Science.gov

Sample records for aggregate capital requirements

  1. Profitable capitation requires accurate costing.

    PubMed

    West, D A; Hicks, L L; Balas, E A; West, T D

    1996-01-01

    In the name of costing accuracy, nurses are asked to track inventory use on per treatment basis when more significant costs, such as general overhead and nursing salaries, are usually allocated to patients or treatments on an average cost basis. Accurate treatment costing and financial viability require analysis of all resources actually consumed in treatment delivery, including nursing services and inventory. More precise costing information enables more profitable decisions as is demonstrated by comparing the ratio-of-cost-to-treatment method (aggregate costing) with alternative activity-based costing methods (ABC). Nurses must participate in this costing process to assure that capitation bids are based upon accurate costs rather than simple averages. PMID:8788799

  2. Taking Capital Requirements into Account.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Hans; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive capital charge policy is recommended as an integral part of college budgeting and reporting. It includes three components: a capital renewal and replacement charge, a new equipment and library and laboratory acquisitions budget, and a debt repayment schedule using internal borrowing. (MSE)

  3. 12 CFR 240.8 - Capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Edge corporation engaged in banking pursuant to § 211.12 (c)(2) of Regulation K (12 CFR 211.12(c)(2)). ... (12 CFR 208.43). (b) Capital required for an uninsured state-licensed branch of a foreign bank. A... Y (12 CFR 225.2(r)(3)). (c) Capital required for financial holding companies and bank...

  4. 12 CFR 932.6 - Operations risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 932.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.6 Operations risk capital requirement... capital requirement and market risk capital requirement. (b) Alternative requirements. With the...

  5. 12 CFR 932.6 - Operations risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 932.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.6 Operations risk capital requirement... capital requirement and market risk capital requirement. (b) Alternative requirements. With the...

  6. 12 CFR 615.5240 - Permanent capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... capital requirements. (a) The capitalization bylaws shall enable the institution to meet the capital adequacy standards established under subparts H and K of this part and the total capital requirements... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permanent capital requirements....

  7. 12 CFR 211.12 - Lending limits and capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... qualifying total capital to risk-weighted assets, as determined under the Capital Adequacy Guidelines, shall... qualifies as tier 2 capital under the Capital Adequacy Guidelines. ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lending limits and capital requirements....

  8. 12 CFR 932.2 - Total capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Total capital requirement. 932.2 Section 932.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.2 Total capital requirement. (a) Each Bank...

  9. 12 CFR 932.5 - Market risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market risk capital requirement. 932.5 Section 932.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.5 Market risk capital requirement....

  10. 12 CFR 932.4 - Credit risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit risk capital requirement. 932.4 Section 932.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.4 Credit risk capital requirement....

  11. 12 CFR 932.3 - Risk-based capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Risk-based capital requirement. 932.3 Section 932.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.3 Risk-based capital requirement....

  12. 12 CFR 932.3 - Risk-based capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital requirement. 932.3 Section 932.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.3 Risk-based capital requirement....

  13. 12 CFR 932.4 - Credit risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit risk capital requirement. 932.4 Section 932.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.4 Credit risk capital requirement....

  14. 12 CFR 932.2 - Total capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Total capital requirement. 932.2 Section 932.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.2 Total capital requirement. (a) Each Bank...

  15. 12 CFR 932.5 - Market risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market risk capital requirement. 932.5 Section 932.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.5 Market risk capital requirement....

  16. 12 CFR 932.5 - Market risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Market risk capital requirement. 932.5 Section 932.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.5 Market risk capital requirement....

  17. 12 CFR 932.3 - Risk-based capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Risk-based capital requirement. 932.3 Section 932.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.3 Risk-based capital requirement....

  18. 12 CFR 932.4 - Credit risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit risk capital requirement. 932.4 Section 932.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.4 Credit risk capital requirement....

  19. 12 CFR 932.4 - Credit risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit risk capital requirement. 932.4 Section 932.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.4 Credit risk capital requirement....

  20. 12 CFR 932.5 - Market risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market risk capital requirement. 932.5 Section 932.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.5 Market risk capital requirement....

  1. 12 CFR 932.2 - Total capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Total capital requirement. 932.2 Section 932.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.2 Total capital requirement. Each Bank...

  2. 12 CFR 932.4 - Credit risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit risk capital requirement. 932.4 Section 932.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.4 Credit risk capital requirement....

  3. 12 CFR 567.2 - Minimum regulatory capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum regulatory capital requirement. 567.2 Section 567.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL Regulatory Capital Requirements § 567.2 Minimum regulatory capital requirement. (a) To meet its...

  4. 12 CFR 932.6 - Operations risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operations risk capital requirement. 932.6 Section 932.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.6 Operations risk capital...

  5. 12 CFR 932.3 - Risk-based capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 932.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.3 Risk-based capital requirement. Each Bank shall maintain at all times permanent capital in an amount at least equal to the sum of its...

  6. 12 CFR 932.3 - Risk-based capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 932.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.3 Risk-based capital requirement. Each Bank shall maintain at all times permanent capital in an amount at least equal to the sum of its...

  7. 12 CFR 932.2 - Total capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.2 Total capital requirement. Each Bank shall maintain at all times: (a) Total capital in an amount at least equal to 4.0 percent of the Bank's...

  8. 12 CFR 932.2 - Total capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.2 Total capital requirement. Each Bank shall maintain at all times: (a) Total capital in an amount at least equal to 4.0 percent of the Bank's...

  9. 12 CFR 932.6 - Operations risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations risk capital requirement. 932.6 Section 932.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.6 Operations risk capital...

  10. 12 CFR 932.6 - Operations risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operations risk capital requirement. 932.6 Section 932.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.6 Operations risk capital...

  11. 12 CFR 3.10 - Minimum capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... individual assessment of numerous factors, including those listed at this section (national banks), 12 CFR... Capital Ratio Requirements and Buffers § 3.10 Minimum capital requirements. (a) Minimum...

  12. 12 CFR 217.10 - Minimum capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum capital requirements. 217.10 Section 217.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CAPITAL ADEQUACY OF BOARD-REGULATED INSTITUTIONS Capital Ratio Requirements and Buffers § 217.10...

  13. 12 CFR 349.8 - Capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... institution offering or entering into retail forex transactions must be well capitalized as defined by 12 CFR part 325 or 12 CFR part 324, as applicable, unless specifically exempted by the FDIC in writing....

  14. Applying Statement 34's Capital Asset Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finden, Randal

    2001-01-01

    Discusses common issues and offers recommendations related to revisions in Governmental Accounting Standards Board Statement 34 wherein the financial reporting of the general fixed-assets account group is eliminated and instead a school district's general capital assets are reported and depreciated on the new statement of net assets and statement…

  15. 12 CFR 567.3 - Individual minimum capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... change in the circumstances affecting the savings association's capital adequacy or its ability to reach... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual minimum capital requirements. 567.3 Section 567.3 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  16. 13 CFR 107.210 - Minimum capital requirements for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Licensees. 107.210 Section 107.210 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.210 Minimum capital requirements for Licensees. (a) Companies licensed on or after October 1, 1996. A company licensed on or...

  17. 13 CFR 108.210 - Minimum capital requirements for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.210 Minimum capital requirements for NMVC Companies. You must have Regulatory Capital of at... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital requirements...

  18. 13 CFR 120.472 - Higher individual minimum capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Higher individual minimum capital requirement. 120.472 Section 120.472 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders Small Business Lending Companies (sblc) § 120.472 Higher individual minimum...

  19. 13 CFR 120.472 - Higher individual minimum capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Higher individual minimum capital requirement. 120.472 Section 120.472 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders Small Business Lending Companies (sblc) § 120.472 Higher individual minimum...

  20. 13 CFR 120.472 - Higher individual minimum capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Higher individual minimum capital requirement. 120.472 Section 120.472 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders Small Business Lending Companies (sblc) § 120.472 Higher individual minimum...

  1. 13 CFR 120.472 - Higher individual minimum capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Higher individual minimum capital requirement. 120.472 Section 120.472 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders Small Business Lending Companies (sblc) § 120.472 Higher individual minimum...

  2. 7 CFR 4290.210 - Minimum capital requirements for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital requirements for RBICs. 4290.210 Section 4290.210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT...

  3. 13 CFR 120.473 - Procedures for determining individual minimum capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... affecting the SBLC's capital adequacy or its ability to reach the required individual minimum capital... individual minimum capital requirement. 120.473 Section 120.473 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... determining individual minimum capital requirement. (a) Notice. When SBA determines that an individual...

  4. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1c - Consolidated computations of net capital and aggregate indebtedness for certain subsidiaries and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... net capital and aggregate indebtedness for certain subsidiaries and affiliates (Appendix C to 17 CFR... its net capital and aggregate indebtedness pursuant to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 shall, subject to the... Commission, through the Examining Authority, by an opinion of counsel that the net asset values, or...

  5. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1c - Consolidated computations of net capital and aggregate indebtedness for certain subsidiaries and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... net capital and aggregate indebtedness for certain subsidiaries and affiliates (Appendix C to 17 CFR... its net capital and aggregate indebtedness pursuant to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 shall, subject to the... added to consolidated net worth unless such subordination extends also to the claims of present...

  6. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1c - Consolidated computations of net capital and aggregate indebtedness for certain subsidiaries and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... net capital and aggregate indebtedness for certain subsidiaries and affiliates (Appendix C to 17 CFR... its net capital and aggregate indebtedness pursuant to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 shall, subject to the... added to consolidated net worth unless such subordination extends also to the claims of present...

  7. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1c - Consolidated computations of net capital and aggregate indebtedness for certain subsidiaries and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... net capital and aggregate indebtedness for certain subsidiaries and affiliates (Appendix C to 17 CFR... its net capital and aggregate indebtedness pursuant to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 shall, subject to the... added to consolidated net worth unless such subordination extends also to the claims of present...

  8. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1c - Consolidated computations of net capital and aggregate indebtedness for certain subsidiaries and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... net capital and aggregate indebtedness for certain subsidiaries and affiliates (appendix C to 17 CFR... its net capital and aggregate indebtedness pursuant to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 shall, subject to the... added to consolidated net worth unless such subordination extends also to the claims of present...

  9. Acidic-store depletion is required for human platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Amor, Nidhal Ben; Zbidi, Hanene; Bouaziz, Aicha; Jardin, Isaac; Isaac, Jardin; Hernández-Cruz, Juan M; Salido, Ginés M; Rosado, Juan A; Bartegi, Aghleb

    2009-10-01

    Platelet stimulation with thrombin induces an elevation in cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) due to Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores and entry from the extracellular medium. Two different intracellular Ca(2+) stores have been described in human platelets: the dense tubular system and the lysosomal-like acidic stores. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of the acidic stores in thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. We have found that platelet aggregation induced by thrombin is reduced in a Ca(2+)-free medium. Discharge of the acidic Ca(2+) stores by treatment with the sarcoendoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA)3 selective inhibitor 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone reduced thrombin-evoked platelet aggregation. In the presence of 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone, platelet aggregation induced by the protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR-4 agonist peptides, SFLLRN and AYPGKF, respectively, was significantly reduced. In cells with depleted acidic stores, activation of GPIb-IX-V by thrombin resulted in reduced or no platelet aggregation in a medium containing 1 mmol/l Caor in a Ca(2+)-free medium, respectively. This finding suggests that Ca(2+) accumulation in the acidic Ca(2+) compartments is required for platelet aggregation induced by activation of the G-coupled PAR-1 and PAR-4 thrombin receptors and, by the occupation of the leucine-rich glycoprotein GPIb-IX-V and provide evidence supporting a functional role of the lysosomal-like acidic Ca(2+) stores in human platelets. PMID:19587585

  10. The Impact of News Use and Social Capital on Youth Wellbeing: An Aggregate-Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.

    2007-01-01

    The current study explores the socioenvironmental determinants of youth development, with a focus on the mass media and social capital; it tests a model in which news use and social capital influence youth wellbeing. Social capital is operationally defined in terms of youth involvement and perceptions of place, and youth wellbeing is measured with…

  11. 12 CFR 567.9 - Tangible capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... association's tangible capital: (1) Common stockholders' equity (including retained earnings); (2... that would qualify as core capital under § 567.5 of this part; and (4) Minority interests in the...

  12. 12 CFR 167.9 - Tangible capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... savings association's tangible capital: (1) Common stockholders' equity (including retained earnings); (2... that would qualify as core capital under § 167.5 of this part; and (4) Minority interests in the...

  13. 12 CFR 567.9 - Tangible capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... association's tangible capital: (1) Common stockholders' equity (including retained earnings); (2... that would qualify as core capital under § 567.5 of this part; and (4) Minority interests in the...

  14. 12 CFR 567.9 - Tangible capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... association's tangible capital: (1) Common stockholders' equity (including retained earnings); (2... that would qualify as core capital under § 567.5 of this part; and (4) Minority interests in the...

  15. 12 CFR 567.9 - Tangible capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... association's tangible capital: (1) Common stockholders' equity (including retained earnings); (2... that would qualify as core capital under § 567.5 of this part; and (4) Minority interests in the...

  16. 12 CFR 567.9 - Tangible capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... association's tangible capital: (1) Common stockholders' equity (including retained earnings); (2... that would qualify as core capital under § 567.5 of this part; and (4) Minority interests in the...

  17. 12 CFR 167.9 - Tangible capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... savings association's tangible capital: (1) Common stockholders' equity (including retained earnings); (2... that would qualify as core capital under § 167.5 of this part; and (4) Minority interests in the...

  18. 12 CFR 324.10 - Minimum capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... association shall determine its tangible capital ratio in accordance with 12 CFR 390.468. (ii) As of January 1... association shall determine its tangible capital ratio in accordance with 12 CFR 390.468. (ii) As of January 1... assets shall have the meaning provided in 12 CFR 324.401(g). (d) Capital adequacy. (1)...

  19. 13 CFR 120.462 - What are SBA's additional requirements on capital maintenance for SBA Supervised Lenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...'s additional requirements on capital maintenance for SBA Supervised Lenders? (a) Capital adequacy... adequacy goals; that is, the total amount of capital needed to assure the SBA Supervised Lender's continued... interim capital targets that are necessary to achieve the SBA Supervised Lender's capital adequacy...

  20. 12 CFR 325.3 - Minimum leverage capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... organization, rated composite 1 under the Uniform Financial Institutions Rating System (the CAMELS rating... under § 325.104(a)(1) of this part, a bank must file a written capital restoration plan with...

  1. 12 CFR 956.4 - Risk-based capital requirement for investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital requirement for investments. 956.4 Section 956.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK INVESTMENTS § 956.4 Risk-based capital requirement...

  2. 12 CFR 567.3 - Individual minimum capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... association's liquidity, capital and other indicators of financial stability, particularly as compared with... quality or a significant likelihood of financial loss, or that has loans in nonperforming status or on... associations; has management deficiencies, including failure to adequately monitor and control financial...

  3. 12 CFR 950.11 - Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock. 950.11 Section 950.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 950.11 Capital...

  4. Use of recycled fine aggregate in concretes with durable requirements.

    PubMed

    Zega, Claudio Javier; Di Maio, Angel Antonio

    2011-11-01

    The use of construction waste materials as aggregates for concrete production is highly attractive compared to the use of non-renewable natural resources, promoting environmental protection and allowing the development of a new raw material. Several countries have recommendations for the use of recycled coarse aggregate in structural concrete, whereas the use of the fine fraction is limited because it may produce significant changes in some properties of concrete. However, during the last decade the use of recycled fine aggregates (RFA) has achieved a great international interest, mainly because of economic implications related to the shortage of natural sands suitable for the production of concrete, besides to allow an integral use of this type of waste. In this study, the durable behaviour of structural concretes made with different percentage of RFA (0%, 20%, and 30%) is evaluated. Different properties related to the durability of concretes such as absorption, sorptivity, water penetration under pressure, and carbonation are determined. In addition, the results of compressive strength, static modulus of elasticity and drying shrinkage are presented. The obtained results indicate that the recycled concretes have a suitable resistant and durable behaviour, according to the limits indicated by different international codes for structural concrete. PMID:21775123

  5. Use of recycled fine aggregate in concretes with durable requirements.

    PubMed

    Zega, Claudio Javier; Di Maio, Angel Antonio

    2011-11-01

    The use of construction waste materials as aggregates for concrete production is highly attractive compared to the use of non-renewable natural resources, promoting environmental protection and allowing the development of a new raw material. Several countries have recommendations for the use of recycled coarse aggregate in structural concrete, whereas the use of the fine fraction is limited because it may produce significant changes in some properties of concrete. However, during the last decade the use of recycled fine aggregates (RFA) has achieved a great international interest, mainly because of economic implications related to the shortage of natural sands suitable for the production of concrete, besides to allow an integral use of this type of waste. In this study, the durable behaviour of structural concretes made with different percentage of RFA (0%, 20%, and 30%) is evaluated. Different properties related to the durability of concretes such as absorption, sorptivity, water penetration under pressure, and carbonation are determined. In addition, the results of compressive strength, static modulus of elasticity and drying shrinkage are presented. The obtained results indicate that the recycled concretes have a suitable resistant and durable behaviour, according to the limits indicated by different international codes for structural concrete.

  6. 12 CFR 956.4 - Risk-based capital requirement for investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK INVESTMENTS § 956.4 Risk-based capital requirement for... below the second highest credit rating, in an amount equal to or greater than the outstanding balance...

  7. [Aggregate shocks and investment in human capital: higher educational achievement during the lost decade in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Peña, Pablo A

    2013-01-01

    This article documents a negative aggregate response in the attainment of postsecondary education (more than 12 years of schooling) in Mexico to the recession of 1982-83 and the stagnation that followed. The response was not homogeneous across genders, regions or family backgrounds. Males experienced a drop in attainment and females experienced a slowdown in attainment growth. On average, states with greater pre-shock educational attainment experienced larger drops. There was no clear trend for the response by family background. However, a negative effect is found even between siblings. The evidence suggests a demand side story: the drop in household income seems to be the main determinant of the fall/slowing down in attainment. The conclusion is that the recession and the lack of growth that ensued had a sizeable and lasting negative impact on skill formation in Mexico.

  8. [Aggregate shocks and investment in human capital: higher educational achievement during the lost decade in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Peña, Pablo A

    2013-01-01

    This article documents a negative aggregate response in the attainment of postsecondary education (more than 12 years of schooling) in Mexico to the recession of 1982-83 and the stagnation that followed. The response was not homogeneous across genders, regions or family backgrounds. Males experienced a drop in attainment and females experienced a slowdown in attainment growth. On average, states with greater pre-shock educational attainment experienced larger drops. There was no clear trend for the response by family background. However, a negative effect is found even between siblings. The evidence suggests a demand side story: the drop in household income seems to be the main determinant of the fall/slowing down in attainment. The conclusion is that the recession and the lack of growth that ensued had a sizeable and lasting negative impact on skill formation in Mexico. PMID:25328251

  9. 12 CFR 615.5240 - Permanent capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Issuance of Equities § 615.5240 Permanent..., equities issued under the bylaws must meet the following requirements: (1) Retirement must be solely at...

  10. 13 CFR 120.462 - What are SBA's additional requirements on capital maintenance for SBA Supervised Lenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... until differences between the two calculations are resolved. (e) Capital restoration plan. (1) Filing requirement. An SBA Supervised Lender must file a written capital restoration plan with SBA within 45 days of... Supervised Lender charged with carrying out the capital restoration plan. (3) SBA response. SBA will...

  11. 13 CFR 120.462 - What are SBA's additional requirements on capital maintenance for SBA Supervised Lenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... until differences between the two calculations are resolved. (e) Capital restoration plan. (1) Filing requirement. An SBA Supervised Lender must file a written capital restoration plan with SBA within 45 days of... Supervised Lender charged with carrying out the capital restoration plan. (3) SBA response. SBA will...

  12. 12 CFR 932.5 - Market risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., commodity prices, and equity prices that could occur during periods of market stress, where the market value... options, to a comparable degree of stress for such factors as will be required for an internal market risk... to those that have been observed over 120-business day periods of market stress. For interest...

  13. 76 FR 37029 - Margin and Capital Requirements For Covered Swap Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Part 45 RIN 1557-AD43 BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... CFR Part 1221 RIN 2590-AA45 Margin and Capital Requirements For Covered Swap Entities AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Treasury (OCC); Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve...

  14. 13 CFR 120.473 - Procedures for determining individual minimum capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures for determining individual minimum capital requirement. 120.473 Section 120.473 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders Small Business Lending Companies (sblc) § 120.473 Procedures...

  15. 76 FR 27563 - Margin and Capital Requirements for Covered Swap Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... and capital requirements for registered swap dealers, major swap participants, security-based swap dealers, and major security-based swap participants for which one of the Agencies is the prudential... regulation of swap dealers and major swap participants and security-based swap dealers and major...

  16. 13 CFR 120.473 - Procedures for determining individual minimum capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for determining individual minimum capital requirement. 120.473 Section 120.473 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders Small Business Lending Companies (sblc) § 120.473 Procedures...

  17. 13 CFR 120.471 - What are the minimum capital requirements for SBLCs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the minimum capital requirements for SBLCs? 120.471 Section 120.471 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders Small Business Lending Companies (sblc) § 120.471 What are the minimum...

  18. 13 CFR 120.471 - What are the minimum capital requirements for SBLCs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the minimum capital requirements for SBLCs? 120.471 Section 120.471 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders Small Business Lending Companies (sblc) § 120.471 What are the minimum...

  19. 12 CFR 955.6 - Risk-based capital requirement for acquired member assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ACQUIRED MEMBER ASSETS § 955.6 Risk-based capital requirement for... applicable to on-balance sheet equivalent value of AMA Third Highest Investment Grade 0.90 Fourth Highest... NRSRO in an amount equal to or greater than the outstanding balance of the assets or pools of...

  20. 77 FR 60057 - Margin and Capital Requirements for Covered Swap Entities; Reopening of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... Basham, Assistant Director, Legislative and Regulatory Activities Division (202) 874-5090, Marvin Shaw..., 2011 (76 FR 27564) to establish minimum margin and capital requirements for uncleared swaps and... international basis could help address those issues. \\3\\ See 76 FR 27564 (May 11, 2011). \\4\\ See 76 FR...

  1. 77 FR 71369 - Capital, Margin, and Segregation Requirements for Security-Based Swap Dealers and Major Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 RIN 3235-AL12 Capital, Margin, and Segregation Requirements for Security-Based Swap Dealers and Major Security-Based Swap Participants and Capital Requirements for Broker-Dealers Correction In proposed rule document...

  2. Capital requirements and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of potential PNGV fuels.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Wang, M.

    1999-03-11

    Our study reveals that supplying gasoline-equivalent demand for the low-market-share scenario requires a capital investment of less than $40 billion for all fuels except H{sub 2}, which will require a total cumulative investment of $150 billion. By contrast, cumulative capital investments under the high-market-share scenario are $50 billion for LNG, $90 billion for ethanol, $100 billion for methanol, $160 billion for CNG and DME, and $560 billion for H{sub 2}. Although these substantial capital requirements are spread over many years, their magnitude could pose a challenge to the widespread introduction of 3X vehicles. Fossil fuel use by US light-duty vehicles declines significantly with introduction of 3X vehicles because of fuel-efficiency improvements for 3X vehicles and because of fuel substitution (which applies to the nonpetroleum-fueled alternatives). Petroleum use for light-duty vehicles in 2030 is reduced by as much as 45% relative to the reference scenario. GHG emissions follow a similar pattern. Total GHG emissions decline by 25-30% with most of the propulsion system/fuel alternatives. For those using renewable fuels (i.e., ethanol and H{sub 2} from solar energy), GHG emissions drop by 33% (H{sub 2}) and 45% (ethanol). Among urban air pollutants, urban NOX emissions decline slightly for 3X vehicles using CIDI and SIDI engines and drop substantially for fuel-cell vehicles. Urban CO emissions decline for CIDI and FCV alternatives, while VOC emissions drop significantly for all alternatives except RFG-, methanol-, and ethanol-fueled SIDI engines. With the exception of CIDI engines fueled by RFD, FT50, or B20 (which increase urban PM{sub 10} emissions by over 30%), all propulsion system/fuel alternatives reduce urban PM{sub 10} emissions. Reductions are approximately 15-20% for fuel cells and for methanol-, ethanol-, CNG-, or LPG-fueled SIDI engines. Table 3 qualitatively summarizes impacts of the 13 alternatives on capital requirements and on energy use and

  3. 13 CFR 108.1830 - NMVC Company's Capital Impairment definition and general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM NMVC Company's Noncompliance With Terms of Leverage Computation of Nmvc Company's Capital Impairment § 108.1830 NMVC Company's Capital Impairment definition and... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NMVC Company's Capital...

  4. 13 CFR 120.462 - What are SBA's additional requirements on capital maintenance for SBA Supervised Lenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are SBA's additional requirements on capital maintenance for SBA Supervised Lenders? 120.462 Section 120.462 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders Sba Supervised Lenders § 120.462 What are SBA's additional requirements on...

  5. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 - Net capital requirements for brokers or dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... percent of its net capital for 12 months after commencing business as a broker or dealer). Alternative... than 7 business days old; (C) Exclude credit balances in accounts representing amounts payable for... business days; and (D) Deduct from net worth in computing net capital 1 percent of the contract value...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches C Appendix C to Part 567 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF... Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C,...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 167 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 167, appendix C, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its...

  8. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567, appendix C, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its...

  9. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567, appendix C, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567, appendix C, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 167 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 167, appendix C, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... hold an amount of capital greater than otherwise required under this appendix if the OTS determines... it were consolidated on the savings association's balance sheet. OTS will look to the substance of... form or in substance: (1) Represents a contractual right to receive some or all of the interest and...

  13. 38 CFR 61.12 - Threshold requirements for capital grant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... support will be available to carry out the project for which the capital grant is sought consistent with... obligation to VA that is in arrears, and does not have an overdue or unsatisfactory response to an audit;...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 3 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... procedures in 12 CFR 3.12. (c) Reservation of authority—(1) Additional capital in the aggregate. The OCC may require a bank to hold an amount of capital greater than otherwise required under this appendix if the OCC... and response procedures in 12 CFR 3.12. (2) Specific risk-weighted asset amounts. (i) If the...

  15. 13 CFR 107.1830 - Licensee's Capital Impairment-definition and general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... compliance with the terms of your Leverage. As a result, SBA has the right to impose the applicable remedies... not reached your first fiscal year end occurring after April 25, 1995. (e) Quarterly computation... of each fiscal quarter. You must notify SBA promptly if you are capitally impaired. (f) SBA's...

  16. Ecological Footprints and Appropriated Carrying Capacity: Measuring the Natural Capital Requirements of the Human Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ress, William E.; Wackernagel, Mathis

    1996-01-01

    Contrasts conventional economic rationality with economic principles. Develops an empirical approach based on a reinterpretation of carrying capacity that can account for technological advances and trade. Discusses the necessity of diverting much of the present consumption to investment in the maintenance of natural capital stocks. (AIM)

  17. Ref(2)P, the Drosophila melanogaster homologue of mammalian p62, is required for the formation of protein aggregates in adult brain.

    PubMed

    Nezis, Ioannis P; Simonsen, Anne; Sagona, Antonia P; Finley, Kim; Gaumer, Sébastien; Contamine, Didier; Rusten, Tor Erik; Stenmark, Harald; Brech, Andreas

    2008-03-24

    P62 has been proposed to mark ubiquitinated protein bodies for autophagic degradation. We report that the Drosophila melanogaster p62 orthologue, Ref(2)P, is a regulator of protein aggregation in the adult brain. We demonstrate that Ref(2)P localizes to age-induced protein aggregates as well as to aggregates caused by reduced autophagic or proteasomal activity. A similar localization to protein aggregates is also observed in D. melanogaster models of human neurodegenerative diseases. Although atg8a autophagy mutant flies show accumulation of ubiquitin- and Ref(2)P-positive protein aggregates, this is abrogated in atg8a/ref(2)P double mutants. Both the multimerization and ubiquitin binding domains of Ref(2)P are required for aggregate formation in vivo. Our findings reveal a major role for Ref(2)P in the formation of ubiquitin-positive protein aggregates both under physiological conditions and when normal protein turnover is inhibited.

  18. Plasmodium falciparum Hep1 Is Required to Prevent the Self Aggregation of PfHsp70-3

    PubMed Central

    Nyakundi, David O.; Vuko, Loyiso A. M.; Bentley, Stephen J.; Hoppe, Heinrich; Blatch, Gregory L.; Boshoff, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    The majority of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus and need to be imported from the cytosol into the mitochondria, and molecular chaperones play a key role in the efficient translocation and proper folding of these proteins in the matrix. One such molecular chaperone is the eukaryotic mitochondrial heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70); however, it is prone to self-aggregation and requires the presence of an essential zinc-finger protein, Hsp70-escort protein 1 (Hep1), to maintain its structure and function. PfHsp70-3, the only Hsp70 predicted to localize in the mitochondria of P. falciparum, may also rely on a Hep1 orthologue to prevent self-aggregation. In this study, we identified a putative Hep1 orthologue in P. falciparum and co-expression of PfHsp70-3 and PfHep1 enhanced the solubility of PfHsp70-3. PfHep1 suppressed the thermally induced aggregation of PfHsp70-3 but not the aggregation of malate dehydrogenase or citrate synthase, thus showing specificity for PfHsp70-3. Zinc ions were indeed essential for maintaining the function of PfHep1, as EDTA chelation abrogated its abilities to suppress the aggregation of PfHsp70-3. Soluble and functional PfHsp70-3, acquired by co-expression with PfHep-1, will facilitate the biochemical characterisation of this particular Hsp70 protein and its evaluation as a drug target for the treatment of malaria. PMID:27253881

  19. HesF, an exoprotein required for filament adhesion and aggregation in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Paulo; Pinto, Filipe; Pacheco, Catarina C; Mota, Rita; Tamagnini, Paula

    2015-05-01

    Here, we report on the identification and characterization of a protein (Alr0267) named HesF, found in the extracellular milieu of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 grown diazotrophically. hesF was found to be highly upregulated upon transition from non-nitrogen-fixing to nitrogen-fixing conditions, and the highest transcript levels were detected towards the end of the heterocyst differentiation process. The hesF promoter drives transcription of the gene in heterocysts only, and both NtcA and HetR are essential for the gene's in vivo activation. An examination of HesF's translocation showed that the secretion system is neither heterocyst-specific nor dependent on nitrogen-fixing conditions. Furthermore, HesF was found to be a type I secretion system substrate, since an HgdD mutant failed to secrete HesF. Several analyses revealed that a HesF minus mutant strain lacks the heterocyst-specific polysaccharide fibrous layer, accumulates high amounts of polysaccharides in the medium and that HesF is essential for the typical aggregation phenotype in diazotrophic conditions. Thus, we propose that HesF is a carbohydrate-binding exoprotein that plays a role in maintaining the heterocyst cell wall structure. A combination of and possibly interaction between HesF and heterocyst-specific polysaccharides seems to be responsible for filament adhesion and culture aggregation in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria.

  20. HesF, an exoprotein required for filament adhesion and aggregation in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Paulo; Pinto, Filipe; Pacheco, Catarina C; Mota, Rita; Tamagnini, Paula

    2015-05-01

    Here, we report on the identification and characterization of a protein (Alr0267) named HesF, found in the extracellular milieu of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 grown diazotrophically. hesF was found to be highly upregulated upon transition from non-nitrogen-fixing to nitrogen-fixing conditions, and the highest transcript levels were detected towards the end of the heterocyst differentiation process. The hesF promoter drives transcription of the gene in heterocysts only, and both NtcA and HetR are essential for the gene's in vivo activation. An examination of HesF's translocation showed that the secretion system is neither heterocyst-specific nor dependent on nitrogen-fixing conditions. Furthermore, HesF was found to be a type I secretion system substrate, since an HgdD mutant failed to secrete HesF. Several analyses revealed that a HesF minus mutant strain lacks the heterocyst-specific polysaccharide fibrous layer, accumulates high amounts of polysaccharides in the medium and that HesF is essential for the typical aggregation phenotype in diazotrophic conditions. Thus, we propose that HesF is a carbohydrate-binding exoprotein that plays a role in maintaining the heterocyst cell wall structure. A combination of and possibly interaction between HesF and heterocyst-specific polysaccharides seems to be responsible for filament adhesion and culture aggregation in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. PMID:25142951

  1. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 - Net capital requirements for brokers or dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... forth in Exhibit A, § 240.15c3-3a, on a weekly basis and, in lieu of the 1 percent reduction of certain... Authorities pursuant to 17 CFR 240.17a-11, if the market maker or specialist fails to deposit any required... value of margin securities borrowed from customers in accordance with the provisions of 17 CFR...

