil is an important function for society. A life cycle assessment (LCA), including uncertainty analysis, was conducted to determine the environmental benefits (global warming, fossil fuel consumption, urban air pollution, and acidification) of HBD produced from waste cooking oil via catalytic cracking and hydrogenation, compared with fossil-derived diesel fuel or FAME-type BDF. Combined functional unit including "treatment of waste cooking oil" and "running diesel vehicle for household waste collection" was established in the context of Kyoto city, Japan. The calculation utilized characterization, damage, and integration factors identified by LIME2, which was based on an endpoint modeling method. The results show that if diesel vehicles that comply with the new Japanese long-term emissions gas standard are commonly used in the future, the benefit of FAME-type BDF will be relatively limited. Furthermore, the scenario that introduced HBD was most effective in reducing total environmental impact, meaning that a shift from FAME-type BDF to HBD would be more beneficial.

  13. Biohydrogen and Bioethanol Production from Biodiesel-Based Glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes in a Continuous Stir Tank Reactor.

    PubMed

    Jitrwung, Rujira; Yargeau, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    Crude glycerol from the biodiesel manufacturing process is being produced in increasing quantities due to the expanding number of biodiesel plants. It has been previously shown that, in batch mode, semi-anaerobic fermentation of crude glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes can produce biohydrogen and bioethanol simultaneously. The present study demonstrated the possible scaling-up of this process from small batches performed in small bottles to a 3.6-L continuous stir tank reactor (CSTR). Fresh feed rate, liquid recycling, pH, mixing speed, glycerol concentration, and waste recycling were optimized for biohydrogen and bioethanol production. Results confirmed that E. aerogenes uses small amounts of oxygen under semi-anaerobic conditions for growth before using oxygen from decomposable salts, mainly NH4NO3, under anaerobic condition to produce hydrogen and ethanol. The optimal conditions were determined to be 500 rpm, pH 6.4, 18.5 g/L crude glycerol (15 g/L glycerol) and 33% liquid recycling for a fresh feed rate of 0.44 mL/min. Using these optimized conditions, the process ran at a lower media cost than previous studies, was stable after 7 days without further inoculation and resulted in yields of 0.86 mol H2/mol glycerol and 0.75 mol ethanol/mole glycerol. PMID:25970750

  14. Biohydrogen and Bioethanol Production from Biodiesel-Based Glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes in a Continuous Stir Tank Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Jitrwung, Rujira; Yargeau, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    Crude glycerol from the biodiesel manufacturing process is being produced in increasing quantities due to the expanding number of biodiesel plants. It has been previously shown that, in batch mode, semi-anaerobic fermentation of crude glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes can produce biohydrogen and bioethanol simultaneously. The present study demonstrated the possible scaling-up of this process from small batches performed in small bottles to a 3.6-L continuous stir tank reactor (CSTR). Fresh feed rate, liquid recycling, pH, mixing speed, glycerol concentration, and waste recycling were optimized for biohydrogen and bioethanol production. Results confirmed that E. aerogenes uses small amounts of oxygen under semi-anaerobic conditions for growth before using oxygen from decomposable salts, mainly NH4NO3, under anaerobic condition to produce hydrogen and ethanol. The optimal conditions were determined to be 500 rpm, pH 6.4, 18.5 g/L crude glycerol (15 g/L glycerol) and 33% liquid recycling for a fresh feed rate of 0.44 mL/min. Using these optimized conditions, the process ran at a lower media cost than previous studies, was stable after 7 days without further inoculation and resulted in yields of 0.86 mol H2/mol glycerol and 0.75 mol ethanol/mole glycerol. PMID:25970750

  15. Biohydrogen and Bioethanol Production from Biodiesel-Based Glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes in a Continuous Stir Tank Reactor.

    PubMed

    Jitrwung, Rujira; Yargeau, Viviane

    2015-05-11

    Crude glycerol from the biodiesel manufacturing process is being produced in increasing quantities due to the expanding number of biodiesel plants. It has been previously shown that, in batch mode, semi-anaerobic fermentation of crude glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes can produce biohydrogen and bioethanol simultaneously. The present study demonstrated the possible scaling-up of this process from small batches performed in small bottles to a 3.6-L continuous stir tank reactor (CSTR). Fresh feed rate, liquid recycling, pH, mixing speed, glycerol concentration, and waste recycling were optimized for biohydrogen and bioethanol production. Results confirmed that E. aerogenes uses small amounts of oxygen under semi-anaerobic conditions for growth before using oxygen from decomposable salts, mainly NH4NO3, under anaerobic condition to produce hydrogen and ethanol. The optimal conditions were determined to be 500 rpm, pH 6.4, 18.5 g/L crude glycerol (15 g/L glycerol) and 33% liquid recycling for a fresh feed rate of 0.44 mL/min. Using these optimized conditions, the process ran at a lower media cost than previous studies, was stable after 7 days without further inoculation and resulted in yields of 0.86 mol H2/mol glycerol and 0.75 mol ethanol/mole glycerol.

  16. Evaluation of by-products from the biodiesel industry as fermentation feedstock for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production by Cupriavidus necator.

