Science.gov

Sample records for aggregate capital requirements

  1. 12 CFR 48.8 - Capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Capital requirements. 48.8 Section 48.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RETAIL FOREIGN EXCHANGE TRANSACTIONS § 48.8 Capital requirements. A national bank offering or entering into retail forex...

  2. 12 CFR 48.8 - Capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Capital requirements. 48.8 Section 48.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RETAIL FOREIGN EXCHANGE TRANSACTIONS § 48.8 Capital requirements. A national bank offering or entering into retail forex...

  3. 12 CFR 48.8 - Capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Capital requirements. 48.8 Section 48.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RETAIL FOREIGN EXCHANGE TRANSACTIONS § 48.8 Capital requirements. A national bank offering or entering into retail forex...

  4. 12 CFR 3.10 - Minimum capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Capital Ratio Requirements and Buffers § 3.10 Minimum capital requirements. (a) Minimum capital requirements. A national bank or Federal savings association must maintain the following minimum capital ratios: (1) A common equity tier 1 capital ratio of 4.5 percent. (2) A tier 1 capital ratio of 6 percent....

  5. 12 CFR 932.5 - Market risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market risk capital requirement. 932.5 Section... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.5 Market risk capital requirement. (a) General requirement. (1) Each Bank's market risk capital requirement shall equal the sum of: (i)...

  6. 12 CFR 932.5 - Market risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market risk capital requirement. 932.5 Section... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.5 Market risk capital requirement. (a) General requirement. (1) Each Bank's market risk capital requirement shall equal the sum of: (i)...

  7. 12 CFR 932.5 - Market risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market risk capital requirement. 932.5 Section... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.5 Market risk capital requirement. (a) General requirement. (1) Each Bank's market risk capital requirement shall equal the sum of: (i)...

  8. 12 CFR 932.5 - Market risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Market risk capital requirement. 932.5 Section... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.5 Market risk capital requirement. (a) General requirement. (1) Each Bank's market risk capital requirement shall equal the sum of: (i)...

  9. 12 CFR 932.5 - Market risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market risk capital requirement. 932.5 Section... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.5 Market risk capital requirement. (a) General requirement. (1) Each Bank's market risk capital requirement shall equal the sum of: (i)...

  10. 12 CFR 325.3 - Minimum leverage capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum leverage capital requirement. 325.3... GENERAL POLICY CAPITAL MAINTENANCE Minimum Capital Requirements § 325.3 Minimum leverage capital requirement. (a) General. Banks must maintain at least the minimum leverage capital requirement set forth...

  11. 12 CFR 567.9 - Tangible capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tangible capital requirement. 567.9 Section 567.9 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL Regulatory Capital Requirements § 567.9 Tangible capital requirement. (a) Savings associations shall have and maintain tangible capital in an amount equal to...

  12. 12 CFR 324.10 - Minimum capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... POLICY CAPITAL ADEQUACY OF FDIC-SUPERVISED INSTITUTIONS Capital Ratio Requirements and Buffers § 324.10... maintain the following minimum capital ratios: (1) A common equity tier 1 capital ratio of 4.5 percent. (2) A tier 1 capital ratio of 6 percent. (3) A total capital ratio of 8 percent. (4) A leverage ratio...

  13. 12 CFR 932.3 - Risk-based capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... credit risk capital requirement, its market risk capital requirement, and its operations risk capital... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital requirement. 932.3 Section 932.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT...

  14. 12 CFR 932.2 - Total capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.2 Total capital requirement. (a) Each Bank shall maintain at all times: (1) Total capital in an amount at least equal to 4.0 percent of the Bank's...

  15. 12 CFR 932.2 - Total capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.2 Total capital requirement. (a) Each Bank shall maintain at all times: (1) Total capital in an amount at least equal to 4.0 percent of the Bank's...

  16. 13 CFR 107.210 - Minimum capital requirements for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... showing of special circumstances and good cause may license an applicant with Regulatory Capital of at... the minimum capital requirements applicable to such company, as required by the regulations in...

  17. 12 CFR 932.6 - Operations risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operations risk capital requirement shall at all times equal 30 percent of the sum of the Bank's credit risk... percent but no less than 10 percent of the sum of the Bank's credit risk capital requirement and market... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations risk capital requirement....

  18. 12 CFR 652.95 - Failure to meet capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 652.95 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.95 Failure to meet... your risk-based capital level calculated according to § 652.65, your minimum capital...

  19. 12 CFR 325.3 - Minimum leverage capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum leverage capital requirement. 325.3 Section 325.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF... requirement. (a) General. Banks must maintain at least the minimum leverage capital requirement set forth...

  20. 13 CFR 107.210 - Minimum capital requirements for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... except the minimum capital requirement, as determined solely by SBA; (ii) Has a viable business plan... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum capital requirements for Licensees. 107.210 Section 107.210 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION...

  1. 12 CFR 567.3 - Individual minimum capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... risk, credit risk, concentration of credit risk, certain risks arising from nontraditional activities... operating risks, particularly the risks presented by concentrations of credit and nontraditional activities... capital requirement for a savings association that varies from the risk-based capital requirement,...

  2. 12 CFR 932.6 - Operations risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... risk capital requirement if: (1) The Bank provides an alternative methodology for assessing and... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operations risk capital requirement. 932.6 Section 932.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT...

  3. 12 CFR 932.6 - Operations risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... risk capital requirement if: (1) The Bank provides an alternative methodology for assessing and... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operations risk capital requirement. 932.6 Section 932.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT...

  4. 12 CFR 932.6 - Operations risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... risk capital requirement if: (1) The Bank provides an alternative methodology for assessing and... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operations risk capital requirement. 932.6 Section 932.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT...

  5. 40 CFR 35.3550 - Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements. 35.3550 Section 35.3550 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... payments. A State must agree to accept capitalization grant payments in accordance with a payment schedule... made in an amount equal to the amount of each capitalization grant payment and accompanying State...

  6. 12 CFR 240.8 - Capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... into retail forex transactions must be well-capitalized as defined in section 208.43 of Regulation H... banking institution defined in § 240.2(b)(2) offering or entering into retail forex transactions must be... companies. A banking institution defined in § 240.2(b)(3) or (4) offering or entering into retail...

  7. Applying Statement 34's Capital Asset Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finden, Randal

    2001-01-01

    Discusses common issues and offers recommendations related to revisions in Governmental Accounting Standards Board Statement 34 wherein the financial reporting of the general fixed-assets account group is eliminated and instead a school district's general capital assets are reported and depreciated on the new statement of net assets and statement…

  8. 12 CFR 167.3 - Individual minimum capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., including failure to adequately monitor and control financial and operating risks, particularly the risks... through the application of a rigid mathematical formula or wholly objective criteria. The decision is... its applicable minimum capital requirement. (ii) Failure to respond within 30 days, or such other...

  9. 40 CFR 35.3135 - Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements. 35.3135 Section 35.3135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds §...

  10. 40 CFR 35.3135 - Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements. 35.3135 Section 35.3135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds §...

  11. 40 CFR 35.3135 - Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements. 35.3135 Section 35.3135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds §...

  12. 40 CFR 35.3135 - Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements. 35.3135 Section 35.3135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds §...

  13. 40 CFR 35.3135 - Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements. 35.3135 Section 35.3135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds §...

  14. 42 CFR 489.28 - Special capitalization requirements for HHAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... projected accounts receivable from Medicare or other health care insurers. (b) Standard. Initial reserve... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special capitalization requirements for HHAs. 489.28 Section 489.28 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  15. Capital Requirements Estimating Model (CREMOD) for electric utilities. Volume I. Methodology description, model, description, and guide to model applications. [For each year up to 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, D E; Gammon, J; Shaw, M L

    1980-01-01

    The Capital Requirements Estimating Model for the Electric Utilities (CREMOD) is a system of programs and data files used to estimate the capital requirements of the electric utility industry for each year between the current one and 1990. CREMOD disaggregates new electric plant capacity levels from the Mid-term Energy Forecasting System (MEFS) Integrating Model solution over time using actual projected commissioning dates. It computes the effect on aggregate capital requirements of dispersal of new plant and capital expenditures over relatively long construction lead times on aggregate capital requirements for each year. Finally, it incorporates the effects of real escalation in the electric utility construction industry on these requirements and computes the necessary transmission and distribution expenditures. This model was used in estimating the capital requirements of the electric utility sector. These results were used in compilation of the aggregate capital requirements for the financing of energy development as published in the 1978 Annual Report to Congress. This volume, Vol. I, explains CREMOD's methodology, functions, and applications.

  16. 13 CFR 120.471 - What are the minimum capital requirements for SBLCs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... paid-in capital and paid-in surplus of at least $1,000,000, or ten percent of the aggregate of its..., an SBLC must not voluntarily reduce its capital, or repurchase and hold more than 2 percent of any class or combination of classes of its stock. (d) Issuance of securities. Without prior written...

  17. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 - Net capital requirements for brokers or dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Net capital requirements for... Net capital requirements for brokers or dealers. (a) Every broker or dealer shall at all times have and maintain net capital no less than the greater of the highest minimum requirement applicable to...

  18. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 - Net capital requirements for brokers or dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Net capital requirements for... Net capital requirements for brokers or dealers. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 1549, Jan. 8, 2014. (a) Every broker or dealer must at all times have and maintain net capital no less than...

  19. 12 CFR 217.10 - Minimum capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... process for assessing its overall capital adequacy in relation to its risk profile and a comprehensive... ratio of the Board-regulated institution's common equity tier 1 capital to standardized total risk... ratio of the Board-regulated institution's tier 1 capital to standardized total risk-weighted assets;...

  20. The Impact of News Use and Social Capital on Youth Wellbeing: An Aggregate-Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.

    2007-01-01

    The current study explores the socioenvironmental determinants of youth development, with a focus on the mass media and social capital; it tests a model in which news use and social capital influence youth wellbeing. Social capital is operationally defined in terms of youth involvement and perceptions of place, and youth wellbeing is measured with…

  1. 13 CFR 108.210 - Minimum capital requirements for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NMVC Companies. 108.210 Section 108.210 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Company § 108.210 Minimum capital requirements for NMVC Companies. You must have Regulatory Capital of at least $5,000,000 and Leverageable Capital of at least $500,000 to become a NMVC Company....

  2. 13 CFR 108.210 - Minimum capital requirements for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NMVC Companies. 108.210 Section 108.210 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Company § 108.210 Minimum capital requirements for NMVC Companies. You must have Regulatory Capital of at least $5,000,000 and Leverageable Capital of at least $500,000 to become a NMVC Company....

  3. 12 CFR 956.4 - Risk-based capital requirement for investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... credit risk of all investments that are not rated by an NRSRO, or are rated or have a putative rating... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital requirement for investments... OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK INVESTMENTS § 956.4 Risk-based capital requirement...

  4. 12 CFR 1266.11 - Capital stock requirements; redemption of excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Capital stock requirements; redemption of excess stock. 1266.11 Section 1266.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 1266.11 Capital stock requirements; redemption of excess stock....

  5. 12 CFR 1266.11 - Capital stock requirements; redemption of excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Capital stock requirements; redemption of excess stock. 1266.11 Section 1266.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 1266.11 Capital stock requirements; redemption of excess stock....

  6. 12 CFR 1266.11 - Capital stock requirements; redemption of excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Capital stock requirements; redemption of excess stock. 1266.11 Section 1266.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 1266.11 Capital stock requirements; redemption of excess stock....

  7. 12 CFR 950.11 - Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock. 950.11 Section 950.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL... Housing Associates § 950.11 Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock. (a)...

  8. 12 CFR 567.10 - Consequences of failure to meet capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consequences of failure to meet capital requirements. 567.10 Section 567.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... under the risk-based capital standard then applicable; and (vi) Is acceptable to the Director. (3) To...

  9. 12 CFR 955.6 - Risk-based capital requirement for acquired member assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... losses as support for the credit risk of all AMA estimated by the Bank to represent a credit risk that is...) Recalculation of credit enhancement. For risk-based capital purposes, each Bank shall recalculate the estimated... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital requirement for...

  10. 12 CFR 950.11 - Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock. 950.11 Section 950.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 950.11 Capital...

  11. 38 CFR 61.12 - Capital grant application packages-threshold requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Capital grant application packages-threshold requirements. 61.12 Section 61.12 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM Capital Grants §...

  12. 38 CFR 61.12 - Capital grant application packages-threshold requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Capital grant application packages-threshold requirements. 61.12 Section 61.12 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM Capital Grants §...

  13. Diatom-associated bacteria are required for aggregation of Thalassiosira weissflogii

    PubMed Central

    Gärdes, Astrid; Iversen, Morten H; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Passow, Uta; Ullrich, Matthias S

    2011-01-01

    Aggregation of algae, mainly diatoms, is an important process in marine systems leading to the settling of particulate organic carbon predominantly in the form of marine snow. Exudation products of phytoplankton form transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), which acts as the glue for particle aggregation. Heterotrophic bacteria interacting with phytoplankton may influence TEP formation and phytoplankton aggregation. This bacterial impact has not been explored in detail. We hypothesized that bacteria attaching to Thalassiosira weissflogii might interact in a yet-to-be determined manner, which could impact TEP formation and aggregate abundance. The role of individual T. weissflogii-attaching and free-living new bacterial isolates for TEP production and diatom aggregation was investigated in vitro. T. weissflogii did not aggregate in axenic culture, and striking differences in aggregation dynamics and TEP abundance were observed when diatom cultures were inoculated with either diatom-attaching or free-living bacteria. The data indicated that free-living bacteria might not influence aggregation whereas bacteria attaching to diatom cells may increase aggregate formation. Interestingly, photosynthetically inactivated T. weissflogii cells did not aggregate regardless of the presence of bacteria. Comparison of aggregate formation, TEP production, aggregate sinking velocity and solid hydrated density revealed remarkable differences. Both, photosynthetically active T. weissflogii and specific diatom-attaching bacteria were required for aggregation. It was concluded that interactions between heterotrophic bacteria and diatoms increased aggregate formation and particle sinking and thus may enhance the efficiency of the biological pump. PMID:20827289

  14. 13 CFR 120.472 - Higher individual minimum capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... capital level, and the performance of its SBA loan portfolio; (e) The management views of the SBLC's directors and senior management; and (f) Other risk-related factors, as determined by SBA. ... those circumstances or potential problems; (c) Overall condition, management strength, and...