  2. 76 FR 27801 - Capital Requirements of Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... periods for either proposed rule. \\1\\ See 76 FR 23732 (April 28, 2011). DATES: Comments must be received... activities. See 75 FR 76666 (Dec. 9, 2010). B. Consultation With U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and...-certified Form 1-FR-FCM financial reports each month. Regulation 1.12 requires FCMs to provide notice of...

  3. 26 CFR 1.263A-8 - Requirement to capitalize interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... described in § 1.263A-9 is required with respect to the production of designated property described in... taxpayer or a related person, (B) Property with an estimated production period (as defined in § 1.263A-12) exceeding 2 years (2-year property), or (C) Property with an estimated production period exceeding 1...

  4. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 - Net capital requirements for brokers or dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the computation required by § 240.15c3-3(e) and set forth in Exhibit A, § 240.15c3-3a, on a weekly... Examining Authorities pursuant to 17 CFR 240.17a-11, if the market maker or specialist fails to deposit any... borrowed from customers in accordance with the provisions of 17 CFR 240.15c3-3 and margin...

  5. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 - Net capital requirements for brokers or dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the computation required by § 240.15c3-3(e) and set forth in Exhibit A, § 240.15c3-3a, on a weekly... Examining Authorities pursuant to 17 CFR 240.17a-11, if the market maker or specialist fails to deposit any... borrowed from customers in accordance with the provisions of 17 CFR 240.15c3-3 and margin...

  6. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 - Net capital requirements for brokers or dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the computation required by § 240.15c3-3(e) and set forth in Exhibit A, § 240.15c3-3a, on a weekly... Examining Authorities pursuant to 17 CFR 240.17a-11, if the market maker or specialist fails to deposit any... borrowed from customers in accordance with the provisions of 17 CFR 240.15c3-3 and margin...

  7. Aggregation of whelks, Buccinum undatum, near feeding predators: the role of reproductive requirements.

    PubMed

    Rochette, Rémy; Tétreault, Françoise; Himmelman, John H.

    2001-01-01

    In the Mingan Islands, northern Gulf of St Lawrence (eastern Canada), the whelk Buccinum undatum displays a strong escape response to its predator, the asteroid Leptasterias polaris, nevertheless large sexually mature individuals occasionally approach feeding L. polaris to obtain food. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that reproductive requirements increase the tendency of sexually mature whelks to approach feeding asteroids. Prior to egg laying, females (which invest more energy than males into the production of reproductive structures) represented 72% of the adult whelks that approached feeding L. polaris, but only 36% of the adults randomly collected from the study area. Furthermore, females that were attracted to feeding asteroids had smaller reproductive organs (after accounting for body size) than females randomly collected from the study area. Similarly, prior to egg laying, females fed longer and ingested more food than males when tested in the presence of L. polaris in the laboratory. After egg laying, however, females and males displayed a similar tendency to feed in the presence of a predator, both in the field and in the laboratory. Predator-impact indices, computed by contrasting the feeding activity of whelks in the absence and presence of a predator, indicated that females (but not males) responded more boldly to predators prior to than after egg laying, despite a general decrease in feeding activity at that period. Taken together, our observations indicate that the tendency of adult whelks to approach feeding predators is influenced by potential reproductive gains. Because such gains are presumably more directly linked to a given feeding opportunity in sexually active individuals, whelks may be selected to display increased levels of boldness towards predators with the onset of sexual maturity. Thus, potential reproductive benefits may partly explain the size-dependent tendency of whelks to approach feeding asteroids. Copyright 2001 The

  8. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Z of... - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR subpart Z of part 390, appendix A, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part...

  9. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Z of... - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR subpart Z of part 390, appendix A, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Z of... - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR subpart Z of part 390, appendix A, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part...

  11. Human Capital and Economic Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincer, Jacob

    1984-01-01

    The framework of an aggregate production function shows that growth of human capital is both a condition and a consequence of economic growth. The concurrent growth and diffusion of human capital, involving production of new knowledge, appears necessary to ensure sustained economic development worldwide. (TE)

  12. Making big communities small: using network science to understand the ecological and behavioral requirements for community social capital.

    PubMed

    Neal, Zachary

    2015-06-01

    The concept of social capital is becoming increasingly common in community psychology and elsewhere. However, the multiple conceptual and operational definitions of social capital challenge its utility as a theoretical tool. The goals of this paper are to clarify two forms of social capital (bridging and bonding), explicitly link them to the structural characteristics of small world networks, and explore the behavioral and ecological prerequisites of its formation. First, I use the tools of network science and specifically the concept of small-world networks to clarify what patterns of social relationships are likely to facilitate social capital formation. Second, I use an agent-based model to explore how different ecological characteristics (diversity and segregation) and behavioral tendencies (homophily and proximity) impact communities' potential for developing social capital. The results suggest diverse communities have the greatest potential to develop community social capital, and that segregation moderates the effects that the behavioral tendencies of homophily and proximity have on community social capital. The discussion highlights how these findings provide community-based researchers with both a deeper understanding of the contextual constraints with which they must contend, and a useful tool for targeting their efforts in communities with the greatest need or greatest potential.

  13. Intellectual Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  14. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index. The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark,…

  15. Capital investment requirements for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation in power generation on near term to century time scales and global to regional spatial scales

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-11-01

    Electrification plays a crucial role in cost-effective greenhouse gas emissions mitigation strategies. Such strategies in turn carry implications for financial capital markets. This paper explores the implication of climate mitigation policy for capital investment demands by the electric power sector on decade to century time scales. We go further to explore the implications of technology performance and the stringency of climate policy for capital investment demands by the power sector. Finally, we discuss the regional distribution of investment demands. We find that stabilizing GHG emissions will require additional investment in the electricity generation sector over and above investments that would be need in the absence of climate policy, in the range of 16 to 29 Trillion US$ (60-110%) depending on the stringency of climate policy during the period 2015 to 2095 under default technology assumptions. This increase reflects the higher capital intensity of power systems that control emissions. Limits on the penetration of nuclear and carbon capture and storage technology could increase costs substantially. Energy efficiency improvements can reduce the investment requirement by 8 to21 Trillion US$ (default technology assumptions), depending on climate policy scenario with higher savings being obtained under the most stringent climate policy. The heaviest investments in power generation were observed in the China, India, SE Asia and Africa regions with the latter three regions dominating in the second half of the 21st century.

  16. 12 CFR 615.5200 - Capital planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Capital Adequacy § 615.5200 Capital planning. (a) The Board...'s capital adequacy plan. Rather, the standards are intended to serve as minimum levels of capital... capital adequacy plan as a part of the financial plan required by § 618.8440 of this chapter. The...

  17. 12 CFR 652.61 - Capital planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... equity capital instrument, a payment of common or preferred stock dividends, a payment that may be... projections extend. Tier 1 Capital means the components meeting the criteria of Common Equity Tier 1 Capital..., including the core capital and regulatory capital ratios required by sections 8.32 and 8.33 of the Act,...

  18. 12 CFR 567.4 - Capital directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital directives. 567.4 Section 567.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL Regulatory Capital Requirements § 567.4 Capital directives. (a) Issuance of a Capital Directive—(1) Purpose. In addition to...

  19. Allergy Capitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ...

  20. Capital access.

    PubMed

    Towne, Jennifer

    2004-06-01

    To maintain their viability, hospitals are being compelled to invest in big capital projects such as information technology and renovation and construction. This gatefold examines the trends in credit and capital, and how they affect hospitals' access to money.

  1. Intellectual Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    According to Thomas Stewart's book, intellectual capital comprises three broad categories: human, structural, and customer. Structural, or organizational capital, is knowledge that does not leave at night (with workers, or human capital). Developing a "best practices" database using Lotus Notes software would preserve and access schools'…

  2. The thiG Gene Is Required for Full Virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae by Preventing Cell Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoyue; Liang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Kexue; Dong, Wenxia; Wang, Jianxin; Zhou, Ming-guo

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial blight of rice is an important serious bacterial diseases of rice in many rice-growing regions, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). The thiG gene from Xoo strain ZJ173, which is involved with thiazole moiety production in the thiamine biosynthesis pathway, is highly conserved among the members of Xanthomonas. The thiG deletion mutant displayed impaired virulence and growth in thiamine-free medium but maintained its normal growth rate in the rice tissues, indicating that the thiG gene is involved in Xoo virulence. Compared to the wild type strain, the formation of cell-cell aggregates was affected in thiG deletion mutants. Although biofilm formation was promoted, motility and migration in rice leaves were repressed in the thiG mutants, and therefore limited the expansion of pathogen infection in rice. Quorum sensing and extracellular substance are two key factors that contribute to the formation of cell-cell aggregates. Our study found that in the thiG mutant the expression of two genes, rpfC and rpfG, which form a two-component regulatory signal system involved in the regulation of biofilm formation by a second messenger cyclic di-GMP is down-regulated. In addition, our study showed that xanthan production was not affected but the expression of some genes associated with xanthan biosynthesis, like gumD, gumE, gumH and gumM, were up-regulated in thiG mutants. Taken together, these findings are the first to demonstrate the role of the thiazole biosynthsis gene, thiG, in virulence and the formation of aggregates in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. PMID:26222282

  3. 12 CFR 208.4 - Capital adequacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital adequacy. 208.4 Section 208.4 Banks and... Requirements § 208.4 Capital adequacy. (a) Adequacy. A member bank's capital, as defined in appendix A to this...) Standards for evaluating capital adequacy. Standards and guidelines by which the Board evaluates the...

  4. Maximum Capital Project Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Describes the stages of capital project planning and development: (1) individual capital project submission; (2) capital project proposal assessment; (3) executive committee; and (4) capital project execution. (EV)

  5. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Part of the 1994 Industrial Minerals Review. The production, consumption, and applications of construction aggregates are reviewed. In 1994, the production of construction aggregates, which includes crushed stone and construction sand and gravel combined, increased 7.7 percent to 2.14 Gt compared with the previous year. These record production levels are mostly a result of funding for highway construction work provided by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Demand is expected to increase for construction aggregates in 1995.

  6. Square Footage Requirements for Use in Developing the Local Facilities Plans and State Capital Outlay Applications for Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Facilities Services Unit.

    This document presents the space requirements for Georgia's elementary, middle, and high schools. All square footage requirements are computed by using inside dimensions of a room; the square footage of support spaces in suites may be included when computing the square footage of the suite. Examples of support spaces include storage rooms,…

  7. Understanding your capital options.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christopher T

    2012-05-01

    When planning capital expenditures, hospitals and health systems should understand the following financing considerations: Traditional fixed-rate tax-exempt bonds; Variable-rate financing alternatives; Basel III Accord requirements; Direct tax-exempt bank loans; Total return swaps Taxable financings; Interest-rate swaps and collateral requirements

  8. 26 CFR 1.1287-1 - Denial of capital gains treatment for gains on registration-required obligations not in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... described in § 1.163-5(c)(1), the holder of such an obligation shall be required to treat the gain on the... obligation originally issued after September 21, 1984, the term registered form has the meaning given that... time or at any time until its maturity by any means not described in § 5f.103-1(c). An obligation...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1287-1 - Denial of capital gains treatment for gains on registration-required obligations not in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... described in § 1.163-5(c)(1), the holder of such an obligation shall be required to treat the gain on the... obligation originally issued after September 21, 1984, the term registered form has the meaning given that... time or at any time until its maturity by any means not described in § 5f.103-1(c). An obligation...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1287-1 - Denial of capital gains treatment for gains on registration-required obligations not in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... described in § 1.163-5(c)(1), the holder of such an obligation shall be required to treat the gain on the... obligation originally issued after September 21, 1984, the term registered form has the meaning given that... time or at any time until its maturity by any means not described in § 5f.103-1(c). An obligation...

  11. 77 FR 71568 - Capital, Margin, and Segregation Requirements for Security-Based Swap Dealers and Major Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... (October 18, 2012), which was published in FR Doc. 2012-26164 and appeared on page 70214 of the Federal Register on November 23, 2012 (77 FR 70214): 1. In footnote 172 in the first column of page 70233, the... requirements for broker-dealers permitted to use the alternative internal model- based method for computing...

  12. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.; Tepordei, V.V.; Bolen, W.P.

    2000-01-01

    Construction aggregates consist primarily of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. Total estimated production of construction aggregates increased in 1999 by about 2% to 2.39 Gt (2.64 billion st) compared with 1998. This record production level continued an expansion that began in 1992. By commodities, crushed stone production increased 3.3%, while sand and gravel production increased by about 0.5%.

  13. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on industrial minerals in 1993. The 1993 production of construction aggregates increased 6.3 percent over the 1992 figure, to reach 2.01 Gt. This represents the highest estimated annual production of combined crushed stone and construction sand and gravel ever recorded in the U.S. The outlook for construction aggregates and the issues facing the industry are discussed.

  14. Projected Cropping Patterns, Livestock Enterprises, Processing Activities, Capital Requirements, Employment, Income, and Training Needs for Alternative Farm Organizational Structures for the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project. A Special Report to the Four Corners Regional Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, William D.; And Others

    Information on the expected cropping patterns, livestock enterprises, processing and related activities, income and employment opportunities, capital needs, and training requirements for alternative farm organizational structures that could be selected for development of the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project is presented in this report. The major…

  15. Capital Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    "Social capital" describes the strength of community as measured by the connections and levels of trust among its members. These connections are both formal and informal and the benefits include better health and better academic achievement. In this article, the author proposes two types of experiments to determine whether the relationship between…

  16. Capital Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalessandro, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals (D. Dalessandro), the lead gift (D. A. Campbell), motivating trustees (J. J. Ianolli, Jr.), alumni associations (W. B. Adams), role of public relations officers (R. L. Williams), special events( H.R. Gilbert), the campaign document (R. King), and case statements (D. R. Treadwell,…

  17. Capital Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom

    1987-05-01

    Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "capital investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the capital investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "Capital Package." A Capital Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The Capital Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.

  18. Health, Human Capital, and Development*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2013-01-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health’s effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health. PMID:24147187

  19. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  20. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Part of the Annual Commodities Review 1995. Production of construction aggregates such as crushed stone and construction sand and gravel showed a marginal increase in 1995. Most of the 1995 increases were due to funding for highway construction work. The major areas of concern to the industry included issues relating to wetlands classification and the classification of crystalline silica as a probable human carcinogen. Despite this, an increase in demand is anticipated for 1996.

  1. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Part of a special section on the market performance of industrial minerals in 1992. Production of construction aggregates increased by 4.6 percent in 1992. This increase was due, in part, to the increased funding for transportation and infrastructure projects. The U.S. produced about 1.05 Gt of crushed stone and an estimated 734 Mt of construction sand and gravel in 1992. Demand is expected to increase by about 5 percent in 1993.

  2. Holographic characterization of protein aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Zhong, Xiao; Ruffner, David; Stutt, Alexandra; Philips, Laura; Ward, Michael; Grier, David

    Holographic characterization directly measures the size distribution of subvisible protein aggregates in suspension and offers insights into their morphology. Based on holographic video microscopy, this analytical technique records and interprets holograms of individual aggregates in protein solutions as they flow down a microfluidic channel, without requiring labeling or other exceptional sample preparation. The hologram of an individual protein aggregate is analyzed in real time with the Lorenz-Mie theory of light scattering to measure that aggregate's size and optical properties. Detecting, counting and characterizing subvisible aggregates proceeds fast enough for time-resolved studies, and lends itself to tracking trends in protein aggregation arising from changing environmental factors. No other analytical technique provides such a wealth of particle-resolved characterization data in situ. Holographic characterization promises accelerated development of therapeutic protein formulations, improved process control during manufacturing, and streamlined quality assurance during storage and at the point of use. Mrsec and MRI program of the NSF, Spheryx Inc.

  3. Fibronectin Aggregation and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Tomoo; Erickson, Harold P.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of fibronectin (FN) assembly and the self-association sites are still unclear and contradictory, although the N-terminal 70-kDa region (I1–9) is commonly accepted as one of the assembly sites. We previously found that I1–9 binds to superfibronectin, which is an artificial FN aggregate induced by anastellin. In the present study, we found that I1–9 bound to the aggregate formed by anastellin and a small FN fragment, III1–2. An engineered disulfide bond in III2, which stabilizes folding, inhibited aggregation, but a disulfide bond in III1 did not. A gelatin precipitation assay showed that I1–9 did not interact with anastellin, III1, III2, III1–2, or several III1–2 mutants including III1–2KADA. (In contrast to previous studies, we found that the III1–2KADA mutant was identical in conformation to wild-type III1–2.) Because I1–9 only bound to the aggregate and the unfolding of III2 played a role in aggregation, we generated a III2 domain that was destabilized by deletion of the G strand. This mutant bound I1–9 as shown by the gelatin precipitation assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis, and it inhibited FN matrix assembly when added to cell culture. Next, we introduced disulfide mutations into full-length FN. Three disulfide locks in III2, III3, and III11 were required to dramatically reduce anastellin-induced aggregation. When we tested the disulfide mutants in cell culture, only the disulfide bond in III2 reduced the FN matrix. These results suggest that the unfolding of III2 is one of the key factors for FN aggregation and assembly. PMID:21949131

  4. Sustainability in Supply Chain Management: Aggregate Planning from Sustainability Perspective.

    PubMed

    Türkay, Metin; Saraçoğlu, Öztürk; Arslan, Mehmet Can

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers. PMID:26807848

  5. Sustainability in Supply Chain Management: Aggregate Planning from Sustainability Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Türkay, Metin; Saraçoğlu, Öztürk; Arslan, Mehmet Can

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers. PMID:26807848

  6. Sustainability in Supply Chain Management: Aggregate Planning from Sustainability Perspective.

    PubMed

    Türkay, Metin; Saraçoğlu, Öztürk; Arslan, Mehmet Can

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers.

  7. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolen, W.P.; Tepordei, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The estimated production during 2000 of construction aggregates, crushed stone, and construction sand and gravel increased by about 2.6% to 2.7 Gt (3 billion st), compared with 1999. The expansion that started in 1992 continued with record production levels for the ninth consecutive year. By commodity, construction sand and gravel production increased by 4.5% to 1.16 Gt (1.28 billion st), while crushed stone production increased by 1.3% to 1.56 Gt (1.72 billion st).

  8. 12 CFR 704.3 - Corporate credit union capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corporate credit union capital. 704.3 Section... CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.3 Corporate credit union capital. (a) Capital plan. A corporate credit union... strategies which provide for the building of capital consistent with regulatory requirements, the...

  9. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order to... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for...

  10. 12 CFR 6.5 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Capital Categories § 6.5 Capital restoration plans. (a) Schedule for filing plan—(1) In general. A bank shall file a written capital restoration plan with the OCC within 45 days of the date that the bank... undercapitalized is not required to submit a capital restoration plan solely by virtue of the reclassification....

  11. 12 CFR 1777.23 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... An Enterprise shall file a capital restoration plan in writing with OFHEO within ten days of... a capital restoration plan approved by OFHEO under this part is not required to submit an additional capital restoration plan based on a subsequent notice of capital classification, unless OFHEO notifies...

  12. 12 CFR 1777.23 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... An Enterprise shall file a capital restoration plan in writing with OFHEO within ten days of... a capital restoration plan approved by OFHEO under this part is not required to submit an additional capital restoration plan based on a subsequent notice of capital classification, unless OFHEO notifies...

  13. 12 CFR 6.5 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Capital Categories § 6.5 Capital restoration plans. (a) Schedule for filing plan—(1) In general. A bank shall file a written capital restoration plan with the OCC within 45 days of the date that the bank... undercapitalized is not required to submit a capital restoration plan solely by virtue of the reclassification....

  14. 12 CFR 167.5 - Components of capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... criteria of 12 CFR 161.42 to the extent that such instruments are not included in core capital under... Requirements § 167.5 Components of capital. (a) Core Capital. (1) The following elements,2 less the amount of... core capital: 2 Stock issues where the dividend is reset periodically based on current...

  15. 12 CFR 167.5 - Components of capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... criteria of 12 CFR 161.42 to the extent that such instruments are not included in core capital under... Requirements § 167.5 Components of capital. (a) Core Capital. (1) The following elements,2 less the amount of... core capital: 2 Stock issues where the dividend is reset periodically based on current...

  16. 12 CFR 167.5 - Components of capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... criteria of 12 CFR 161.42 to the extent that such instruments are not included in core capital under... Requirements § 167.5 Components of capital. (a) Core Capital. (1) The following elements,2 less the amount of... core capital: 2 Stock issues where the dividend is reset periodically based on current...

  17. 12 CFR 652.70 - Risk-based capital level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital level. 652.70 Section 652.70... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.70 Risk-based capital level. The risk-based capital level is the sum of the following amounts: (a) Credit and interest rate risk....

  18. Capital cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The capital cost estimate for the nuclear process heat source (NPHS) plant was made by: (1) using costs from the current commercial HTGR for electricity production as a base for items that are essentially the same and (2) development of new estimates for modified or new equipment that is specifically for the process heat application. Results are given in tabular form and cover the total investment required for each process temperature studied.

  19. 12 CFR 933.5 - Disclosure to members concerning capital plan and capital stock conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS BANK CAPITAL STRUCTURE PLANS § 933.5... its risk-based capital requirement, calculated in accordance with § 932.3 of this chapter, and of its... dividends, product volumes, investment volumes, new business lines and risk profile. (3) A description...

  20. 12 CFR 933.5 - Disclosure to members concerning capital plan and capital stock conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS BANK CAPITAL STRUCTURE PLANS § 933.5... its risk-based capital requirement, calculated in accordance with § 932.3 of this chapter, and of its... dividends, product volumes, investment volumes, new business lines and risk profile. (3) A description...

  1. 12 CFR 933.5 - Disclosure to members concerning capital plan and capital stock conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS BANK CAPITAL STRUCTURE PLANS § 933.5... its risk-based capital requirement, calculated in accordance with § 932.3 of this chapter, and of its... dividends, product volumes, investment volumes, new business lines and risk profile. (3) A description...

  2. 12 CFR 933.5 - Disclosure to members concerning capital plan and capital stock conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS BANK CAPITAL STRUCTURE PLANS § 933.5... its risk-based capital requirement, calculated in accordance with § 932.3 of this chapter, and of its... dividends, product volumes, investment volumes, new business lines and risk profile. (3) A description...

  3. Sequence-dependent Internalization of Aggregating Peptides*

    PubMed Central

    Couceiro, José R.; Gallardo, Rodrigo; De Smet, Frederik; De Baets, Greet; Baatsen, Pieter; Annaert, Wim; Roose, Kenny; Saelens, Xavier; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a number of aggregation disease polypeptides have been shown to spread from cell to cell, thereby displaying prionoid behavior. Studying aggregate internalization, however, is often hampered by the complex kinetics of the aggregation process, resulting in the concomitant uptake of aggregates of different sizes by competing mechanisms, which makes it difficult to isolate pathway-specific responses to aggregates. We designed synthetic aggregating peptides bearing different aggregation propensities with the aim of producing modes of uptake that are sufficiently distinct to differentially analyze the cellular response to internalization. We found that small acidic aggregates (≤500 nm in diameter) were taken up by nonspecific endocytosis as part of the fluid phase and traveled through the endosomal compartment to lysosomes. By contrast, bigger basic aggregates (>1 μm) were taken up through a mechanism dependent on cytoskeletal reorganization and membrane remodeling with the morphological hallmarks of phagocytosis. Importantly, the properties of these aggregates determined not only the mechanism of internalization but also the involvement of the proteostatic machinery (the assembly of interconnected networks that control the biogenesis, folding, trafficking, and degradation of proteins) in the process; whereas the internalization of small acidic aggregates is HSF1-independent, the uptake of larger basic aggregates was HSF1-dependent, requiring Hsp70. Our results show that the biophysical properties of aggregates determine both their mechanism of internalization and proteostatic response. It remains to be seen whether these differences in cellular response contribute to the particular role of specific aggregated proteins in disease. PMID:25391649

  4. 26 CFR 1.904(b)-1 - Special rules for capital gains and losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... income from sources outside the United States—(1) Limitation on capital gain from sources outside the United States when the taxpayer has net capital losses from sources within the United States—(i) In... aggregate) shall include capital gain net income from sources outside the United States (determined...

  5. 26 CFR 1.904(b)-1 - Special rules for capital gains and losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... income from sources outside the United States—(1) Limitation on capital gain from sources outside the United States when the taxpayer has net capital losses from sources within the United States—(i) In... aggregate) shall include capital gain net income from sources outside the United States (determined...

  6. Human capital, schooling and health.

    PubMed

    Schultz, T Paul

    2003-06-01

    A consensus has been forged in the last decade that recent periods of sustained growth in total factor productivity and reduced poverty are closely associated with improvements in a population's child nutrition, adult health, and schooling, particularly in low-income countries. Estimates of the productive returns from these three forms of human capital investment are nonetheless qualified by a number of limitations in our data and analytical methods. This paper reviews the problems that occupy researchers in this field and summarizes accumulating evidence of empirical regularities. Social experiments must be designed to assess how randomized policy interventions motivate families and individuals to invest in human capital, and then measure the changed wage opportunities of those who have been induced to make these investments. Statistical estimation of wage functions that seek to represent the relationship between wage rates and a variety of human capital stocks may yield biased estimates of private rates of return from these investments for a variety of reasons. The paper summarizes several of these problems and illustrates how data and statistical methods can be used to deal with some of them. The measures of labor productivity and the proxies specified for schooling and adult health are first discussed, and then the functional relationships between human capital and wages are described. Three types of estimation problem are discussed: (1) bias due to omitted variables, such as ability or frailty; (2) bias due to the measurement of an aggregation of multiple sources of human capital, e.g. genetic and socially reproducible variation, which may contribute to different gains in worker productivity; and (3) errors in measurement of the human capital stocks. Empirical examples and illustrative estimates are surveyed.

  7. Social capital in engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Shane

    A theoretical argument is presented to suggest that engineering curriculum be designed to develop social capital. Additionally, the value of social capital in the retention of students in the College of Engineering, and the development, role, and value of social capital in an electrical engineering laboratory is evaluated. Data collected includes participant observations, informal and formal student interviews, and a researcher-designed survey. Social capital consists of interaction among individuals (networks), social rules that encourage interactions such as trust and reciprocity (norms), and the value of these networks and norms to the individual and the group. A large body of evidence suggests that social capital is valuable in terms of retention and multiple measures of academic achievement. The importance of social capital in retention was verified by students that have left engineering and those that remain, in terms of interactions with peers, teaching assistants, and engineering faculty; and a lack of sense of community in freshman engineering courses. Students that have left engineering differed in their perceptions of social capital from those that remain in their frustrations with teaching methods that encourage little discussion or opportunities to ask questions about assumptions or approaches. The open-ended nature of laboratory assignments, extensive required troubleshooting, and lack of specific directions from the teaching assistants were found to encourage the development of social capital in the laboratory setting. Degree centrality, a network measure of social capital as the number of ties an individual has within a social network, was found to be positively correlated with laboratory grade. Student perceptions of the importance of interactions with other students on success in the laboratory setting has a negative model effect on academic achievement in the laboratory. In contrast, student perceptions of the quality of interactions with

  8. Future Service Adaptive Access/Aggregation Network Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hiroki; Takeshita, Hidetoshi; Okamoto, Satoru

    The emergence of new services in the cloud computing era has made smooth service migration an important issue in access networks. However, different types of equipment are typically used for the different services due to differences in service requirements. This leads to an increase in not only capital expenditures but also operational expenditures. Here we propose using a service adaptive approach as a solution to this problem. We analyze the requirements of a future access network in terms of service, network, and node. We discuss available access network technologies including the passive optical network, single star network. Finally, we present a future service adaptive access/aggregation network and its architecture along with a programmable optical line terminal and optical network unit, discuss its benefit, and describe example services that it would support.

  9. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

  10. Changes in fractal dimension during aggregation.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Rajat K; Gardner, Kevin H; Atkinson, Joseph F; Van Benschoten, John E

    2003-02-01

    Experiments were performed to evaluate temporal changes in the fractal dimension of aggregates formed during flocculation of an initially monodisperse suspension of latex microspheres. Particle size distributions and aggregate geometrical information at different mixing times were obtained using a non-intrusive optical sampling and digital image analysis technique, under variable conditions of mixing speed, coagulant (alum) dose and particle concentration. Pixel resolution required to determine aggregate size and geometric measures including the fractal dimension is discussed and a quantitative measure of accuracy is developed. The two-dimensional fractal dimension was found to range from 1.94 to 1.48, corresponding to aggregates that are either relatively compact or loosely structured, respectively. Changes in fractal dimension are explained using a conceptual model, which describes changes in fractal dimension associated with aggregate growth and changes in aggregate structure. For aggregation of an initially monodisperse suspension, the fractal dimension was found to decrease over time in the initial stages of floc formation.

  11. Social capital, mental health and biomarkers in Chile: assessing the effects of social capital in a middle-income country.

    PubMed

    Riumallo-Herl, Carlos Javier; Kawachi, Ichiro; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-03-01

    In high-income countries, higher social capital is associated with better health. However, there is little evidence of this association in low- and middle-income countries. We examine the association between social capital (social support and trust) and both self-rated and biologically assessed health outcomes in Chile, a middle-income country that experienced a major political transformation and welfare state expansion in the last two decades. Based on data from the Chilean National Health Survey (2009-10), we modeled self-rated health, depression, measured diabetes and hypertension as a function of social capital indicators, controlling for socio-economic status and health behavior. We used an instrumental variable approach to examine whether social capital was causally associated with health. We find that correlations between social capital and health observed in high-income countries are also observed in Chile. All social capital indicators are significantly associated with depression at all ages, and at least one social capital indicator is associated with self-rated health, hypertension and diabetes at ages 45 and above. Instrumental variable models suggest that associations for depression may reflect a causal effect from social capital indicators on mental well-being. Using aggregate social capital as instrument, we also find evidence that social capital may be causally associated with hypertension and diabetes, early markers of cardiovascular risk. Our findings highlight the potential role of social capital in the prevention of depression and early cardiovascular disease in middle-income countries.

  12. Reaping benefits from intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Weston, Marla J; Estrada, Nicolette A; Carrington, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The wealth and value of organizations are increasingly based on intellectual capital. Although acquiring talented individuals and investing in employee learning adds value to the organization, reaping the benefits of intellectual capital involves translating the wisdom of employees into reusable and sustained actions. This requires a culture that creates employee commitment, encourages learning, fosters sharing, and involves employees in decision making. An infrastructure to recognize and embed promising and best practices through social networks, evidence-based practice, customization of innovations, and use of information technology results in increased productivity, stronger financial performance, better patient outcomes, and greater employee and customer satisfaction. PMID:17198112

  13. Reaping benefits from intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Weston, Marla J; Estrada, Nicolette A; Carrington, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The wealth and value of organizations are increasingly based on intellectual capital. Although acquiring talented individuals and investing in employee learning adds value to the organization, reaping the benefits of intellectual capital involves translating the wisdom of employees into reusable and sustained actions. This requires a culture that creates employee commitment, encourages learning, fosters sharing, and involves employees in decision making. An infrastructure to recognize and embed promising and best practices through social networks, evidence-based practice, customization of innovations, and use of information technology results in increased productivity, stronger financial performance, better patient outcomes, and greater employee and customer satisfaction.

  14. 78 FR 62417 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... comments that appeared in the Federal Register of September 10, 2013 (78 FR 55340), regarding Regulatory... NW., Washington, DC 20429. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2013-21357, appearing on page 55518... Assets, Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule,...

  15. 78 FR 76973 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... the authority for 12 CFR part 208. In the Final Rule, FR Doc. 2013-21653, published on October 11, 2013 (78 FR 62018), please correct the following: PART 208-- 0 1. Revise the authority for 12 CFR part... risk-based and leverage capital requirements for banking organizations. This document adds...

  16. 7 CFR 3560.64 - Initial operating capital contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial operating capital contribution. 3560.64... § 3560.64 Initial operating capital contribution. Borrowers are required to make an initial operating capital contribution to the general operating account in the amount of at least 2 percent of the...

  17. 12 CFR 208.44 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Action § 208.44 Capital restoration plans. (a) Schedule for filing plan—(1) In general. A member bank shall file a written capital restoration plan with the appropriate Reserve Bank within 45 days of the... is not required to submit a capital restoration plan solely by virtue of the reclassification....