    PubMed

    García, I L; López, J A; Dorado, M P; Kopsahelis, N; Alexandri, M; Papanikolaou, S; Villar, M A; Koutinas, A A

    2013-02-01

    Utilization of by-products from oilseed-based biodiesel production (crude glycerol, rapeseed meal hydrolysates) for microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production could lead to the replacement of expensive carbon sources, nutrient supplements and precursors for co-polymer production. Batch fermentations in shake flasks with varying amounts of free amino nitrogen led to the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (P(3HB-co-3HV)) with a 2.8-8% 3HV content. Fed-batch fermentations in shake flasks led to the production of 10.9g/L P(3HB-co-3HV) and a 55.6% P(3HB-co-3HV) content. NaCl concentrations between 2 and 6g/L gradually became inhibitory to bacterial growth and PHA formation, whereas in the case of K(2)SO(4), the inhibitory effect was observed only at concentrations higher than 20g/L. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) demonstrated that the incorporation of 3HV into the obtained P(3HB-co-3HV) lowered glass transition temperature, crystallinity and melting point as compared to polyhydroxybutyrate. Integrating PHA production in existing oilseed-based biodiesel plants could enhance the viability and sustainability of this first generation biorefinery.

  17. Phosphorus limitation and starvation effects on cell growth and lipid accumulation in Isochrysis galbana U4 for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Roopnarain, A; Gray, V M; Sym, S D

    2014-03-01

    The effect of varying levels of phosphorus (P) on Isochrysis galbana U4 growth, pigmentation and lipid accumulation were investigated. A reduction in the P content to 25% of the recommended level for f/2 medium did not lead to declines in cell growth rates or lipid accumulation levels relative to the cultures maintained on medium supplemented with the normal P dose. Evidence suggesting that the recommended P supply in f/2 exceeds the requirements for maximal algal growth has obvious economic implications for the mass production of I. galbana for biodiesel production. When P supply was in excess this species was also found to accumulate intracellular levels of P that exceeded by up to 6 times its P requirements for growth and cell division. The reduction in P concentration to levels below 25% resulted in P starvation stimulated chlorophyll reductions and carotenoid and lipid accumulation in this species.

  18. Soil Aggregate Stability and Grassland Productivity Associations in a Northern Mixed-Grass Prairie

    PubMed Central

    Reinhart, Kurt O.; Vermeire, Lance T.

    2016-01-01

    Soil aggregate stability data are often predicted to be positively associated with measures of plant productivity, rangeland health, and ecosystem functioning. Here we revisit the hypothesis that soil aggregate stability is positively associated with plant productivity. We measured local (plot-to-plot) variation in grassland community composition, plant (aboveground) biomass, root biomass, % water-stable soil aggregates, and topography. After accounting for spatial autocorrelation, we observed a negative association between % water-stable soil aggregates (0.25–1 and 1–2 mm size classes of macroaggregates) and dominant graminoid biomass, and negative associations between the % water-stable aggregates and the root biomass of a dominant sedge (Carex filifolia). However, variation in total root biomass (0–10 or 0–30 cm depths) was either negatively or not appreciably associated with soil aggregate stabilities. Overall, regression slope coefficients were consistently negative thereby indicating the general absence of a positive association between measures of plant productivity and soil aggregate stability for the study area. The predicted positive association between factors was likely confounded by variation in plant species composition. Specifically, sampling spanned a local gradient in plant community composition which was likely driven by niche partitioning along a subtle gradient in elevation. Our results suggest an apparent trade-off between some measures of plant biomass production and soil aggregate stability, both known to affect the land’s capacity to resist erosion. These findings further highlight the uncertainty of plant biomass-soil stability associations. PMID:27467598

  19. Soil Aggregate Stability and Grassland Productivity Associations in a Northern Mixed-Grass Prairie.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Kurt O; Vermeire, Lance T

    2016-01-01

    Soil aggregate stability data are often predicted to be positively associated with measures of plant productivity, rangeland health, and ecosystem functioning. Here we revisit the hypothesis that soil aggregate stability is positively associated with plant productivity. We measured local (plot-to-plot) variation in grassland community composition, plant (aboveground) biomass, root biomass, % water-stable soil aggregates, and topography. After accounting for spatial autocorrelation, we observed a negative association between % water-stable soil aggregates (0.25-1 and 1-2 mm size classes of macroaggregates) and dominant graminoid biomass, and negative associations between the % water-stable aggregates and the root biomass of a dominant sedge (Carex filifolia). However, variation in total root biomass (0-10 or 0-30 cm depths) was either negatively or not appreciably associated with soil aggregate stabilities. Overall, regression slope coefficients were consistently negative thereby indicating the general absence of a positive association between measures of plant productivity and soil aggregate stability for the study area. The predicted positive association between factors was likely confounded by variation in plant species composition. Specifically, sampling spanned a local gradient in plant community composition which was likely driven by niche partitioning along a subtle gradient in elevation. Our results suggest an apparent trade-off between some measures of plant biomass production and soil aggregate stability, both known to affect the land's capacity to resist erosion. These findings further highlight the uncertainty of plant biomass-soil stability associations. PMID:27467598

  20. Identification of naturally isolated southern Louisiana's algal strains and the effect of higher Co2 content on fatty acid profiles for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four naturally isolated microalgae were evaluated for their potential use in the production of biodiesel, and were identified using genomic DNA, and 16S or 18S rRNA gene amplification followed by sequencing. High correlation was found with known nucleotide sequence identities at 98 % with Sellaphora...