  15. Capitation Budgeting and the 13 Gateway to Care Sites (An Aggregate Look).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-01

    budgeting. Average Length of Stay , Case Mix Index, and the number of Outpatient Visits are examined in this study to determine what influences capitation...has on these three variables. Results of the study indicate that Average Length of Stay has decreased, while Case Mix Index and number of Outpatient

  16. Use of recycled fine aggregate in concretes with durable requirements.

    PubMed

    Zega, Claudio Javier; Di Maio, Angel Antonio

    2011-11-01

    The use of construction waste materials as aggregates for concrete production is highly attractive compared to the use of non-renewable natural resources, promoting environmental protection and allowing the development of a new raw material. Several countries have recommendations for the use of recycled coarse aggregate in structural concrete, whereas the use of the fine fraction is limited because it may produce significant changes in some properties of concrete. However, during the last decade the use of recycled fine aggregates (RFA) has achieved a great international interest, mainly because of economic implications related to the shortage of natural sands suitable for the production of concrete, besides to allow an integral use of this type of waste. In this study, the durable behaviour of structural concretes made with different percentage of RFA (0%, 20%, and 30%) is evaluated. Different properties related to the durability of concretes such as absorption, sorptivity, water penetration under pressure, and carbonation are determined. In addition, the results of compressive strength, static modulus of elasticity and drying shrinkage are presented. The obtained results indicate that the recycled concretes have a suitable resistant and durable behaviour, according to the limits indicated by different international codes for structural concrete.

  17. [Aggregate shocks and investment in human capital: higher educational achievement during the lost decade in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Peña, Pablo A

    2013-01-01

    This article documents a negative aggregate response in the attainment of postsecondary education (more than 12 years of schooling) in Mexico to the recession of 1982-83 and the stagnation that followed. The response was not homogeneous across genders, regions or family backgrounds. Males experienced a drop in attainment and females experienced a slowdown in attainment growth. On average, states with greater pre-shock educational attainment experienced larger drops. There was no clear trend for the response by family background. However, a negative effect is found even between siblings. The evidence suggests a demand side story: the drop in household income seems to be the main determinant of the fall/slowing down in attainment. The conclusion is that the recession and the lack of growth that ensued had a sizeable and lasting negative impact on skill formation in Mexico.

  18. Delicate balance between functionally required flexibility and aggregation risk in a β-rich protein.

    PubMed

    Ferrolino, Mylene C; Zhuravleva, Anastasia; Budyak, Ivan L; Krishnan, Beena; Gierasch, Lila M

    2013-12-10

    Susceptibility to aggregation is general to proteins because of the potential for intermolecular interactions between hydrophobic stretches in their amino acid sequences. Protein aggregation has been implicated in several catastrophic diseases, yet we still lack in-depth understanding about how proteins are channeled to this state. Using a predominantly β-sheet protein whose folding has been explored in detail, cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 1 (CRABP1), as a model, we have tackled the challenge of understanding the links between a protein's natural tendency to fold, 'breathe', and function with its propensity to misfold and aggregate. We identified near-native dynamic species that lead to aggregation and found that inherent structural fluctuations in the native protein, resulting in opening of the ligand-entry portal, expose hydrophobic residues on the most vulnerable aggregation-prone sequences in CRABP1. CRABP1 and related intracellullar lipid-binding proteins have not been reported to aggregate inside cells, and we speculate that the cellular concentration of their open, aggregation-prone conformations is sufficient for ligand binding but below the critical concentration for aggregation. Our finding provides an example of how nature fine-tunes a delicate balance between protein function, conformational variability, and aggregation vulnerability and implies that with the evolutionary requirement for proteins to fold and function, aggregation becomes an unavoidable but controllable risk.

  19. 76 FR 27801 - Capital Requirements of Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ...The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (Commission or CFTC) is proposing regulations that would implement the new statutory framework in the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA), added by the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act). These new provisions of the CEA require, among other things, the Commission to adopt capital requirements for certain swap dealers (SDs) and......

  20. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches C Appendix C to Part 567 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL Pt. 567, App. C Appendix C to Part 567—Risk-Based Capital Requirements—Internal-Ratings-Based...

  1. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 167 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches C Appendix C to Part 167 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL Pt. 167, App. C Appendix C to Part 167—Risk-Based Capital Requirements—Internal-Ratings-Based...

  2. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches C Appendix C to Part 567 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL Pt. 567, App. C Appendix C to Part 567—Risk-Based Capital Requirements—Internal-Ratings-Based...

  3. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches C Appendix C to Part 567 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL Pt. 567, App. C Appendix C to Part 567—Risk-Based Capital Requirements—Internal-Ratings-Based...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 167 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches C Appendix C to Part 167 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL Pt. 167, App. C Appendix C to Part 167—Risk-Based Capital Requirements—Internal-Ratings-Based...

  5. Evidence for a Structural Requirement for the Aggregation of Platelets by Collagen

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, Russell; Deykin, Daniel

    1974-01-01

    This study investigates whether soluble collagen can initiate platelet aggregation or whether a higher degree of polymerization is required. Purified rat skin collagen was prepared in four states. Soluble monomeric collagen, containing 2 μM calcium chloride, was maintained at 4°C until use. A previously uncharacterized form of collagen, soluble microfibrillar collagen, was prepared from monomeric collagen containing calcium chloride by allowing it to polymerize at 23°C. Viscometric and electron microscopic characterization of microfibrillar collagen indicated polymerization to ordered native filaments. Particulate native macrofibrillar collagen was prepared from monomeric collagen by allowing it to polymerize at 37°C in the absence of calcium. Particulate collagen, in which the fibers were randomly associated, was prepared by salt precipitation of calcium-free monomeric collagen. Microfibrillar and native macrofibrillar collagen initiated platelet aggregation, with a lag phase of approximately 60 s. Monomeric collagen initiated aggregation with a lag phase of approximately 180 s. The duration of the lag phase for platelet aggregation initiated by monomeric collagen was independent of the dose. Salt-precipitated particulate collagen did not initiate platelet aggregation. Agents which prolong the transition from monomeric collagen to fibrillar collagen (urea, arginine) retarded or prevented the aggregation of platelets by monomeric collagen. Sodium borohydride, which stabilizes the intraand intermolecular cross-links of collagen did not affect platelet aggregation. Penicillamine, which displaces the intermolecular cross-links and binds the intramolecular cross-links of collagen, did not prevent platelet aggregation. The data suggest that an architectural requirement exists for the initiation of self-perpetuating platelet aggregation; that tropocollagen units do not fulfill this requirement; that a soluble collagen preparation, microfibrillar collagen, contains

  6. 12 CFR 932.4 - Credit risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... part, for an asset with a short-term credit rating from a given NRSRO, the credit risk percentage requirement shall be based on the remaining maturity of the asset and the long-term credit rating provided for the issuer of the asset by the same NRSRO. Should the issuer of the short-term asset not have a...

  7. 12 CFR 932.4 - Credit risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... part, for an asset with a short-term credit rating from a given NRSRO, the credit risk percentage requirement shall be based on the remaining maturity of the asset and the long-term credit rating provided for the issuer of the asset by the same NRSRO. Should the issuer of the short-term asset not have a...

  8. 24 CFR 905.300 - Capital fund submission requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... lead-based paint poisoning prevention standards at 24 CFR part 35, before major systems (e.g., heating...) Certification of Compliance with Public Hearing Requirements. (3) Conduct of public hearing and Resident Advisory Board Consultation. A PHA must annually conduct a public hearing and consult with the...

  9. 77 FR 71568 - Capital, Margin, and Segregation Requirements for Security-Based Swap Dealers and Major Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... Requirements for Security-Based Swap Dealers and Major Security-Based Swap Participants and Capital Requirements for Broker-Dealers; Correction AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... proposed capital and margin requirements for security-based swap dealers (``SBSDs'') and major...

  10. 78 FR 4365 - Capital, Margin, and Segregation Requirements for Security-Based Swap Dealers and Major Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 RIN 3235-AL12 Capital, Margin, and Segregation Requirements for Security-Based Swap Dealers and Major Security-Based Swap Participants and Capital Requirements for Broker-Dealers... requirements for security-based swap dealers and major security-based swap participants under the...

  11. 12 CFR 956.4 - Risk-based capital requirement for investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 956.4 Section 956.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK INVESTMENTS § 956.4 Risk-based capital requirement for... quality of the asset to the second highest credit rating category; and (b) 0.08 for assets having...

  12. 76 FR 27563 - Margin and Capital Requirements for Covered Swap Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ...The OCC, Board, FDIC, FCA, and FHFA (collectively, the Agencies) are requesting comment on a proposal to establish minimum margin and capital requirements for registered swap dealers, major swap participants, security-based swap dealers, and major security-based swap participants for which one of the Agencies is the prudential regulator. This proposed rule implements sections 731 and 764 of......

  13. Assessment of capital requirements for alternative fuels infrastructure under the PNGV program

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, K.; Singh, M.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents an assessment of the capital requirements of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a new Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels include two petroleum-based fuels (reformulated gasoline and low-sulfur diesel) and four alternative fuels (methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen). This study develops estimates of cumulative capital needs for establishing fuels production and distribution infrastructure to accommodate 3X vehicle fuel needs. Two levels of fuel volume-70,000 barrels per day and 1.6 million barrels per day-were established for meeting 3X-vehicle fuel demand. As expected, infrastructure capital needs for the high fuel demand level are much higher than for the low fuel demand level. Between fuel production infrastructure and distribution infrastructure, capital needs for the former far exceed those for the latter. Among the four alternative fuels, hydrogen bears the largest capital needs for production and distribution infrastructure.

  14. 77 FR 71369 - Capital, Margin, and Segregation Requirements for Security-Based Swap Dealers and Major Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 RIN 3235-AL12 Capital, Margin, and Segregation Requirements for Security-Based Swap Dealers and Major Security-Based Swap Participants and Capital Requirements for...

  15. Capital requirements and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of potential PNGV fuels.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Wang, M.

    1999-03-11

    Our study reveals that supplying gasoline-equivalent demand for the low-market-share scenario requires a capital investment of less than $40 billion for all fuels except H{sub 2}, which will require a total cumulative investment of $150 billion. By contrast, cumulative capital investments under the high-market-share scenario are $50 billion for LNG, $90 billion for ethanol, $100 billion for methanol, $160 billion for CNG and DME, and $560 billion for H{sub 2}. Although these substantial capital requirements are spread over many years, their magnitude could pose a challenge to the widespread introduction of 3X vehicles. Fossil fuel use by US light-duty vehicles declines significantly with introduction of 3X vehicles because of fuel-efficiency improvements for 3X vehicles and because of fuel substitution (which applies to the nonpetroleum-fueled alternatives). Petroleum use for light-duty vehicles in 2030 is reduced by as much as 45% relative to the reference scenario. GHG emissions follow a similar pattern. Total GHG emissions decline by 25-30% with most of the propulsion system/fuel alternatives. For those using renewable fuels (i.e., ethanol and H{sub 2} from solar energy), GHG emissions drop by 33% (H{sub 2}) and 45% (ethanol). Among urban air pollutants, urban NOX emissions decline slightly for 3X vehicles using CIDI and SIDI engines and drop substantially for fuel-cell vehicles. Urban CO emissions decline for CIDI and FCV alternatives, while VOC emissions drop significantly for all alternatives except RFG-, methanol-, and ethanol-fueled SIDI engines. With the exception of CIDI engines fueled by RFD, FT50, or B20 (which increase urban PM{sub 10} emissions by over 30%), all propulsion system/fuel alternatives reduce urban PM{sub 10} emissions. Reductions are approximately 15-20% for fuel cells and for methanol-, ethanol-, CNG-, or LPG-fueled SIDI engines. Table 3 qualitatively summarizes impacts of the 13 alternatives on capital requirements and on energy use and

  16. Ecological Footprints and Appropriated Carrying Capacity: Measuring the Natural Capital Requirements of the Human Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ress, William E.; Wackernagel, Mathis

    1996-01-01

    Contrasts conventional economic rationality with economic principles. Develops an empirical approach based on a reinterpretation of carrying capacity that can account for technological advances and trade. Discusses the necessity of diverting much of the present consumption to investment in the maintenance of natural capital stocks. (AIM)

  17. 13 CFR 120.471 - What are the minimum capital requirements for SBLCs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... approval, an SBLC must not issue any securities (including stock options and debt securities) except stock... stock; (2) Preferred stock that is noncumulative as to dividends and does not have a maturity date; (3) Additional paid-in capital representing amounts paid for stock in excess of the par value; (4)...

  18. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 - Net capital requirements for brokers or dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... term “dealer” includes: (A) Any broker or dealer that endorses or writes options otherwise than on a... conformity with paragraph (b)(2) of § 240.15c2-4, so long as those persons engage in no other dealer... application by an OTC derivatives dealer when calculating net capital to use the market risk standards...