  18. 12 CFR 208.44 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Action § 208.44 Capital restoration plans. (a) Schedule for filing plan—(1) In general. A member bank shall file a written capital restoration plan with the appropriate Reserve Bank within 45 days of the... is not required to submit a capital restoration plan solely by virtue of the reclassification....

  19. 12 CFR 390.454 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Capital restoration plans. (a) Schedule for filing plan—(1) In general. A State savings association shall file a written capital restoration plan with the appropriate Regional Office within 45 days of the date... not required to submit a capital restoration plan solely by virtue of the reclassification....

  20. 12 CFR 390.454 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Capital restoration plans. (a) Schedule for filing plan—(1) In general. A State savings association shall file a written capital restoration plan with the appropriate Regional Office within 45 days of the date... not required to submit a capital restoration plan solely by virtue of the reclassification....

  1. 24 CFR 891.165 - Duration of capital advance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of capital advance. 891... General Program Requirements § 891.165 Duration of capital advance. The duration of the fund reservation for the capital advance is 18 months from the date of issuance with limited exceptions up to 24...

  2. Aggregate breakdown of nanoparticulate titania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, Navin

    Six nanosized titanium dioxide powders synthesized from a sulfate process were investigated. The targeted end-use of this powder was for a de-NOx catalyst honeycomb monolith. Alteration of synthesis parameters had resulted principally in differences in soluble ion level and specific surface area of the powders. The goal of this investigation was to understand the role of synthesis parameters in the aggregation behavior of these powders. Investigation via scanning electron microscopy of the powders revealed three different aggregation iterations at specific length scales. Secondary and higher order aggregate strength was investigated via oscillatory stress rheometry as a means of simulating shear conditions encountered during extrusion. G' and G'' were measured as a function of the applied oscillatory stress. Oscillatory rheometry indicated a strong variation as a function of the sulfate level of the particles in the viscoelastic yield strengths. Powder yield stresses ranged from 3.0 Pa to 24.0 Pa of oscillatory stress. Compaction curves to 750 MPa found strong similarities in extrapolated yield point of stage I and II compaction for each of the powders (at approximately 500 MPa) suggesting that the variation in sulfate was greatest above the primary aggregate level. Scanning electron microscopy of samples at different states of shear in oscillatory rheometry confirmed the variation in the linear elastic region and the viscous flow regime. A technique of this investigation was to approach aggregation via a novel perspective: aggregates are distinguished as being loose open structures that are highly disordered and stochastic in nature. The methodology used was to investigate the shear stresses required to rupture the various aggregation stages encountered and investigate the attempt to realign the now free-flowing constituents comprising the aggregate into a denser configuration. Mercury porosimetry was utilized to measure the pore size of the compact resulting from

  3. 12 CFR 567.4 - Capital directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... describing the means and a time schedule by which the savings association shall reach its required capital... and, if one is to be issued, whether it should be as originally proposed or in modified form....

  4. Capitation and the Medicare program: History, issues, and evidence

    PubMed Central

    Langwell, Kathryn M.; Hadley, James P.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the history of capitation in the Medicare program and examines issues and research findings related to Medicare capitation. Specific capitation issues and related research findings reviewed include: the feasibility and extent of health maintenance organization participation in Medicare; plan marketing; beneficiary choice behavior; quality of care; and the use and cost of services. In addition, areas requiring further study are noted, and the potential for extensions of capitation under Medicare are explored. PMID:10311935

  5. Thermodynamics of Protein Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Kenneth L.; Barz, Bogdan; Bachmann, Michael; Strodel, Birgit

    Amyloid protein aggregation characterizes many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Creutz- feldt-Jakob disease. Evidence suggests that amyloid aggregates may share similar aggregation pathways, implying simulation of full-length amyloid proteins is not necessary for understanding amyloid formation. In this study we simulate GNNQQNY, the N-terminal prion-determining domain of the yeast protein Sup35 to investigate the thermodynamics of structural transitions during aggregation. We use a coarse-grained model with replica-exchange molecular dynamics to investigate the association of 3-, 6-, and 12-chain GNNQQNY systems and we determine the aggregation pathway by studying aggregation states of GN- NQQNY. We find that the aggregation of the hydrophilic GNNQQNY sequence is mainly driven by H-bond formation, leading to the formation of /3-sheets from the very beginning of the assembly process. Condensation (aggregation) and ordering take place simultaneously, which is underpinned by the occurrence of a single heat capacity peak only.

  6. Cellular strategies for regulating functional and nonfunctional protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Gsponer, Jörg; Babu, M Madan

    2012-11-29

    Growing evidence suggests that aggregation-prone proteins are both harmful and functional for a cell. How do cellular systems balance the detrimental and beneficial effect of protein aggregation? We reveal that aggregation-prone proteins are subject to differential transcriptional, translational, and degradation control compared to nonaggregation-prone proteins, which leads to their decreased synthesis, low abundance, and high turnover. Genetic modulators that enhance the aggregation phenotype are enriched in genes that influence expression homeostasis. Moreover, genes encoding aggregation-prone proteins are more likely to be harmful when overexpressed. The trends are evolutionarily conserved and suggest a strategy whereby cellular mechanisms specifically modulate the availability of aggregation-prone proteins to (1) keep concentrations below the critical ones required for aggregation and (2) shift the equilibrium between the monomeric and oligomeric/aggregate form, as explained by Le Chatelier's principle. This strategy may prevent formation of undesirable aggregates and keep functional assemblies/aggregates under control. PMID:23168257

  7. A review of volcanic ash aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. J.; Bonadonna, C.; Durant, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Most volcanic ash particles with diameters <63 μm settle from eruption clouds as particle aggregates that cumulatively have larger sizes, lower densities, and higher terminal fall velocities than individual constituent particles. Particle aggregation reduces the atmospheric residence time of fine ash, which results in a proportional increase in fine ash fallout within 10-100 s km from the volcano and a reduction in airborne fine ash mass concentrations 1000 s km from the volcano. Aggregate characteristics vary with distance from the volcano: proximal aggregates are typically larger (up to cm size) with concentric structures, while distal aggregates are typically smaller (sub-millimetre size). Particles comprising ash aggregates are bound through hydro-bonds (liquid and ice water) and electrostatic forces, and the rate of particle aggregation correlates with cloud liquid water availability. Eruption source parameters (including initial particle size distribution, erupted mass, eruption column height, cloud water content and temperature) and the eruption plume temperature lapse rate, coupled with the environmental parameters, determines the type and spatiotemporal distribution of aggregates. Field studies, lab experiments and modelling investigations have already provided important insights on the process of particle aggregation. However, new integrated observations that combine remote sensing studies of ash clouds with field measurement and sampling, and lab experiments are required to fill current gaps in knowledge surrounding the theory of ash aggregate formation.

  8. Fueling innovation in medical devices (and beyond): venture capital in health care.

    PubMed

    Ackerly, D Clay; Valverde, Ana M; Diener, Lawrence W; Dossary, Kristin L; Schulman, Kevin A

    2009-01-01

    Innovation in health care requires new ideas and the capital to develop and commercialize those ideas into products or services. The necessary capital is often "venture capital," but the link between public policy and the venture capital industry has not been well examined. In this paper we explore the link between venture capital and innovation in health care, and we present new descriptive data from a survey of health care venture capital fund managers. Respondents generally viewed policy levers (for example, reimbursement and regulations) as important risks to venture capital investments, potentially affecting their ability to raise capital for early-stage investment funds.

  9. Capitals, assets, and resources: some critical issues.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mike; Warde, Alan; Devine, Fiona

    2005-03-01

    This paper explores the potential of Bourdieu's approach to capital as a way of understanding class dynamics in contemporary capitalism. Recent rethinking of class analysis has sought to move beyond what Rosemary Crompton (1998) calls the 'employment aggregate approach', one which involves categorizing people into class groups according to whether they have certain attributes (e.g. occupations). Instead, recent contributions by Pierre Bourdieu, Erik Wright, Aage Sorensen, and Charles Tilly have concentrated on understanding the mechanisms that produce class inequalities. Concepts such as assets, capitals and resources (CARs) are often used to explain how class inequalities are produced, but there remain ambiguities and differences in how such terms are understood. This paper identifies problems faced both by game theoretical Marxism and by the rational choice approach of Goldthorpe in developing an adequate approach to CARs. It then turns to critically consider how elements of Bourdieu's approach, where his concept of capital is related to those of habitus and field, might overcome these weaknesses. Our rendering of his arguments leads us to conclude that our understanding of CARs might be enriched by considering how capital is distinctive not in terms of distinct relations of exploitation, but through its potential to accumulate and to be converted to other resources. This focus, we suggest, sidesteps otherwise intractable problems in CAR based approaches.

  10. 12 CFR 1229.3 - Criteria for a Bank's capital classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirements but such deficiency is not of a magnitude to classify the Bank as significantly undercapitalized... minimum capital requirements but the magnitude of the Bank's deficiency in total capital is not...

  11. 12 CFR 1229.3 - Criteria for a Bank's capital classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirements but such deficiency is not of a magnitude to classify the Bank as significantly undercapitalized... minimum capital requirements but the magnitude of the Bank's deficiency in total capital is not...

  12. 75 FR 68533 - Funding and Fiscal Affairs, Loan Policies and Operations, and Funding Operations; Capital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Operations; Capital Adequacy; Capital Components--Basel Accord Tier 1 and Tier 2 AGENCY: Farm Credit... comments to facilitate the development of enhancements to our regulatory capital framework to more closely align minimum capital requirements with those of the Federal banking regulators and with risks taken...

  13. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  14. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  15. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  16. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  17. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  18. 31 CFR 1023.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR BROKERS OR DEALERS IN SECURITIES Reports Required To Be Made By Brokers or Dealers in Securities § 1023.313 Aggregation. Refer to § 1010.313 of this... securities....

  19. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for

  20. Natural aggregates of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregates. These materials are commonly used construction materials and frequently can be interchanged with one another. They are widely used throughout the United States, with every State except two producing crushed stone. Together they amount to about half the mining volume in the United States. Approximately 96 percent of sand and gravel and 77 percent of the crushed stone produced in the United States are used in the construction industry. Natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States in a variety of geologic environments. Sand and gravel deposits commonly are the results of the weathering of bedrock and subsequent transportation and deposition of the material by water or ice (glaciers). As such, they commonly occur as river or stream deposits or in glaciated areas as glaciofluvial and other deposits. Crushed stone aggregates are derived from a wide variety of parent bedrock materials. Limestone and other carbonates account for approximately three quarters of the rocks used for crushed stone, with granite and other igneous rocks making up the bulk of the remainder. Limestone deposits are widespread throughout the Central and Eastern United States and are scattered in the West. Granites are widely distributed in the Eastern and Western United States, with few exposures in the Midwest. Igneous rocks (excluding granites) are largely concentrated in the Western United States and in a few isolated localities in the East. Even though natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States, they are not universally available for consumptive use. Some areas are devoid of sand and gravel, and potential sources of crushed stone may be covered with sufficient unconsolidated material to make surface mining impractical. In some areas many aggregates do not meet the physical property requirements for certain uses, or they may contain mineral constituents that react

  1. 47 CFR 101.1323 - Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... aggregate spectrum in any MAS bands, but may not disaggregate their licensed spectrum or partition their... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and... Requirements § 101.1323 Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning. (a) Eligibility. (1)...

  2. 47 CFR 101.1323 - Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... aggregate spectrum in any MAS bands, but may not disaggregate their licensed spectrum or partition their... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and... Requirements § 101.1323 Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning. (a) Eligibility. (1)...

  3. 47 CFR 101.1323 - Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... aggregate spectrum in any MAS bands, but may not disaggregate their licensed spectrum or partition their... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and... Requirements § 101.1323 Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning. (a) Eligibility. (1)...

  4. 47 CFR 101.1323 - Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... aggregate spectrum in any MAS bands, but may not disaggregate their licensed spectrum or partition their... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and... Requirements § 101.1323 Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning. (a) Eligibility. (1)...

  5. 47 CFR 101.1323 - Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... aggregate spectrum in any MAS bands, but may not disaggregate their licensed spectrum or partition their... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and... Requirements § 101.1323 Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning. (a) Eligibility. (1)...

  6. A Social Capital Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzàlez-Aranguena, Enrique; Khmelnitskaya, Anna; Manuel, Conrado; del Pozo, Mónica

    2011-09-01

    We define an index of social capital using game-theoretical concepts. We assume that interests of individuals are presented by means of a cooperative game which take into account possible different players abilities whereas the network of relations is modeled by a graph. The social capital of each actor is then measured as the difference between his Myerson value and his Shapley value.

  7. Linguistic Capital Pays Dividends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linse, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Some 37 million U.S. residents speak Spanish at home and more than 55% of them say they also speak English. That creates what is called linguistic capital. Although linguistic capital is difficult to quantify, it is enormously valuable and is determined by an individual's language competency, and is too frequently wasted instead of being…

  8. Implementing a Capital Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneau, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Addresses four questions regarding implementation of a long-term capital plan to manage a college's facilities portfolio: When should the projects be implemented? How should the capital improvements be implemented? What will it actually cost in terms of project costs as well as operating costs? Who will implement the plan? (EV)

  9. Financing Human Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juffras, Jason; Sawhill, Isabel V.

    This paper examines the government's role in financing human capital investments. It first examines why private investments in education, training, and other forms of human capital are likely to fall short of socially desirable levels. It then reviews past trends in public support for human resource investments. Finally, it discusses current…

  10. 76 FR 42768 - Capital Distribution

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Capital Distribution AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... concerning the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Capital Distribution. OMB Number: 1550..., the information provides the OTS with a mechanism for monitoring capital distributions since...

  11. A Comparative Analysis of the Validity of US State- and County-Level Social Capital Measures and Their Associations with Population Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chul-Joo; Kim, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to validate a number of available collective social capital measures at the US state and county levels, and to examine the relative extent to which these social capital measures are associated with population health outcomes. Measures of social capital at the US state level included aggregate indices based on the…

  12. 12 CFR 325.104 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... filing plan—(1) In general. A bank shall file a written capital restoration plan with the appropriate... supervisory actions as if the bank were undercapitalized is not required to submit a capital restoration plan... restoration plan approved under section 38 and this subpart is not required to submit an additional...

  13. 12 CFR 325.104 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... filing plan—(1) In general. A bank shall file a written capital restoration plan with the appropriate... supervisory actions as if the bank were undercapitalized is not required to submit a capital restoration plan... restoration plan approved under section 38 and this subpart is not required to submit an additional...

  14. 12 CFR 5.47 - Subordinated debt as capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... capital if the subordinated debt meets the requirements in 12 CFR part 3, appendix A, section 2(b)(4), and... debt qualifies as Tier 3 capital if the subordinated debt meets the requirements in 12 CFR part 3... comply with the Securities Offering Disclosure Rules in 12 CFR part 16 when issuing subordinated...

  15. 12 CFR 5.47 - Subordinated debt as capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... capital if the subordinated debt meets the requirements in 12 CFR part 3, appendix A, section 2(b)(4), and... debt qualifies as Tier 3 capital if the subordinated debt meets the requirements in 12 CFR part 3... comply with the Securities Offering Disclosure Rules in 12 CFR part 16 when issuing subordinated...

  16. A disciplined approach to capital: today's healthcare imperative.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Patrick J; Kaufman, Kenneth

    2007-07-01

    BJC HealthCare's experience exemplifies several basic principles of a finance-based approach to capital. Organizations that adopt this approach look to improve processes first, remove costs second, and spend capital last. Multiyear planning is required to quantitatively identify the profitability and liquidity requirements of strategic initiatives and address essential funding and financing issues. PMID:17687971

  17. Approaches of Russian oil companies to optimal capital structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishuk, T.; Ulyanova, O.; Savchitz, V.

    2015-11-01

    Oil companies play a vital role in Russian economy. Demand for hydrocarbon products will be increasing for the nearest decades simultaneously with the population growth and social needs. Change of raw-material orientation of Russian economy and the transition to the innovative way of the development do not exclude the development of oil industry in future. Moreover, society believes that this sector must bring the Russian economy on to the road of innovative development due to neo-industrialization. To achieve this, the government power as well as capital management of companies are required. To make their optimal capital structure, it is necessary to minimize the capital cost, decrease definite risks under existing limits, and maximize profitability. The capital structure analysis of Russian and foreign oil companies shows different approaches, reasons, as well as conditions and, consequently, equity capital and debt capital relationship and their cost, which demands the effective capital management strategy.

  18. Flow Partitioning in Fully Saturated Soil Aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaofan; Richmond, Marshall C.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Perkins, William A.; Resat, Haluk

    2014-03-30

    was larger than 18 micron. Inter-aggregate pores continued to be the dominant flow pathways even at much smaller spacing; intra-aggregate flow was less than 10% of the total flow when the inter- and intra-aggregate pore sizes were comparable. Such studies are making it possible to identify which model upscaling assumptions are realistic and what computational methods are required for detailed numerical investigation of microbial carbon cycling dynamics in soil systems.

  19. Aggregations in Flatworms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Hunter, M.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a school project to investigate aggregations in flatworms which may be influenced by light intensity, temperature, and some form of chemical stimulus released by already aggregating flatworms. Such investigations could be adopted to suit many educational levels of science laboratory activities. (DS)

  20. Aggregate structure, morphology and the effect of aggregation mechanisms on viscosity at elevated protein concentrations.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Gregory V; Qi, Wei; Amin, Samiul; Neil Lewis, E; Roberts, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    Non-native aggregation is a common issue in a number of degenerative diseases and during manufacturing of protein-based therapeutics. There is a growing interest to monitor protein stability at intermediate to high protein concentrations, which are required for therapeutic dosing of subcutaneous injections. An understanding of the impact of protein structural changes and interactions on the protein aggregation mechanisms and resulting aggregate size and morphology may lead to improved strategies to reduce aggregation and solution viscosity. This report investigates non-native aggregation of a model protein, α-chymotrypsinogen, under accelerated conditions at elevated protein concentrations. Far-UV circular dichroism and Raman scattering show structural changes during aggregation. Size exclusion chromatography and laser light scattering are used to monitor the progression of aggregate growth and monomer loss. Monomer loss is concomitant with increased β-sheet structures as monomers are added to aggregates, which illustrate a transition from a native monomeric state to an aggregate state. Aggregates grow predominantly through monomer-addition, resulting in a semi-flexible polymer morphology. Analysis of aggregation growth kinetics shows that pH strongly affects the characteristic timescales for nucleation (τn) and growth (τg), while the initial protein concentration has only minor effects on τn or τg. Low-shear viscosity measurements follow a common scaling relationship between average aggregate molecular weight (Mw(agg)) and concentration (σ), which is consistent with semi-dilute polymer-solution theory. The results establish a link between aggregate growth mechanisms, which couple Mw(agg) and σ, to increases in solution viscosity even at these intermediate protein concentrations (less than 3w/v %).

  1. Chaotic Footloose Capital.

    PubMed

    Commendatore, Pasquale; Currie, Martin; Kubin, Ingrid

    2007-04-01

    This paper examines the long-term behavior of a discrete-time Footloose Capital model, where capitalists, who are themselves immobile between regions, move their physical capital between regions in response to economic incentives. The spatial location of industry can exhibit cycles of any periodicity or behave chaotically. Long-term behavior is highly sensitive to transport costs and to the responsiveness of capitalists to profit differentials. The concentration of industry in one region can result from high transport costs or from rapid responses by capitalists. In terms of possible dynamical behaviors, the discrete-time model is much richer than the standard continuous-time Footloose Capital model.

  2. Effect of antimicrobial preservatives on partial protein unfolding and aggregation.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Regina L; Singh, Surinder M; Cabello-Villegas, Javier; Mallela, Krishna M G

    2013-02-01

    One-third of protein formulations are multi-dose. These require antimicrobial preservatives (APs); however, some APs have been shown to cause protein aggregation. Our previous work on a model protein cytochrome c indicated that partial protein unfolding, rather than complete unfolding, triggers aggregation. Here, we examined the relative strength of five commonly used APs on such unfolding and aggregation, and explored whether stabilizing the aggregation 'hot-spot' reduces such aggregation. All APs induced protein aggregation in the order m-cresol > phenol > benzyl alcohol > phenoxyethanol > chlorobutanol. All these enhanced the partial protein unfolding that includes a local region which was predicted to be the aggregation 'hot-spot'. The extent of destabilization correlated with the extent of aggregation. Further, we show that stabilizing the 'hot-spot' reduces aggregation induced by all five APs. These results indicate that m-cresol causes the most protein aggregation, whereas chlorobutanol causes the least protein aggregation. The same protein region acts as the 'hot-spot' for aggregation induced by different APs, implying that developing strategies to prevent protein aggregation induced by one AP will also work for others.

  3. Protein aggregation in salt solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kastelic, Miha; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V.; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregation is broadly important in diseases and in formulations of biological drugs. Here, we develop a theoretical model for reversible protein–protein aggregation in salt solutions. We treat proteins as hard spheres having square-well-energy binding sites, using Wertheim’s thermodynamic perturbation theory. The necessary condition required for such modeling to be realistic is that proteins in solution during the experiment remain in their compact form. Within this limitation our model gives accurate liquid–liquid coexistence curves for lysozyme and γ IIIa-crystallin solutions in respective buffers. It provides good fits to the cloud-point curves of lysozyme in buffer–salt mixtures as a function of the type and concentration of salt. It than predicts full coexistence curves, osmotic compressibilities, and second virial coefficients under such conditions. This treatment may also be relevant to protein crystallization. PMID:25964322

  4. Protein aggregation in salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Kastelic, Miha; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A; Vlachy, Vojko

    2015-05-26

    Protein aggregation is broadly important in diseases and in formulations of biological drugs. Here, we develop a theoretical model for reversible protein-protein aggregation in salt solutions. We treat proteins as hard spheres having square-well-energy binding sites, using Wertheim's thermodynamic perturbation theory. The necessary condition required for such modeling to be realistic is that proteins in solution during the experiment remain in their compact form. Within this limitation our model gives accurate liquid-liquid coexistence curves for lysozyme and γ IIIa-crystallin solutions in respective buffers. It provides good fits to the cloud-point curves of lysozyme in buffer-salt mixtures as a function of the type and concentration of salt. It than predicts full coexistence curves, osmotic compressibilities, and second virial coefficients under such conditions. This treatment may also be relevant to protein crystallization.

  5. Capital Requirements for the Air Transport Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    In recent years the U.S. scheduled airline industry has been involved in the largest re-equipment program that involves the addition of hundreds of new aircraft to the airline fleet. The costs associated with the purchase of this new equipment, along with the other costs involving such matters as the environment and security, are presenting the carriers with significant financial challenges.

  6. Aggregate and the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sachs, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to help you understand our aggregate resources-their importance, where they come from, how they are processed for our use, the environmental concerns related to their mining and processing, how those concerns are addressed, and the policies and regulations designed to safeguard workers, neighbors, and the environment from the negative impacts of aggregate mining. We hope this understanding will help prepare you to be involved in decisions that need to be made-individually and as a society-to be good stewards of our aggregate resources and our living planet.

  7. 13 CFR 108.150 - Management and ownership diversity requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Organizing A Nmvc Company § 108.150... 70 percent of your Regulatory Capital or your Leverageable Capital. (c) Non-affiliation requirement. At least 30 percent of your Regulatory Capital and Leverageable Capital must be owned and...

  8. 77 FR 63763 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Standardized Approach for Risk-Weighted Assets; Market Discipline and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Approach for Risk-Weighted Assets; Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements; Initial Regulatory..., titled, ``Regulatory Capital Rules: Standardized Approach for Risk-Weighted Assets; Market Discipline and... weaknesses identified over recent years, including by incorporating certain international capital...

  9. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  10. Leasing equipment minimizes capital investment.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M E; Maier, R A

    1989-03-01

    As consumers continue to demand the most advanced technology at the lowest cost, healthcare organizations are turning to leasing as a way of acquiring equipment with a minimum amount of capital investment. Institutions considering leasing should determine their balance sheet constraints, compare the relative costs of debt financing and leasing, and assess the residual value of the equipment at the end of its use. Comparing potential lessors requires careful analysis of rate structures and the capability of the companies to commit to a contract promptly.

  11. Collision simulation of sintered dust aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirono, Sin-iti; Ueno, Haruta

    Collisional evolution of dust aggregates is the initial process of the planet formation. Sticking velocity, below which collisional sticking of an aggregate happens, is a crucial quantity in the collisional evolution. In the standard model of protoplanetary nebula, the maximum collisional velocity is around 50m/s. Therefore, if a planetesimal is formed through direct collisional sticking, the sticking velocity should be higher than 50m/s. Even if a planetesimal is formed by other mechanism such as anticyclonic vortices, substantial growth of an aggregate is required because the motion of an aggregate should be decoupled from that of gas. Collisional simulation of icy dust aggregates (Wada et al. 2009, ApJ 702, 1490) showed that the sticking velocity was larger than 50m/s and planetesimal formation by collisional sticking was possible. However, sintering of ice proceeds in a wide area of a protoplanetary nebula (Sirono 2011, ApJ 765, 50). Sintering enlarges a neck, connection between adjacent dust grains, and changes the mechanical properties of a dust aggregate. Here we performed collisional simulations between sintered dust aggregates taking account of sintering. We found that the sticking velocity was decreased substantially down to 20m/s. This result suggests that a planetesimal is not formed by direct collisional sticking and that the planetesimal formation proceeded in particular regions in a protoplanetary nebula.

  12. Cell aggregation and sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Davis, R H

    1995-01-01

    The aggregation of cells into clumps or flocs has been exploited for decades in such applications as biological wastewater treatment, beer brewing, antibiotic fermentation, and enhanced sedimentation to aid in cell recovery or retention. More recent research has included the use of cell aggregation and sedimentation to selectively separate subpopulations of cells. Potential biotechnological applications include overcoming contamination, maintaining plasmid-bearing cells in continuous fermentors, and selectively removing nonviable hybridoma cells from perfusion cultures.

  13. Protein sequences encode safeguards against aggregation.

    PubMed

    Reumers, Joke; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Fréderic

    2009-03-01

    Functional requirements shaped proteins into globular structures. Under these structural constraints, which require both regular secondary structure and a hydrophobic core, protein aggregation is an unavoidable corollary to protein structure. However, as aggregation results in reduced fitness, natural selection will tend to eliminate strongly aggregating sequences. The analysis of distribution and variation of aggregation patterns in the human proteome using the TANGO algorithm confirms the findings of a previous study on several proteomes: the flanks of aggregation-prone regions are enriched with charged residues and proline, the so-called gatekeeper-residues. Moreover, in this study, we observed a widespread redundancy in gatekeeper usage. Interestingly, aggregating regions from key proteins such as p53 or huntingtin are among the most extensive "gatekept" sequences. As a consequence, mutations that remove gatekeepers could therefore result in a strong increase in disease-susceptibility. In a set of disease-associated mutations from the UniProt database, we find a strong enrichment of mutations that disrupt gatekeeper motifs. Closer inspection of a number of case studies indicates clearly that removing gatekeepers may play a determining role in widely varying disorders, such as van der Woude syndrome (VWS), X-linked Fabry disease (FD), and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. PMID:19156839

  14. 40 CFR 35.3545 - Capitalization grant agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Drinking Water State Revolving Funds § 35.3545 Capitalization grant... Fund in accordance with the requirements and objectives of the Act and this subpart. (e) Roles and..., the State must describe the roles and responsibilities of each agency in the capitalization...

  15. 40 CFR 35.3545 - Capitalization grant agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Drinking Water State Revolving Funds § 35.3545 Capitalization grant... Fund in accordance with the requirements and objectives of the Act and this subpart. (e) Roles and..., the State must describe the roles and responsibilities of each agency in the capitalization...

  16. 40 CFR 35.3545 - Capitalization grant agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Drinking Water State Revolving Funds § 35.3545 Capitalization grant... Fund in accordance with the requirements and objectives of the Act and this subpart. (e) Roles and..., the State must describe the roles and responsibilities of each agency in the capitalization...

  17. 40 CFR 35.3545 - Capitalization grant agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Drinking Water State Revolving Funds § 35.3545 Capitalization grant... Fund in accordance with the requirements and objectives of the Act and this subpart. (e) Roles and..., the State must describe the roles and responsibilities of each agency in the capitalization...

  18. 40 CFR 35.3545 - Capitalization grant agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Drinking Water State Revolving Funds § 35.3545 Capitalization grant... Fund in accordance with the requirements and objectives of the Act and this subpart. (e) Roles and..., the State must describe the roles and responsibilities of each agency in the capitalization...

  19. Social Capital, Organizational Learning Capability, and Technological Knowledge Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Shih-Chieh; Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    This study uses inter-organizational networks to focus on firm opportunities to establish the level of social capital required to efficiently utilize network resources among certain collaborative research projects. This study reached the following conclusions: (1) establishment of social capital does little to improve the technological knowledge…

  20. 12 CFR 567.5 - Components of capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Requirements § 567.5 Components of capital. (a) Core Capital. (1) The following elements, 3 less the amount of any deductions pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of this section, comprise a savings association' s core... or noncumulative characteristics. (i) Common stockholders' equity (including retained earnings);...

  1. 12 CFR 567.5 - Components of capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements § 567.5 Components of capital. (a) Core Capital. (1) The following elements, 3 less the amount of any deductions pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of this section, comprise a savings association' s core... or noncumulative characteristics. (i) Common stockholders' equity (including retained earnings);...

  2. 12 CFR 567.5 - Components of capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Requirements § 567.5 Components of capital. (a) Core Capital. (1) The following elements, 3 less the amount of any deductions pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of this section, comprise a savings association' s core... or noncumulative characteristics. (i) Common stockholders' equity (including retained earnings);...

  3. 12 CFR 567.5 - Components of capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Requirements § 567.5 Components of capital. (a) Core Capital. (1) The following elements, 3 less the amount of any deductions pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of this section, comprise a savings association' s core... or noncumulative characteristics. (i) Common stockholders' equity (including retained earnings);...

  4. 12 CFR 567.5 - Components of capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Requirements § 567.5 Components of capital. (a) Core Capital. (1) The following elements, 3 less the amount of any deductions pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of this section, comprise a savings association' s core... or noncumulative characteristics. (i) Common stockholders' equity (including retained earnings);...

  5. 7 CFR 3560.563 - Initial operating capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial operating capital. 3560.563 Section 3560.563 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... capital. The requirements for § 3560.64 apply to all applications for off-farm labor housing loans...

  6. 12 CFR 163.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... capital requirements under part 167 of this chapter if a Federal savings association or 12 CFR part 390... a Federal savings association or 12 CFR part 390, subpart Z if a state savings association; And... parity with another class of mutual capital certificates; or (F) Action is sought which would...

  7. 12 CFR 163.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... capital requirements under part 167 of this chapter if a Federal savings association or 12 CFR part 390... a Federal savings association or 12 CFR part 390, subpart Z if a state savings association; And... parity with another class of mutual capital certificates; or (F) Action is sought which would...

  8. 12 CFR 163.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... capital requirements under part 167 of this chapter if a Federal savings association or 12 CFR part 390... a Federal savings association or 12 CFR part 390, subpart Z if a state savings association; And... parity with another class of mutual capital certificates; or (F) Action is sought which would...

  9. 24 CFR 891.170 - Repayment of capital advance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Repayment of capital advance. 891... OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, SECTION 202 DIRECT LOAN... General Program Requirements § 891.170 Repayment of capital advance. (a) Interest prohibition...

  10. The Future of Capitation

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, John D; Bierman, Arlene S; Fein, Oliver; Rask, Kimberly; Rich, Eugene C; Selker, Harry P

    2001-01-01

    Capitation-based reimbursement significantly influences the practice of medicine. As physicians, we need to assure that payment models do not jeopardize the care we provide when we accept higher levels of personal financial risk. In this paper, we review the literature relevant to capitation, consider the interaction of financial incentives with physician and medical risk, and conclude that primary care physicians need to work to assure that capitated systems incorporate checks and balances which protect both patients and providers. We offer the following proposals for individuals and groups considering capitated contracts: (1) reimbursement for primary care physicians should recognize both individual patient encounters and the administrative work of patient care management; (2) reimbursement for subspecialists should recognize both access to subspecialty knowledge and expertise as well as patient care encounters, but in some situations, subspecialists may provide the majority of care to individual patients and will be reimbursed as primary care providers; (3) groups of physicians should accept financial risk for patient care only if they have the tools and resources to manage the care; (4) physicians sharing risk for patient care should meet regularly to discuss care and resource management; and (5) physicians must disclose the financial relationships they have with health plans and medical care organizations, and engage patients and communities in discussions about resource allocation. As a payment model, capitation offers opportunities for primary care physicians to influence the future of health care by improving the management of resources at a local level. PMID:11318926

  11. 12 CFR 1777.20 - Capital classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... notice of proposed capital classification, holds core capital equaling or exceeding the minimum capital... classification, holds core capital equaling or exceeding the minimum capital level. (3) Significantly... the date specified in the notice of proposed capital classification, holds core capital less than...