  19. Metacaspase Yca1 is required for clearance of insoluble protein aggregates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robin E C; Brunette, Steve; Puente, Lawrence G; Megeney, Lynn A

    2010-07-27

    In complex organisms, caspase proteases mediate a variety of cell behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation, and programmed cell death/apoptosis. Structural homologs to the caspase family (termed metacaspases) engage apoptosis in single-cell eukaryotes, yet the molecular mechanisms that contribute to nondeath roles are currently undefined. Here, we report an unexpected role for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae metacaspase Yca1 in protein quality control. Quantitative proteomic analysis of Deltayca1 cells identified significant alterations to vacuolar catabolism and stress-response proteins in the absence of induced stress. Yca1 protein complexes are enriched for aggregate-remodeling chaperones that colocalize with Yca1-GFP fusions. Finally, deletion and inactivation mutants of Yca1 accrue protein aggregates and autophagic bodies during log-phase growth. Together, our results show that Yca1 contributes to the fitness and adaptability of growing yeast through an aggregate remodeling activity.

  20. Plasmodium falciparum Hep1 Is Required to Prevent the Self Aggregation of PfHsp70-3

    PubMed Central

    Nyakundi, David O.; Vuko, Loyiso A. M.; Bentley, Stephen J.; Hoppe, Heinrich; Blatch, Gregory L.; Boshoff, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    The majority of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus and need to be imported from the cytosol into the mitochondria, and molecular chaperones play a key role in the efficient translocation and proper folding of these proteins in the matrix. One such molecular chaperone is the eukaryotic mitochondrial heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70); however, it is prone to self-aggregation and requires the presence of an essential zinc-finger protein, Hsp70-escort protein 1 (Hep1), to maintain its structure and function. PfHsp70-3, the only Hsp70 predicted to localize in the mitochondria of P. falciparum, may also rely on a Hep1 orthologue to prevent self-aggregation. In this study, we identified a putative Hep1 orthologue in P. falciparum and co-expression of PfHsp70-3 and PfHep1 enhanced the solubility of PfHsp70-3. PfHep1 suppressed the thermally induced aggregation of PfHsp70-3 but not the aggregation of malate dehydrogenase or citrate synthase, thus showing specificity for PfHsp70-3. Zinc ions were indeed essential for maintaining the function of PfHep1, as EDTA chelation abrogated its abilities to suppress the aggregation of PfHsp70-3. Soluble and functional PfHsp70-3, acquired by co-expression with PfHep-1, will facilitate the biochemical characterisation of this particular Hsp70 protein and its evaluation as a drug target for the treatment of malaria. PMID:27253881

  1. 77 FR 60057 - Margin and Capital Requirements for Covered Swap Entities; Reopening of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... Regulation, (202) 973-6123; or Christopher M. Paridon, Counsel, (202) 452-3274 or Anna M. Harrington... the prudential regulator, as required under sections 731 and 764 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the ``Dodd-Frank Act'').\\1\\ Sections 731 and 764 of the Dodd-Frank...

  2. 13 CFR 120.473 - Procedures for determining individual minimum capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... delivered to the AA/CA within 30 days after the date on which the SBLC received the notice. SBA may shorten...) Decision. After the close of the SBLC's response period, the AA/CA will decide, based on a review of SBA... requirement by the specified date, either the SBLC or the AA/CA may propose to the other a change in...

  3. 17 CFR 402.2 - Capital requirements for registered government securities brokers and dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... required by § 240.15c3-1(c)(2)(iv)(F)(3)(i) of this title relating to repurchase agreement deficits shall... deficits, aged fails to deliver, and aged fails to receive arising from transactions with the counterparty...). (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1535-0089)...

  4. 17 CFR 402.2 - Capital requirements for registered government securities brokers and dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... required by § 240.15c3-1(c)(2)(iv)(F)(3)(i) of this title relating to repurchase agreement deficits shall... deficits, aged fails to deliver, and aged fails to receive arising from transactions with the counterparty...). (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1535-0089)...

  5. 17 CFR 402.2 - Capital requirements for registered government securities brokers and dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... required by § 240.15c3-1(c)(2)(iv)(F)(3)(i) of this title relating to repurchase agreement deficits shall... deficits, aged fails to deliver, and aged fails to receive arising from transactions with the counterparty...). (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1535-0089)...

  6. 17 CFR 402.2 - Capital requirements for registered government securities brokers and dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... required by § 240.15c3-1(c)(2)(iv)(F)(3)(i) of this title relating to repurchase agreement deficits shall... deficits, aged fails to deliver, and aged fails to receive arising from transactions with the counterparty...). (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1535-0089)...

  7. Air Force Working Capital Fund: Actions Needed to Manage Cash Balances to Required Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    on receiving daily cash balances. • Because airlift rates are set to compete with private sector rates , they do not cover the full cost. The...the maximum cash requirement for fiscal year 2009. Air Force headquarters officials informed us that when they set the rates to be charged to CSAG and... Rates Too High for Supply Items Monthly Cash Balances Fluctuated Because of the Cyclical Nature of Events Page 12 GAO-14-480 Air Force

  8. 13 CFR 120.462 - What are SBA's additional requirements on capital maintenance for SBA Supervised Lenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... The board of directors (or management, if the SBA Supervised Lender is a division of another company and does not have its own board of directors) of each SBA Supervised Lender must determine capital... risks inherent in its operation. (b) Capital plan. (1) The board of directors of each SBA...

  9. 13 CFR 120.462 - What are SBA's additional requirements on capital maintenance for SBA Supervised Lenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... The board of directors (or management, if the SBA Supervised Lender is a division of another company and does not have its own board of directors) of each SBA Supervised Lender must determine capital... risks inherent in its operation. (b) Capital plan. (1) The board of directors of each SBA...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Z of... - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches A Appendix A to Subpart Z of Part 390 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY REGULATIONS TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Z of... - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches A Appendix A to Subpart Z of Part 390 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY REGULATIONS TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT...

  12. Intellectual Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  13. Capital expenditures and the availability of funds.

    PubMed

    Muller, C; Worthington, P N; Allen, G

    1975-01-01

    Data on capital expenditures and the availability of funds assembled from the annual financial and service records of 42 short-term voluntary hospitals in New York City over two decades were used to analyze the behavior of annual capital expenditures on building and equipment assets. Desired expenditures on capital as a factor of production are viewed as being the result of changes in anticipated output and of the substitution of capital for labor. Actual capital expenditures in each year also reflect the availability of flows of nonoperating revenues and the completion of capital programs initiated in previous years. Nonoperating revenues include philanthropy and earnings on financial assets as principal sources. A monetary revenue series, adjusted for changes in hospital charges, was used to measure output and thus to seperate the effects of demand for hospital services and supply of funds on investment behavior. The data were approached as annual aggregates for 42 hospitals over the years 1946-1966 and as annual hospital averages for teaching and nonteaching hospitals over the same period. In both approaches four causal factors-output, substitution, the flow of nonoperating revenues, and a distributed lag-explained about 95 per cent of the sample variance of capital expenditures. Allowing for available funds reduced the average time required for 95 per cent completion of a capital adjustment from 7 to 3 years. Responsiveness of hospitals to these economic variables suggests that socially desired investment can be attained by (a) "monetizing" needs of groups now underserved; (b) improving availability of funds if used for acceptable public purposes; and (c) including consumers in determining institutional and regional priorities.

  14. Making big communities small: using network science to understand the ecological and behavioral requirements for community social capital.

    PubMed

    Neal, Zachary

    2015-06-01

    The concept of social capital is becoming increasingly common in community psychology and elsewhere. However, the multiple conceptual and operational definitions of social capital challenge its utility as a theoretical tool. The goals of this paper are to clarify two forms of social capital (bridging and bonding), explicitly link them to the structural characteristics of small world networks, and explore the behavioral and ecological prerequisites of its formation. First, I use the tools of network science and specifically the concept of small-world networks to clarify what patterns of social relationships are likely to facilitate social capital formation. Second, I use an agent-based model to explore how different ecological characteristics (diversity and segregation) and behavioral tendencies (homophily and proximity) impact communities' potential for developing social capital. The results suggest diverse communities have the greatest potential to develop community social capital, and that segregation moderates the effects that the behavioral tendencies of homophily and proximity have on community social capital. The discussion highlights how these findings provide community-based researchers with both a deeper understanding of the contextual constraints with which they must contend, and a useful tool for targeting their efforts in communities with the greatest need or greatest potential.

  15. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index. The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark,…

  16. Adenylyl cyclase localization to the uropod of aggregating Dictyostelium cells requires RacC

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C.; Jung, D.; Cao, Z.; Chung, C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The localization of adenylyl cyclase A (ACA) to uropod of cells is required for the stream formation during Dictyostelium development. RacC is a Dictyostelium orthologue of Cdc42. We identified a streaming defect of racC− cells as they are clearly less polarized and form smaller and fragmented streams. ACA-YFP is mainly associated with intracellular vesicular structures, but not with the plasma membrane in racC− cells. racC− cells have a slightly higher number of vesicles than Ax3 cells, suggesting that the defect of ACA trafficking is not simply due to the lack of vesicle formation. While the ACA-YFP vesicles traveled with an average velocity of 9.1 µm/min in Ax3 cells, a slow and diffusional movement without direction with an average velocity of 4 µm/min was maintained in racC− cells. Images acquired by using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis revealed that a significantly decreased number of ACA-YFP vesicles appeared near the cell membrane, indicating a defect in ACA-YFP vesicle trafficking. These results suggest an important role of RacC in the rapid and directional movements of ACA vesicles on microtubules to the plasma membrane, especially to the back of polarized cell. PMID:26315268

  17. Adenylyl cyclase localization to the uropod of aggregating Dictyostelium cells requires RacC.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Jung, D; Cao, Z; Chung, C Y

    2015-09-25

    The localization of adenylyl cyclase A (ACA) to uropod of cells is required for the stream formation during Dictyostelium development. RacC is a Dictyostelium orthologue of Cdc42. We identified a streaming defect of racC(-) cells as they are clearly less polarized and form smaller and fragmented streams. ACA-YFP is mainly associated with intracellular vesicular structures, but not with the plasma membrane in racC(-) cells. racC(-) cells have a slightly higher number of vesicles than Ax3 cells, suggesting that the defect of ACA trafficking is not simply due to the lack of vesicle formation. While the ACA-YFP vesicles traveled with an average velocity of 9.1 μm/min in Ax3 cells, a slow and diffusional movement without direction with an average velocity of 4 μm/min was maintained in racC(-) cells. Images acquired by using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis revealed that a significantly decreased number of ACA-YFP vesicles appeared near the cell membrane, indicating a defect in ACA-YFP vesicle trafficking. These results suggest an important role of RacC in the rapid and directional movements of ACA vesicles on microtubules to the plasma membrane, especially to the back of polarized cell.

  18. 13 CFR 120.462 - What are SBA's additional requirements on capital maintenance for SBA Supervised Lenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... The board of directors (or management, if the SBA Supervised Lender is a division of another company... in developing the SBA Supervised Lender's capital adequacy plan: (i) Management capability; (ii...; (iv) Asset quality and the adequacy of the allowance for loan losses within the loan portfolio;...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches C Appendix C to Part 567 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF... Capital Requirements—Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches Part IGeneral Provisions... Equity Exposures Section 51Introduction and Exposure Measurement Section 52Simple Risk Weight...

  20. 76 FR 35351 - Capital Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ...; ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 225 RIN 7100-AD 77 Capital Plans AGENCY: Board of Governors of the... Regulation Y to require large bank holding companies to submit capital plans to the Federal Reserve on an.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Background II. Scope III. Capital Plans A. Annual...

  1. Allergy Capitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ...

  2. 78 FR 62417 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Assets, Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule, and..., Prompt Corrective Action, Standardized Approach for Risk-weighted Assets, Market Discipline...

  3. Maximum Capital Project Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Describes the stages of capital project planning and development: (1) individual capital project submission; (2) capital project proposal assessment; (3) executive committee; and (4) capital project execution. (EV)

  4. The thiG Gene Is Required for Full Virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae by Preventing Cell Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoyue; Liang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Kexue; Dong, Wenxia; Wang, Jianxin; Zhou, Ming-guo

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial blight of rice is an important serious bacterial diseases of rice in many rice-growing regions, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). The thiG gene from Xoo strain ZJ173, which is involved with thiazole moiety production in the thiamine biosynthesis pathway, is highly conserved among the members of Xanthomonas. The thiG deletion mutant displayed impaired virulence and growth in thiamine-free medium but maintained its normal growth rate in the rice tissues, indicating that the thiG gene is involved in Xoo virulence. Compared to the wild type strain, the formation of cell-cell aggregates was affected in thiG deletion mutants. Although biofilm formation was promoted, motility and migration in rice leaves were repressed in the thiG mutants, and therefore limited the expansion of pathogen infection in rice. Quorum sensing and extracellular substance are two key factors that contribute to the formation of cell-cell aggregates. Our study found that in the thiG mutant the expression of two genes, rpfC and rpfG, which form a two-component regulatory signal system involved in the regulation of biofilm formation by a second messenger cyclic di-GMP is down-regulated. In addition, our study showed that xanthan production was not affected but the expression of some genes associated with xanthan biosynthesis, like gumD, gumE, gumH and gumM, were up-regulated in thiG mutants. Taken together, these findings are the first to demonstrate the role of the thiazole biosynthsis gene, thiG, in virulence and the formation of aggregates in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. PMID:26222282

  5. Unbonded Aggregate Surface Roads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    are sufficiently angular and rough in texture, thus ensuring mixture stability. A popular asphalt mixture design method called Superpave Level 1...would not pass either of the Superpave aggregate requirements. Table 18 Additional Characteristics for the Fine Fraction Abbreviated Common Name...CBR values when compacted wet of optimum. This is likely attributable to their relatively high permeabilities . For soaked CBR tests, the aggregates

  6. 26 CFR 1.1211-1 - Limitation on capital losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... are treated as a short-term capital loss in such taxable year pursuant to section 1212(a)(1), but only... aggregate of all losses sustained in other taxable years which are treated either as a short-term capital... January 1, 1977); or (iii) The sum of the excess of the net short-term capital loss over the net...

  7. Capital Outlay Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont State Dept. of Education, Montpelier.

    The Vermont State Board of Education adopted a capital outlay program in February 1974, that requires local school districts to file short- and long-range facility needs plans based on Department of Education models. This document, excerpted from State Board of Education minutes, describes the minimum requirements for receiving state aid for…

  8. Square Footage Requirements for Use in Developing the Local Facilities Plans and State Capital Outlay Applications for Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Facilities Services Unit.

    This document presents the space requirements for Georgia's elementary, middle, and high schools. All square footage requirements are computed by using inside dimensions of a room; the square footage of support spaces in suites may be included when computing the square footage of the suite. Examples of support spaces include storage rooms,…

  9. 77 FR 52791 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Minimum Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... incorporating aspects of the BCBS's Basel II standardized framework in the ``International Convergence of... references to credit ratings. \\5\\ See BCBS, ``International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital...'' of common equity tier 1 capital in excess of the new minimum capital requirements. \\11\\...

  10. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank,...

  11. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank,...

  12. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank,...

  13. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank,...

  14. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Part of the 1994 Industrial Minerals Review. The production, consumption, and applications of construction aggregates are reviewed. In 1994, the production of construction aggregates, which includes crushed stone and construction sand and gravel combined, increased 7.7 percent to 2.14 Gt compared with the previous year. These record production levels are mostly a result of funding for highway construction work provided by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Demand is expected to increase for construction aggregates in 1995.

  15. Erosion of dust aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seizinger, A.; Krijt, S.; Kley, W.

    2013-12-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to gain a deeper insight into how much different aggregate types are affected by erosion. Especially, it is important to study the influence of the velocity of the impacting projectiles. We also want to provide models for dust growth in protoplanetary disks with simple recipes to account for erosion effects. Methods: To study the erosion of dust aggregates we employed a molecular dynamics approach that features a detailed micro-physical model of the interaction of spherical grains. For the first time, the model has been extended by introducing a new visco-elastic damping force, which requires a proper calibration. Afterwards, different sample generation methods were used to cover a wide range of aggregate types. Results: The visco-elastic damping force introduced in this work turns out to be crucial to reproduce results obtained from laboratory experiments. After proper calibration, we find that erosion occurs for impact velocities of 5 ms-1 and above. Though fractal aggregates as formed during the first growth phase are most susceptible to erosion, we observe erosion of aggregates with rather compact surfaces as well. Conclusions: We find that bombarding a larger target aggregate with small projectiles results in erosion for impact velocities as low as a few ms-1. More compact aggregates suffer less from erosion. With increasing projectile size the transition from accretion to erosion is shifted to higher velocities. This allows larger bodies to grow through high velocity collisions with smaller aggregates.

  16. Projected Cropping Patterns, Livestock Enterprises, Processing Activities, Capital Requirements, Employment, Income, and Training Needs for Alternative Farm Organizational Structures for the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project. A Special Report to the Four Corners Regional Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, William D.; And Others

    Information on the expected cropping patterns, livestock enterprises, processing and related activities, income and employment opportunities, capital needs, and training requirements for alternative farm organizational structures that could be selected for development of the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project is presented in this report. The major…

  17. Capital Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom

    1987-05-01

    Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "capital investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the capital investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "Capital Package." A Capital Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The Capital Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.

  18. Capital Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalessandro, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals (D. Dalessandro), the lead gift (D. A. Campbell), motivating trustees (J. J. Ianolli, Jr.), alumni associations (W. B. Adams), role of public relations officers (R. L. Williams), special events( H.R. Gilbert), the campaign document (R. King), and case statements (D. R. Treadwell,…

  19. Charged Dust Aggregate Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle aggregates immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust aggregate as well as the manner in which the aggregate interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like aggregates levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as aggregates approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, aggregates are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the aggregate while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.

  20. Health, Human Capital, and Development*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2013-01-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health’s effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health. PMID:24147187

  1. Health, Human Capital, and Development.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2010-09-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health's effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health.

  2. Sustainability in Supply Chain Management: Aggregate Planning from Sustainability Perspective.

    PubMed

    Türkay, Metin; Saraçoğlu, Öztürk; Arslan, Mehmet Can

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers.

  3. Sustainability in Supply Chain Management: Aggregate Planning from Sustainability Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Türkay, Metin; Saraçoğlu, Öztürk; Arslan, Mehmet Can

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers. PMID:26807848

  4. Holographic characterization of protein aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Zhong, Xiao; Ruffner, David; Stutt, Alexandra; Philips, Laura; Ward, Michael; Grier, David

    Holographic characterization directly measures the size distribution of subvisible protein aggregates in suspension and offers insights into their morphology. Based on holographic video microscopy, this analytical technique records and interprets holograms of individual aggregates in protein solutions as they flow down a microfluidic channel, without requiring labeling or other exceptional sample preparation. The hologram of an individual protein aggregate is analyzed in real time with the Lorenz-Mie theory of light scattering to measure that aggregate's size and optical properties. Detecting, counting and characterizing subvisible aggregates proceeds fast enough for time-resolved studies, and lends itself to tracking trends in protein aggregation arising from changing environmental factors. No other analytical technique provides such a wealth of particle-resolved characterization data in situ. Holographic characterization promises accelerated development of therapeutic protein formulations, improved process control during manufacturing, and streamlined quality assurance during storage and at the point of use. Mrsec and MRI program of the NSF, Spheryx Inc.

  5. Fibronectin Aggregation and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Tomoo; Erickson, Harold P.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of fibronectin (FN) assembly and the self-association sites are still unclear and contradictory, although the N-terminal 70-kDa region (I1–9) is commonly accepted as one of the assembly sites. We previously found that I1–9 binds to superfibronectin, which is an artificial FN aggregate induced by anastellin. In the present study, we found that I1–9 bound to the aggregate formed by anastellin and a small FN fragment, III1–2. An engineered disulfide bond in III2, which stabilizes folding, inhibited aggregation, but a disulfide bond in III1 did not. A gelatin precipitation assay showed that I1–9 did not interact with anastellin, III1, III2, III1–2, or several III1–2 mutants including III1–2KADA. (In contrast to previous studies, we found that the III1–2KADA mutant was identical in conformation to wild-type III1–2.) Because I1–9 only bound to the aggregate and the unfolding of III2 played a role in aggregation, we generated a III2 domain that was destabilized by deletion of the G strand. This mutant bound I1–9 as shown by the gelatin precipitation assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis, and it inhibited FN matrix assembly when added to cell culture. Next, we introduced disulfide mutations into full-length FN. Three disulfide locks in III2, III3, and III11 were required to dramatically reduce anastellin-induced aggregation. When we tested the disulfide mutants in cell culture, only the disulfide bond in III2 reduced the FN matrix. These results suggest that the unfolding of III2 is one of the key factors for FN aggregation and assembly. PMID:21949131

  6. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  7. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Part of the Annual Commodities Review 1995. Production of construction aggregates such as crushed stone and construction sand and gravel showed a marginal increase in 1995. Most of the 1995 increases were due to funding for highway construction work. The major areas of concern to the industry included issues relating to wetlands classification and the classification of crystalline silica as a probable human carcinogen. Despite this, an increase in demand is anticipated for 1996.

  8. Human capital, schooling and health.

    PubMed

    Schultz, T Paul

    2003-06-01

    A consensus has been forged in the last decade that recent periods of sustained growth in total factor productivity and reduced poverty are closely associated with improvements in a population's child nutrition, adult health, and schooling, particularly in low-income countries. Estimates of the productive returns from these three forms of human capital investment are nonetheless qualified by a number of limitations in our data and analytical methods. This paper reviews the problems that occupy researchers in this field and summarizes accumulating evidence of empirical regularities. Social experiments must be designed to assess how randomized policy interventions motivate families and individuals to invest in human capital, and then measure the changed wage opportunities of those who have been induced to make these investments. Statistical estimation of wage functions that seek to represent the relationship between wage rates and a variety of human capital stocks may yield biased estimates of private rates of return from these investments for a variety of reasons. The paper summarizes several of these problems and illustrates how data and statistical methods can be used to deal with some of them. The measures of labor productivity and the proxies specified for schooling and adult health are first discussed, and then the functional relationships between human capital and wages are described. Three types of estimation problem are discussed: (1) bias due to omitted variables, such as ability or frailty; (2) bias due to the measurement of an aggregation of multiple sources of human capital, e.g. genetic and socially reproducible variation, which may contribute to different gains in worker productivity; and (3) errors in measurement of the human capital stocks. Empirical examples and illustrative estimates are surveyed.

  9. 76 FR 74631 - Capital Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... (Board). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Board is adopting amendments to Regulation Y to require large... proposal in the Federal Register to require large bank holding companies to submit capital plans to the... upon the Federal Reserve's existing supervisory expectation that large bank holding companies...

  10. Sequence-dependent internalization of aggregating peptides.

    PubMed

    Couceiro, José R; Gallardo, Rodrigo; De Smet, Frederik; De Baets, Greet; Baatsen, Pieter; Annaert, Wim; Roose, Kenny; Saelens, Xavier; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic

    2015-01-02

    Recently, a number of aggregation disease polypeptides have been shown to spread from cell to cell, thereby displaying prionoid behavior. Studying aggregate internalization, however, is often hampered by the complex kinetics of the aggregation process, resulting in the concomitant uptake of aggregates of different sizes by competing mechanisms, which makes it difficult to isolate pathway-specific responses to aggregates. We designed synthetic aggregating peptides bearing different aggregation propensities with the aim of producing modes of uptake that are sufficiently distinct to differentially analyze the cellular response to internalization. We found that small acidic aggregates (≤500 nm in diameter) were taken up by nonspecific endocytosis as part of the fluid phase and traveled through the endosomal compartment to lysosomes. By contrast, bigger basic aggregates (>1 μm) were taken up through a mechanism dependent on cytoskeletal reorganization and membrane remodeling with the morphological hallmarks of phagocytosis. Importantly, the properties of these aggregates determined not only the mechanism of internalization but also the involvement of the proteostatic machinery (the assembly of interconnected networks that control the biogenesis, folding, trafficking, and degradation of proteins) in the process; whereas the internalization of small acidic aggregates is HSF1-independent, the uptake of larger basic aggregates was HSF1-dependent, requiring Hsp70. Our results show that the biophysical properties of aggregates determine both their mechanism of internalization and proteostatic response. It remains to be seen whether these differences in cellular response contribute to the particular role of specific aggregated proteins in disease.

  11. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units.

  12. Social capital, mental health and biomarkers in Chile: Assessing the effects of social capital in a middle-income country

    PubMed Central

    Riumallo-Herl, Carlos Javier; Kawachi, Ichiro; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    In high-income countries, higher social capital is associated with better health. However, there is little evidence of this association in low- and middle-income countries. We examine the association between social capital (social support and trust) and both self-rated and biologically assessed health outcomes in Chile, a middle-income country that experienced a major political transformation and welfare state expansion in the last two decades. Based on data from the Chilean National Health Survey (2009–10), we modeled self-rated health, depression, measured diabetes and hypertension as a function of social capital indicators, controlling for socio-economic status and health behavior. We used an instrumental variable approach to examine whether social capital was causally associated with health. We find that correlations between social capital and health observed in high-income countries are also observed in Chile. All social capital indicators are significantly associated with depression at all ages, and at least one social capital indicator is associated with self-rated health, hypertension and diabetes at ages 45 and above. Instrumental variable models suggest that associations for depression may reflect a causal effect from social capital indicators on mental well-being. Using aggregate social capital as instrument, we also find evidence that social capital may be causally associated with hypertension and diabetes, early markers of cardiovascular risk. Our findings highlight the potential role of social capital in the prevention of depression and early cardiovascular disease in middle-income countries. PMID:24495808

  13. Social capital, mental health and biomarkers in Chile: assessing the effects of social capital in a middle-income country.

    PubMed

    Riumallo-Herl, Carlos Javier; Kawachi, Ichiro; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-03-01

    In high-income countries, higher social capital is associated with better health. However, there is little evidence of this association in low- and middle-income countries. We examine the association between social capital (social support and trust) and both self-rated and biologically assessed health outcomes in Chile, a middle-income country that experienced a major political transformation and welfare state expansion in the last two decades. Based on data from the Chilean National Health Survey (2009-10), we modeled self-rated health, depression, measured diabetes and hypertension as a function of social capital indicators, controlling for socio-economic status and health behavior. We used an instrumental variable approach to examine whether social capital was causally associated with health. We find that correlations between social capital and health observed in high-income countries are also observed in Chile. All social capital indicators are significantly associated with depression at all ages, and at least one social capital indicator is associated with self-rated health, hypertension and diabetes at ages 45 and above. Instrumental variable models suggest that associations for depression may reflect a causal effect from social capital indicators on mental well-being. Using aggregate social capital as instrument, we also find evidence that social capital may be causally associated with hypertension and diabetes, early markers of cardiovascular risk. Our findings highlight the potential role of social capital in the prevention of depression and early cardiovascular disease in middle-income countries.