  12. 17 CFR 240.17i-7 - Calculations of allowable capital and risk allowances or alternative capital assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... capital by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve (12 CFR 225, Appendix A); (iii) Other intangible... of the Federal Reserve in calculating Tier 1 capital (as defined in 12 CFR 225, Appendix A). (2... provisions that will require future redemption of the issue; and (iv) The issuer of the stock can defer...

  13. Building Inclusive Communities: A Social Capital Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaklee, Harriet; Laumatia, Laura; Luckey, Brian; Traver, Sue; Nauman, Arlinda; Tifft, Kathee; Liddil, Audrey; Hampton, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Population shifts have changed the face of many Idaho communities, but inclusive relationships among groups can build the social capital required for communities to thrive. University of Idaho Extension developed "Idaho's Journey for Diversity and Human Rights" as a hands-on traveling workshop about past and present issues of human rights and…

  14. Graduate Inquiry: Social Capital in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    As colleges and universities increase their online course offerings, student social experiences in online learning environments require further examination, specifically for nonresidential students who may already be less integrated into college social networks. A social capital framework was used to guide this qualitative study of 17…

  15. 12 CFR 225.8 - Capital planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-9C required to be filed under 12 CFR 225.5(b))); or (ii) That is subject to this section, in whole or... holding company subsidiary of a foreign banking organization that is currently relying on Supervision and... risk-based capital ratios as calculated under Appendices A, D, E, and G to this part (12 CFR part...

  16. Building research capital to facilitate research.

    PubMed

    Green, Gill; Rein, Melanie

    2013-04-04

    The National Institute for Health Research, Research Design Service (NIHR RDS) was set up to increase the number and proportion of high quality applications for funding for applied and patient focused health and social care research. Access to specialist expertise and collaboration between researchers and health practitioners at the proposal development stage is crucial for high quality applied health research. In this essay we develop the concept of 'research capital' to describe the wide range of resources and expertise required to develop fundable research projects. It highlights the key role the RDS plays supporting researchers to broker relationships to access the requisite 'research capital'.

  17. Technology meets aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Swan, C.

    2007-07-01

    New technology carried out at Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts on synthetic lightweight aggregate has created material from various qualities of fly ash from coal-fired power plants for use in different engineered applications. In pilot scale manufacturing tests an 'SLA' containing 80% fly ash and 20% mixed plastic waste from packaging was produced by 'dry blending' mixed plastic with high carbon fly ash. A trial run was completed to produce concrete masonry unit (CMU) blocks at a full-scale facility. It has been shown that SLA can be used as a partial substitution of a traditional stone aggregate in hot asphalt mix. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  18. Creating Schools without Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolke, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A shortage of capital and appropriate education facilities prompted the Edmonton (Alberta) Public Schools to explore creative solutions such as leasing retrofitted facilities to house new academic programs. Landlords generally like school districts, considering them reliable, long-term tenants for hard-to-rent larger buildings. (MLH)

  19. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  20. Reggio Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stejzygier, Aneta

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the social capital as the essential element of success of the Reggio Emilia preschools known for their unique approach to the early childhood education. The collaborative effort is introduced through examples of the currently ongoing "Reggio Narrates" project of Reggio preschools, the "Dialogue with the Places" and "The…

  1. Planning for Capital Reinvestment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biedenweg, Frederick; Weisburg-Swanson, Lynda; Gardner, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    Describes and evaluates four alternatives for planning and budgeting for capital reinvestment for college and university facilities: physical plant auditing; a depreciation-based approach; percentage of current replacement value; and facility subsystem modeling, or life-cycle modeling. Each has advantages and limitations in budgeting for and…

  2. Towards Transnational Academic Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to current debates on the relationship between globalisation and higher education. The main argument of the paper is that we are currently witnessing transnationalisation of academic capitalism. This argument is illustrated by examining the collaboration between transnational corporations and research universities, and how…

  3. Social capital and community development: practitioner emptor.

    PubMed

    Labonte, R

    1999-08-01

    Social capital has become the latest 'flavour of the month'. There is considerable disagreement over what the term means, and calls for theorising and measurement of the construct. Health promoters, among others, are being challenged to re-construct their efforts around this still contested idea. Social capital doesn't exist, but is being created by those aspects of social relations particular theorists or researchers choose to study in its name. The choice of these relations is directed by ideology. To those aligned more with neoliberal, market-driven ideology, social capital is a means to the end of economic growth, something that can pick up the slack of privatised or reduced public services. To those aligned more with social justice and communitarian ideology, social capital is an end in itself, requiring the defence of strong, egalitarian state intervention into market practices that create inequalities. Community development is one of many state interventions used to buffer market-generated inequalities. Social capital may be a useful concept for practitioners, researchers and policy makers in bring the missing 'social' into economic and fiscal policy debates. But its use should be approached cautiously as a construct of potential strategic value. It should not confuse all of the previous 'good' work undertaken in the name of empowerment and community capacity. PMID:10462871

  4. Sectoral shifts and aggregate unemployment

    SciTech Connect

    Loungani, P.

    1986-01-01

    Some recent research has taken the view that sectoral or industry-specific shocks significantly affect aggregate unemployment by increasing the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required. The empirical evidence for this view rests on the finding that during the 1950s - and again during the 1970s - there was a positive correlation between aggregate unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth rates. This thesis demonstrates that this correlation arises largely because oil price shocks affect both unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth. Once the dispersion due to oil shocks is accounted for, the residual dispersion in employment has very low explanatory power for unemployment. Since the dispersion index does not measure pure sectoral shifts, an alternate measure of dispersion is developed that serves as a better proxy for the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required each period. Estimates using this measure suggest that, during the 1950s, temporary increases in the relative price of oil were responsible for generating the observed correlation. On the other hand, sectoral shifts were important during the 1970s; in particular, the 1973 oil price increase has had significant reallocative effects on the economy. This contention is subjected to further tests by looking at the time-series behavior of employment in durable-goods industries and also by following the inter-industry movements of workers over time through the use of panel data.

  5. 12 CFR 652.85 - When to report the risk-based capital level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... report the risk-based capital level. (a) You must file a risk-based capital report with us each time you determine your risk-based capital level as required by § 652.80. (b) You must also report to us at once if you identify in the interim between quarterly or more frequent reports to us that you are not...

  6. 76 FR 53344 - Funding and Fiscal Affairs, Loan Policies and Operations, and Funding Operations; Capital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Operations, and Funding Operations; Capital Adequacy Risk-Weighting Revisions: Alternatives to Credit Ratings... Administration (FCA or Agency) regulations on the capital adequacy of Farm Credit System (FCS or System...\\ categories for System assets as part of the 1988 capital adequacy regulations required by the...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 325 - Statement of Policy on Capital Adequacy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... reduction or retirement of any part of a state nonmember bank's common stock or capital notes and debentures... Capital Adequacy Part 325 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation rules and regulations (12 CFR part... Minimum Capital Requirements Section 325.3(b)(1) specifies that FDIC-supervised, state-chartered...

  8. How venture capital works.

    PubMed

    Zider, B

    1998-01-01

    The popular mythology surrounding the U.S. venture-capital industry derives from a previous era. Venture capitalists who nurtured the computer industry in its infancy were legendary both for their risk taking and for their hands-on operating experience. But today things are different, and separating the myths from the realities is crucial to understanding this important piece of the U.S. economy. Today's venture capitalists are more like conservative bankers than the risk takers of days past. They have carved out a specialized niche in the capital markets, filling a void that other institutions cannot serve. They are the linch-pins in an efficient system for meeting the needs of institutional investors looking for high returns, of entrepreneurs seeking funding, and of investment bankers looking for companies to sell. Venture capitalists must earn a consistently superior return on investments in inherently risky businesses. The myth is that they do so by investing in good ideas and good plans. In reality, they invest in good industries--that is, industries that are more competitively forgiving than the market as a whole. And they structure their deals in a way that minimizes their risk and maximizes their returns. Although many entrepreneurs expect venture capitalists to provide them with sage guidance as well as capital, that expectation is unrealistic. Given a typical portfolio of ten companies and a 2,000-hour work year, a venture capital partner spends on average less than two hours per week on any given company. In addition to analyzing the current venture-capital system, the author offers practical advice to entrepreneurs thinking about venture funding. PMID:10187243

  9. How venture capital works.

    PubMed

    Zider, B

    1998-01-01

    The popular mythology surrounding the U.S. venture-capital industry derives from a previous era. Venture capitalists who nurtured the computer industry in its infancy were legendary both for their risk taking and for their hands-on operating experience. But today things are different, and separating the myths from the realities is crucial to understanding this important piece of the U.S. economy. Today's venture capitalists are more like conservative bankers than the risk takers of days past. They have carved out a specialized niche in the capital markets, filling a void that other institutions cannot serve. They are the linch-pins in an efficient system for meeting the needs of institutional investors looking for high returns, of entrepreneurs seeking funding, and of investment bankers looking for companies to sell. Venture capitalists must earn a consistently superior return on investments in inherently risky businesses. The myth is that they do so by investing in good ideas and good plans. In reality, they invest in good industries--that is, industries that are more competitively forgiving than the market as a whole. And they structure their deals in a way that minimizes their risk and maximizes their returns. Although many entrepreneurs expect venture capitalists to provide them with sage guidance as well as capital, that expectation is unrealistic. Given a typical portfolio of ten companies and a 2,000-hour work year, a venture capital partner spends on average less than two hours per week on any given company. In addition to analyzing the current venture-capital system, the author offers practical advice to entrepreneurs thinking about venture funding.

  10. Aggregates, broccoli and cauliflower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.

    1989-09-01

    Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type aggregates. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.

  11. Intellectual Capital: Comparison and Contrast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Susan R.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that one of the most important keys for improving individual and organizational performance is in developing and strengthening intellectual capital (IC) and explores the similarities and differences between the concepts of intellectual capital, human capital, and knowledge management. Presents four IC characteristics and addresses the…

  12. Capital Improvements for Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Alan C.

    1981-01-01

    Although colleges and universities have been aggressive in making capital improvements to conserve energy, their efforts have been hampered by limited capital funds. Decisions about capital investments tend to be complex because of the interrelatedness of conservation strategies and the need to consider the cost advantage of alternatives.…

  13. Recruiting, Selecting and Developing Executive Personnel in Capital Resource Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusbaum, Ned A.

    1984-01-01

    Obtaining qualified persons for capital resource management positions requires school districts and colleges to adopt nondiscriminatory selection and hiring policies. Guidelines are offered for the recruitment process, administering the selection process, and inhouse personnel development. (MLF)

  14. 24 CFR 55.24 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., require compliance with subpart C of this part, affect the same floodplain or wetland, and are currently under review by HUD (or by a responsible entity authorized by 24 CFR part 58), individual or aggregated... FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS Procedures for Making Determinations on...

  15. 31 CFR 1020.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aggregation. 1020.313 Section 1020.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULE FOR BANKS Reports Required To Be Made By Banks §...

  16. 31 CFR 1010.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS Reports Required To Be Made § 1010.313 Aggregation. (a) Multiple branches. A financial institution includes all of its domestic branch offices,...

  17. 31 CFR 1010.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS Reports Required To Be Made § 1010.313 Aggregation. (a) Multiple branches. A financial institution includes all of its domestic branch offices,...

  18. 31 CFR 1010.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS Reports Required To Be Made § 1010.313 Aggregation. (a) Multiple branches. A financial institution includes all of its domestic branch offices,...

  19. 31 CFR 1010.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS Reports Required To Be Made § 1010.313 Aggregation. (a) Multiple branches. A financial institution includes all of its domestic branch offices,...

  20. 31 CFR 1020.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aggregation. 1020.313 Section 1020.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULE FOR BANKS Reports Required To Be Made By Banks §...

  1. 31 CFR 1020.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aggregation. 1020.313 Section 1020.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULE FOR BANKS Reports Required To Be Made By Banks §...

  2. 31 CFR 1020.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aggregation. 1020.313 Section 1020.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULE FOR BANKS Reports Required To Be Made By Banks §...

  3. 31 CFR 1021.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Reports Required To Be Made By Casinos and Card Clubs § 1021.313 Aggregation. In the case of a casino, multiple currency transactions shall be treated as a single transaction if the casino has knowledge that they are by or on...

  4. 31 CFR 1021.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Reports Required To Be Made By Casinos and Card Clubs § 1021.313 Aggregation. In the case of a casino, multiple currency transactions shall be treated as a single transaction if the casino has knowledge that they are by or on...

  5. 31 CFR 1021.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Reports Required To Be Made By Casinos and Card Clubs § 1021.313 Aggregation. In the case of a casino, multiple currency transactions shall be treated as a single transaction if the casino has knowledge that they are by or on...

  6. 31 CFR 1021.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Reports Required To Be Made By Casinos and Card Clubs § 1021.313 Aggregation. In the case of a casino, multiple currency transactions shall be treated as a single transaction if the casino has knowledge that they are by or on...

  7. Harpin Mediates Cell Aggregation in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Mee-Ngan; Rojas, Clemencia M.; Yang, Ching-Hong; Charkowski, Amy O.

    2006-01-01

    The hypersensitive response elicitor harpin (HrpN) of soft rot pathogen Erwinia chrysanthemi strains 3937 and EC16 is secreted via the type III secretion system and remains cell surface bound. Strain 3937 HrpN is essential for cell aggregation, but the C-terminal one-third of the protein is not required for aggregative activity. PMID:16513758

  8. Cellular Strategies for Regulating Functional and Nonfunctional Protein Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Gsponer, Jörg; Babu, M. Madan

    2012-01-01

    Summary Growing evidence suggests that aggregation-prone proteins are both harmful and functional for a cell. How do cellular systems balance the detrimental and beneficial effect of protein aggregation? We reveal that aggregation-prone proteins are subject to differential transcriptional, translational, and degradation control compared to nonaggregation-prone proteins, which leads to their decreased synthesis, low abundance, and high turnover. Genetic modulators that enhance the aggregation phenotype are enriched in genes that influence expression homeostasis. Moreover, genes encoding aggregation-prone proteins are more likely to be harmful when overexpressed. The trends are evolutionarily conserved and suggest a strategy whereby cellular mechanisms specifically modulate the availability of aggregation-prone proteins to (1) keep concentrations below the critical ones required for aggregation and (2) shift the equilibrium between the monomeric and oligomeric/aggregate form, as explained by Le Chatelier’s principle. This strategy may prevent formation of undesirable aggregates and keep functional assemblies/aggregates under control. PMID:23168257

  9. A contemporary perspective on capitated reimbursement for imaging services.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, H W

    1995-01-01

    Capitation ensures predictability of healthcare costs, requires acceptance of a premium in return for providing all required medical services and defines the actual dollar amount paid to a physician or hospital on a per member per month basis for a service or group of services. Capitation is expected to dramatically affect the marketplace in the near future, as private enterprise demands lower, more stable healthcare costs. Capitation requires detailed quantitative and financial data, including: eligibility and benefits determination, encounter processing, referral management, claims processing, case management, physician compensation, insurance management functions, outcomes reporting, performance management and cost accounting. It is important to understand actuarial risk and capitation marketing when considering a capitation contract. Also, capitated payment methodologies may vary to include modified fee-for-service, incentive pay, risk pool redistributions, merit, or a combination. Risk is directly related to the ability to predict utilization and unit cost of imaging services provided to a specific insured population. In capitated environments, radiologists will have even less control over referrals than they have today and will serve many more "covered lives"; long-term relationships with referring physicians will continue to evaporate; and services will be provided under exclusive, multi-year contracts. In addition to intensified use of technology for image transfer, telecommunications and sophisticated data processing and tracking systems, imaging departments must continue to provide the greatest amount of appropriate diagnostic information in a timely fashion at the lowest feasible cost and risk to the patient. PMID:10141102

  10. Specific factors influencing histotypic aggregation of chick embryo hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sankaran, L; Proffitt, R T; Petersen, J R; Pogell, B M

    1977-01-01

    Conditions are described for the reproducible assay of substances affecting the in vitro rate of aggregation of isolated chick embryo hepatocytes. Two low molecular weight (less than 1000) fractions--one that promotes hepatocyte aggregation (HAP) and the other that inhibits this stimulation (HAI)--have been isolated and partially purified from adult chicken liver. One major active component of HAP was identified as taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate). The presence of HAP during the entire time of assay was required for largest aggregate formation. HAP had no effect on aggregation of chick embryo neural retina, kidney, or heart cells. Our results and the fact that puromycin completely inhibits aggregate formation suggest that HAP and HAI influence the specific synthesis and interaction of membrane macromolecules involved in the aggregation process. Images PMID:270696

  11. Lipid vesicle aggregation induced by cooling.

    PubMed

    Howard, Frank B; Levin, Ira W

    2010-01-01

    Lipid bilayer fusion is a complex process requiring several intermediate steps. Initially, the two bilayers are brought into close contact following removal of intervening water layers and overcoming electrostatic repulsions between opposing bilayer head groups. In this study we monitor by light scattering the reversible aggregation of phosphatidylcholine single shell vesicles during which adhesion occurs but stops prior to a fusion process. Light scattering measurements of dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) in water show that lowering the temperature of about 0.14 micron single shell vesicles of DPPC (from 20 degrees C to 5 degrees C) and about 2 micron vesicles of DSPC (from 20 degrees C to 15 degrees C), but not of 1 micron vesicles of DMPC, results in extensive aggregation within 24 hours that is reversible by an increase in temperature. Aggregation of DSPC vesicles was confirmed by direct visual observation. Orientation of lipid head groups parallel to the plane of the bilayer and consequent reduction of the negative surface charge can account for the ability of DPPC and DSPC vesicles to aggregate. Retention of negatively charged phosphates on the surface and the burial of positively charged cholines within the bilayer offer an explanation for the failure of DMPC vesicles to aggregate. Lowering the temperature of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (DPPS) vesicles from 20 degrees C to 5 degrees C failed to increase aggregation within 24 hours at Mg(++)/DPPS ratios that begin to initiate aggregation and fusion.

  12. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Static compression of porous dust aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Akimasa; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Wada, Koji

    2013-07-01

    To understand the structure evolution of dust aggregates is a key in the planetesimal formation. Dust grains become fluffy by coagulation in protoplanetary disks. However, once they become fluffy, they are not sufficiently compressed by collisional compression to form compact planetesimals (Okuzumi et al. 2012, ApJ, 752, 106). Thus, some other compression mechanisms are required to form planetesimals. We investigate the static compression of highly porous aggregates. First, we derive the compressive strength by numerical N-body simulations (Kataoka et al. 2013, A&A, 554, 4). Then, we apply the strength to protoplanetary disks, supposing that the highly porous aggregates can be quiasi-statically compressed by ram pressure of the disk gas and the self gravity. As a result, we find the pathway of the dust structure evolution from dust grains via fluffy aggregates to compact planetesimals. Moreover, we find that the fluffy aggregates overcome the barriers in planetesimal formation, which are radial drift, fragmentation, and bouncing barriers. (The paper is now available on arXiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1307.7984 )

  14. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  15. Neighbourhood social capital as a moderator between individual cognitions and sports behaviour among Dutch adolescents.

    PubMed

    Prins, R G; Beenackers, M A; Boog, M C; Van Lenthe, F J; Brug, J; Oenema, A

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to explore whether individual cognitions and neighbourhood social capital strengthen each other in their relation with engaging in sports at least three times per week. Cross-sectional analyses on data from the last wave of the YouRAction trial (2009-2010, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; baseline response: 98%) were conducted. In total 1129 had data on the last wave questionnaire (93%) and 832 of them had complete data on a self-administered questionnaire on frequency of sports participation, perceived neighbourhood social capital, cognitions (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and intention toward sport participation) and demographics. Ecometric methods were used to aggregate perceived neighbourhood social capital to the neighbourhood level. Multilevel logistic regression analyses (neighbourhood and individual as levels) were conducted to examine associations of cognitions, neighbourhood social capital and the social capital by individual cognition interaction with fit norm compliance. If the interaction was significant, simple slopes analyses were conducted to decompose interaction effects. It was found that neighbourhood social capital was significantly associated with fit norm compliance (OR: 5.40; 95% CI: 1.13-25.74). Moreover, neighbourhood social capital moderated the association of attitude, perceived behavioural control and intention with fit norm compliance. The simple slope analyses visualized that the associations of cognitions with fit norm compliance were stronger in case of more neighbourhood social capital. Hence, higher levels of neighbourhood social capital strengthen the associations of attitude, perceived behavioural control and intention in their association with fit norm compliance.

  16. Dynamics of fire ant aggregations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennenbaum, Michael; Hu, David; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    Fire ant aggregations are an inherently active system. Each ant harvests its own energy and can convert it into motion. The motion of individual ants contributes non-trivially to the bulk material properties of the aggregation. We have measured some of these properties using plate-plate rheology, where the response to an applied external force or deformation is measured. In this talk, we will present data pertaining to the aggregation behavior in the absence of any external force. We quantify the aggregation dynamics by monitoring the rotation of the top plate and by measuring the normal force. We then compare the results with visualizations of 2D aggregations.

  17. 76 FR 22450 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Information Collection Requirements; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... state clearly the definition of capital used in any aspect of its internal capital adequacy assessment... are required under section 46 to periodically review the assessment of overall capital adequacy and to analyze how measures of internal capital adequacy compare with other capital measures (such as...

  18. Capitation funding in Australia: imperatives and impediments.

    PubMed

    Peacock, S; Segal, L

    2000-02-01

    Health service funding mechanisms are pivotal in the pursuit of health system objectives, as they provide strong financial incentives for actors in the system to achieve policy goals. Underpinning funding mechanisms is a set of key economic principles, or objectives, that should guide their design and use: efficiency, equity, and accountability. The Australian health system has historically performed relatively poorly in relation to these objectives, with evidence of inefficiencies, inequities, and poor accountability in many areas of health services. The primary cause of these shortcomings may lie in the complex set of funding and delivery arrangements at the State and Federal levels of government. Potentially significant improvements in the performance of the health system would be available from the integration of the funding and delivery of services within a single tier of government, coupled with the development of a national weighted capitation approach to funding. To develop a national capitation funding model a number of unique factors require consideration, including the current fragmentation of services, the role of the private sector, the needs of indigenous populations, and the effects of rurality. The data available to develop a capitation model is of a level of detail and quality not readily found elsewhere. If policy statements promoting efficiency, accountability, and particularly equity are to be actively pursued, a national capitation model based on robust methods should become a cornerstone of Australian health system reform.

  19. Kinetics of protein aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, Tuomas

    2015-03-01

    Aggregation into linear nanostructures, notably amyloid and amyloid-like fibrils, is a common form of behaviour exhibited by a range of peptides and proteins. This process was initially discovered in the context of the aetiology of a range of neurodegenerative diseases, but has recently been recognised to of general significance and has been found at the origin of a number of beneficial functional roles in nature, including as catalytic scaffolds and functional components in biofilms. This talk discusses our ongoing efforts to study the kinetics of linear protein self-assembly by using master equation approaches combined with global analysis of experimental data.

  20. Structure of Viral Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Stephen; Luijten, Erik

    2010-03-01

    The aggregation of virus particles is a particular form of colloidal self-assembly, since viruses of a give type are monodisperse and have identical, anisotropic surface charge distributions. In small-angle X-ray scattering experiments, the Qbeta virus was found to organize in different crystal structures in the presence of divalent salt and non-adsorbing polymer. Since a simple isotropic potential cannot explain the occurrence of all observed phases, we employ computer simulations to investigate how the surface charge distribution affects the virus interactions. Using a detailed model of the virus particle, we find an asymmetric ion distribution around the virus which gives rise to the different phases observed.

  1. 12 strategies for managing capital projects.

    PubMed

    Stoudt, Richard L

    2013-05-01

    To reduce the amount of time and cost associated with capital projects, healthcare leaders should: Begin the project with a clear objective and a concise master facilities plan. Select qualified team members who share the vision of the owner. Base the size of the project on a conservative business plan. Minimize incremental program requirements. Evaluate the cost impact of the building footprint. Consider alternative delivery methods. PMID:23678692

  2. Increased cytoplasm viscosity hampers aggregate polar segregation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Samuel M D; Neeli-Venkata, Ramakanth; Goncalves, Nadia S M; Santinha, João A; Martins, Leonardo; Tran, Huy; Mäkelä, Jarno; Gupta, Abhishekh; Barandas, Marilia; Häkkinen, Antti; Lloyd-Price, Jason; Fonseca, José M; Ribeiro, Andre S

    2016-02-01

    In Escherichia coli, under optimal conditions, protein aggregates associated with cellular aging are excluded from midcell by the nucleoid. We study the functionality of this process under sub-optimal temperatures from population and time lapse images of individual cells and aggregates and nucleoids within. We show that, as temperature decreases, aggregates become homogeneously distributed and uncorrelated with nucleoid size and location. We present evidence that this is due to increased cytoplasm viscosity, which weakens the anisotropy in aggregate displacements at the nucleoid borders that is responsible for their preference for polar localisation. Next, we show that in plasmolysed cells, which have increased cytoplasm viscosity, aggregates are also not preferentially located at the poles. Finally, we show that the inability of cells with increased viscosity to exclude aggregates from midcell results in enhanced aggregate concentration in between the nucleoids in cells close to dividing. This weakens the asymmetries in aggregate numbers between sister cells of subsequent generations required for rejuvenating cell lineages. We conclude that the process of exclusion of protein aggregates from midcell is not immune to stress conditions affecting the cytoplasm viscosity. The findings contribute to our understanding of E. coli's internal organisation and functioning, and its fragility to stressful conditions. PMID:26507787

  3. Taurine and platelet aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Nauss-Karol, C.; VanderWende, C.; Gaut, Z.N.

    1986-03-01

    Taurine is a putative neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. The endogenous taurine concentration in human platelets, determined by amino acid analysis, is 15 ..mu..M/g. In spite of this high level, taurine is actively accumulated. Uptake is saturable, Na/sup +/ and temperature dependent, and suppressed by metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and several classes of centrally active substances. High, medium and low affinity transport processes have been characterized, and the platelet may represent a model system for taurine transport in the CNS. When platelets were incubated with /sup 14/C-taurine for 30 minutes, then resuspended in fresh medium and reincubated for one hour, essentially all of the taurine was retained within the cells. Taurine, at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 ..mu..M, had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP or epinephrine. However, taurine may have a role in platelet aggregation since 35-39% of the taurine taken up by human platelets appears to be secreted during the release reaction induced by low concentrations of either epinephrine or ADP, respectively. This release phenomenon would imply that part of the taurine taken up is stored directly in the dense bodies of the platelet.

  4. Social Capital Theory and the Metropolitan University: Reframing Ideas about Neighborhood Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plagens, Gregory K.; Stapleton, Kenneth C.

    2011-01-01

    The idea that social relations can aggregate into social capital has intuitive appeal that scholars are finding useful as they seek to explain variations in community outcomes. This article suggests that it may be time for metropolitan university administrators to begin thinking beyond community relations or community engagement as they seek to…

  5. Transformative Pedagogy for Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which pedagogy for an elaborated form of transformative learning can be a useful catalyst for the development of social capital in community and workplace groups and networks. I begin with an example and then explore ideas of learning challenges embedded in building and maintaining social capital. I consider the…

  6. San Diego's Capital Planning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytton, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article describes San Diego's capital planning process. As part of its capital planning process, the San Diego Unified School District has developed a systematic analysis of functional quality at each of its school sites. The advantage of this approach is that it seeks to develop and apply quantifiable metrics and standards for the more…

  7. Capital Formation in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frances, Carol; Coldren, Sharon L.

    The need for new capital in higher education and major areas where the interests of the business and higher education communities are aligned are considered. Higher education is a major employer and makes a large contribution to the gross national product. Human capital has become the accepted term for referring to the contribution of education,…

  8. Universities Venture into Venture Capitalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desruisseaux, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Reports that some universities are starting their own venture-capital funds to develop campus companies, or are investing endowment funds with established venture-capital firms inclined to finance potential spinoffs from campus research. Examples cited are from the University of Alabama, Vanderbilt University (Tennessee), University of…

  9. Rethinking Higher Education Capital Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, George A.

    1988-01-01

    Capital finance in institutions of higher education is analyzed in light of changes in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 affecting the ability of institutions to finance capital projects and the likelihood of changes in the government's view of tax-exempt financing. The options for colleges and universities are analyzed in the following areas: (1)…

  10. Schools, Social Capital and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie; Catts, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the significance of social capital in relation to education, exploring its relevance to teachers and other professionals as well as among young people. It draws on aspects of five case studies undertaken by the Schools and Social Capital Network, within the Applied Educational Research Scheme in Scotland. These case studies…

  11. 76 FR 74631 - Capital Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... assets. \\1\\ 76 FR 35351 (June 17, 2011). \\2\\ The amendments to Regulation Y are codified at 12 CFR 225.8... (Pillar 2) Related to the Implementation of the Basel II Advanced Capital Framework, 73 FR 44620 (July 31... Owners' Loan Act. See 76 FR 22662, 22665 (April 22, 2011). The Board may extend the capital plan...

  12. 12 CFR 6.4 - Capital measures and capital category definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... risk-based capital ratio; (2) The Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio; (3) The leverage ratio. (b) Capital...) Well capitalized if the bank: (i) Has a total risk-based capital ratio of 10.0 percent or greater; and (ii) Has a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6.0 percent or greater; and (iii) Has a leverage...

  13. 12 CFR 6.4 - Capital measures and capital category definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... risk-based capital ratio; (2) The Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio; (3) The leverage ratio. (b) Capital...) Well capitalized if the bank: (i) Has a total risk-based capital ratio of 10.0 percent or greater; and (ii) Has a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6.0 percent or greater; and (iii) Has a leverage...

  14. 12 CFR 565.4 - Capital measures and capital category definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for any rating category (other than in a rating category specifically addressing capital adequacy... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital measures and capital category... PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION § 565.4 Capital measures and capital category definitions. (a) Capital...

  15. 12 CFR 6.4 - Capital measures and capital category definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Capital measures and capital category definitions. 6.4 Section 6.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Capital Categories § 6.4 Capital measures and capital category definitions. (a) Capital measures. For purposes of section 38...

  16. Scalable evaluation of platelet aggregation by the degree of blood migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Suk-Heung; Lim, Chae-Seung; Shin, Sehyun

    2013-12-01

    Platelet aggregation plays a key role in vascular thrombosis. Antiplatelet drug therapy is commonly used for the prevention of abnormal platelet aggregation. So, measuring platelet aggregation function is critically important in clinical field. Here, we introduce a scalable evaluation method of platelet aggregation measured with the degree of blood migration through microchannel in a microfluidic chip. Unlike conventional methods that require expertise with system physics to operate devices, our approach is using microfluidics system, which requires only a syringe vacuum. The scalable migration factors, migration distance and touchdown time, are capable of distinguishing various antiplatelet drug effects under microfluidics and would be effective for the quick and easy evaluation of quantitative platelet aggregation.

  17. The impact of a health campaign on health social capital.

    PubMed

    Thorson, Esther; Beaudoin, Christopher E

    2004-01-01

    Referring to literature in sociology, mass communication, and public health, we conceptualize and operationally define "health social capital" and "individual health social capital" and then posit and test a model for its development in response to a public health media campaign. The campaign evaluated here was designed to stimulate behaviors that would provide a more supportive social environment for children and youth, an environment which we consider to be richer in aggregate health social capital. The association model of advertising was employed to explain the development of individual health social capital measures of awareness, attitude, and behavior. With cross-sectional data (1998, n = 614; 1999, n = 1087; 2000, n = 1388), we examine the results for changes in awareness, attitude, and behavior over time and the significant links between these dependent variables and media campaign exposure. The results show significant increases in awareness and attitude, but not in behavior. Structural equation modeling revealed different patterns of influence for newspaper and TV campaign exposure. PMID:15360032

  18. Aggregating Hierarchical Service Level Agreements in Business Value Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ul Haq, Irfan; Huqqani, Altaf; Schikuta, Erich

    Business scenarios such as Business Value Networks and Extended Enterprises pose new challenges for service choreographies across heterogeneous Virtual Organizations. In such scenarios, services compose together hierarchically in a producer-consumer manner to form service supply-chains of added value. Service Level Agreements (SLAs) are defined at various levels in this hierarchy to ensure the expected quality of service for different stakeholders. Automation of service composition directly implies the aggregation of their corresponding SLAs. But so far, the aggregation of SLAs has been treated only as a single layer process which is insufficient to complement the hierarchical aggregation of services. In this paper we elaborate on the requirement of a hierarchical aggregation of SLAs corresponding to service choreographies in Business Value Networks. During the hierarchical aggregation of SLAs, certain SLA information pertaining to different stakeholders is meant to be restricted and can be only partially revealed to a subset of their business partners. We introduce the concept of SLA-Views to protect such privacy concerns. We, then formalize the notion of SLA Choreography and define an aggregation model based on SLA-Views to enable the automation of hierarchical aggregation of Service Level Agreements. The aggregation model has been designed to comply with the WS-Agreement standard.