  14. Afresh look at capital investments.

    PubMed

    Levy, Alexis; Lawrence, Jennifer; Shiple, David

    2009-03-01

    Hospitals should focus on optimizing performance in five primary areas of capital investment: facilities, IT, physician networks, service lines, and clinical equipment/technology. Hospitals require a broad evaluation framework to help identify the key issues and concerns associated with each area. Discipline is critical to this process, so that every area receives its due consideration.

  15. Reaping benefits from intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Weston, Marla J; Estrada, Nicolette A; Carrington, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The wealth and value of organizations are increasingly based on intellectual capital. Although acquiring talented individuals and investing in employee learning adds value to the organization, reaping the benefits of intellectual capital involves translating the wisdom of employees into reusable and sustained actions. This requires a culture that creates employee commitment, encourages learning, fosters sharing, and involves employees in decision making. An infrastructure to recognize and embed promising and best practices through social networks, evidence-based practice, customization of innovations, and use of information technology results in increased productivity, stronger financial performance, better patient outcomes, and greater employee and customer satisfaction.

  16. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  17. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  18. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  19. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  20. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  1. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000972.htm Slipped capital femoral epiphysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A slipped capital femoral epiphysis is a separation of the ball ...

  2. 77 FR 31767 - Aggregation, Position Limits for Futures and Swaps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ..., this notice proposes certain modifications to the Commission's policy for aggregation under the... Commission's existing aggregation policy under regulation 150.4. The aggregation provisions generally require... generally retained the Commission's existing aggregation policy. See 76 FR 71626. 1. Exemption for...

  3. 26 CFR 1.1502-22 - Consolidated capital gain and loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to— (1) The aggregate gains and losses of members from sales or exchanges of capital assets for the...). (2) Definitions—(i) Generally. For purposes of this paragraph (g), the definitions and...

  4. Capitals, assets, and resources: some critical issues.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mike; Warde, Alan; Devine, Fiona

    2005-03-01

    This paper explores the potential of Bourdieu's approach to capital as a way of understanding class dynamics in contemporary capitalism. Recent rethinking of class analysis has sought to move beyond what Rosemary Crompton (1998) calls the 'employment aggregate approach', one which involves categorizing people into class groups according to whether they have certain attributes (e.g. occupations). Instead, recent contributions by Pierre Bourdieu, Erik Wright, Aage Sorensen, and Charles Tilly have concentrated on understanding the mechanisms that produce class inequalities. Concepts such as assets, capitals and resources (CARs) are often used to explain how class inequalities are produced, but there remain ambiguities and differences in how such terms are understood. This paper identifies problems faced both by game theoretical Marxism and by the rational choice approach of Goldthorpe in developing an adequate approach to CARs. It then turns to critically consider how elements of Bourdieu's approach, where his concept of capital is related to those of habitus and field, might overcome these weaknesses. Our rendering of his arguments leads us to conclude that our understanding of CARs might be enriched by considering how capital is distinctive not in terms of distinct relations of exploitation, but through its potential to accumulate and to be converted to other resources. This focus, we suggest, sidesteps otherwise intractable problems in CAR based approaches.

  5. Erythrocyte aggregation: basic aspects and clinical importance.

    PubMed

    Baskurt, Oguz K; Meiselman, Herbert J

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregate to form two- and three-dimensional structures when suspended in aqueous solutions containing large plasma proteins or polymers; this aggregation is reversible and shear dependent (i.e., dispersed at high shear and reformed at low or stasis). The extent of aggregation is the main determinant of low shear blood viscosity, thus predicting an inverse relationship between aggregation and in vivo blood flow. However, the effects of aggregation on hemodynamic mechanisms (e.g., plasma skimming, Fåhraeus Effect, microvascular hematocrit) may promote rather than impede vascular blood flow. The impact of enhanced RBC aggregation on endothelial function and hemostatic mechanisms adds further complexity, thereby requiring specific attention to the nature, extent and time course of aggregation when considering its overall influence on tissue perfusion. A detailed understanding of aggregation effects is important from a clinical point of view since it may be enhanced during a variety of pathophysiological processes, including infections, circulatory and metabolic disorders, hematological pathologies and several other disease states. Altered RBC aggregation may be an indicator of disease as well as a factor affecting the course of the clinical condition; the prognostic value of RBC aggregation indices has been demonstrated in various diseases. Currently, RBC aggregation is an easily and accurately measurable parameter, and therefore may be expected to have broader clinical usage in the future.

  6. IfkA, a presumptive eIF2α kinase of Dictyostelium, is required for proper timing of aggregation and regulation of mound size

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Rui; Xiong, Yanhua; Singleton, Charles K

    2003-01-01

    Background The transition from growth to development in Dictyostelium is initiated by amino acid starvation of growing amobae. In other eukaryotes, a key sensor of amino acid starvation and mediator of the resulting physiological responses is the GCN2 protein, an eIF2α kinase. GCN2 downregulates the initiation of translation of bulk mRNA and enhances translation of specific mRNAs by phosphorylating the translation initiation factor eIF2α. Two eIF2α kinases were identified in Dictyostelium and studied herein. Results Neither of the eIF2α kinases appeared to be involved in sensing amino acid starvation to initiate development. However, one of the kinases, IfkA, was shown to phosphorylate eIF2α from 1 to 7 hours after the onset of development, resulting in a shift from polysomes to free ribosomes for bulk mRNA. In the absence of the eIF2α phosphorylation, ifkA null cells aggregated earlier than normal and formed mounds and ultimately fruiting bodies that were larger than normal. The early aggregation phenotype in ifkA null cells reflected an apparent, earlier than normal establishment of the cAMP pulsing system. The large mound phenotype resulted from a reduced extracellular level of Countin, a component of the counting factor that regulates mound size. In wild type cells, phosphorylation of eIF2α by IfkA resulted in a specific stabilization and enhanced translational efficiency of countin mRNA even though reduced translation resulted for bulk mRNA. Conclusions IfkA is an eIF2α kinase of Dictyostelium that normally phosphorylates eIF2α from 1 to 7 hours after the onset of development, or during the preaggregation phase. This results in an overall reduction in the initiation of protein synthesis during this time frame and a concomitant reduction in the number of ribosomes associated with most mRNAs. For some mRNAs, however, initiation of protein synthesis is enhanced or stabilized under the conditions of increased eIF2α phosphorylation. This includes countin

  7. 12 CFR 1229.3 - Criteria for a Bank's capital classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements but such deficiency is not of a magnitude to classify the Bank as significantly undercapitalized... minimum capital requirements but the magnitude of the Bank's deficiency in total capital is not...

  8. 12 CFR 1229.3 - Criteria for a Bank's capital classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirements but such deficiency is not of a magnitude to classify the Bank as significantly undercapitalized... minimum capital requirements but the magnitude of the Bank's deficiency in total capital is not...

  9. 12 CFR 1229.3 - Criteria for a Bank's capital classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirements but such deficiency is not of a magnitude to classify the Bank as significantly undercapitalized... minimum capital requirements but the magnitude of the Bank's deficiency in total capital is not...

  10. 12 CFR 567.6 - Risk-based capital credit risk-weight categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital credit risk-weight... CAPITAL Regulatory Capital Requirements § 567.6 Risk-based capital credit risk-weight categories. (a) Risk...)(2) of this section), plus risk-weighted recourse obligations, direct credit substitutes, and...

  11. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  12. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  13. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  14. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  15. 12 CFR 3.7 - Plan to achieve minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plan to achieve minimum capital ratios. 3.7... RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.7 Plan to achieve minimum capital ratios. Effective December 31, 1990, any bank having capital ratios less than the minimums required under § 3.6...

  16. 12 CFR 3.7 - Plan to achieve minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plan to achieve minimum capital ratios. 3.7... RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.7 Plan to achieve minimum capital ratios. Effective December 31, 1990, any bank having capital ratios less than the minimums required under § 3.6...

  17. Aggregate breakdown of nanoparticulate titania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, Navin

    Six nanosized titanium dioxide powders synthesized from a sulfate process were investigated. The targeted end-use of this powder was for a de-NOx catalyst honeycomb monolith. Alteration of synthesis parameters had resulted principally in differences in soluble ion level and specific surface area of the powders. The goal of this investigation was to understand the role of synthesis parameters in the aggregation behavior of these powders. Investigation via scanning electron microscopy of the powders revealed three different aggregation iterations at specific length scales. Secondary and higher order aggregate strength was investigated via oscillatory stress rheometry as a means of simulating shear conditions encountered during extrusion. G' and G'' were measured as a function of the applied oscillatory stress. Oscillatory rheometry indicated a strong variation as a function of the sulfate level of the particles in the viscoelastic yield strengths. Powder yield stresses ranged from 3.0 Pa to 24.0 Pa of oscillatory stress. Compaction curves to 750 MPa found strong similarities in extrapolated yield point of stage I and II compaction for each of the powders (at approximately 500 MPa) suggesting that the variation in sulfate was greatest above the primary aggregate level. Scanning electron microscopy of samples at different states of shear in oscillatory rheometry confirmed the variation in the linear elastic region and the viscous flow regime. A technique of this investigation was to approach aggregation via a novel perspective: aggregates are distinguished as being loose open structures that are highly disordered and stochastic in nature. The methodology used was to investigate the shear stresses required to rupture the various aggregation stages encountered and investigate the attempt to realign the now free-flowing constituents comprising the aggregate into a denser configuration. Mercury porosimetry was utilized to measure the pore size of the compact resulting from

  18. Aggregation Kinetics of Interrupted Polyglutamine Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Robert H.; Murphy, Regina M.

    2011-01-01

    Abnormally expanded polyglutamine domains are associated with at least nine neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington’s disease. Expansion of the glutamine region facilitates aggregation of the impacted protein, and aggregation has been linked to neurotoxicity. Studies of synthetic peptides have contributed substantially to our understanding of the mechanism of aggregation, because the underlying biophysics of polyglutamine-mediated association can be probed independent of their context within a larger protein. In this report, interrupting residues were inserted into polyglutamine peptides (Q20), and the impact on conformational and aggregation properties was examined. A peptide with 2 alanine residues formed laterally-aligned fibrillar aggregates which were similar to the uninterrupted Q20 peptide. Insertion of 2 proline residues resulted in soluble, nonfibrillar aggregates, which did not mature into insoluble aggregates. In contrast, insertion of a β-turn template DPG rapidly accelerated aggregation and resulted in a fibrillar aggregate morphology with little lateral alignment between fibrils. These results are interpreted to indicate that (a) long-range nonspecific interactions lead to the formation of soluble oligomers, while maturation of oligomers into fibrils requires conformational conversion, and (b) that soluble oligomers dynamically interact with each other, while insoluble aggregates are relatively inert. Kinetic analysis revealed that the increase in aggregation caused by the DPG insert is inconsistent with the nucleation-elongation mechanism of aggregation featuring a monomeric β-sheet nucleus. Rather, the data support a mechanism of polyglutamine aggregation by which monomers associate into soluble oligomers, which then undergo slow structural rearrangement to form sedimentable aggregates. PMID:21821045

  19. Cellular strategies for regulating functional and nonfunctional protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Gsponer, Jörg; Babu, M Madan

    2012-11-29

    Growing evidence suggests that aggregation-prone proteins are both harmful and functional for a cell. How do cellular systems balance the detrimental and beneficial effect of protein aggregation? We reveal that aggregation-prone proteins are subject to differential transcriptional, translational, and degradation control compared to nonaggregation-prone proteins, which leads to their decreased synthesis, low abundance, and high turnover. Genetic modulators that enhance the aggregation phenotype are enriched in genes that influence expression homeostasis. Moreover, genes encoding aggregation-prone proteins are more likely to be harmful when overexpressed. The trends are evolutionarily conserved and suggest a strategy whereby cellular mechanisms specifically modulate the availability of aggregation-prone proteins to (1) keep concentrations below the critical ones required for aggregation and (2) shift the equilibrium between the monomeric and oligomeric/aggregate form, as explained by Le Chatelier's principle. This strategy may prevent formation of undesirable aggregates and keep functional assemblies/aggregates under control.

  20. Thermodynamics of Protein Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Kenneth L.; Barz, Bogdan; Bachmann, Michael; Strodel, Birgit

    Amyloid protein aggregation characterizes many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Creutz- feldt-Jakob disease. Evidence suggests that amyloid aggregates may share similar aggregation pathways, implying simulation of full-length amyloid proteins is not necessary for understanding amyloid formation. In this study we simulate GNNQQNY, the N-terminal prion-determining domain of the yeast protein Sup35 to investigate the thermodynamics of structural transitions during aggregation. We use a coarse-grained model with replica-exchange molecular dynamics to investigate the association of 3-, 6-, and 12-chain GNNQQNY systems and we determine the aggregation pathway by studying aggregation states of GN- NQQNY. We find that the aggregation of the hydrophilic GNNQQNY sequence is mainly driven by H-bond formation, leading to the formation of /3-sheets from the very beginning of the assembly process. Condensation (aggregation) and ordering take place simultaneously, which is underpinned by the occurrence of a single heat capacity peak only.

  1. Beware Capital Charge Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The capital charge rate has a material effect in cost comparisons. Care should be taken to calculate it correctly and use it properly. The most common mistake is to use a nominal, rather than real, capital charge rate. To make matters worse, the common short-cut formula does not work well. (author)

  2. Capital Outlay and Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R. Craig

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" provides a generic overview of the major tasks associated with financing a school district's large capital programs. The chapter opens with a brief historical review of the limited provisions made for capital outlay prior to the 1960s and of the trends in financing in recent decades. The…

  3. Linguistic Capital Pays Dividends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linse, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Some 37 million U.S. residents speak Spanish at home and more than 55% of them say they also speak English. That creates what is called linguistic capital. Although linguistic capital is difficult to quantify, it is enormously valuable and is determined by an individual's language competency, and is too frequently wasted instead of being…

  4. Productivity and Capital Goods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zicht, Barbara, Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Providing teacher background on the concepts of productivity and capital goods, this document presents 3 teaching units about these ideas for different grade levels. The grade K-2 unit, "How Do They Do It?," is designed to provide students with an understanding of how physical capital goods add to productivity. Activities include a field trip to…

  5. 76 FR 42768 - Capital Distribution

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Capital Distribution AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... concerning the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Capital Distribution. OMB Number: 1550..., the information provides the OTS with a mechanism for monitoring capital distributions since...

  6. Approaches of Russian oil companies to optimal capital structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishuk, T.; Ulyanova, O.; Savchitz, V.

    2015-11-01

    Oil companies play a vital role in Russian economy. Demand for hydrocarbon products will be increasing for the nearest decades simultaneously with the population growth and social needs. Change of raw-material orientation of Russian economy and the transition to the innovative way of the development do not exclude the development of oil industry in future. Moreover, society believes that this sector must bring the Russian economy on to the road of innovative development due to neo-industrialization. To achieve this, the government power as well as capital management of companies are required. To make their optimal capital structure, it is necessary to minimize the capital cost, decrease definite risks under existing limits, and maximize profitability. The capital structure analysis of Russian and foreign oil companies shows different approaches, reasons, as well as conditions and, consequently, equity capital and debt capital relationship and their cost, which demands the effective capital management strategy.

  7. 12 CFR 565.5 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... shall include all of the information required to be filed under section 38(e)(2) of the FDI Act. A... FDI Act by each company that controls the savings association. (c) Review of capital restoration plans... capital restoration plan that does not contain the guarantee required under section 38(e)(2) of the...

  8. 12 CFR 565.5 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall include all of the information required to be filed under section 38(e)(2) of the FDI Act. A... FDI Act by each company that controls the savings association. (c) Review of capital restoration plans... capital restoration plan that does not contain the guarantee required under section 38(e)(2) of the...

  9. 12 CFR 565.5 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shall include all of the information required to be filed under section 38(e)(2) of the FDI Act. A... FDI Act by each company that controls the savings association. (c) Review of capital restoration plans... capital restoration plan that does not contain the guarantee required under section 38(e)(2) of the...

  10. 12 CFR 325.104 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under section 38(e)(2) of the FDI Act. A bank that is required to submit a capital restoration plan as a... FDI Act by each company that controls the bank. (c) Review of capital restoration plans. Within 60... restoration plan that does not contain the guarantee required under section 38(e)(2) of the FDI Act, the...

  11. 75 FR 35838 - Controlled Substances: Proposed Revised Aggregate Production Quotas for 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Enforcement Administration Controlled Substances: Proposed Revised Aggregate Production Quotas for 2010 AGENCY... production quotas. SUMMARY: This notice proposes revised 2010 aggregate production quotas for controlled.... 826) requires that the Attorney General establish aggregate production quotas for each basic class...

  12. 76 FR 65537 - Controlled Substances: Proposed Aggregate Production Quotas for 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... Enforcement Administration Controlled Substances: Proposed Aggregate Production Quotas for 2012 AGENCY: Drug...: This notice proposes initial year 2012 aggregate production quotas for controlled substances in....S.C. 826) requires that the Attorney General establish aggregate production quotas for each...

  13. A Comparative Analysis of the Validity of US State- and County-Level Social Capital Measures and Their Associations with Population Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chul-Joo; Kim, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to validate a number of available collective social capital measures at the US state and county levels, and to examine the relative extent to which these social capital measures are associated with population health outcomes. Measures of social capital at the US state level included aggregate indices based on the…

  14. On mean type aggregation.

    PubMed

    Yager, R R

    1996-01-01

    We introduce and define the concept of mean aggregation of a collection of n numbers. We point out that the lack of associativity of this operation compounds the problem of the extending mean of n numbers to n+1 numbers. The closely related concepts of self identity and the centering property are introduced as one imperative for extending mean aggregation operators. The problem of weighted mean aggregation is studied. A new concept of prioritized mean aggregation is then introduced. We next show that the technique of selecting an element based upon the performance of a random experiment can be considered as a mean aggregation operation.

  15. 31 CFR 1023.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR BROKERS OR DEALERS IN SECURITIES Reports Required To Be Made By Brokers or Dealers in Securities § 1023.313 Aggregation. Refer to § 1010.313 of this... securities....

  16. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for

  17. Natural aggregates of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregates. These materials are commonly used construction materials and frequently can be interchanged with one another. They are widely used throughout the United States, with every State except two producing crushed stone. Together they amount to about half the mining volume in the United States. Approximately 96 percent of sand and gravel and 77 percent of the crushed stone produced in the United States are used in the construction industry. Natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States in a variety of geologic environments. Sand and gravel deposits commonly are the results of the weathering of bedrock and subsequent transportation and deposition of the material by water or ice (glaciers). As such, they commonly occur as river or stream deposits or in glaciated areas as glaciofluvial and other deposits. Crushed stone aggregates are derived from a wide variety of parent bedrock materials. Limestone and other carbonates account for approximately three quarters of the rocks used for crushed stone, with granite and other igneous rocks making up the bulk of the remainder. Limestone deposits are widespread throughout the Central and Eastern United States and are scattered in the West. Granites are widely distributed in the Eastern and Western United States, with few exposures in the Midwest. Igneous rocks (excluding granites) are largely concentrated in the Western United States and in a few isolated localities in the East. Even though natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States, they are not universally available for consumptive use. Some areas are devoid of sand and gravel, and potential sources of crushed stone may be covered with sufficient unconsolidated material to make surface mining impractical. In some areas many aggregates do not meet the physical property requirements for certain uses, or they may contain mineral constituents that react

  18. Aggregation of colloidal particles modeled as a dynamical process.

    PubMed Central

    Bentz, J; Nir, S

    1981-01-01

    Aggregation kinetics of sonicated phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) vesicles in NaCl indicate that the process is fully reversible and dynamical, involving the rapid formation and dispersal of aggregates. Accordingly, the general mass action kinetic equations are analyzed with respect to the equilibrium state and the formation of higher order aggregates. For a general class of systems, the values for the mass average aggregate size at equilibrium are obtained from simple closed-form expressions. It is shown that an analysis of the aggregation equilibrium will yield estimates for the potential energy well that holds the aggregates together. A fit to the experimental data for kinetics of Na+-induced aggregation of the vesicles has been achieved by employing mass action kinetic equations that include the dissociation reactions. The threshold of NaCl concentration required for aggregation involves the clear distinction between the rate and extent of aggregation. PMID:6940176

  19. 47 CFR 101.1323 - Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and... Requirements § 101.1323 Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning. (a) Eligibility. (1) Parties... aggregate spectrum in any MAS bands, but may not disaggregate their licensed spectrum or partition...

  20. 47 CFR 101.1323 - Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and... Requirements § 101.1323 Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning. (a) Eligibility. (1) Parties... aggregate spectrum in any MAS bands, but may not disaggregate their licensed spectrum or partition...

  1. 47 CFR 101.1323 - Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and... Requirements § 101.1323 Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning. (a) Eligibility. (1) Parties... aggregate spectrum in any MAS bands, but may not disaggregate their licensed spectrum or partition...

  2. 47 CFR 101.1323 - Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and... Requirements § 101.1323 Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning. (a) Eligibility. (1) Parties... aggregate spectrum in any MAS bands, but may not disaggregate their licensed spectrum or partition...

  3. 47 CFR 101.1323 - Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and... Requirements § 101.1323 Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning. (a) Eligibility. (1) Parties... aggregate spectrum in any MAS bands, but may not disaggregate their licensed spectrum or partition...

  4. Four molecules of the 33 kDa haemagglutinin component of the Clostridium botulinum serotype C and D toxin complexes are required to aggregate erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Shingo; Suzuki, Tomonori; Hasegawa, Kimiko; Nakazawa, Yozo; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Niwa, Koichi; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Ohyama, Tohru

    2005-12-01

    Normally, large-sized botulinum toxin complexes (L-TC) of serotype C and D are composed of a single neurotoxin, a single non-toxic non-haemagglutinin, two HA-70 molecules, four HA-33 molecules and four HA-17 molecules that assemble to form a 650 kDa L-TC. The 540 and 610 kDa TC species (designated here as L-TC2 and L-TC3, respectively) were purified in addition to the 650 kDa L-TC from the culture supernatants of serotype D strains (D-4947 and D-CB16) and serotype C strains (C-6814 and C-Yoichi). The 650 kDa L-TC from D-4947, D-CB16 and C-6814 showed haemagglutination and erythrocyte-binding activity, but their L-TC2 and L-TC3 species had only binding activity. In contrast, every TC species from C-Yoichi having the C-terminally truncated variant of HA-33 exhibited neither haemagglutination activity nor erythrocyte-binding activity. Four strain-specific HA-33/HA-17 complexes were isolated from the 650 kDa L-TC of each strain. The 650 kDa HA-hybrid L-TCs were reconstituted by various combinations of isolated HA-33/HA-17 complexes and haemagglutination-negative L-TC2 or L-TC3 from each strain. HA-hybrid 650 kDa L-TC, including at least one HA-33/HA-17 complex derived from C-Yoichi, lost haemagglutination activity, leading to the conclusion that the binding of four HA-33 molecules is required for haemagglutination activity of botulinum L-TC. The results of the modelling approach indicated that the structure of a variant C-Yoichi HA-33 molecule reveals clear deformation of the beta-trefoil domain responsible for the carbohydrate recognition site.

  5. Administrative competencies for physician organizations with capitation.

    PubMed

    Penner, M

    1999-01-01

    In California, it is common for HMOs to capitate physician organizations (e.g., independent practice organizations and multispecialty medical groups) for all professional and outpatient ancillary services (and to share risk for inpatient care) under professional risk capitation contracts. This arrangement exports most of the financial risk from the HMO to the physician organization. When HMOs and physician organizations contract under these arrangements, HMOs delegate many of their administrative functions to physician organizations--giving the physician organization authority to make the decisions needed to manage capitated risk. As a result, administrators of physician organizations must be competent in such areas as provider network development, financial forecasting, utilization and quality management, contract negotiation, and establishing systems for claims, reporting, authorizations, and the like. In this study four HMO and 22 physician organization administrators were interviewed concerning key administrative competencies for managing capitation contracts. The competencies were assessed as key administrative work activities that required specific knowledge, skill, or ability to perform. Identifying these competencies is important for physician organizations preparing for capitated risk and will be essential for organizations preparing for HMO or Medicare capitation.

  6. Leasing equipment minimizes capital investment.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M E; Maier, R A

    1989-03-01

    As consumers continue to demand the most advanced technology at the lowest cost, healthcare organizations are turning to leasing as a way of acquiring equipment with a minimum amount of capital investment. Institutions considering leasing should determine their balance sheet constraints, compare the relative costs of debt financing and leasing, and assess the residual value of the equipment at the end of its use. Comparing potential lessors requires careful analysis of rate structures and the capability of the companies to commit to a contract promptly.

  7. Capital Requirements for the Air Transport Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    In recent years the U.S. scheduled airline industry has been involved in the largest re-equipment program that involves the addition of hundreds of new aircraft to the airline fleet. The costs associated with the purchase of this new equipment, along with the other costs involving such matters as the environment and security, are presenting the carriers with significant financial challenges.

  8. Social Capital, Organizational Learning Capability, and Technological Knowledge Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Shih-Chieh; Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    This study uses inter-organizational networks to focus on firm opportunities to establish the level of social capital required to efficiently utilize network resources among certain collaborative research projects. This study reached the following conclusions: (1) establishment of social capital does little to improve the technological knowledge…

  9. 12 CFR 206.5 - Capital levels of correspondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... capitalized under this section without regard to the minimum leverage ratio required under paragraph (a)(3) of... 206.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... standards. See, e.g. 12 CFR part 208, subpart D. (1) A total risk-based capital ratio, as defined...

  10. Flow Partitioning in Fully Saturated Soil Aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaofan; Richmond, Marshall C.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Perkins, William A.; Resat, Haluk

    2014-03-30

    was larger than 18 micron. Inter-aggregate pores continued to be the dominant flow pathways even at much smaller spacing; intra-aggregate flow was less than 10% of the total flow when the inter- and intra-aggregate pore sizes were comparable. Such studies are making it possible to identify which model upscaling assumptions are realistic and what computational methods are required for detailed numerical investigation of microbial carbon cycling dynamics in soil systems.

  11. Aggregate structure, morphology and the effect of aggregation mechanisms on viscosity at elevated protein concentrations.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Gregory V; Qi, Wei; Amin, Samiul; Neil Lewis, E; Roberts, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    Non-native aggregation is a common issue in a number of degenerative diseases and during manufacturing of protein-based therapeutics. There is a growing interest to monitor protein stability at intermediate to high protein concentrations, which are required for therapeutic dosing of subcutaneous injections. An understanding of the impact of protein structural changes and interactions on the protein aggregation mechanisms and resulting aggregate size and morphology may lead to improved strategies to reduce aggregation and solution viscosity. This report investigates non-native aggregation of a model protein, α-chymotrypsinogen, under accelerated conditions at elevated protein concentrations. Far-UV circular dichroism and Raman scattering show structural changes during aggregation. Size exclusion chromatography and laser light scattering are used to monitor the progression of aggregate growth and monomer loss. Monomer loss is concomitant with increased β-sheet structures as monomers are added to aggregates, which illustrate a transition from a native monomeric state to an aggregate state. Aggregates grow predominantly through monomer-addition, resulting in a semi-flexible polymer morphology. Analysis of aggregation growth kinetics shows that pH strongly affects the characteristic timescales for nucleation (τn) and growth (τg), while the initial protein concentration has only minor effects on τn or τg. Low-shear viscosity measurements follow a common scaling relationship between average aggregate molecular weight (Mw(agg)) and concentration (σ), which is consistent with semi-dilute polymer-solution theory. The results establish a link between aggregate growth mechanisms, which couple Mw(agg) and σ, to increases in solution viscosity even at these intermediate protein concentrations (less than 3w/v %).