  19. Control of binder viscosity and hygroscopicity on particle aggregation efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Sebastian B.; Kueppers, Ulrich; Ayris, Paul M.; Jacob, Michael; Delmelle, Pierre; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    In the course of explosive volcanic eruptions, large amounts of ash are released into the atmosphere and may subsequently pose a threat to infrastructure, such as aviation industry. Ash plume forecasting is therefore a crucial tool for volcanic hazard mitigation but may be significantly affected by aggregation, altering the aerodynamic properties of particles. Models struggle with the implementation of aggregation since external conditions promoting aggregation have not been completely understood; in a previous study we have shown the rapid generation of ash aggregates through liquid bonding via the use of fluidization bed technology and further defined humidity and temperature ranges necessary to trigger aggregation. Salt (NaCl) was required for the recovery of stable aggregates, acting as a cementation agent and granting aggregate cohesion. A numerical model was used to explain the physics behind particle aggregation mechanisms and further predicted a dependency of aggregation efficiency on liquid binder viscosity. In this study we proof the effect of viscosity on particle aggregation. HCl and H2SO4 solutions were diluted to various concentrations resulting in viscosities between 1 and 2 mPas. Phonolitic and rhyolitic ash samples as well as soda-lime glass beads (serving as analogue material) were fluidized in the ProCell Lab® of Glatt Ingenieurtechnik GmbH and treated with the acids via a bottom-spray technique. Chemically driven interaction between acid liquids and surfaces of the three used materials led to crystal precipitation. Salt crystals (e.g. NaCl) have been confirmed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and leachate analysis. Both volcanic ash samples as well as the glass beads showed a clear dependency of aggregation efficiency on viscosity of the sprayed HCl solution. Spraying H2SO4 provoked a collapse of the fluidized bed and no aggregation has been observed. This is accounted by the high hygroscopicity of H2SO4. Dissolving CaCl2 (known to be

  20. Peptide aggregation in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Regina M

    2002-01-01

    In the not-so-distant past, insoluble aggregated protein was considered as uninteresting and bothersome as yesterday's trash. More recently, protein aggregates have enjoyed considerable scientific interest, as it has become clear that these aggregates play key roles in many diseases. In this review, we focus attention on three polypeptides: beta-amyloid, prion, and huntingtin, which are linked to three feared neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer's, "mad cow," and Huntington's disease, respectively. These proteins lack any significant primary sequence homology, yet their aggregates possess very similar features, specifically, high beta-sheet content, fibrillar morphology, relative insolubility, and protease resistance. Because the aggregates are noncrystalline, secrets of their structure at nanometer resolution are only slowly yielding to X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR, and other techniques. Besides structure, the aggregates may possess similar pathways of assembly. Two alternative assembly pathways have been proposed: the nucleation-elongation and the template-assisted mode. These two modes may be complementary, not mutually exclusive. Strategies for interfering with aggregation, which may provide novel therapeutic approaches, are under development. The structural similarities between protein aggregates of dissimilar origin suggest that therapeutic strategies successful against one disease may have broad utility in others. PMID:12117755

  1. Topics in Probabilistic Judgment Aggregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Guanchun

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a compilation of several studies that are united by their relevance to probabilistic judgment aggregation. In the face of complex and uncertain events, panels of judges are frequently consulted to provide probabilistic forecasts, and aggregation of such estimates in groups often yield better results than could have been made…

  2. Mineral of the month: aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, Valentin V.

    2005-01-01

    Natural aggregates, consisting of crushed stone, and sand and gravel, are a major contributor to economic health, and have an amazing variety of uses. Aggregates are among the most abundant mineral resources and are major basic raw materials used by construction, agriculture and other industries that employ complex chemical and metallurgical processes.

  3. 12 CFR 5.47 - Subordinated debt as capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... acceleration clause or redemption prior to maturity) provided the bank remains an eligible bank after the... approval is required by law. No prior approval is required for the bank to count the subordinated debt as... the appropriate district office under 12 CFR 3.7 and a capital restoration plan filed with the...

  4. 12 CFR 5.47 - Subordinated debt as capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... acceleration clause or redemption prior to maturity) provided the bank remains an eligible bank after the... approval is required by law. No prior approval is required for the bank to count the subordinated debt as... the appropriate district office under 12 CFR 3.7 and a capital restoration plan filed with the...

  5. 12 CFR 5.47 - Subordinated debt as capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... acceleration clause or redemption prior to maturity) provided the bank remains an eligible bank after the... approval is required by law. No prior approval is required for the bank to count the subordinated debt as... the appropriate district office under 12 CFR 3.7 and a capital restoration plan filed with the...

  6. 17 CFR 1.12 - Maintenance of minimum financial requirements by futures commission merchants and introducing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... that the total amount set aside on behalf of customers trading on non-United States markets, is less... capital at any time is less than the minimum required by § 1.17 or by the capital rule of any self... or registrant's adjusted net capital is less than required by § 1.17 or by other capital...

  7. 17 CFR 1.12 - Maintenance of minimum financial requirements by futures commission merchants and introducing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... that the total amount set aside on behalf of customers trading on non-United States markets, is less... capital at any time is less than the minimum required by § 1.17 or by the capital rule of any self... or registrant's adjusted net capital is less than required by § 1.17 or by other capital...

  8. Molecular aggregation of humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) form molecular aggregates in solution and on mineral surfaces. Elucidation of the mechanism of formation of these aggregates is important for an understanding of the interactions of HS in soils arid natural waters. The HS are formed mainly by enzymatic depolymerization and oxidation of plant biopolymers. These reactions transform the aromatic and lipid plant components into amphiphilic molecules, that is, molecules that consist of separate hydrophobic (nonpolar) and hydrophilic (polar) parts. The nonpolar parts of the molecules are composed of relatively unaltered segments of plant polymers and the polar parts of carboxylic acid groups. These amphiphiles form membrane-like aggregates on mineral surfaces and micelle-like aggregates in solution. The exterior surfaces of these aggregates are hydrophilic, and the interiors constitute separate hydrophobic liquid-like phases.

  9. Nanoparticle aggregation: principles and modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    The high surface area to volume ratio of nanoparticles usually results in highly reactive and colloidal instability compared to their bulk counterparts. Aggregation as well as many other transformations (e.g., dissolution) in the environment may alter the physiochemical properties, reactivity, fate, transport, and biological interactions (e.g., bioavailability and uptake) of nanoparticles. The unique properties pertinent to nanoparticles, such as shape, size, surface characteristics, composition, and electronic structures, greatly challenge the ability of colloid science to understand nanoparticle aggregation and its environmental impacts. This review briefly introduces fundamentals about aggregation, fractal dimensions, classic and extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeak (DLVO) theories, aggregation kinetic modeling, experimental measurements, followed by detailed discussions on the major factors on aggregation and subsequent effects on nanomaterial transport and reactivity.

  10. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Protein Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Ehab M; Panchal, Jainik P; Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Blum, Janice S; Joubert, Marisa K; Narhi, Linda O; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic proteins have a propensity for aggregation during manufacturing, shipping, and storage. The presence of aggregates in protein drug products can induce adverse immune responses in patients that may affect safety and efficacy, and so it is of concern to both manufacturers and regulatory agencies. In this vein, there is a lack of understanding of the physicochemical determinants of immunological responses and a lack of standardized analytical methods to survey the molecular properties of aggregates associated with immune activation. In this review, we provide an overview of the basic immune mechanisms in the context of interactions with protein aggregates. We then critically examine the literature with emphasis on the underlying immune mechanisms as they relate to aggregate properties. Finally, we highlight the gaps in our current understanding of this issue and offer recommendations for future research. PMID:26869409

  11. Mechanics of fire ant aggregations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennenbaum, Michael; Liu, Zhongyang; Hu, David; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Fire ants link their bodies to form aggregations; these can adopt a variety of structures, they can drip and spread, or withstand applied loads. Here, by using oscillatory rheology, we show that fire ant aggregations are viscoelastic. We find that, at the lowest ant densities probed and in the linear regime, the elastic and viscous moduli are essentially identical over the spanned frequency range, which highlights the absence of a dominant mode of structural relaxation. As ant density increases, the elastic modulus rises, which we interpret by alluding to ant crowding and subsequent jamming. When deformed beyond the linear regime, the aggregation flows, exhibiting shear-thinning behaviour with a stress load that is comparable to the maximum load the aggregation can withstand before individual ants are torn apart. Our findings illustrate the rich, collective mechanical behaviour that can arise in aggregations of active, interacting building blocks.

  12. Mechanics of fire ant aggregations.

    PubMed

    Tennenbaum, Michael; Liu, Zhongyang; Hu, David; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Fire ants link their bodies to form aggregations; these can adopt a variety of structures, they can drip and spread, or withstand applied loads. Here, by using oscillatory rheology, we show that fire ant aggregations are viscoelastic. We find that, at the lowest ant densities probed and in the linear regime, the elastic and viscous moduli are essentially identical over the spanned frequency range, which highlights the absence of a dominant mode of structural relaxation. As ant density increases, the elastic modulus rises, which we interpret by alluding to ant crowding and subsequent jamming. When deformed beyond the linear regime, the aggregation flows, exhibiting shear-thinning behaviour with a stress load that is comparable to the maximum load the aggregation can withstand before individual ants are torn apart. Our findings illustrate the rich, collective mechanical behaviour that can arise in aggregations of active, interacting building blocks. PMID:26501413

  13. Adsorption-induced colloidal aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, B. M.; Petit, J.-M.; Beysens, D.

    1998-03-01

    Reversible colloidal aggregation in binary liquid mixtures has been studied for a number of years. As the phase separation temperature of the liquid mixture is approached the thickness of an adsorption layer around the colloidal particles increases. Beysens and coworkers have demonstrated experimentally that this adsorption layer is intimately connected with the aggregation of the colloidal particles, however, no definitive theory has been available which can explain all of the experimental observations. In this contribution we describe an extension of the Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek theory of colloidal aggregation which takes into account the presence of the adsorption layer and which more realistically models the attractive dispersion interactions. This modified theory can quantitatively account for many of the observed experimental features such as the characteristics of the aggregated state, the general shape of the aggregation line, and the temperature dependence of the second virial coefficient for a lutidine-water mixture containing a small volume fraction of silica colloidal particles.

  14. Aggregation Distributions on Cells Determined by Photobleaching Image Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D.; Kozer, Noga; Chow, Timothy T.Y.; Chon, James W.M.; Clayton, Andrew H.A.

    2013-01-01

    The organization of molecules into macromolecular (nanometer scale), supramolecular complexes (submicron-to-micron scale), and within subcellular domains, is an important architectural principle of cellular biology and biochemistry. Determining the precise nature and distribution of complexes within the cellular milieu is a challenging biophysical problem. Time-series analysis of laser scanning confocal microscopy images by image correlation spectroscopy (ICS) or fluctuation moments methods provides information on aggregation, flow, and dynamics of fluorescently tagged macromolecules. All the methods to date require a brightness standard to relate the experimental data to absolute aggregation. In this article, we show that ICS as a function of gradual photobleaching is a sensitive indicator of aggregation distribution on the submicron scale. Specifically, in photobleaching ICS, the extent of nonlinearity of the apparent cluster density as a function of bleaching is related to the size of clusters. The analysis is tested using computer simulations on model aggregate systems and then applied to an experimental determination of Aβ peptide aggregation on nerve cells. The analysis reveals time-dependent increases in Aβ1-42 peptide aggregation. Globally, the datasets could be described by a monomer-dimer-tetramer-hexamer or a monomer-dimer-trimer-pentamer model. The results demonstrate the utility of photobleaching with ICS for determining aggregation states on the supramolecular scale in intact cells without the requirement for a brightness standard. PMID:23473488

  15. Practical problems in aggregating expert opinions

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J.M.; Picard, R.R.; Meyer, M.A.

    1993-11-01

    Expert opinion is data given by a qualified person in response to a technical question. In these analyses, expert opinion provides information where other data are either sparse or non-existent. Improvements in forecasting result from the advantageous addition of expert opinion to observed data in many areas, such as meteorology and econometrics. More generally, analyses of large, complex systems often involve experts on various components of the system supplying input to a decision process; applications include such wide-ranging areas as nuclear reactor safety, management science, and seismology. For large or complex applications, no single expert may be knowledgeable enough about the entire application. In other problems, decision makers may find it comforting that a consensus or aggregation of opinions is usually better than a single opinion. Many risk and reliability studies require a single estimate for modeling, analysis, reporting, and decision making purposes. For problems with large uncertainties, the strategy of combining as diverse a set of experts as possible hedges against underestimation of that uncertainty. Decision makers are frequently faced with the task of selecting the experts and combining their opinions. However, the aggregation is often the responsibility of an analyst. Whether the decision maker or the analyst does the aggregation, the input for it, such as providing weights for experts or estimating other parameters, is imperfect owing to a lack of omniscience. Aggregation methods for expert opinions have existed for over thirty years; yet many of the difficulties with their use remain unresolved. The bulk of these problem areas are summarized in the sections that follow: sensitivities of results to assumptions, weights for experts, correlation of experts, and handling uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the sources of these problems and describe their effects on aggregation.

  16. State-level social capital and suicide mortality in the 50 U.S. states.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nathan Daniel Lucia; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated whether state levels of social capital are associated with rates of completed suicides in the fifty U.S. states. To do this we regressed state-level suicide rates on an index of social capital, along with other variables known to influence suicide rates such as gun ownership, income inequality, alcohol abuse and dependence, drug abuse and dependence, serious mental illness, unemployment, percent of population living in urban areas, poverty, population instability, and living in a "suicide belt" state. Suicide rates were aggregated from 1999 to 2002, and examined separately by sex and different race/ethnic groups. The results showed that White men and women in states with higher levels of social capital had significantly lower rates of suicide when controlling for the other influential variables. When we examined sub-dimensions of social capital, we found that community organizations (for White women) and group membership (for White men) were particularly strongly associated with lower suicide risk.

  17. Topography of samples with variably aggregated metal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönauer, D.; Kreibig, U.

    1985-06-01

    A proper description of the optical (and other) properties of small particle samples containing clusters of interacting particles requires detailed information on the cluster topography. We present such an investigation performed on samples which were prepared from Au particle hydrosols, the clustering being controlled by addition of stabilizing agents. Numerical results are submitted for interdependencies between the number, the size and shape of aggregates and a Hausdorff dimension of 1.7 ± 0.2 is determined. Proper quantities are given, to detect even very low amounts of aggregation. There are indications that such samples may be modeled by introducing a few prototypic aggregates.

  18. Microelectrode measurements of the activity distribution in nitrifying bacterial aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, D. de; Heuval, J.C. van den; Ottengraf, S.P.P. )

    1993-02-01

    Environmental problems caused by strongly increased ammonium emission by intensive agricultural and industrial activities, wastewater and waste gas purification plants are being redesigned. Since the growth rates and biomass yields of nitrifying organisms are low, their application in continuous-flow processes requires efficient retention of biomass, and development of bacterial aggregates with good settling properties is needed. In this study microelectrodes were used to study the activity distribution of bacterial aggregates in a biological fluidized-bed nitrification reactor with an external aerator. Measurements of ammonium, oxygen, nitrate, and pH were made. Results included the following: biomass yield was close to expected; the active nitrifying zone was limited to the outer 100 to 120 [mu]m of the aggregates; distribution of activity was determined by the penetration depth of oxygen during aggregate development; measurements of activity required the use of ammonium or nitrate microelectrodes, not oxygen microelectrodes alone. 32 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. 12 CFR 932.7 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting requirements. 932.7 Section 932.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.7 Reporting requirements. Each Bank shall...

  20. Important features of Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solar, Slavko V.; Shields, Deborah J.; Langer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Every society, whether developed, developing or in a phase of renewal following governmental change, requires stable, adequate and secure supplies of natural resources. In the latter case, there could be significant need for construction materials for rebuilding infrastructure, industrial capacity, and housing. It is essential that these large-volume materials be provided in a rational manner that maximizes their societal contribution and minimizes environmental impacts. We describe an approach to resource management based on the principles of sustainable developed. Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management offers a way of addressing the conflicting needs and interests of environmental, economic, and social systems. Sustainability is an ethics based concept that utilizes science and democratic processes to reach acceptable agreements and tradeoffs among interests, while acknowledging the fundamental importance of the environment and social goods. We discuss the features of sustainable aggregate resource management.

  1. Coping with the capital shortage.

    PubMed

    Tiscornia, J F

    1980-10-01

    A growing capital shortage problem is affecting the long-range financial viability of hospitals. Trustees can ensure their hospital's future financial viability by asking key questions and by participating in the development of a long-range financial plan.

  2. Role of Standard Demand Response Signals for Advanced Automated Aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Kiliccote, Sila

    2011-11-18

    Emerging standards such as OpenADR enable Demand Response (DR) Resources to interact directly with Utilities and Independent System Operators to allow their facility automation equipment to respond to a variety of DR signals ranging from day ahead to real time ancillary services. In addition, there are Aggregators in today’s markets who are capable of bringing together collections of aggregated DR assets and selling them to the grid as a single resource. However, in most cases these aggregated resources are not automated and when they are, they typically use proprietary technologies. There is a need for a framework for dealing with aggregated resources that supports the following requirements: • Allows demand-side resources to participate in multiple DR markets ranging from wholesale ancillary services to retail tariffs without being completely committed to a single entity like an Aggregator; • Allow aggregated groups of demand-side resources to be formed in an ad hoc fashion to address specific grid-side issues and support the optimization of the collective response of an aggregated group along a number of different dimensions. This is important in order to taylor the aggregated performance envelope to the needs to of the grid; • Allow aggregated groups to be formed in a hierarchical fashion so that each group can participate in variety of markets from wholesale ancillary services to distribution level retail tariffs. This paper explores the issues of aggregated groups of DR resources as described above especially within the context of emerging smart grid standards and the role they will play in both the management and interaction of various grid-side entities with those resources.

  3. Measuring and modeling hemoglobin aggregation below the freezing temperature.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Mónica; Lopes, Carlos; Melo, Eduardo P; Singh, Satish K; Geraldes, Vitor; Rodrigues, Miguel A

    2013-08-01

    Freezing of protein solutions is required for many applications such as storage, transport, or lyophilization; however, freezing has inherent risks for protein integrity. It is difficult to study protein stability below the freezing temperature because phase separation constrains solute concentration in solution. In this work, we developed an isochoric method to study protein aggregation in solutions at -5, -10, -15, and -20 °C. Lowering the temperature below the freezing point in a fixed volume prevents the aqueous solution from freezing, as pressure rises until equilibrium (P,T) is reached. Aggregation rates of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) increased at lower temperature (-20 °C) and higher BHb concentration. However, the addition of sucrose substantially decreased the aggregation rate and prevented aggregation when the concentration reached 300 g/L. The unfolding thermodynamics of BHb was studied using fluorescence, and the fraction of unfolded protein as a function of temperature was determined. A mathematical model was applied to describe BHb aggregation below the freezing temperature. This model was able to predict the aggregation curves for various storage temperatures and initial concentrations of BHb. The aggregation mechanism was revealed to be mediated by an unfolded state, followed by a fast growth of aggregates that readily precipitate. The aggregation kinetics increased for lower temperature because of the higher fraction of unfolded BHb closer to the cold denaturation temperature. Overall, the results obtained herein suggest that the isochoric method could provide a relatively simple approach to obtain fundamental thermodynamic information about the protein and the aggregation mechanism, thus providing a new approach to developing accelerated formulation studies below the freezing temperature.

  4. Capital punishment and professional nursing.

    PubMed

    Carroll, L A

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the issue of capital punishment and whether a professional nurse has the right to choose to participate in it. Capital punishment is an extremely emotional ethical issue, and there is abundant literature to support both viewpoints. Professional nursing upholds values and special moral obligations, as expressed in its code. The American Nurses Association Code for Nurses guides conduct in carrying out nursing responsibilities consistent with the ethical obligations of the profession.

  5. Social capital and dental pain in Brazilian northeast: a multilevel cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence on possible associations between social determinants and dental pain. This study investigated the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain in adolescents, adults and the elderly. Methods A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 624 subjects from 3 age groups: 15–19, 35–44 and 65–74 years. They were randomly selected from 30 census tracts in three cities in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. The outcome of study was the presence of dental pain in the last 6 months. Information on dental pain, demographic, socio-economic, health-related behaviors, use of dental services, self-perceived oral health and social capital measures was collected through interviews. Participants underwent a clinical examination for assessment of dental caries. Neighborhood social capital was evaluated using aggregated measures of social trust, social control, empowerment, political efficacy and neighborhood safety. Individual social capital assessment included bonding and bridging social capital. Multilevel logistic regression was used to test the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain after sequential adjustment for covariates. Results Individuals living in neighborhoods with high social capital were 52% less likely to report dental pain than those living in neighborhoods with low social capital (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.85). Bonding social capital (positive interaction) was independently associated with dental pain (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80-0.91). Last dental visit, self-perceived oral health and number of decayed teeth were also significantly associated with dental pain. Conclusions Our findings suggest that contextual and individual social capital are independently associated with dental pain. PMID:23289932

  6. Fractal aggregates in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabane, M.; Rannou, P.; Chassefiere, E.; Israel, G.

    1993-04-01

    The cluster structure of Titan's atmosphere was modeled by using an Eulerian microphysical model with the specific formulation of microphysical laws applying to fractal particles. The growth of aggregates in the settling phase was treated by introducing the fractal dimension as a parameter of the model. The model was used to obtain a vertical distribution of size and number density of the aggregates for different production altitudes. Results confirm previous estimates of the formation altitude of photochemical aerosols. The vertical profile of the effective radius of aggregates was calculated as a function of the visible optical depth.

  7. 47 CFR 65.304 - Capital structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Capital structure. 65.304 Section 65.304... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.304 Capital structure. The proportion of each cost of capital component in the capital structure is equal to: Proportion in the...

  8. 47 CFR 65.304 - Capital structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Capital structure. 65.304 Section 65.304... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.304 Capital structure. The proportion of each cost of capital component in the capital structure is equal to: Proportion in the...

  9. 47 CFR 65.304 - Capital structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital structure. 65.304 Section 65.304... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.304 Capital structure. The proportion of each cost of capital component in the capital structure is equal to: Proportion in the...

  10. 47 CFR 65.304 - Capital structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Capital structure. 65.304 Section 65.304... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.304 Capital structure. The proportion of each cost of capital component in the capital structure is equal to: Proportion in the...

  11. 47 CFR 65.304 - Capital structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Capital structure. 65.304 Section 65.304... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.304 Capital structure. The proportion of each cost of capital component in the capital structure is equal to: Proportion in the...

  12. 12 CFR 725.5 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The capital stock subscriptions provided for in §§...

  13. Surface fractals in liposome aggregation.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Vargas, Sándalo; Barnadas-Rodríguez, Ramon; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Estelrich, Joan; Callejas-Fernández, José

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the aggregation of charged liposomes induced by magnesium is investigated. Static and dynamic light scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and cryotransmission electron microscopy are used as experimental techniques. In particular, multiple intracluster scattering is reduced to a negligible amount using a cross-correlation light scattering scheme. The analysis of the cluster structure, probed by means of static light scattering, reveals an evolution from surface fractals to mass fractals with increasing magnesium concentration. Cryotransmission electron microscopy micrographs of the aggregates are consistent with this interpretation. In addition, a comparative analysis of these results with those previously reported in the presence of calcium suggests that the different hydration energy between lipid vesicles when these divalent cations are present plays a fundamental role in the cluster morphology. This suggestion is also supported by infrared spectroscopy data. The kinetics of the aggregation processes is also analyzed through the time evolution of the mean diffusion coefficient of the aggregates. PMID:19257067

  14. Surface fractals in liposome aggregation.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Vargas, Sándalo; Barnadas-Rodríguez, Ramon; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Estelrich, Joan; Callejas-Fernández, José

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the aggregation of charged liposomes induced by magnesium is investigated. Static and dynamic light scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and cryotransmission electron microscopy are used as experimental techniques. In particular, multiple intracluster scattering is reduced to a negligible amount using a cross-correlation light scattering scheme. The analysis of the cluster structure, probed by means of static light scattering, reveals an evolution from surface fractals to mass fractals with increasing magnesium concentration. Cryotransmission electron microscopy micrographs of the aggregates are consistent with this interpretation. In addition, a comparative analysis of these results with those previously reported in the presence of calcium suggests that the different hydration energy between lipid vesicles when these divalent cations are present plays a fundamental role in the cluster morphology. This suggestion is also supported by infrared spectroscopy data. The kinetics of the aggregation processes is also analyzed through the time evolution of the mean diffusion coefficient of the aggregates.

  15. Electromagnetic charges in aggregation phenomena.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Claude; Slobodrian, R. J.

    Introduction The mechanism of fine particles aggregation is of great importance in many areas of research, in particular environment sciences where the state of aggregation defines the removal speed of dust from the atmosphere. The study of this mechanism is also important to understand the first stage of planet formation from the solar nebula. The aggregates formed are generally fractals and, as mentioned in the literature [1], the fractal dimensions and the site growth probability measures of the resulting fractal structures strongly depend on the properties of the forces that cause the aggregation. Theory and experimental apparatus We began this study by the aggregation between two charged particles and we are now consid-ering the aggregation between two magnetized particles. The aggregations are produced in a gas at a pressure between 10 and 1000 mbar and by using the applicable simplifications; we find that the distance (r) between the particles as a function of time (t) is given by the following equations: r=Ce(tf -t)1/3 for the electrical attraction r=Cm(tf -t)1/5 for the magnetic dipoles aligned in an external magnetic field. The apparatus built for these measurements consists of an experimental cell from which two perpendicular views are combined via an optical system in one image recorded by a video camera. From the video, we can then measure the distance between the particles as a function of time and reconstruct the trajectories in 3-D. The horizontal and vertical resolutions are respectively 0.86 and 0.92 microns per pixel. With a depth of field of 250 microns, the usable volume for 3-D observation in then 250 microns x 250 microns x 443 microns. Results and discussion A first version of the apparatus was tested on an electrical force aggregation and the results [2] show that the corresponding equation is a good representation of the phenomenon. Preliminary results, from an experiment using iron particles, show that the magnetic force can be seen in

  16. Ceramic ware waste as coarse aggregate for structural concrete production.

    PubMed

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia M; Guerra-Romero, M Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture of any kind of product inevitably entails the production of waste. The quantity of waste generated by the ceramic industry, a very important sector in Spain, is between 5% and 8% of the final output and it is therefore necessary to find an effective waste recovery method. The aim of the study reported in the present article was to seek a sustainable means of managing waste from the ceramic industry through the incorporation of this type of waste in the total replacement of conventional aggregate (gravel) used in structural concrete. Having verified that the recycled ceramic aggregates met all the technical requirements imposed by current Spanish legislation, established in the Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08), then it is prepared a control concrete mix and the recycled concrete mix using 100% recycled ceramic aggregate instead of coarse natural aggregate. The concretes obtained were subjected to the appropriate tests in order to conduct a comparison of their mechanical properties. The results show that the concretes made using ceramic sanitary ware aggregate possessed the same mechanical properties as those made with conventional aggregate. It is therefore possible to conclude that the reuse of recycled ceramic aggregate to produce recycled concrete is a feasible alternative for the sustainable management of this waste. PMID:25188783

  17. Ceramic ware waste as coarse aggregate for structural concrete production.

    PubMed

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia M; Guerra-Romero, M Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture of any kind of product inevitably entails the production of waste. The quantity of waste generated by the ceramic industry, a very important sector in Spain, is between 5% and 8% of the final output and it is therefore necessary to find an effective waste recovery method. The aim of the study reported in the present article was to seek a sustainable means of managing waste from the ceramic industry through the incorporation of this type of waste in the total replacement of conventional aggregate (gravel) used in structural concrete. Having verified that the recycled ceramic aggregates met all the technical requirements imposed by current Spanish legislation, established in the Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08), then it is prepared a control concrete mix and the recycled concrete mix using 100% recycled ceramic aggregate instead of coarse natural aggregate. The concretes obtained were subjected to the appropriate tests in order to conduct a comparison of their mechanical properties. The results show that the concretes made using ceramic sanitary ware aggregate possessed the same mechanical properties as those made with conventional aggregate. It is therefore possible to conclude that the reuse of recycled ceramic aggregate to produce recycled concrete is a feasible alternative for the sustainable management of this waste.

  18. Secure data aggregation in wireless sensor networks using homomorphic encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manish; Verma, Shekhar; Lata, Kusum

    2015-04-01

    In a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), aggregation exploits the correlation between spatially and temporally proximate sensor data to reduce the total data volume to be transmitted to the sink. Mobile agents (MAs) fit into this paradigm, and data can be aggregated and collected by an MA from different sensor nodes using context specific codes. The MA-based data collection suffers due to large size of a typical WSN and is prone to security problems. In this article, homomorphic encryption in a clustered WSN has been proposed for secure and efficient data collection using MAs. The nodes keep encrypted data that are given to an MA for data aggregation tasks. The MA performs all the data aggregation operations upon encrypted data as it migrates between nodes in a tree-like structure in which the nodes are leafs and the cluster head is the root of the tree. It returns and deposits the encrypted aggregated data to the cluster head after traversing through all the intra cluster nodes over a shortest path route. The homomorphic encryption and aggregation processing in encrypted domain makes the data collection process secure. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed secure data aggregation mechanism. In addition to security, MA-based mechanism leads to lesser delay and bandwidth requirements.

  19. Glycation precedes lens crystallin aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, M.S.; Perry, R.E.; Abraham, E.C.

    1987-05-01

    Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) seems to have the potential to alter the structure of crystallins and make them susceptible to thiol oxidation leading to disulfide-linked high molecular weight (HMW) aggregate formation. They used streptozotocin diabetic rats during precataract and cataract stages and long-term cell-free glycation of bovine lens crystallins to study the relationship between glycation and lens crystallin aggregation. HMW aggregates and other protein components of the water-soluble (WS) and urea-soluble (US) fractions were separated by molecular sieve high performance liquid chromatography. Glycation was estimated by both (/sup 3/H)NaBH/sub 4/ reduction and phenylboronate agarose affinity chromatography. Levels of total glycated protein (GP) in the US fractions were about 2-fold higher than in the WS fractions and there was a linear increase in GP in both WS and US fractions. This increase was parallelled by a corresponding increase in HMW aggregates. Total GP extracted by the affinity method from the US fraction showed a predominance of HMW aggregates and vice versa. Cell-free glycation studies with bovine crystallins confirmed the results of the animals studies. Increasing glycation caused a corresponding increase in protein insolubilization and the insoluble fraction thus formed also contained more glycated protein. It appears that lens protein glycation, HMW aggregate formation, and protein insolubilization are interrelated.

  20. Measuring the value of groundwater and other forms of natural capital.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Eli P; Abbott, Joshua K; Bayham, Jude; Boone, Whitney; Haacker, Erin M K; Pfeiffer, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Valuing natural capital is fundamental to measuring sustainability. The United Nations Environment Programme, World Bank, and other agencies have called for inclusion of the value of natural capital in sustainability metrics, such as inclusive wealth. Much has been written about the importance of natural capital, but consistent, rigorous valuation approaches compatible with the pricing of traditional forms of capital have remained elusive. We present a guiding quantitative framework enabling natural capital valuation that is fully consistent with capital theory, accounts for biophysical and economic feedbacks, and can guide interdisciplinary efforts to measure sustainability. We illustrate this framework with an application to groundwater in the Kansas High Plains Aquifer, a rapidly depleting asset supporting significant food production. We develop a 10-y time series (1996-2005) of natural capital asset prices that accounts for technological, institutional, and physical changes. Kansas lost approximately $110 million per year (2005 US dollars) of capital value through groundwater withdrawal and changes in aquifer management during the decade spanning 1996-2005. This annual loss in wealth is approximately equal to the state's 2005 budget surplus, and is substantially more than investments in schools over this period. Furthermore, real investment in agricultural capital also declined over this period. Although Kansas' depletion of water wealth is substantial, it may be tractably managed through careful groundwater management and compensating investments in other natural and traditional assets. Measurement of natural capital value is required to inform management and ongoing investments in natural assets.