  12. Aggregations in Flatworms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Hunter, M.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a school project to investigate aggregations in flatworms which may be influenced by light intensity, temperature, and some form of chemical stimulus released by already aggregating flatworms. Such investigations could be adopted to suit many educational levels of science laboratory activities. (DS)

  13. 12 CFR 1777.20 - Capital classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... notice of proposed capital classification, holds core capital equaling or exceeding the minimum capital... classification, holds core capital equaling or exceeding the minimum capital level. (3) Significantly... the date specified in the notice of proposed capital classification, holds core capital less than...

  14. Thinking strategically about capitation.

    PubMed

    Boland, P

    1997-05-01

    All managed care stakeholders--health plan members, employers, providers, community organizations, and government entitites--share a common interest in reducing healthcare costs while improving the quality of care health plan members receive. Although capitation is a usually thought of primarily as a payment mechanism, it can be a powerful tool providers and health plans can use to accomplish these strategic objectives and others, such as restoring and maintaining the health of plan members or improving a community's health status. For capitation to work effectively as a strategic tool, its use must be tied to a corporate agenda of partnering with stakeholders to achieve broader strategic goals. Health plans and providers must develop a partnership strategy in which each stakeholder has well-defined roles and responsibilities. The capitation structure must reinforce interdependence, shift focus from meeting organizational needs to meeting customer needs, and develop risk-driven care strategies.

  15. Building Inclusive Communities: A Social Capital Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaklee, Harriet; Laumatia, Laura; Luckey, Brian; Traver, Sue; Nauman, Arlinda; Tifft, Kathee; Liddil, Audrey; Hampton, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Population shifts have changed the face of many Idaho communities, but inclusive relationships among groups can build the social capital required for communities to thrive. University of Idaho Extension developed "Idaho's Journey for Diversity and Human Rights" as a hands-on traveling workshop about past and present issues of human…

  16. Selling real estate to meet capital needs.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Robert A; Nelson, Gregory P

    2003-05-01

    Real estate can provide a means for hospitals to raise capital. Selling a building and investing proceeds in revenue-producing operations may yield greater return than rental income. In a ground lease, a hospital can require the buyer to adhere to certain limitations that are beneficial to the hospital's strategic goals.

  17. Graduate Inquiry: Social Capital in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    As colleges and universities increase their online course offerings, student social experiences in online learning environments require further examination, specifically for nonresidential students who may already be less integrated into college social networks. A social capital framework was used to guide this qualitative study of 17…

  18. Fuzzy capital rationing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bas, E.; Kahraman, C.

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we study the fuzzification of Weingartner's pure capital rationing model and its analysis. We develop a primal-dual pair based on t-norm/t-conorm relation for the constraints and objective function for a fully fuzzified pure capital rationing problem except project selection variables. We define the [alpha]-interval under which the weak duality is proved. We perform sensitivity analysis for a change in a budget level or in a cash flow level of a non-basic as well as a basic variable. We analyze the problem based on duality and complementary slackness results. We illustrate the proposed model by computational analysis, and interpret the results.

  19. Protein aggregation in salt solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kastelic, Miha; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V.; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregation is broadly important in diseases and in formulations of biological drugs. Here, we develop a theoretical model for reversible protein–protein aggregation in salt solutions. We treat proteins as hard spheres having square-well-energy binding sites, using Wertheim’s thermodynamic perturbation theory. The necessary condition required for such modeling to be realistic is that proteins in solution during the experiment remain in their compact form. Within this limitation our model gives accurate liquid–liquid coexistence curves for lysozyme and γ IIIa-crystallin solutions in respective buffers. It provides good fits to the cloud-point curves of lysozyme in buffer–salt mixtures as a function of the type and concentration of salt. It than predicts full coexistence curves, osmotic compressibilities, and second virial coefficients under such conditions. This treatment may also be relevant to protein crystallization. PMID:25964322

  20. Building research capital to facilitate research.

    PubMed

    Green, Gill; Rein, Melanie

    2013-04-04

    The National Institute for Health Research, Research Design Service (NIHR RDS) was set up to increase the number and proportion of high quality applications for funding for applied and patient focused health and social care research. Access to specialist expertise and collaboration between researchers and health practitioners at the proposal development stage is crucial for high quality applied health research. In this essay we develop the concept of 'research capital' to describe the wide range of resources and expertise required to develop fundable research projects. It highlights the key role the RDS plays supporting researchers to broker relationships to access the requisite 'research capital'.

  1. Thinking strategically about imaging capacity and capital.

    PubMed

    Griffin, David; Dubiel, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging continues to place high demands on hospital and health system capital budgets due to the high cost of most equipment and the rate of technological change. Diagnostic imaging also can be a significant service in competitive positioning, both alone and in conjunction with other programs and services. The purpose of this article is to provide a framework for linking diagnostic imaging to key hospital programs, and for forecasting future demands and capital requirements. The model has been developed over time in a number of settings in the United States and Canada. The specific examples are mostly from the Seton Healthcore Network in Austin, TX.

  2. Aggregate and the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sachs, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to help you understand our aggregate resources-their importance, where they come from, how they are processed for our use, the environmental concerns related to their mining and processing, how those concerns are addressed, and the policies and regulations designed to safeguard workers, neighbors, and the environment from the negative impacts of aggregate mining. We hope this understanding will help prepare you to be involved in decisions that need to be made-individually and as a society-to be good stewards of our aggregate resources and our living planet.

  3. Light-scattering properties of random-oriented aggregates: Do they represent the properties of an ensemble of aggregates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Kimura, Hiroshi; Ziegler, Klaus; Mann, Ingrid

    2006-07-01

    We question a common assumption that orientation-averaged light-scattering properties of a single aggregate represent the properties of an ensemble of random aggregates which have the same number of the same constituent particles. Using the T-matrix code for calculation of light scattering by aggregates of spheres, we obtain efficiencies and scattering-angle dependences of intensity and polarization for several samples of aggregates. The aggregates are built using ballistic particle cluster and cluster cluster aggregation procedures. Their constituent particles have the same size and the same properties but their arrangement (i.e. specific positions) in the aggregates are different. We have found that the random-oriented efficiencies and asymmetry parameter, as well as the angular dependence of the intensity, vary significantly from one aggregate to another. Linear polarization appears to be not very sensitive to the arrangement of particles within the aggregate, whereas circular polarization has been found the most affected characteristics, which can be zero, positive or negative for the aggregates that differ only in the arrangement of their constituents. This effect originates from the violation of mirror symmetry in aggregates, which reveals itself even at random orientation. Thus, the correct description of light scattering by an ensemble of aggregates requires a realistic averaging over a variety of random aggregates. Such an averaging can be provided by the random-matrix approach.

  4. 27 CFR 31.134 - Increase in capital stock of a corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Increase in capital stock... Registration Information Other Changes § 31.134 Increase in capital stock of a corporation. An amended registration is not required by reason of an increase in the capital stock of a corporation so long as a...

  5. 27 CFR 31.135 - Change in ownership of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... capital stock. 31.135 Section 31.135 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Information Other Changes § 31.135 Change in ownership of capital stock. Registration as a new business is not required merely by reason of the sale or transfer of all or a controlling interest in the capital stock...

  6. Access to capital--a growing concern.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Donald A

    2004-01-01

    Access to capital over the next ten years will be one of the biggest challenges healthcare organizations will face as they strive to remain competitive and serve their communities. Meeting the growing needs for capital will require a disciplined and honest assessment of the capital sources that will be available and the best ways of positioning an organization to maximize their uses. It is incumbent on chief executive officers and other senior leaders to create a disciplined process for allocating capital and conveying how that process will be linked to the organization's strategic plan. All of the credit constituencies "buying" healthcare need to fully understand how the organization is positioning itself for future growth and success, and detailed bond marketing plans need to be implemented well before the actual sale of a new bond issue. Large and small healthcare providers will have sufficient access to capital in the future if investors believe that senior hospital executives have a credible plan and are disciplined enough to execute it.

  7. Creating Schools without Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolke, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A shortage of capital and appropriate education facilities prompted the Edmonton (Alberta) Public Schools to explore creative solutions such as leasing retrofitted facilities to house new academic programs. Landlords generally like school districts, considering them reliable, long-term tenants for hard-to-rent larger buildings. (MLH)

  8. Towards Transnational Academic Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to current debates on the relationship between globalisation and higher education. The main argument of the paper is that we are currently witnessing transnationalisation of academic capitalism. This argument is illustrated by examining the collaboration between transnational corporations and research universities, and how…

  9. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  10. Reggio Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stejzygier, Aneta

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the social capital as the essential element of success of the Reggio Emilia preschools known for their unique approach to the early childhood education. The collaborative effort is introduced through examples of the currently ongoing "Reggio Narrates" project of Reggio preschools, the "Dialogue with the…

  11. Planning for Capital Reinvestment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biedenweg, Frederick; Weisburg-Swanson, Lynda; Gardner, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    Describes and evaluates four alternatives for planning and budgeting for capital reinvestment for college and university facilities: physical plant auditing; a depreciation-based approach; percentage of current replacement value; and facility subsystem modeling, or life-cycle modeling. Each has advantages and limitations in budgeting for and…

  12. Aggregate breakup in a contracting nozzle.

    PubMed

    Soos, Miroslav; Ehrl, Lyonel; Bäbler, Matthäus U; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2010-01-05

    The breakup of dense aggregates in an extensional flow was investigated experimentally. The flow was realized by pumping the suspension containing the aggregates through a contracting nozzle. Variation of the cluster mass distribution during the breakage process was measured by small-angle light scattering. Because of the large size of primary particles and the dense aggregate structure image analysis was used to determine the shape and structure of the produced fragments. It was found, that neither aggregate structure, characterized by a fractal dimension d(f) = 2.7, nor shape, characterized by an average aspect ratio equal to 1.5, was affected by breakage. Several passes through the nozzle were required to reach the steady state. This is explained by the radial variation of the hydrodynamic stresses at the nozzle entrance, characterized through computational fluid dynamics, which implies that only the fraction of aggregates whose strength is smaller than the local hydrodynamic stress is broken during one pass through the nozzle. Scaling of the steady-state aggregate size as a function of the hydrodynamic stress was used to determine the aggregate strength.

  13. Marine aggregate dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The direction and scope of the Office of Naval Research's Marine Aggregate Dynamics Accelerated Research Initiative will be the topic of an open-house style meeting February 14, 7:30-10:00 P.M. in Ballroom D of the Hyatt Regency New Orleans at the Louisiana Superdome. This meeting is scheduled during the AGU/American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Ocean Sciences Meeting February 12-16 in New Orleans.The critical focus of the ARI is the measurement and modeling of the dynamics of the biological, physical, chemical and molecular processes that drive aggregation and produce aggregates. This new ARI will provide funding in Fiscal Years 1991-1995 to identify and quantify mechanisms that determine the distribution, abundance and size spectrum of aggregated particulate matter in the ocean.

  14. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  15. Aggregation and Averaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Irving H.

    The arithmetic processes of aggregation and averaging are basic to quantitative investigations of employment, unemployment, and related concepts. In explaining these concepts, this report stresses need for accuracy and consistency in measurements, and describes tools for analyzing alternative measures. (BH)

  16. 31 CFR 1010.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS Reports Required To Be Made § 1010.313 Aggregation. (a) Multiple branches. A financial institution includes all of its domestic branch offices, and... requirements in this chapter. (b) Multiple transactions. In the case of financial institutions other...

  17. 31 CFR 1010.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS Reports Required To Be Made § 1010.313 Aggregation. (a) Multiple branches. A financial institution includes all of its domestic branch offices, and... requirements in this chapter. (b) Multiple transactions. In the case of financial institutions other...

  18. 31 CFR 1010.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS Reports Required To Be Made § 1010.313 Aggregation. (a) Multiple branches. A financial institution includes all of its domestic branch offices, and... requirements in this chapter. (b) Multiple transactions. In the case of financial institutions other...

  19. 31 CFR 1010.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS Reports Required To Be Made § 1010.313 Aggregation. (a) Multiple branches. A financial institution includes all of its domestic branch offices, and... requirements in this chapter. (b) Multiple transactions. In the case of financial institutions other...

  20. Intellectual Capital: Comparison and Contrast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Susan R.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that one of the most important keys for improving individual and organizational performance is in developing and strengthening intellectual capital (IC) and explores the similarities and differences between the concepts of intellectual capital, human capital, and knowledge management. Presents four IC characteristics and addresses the…

  1. [Slipped capital femoral epiphysis].

    PubMed

    Klein, C; Haraux, E; Leroux, J; Gouron, R

    2017-03-01

    Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SFCE) is a disorder of the hip, characterized by a displacement of the capital femoral epiphysis from the metaphysic through the femoral growth plate. The epiphysis slips posteriorly and inferiorly. SCFE occurs during puberty and metabolic and epidemiologic risk factors, such as obesity are frequently found. Most chronic slips are diagnosed late. Sagittal hip X-rays show epiphysis slip. In case of untreated SCFE, a slip progression arises with an acute slip risk. Treatment is indicated to prevent slip worsening. The clinical and radiological classification is useful to guide treatment and it is predictive of the prognosis. In situ fixation of stable and moderately displaced SCFE with cannulated screws gives excellent results. Major complications are chondrolysis and osteonecrosis and the major sequelae are femoroacetabular impingement and early arthritis.