  1. Measuring the value of groundwater and other forms of natural capital.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Eli P; Abbott, Joshua K; Bayham, Jude; Boone, Whitney; Haacker, Erin M K; Pfeiffer, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Valuing natural capital is fundamental to measuring sustainability. The United Nations Environment Programme, World Bank, and other agencies have called for inclusion of the value of natural capital in sustainability metrics, such as inclusive wealth. Much has been written about the importance of natural capital, but consistent, rigorous valuation approaches compatible with the pricing of traditional forms of capital have remained elusive. We present a guiding quantitative framework enabling natural capital valuation that is fully consistent with capital theory, accounts for biophysical and economic feedbacks, and can guide interdisciplinary efforts to measure sustainability. We illustrate this framework with an application to groundwater in the Kansas High Plains Aquifer, a rapidly depleting asset supporting significant food production. We develop a 10-y time series (1996-2005) of natural capital asset prices that accounts for technological, institutional, and physical changes. Kansas lost approximately $110 million per year (2005 US dollars) of capital value through groundwater withdrawal and changes in aquifer management during the decade spanning 1996-2005. This annual loss in wealth is approximately equal to the state's 2005 budget surplus, and is substantially more than investments in schools over this period. Furthermore, real investment in agricultural capital also declined over this period. Although Kansas' depletion of water wealth is substantial, it may be tractably managed through careful groundwater management and compensating investments in other natural and traditional assets. Measurement of natural capital value is required to inform management and ongoing investments in natural assets. PMID:26858431

  2. Measuring the value of groundwater and other forms of natural capital

    PubMed Central

    Fenichel, Eli P.; Abbott, Joshua K.; Bayham, Jude; Boone, Whitney; Haacker, Erin M. K.; Pfeiffer, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Valuing natural capital is fundamental to measuring sustainability. The United Nations Environment Programme, World Bank, and other agencies have called for inclusion of the value of natural capital in sustainability metrics, such as inclusive wealth. Much has been written about the importance of natural capital, but consistent, rigorous valuation approaches compatible with the pricing of traditional forms of capital have remained elusive. We present a guiding quantitative framework enabling natural capital valuation that is fully consistent with capital theory, accounts for biophysical and economic feedbacks, and can guide interdisciplinary efforts to measure sustainability. We illustrate this framework with an application to groundwater in the Kansas High Plains Aquifer, a rapidly depleting asset supporting significant food production. We develop a 10-y time series (1996−2005) of natural capital asset prices that accounts for technological, institutional, and physical changes. Kansas lost approximately $110 million per year (2005 US dollars) of capital value through groundwater withdrawal and changes in aquifer management during the decade spanning 1996–2005. This annual loss in wealth is approximately equal to the state’s 2005 budget surplus, and is substantially more than investments in schools over this period. Furthermore, real investment in agricultural capital also declined over this period. Although Kansas’ depletion of water wealth is substantial, it may be tractably managed through careful groundwater management and compensating investments in other natural and traditional assets. Measurement of natural capital value is required to inform management and ongoing investments in natural assets. PMID:26858431

  3. Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

    2012-12-01

    Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within <1 km of the vent. The deposits within the A418 pipe, Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (<62 μm). Secondly, the ash aggregates indicate the involvement of moisture coupled with the presence of dilute expanded eruption clouds. The structure and distribution of these deposits throughout the kimberlite conduit demand that aggregation and deposition operate entirely within the confines of the vent; this indicates that aggregation is a rapid process. Ash aggregates within glaciovolcanic sequences are also rarely documented. The

  4. Perturbing Streaming in Dictyostelium discoidium Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rericha, Erin; Garcia, Gene; Parent, Carole; Losert, Wolfgang

    2009-03-01

    The ability of cells to move towards environmental cues is a critical process allowing the destruction of intruders by the immune system, the formation of the vascular system and the whole scale remodeling of tissues during embryo development. We examine the initial transition from single cell to group migration in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoidium. Upon starvation, D. discoidium cells enter into a developmental program that triggers solitary cells to aggregate into a multicellular structure. The aggregation is mediated by the small molecule, cyclic-AMP, that cells sense, synthesize, secrete and migrate towards often in a head-to-tail fashion called a stream. Using experiment and numerical simulation, we study the sensitivity of streams to perturbations in the cyclic-AMP concentration field. We find the stability of the streams requires cells to shape the cyclic-AMP field through localized secretion and degradation. In addition, we find the streaming phenotype is sensitive to changes in the substrate properties, with slicker surfaces leading to longer more branched streams that yield large initial aggregates.

  5. STAND: Surface Tension for Aggregation Number Determination.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Pablo F; Brocos, Pilar; Amigo, Alfredo; García-Río, Luis; Gracia-Fadrique, Jesús; Piñeiro, Ángel

    2016-04-26

    Taking advantage of the extremely high dependence of surface tension on the concentration of amphiphilic molecules in aqueous solution, a new model based on the double equilibrium between free and aggregated molecules in the liquid phase and between free molecules in the liquid phase and those adsorbed at the air/liquid interface is presented and validated using literature data and fluorescence measurements. A key point of the model is the use of both the Langmuir isotherm and the Gibbs adsorption equation in terms of free molecules instead of the nominal concentration of the solute. The application of the model should be limited to non ionic compounds since it does not consider the presence of counterions. It requires several coupled nonlinear fittings for which we developed a software that is publicly available in our server as a web application. Using this tool, it is straightforward to get the average aggregation number of an amphiphile, the micellization free energy, the adsorption constant, the maximum surface excess (and so the minimum area per molecule), the distribution of solute in the liquid phase between free and aggregate species, and the surface coverage in only a couple of seconds, just by uploading a text file with surface tension vs concentration data and the corresponding uncertainties. PMID:27048988

  6. Multiple discrete soluble aggregates influence polyglutamine toxicity in a Huntington’s disease model system

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Wen; Wang, Xin; Laue, Thomas M.; Denis, Clyde L.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) results from expansions of polyglutamine stretches (polyQ) in the huntingtin protein (Htt) that promote protein aggregation, neurodegeneration, and death. Since the diversity and sizes of the soluble Htt-polyQ aggregates that have been linked to cytotoxicity are unknown, we investigated soluble Htt-polyQ aggregates using analytical ultracentrifugation. Soon after induction in a yeast HD model system, non-toxic Htt-25Q and cytotoxic Htt-103Q both formed soluble aggregates 29S to 200S in size. Because current models indicate that Htt-25Q does not form soluble aggregates, reevaluation of previous studies may be necessary. Only Htt-103Q aggregation behavior changed, however, with time. At 6 hr mid-sized aggregates (33S to 84S) and large aggregates (greater than 100S) became present while at 24 hr primarily only mid-sized aggregates (20S to 80S) existed. Multiple factors that decreased cytotoxicity of Htt-103Q (changing the length of or sequences adjacent to the polyQ, altering ploidy or chaperone dosage, or deleting anti-aging factors) altered the Htt-103Q aggregation pattern in which the suite of mid-sized aggregates at 6 hr were most correlative with cytotoxicity. Hence, the amelioration of HD and other neurodegenerative diseases may require increased attention to and discrimination of the dynamic alterations in soluble aggregation processes. PMID:27721444

  7. 38 CFR 61.13 - Rating criteria for capital grant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capital grant applications. 61.13 Section 61.13 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... capital grant applications. (a) Applicants that meet the threshold requirements in § 61.12 of this part, will then be rated using the selection criteria listed in this section. To be eligible for a...

  8. 38 CFR 61.13 - Rating criteria for capital grant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... capital grant applications. 61.13 Section 61.13 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... capital grant applications. (a) Applicants that meet the threshold requirements in § 61.12 of this part, will then be rated using the selection criteria listed in this section. To be eligible for a...

  9. Achievement of Equity in Capital Outlay Financing: A Policy Analysis for the States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, David C.; And Others

    This monograph examines four plans for state funding of educational facilities: total control; 50-50 flat grants; full state funding; and equalization. The trend in many states is to become increasingly more involved in helping local school districts with capital outlay for facility requirements. Recent litigation suggests that capital outlay is…

  10. 12 CFR 652.75 - Your responsibility for determining the risk-based capital level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Your responsibility for determining the risk... Requirements § 652.75 Your responsibility for determining the risk-based capital level. (a) You must determine your risk-based capital level using the procedures in this subpart, appendix A to this subpart, and...

  11. Commercial Building Tenant Energy Usage Aggregation and Privacy

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, Olga V.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Anderson, David M.; Wang, Na

    2014-10-31

    A growing number of building owners are benchmarking their building energy use. This requires the building owner to acquire monthly whole-building energy usage information, which can be challenging for buildings in which individual tenants have their own utility meters and accounts with the utility. Some utilities and utility regulators have turned to aggregation of customer energy use data (CEUD) as a way to give building owners whole-building energy usage data while protecting customer privacy. Meter profile aggregation adds a layer of protection that decreases the risk of revealing CEUD as the number of meters aggregated increases. The report statistically characterizes the similarity between individual energy usage patterns and whole-building totals at various levels of meter aggregation.

  12. Ceramic roadway aggregates with improved polish and wear resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, A. V., Jr.

    1981-08-01

    Synthetic ceramic aggregates having high wear- and polish-resistance were developed. Three hundred aggregate compositions, incorporating a variety of low-cost 'waste' materials were evaluated. Aggregates were produced using conventional ceramic processing techniques and fired at temperatures ranging from 900-1,500 C. British Wheel and L. A. Abrasion tests were used for initial screening of the aggregates. These data, raw material costs, availability, and energy requirements, were used to select nine compositions for circular track tests. Economic evaluations showed that present production costs, based on a 1,000 ton-per-day operation ranged from $10 to $120 per ton of material produced. Guyana bauxite was used as a standard.

  13. Crystal aggregation in kidney stones; a polymer aggregation problem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, J.; Beshensky, A.; Viswanathan, P.; Zachowicz, W.; Kleinman, J.

    2008-03-01

    Kidney stones most frequently form as aggregates of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals with organic layers between them, and the organic layers contain principally proteins. The pathway leading to the formation of these crystal aggregates in affected people has not been identified, but stone forming patients are thought to have a defect in the structure or distribution of urinary proteins, which normally protect against stone formation. We have developed two polyelectrolyte models that will induce COM crystal aggregation in vitro, and both are consistent with possible urinary protein compositions. The first model was based on mixing polyanionic and polycationic proteins, in portions such that the combined protein charge is near zero. The second model was based on reducing the charge density on partially charged polyanionic proteins, specifically Tamm-Horsfall protein, the second most abundant protein in urine. Both models demonstrated polymer phase separation at solution conditions where COM crystal aggregation was observed. Correlation with data from other bulk crystallization measurements suggest that the anionic side chains form critical binding interactions with COM surfaces that are necessary along with the phase separation process to induce COM crystal aggregation.

  14. Utilization of sewage sludge in the manufacture of lightweight aggregate.

    PubMed

    Franus, Małgorzata; Barnat-Hunek, Danuta; Wdowin, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study on the possibility of sewage sludge management in a sintered ceramic material such as a lightweight aggregate. Made from clay and sludge lightweight aggregates were sintered at two temperatures: 1100 °C (name of sample LWA1) and 1150 °C (name of sample LWA2). Physical and mechanical properties indicate that the resulting expanded clay aggregate containing sludge meets the basic requirements for lightweight aggregates. The presence of sludge supports the swelling of the raw material, thereby causing an increase in the porosity of aggregates. The LWA2 has a lower value of bulk particle density (0.414 g/cm(3)), apparent particle density (0.87 g/cm(3)), and dry particle density (2.59 g/cm(3)) than it is in the case of LWA1 where these parameters were as follows: bulk particle density 0.685 g/cm(3), apparent particle density 1.05 g/cm(3), and dry particle density 2.69 g/cm(3). Water absorption and porosity of LWA1 (WA = 14.4 %, P = 60 %) are lower than the LWA2 (WA = 16.2 % and P = 66 %). This is due to the higher heating temperature of granules which make the waste gases, liberating them from the decomposition of organic sewage sludge. The compressive strength of LWA2 aggregate is 4.64 MPa and for LWA1 is 0.79 MPa. Results of leaching tests of heavy metals from examined aggregates have shown that insoluble metal compounds are placed in silicate and aluminosilicate structure of the starting materials (clays and sludges), whereas soluble substances formed crystalline skeleton of the aggregates. The thermal synthesis of lightweight aggregates from clay and sludge mixture is a waste-free method of their development. PMID:26635022

  15. Utilization of sewage sludge in the manufacture of lightweight aggregate.

    PubMed

    Franus, Małgorzata; Barnat-Hunek, Danuta; Wdowin, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study on the possibility of sewage sludge management in a sintered ceramic material such as a lightweight aggregate. Made from clay and sludge lightweight aggregates were sintered at two temperatures: 1100 °C (name of sample LWA1) and 1150 °C (name of sample LWA2). Physical and mechanical properties indicate that the resulting expanded clay aggregate containing sludge meets the basic requirements for lightweight aggregates. The presence of sludge supports the swelling of the raw material, thereby causing an increase in the porosity of aggregates. The LWA2 has a lower value of bulk particle density (0.414 g/cm(3)), apparent particle density (0.87 g/cm(3)), and dry particle density (2.59 g/cm(3)) than it is in the case of LWA1 where these parameters were as follows: bulk particle density 0.685 g/cm(3), apparent particle density 1.05 g/cm(3), and dry particle density 2.69 g/cm(3). Water absorption and porosity of LWA1 (WA = 14.4 %, P = 60 %) are lower than the LWA2 (WA = 16.2 % and P = 66 %). This is due to the higher heating temperature of granules which make the waste gases, liberating them from the decomposition of organic sewage sludge. The compressive strength of LWA2 aggregate is 4.64 MPa and for LWA1 is 0.79 MPa. Results of leaching tests of heavy metals from examined aggregates have shown that insoluble metal compounds are placed in silicate and aluminosilicate structure of the starting materials (clays and sludges), whereas soluble substances formed crystalline skeleton of the aggregates. The thermal synthesis of lightweight aggregates from clay and sludge mixture is a waste-free method of their development.

  16. The Economic Importance of Human Capital in Modernization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Theodore W.

    1993-01-01

    Human capital invests in new forms of physical capital, hence, human capital is key to economic progress. Lists eight attributes of human capital; for example, human capital cannot be separated from person who has it, and human capital is not visible. Human capital is necessary component when attempting to improve a person's income and welfare in…

  17. Neighborhood racial composition, social capital and black all-cause mortality in Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Rebbeca N; Putt, Mary A; Dean, Lorraine T; Long, Judith A; Montagnet, Chantal A; Armstrong, Katrina

    2009-05-01

    Neighborhood characteristics such as racial composition and social capital have been widely linked to health outcomes, but the direction of the relationship between these characteristics and health of minority populations is controversial. Given this uncertainty, we examined the relationship between neighborhood racial composition, social capital, and black all-cause mortality between 1997 and 2000 in 68 Philadelphia neighborhoods. Data from the U.S. Census, the Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's 2004 Southeast Pennsylvania Community Health Survey, and city vital statistics were linked by census tract and then aggregated into neighborhoods, which served as the unit of analysis. Neighborhood social capital was measured by a summative score of respondent assessments of: the livability of their community, the likelihood of neighbors helping one another, their sense of belonging, and the trustworthiness of their neighbors. After adjustment for the sociodemographic characteristics of neighborhood residents, black age-adjusted all-cause mortality was significantly higher in neighborhoods that had lower proportion of black residents. Neighborhood social capital was also associated with lower black mortality, with the strongest relationship seen for neighborhoods in the top half of social capital scores. There was a significant interaction between racial composition and social capital, so that the effect of social capital on mortality was greatest in neighborhoods with a higher proportion of black residents and the effect of racial composition was greatest in neighborhoods with high social capital. These results demonstrate that age-adjusted all-cause black mortality is lowest in mostly black neighborhoods with high levels of social capital in Philadelphia. PMID:19324485

  18. A Comparative Analysis of the Validity of US State- and County-Level Social Capital Measures and Their Associations with Population Health

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chul-joo; Kim, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to validate a number of available collective social capital measures at the U.S. state and county levels, and to examine the relative extent to which these social capital measures are associated with population health outcomes. Measures of social capital at the U.S. state level included aggregate indices based on the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey (ANHCS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), Putnam’s index, and Kim et al.’s scales. County-level measures consisted of Rupasingha et al.’s social capital index (RGFI) and a BRFSS-derived measure. These measures, except for the PSCI, showed evidence of acceptable validity. Moreover, we observed differences across the social capital measures in their associations with population health outcomes. The implications of the findings for future research in this area are discussed. PMID:25574069

  19. 12 CFR 932.7 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reporting requirements. 932.7 Section 932.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL... to the Finance Board by the 15th business day of each month its risk-based capital requirement...

  20. 12 CFR 932.7 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reporting requirements. 932.7 Section 932.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL... to the Finance Board by the 15th business day of each month its risk-based capital requirement...

  1. 12 CFR 932.7 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reporting requirements. 932.7 Section 932.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL... to the Finance Board by the 15th business day of each month its risk-based capital requirement...

  2. 12 CFR 932.7 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reporting requirements. 932.7 Section 932.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL... to the Finance Board by the 15th business day of each month its risk-based capital requirement...

  3. The measurement of social capital.

    PubMed

    Villalonga-Olives, Ester; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Social capital has been defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. The definition is consistent with either an individualistic approach, i.e. resources (such as information or instrumental assistance) that are accessed by individuals through their network connections; or a collective approach, e.g. the benefits accruing to members of a group - such as the ability of a community to engage in collective action - as a consequence of the existence of cohesive relationships. While research often restricts itself to a single level of analysis, the benefits (and downsides) of social capital accrue to both the individual as well as to the network to which he belongs. In the Dictionary of Epidemiology both the individual and collective levels of analysis were recognized in the definition of social capital.

  4. Fractal Aggregates in Tennis Ball Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabin, J.; Bandin, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the…

  5. Putting Technology to Work on a Capital Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Dudley, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Managing complex capital construction projects provides formidable challenges to school leaders. Increasing enrollment, new state mandates, aging schools and the need for technology-rich environments are issues that require both more space and better quality facilities. Short-handed district leadership teams already find themselves more than fully…

  6. 12 CFR 217.22 - Regulatory capital adjustments and deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., including retained earnings, in its financial subsidiaries (as defined in 12 CFR 208.77) and may not... Comptroller of the Currency; 18 18 These rules include the regulatory capital requirements set forth at 12 CFR part 3 (OCC); 12 CFR part 225 (Board); 12 CFR part 325, and 12 CFR part 390 (FDIC). (B) Prior to...

  7. 38 CFR 61.20 - Life Safety Code capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... failing to meet requirements for any previous assistance from VA. (c)(1) Cost-effectiveness. VA will award up to 300 points for cost-effectiveness with adjustments for high-cost areas. Applicants should... feasibility and cost benefit. (d) The highest-ranked applications for the Life Safety Code capital grants...

  8. 38 CFR 61.20 - Life Safety Code capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... failing to meet requirements for any previous assistance from VA. (c)(1) Cost-effectiveness. VA will award up to 300 points for cost-effectiveness with adjustments for high-cost areas. Applicants should... feasibility and cost benefit. (d) The highest-ranked applications for the Life Safety Code capital grants...

  9. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... savings account or a deposit and it is not insured by the United States or any agency or fund of the United States”; and (ii) Shall clearly state that the certificate is subject to the requirements of § 563... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Mutual capital certificates. 563.74 Section...

  10. 12 CFR 1229.11 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... within 30 days of such appointment bring an action in the United States district court for the judicial... United States District Court for the District of Columbia, for an order requiring the FHFA to remove... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Capital restoration plans. 1229.11...

  11. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... savings account or a deposit and it is not insured by the United States or any agency or fund of the United States”; and (ii) Shall clearly state that the certificate is subject to the requirements of § 563... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Mutual capital certificates. 563.74 Section...

  12. 12 CFR 1229.11 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... within 30 days of such appointment bring an action in the United States district court for the judicial... United States District Court for the District of Columbia, for an order requiring the FHFA to remove... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Capital restoration plans. 1229.11 Section...

  13. Aggregated Recommendation through Random Forests

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aggregated recommendation refers to the process of suggesting one kind of items to a group of users. Compared to user-oriented or item-oriented approaches, it is more general and, therefore, more appropriate for cold-start recommendation. In this paper, we propose a random forest approach to create aggregated recommender systems. The approach is used to predict the rating of a group of users to a kind of items. In the preprocessing stage, we merge user, item, and rating information to construct an aggregated decision table, where rating information serves as the decision attribute. We also model the data conversion process corresponding to the new user, new item, and both new problems. In the training stage, a forest is built for the aggregated training set, where each leaf is assigned a distribution of discrete rating. In the testing stage, we present four predicting approaches to compute evaluation values based on the distribution of each tree. Experiments results on the well-known MovieLens dataset show that the aggregated approach maintains an acceptable level of accuracy. PMID:25180204

  14. Novel insights into amylin aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Karen; Govender, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Amylin is a peptide that aggregates into species that are toxic to pancreatic beta cells, leading to type II diabetes. This study has for the first time quantified amylin association and dissociation kinetics (association constant (ka) = 28.7 ± 5.1 L mol−1 s−1 and dissociation constant (kd) = 2.8 ± 0.6 ×10−4 s−1) using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Thus far, techniques used for the sizing of amylin aggregates do not cater for the real-time monitoring of unconstrained amylin in solution. In this regard we evaluated recently innovated nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). In addition, both SPR and NTA were used to study the effect of previously synthesized amylin derivatives on amylin aggregation and to evaluate their potential as a cell-free system for screening potential inhibitors of amylin-mediated cytotoxicity. Results obtained from NTA highlighted a predominance of 100–300 nm amylin aggregates and correlation to previously published cytotoxicity results suggests the toxic species of amylin to be 200–300 nm in size. The results seem to indicate that NTA has potential as a new technique to monitor the aggregation potential of amyloid peptides in solution and also to screen potential inhibitors of amylin-mediated cytotoxicity. PMID:26019498

  15. Cost of capital to the hospital sector.

    PubMed

    Sloan, F A; Valvona, J; Hassan, M; Morrisey, M A

    1988-03-01

    This paper provides estimates of the cost of equity and debt capital to for-profit and non-profit hospitals in the U.S. for the years 1972-83. The cost of equity is estimated using, alternatively, the Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory. We find that the cost of equity capital, using either model, substantially exceeded anticipated inflation. The cost of debt capital was much lower. Accounting for the corporate tax shield on debt and capital paybacks by cost-based insurers lowered the net cost of capital to hospitals. PMID:10302653

  16. Natural capital in ecology and economics: an overview.

    PubMed

    Fenech, Adam; Foster, Jay; Hamilton, Kirk; Hansell, Roger

    2003-01-01

    The Brundtland Commission report, Our Common Future, defined sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Although the idea of sustainable development has been widely accepted, it has proved difficult to identify and implement policies and practices that promote sustainable economic growth. Some economists, environmental scientists and policy analysts believe that they can transform the consensus about sustainability into manageable practices. They propose to accomplish this feat with a set of new ideas about the relationships between the economy and the environment offered under the banner of 'natural capital'. An ideal account of natural capital would be one or more standard measures or models that would allow the direct comparison of environmental goods, like forests, fresh water and clean air, with economic goods, like money, capital and productivity. By bringing economic science and environmental science to an objective common ground, a natural capital model has the potential to provide a concrete means of comparing the economic and ecological costs and benefits of particular policies and programmes. This paper offers a survey and analysis of several new contributions to the formation of the natural capital concept from economists, ecologists, policy analysts, biometricians, foresters and a philosopher. The paper concludes that existing microeconomic theory may be 'ungreenable', if it is not reformulated. While macroeconomic approaches to natural capital have beenmore successful, they share the limitation that ecosystems and species are valued solely in monetary terms. These problems are taken to suggest that the development of a successful natural capital model may require economic theory to be recast to include non-monetary social preferences and values.

  17. Equilibrium structure of ferrofluid aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Mina; Tomanek, David

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium structure of large but finite aggregates of magnetic dipoles, representing a colloidal suspension of magnetite particles in a ferrofluid. With increasing system size, the structural motif evolves from chains and rings to multi-chain and multi-ring assemblies. Very large systems form single- and multi-wall coils, tubes and scrolls. These structural changes result from a competition between various energy terms, which can be approximated analytically within a continuum model. We also study the effect of external parameters such as magnetic field on the relative stability of these structures. Our results may give insight into experimental data obtained during solidification of ferrofluid aggregates at temperatures where thermal fluctuations become negligible in comparison to inter-particle interactions. These data may also help to experimentally control the aggregation of magnetic particles.

  18. Customer Aggregation: An Opportunity for Green Power?

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, E.; Bird, L.

    2001-02-26

    We undertook research into the experience of aggregation groups to determine whether customer aggregation offers an opportunity to bring green power choices to more customers. The objectives of this report, therefore, are to (1) identify the different types of aggregation that are occurring today, (2) learn whether aggregation offers an opportunity to advance sales of green power, and (3) share these concepts and approaches with potential aggregators and green power advocates.

  19. Fractal aggregates in tennis ball systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabin, J.; Bandín, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.

    2009-09-01

    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the images of the cluster of balls, following Forrest and Witten's pioneering studies on the aggregation of smoke particles, to estimate their fractal dimension.

  20. Proteins that mediate protein aggregation and cytotoxicity distinguish Alzheimer's hippocampus from normal controls.

    PubMed

    Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Balasubramaniam, Meenakshisundaram; Parcon, Paul A; Barger, Steven W; Griffin, W Sue T; Alla, Ramani; Tackett, Alan J; Mackintosh, Samuel G; Petricoin, Emanuel; Zhou, Weidong; Shmookler Reis, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are distinguished by characteristic protein aggregates initiated by disease-specific 'seed' proteins; however, roles of other co-aggregated proteins remain largely unexplored. Compact hippocampal aggregates were purified from Alzheimer's and control-subject pools using magnetic-bead immunoaffinity pulldowns. Their components were fractionated by electrophoretic mobility and analyzed by high-resolution proteomics. Although total detergent-insoluble aggregates from Alzheimer's and controls had similar protein content, within the fractions isolated by tau or Aβ1-42 pulldown, the protein constituents of Alzheimer-derived aggregates were more abundant, diverse, and post-translationally modified than those from controls. Tau- and Aβ-containing aggregates were distinguished by multiple components, and yet shared >90% of their protein constituents, implying similar accretion mechanisms. Alzheimer-specific protein enrichment in tau-containing aggregates was corroborated for individuals by three analyses. Five proteins inferred to co-aggregate with tau were confirmed by precise in situ methods, including proximity ligation amplification that requires co-localization within 40 nm. Nematode orthologs of 21 proteins, which showed Alzheimer-specific enrichment in tau-containing aggregates, were assessed for aggregation-promoting roles in C. elegans by RNA-interference 'knockdown'. Fifteen knockdowns (71%) rescued paralysis of worms expressing muscle Aβ, and 12 (57%) rescued chemotaxis disrupted by neuronal Aβ expression. Proteins identified in compact human aggregates, bound by antibody to total tau, were thus shown to play causal roles in aggregation based on nematode models triggered by Aβ1-42 . These observations imply shared mechanisms driving both types of aggregation, and/or aggregate-mediated cross-talk between tau and Aβ. Knowledge of protein components that promote protein accrual in diverse aggregate types implicates common

  1. Internal modelling under Risk-Based Capital (RBC) framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Ang Siew; Hin, Pooi Ah

    2015-12-01

    Very often the methods for the internal modelling under the Risk-Based Capital framework make use of the data which are in the form of run-off triangle. The present research will instead extract from a group of n customers, the historical data for the sum insured si of the i-th customer together with the amount paid yij and the amount aij reported but not yet paid in the j-th development year for j = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. We model the future value (yij+1, aij+1) to be dependent on the present year value (yij, aij) and the sum insured si via a conditional distribution which is derived from a multivariate power-normal mixture distribution. For a group of given customers with different original purchase dates, the distribution of the aggregate claims liabilities may be obtained from the proposed model. The prediction interval based on the distribution for the aggregate claim liabilities is found to have good ability of covering the observed aggregate claim liabilities.

  2. Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Peter J; Hills, Colin D; Carey, Paula J

    2009-10-01

    The concomitant recycling of waste and carbon dioxide emissions is the subject of developing technology designed to close the industrial process loop and facilitate the bulk-re-use of waste in, for example, construction. The present work discusses a treatment step that employs accelerated carbonation to convert gaseous carbon dioxide into solid calcium carbonate through a reaction with industrial thermal residues. Treatment by accelerated carbonation enabled a synthetic aggregate to be made from thermal residues and waste quarry fines. The aggregates produced had a bulk density below 1000 kg/m(3) and a high water absorption capacity. Aggregate crushing strengths were between 30% and 90% stronger than the proprietary lightweight expanded clay aggregate available in the UK. Cast concrete blocks containing the carbonated aggregate achieve compressive strengths of 24 MPa, making them suitable for use with concrete exposed to non-aggressive service environments. The energy intensive firing and sintering processes traditionally required to produce lightweight aggregates can now be augmented by a cold-bonding, low energy method that contributes to the reduction of green house gases to the atmosphere. PMID:19577916

  3. ';Best' Practices for Aggregating Subset Results from Archived Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, W. E.; Perez, J.

    2013-12-01

    In response to the exponential growth in science data analysis and visualization capabilities Data Centers have been developing new delivery mechanisms to package and deliver large volumes of aggregated subsets of archived data. New standards are evolving to help data providers and application programmers deal with growing needs of the science community. These standards evolve from the best practices gleaned from new products and capabilities. The NASA Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC) has developed and deployed production provider-specific search and subset web applications for the CALIPSO, CERES, TES, and MOPITT missions. This presentation explores several use cases that leverage aggregated subset results and examines the standards and formats ASDC developers applied to the delivered files as well as the implementation strategies for subsetting and processing the aggregated products. The following topics will be addressed: - Applications of NetCDF CF conventions to aggregated level 2 satellite subsets - Data-Provider-Specific format requirements vs. generalized standards - Organization of the file structure of aggregated NetCDF subset output - Global Attributes of individual subsetted files vs. aggregated results - Specific applications and framework used for subsetting and delivering derivative data files

  4. Cell-to-cell propagation of infectious cytosolic protein aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Julia P.; Denner, Philip; Nussbaum-Krammer, Carmen; Kuhn, Peer-Hendrik; Suhre, Michael H.; Scheibel, Thomas; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F.; Schätzl, Hermann M.; Bano, Daniele; Vorberg, Ina M.

    2013-01-01

    Prions are self-templating protein conformers that replicate by recruitment and conversion of homotypic proteins into growing protein aggregates. Originally identified as causative agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, increasing evidence now suggests that prion-like phenomena are more common in nature than previously anticipated. In contrast to fungal prions that replicate in the cytoplasm, propagation of mammalian prions derived from the precursor protein PrP is confined to the cell membrane or endocytic vesicles. Here we demonstrate that cytosolic protein aggregates can also behave as infectious entities in mammalian cells. When expressed in the mammalian cytosol, protein aggregates derived from the prion domain NM of yeast translation termination factor Sup35 persistently propagate and invade neighboring cells, thereby inducing a self-perpetuating aggregation state of NM. Cell contact is required for efficient infection. Aggregates can also be induced in primary astrocytes, neurons, and organotypic cultures, demonstrating that this phenomenon is not specific to immortalized cells. Our data have important implications for understanding prion-like phenomena of protein aggregates associated with human diseases and for the growing number of amyloidogenic proteins discovered in mammals. PMID:23509289

  5. The history of aggregate development in the denver, Co area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    At the start of the 20th century Denver's population was 203,795. Most streets were unpaved. Buildings were constructed of wood frame or masonry. Transport was by horse-drawn-wagon or rail. Statewide, aggregate consumption was less than 0.25 metric tons per person per year. One hundred years later Denver had a population of 2,365,345. Today Denver is a major metropolitan area at the crossroads of two interstates, home to a new international airport, and in the process of expanding its light rail transit system. The skyline is punctuated with skyscrapers. The urban center is surrounded with edge cities. These changes required huge amounts of aggregate. Statewide, aggregate consumption increased 50 fold to over 13 metric tons per person per year. Denver has a large potential supply of aggregate, but sand and gravel quality decreases downstream from the mountain front and potential sources of crushed stone occur in areas prized for their scenic beauty. These issues, along with urban encroachment and citizen opposition, have complicated aggregate development and have paved a new path for future aggregate development including sustainable resource management and reclamation techniques.

  6. Lysozyme Aggregation and Fibrillation Monitored by Dynamic Light Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemzer, Louis; Flanders, Bret; Schmit, Jeremy; Sorensen, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    The aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins provides a rich phase space with significant biomedical implications, including a link with several age-related diseases. We employed dynamic light scattering to monitor the aggregation of lysozyme, a model protein, from a monomeric state until the formation of micron-sized fibrils. For an aqueous lysozyme solution buffered at pH 2, the auto-correlation function of the scattered light intensity was found to be well-fit by a single exponential function with decay time τ = 1/(2Dq^2) = 0.25 ms, which corresponds to a mean hydrodynamic radius (RH) of 2.2 nm, very likely generated by monomers. Ethanol (4% v/v final concentration) induced a partial unfolding, to RH = 4.6 nm. The subsequent addition of 70 mM KCl was found to shrink the size back to RH = 2.5 nm, as expected when a denatured protein refolds due to partial screening of the intramolecular repulsion. However, further aggregation was not observed. At pH 4, using a low-salt acetate buffer, more ethanol (10% v/v) was required to initiate unfolding, but once it occurred, larger aggregates formed. These results are consistent with the model that partial unfolding, which exposes beta-motif secondary structure, is a prerequisite for aggregation and fibrillation, but the aggregation fate depends on the protein charge state (pH) and screening (salt concentration).

  7. Alteration of red blood cell aggregation during blood storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyun-Jung; Nam, Jeong-Hun; Lee, Byoung-Kwon; Suh, Jang-Soo; Shin, Sehyun

    2011-06-01

    Even though the trade-off between the benefits and risks of blood transfusion has been discussed for the last several decades, it requires further understanding of the rheological changes in stored blood that include the alteration of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation. The RBC aggregation of stored blood in its autologous plasma was monitored through the storage period (35 days). The critical shear stress, as a measure of RBC aggregation, was determined by using a microfluidic aggregometer. Blood was processed into a blood bag containing the anticoagulant CPDA1 and stored at 4°C. It was subjected to assays after zero, seven, 14, and 35 days. The critical shear stress for stored blood did not change up to 14 days of storage but exhibited a significant decrease after 35 days of storage. These results were identical to those of the conventional aggregation index (AI). Also, in the alteration of RBC aggregation for blood storage, the effect of the plasma factor was slightly stronger than that of the cellular factor. Through the present study, the critical shear stress as a new measure of RBC aggregation may help to monitor and control the quality of blood storage.

  8. Structural basis for cyclodextrins' suppression of human growth hormone aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Otzen, Daniel Erik; Knudsen, Benjamin Raerup; Aachmann, Finn; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen; Wimmer, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    Many therapeutic proteins require storage at room temperature for extended periods of time. This can lead to aggregation and loss of function. Cyclodextrins (CDs) have been shown to function as aggregation suppressors for a wide range of proteins. Their potency is often ascribed to their affinity for aromatic amino acids, whose surface exposure would otherwise lead to protein association. However, no detailed structural studies are available. Here we investigate the interactions between human growth hormone (hGH) and different CDs at low pH. Although hGH aggregates readily at pH 2.5 in 1 M NaCl to form amorphous aggregates, the presence of 25 to 50 mM of various β-CD derivatives is sufficient to completely avoid this. α- and γ-CD are considerably less effective. Stopped-flow data on the aggregation reaction in the presence of β-CD are analyzed according to a minimalist association model to yield an apparent hGH-β-CD dissociation constant of ∼6 mM. This value is very similar to that obtained by simple fluorescence-based titration of hGH with β-CD. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies indicate that β-CD leads to a more unfolded conformation of hGH at low pH and predominantly binds to the aromatic side-chains. This indicates that aromatic amino acids are important components of regions of residual structure that may form nuclei for aggregation. PMID:12070330

  9. Aggregating tags for column-free protein purification.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhanglin; Zhao, Qing; Xing, Lei; Zhou, Bihong; Wang, Xu

    2015-12-01

    Protein purification remains a central need for biotechnology. In recent years, a class of aggregating tags has emerged, which offers a quick, cost-effective and column-free alternative for producing recombinant proteins (and also peptides) with yield and purity comparable to that of the popular His-tag. These column-free tags induce the formation of aggregates (during or after expression) when fused to a target protein or peptide, and upon separation from soluble impurities, the target protein or peptide is subsequently released via a cleavage site. In this review, we categorize these tags as follows: (i) tags that induce inactive protein aggregates in vivo; (ii) tags that induce active protein aggregates in vivo; and (iii) tags that induce soluble expression in vivo, but aggregates in vitro. The respective advantages and disadvantages of these tags are discussed, and compared to the three conventional tags (His-tag, maltose-binding protein [MBP] tag, and intein-mediated purification with a chitin-binding tag [IMPACT-CN]). While this new class of aggregating tags is promising, more systematic tests are required to further the use. It is conceivable, however, that the combination of these tags and the more traditional columns may significantly reduce the costs for resins and columns, particularly for the industrial scale.

  10. Teachers, Networks and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Kaleen

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that school leaders and policymakers should attend to the social conditions within schools that promote instructional improvement and student achievement gains. This dissertation uses theoretical and empirical work on social capital to frame three aspects of the relationships among teachers. The three studies…

  11. Modeling and Measuring Organization Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkeson, Andrew; Kehoe, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    Manufacturing plants have a clear life cycle: they are born small, grow substantially with age, and eventually die. Economists have long thought that this life cycle is driven by organization capital, the accumulation of plant-specific knowledge. The location of plants in the life cycle determines the size of the payments, or organization rents,…

  12. Social Capital and Community Heterogeneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffe, Hilde

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the number of parties in the local party system as a more…

  13. Capital Punishment: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Edy

    1983-01-01

    The debate over the death penalty in the United States has implications beyond our borders. Because of the lack of universal standards governing its use, only those countries which have abolished capital punishment may, with any moral authority, denounce its exploitation as an instrument of political expediency. (IS)

  14. School Cheating and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paccagnella, Marco; Sestito, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between social capital and cheating behaviour in standardized tests. Given the low-stakes nature of these tests, we interpret the widespread presence of cheating as a signal of low trust towards central education authorities and as lack of respect for the rule of law. We find that cheating is…

  15. 12 CFR 615.5220 - Capitalization bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... retirable at the sole discretion of the board, provided minimum permanent capital adequacy standards... association's funding bank in conjunction with any agreement for a transfer of capital between the...

  16. Are capitation dollars slipping through your fingers?

    PubMed

    1998-11-01

    This study by a San Francisco consultant suggests that provider groups can recover 10% to 15% of their capitation dollars by conducting financial recoveries in areas such as member-capitation reconciliation, claims paid on ineligible members, and duplicate claims.

  17. 12 CFR 1777.20 - Capital classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... date of section 1365 of the 1992 Act. The capital classification of an Enterprise for purposes of... classification. (c) Capital classifications before the effective date of section 1365 of the 1992...

  18. 12 CFR 1777.20 - Capital classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... date of section 1365 of the 1992 Act. The capital classification of an Enterprise for purposes of... classification. (c) Capital classifications before the effective date of section 1365 of the 1992...

  19. 12 CFR 1777.20 - Capital classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... date of section 1365 of the 1992 Act. The capital classification of an Enterprise for purposes of... classification. (c) Capital classifications before the effective date of section 1365 of the 1992...

  20. 12 CFR 1777.20 - Capital classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... date of section 1365 of the 1992 Act. The capital classification of an Enterprise for purposes of... classification. (c) Capital classifications before the effective date of section 1365 of the 1992...

  1. Social Capital and People with Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Baron, Stephen; Wilson, Alastair

    1999-01-01

    Outlines social capital theories in functionalist and Marxist traditions and their implications for people with learning difficulties. Identifies multiple factors influencing their ability to access social capital, including ability/inability to conform to social norms and economic inequities. (SK)

  2. Role of Livelihood Capital in Reducing Climatic Vulnerability: Insights of Australian Wheat from 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    In many agricultural countries, development of rural livelihood through increasing capital is a major regional policy to adapt to climate change. However, the role of livelihood capital in reducing climatic vulnerability is uncertain. This study assesses vulnerability and identifies the effects of common capital indicators on it, using Australian wheat as an example. We calculate exposure (a climate index) and sensitivity (a wheat failure index) to measure vulnerability and classify the resilient and sensitive cases, and express adaptive capacity through financial, human, natural, physical, and social capital indicators for 12 regions in the Australian wheat-sheep production zone from 1991-2010. We identify relationships between 12 indicators of five types of capital and vulnerability with t-tests and six logistic models considering the capital indicator itself, its first-order lag and its square as dependent variables to test the hypothesis that a high level of each capital metric results in low vulnerability. Through differing adaptive capacities between resilient and sensitive groups, we found that only four of the 12 (e.g., the access to finance, cash income level, total crop gross revenues, and family share of farm income) relate to vulnerability, which challenges the hypothesis that increasing capital reduces vulnerability. We conclude that further empirical reexaminations are required to test the relationships between capital measures and vulnerability under the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF).

  3. Role of Livelihood Capital in Reducing Climatic Vulnerability: Insights of Australian Wheat from 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    In many agricultural countries, development of rural livelihood through increasing capital is a major regional policy to adapt to climate change. However, the role of livelihood capital in reducing climatic vulnerability is uncertain. This study assesses vulnerability and identifies the effects of common capital indicators on it, using Australian wheat as an example. We calculate exposure (a climate index) and sensitivity (a wheat failure index) to measure vulnerability and classify the resilient and sensitive cases, and express adaptive capacity through financial, human, natural, physical, and social capital indicators for 12 regions in the Australian wheat–sheep production zone from 1991–2010. We identify relationships between 12 indicators of five types of capital and vulnerability with t-tests and six logistic models considering the capital indicator itself, its first-order lag and its square as dependent variables to test the hypothesis that a high level of each capital metric results in low vulnerability. Through differing adaptive capacities between resilient and sensitive groups, we found that only four of the 12 (e.g., the access to finance, cash income level, total crop gross revenues, and family share of farm income) relate to vulnerability, which challenges the hypothesis that increasing capital reduces vulnerability. We conclude that further empirical reexaminations are required to test the relationships between capital measures and vulnerability under the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF). PMID:27022910

  4. Role of Livelihood Capital in Reducing Climatic Vulnerability: Insights of Australian Wheat from 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    In many agricultural countries, development of rural livelihood through increasing capital is a major regional policy to adapt to climate change. However, the role of livelihood capital in reducing climatic vulnerability is uncertain. This study assesses vulnerability and identifies the effects of common capital indicators on it, using Australian wheat as an example. We calculate exposure (a climate index) and sensitivity (a wheat failure index) to measure vulnerability and classify the resilient and sensitive cases, and express adaptive capacity through financial, human, natural, physical, and social capital indicators for 12 regions in the Australian wheat-sheep production zone from 1991-2010. We identify relationships between 12 indicators of five types of capital and vulnerability with t-tests and six logistic models considering the capital indicator itself, its first-order lag and its square as dependent variables to test the hypothesis that a high level of each capital metric results in low vulnerability. Through differing adaptive capacities between resilient and sensitive groups, we found that only four of the 12 (e.g., the access to finance, cash income level, total crop gross revenues, and family share of farm income) relate to vulnerability, which challenges the hypothesis that increasing capital reduces vulnerability. We conclude that further empirical reexaminations are required to test the relationships between capital measures and vulnerability under the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF). PMID:27022910

  5. Lightweight alumina refractory aggregate. Phase 2, Pilot scale development

    SciTech Connect

    Swansiger, T.G.; Pearson, A.

    1994-11-01

    Kilogram quantities of refractory aggregate were prepared from both a paste and a pelletized form of extruder feed material in both bench and pilot-scale equipment. The 99{sup +} % alumina aggregate exhibited a bulk density approaching 2.5 g/cm{sup 3} and a fired strength slightly lower than fused alumina. Based on initial evaluation by two refractory manufacturers in brick or castable applications, the new aggregate offered adequate strength with thermal conductivity reductions up to 34%, depending on the temperature and application of the new aggregate in these initial trials. The new aggregate was simply substituted for Tabular{trademark} in the refractory formulation. Thus, there is room for improvement through formulation optimization with the lightweight aggregate. The new aggregate offers a unique combination of density, strength, and thermal properties not available in current aggregate. To this point in time, technical development has led to a pelletized formulation with borderline physical form leaving the Eirich mixer. The formulation requires further development to provide more latitude for the production of pelletized material without forming paste, while still reducing the bulk density slightly to reach the 2.5 g/cm{sup 3} target. The preferred, pelletized process flowsheet was outlined and a preliminary economic feasibility study performed based on a process retrofit into Alcoa`s Arkansas tabular production facilities. Based on an assumed market demand of 20,000 mt/year and an assumed selling price of $0.65/lb (25% more than the current selling price of Tabular{trademark}, on a volume basis), economics were favorable. Decision on whether to proceed into Phase 3 (full- scale demonstration) will be based on a formal market survey in 1994 October.

  6. Capital update factor: a new era approaches.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, P L

    1993-02-01

    The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) has constructed a preliminary model of a new capital update method which is consistent with the framework being developed to refine the update method for PPS operating costs. HCFA's eventual goal is to develop a single update framework for operating and capital costs. Initial results suggest that adopting the new capital update method would reduce capital payments substantially, which might intensify creditor's concerns about extending loans to hospitals.

  7. Studies on recycled aggregates-based concrete.

    PubMed

    Rakshvir, Major; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2006-06-01

    Reduced extraction of raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits, reduced environmental impact and fast-depleting reserves of conventional natural aggregates has necessitated the use of recycling, in order to be able to conserve conventional natural aggregate. In this study various physical and mechanical properties of recycled concrete aggregates were examined. Recycled concrete aggregates are different from natural aggregates and concrete made from them has specific properties. The percentages of recycled concrete aggregates were varied and it was observed that properties such as compressive strength showed a decrease of up to 10% as the percentage of recycled concrete aggregates increased. Water absorption of recycled aggregates was found to be greater than natural aggregates, and this needs to be compensated during mix design.

  8. RAGG - R EPISODIC AGGREGATION PACKAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The RAGG package is an R implementation of the CMAQ episodic model aggregation method developed by Constella Group and the Environmental Protection Agency. RAGG is a tool to provide climatological seasonal and annual deposition of sulphur and nitrogen for multimedia management. ...

  9. Cyclosporine A enhances platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Grace, A A; Barradas, M A; Mikhailidis, D P; Jeremy, J Y; Moorhead, J F; Sweny, P; Dandona, P

    1987-12-01

    In view of the reported increase in thromboembolic episodes following cyclosporine A (CyA) therapy, the effect of this drug on platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 release was investigated. The addition of CyA, at therapeutic concentrations to platelet rich plasma from normal subjects in vitro was found to increase aggregation in response to adrenaline, collagen and ADP. Ingestion of CyA by healthy volunteers was also associated with enhanced platelet aggregation. The CyA-mediated enhancement of aggregation was further enhanced by the addition in vitro of therapeutic concentrations of heparin. Platelets from renal allograft recipients treated with CyA also showed hyperaggregability and increased thromboxane A2 release, which were most marked at "peak" plasma CyA concentration and less so at "trough" concentrations. Platelet hyperaggregability in renal allograft patients on long-term CyA therapy tended to revert towards normal following the replacement of CyA with azathioprine. Hypertensive patients with renal allografts on nifedipine therapy had normal platelet function and thromboxane release in spite of CyA therapy. These observations suggest that CyA-mediated platelet activation may contribute to the pathogenesis of the thromboembolic phenomena associated with the use of this drug. The increased release of thromboxane A2 (a vasoconstrictor) may also play a role in mediating CyA-related nephrotoxicity.

  10. 13 CFR 107.240 - Limitations on including non-cash capital contributions in Private Capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... principal and interest by, the United States. (b) Services rendered or to be rendered to you, priced at no... capital contributions in Private Capital. 107.240 Section 107.240 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... Sbic § 107.240 Limitations on including non-cash capital contributions in Private Capital....

  11. 13 CFR 107.240 - Limitations on including non-cash capital contributions in Private Capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... principal and interest by, the United States. (b) Services rendered or to be rendered to you, priced at no... capital contributions in Private Capital. 107.240 Section 107.240 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... Sbic § 107.240 Limitations on including non-cash capital contributions in Private Capital....

  12. Psychological Capital, Career Identity and Graduate Employability in Uganda: The Mediating Role of Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…

  13. Venture Capital Initiative: Ohio's School Improvement Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Soonhwa; Loadman, William E.

    In 1994 the Ohio State Legislature established Venture Capital to support school restructuring. The Venture Capital school initiative is a concept borrowed from the business community in which the corporate entity provides risk capital to parts of the organization to stimulate creative ideas and to provide opportunities for local entities to try…

  14. Building Social Capital through Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beames, Simon; Atencio, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, the body of literature surrounding the subject of social capital has witnessed steady growth. While sociologists have extensively discussed how social capital can be created and sustained within local communities and national contexts, there is little evidence of the social capital discourse within the outdoor education…

  15. Cognitive Capitalism, Education and Digital Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A., Ed.; Bulut, Ergin, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive capitalism--sometimes referred to as "third capitalism," after mercantilism and industrial capitalism--is an increasingly significant theory, given its focus on the socio-economic changes caused by Internet and Web 2.0 technologies that have transformed the mode of production and the nature of labor. The theory of cognitive capitalism…

  16. 12 CFR 615.5200 - Capital planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Capital planning. 615.5200 Section 615.5200 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Capital Adequacy § 615.5200 Capital planning. (a) The Board of Directors of each Farm Credit...

  17. School Capital Funding: Supplementary State Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurley, Richard

    In July 2001, the Tennessee Comptroller's Office of Education Accountability (OEA) began studying methods other states use to finance K-12 capital outlay. The final product of this research is the report "School Capital Funding: Tennessee in a National Context." As part of this research, OEA staff compiled information on state K-12 capital finance…

  18. The Compensating Income Variation of Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groot, Wim; van den Brink, Henriette Maassen; van Praag, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    There is a small but growing literature on the determinants of social capital. Most of these studies use a measure of trust to define social capital empirically. In this paper we use three different measures of social capital: the size of the individual's social network, the extent of their social safety net and membership of unions or…

  19. Capital Financing for Independent Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Kevin G.; Doherty, Robert F.; Wienk, Christopher O.

    This document contains summary materials from a presentation by Wye River Capital, Inc. of Annapolis, Maryland, on capital financing for independent private schools. The main sections of the presentation address: (1) overview of the capital financing process; (2) tax law considerations for tax-exempt financings by private schools; and (3) key…

  20. Measuring Social Capital in Hamilton, Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…

  1. Sociospatial Schooling Practices: A Spatial Capital Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barthon, Catherine; Monfroy, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance today of the spatial dimension within the analysis of parents' education strategies concerning their school choices at the secondary school level. This study is based on the 2 dimensions of the concept of spatial capital (Levy, 1994): position capital and situation capital. It explores sociospatial schooling…

  2. Experimentally constraining the boundary conditions for volcanic ash aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, U.; Auer, B.; Cimarelli, C.; Scolamacchia, T.; Guenthel, M.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic ash is the primary product of various volcanic processes. Due to its size, ash can remain in the atmosphere for a prolonged period of time. Aggregation processes are a first-order influence on the residence time of ash in the atmosphere and its dispersion from the vent. Due to their internal structure, ash aggregates have been classified as ash pellets or accretionary lapilli. Although several concomitant factors may play a role during aggregation, there is a broad consensus that both 1) particle collision and 2) humidity are required for particles to aggregate. However, direct observation of settling aggregates and record of the boundary conditions favourable to their formation are rare, therefore limiting our understanding of the key processes that determine ash aggregates formation. Here, we present the first results from experiments aimed at reproducing ash aggregation by constraining the required boundary conditions. We used a ProCell Lab System of Glatt Ingenieurtechnik GmbH that is conventionally used for food and chemical applications. We varied the following parameters: 1) air flow speed [40-120 m3/h], 2) air temperature [30-60°C], 3) relative humidity [20-50 %], and 4) liquid droplets composition [water and 25% water glass, Na2SiO3]. The starting material (125-90 μm) is obtained by milling natural basaltic lapilli (Etna, Italy). We found that the experimental duration and the chosen conditions were not favourable for the production of stable aggregates when using water as spraying liquid. Using a 25% water-glass solution as binder we could successfully generate and investigate aggregates of up to 2 mm size. Many aggregates are spherical and resemble ash pellets. In nature, ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are the product of complex processes taking place at very different conditions (temperature, humidity, ash concentration, degree of turbulence). These experiments shed some first light on the ash agglomeration process for which direct

  3. Agrofuels capitalism: a view from political economy.

    PubMed

    White, Ben; Dasgupta, Anirban

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the global expansion of agrofuels feedstock production from a political economy perspective. It considers and dismisses the environmental and pro-poor developmental justifications attached to agrofuels. To local populations and direct producers, the specific destination of the crop as fuel, food, cosmetics or other final uses in faraway places is probably of less interest than the forms of (direct or indirect) appropriation of their land and the forms of their insertion or exclusion as producers in global commodity chains. Global demand for both agrofuels and food is stimulating new forms (or the resurgence of old forms) of corporate land grabbing and expropriation, and of incorporation of smallholders in contracted production. Drawing both on recent studies on agrofuels expansion and on the political economy literature on agrarian transition and capitalism in agriculture, this article raises the question whether "agrofuels capitalism" is in any way essentially different from other forms of capitalist agrarian monocrop production, and in turn whether the agrarian transitions involved require new tools of analysis.

  4. An Aggregation Advisor for Ligand Discovery.

    PubMed

    Irwin, John J; Duan, Da; Torosyan, Hayarpi; Doak, Allison K; Ziebart, Kristin T; Sterling, Teague; Tumanian, Gurgen; Shoichet, Brian K

    2015-09-10

    Colloidal aggregation of organic molecules is the dominant mechanism for artifactual inhibition of proteins, and controls against it are widely deployed. Notwithstanding an increasingly detailed understanding of this phenomenon, a method to reliably predict aggregation has remained elusive. Correspondingly, active molecules that act via aggregation continue to be found in early discovery campaigns and remain common in the literature. Over the past decade, over 12 thousand aggregating organic molecules have been identified, potentially enabling a precedent-based approach to match known aggregators with new molecules that may be expected to aggregate and lead to artifacts. We investigate an approach that uses lipophilicity, affinity, and similarity to known aggregators to advise on the likelihood that a candidate compound is an aggregator. In prospective experimental testing, five of seven new molecules with Tanimoto coefficients (Tc's) between 0.95 and 0.99 to known aggregators aggregated at relevant concentrations. Ten of 19 with Tc's between 0.94 and 0.90 and three of seven with Tc's between 0.89 and 0.85 also aggregated. Another three of the predicted compounds aggregated at higher concentrations. This method finds that 61 827 or 5.1% of the ligands acting in the 0.1 to 10 μM range in the medicinal chemistry literature are at least 85% similar to a known aggregator with these physical properties and may aggregate at relevant concentrations. Intriguingly, only 0.73% of all drug-like commercially available compounds resemble the known aggregators, suggesting that colloidal aggregators are enriched in the literature. As a percentage of the literature, aggregator-like compounds have increased 9-fold since 1995, partly reflecting the advent of high-throughput and virtual screens against molecular targets. Emerging from this study is an aggregator advisor database and tool ( http://advisor.bkslab.org ), free to the community, that may help distinguish between

  5. 78 FR 55339 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... Basel Committee standards. \\1\\ 77 FR 52792 (August 30, 2012); 77 FR 52888 (August 30, 2012); 77 FR 52978... (Pub. L. 111-203, 124 Stat. 1376, 1435-38 (2010).\\10\\ \\5\\ 77 FR 52792 (August 30, 2012). \\6\\ 77 FR...). \\10\\ See 77 FR 52856 (August 30, 2012). The NPR titled ``Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced...

  6. 75 FR 4635 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines; Capital Adequacy Guidelines; Capital Maintenance: Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ...-in of the regulatory capital effects of the accounting changes, among other issues.\\9\\ \\9\\ 74 FR... Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9C). In the NPR, the agencies requested... (HOLA), uniquely applicable to savings associations, which limits the amount of consumer loans to...

  7. The influence of fisher knowledge on the susceptibility of reef fish aggregations to fishing.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jan; Cinner, Joshua E; Graham, Nicholas A J

    2014-01-01

    Reef fishes that exhibit predictable aggregating behaviour are often considered vulnerable to overexploitation. However, fisher knowledge of this behaviour is often heterogeneous and, coupled with socioeconomic factors that constrain demand for or access to aggregated fish, will influence susceptibility to fishing. At two case study locations in Papua New Guinea, Ahus and Karkar islands, we conducted interview-based surveys to examine how local context influenced heterogeneity in knowledge of fish aggregations. We then explored the role of fisher knowledge in conferring susceptibility to fishing relative to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort. Local heterogeneity in knowledge of aggregating behaviour differed between our case studies. At Ahus, variable access rights among fishers and genders to the main habitats were sources of heterogeneity in knowledge. By contrast, knowledge was more homogenous at Karkar and the sole source of variation was gear type. Differences between locations in the susceptibility of aggregations to fishing depended primarily on socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort rather than catchability. While Ahus fishers were knowledgeable of fish aggregations and used more selective gears, Karkar fishers were less constrained by tenure in their access to aggregation habitat. However, fishing effort was greater at Ahus and likely related to high dependency on fishing, greater access to provincial capital markets than Karkar and a weakening of customary management. Moreover, highly efficient fishing techniques have emerged at Ahus to exploit the non-reproductive aggregating behaviour of target species. Understanding how knowledge is structured within fishing communities and its relation to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort is important if customary practices for conservation, such as tambu areas, are to be supported. The findings of this study call for a holistic approach to assessing the risks posed to reef fish aggregations by fishing

  8. Neighborhood social capital and crime victimization: comparison of spatial regression analysis and hierarchical regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Daisuke; Ikeda, Ken'ichi; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-11-01

    Crime is an important determinant of public health outcomes, including quality of life, mental well-being, and health behavior. A body of research has documented the association between community social capital and crime victimization. The association between social capital and crime victimization has been examined at multiple levels of spatial aggregation, ranging from entire countries, to states, metropolitan areas, counties, and neighborhoods. In multilevel analysis, the spatial boundaries at level 2 are most often drawn from administrative boundaries (e.g., Census tracts in the U.S.). One problem with adopting administrative definitions of neighborhoods is that it ignores spatial spillover. We conducted a study of social capital and crime victimization in one ward of Tokyo city, using a spatial Durbin model with an inverse-distance weighting matrix that assigned each respondent a unique level of "exposure" to social capital based on all other residents' perceptions. The study is based on a postal questionnaire sent to 20-69 years old residents of Arakawa Ward, Tokyo. The response rate was 43.7%. We examined the contextual influence of generalized trust, perceptions of reciprocity, two types of social network variables, as well as two principal components of social capital (constructed from the above four variables). Our outcome measure was self-reported crime victimization in the last five years. In the spatial Durbin model, we found that neighborhood generalized trust, reciprocity, supportive networks and two principal components of social capital were each inversely associated with crime victimization. By contrast, a multilevel regression performed with the same data (using administrative neighborhood boundaries) found generally null associations between neighborhood social capital and crime. Spatial regression methods may be more appropriate for investigating the contextual influence of social capital in homogeneous cultural settings such as Japan.

  9. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725

  10. Nebular history of amoeboid olivine aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, N.; Petaev, M. I.; Kimura, M.; Miyazaki, A.; Hiyagon, H.

    2009-05-01

    Minor element (Ca, Cr, and Mn) concentrations in amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) from primitive chondrites were measured and compared with those predicted by equilibrium condensation in the solar nebula. CaO concentrations in forsterite are low, particularly in porous aggregates. A plausible explanation appears that an equilibrium Ca activity was not maintained during the olivine condensation. CaO and MnO in forsterite are negatively correlated, with CaO being higher in compact aggregates. This suggests that the compact aggregates formed either by a prolonged reheating of the porous aggregates or by condensation and aggregation of forsterite during a very slow cooling in the nebula.

  11. Effects of iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon on aggregate stability of bauxite residues.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Li, Yubing; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Wu, Hao

    2016-05-01

    In order to successfully establish vegetation on bauxite residue, properties such as aggregate structure and stability require improvement. Spontaneous plant colonization on the deposits in Central China over the last 20 years has revealed that natural processes may improve the physical condition of bauxite residues. Samples from three different stacking ages were selected to determine aggregate formation and stability and its relationship with iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon. The residue aggregate particles became coarser in both dry and wet sieving processes. The mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometry mean diameter (GMD) increased significantly, and the proportion of aggregate destruction (PAD) decreased. Natural stacking processes could increase aggregate stability and erosion resistant of bauxite residues. Free iron oxides and amorphous aluminium oxides were the major forms in bauxite residues, but there was no significant correlation between the iron-aluminium oxides and aggregate stability. Aromatic-C, alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C were the major functional groups present in the residues. With increasing stacking age, total organic carbon content and aggregate-associated organic carbon both increased. Alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C increased and were mainly distributed in macro-aggregates, whereas aromatic-C was mainly distributed in <0.05-mm aggregates. Organic carbon stability in micro-aggregates was higher than that in macro-aggregates and became more stable. Organic carbon contents in total residues, and within different aggregate sizes, were all negatively correlated with PAD. It indicated that organic materials had a more significant effect on macro-aggregate stability and the effects of iron-aluminium oxides maybe more important for stability of micro-aggregates.

  12. 26 CFR 1.415(f)-1 - Aggregating plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... limitation year— (1) All defined benefit plans (without regard to whether a plan has been terminated) ever... required to be aggregated pursuant to section 415(f) and this section in a plan year. Paragraph (e)(3) of... specifically mentioned in the example), and the limitation year for each qualified plan is the calendar...

  13. 26 CFR 1.415(f)-1 - Aggregating plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... limitation year— (1) All defined benefit plans (without regard to whether a plan has been terminated) ever... required to be aggregated pursuant to section 415(f) and this section in a plan year. Paragraph (e)(3) of... specifically mentioned in the example), and the limitation year for each qualified plan is the calendar...

  14. HESI EXPOSURE FACTORS DATABASE FOR AGGREGATE AND CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, the risk analysis community has broadened its use of complex aggregate and cumulative residential exposure models (e.g., to meet the requirements of the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act). The value of these models is their ability to incorporate a range of inp...

  15. The Case for Capitation.

    PubMed

    James, Brent C; Poulsen, Gregory P

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that at least 35%--and maybe over 5o%--of all health care spending in the U.S. is wasted on inadequate, unnecessary, and inefficient care and suboptimal business processes. But efforts to get rid of that waste face a huge challenge: Under current payment methods, the providers who develop more-cost-effective approaches don't receive any of the savings. Instead, the money goes mainly to insurers. The providers, who are paid for the volume of services delivered, end up actually losing money, which undermines their finances and their ability to invest in more cost-saving innovations. To address this quandary, say two top execs from the nonprofit Intermountain Healthcare system, we need a different way to pay for health care: population-based payment. PBP gives care delivery groups a fixed per-person payment that covers all of an individual's health care services in a given year. Under it, providers benefit from the savings of all efforts to attack waste, encouraging them to do it more. And though PBP may sound similar to the HMOs of the 1990s, there are significant twists: Payments go directly to care delivery groups, and patients' physicians--not insurance companies--assume responsibility for overseeing and managing the cost of treatment. Provider groups are also required to meet quality standards that further protect patients. By applying PBP in just part of its system, Intermountain, which serves 2 million people, has been able to chop $688 million in annual waste and bring total costs down 13%. PMID:27526566

  16. 13 CFR 108.230 - Private Capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.230 Private Capital for NMVC Companies. (a) General. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a NMVC... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private Capital for NMVC...

  17. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1b - Adjustments to net worth and aggregate indebtedness for certain commodities transactions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... aggregate indebtedness for certain commodities transactions (Appendix B to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). 240.15c3-1b... aggregate indebtedness for certain commodities transactions (Appendix B to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). (a) Every broker or dealer in computing net capital pursuant to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 shall comply with the...

  18. Role of streams in myxobacteria aggregate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiskowski, Maria A.; Jiang, Yi; Alber, Mark S.

    2004-10-01

    Cell contact, movement and directionality are important factors in biological development (morphogenesis), and myxobacteria are a model system for studying cell-cell interaction and cell organization preceding differentiation. When starved, thousands of myxobacteria cells align, stream and form aggregates which later develop into round, non-motile spores. Canonically, cell aggregation has been attributed to attractive chemotaxis, a long range interaction, but there is growing evidence that myxobacteria organization depends on contact-mediated cell-cell communication. We present a discrete stochastic model based on contact-mediated signaling that suggests an explanation for the initialization of early aggregates, aggregation dynamics and final aggregate distribution. Our model qualitatively reproduces the unique structures of myxobacteria aggregates and detailed stages which occur during myxobacteria aggregation: first, aggregates initialize in random positions and cells join aggregates by random walk; second, cells redistribute by moving within transient streams connecting aggregates. Streams play a critical role in final aggregate size distribution by redistributing cells among fewer, larger aggregates. The mechanism by which streams redistribute cells depends on aggregate sizes and is enhanced by noise. Our model predicts that with increased internal noise, more streams would form and streams would last longer. Simulation results suggest a series of new experiments.

  19. Production of lightweight aggregates from washing aggregate sludge and fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Corrochano, Beatriz; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto; Rodas, Magdalena

    2010-05-01

    Increasing generation of wastes is one of the main environmental problems in industrialised countries. Heat treatment at high temperatures can convert some types of wastes into ceramic products with a wide range of microstructural features and properties (Bethanis et al., 2004). A lightweight aggregate (LWA) is a granular material with a bulk density (bd) not exceeding 1.20 g/cm3 or with a particle density not exceeding 2.00 g/cm3 (UNE-EN-13055-1, 2003). They have become a focus of interest because the low particle density and the low bulk density entail a decrease in the load transmitted to the ground, and less work and effort are required to transport them (De' Gennaro et al., 2004). The benefits associated with these low densities, which are due to the formation of voids and pores, are very good thermal and acoustic insulation and materials with a good resistance to fire (Benbow, 1987; Fakhfakh et al., 2007). The objective was to recycle fly ash, used motor oil from cars and mineral wastes from washing aggregate sludge, in order to obtain a usable material such as lightweight aggregates, and also to ensure that they are of good quality for different applications. Raw materials have been physically, chemically and mineralogically characterized. On the basis of the results obtained, they were mixed, milled to a grain size of less than 200 μm (Yasuda, 1991), formed into pellets, pre-heated for 5 min and sintered in a rotary kiln at 1150°C, 1175°C, 1200°C and 1225°C for 10 and 15 min at each temperature (Theating). Effects of raw material characteristics, heating temperature and dwell time on the following LWAs properties were determined: loss on ignition (LOI), bloating index (BI), loose bulk density (bd), apparent and dry particle density (ad, dd), voids (H), water absorption (WA24h) and compressive strength (S). The products obtained were lightweight aggregates in accordance with norm UNE-EN-13055-1 (bd ≤1.20 g/cm3 or particle density ≤2.00 g/cm3). LWAs

  20. Capital investment analysis: three methods.

    PubMed

    Gapenski, L C

    1993-08-01

    Three cash flow/discount rate methods can be used when conducting capital budgeting financial analyses: the net operating cash flow method, the net cash flow to investors method, and the net cash flow to equity holders method. The three methods differ in how the financing mix and the benefits of debt financing are incorporated. This article explains the three methods, demonstrates that they are essentially equivalent, and recommends which method to use under specific circumstances.

  1. Trends in U.S. Venture Capital Investments Related to Energy: 1980 through the Third Quarter of 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2010-11-08

    This report documents trends in U.S. venture capital investments over the period 1980 through the third quarter of calendar year 2010 (2010 Q1+Q2+Q3). Particular attention is given to U.S. venture capital investments in the energy/industrial sector over the period 1980-2010 Q1+Q2+Q3 as well as in the more recently created cross-cutting category of CleanTech over the period 1995-2010 Q1+Q2+Q3. During the early 1980s, U.S. venture capital investments in the energy/industrial sector accounted for more than 20% of all venture capital investments. However subsequent periods of low energy prices, the deregulation of large aspects of the energy industry, and the emergence of fast growing new industries like computers (both hardware and software), biotechnology and the Internet quickly reduced the priority accorded to energy/industrial investments. To wit, venture capital investments related to the energy/industrial sector accounted for only 1% of the $132 billion (in real 2010 US$) invested in 2000 by the U.S. venture capital community. The significant increase in the real price of oil that began in 2003-2004 correlates with renewed interest and increased investment by the venture capital community in energy/industrial investment opportunities. Venture capital investments for 2009 for the energy/industrial sector accounted for $2.4 billion or slightly more than 13% of all venture capital invested that year. The total venture capital invested in energy/industrial during the first three quarters of 2010 is close to $2.4 billion accounting for slightly less than 15% of all venture capital investments during the first three quarters of 2010. In 2009, the aggregate amount invested in CleanTech was $2.1 billion (11% of the total US venture capital invested in that lean year) and for the first three quarters of 2010 US venture capital investments in CleanTech have already exceeded $2.8 billion (18% of all US venture capital investments made during the first three quarters of

  2. Trends in U.S. Venture Capital Investments Related to Energy: 1980 through the Second Quarter of 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2010-07-29

    This report documents trends in U.S. venture capital investments over the period 1980 through the second quarter of calendar year 2010 (2010Q1+Q2). Particular attention is given to U.S. venture capital investments in the energy/industrial sector over the period 1980-2010Q1+Q2 as well as in the more recently created cross-cutting category of CleanTech over the period 1995-2010Q1+Q2. During the early 1980s, U.S. venture capital investments in the energy/industrial sector accounted for more than 20% of all venture capital investments. However subsequent periods of low energy prices, the deregulation of large aspects of the energy industry, and the emergence of fast growing new industries like computers (both hardware and software), biotechnology and the Internet quickly reduced the priority accorded to energy/industrial investments. To wit, venture capital investments related to the energy/industrial sector accounted for only 1% of the $119 billion dollars invested in 2000 by the U.S. venture capital community. The significant increase in the real price of oil that began in 2003-2004 correlates with renewed interest and increased investment by the venture capital community in energy/industrial investment opportunities. Venture capital investments for 2009 for the energy/industrial sector accounted for $2.1 billion or slightly more than 13% of all venture capital invested that year. The total venture capital invested in energy/industrial during the first two quarters of 2010 is close to $1.8 billion accounting for 17% of all venture capital investments during the first two quarters of 2010. In 2009, the aggregate amount invested in CleanTech was $1.8 billion (30% of the total US venture capital invested in that lean year) and for the first two quarters of 2010 US venture capital investments in CleanTech have already exceeded $1.9 billion (19% of all US venture capital investments made during the first half of 2010). Between 2004 and 2009, U.S. venture capital

  3. Determination of aggregation thresholds of UV absorbing anionic surfactants by frontal analysis continuous capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Le Saux, Thomas; Varenne, Anne; Gareil, Pierre

    2004-06-01

    Aggregation of anionic surfactants was investigated by frontal analysis continuous capillary electrophoresis (FACCE), a method involving the continuous electrokinetic introduction of the surfactant sample into the separation capillary. This process results in a partial separation of the monomeric and aggregated forms without perturbing the monomer-aggregate equilibrium. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) can then be easily derived from the height of the firstly detected migration front, corresponding to the monomeric form. This approach is exemplified with octyl and dodecylbenzenesulfonates and compared with conductimetry and surface tension measurements. FACCE turns out to be an effective method for the determination of CMC and intermediate aggregation phenomena with very small sample and short time requirements.

  4. Hierarchical Clustering and Visualization of Aggregate Cyber Data

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Robert M; Beaver, Justin M; Steed, Chad A; Potok, Thomas E; Treadwell, Jim N

    2011-01-01

    Most commercial intrusion detections systems (IDS) can produce a very high volume of alerts, and are typically plagued by a high false positive rate. The approach described here uses Splunk to aggregate IDS alerts. The aggregated IDS alerts are retrieved from Splunk programmatically and are then clustered using text analysis and visualized using a sunburst diagram to provide an additional understanding of the data. The equivalent of what the cluster analysis and visualization provides would require numerous detailed queries using Splunk and considerable manual effort.

  5. Adaptive aggregation method for the Chemical Master Equation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwei; Watson, Layne T; Cao, Yang

    2009-01-01

    One important aspect of biological systems such as gene regulatory networks and protein-protein interaction networks is the stochastic nature of interactions between chemical species. Such stochastic behaviour can be accurately modelled by the Chemical Master Equation (CME). However, the CME usually imposes intensive computational requirements when used to characterise molecular biological systems. The major challenge comes from the curse of dimensionality, which has been tackled by a few research papers. The essential goal is to aggregate the system efficiently with limited approximation errors. This paper presents an adaptive way to implement the aggregation process using information collected from Monte Carlo simulations. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  6. Diminishing returns to aggregate level studies.

    PubMed

    Gravelle, H

    1999-10-01

    The idea that the health of individuals depends on the characteristics of the society in which they live and on their own characteristics is important. The aggregate level relation between income inequality and population mortality has been examined by empirical works. However, if the individual level relation between risk of mortality and income is curvilinear, at least part of any association between population mortality and income inequality is artifactual in the sense that it could arise even if individual risk was due only to individual income and not to its distribution. Wolfson et al attempted to estimate how much of the variation in cross-sectional US state-level mortality could be due to the curvature of the relation between individual level mortality and income interacting with differences in the distribution of income within states. They concluded that the artifact is not the main reason for the frequently documented correlations between population mortality and income distribution. However, in the absence of any detailed information on the regressions, it is difficult to determine if the difference between actual and hypothetical mortality is significantly related to income equality. The individual risk of mortality is also affected by other individual characteristics, like climate or public health infrastructure. The authors suggest that investigations of the determinants of individual health test the effect of societal factors and that such testing requires both individual level and aggregate data.

  7. Bacterial colonization and extinction on marine aggregates: stochastic model of species presence and abundance

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Andrew M; Lyons, M Maille; Dobbs, Fred C; Drake, John M

    2013-01-01

    Organic aggregates provide a favorable habitat for aquatic microbes, are efficiently filtered by shellfish, and may play a major role in the dynamics of aquatic pathogens. Quantifying this role requires understanding how pathogen abundance in the water and aggregate size interact to determine the presence and abundance of pathogen cells on individual aggregates. We build upon current understanding of the dynamics of bacteria and bacterial grazers on aggregates to develop a model for the dynamics of a bacterial pathogen species. The model accounts for the importance of stochasticity and the balance between colonization and extinction. Simulation results suggest that while colonization increases linearly with background density and aggregate size, extinction rates are expected to be nonlinear on small aggregates in a low background density of the pathogen. Under these conditions, we predict lower probabilities of pathogen presence and reduced abundance on aggregates compared with predictions based solely on colonization. These results suggest that the importance of aggregates to the dynamics of aquatic bacterial pathogens may be dependent on the interaction between aggregate size and background pathogen density, and that these interactions are strongly influenced by ecological interactions and pathogen traits. The model provides testable predictions and can be a useful tool for exploring how species-specific differences in pathogen traits may alter the effect of aggregates on disease transmission. PMID:24340173

  8. Electric Dipole Aggregates in Very Dilute Polar Liquids:. Theory and Experimental Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yinnon, Tamar A.; Yinnon, Carmi A.

    We show that rotational excited aggregates with an electric dipole moment may be created in polar liquids. Under proper storage conditions, the life times of the aggregates are very long, e.g., days and even years. In solutions, the aggregates are composed of solvent molecules only or a combination of these and solute particles. The process steps leading to the formation of the aggregates are: (1) vigorous succussing the liquid or its solution; (2) adding nonsuccussed liquid; (3) repetition of step (1) and (2). In solutions, formation of the aggregates requires that these steps are repeated until the concentration is reduced below a solvent and solute specific molarity, which under room temperature and pressure conditions, typically, is of the order of 10-4 M or below. The characteristics of liquids containing aggregates with an electric dipole, theoretically derived in this paper, conform to the experimentally observed ones, reported in the literature.

  9. Identifying and Removing Barriers to Expanding Municipal Aggregation in the Commonwealth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, Micaelah Burke

    This thesis examines the process to become a municipal aggregator in Massachusetts and offers recommendations on improving the process. In 1997, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts restructured its electricity market and allowed municipalities and those working jointly to purchase electricity for their constituents. Municipal aggregators provide additional competition in the electricity market, public control of electricity purchases, and are in a unique position to provide consumers additional options to promote specific types of electricity generation. Since 1997, only six municipal aggregators have been approved in Massachusetts. In order to identify reasons why, this thesis includes interviews with people involved in the municipal aggregation process in Massachusetts and comparisons with other states that also have municipal aggregation programs. It also includes a historical look at electricity markets both on the federal level and in Massachusetts, and provides information on regulatory requirements municipal aggregators must meet.

  10. 42 CFR 412.46 - Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.46 Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement. (a) Basis....

  11. 42 CFR 412.46 - Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.46 Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement. (a) Basis....

  12. 42 CFR 412.46 - Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.46 Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement. (a) Basis....

  13. Aggregation of Heterogeneously Charged Colloids.

    PubMed

    Dempster, Joshua M; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2016-06-28

    Patchy colloids are attractive as programmable building blocks for metamaterials. Inverse patchy colloids, in which a charged surface is decorated with patches of the opposite charge, are additionally noteworthy as models for heterogeneously charged biological materials such as proteins. We study the phases and aggregation behavior of a single charged patch in an oppositely charged colloid with a single-site model. This single-patch inverse patchy colloid model shows a large number of phases when varying patch size. For large patch sizes we find ferroelectric crystals, while small patch sizes produce cross-linked gels. Intermediate values produce monodisperse clusters and unusual worm structures that preserve finite ratios of area to volume. The polarization observed at large patch sizes is robust under extreme disorder in patch size and shape. We examine phase-temperature dependence and coexistence curves and find that large patch sizes produce polarized liquids, in contrast to mean-field predictions. Finally, we introduce small numbers of unpatched charged colloids. These can either suppress or encourage aggregation depending on their concentration and the size of the patches on the patched colloids. These effects can be exploited to control aggregation and to measure effective patch size.

  14. Tau Phosphorylation, Aggregation, and Cell Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Avila, J.; Santa-María, I.; Pérez, M.; Hernández, F.; Moreno, F.

    2006-01-01

    Protein aggregation takes place in many neurodegenerative disorders. However, there is a controversy about the possible toxicity of these protein aggregates. In this review, this controversy is discussed, focussing on the tau aggregation that takes place in those disorders known as tauopathies. PMID:17047313

  15. Mineral resource of the month: aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willett, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    Crushed stone and construction sand and gravel, the two major types of natural aggregates, are among the most abundant and accessible natural resources on the planet. The earliest civilizations used aggregates for various purposes, mainly construction. Today aggregates provide the basic raw materials for the foundation of modern society.

  16. An improved collision efficiency model for particle aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Aaron; Franks, George; Biggs, Simon; Jameson, Graeme J.

    2006-11-01

    A generalized geometric model is presented which describes the collision efficiency factor of aggregation (the probability of a binary particle or aggregate collision resulting in adhesion) for systems comprised of two oppositely charged species. Application of the general model to specific systems requires calculation of the area of each species available for collision with a second species. This is in contrast to previous models developed for polymer-particle flocculation that are based on the fractional surface coverage of adsorbed polymer. The difference between these approaches is suggested as an explanation for previously observed discrepancies between theory and observation. In the current work the specific case of oppositely charged nondeformable spherical particles (heteroaggregation) is quantitatively addressed. The optimum concentration of oppositely charged particles for rapid aggregation (maximum collision efficiency) as a function of relative particle size is calculated and an excellent correlation is found with data taken from literature.

  17. An improved collision efficiency model for particle aggregation.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Aaron; Franks, George; Biggs, Simon; Jameson, Graeme J

    2006-11-14

    A generalized geometric model is presented which describes the collision efficiency factor of aggregation (the probability of a binary particle or aggregate collision resulting in adhesion) for systems comprised of two oppositely charged species. Application of the general model to specific systems requires calculation of the area of each species available for collision with a second species. This is in contrast to previous models developed for polymer-particle flocculation that are based on the fractional surface coverage of adsorbed polymer. The difference between these approaches is suggested as an explanation for previously observed discrepancies between theory and observation. In the current work the specific case of oppositely charged nondeformable spherical particles (heteroaggregation) is quantitatively addressed. The optimum concentration of oppositely charged particles for rapid aggregation (maximum collision efficiency) as a function of relative particle size is calculated and an excellent correlation is found with data taken from literature. PMID:17115794

  18. Evaluation of Nanoparticle Tracking for Characterization of Fibrillar Protein Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dennis T.; Lu, Xiaomeng; Fan, Yamin; Murphy, Regina M.

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidogenesis is the process of formation of protein aggregates with fibrillar morphology. Because amyloidogenesis is linked to neurodegenerative disease, there is interest in understanding the mechanism of fibril growth. Kinetic models of amyloidogenesis require data on the number concentration and size distribution of aggregates, but this information is difficult to obtain using conventional methods. Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) is a relatively new technique that may be uniquely suited for obtaining these data. In NTA, the two-dimensional (2-D) trajectory of individual particles is tracked, from which the diffusion coefficient, and, hence, hydrodynamic radius is obtained. Here we examine the validity of NTA in tracking number concentration and size of DNA, as a model of a fibrillar macromolecule. We use NTA to examine three amyloidogenic materials: beta-amyloid, transthyretin, and polyglutamine-containing peptides. Our results are instructive in demonstrating the advantages and some limitations of single-particle diffusion measurements for investigating aggregation in protein systems. PMID:25843955

  19. Turn plasticity distinguishes different modes of amyloid-β aggregation.

    PubMed

    Rezaei-Ghaleh, Nasrollah; Amininasab, Mehriar; Giller, Karin; Kumar, Sathish; Stündl, Anne; Schneider, Anja; Becker, Stefan; Walter, Jochen; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2014-04-01

    Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into oligomeric and fibrillar assemblies; however, little is known about the molecular basis of aggregation of Aβ into distinct assembly states. Here we demonstrate that phosphorylation at serine 26 (S26) impairs Aβ fibrillization while stabilizing its monomers and nontoxic soluble assemblies of nonfibrillar morphology. NMR spectroscopy and replica-exchange molecular dynamics indicate that introduction of a phosphate group or phosphomimetic at position 26 diminishes Aβ's propensity to form a β-hairpin, rigidifies the region around the modification site, and interferes with formation of a fibril-specific salt bridge between aspartic acid 23 and lysine 28. The combined data demonstrate that phosphorylation of S26 prevents a distinct conformational rearrangement that is required for progression of Aβ aggregation toward fibrils and provide a basis for a possible role of phosphorylation at serine 26 in AD.

  20. 12 CFR 932.8 - Minimum liquidity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum liquidity requirements. 932.8 Section 932.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.8 Minimum liquidity requirements....

  1. 49 CFR 639.11 - Lease qualification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lease qualification requirements. 639.11 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Requirements § 639.11 Lease qualification requirements. (a) A lease may qualify for capital assistance if it meets the following criteria: (1)...

  2. 12 CFR 932.8 - Minimum liquidity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum liquidity requirements. 932.8 Section 932.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.8 Minimum liquidity requirements....

  3. 12 CFR 932.8 - Minimum liquidity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum liquidity requirements. 932.8 Section 932.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.8 Minimum liquidity requirements....

  4. 12 CFR 932.8 - Minimum liquidity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum liquidity requirements. 932.8 Section 932.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.8 Minimum liquidity requirements....

  5. 12 CFR 932.8 - Minimum liquidity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum liquidity requirements. 932.8 Section 932.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.8 Minimum liquidity requirements....

  6. Proteins in aggregates functionally impact multiple neurodegenerative disease models by forming proteasome-blocking complexes

    PubMed Central

    Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Balasubramaniam, Meenakshisundaram; Gao, Yuan; Yu, Li-Rong; Alla, Ramani; Shmookler Reis, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases progressively form aggregates containing both shared components (e.g., TDP-43, phosphorylated tau) and proteins specific to each disease. We investigated whether diverse neuropathies might have additional aggregation-prone proteins in common, discoverable by proteomics. Caenorhabditis elegans expressing unc-54p/Q40::YFP, a model of polyglutamine array diseases such as Huntington's, accrues aggregates in muscle 2–6 days posthatch. These foci, isolated on antibody-coupled magnetic beads, were characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Three Q40::YFP-associated proteins were inferred to promote aggregation and cytotoxicity, traits reduced or delayed by their RNA interference knockdown. These RNAi treatments also retarded aggregation/cytotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease models, nematodes with muscle or pan-neuronal Aβ1–42 expression and behavioral phenotypes. The most abundant aggregated proteins are glutamine/asparagine-rich, favoring hydrophobic interactions with other random-coil domains. A particularly potent modulator of aggregation, CRAM-1/HYPK, contributed < 1% of protein aggregate peptides, yet its knockdown reduced Q40::YFP aggregates 72–86% (P < 10−6). In worms expressing Aβ1–42, knockdown of cram-1 reduced β-amyloid 60% (P < 0.002) and slowed age-dependent paralysis > 30% (P < 10−6). In wild-type worms, cram-1 knockdown reduced aggregation and extended lifespan, but impaired early reproduction. Protection against seeded aggregates requires proteasome function, implying that normal CRAM-1 levels promote aggregation by interfering with proteasomal degradation of misfolded proteins. Molecular dynamic modeling predicts spontaneous and stable interactions of CRAM-1 (or human orthologs) with ubiquitin, and we verified that CRAM-1 reduces degradation of a tagged-ubiquitin reporter. We propose that CRAM-1 exemplifies a class of primitive chaperones that are initially protective and highly

  7. Principles for problem aggregation and assignment in medium scale multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Saltz, Joel H.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most important issues in parallel processing is the mapping of workload to processors. This paper considers a large class of problems having a high degree of potential fine grained parallelism, and execution requirements that are either not predictable, or are too costly to predict. The main issues in mapping such a problem onto medium scale multiprocessors are those of aggregation and assignment. We study a method of parameterized aggregation that makes few assumptions about the workload. The mapping of aggregate units of work onto processors is uniform, and exploits locality of workload intensity to balance the unknown workload. In general, a finer aggregate granularity leads to a better balance at the price of increased communication/synchronization costs; the aggregation parameters can be adjusted to find a reasonable granularity. The effectiveness of this scheme is demonstrated on three model problems: an adaptive one-dimensional fluid dynamics problem with message passing, a sparse triangular linear system solver on both a shared memory and a message-passing machine, and a two-dimensional time-driven battlefield simulation employing message passing. Using the model problems, the tradeoffs are studied between balanced workload and the communication/synchronization costs. Finally, an analytical model is used to explain why the method balances workload and minimizes the variance in system behavior.

  8. Supramolecular aggregates in vacuum: positively monocharged sodium alkanesulfonate clusters.

    PubMed

    Bongiorno, David; Ceraulo, Leopoldo; Giorgi, Gianluca; Indelicato, Serena; Ruggirello, Angela; Turco Liveri, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    The formation and structural features of positively monocharged aggregates of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) and sodium methane--(MetS), butane--(ButS) and octane--(OctS) sulfonate molecules in gas phase have been investigated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, energy resolved mass spectrometry and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The experimental results show that the center-of-mass collision energy required to dissociate 50% of these monocharged aggregates scantly depends on the length of the alkyl chain as well as on the aggregation number. This, together with the large predominance of monocharged species in the mass spectra, was rationalized in terms of an aggregation pattern mainly driven by the counter ions and head groups electrostatic interactions while minor effects were attributed to the steric hindrance caused by the size of the surfactant head group and alkyl chain. DFT calculations show that the most favoured structural arrangement of these aggregates is always characterized by an internal polar core constituted by the sodium counter ions and surfactant head groups surrounded by an external layer composed by the surfactant alkyl chains. PMID:20065519

  9. Identification of an aggregation-prone structure of tau

    PubMed Central

    Elbaum-Garfinkle, Shana; Rhoades, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The aggregation and deposition of normally soluble proteins is the hallmark of several devastating neurodegenerative disorders. For proteins such as tau in Alzheimer’s disease and α-synuclein in Parkinson’s disease, aggregation involves a transition from an intrinsically disordered monomer to a highly structured fiber. While understanding the role of these proteins in neurodegeneration requires elucidation of the structural basis of self-association, the conformational heterogeneity of disordered proteins makes their structural characterization inherently challenging. Here we use single molecule Förster resonance energy transfer to measure the conformational ensemble of tau in the absence and presence of heparin to identify critical conformational changes relevant to the initiation of aggregation. We find that different domains of tau display distinct conformational properties that are strongly correlated with their degree of disorder and which may relate to their roles in aggregation. Moreover, we observe that heparin binding induces a distinct two-state structural transition in tau described by a loss of long-range contacts and a concomitant compaction of the microtubule binding domain. Our results describe a conformational intermediate of tau that precedes the formation of aggregates and could serve as a target for tau-focused therapeutics. PMID:22998648

  10. Where's the capital? A geographical essay.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth A

    2014-12-01

    This paper is inspired by Thomas Piketty's book Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Piketty does a wonderful job of tracing income and wealth over time, and relating changes to trends of economic and population growth, and drawing out the implications for inequality, inheritance and even democracy. But, he says relatively little about where capital is located, how capital accumulation in one place relies on activities elsewhere, how capital is urbanized with advanced capitalism and what life is like in spaces without capital. This paper asks 'where is the geography in Capital' or 'where is the geography of capital in Capital'? Following Piketty's lead, the paper develops its analysis through a number of important novels. It examines, first, the debate that Jane Austen ignored colonialism and slavery in her treatment of nineteenth century Britain, second, how Balzac and then Zola provide insight to the urban political economy of capital later in the century, and third, how Katherine Boo attends to inequality as the everyday suffering of the poor. PMID:25516349

  11. Where's the capital? A geographical essay.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth A

    2014-12-01

    This paper is inspired by Thomas Piketty's book Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Piketty does a wonderful job of tracing income and wealth over time, and relating changes to trends of economic and population growth, and drawing out the implications for inequality, inheritance and even democracy. But, he says relatively little about where capital is located, how capital accumulation in one place relies on activities elsewhere, how capital is urbanized with advanced capitalism and what life is like in spaces without capital. This paper asks 'where is the geography in Capital' or 'where is the geography of capital in Capital'? Following Piketty's lead, the paper develops its analysis through a number of important novels. It examines, first, the debate that Jane Austen ignored colonialism and slavery in her treatment of nineteenth century Britain, second, how Balzac and then Zola provide insight to the urban political economy of capital later in the century, and third, how Katherine Boo attends to inequality as the everyday suffering of the poor.

  12. Social capital, economics, and health: new evidence.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Richard M; Brown, Timothy T

    2008-10-01

    In introducing this Special Issue on Social Capital and Health, this article tracks the popularization of the term and sheds light on the controversy surrounding the term and its definitions. It sets out four mechanisms that link social capital with health: making information available to community members, impacting social norms, enhancing the health care services and their accessibility in a community, and offering psychosocial support networks. Approaches to the measurement of social capital include the Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey (SCCBS) developed by Robert Putnam, and the Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), which looks at community voluntary organizations using public data available for the entire United States. The article defines community social capital (CSC) as the extent and density of trust, cooperation, and associational links and activity within a given population. Four articles on CSC are introduced in two categories: those that address behaviors -- particularly utilization of health services and use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs; and those that look at links between social capital and physical or mental health. Policy implications include: funding and/or tax subsidies that would support the creation of social capital; laws and regulations; and generation of enthusiasm among communities and leaders to develop social capital. The next steps in the research programme are to continue testing the mechanisms; to look for natural experiments; and to find better public policies to foster social capital.

  13. Aggregation of carbon dioxide sequestration storage assessment units

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blondes, Madalyn S.; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Drew, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is currently conducting a national assessment of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage resources, mandated by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Pre-emission capture and storage of CO2 in subsurface saline formations is one potential method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the negative impact of global climate change. Like many large-scale resource assessments, the area under investigation is split into smaller, more manageable storage assessment units (SAUs), which must be aggregated with correctly propagated uncertainty to the basin, regional, and national scales. The aggregation methodology requires two types of data: marginal probability distributions of storage resource for each SAU, and a correlation matrix obtained by expert elicitation describing interdependencies between pairs of SAUs. Dependencies arise because geologic analogs, assessment methods, and assessors often overlap. The correlation matrix is used to induce rank correlation, using a Cholesky decomposition, among the empirical marginal distributions representing individually assessed SAUs. This manuscript presents a probabilistic aggregation method tailored to the correlations and dependencies inherent to a CO2 storage assessment. Aggregation results must be presented at the basin, regional, and national scales. A single stage approach, in which one large correlation matrix is defined and subsets are used for different scales, is compared to a multiple stage approach, in which new correlation matrices are created to aggregate intermediate results. Although the single-stage approach requires determination of significantly more correlation coefficients, it captures geologic dependencies among similar units in different basins and it is less sensitive to fluctuations in low correlation coefficients than the multiple stage approach. Thus, subsets of one single-stage correlation matrix are used to aggregate to basin, regional, and national scales.

  14. Sociocultural dimensions of supply and demand for natural aggregate; examples from the Mid-Atlantic region, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Brown, William M.

    2002-01-01

    The United States uses large quantities of natural aggregate to build and maintain a continuously expanding infrastructure. In recent years, per capita demand for aggregate in the United States has grown to about 9.7 metric tons (10.7 tons) per person per year. Over the next 25 years, the aggregate industry expects to mine quantities equivalent to all aggregate mined in the United States over the past 100 years. The issues surrounding supply and demand for aggregate in the mid-Atlantic states of Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia illustrate competing requirements for industrial minerals and many simultaneous social and environmental objectives.

  15. Mineral trioxide aggregate apexification: A novel approach

    PubMed Central

    Purra, Aamir Rashid; Ahangar, Fayaz Ahmed; Chadgal, Sachin; Farooq, Riyaz

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of choice for necrotic teeth with immature root is apexification, which is induction of apical closure to produce more favorable conditions for conventional root canal filling. The most commonly advocated medicament is calcium hydroxide although recently considerable interest has been expressed in the use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). MTA offers the option of a two-visit apexification procedure so that the fragile tooth can be restored immediately. However, difficulty in placing the material in the wide apical area requires the use of an apical matrix. Materials such as collagen, calcium sulfate, and hydroxyapatite have been used for this purpose. This article describes the use of resorbable suture material to form the apical matrix which offers many advantages over the contemporary materials. PMID:27563191

  16. Mineral trioxide aggregate apexification: A novel approach.

    PubMed

    Purra, Aamir Rashid; Ahangar, Fayaz Ahmed; Chadgal, Sachin; Farooq, Riyaz

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of choice for necrotic teeth with immature root is apexification, which is induction of apical closure to produce more favorable conditions for conventional root canal filling. The most commonly advocated medicament is calcium hydroxide although recently considerable interest has been expressed in the use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). MTA offers the option of a two-visit apexification procedure so that the fragile tooth can be restored immediately. However, difficulty in placing the material in the wide apical area requires the use of an apical matrix. Materials such as collagen, calcium sulfate, and hydroxyapatite have been used for this purpose. This article describes the use of resorbable suture material to form the apical matrix which offers many advantages over the contemporary materials. PMID:27563191

  17. 42 CFR 489.28 - Special capitalization requirements for HHAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... visits reported by the comparison HHAs—whichever is greater. (c) Method. CMS, through the intermediary, will determine the amount of the initial reserve operating funds using reported cost and visit data from submitted cost reports for the first full year of operation from at least three HHAs that...

  18. 42 CFR 489.28 - Special capitalization requirements for HHAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... visits reported by the comparison HHAs—whichever is greater. (c) Method. CMS, through the intermediary, will determine the amount of the initial reserve operating funds using reported cost and visit data from submitted cost reports for the first full year of operation from at least three HHAs that...

  19. 42 CFR 489.28 - Special capitalization requirements for HHAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... visits reported by the comparison HHAs—whichever is greater. (c) Method. CMS, through the intermediary, will determine the amount of the initial reserve operating funds using reported cost and visit data from submitted cost reports for the first full year of operation from at least three HHAs that...

  20. 12 CFR 167.3 - Individual minimum capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... letters of credit; (4) A Federal savings association that has poor liquidity or cash flow; (5) A Federal... presented by concentrations of credit and nontraditional activities; or has a poor record of...