  2. A contemporary perspective on capitated reimbursement for imaging services.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, H W

    1995-01-01

    Capitation ensures predictability of healthcare costs, requires acceptance of a premium in return for providing all required medical services and defines the actual dollar amount paid to a physician or hospital on a per member per month basis for a service or group of services. Capitation is expected to dramatically affect the marketplace in the near future, as private enterprise demands lower, more stable healthcare costs. Capitation requires detailed quantitative and financial data, including: eligibility and benefits determination, encounter processing, referral management, claims processing, case management, physician compensation, insurance management functions, outcomes reporting, performance management and cost accounting. It is important to understand actuarial risk and capitation marketing when considering a capitation contract. Also, capitated payment methodologies may vary to include modified fee-for-service, incentive pay, risk pool redistributions, merit, or a combination. Risk is directly related to the ability to predict utilization and unit cost of imaging services provided to a specific insured population. In capitated environments, radiologists will have even less control over referrals than they have today and will serve many more "covered lives"; long-term relationships with referring physicians will continue to evaporate; and services will be provided under exclusive, multi-year contracts. In addition to intensified use of technology for image transfer, telecommunications and sophisticated data processing and tracking systems, imaging departments must continue to provide the greatest amount of appropriate diagnostic information in a timely fashion at the lowest feasible cost and risk to the patient.

  3. Efficient Unrestricted Identity-Based Aggregate Signature Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yumin; Zhan, Qian; Huang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    An aggregate signature scheme allows anyone to compress multiple individual signatures from various users into a single compact signature. The main objective of such a scheme is to reduce the costs on storage, communication and computation. However, among existing aggregate signature schemes in the identity-based setting, some of them fail to achieve constant-length aggregate signature or require a large amount of pairing operations which grows linearly with the number of signers, while others have some limitations on the aggregated signatures. The main challenge in building efficient aggregate signature scheme is to compress signatures into a compact, constant-length signature without any restriction. To address the above drawbacks, by using the bilinear pairings, we propose an efficient unrestricted identity-based aggregate signature. Our scheme achieves both full aggregation and constant pairing computation. We prove that our scheme has existential unforgeability under the computational Diffie-Hellman assumption. PMID:25329777

  4. Efficient unrestricted identity-based aggregate signature scheme.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yumin; Zhan, Qian; Huang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    An aggregate signature scheme allows anyone to compress multiple individual signatures from various users into a single compact signature. The main objective of such a scheme is to reduce the costs on storage, communication and computation. However, among existing aggregate signature schemes in the identity-based setting, some of them fail to achieve constant-length aggregate signature or require a large amount of pairing operations which grows linearly with the number of signers, while others have some limitations on the aggregated signatures. The main challenge in building efficient aggregate signature scheme is to compress signatures into a compact, constant-length signature without any restriction. To address the above drawbacks, by using the bilinear pairings, we propose an efficient unrestricted identity-based aggregate signature. Our scheme achieves both full aggregation and constant pairing computation. We prove that our scheme has existential unforgeability under the computational Diffie-Hellman assumption.

  5. Social Capital and Healthy Urbanization in a Globalized World

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Liz; Havemann, Kirsten; Sapag, Jaime; Wood, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    This paper critically reviews the extent in which social capital can be a resource to promote health equity in urban contexts. It analyzes the concept of social capital and reviews evidence to link social capital to health outcomes and health equity, drawing on evidence from epidemiological studies and descriptive case studies from both developed and developing countries. The findings show that in certain environments social capital can be a key factor influencing health outcomes of technical interventions. Social capital can generate both the conditions necessary for mutual support and care and the mechanisms required for communities and groups to exert effective pressure to influence policy. The link between social capital and health is shown to operate through different pathways at different societal levels, but initiatives to strengthen social capital for health need to be part of a broader, holistic, social development process that also addresses upstream structural determinants of health. A clearer understanding is also needed of the complexity and dynamics of the social processes involved and their contribution to health equity and better health. The paper concludes with recommendations for policy and programming and identifies ten key elements needed to build social capital. PMID:17401692

  6. Technology meets aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Swan, C.

    2007-07-01

    New technology carried out at Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts on synthetic lightweight aggregate has created material from various qualities of fly ash from coal-fired power plants for use in different engineered applications. In pilot scale manufacturing tests an 'SLA' containing 80% fly ash and 20% mixed plastic waste from packaging was produced by 'dry blending' mixed plastic with high carbon fly ash. A trial run was completed to produce concrete masonry unit (CMU) blocks at a full-scale facility. It has been shown that SLA can be used as a partial substitution of a traditional stone aggregate in hot asphalt mix. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  7. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  8. Modeling transport and aggregation of volcanic ash particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Antonio; Folch, Arnau; Macedonio, Giovanni; Durant, Adam

    2010-05-01

    A complete description of ash aggregation processes in volcanic clouds is an very arduous task and the full coupling of ash transport and ash aggregation models is still computationally prohibitive. A large fraction of fine ash injected in the atmosphere during explosive eruptions aggregate because of complex interactions of surface liquid layers, electrostatic forces, and differences in settling velocities. The formation of aggregates of size and density different from those of the primary particles dramatically changes the sedimentation dynamics and results in lower atmospheric residence times of ash particles and in the formation of secondary maxima of tephra deposit. Volcanic ash transport models should include a full aggregation model accounting for all particle class interaction. However this approach would require prohibitive computational times. Here we present a simplified model for wet aggregation that accounts for both atmospheric and volcanic water transport. The aggregation model assumes a fractal relationship for the number of primary particles in aggregates, average efficiencies factors, and collision frequency functions accounting for Brownian motion, laminar and turbulent fluid shear, and differential settling velocity. We implemented the aggregation model in the WRF+FALL3D coupled modelling system and applied it to different eruptions where aggregation has been recognized to play an important role, such as the August and September 1992 Crater Peak eruptions and the 1980 Mt St Helens eruption. Moreover, understanding aggregation processes in volcanic clouds will contribute to mitigate the risks related with volcanic ash transport and sedimentation.

  9. Neighbourhood social capital as a moderator between individual cognitions and sports behaviour among Dutch adolescents.

    PubMed

    Prins, R G; Beenackers, M A; Boog, M C; Van Lenthe, F J; Brug, J; Oenema, A

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to explore whether individual cognitions and neighbourhood social capital strengthen each other in their relation with engaging in sports at least three times per week. Cross-sectional analyses on data from the last wave of the YouRAction trial (2009-2010, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; baseline response: 98%) were conducted. In total 1129 had data on the last wave questionnaire (93%) and 832 of them had complete data on a self-administered questionnaire on frequency of sports participation, perceived neighbourhood social capital, cognitions (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and intention toward sport participation) and demographics. Ecometric methods were used to aggregate perceived neighbourhood social capital to the neighbourhood level. Multilevel logistic regression analyses (neighbourhood and individual as levels) were conducted to examine associations of cognitions, neighbourhood social capital and the social capital by individual cognition interaction with fit norm compliance. If the interaction was significant, simple slopes analyses were conducted to decompose interaction effects. It was found that neighbourhood social capital was significantly associated with fit norm compliance (OR: 5.40; 95% CI: 1.13-25.74). Moreover, neighbourhood social capital moderated the association of attitude, perceived behavioural control and intention with fit norm compliance. The simple slope analyses visualized that the associations of cognitions with fit norm compliance were stronger in case of more neighbourhood social capital. Hence, higher levels of neighbourhood social capital strengthen the associations of attitude, perceived behavioural control and intention in their association with fit norm compliance.

  10. Sectoral shifts and aggregate unemployment

    SciTech Connect

    Loungani, P.

    1986-01-01

    Some recent research has taken the view that sectoral or industry-specific shocks significantly affect aggregate unemployment by increasing the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required. The empirical evidence for this view rests on the finding that during the 1950s - and again during the 1970s - there was a positive correlation between aggregate unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth rates. This thesis demonstrates that this correlation arises largely because oil price shocks affect both unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth. Once the dispersion due to oil shocks is accounted for, the residual dispersion in employment has very low explanatory power for unemployment. Since the dispersion index does not measure pure sectoral shifts, an alternate measure of dispersion is developed that serves as a better proxy for the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required each period. Estimates using this measure suggest that, during the 1950s, temporary increases in the relative price of oil were responsible for generating the observed correlation. On the other hand, sectoral shifts were important during the 1970s; in particular, the 1973 oil price increase has had significant reallocative effects on the economy. This contention is subjected to further tests by looking at the time-series behavior of employment in durable-goods industries and also by following the inter-industry movements of workers over time through the use of panel data.

  11. Social capital and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Song, Lijun

    2011-12-01

    The author proposes a conceptual model to explain the diverse roles of social capital--resources embedded in social networks--in the social production of health. Using a unique national U.S. sample, the author estimated a path analysis model to examine the direct and indirect effects of social capital on psychological distress and its intervening effects on the relationships between other structural antecedents and psychological distress. The results show that social capital is inversely associated with psychological distress, and part of that effect is indirect through subjective social status. Social capital also acts as an intervening mechanism to link seven social factors (age, gender, race-ethnicity, education, occupational prestige, annual family income, and voluntary participation) with psychological distress. This study develops the theory of social capital as network resources and demonstrates the complex functions of social capital as a distinct social determinant of health.

  12. Aggregates, broccoli and cauliflower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.

    1989-09-01

    Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type aggregates. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.

  13. Impact of virus aggregation on inactivation by peracetic acid and implications for other disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Mattle, Michael J; Crouzy, Benoit; Brennecke, Moritz; Wigginton, Krista R; Perona, Paolo; Kohn, Tamar

    2011-09-15

    Viruses in wastewater and natural environments are often present as aggregates. The disinfectant dose required for their inactivation, however, is typically determined with dispersed viruses. This study investigates how aggregation affects virus inactivation by chemical disinfectants. Bacteriophage MS2 was aggregated by lowering the solution pH, and aggregates were inactivated by peracetic acid (PAA). Aggregates were redispersed before enumeration to obtain the residual number of individual infectious viruses. In contrast to enumerating whole aggregates, this approach allowed an assessment of disinfection efficiency which remains applicable even if the aggregates disperse in post-treatment environments. Inactivation kinetics were determined as a function of aggregate size (dispersed, 0.55 and 0.90 μm radius) and PAA concentration (5-103 mg/L). Aggregation reduced the apparent inactivation rate constants 2-6 fold. The larger the aggregate and the higher the PAA concentration, the more pronounced the inhibitory effect of aggregation on disinfection. A reaction-diffusion based model was developed to interpret the experimental results, and to predict inactivation rates for additional aggregate sizes and disinfectants. The model showed that the inhibitory effect of aggregation arises from consumption of the disinfectant within the aggregate, but that diffusion of the disinfectant into the aggregates is not a rate-limiting factor. Aggregation therefore has a large inhibitory effect if highly reactive disinfectants are used, whereas inactivation by mild disinfectants is less affected. Our results suggest that mild disinfectants should be used for the treatment of water containing viral aggregates.

  14. 31 CFR 1022.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aggregation. 1022.313 Section 1022.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR MONEY SERVICES BUSINESSES Reports Required To...

  15. 31 CFR 1022.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aggregation. 1022.313 Section 1022.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR MONEY SERVICES BUSINESSES Reports Required To...

  16. 31 CFR 1021.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Reports Required To Be Made By Casinos and Card Clubs § 1021.313 Aggregation. In the case of a casino, multiple currency... within the scope of his or her employment, has knowledge that such multiple currency transactions...

  17. 31 CFR 1021.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Reports Required To Be Made By Casinos and Card Clubs § 1021.313 Aggregation. In the case of a casino, multiple currency... within the scope of his or her employment, has knowledge that such multiple currency transactions...

  18. 31 CFR 1021.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Reports Required To Be Made By Casinos and Card Clubs § 1021.313 Aggregation. In the case of a casino, multiple currency... within the scope of his or her employment, has knowledge that such multiple currency transactions...

  19. 31 CFR 1021.313 - Aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Reports Required To Be Made By Casinos and Card Clubs § 1021.313 Aggregation. In the case of a casino, multiple currency... within the scope of his or her employment, has knowledge that such multiple currency transactions...

  20. The role of financing in the marketability of capital intensive solar technologies for industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, W. C.

    Three methods of financing large, capital-intensive, industrial solar systems are examined: conventional end-user financing; conventional lease financing; and the solar management company/limited partnership (SMC). The primary disadvantage of the first method is the large capital investment required of the end-user. The availability of investment capital is limited and other investment priorities usually are dominant. In the latter two methods the end-user is not required to provide any front-end capital. The SMC structure appears particularly attractive in that the end-user pays only for solar energy delivered to the process and is not required to operate and maintain the system.

  1. In vitro canine platelet aggregation caused by Dirofilaria immitis extract

    PubMed Central

    TAKASHIMA, Yasuhiro; ONODA, Isako; CHIOU, Shin-Pin; KITOH, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Platelet function hyper-activity has been reported in Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm, HW)-infected dogs. Although the mechanism of increased platelet hyper-activity has not yet been elucidated, it is suggested to be mediated by unknown factors, which may be related to adult HW components. This study aims to determine whether adult male HW whole body extract induces canine platelet aggregation in vitro. The results indicate that HW extract caused an aggregation of canine platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. This aggregation ability of the HW extract was not mediated by the adenosine diphosphate receptor. In addition, the mechanisms of aggregation did not require cyclooxygenase-dependent pathways, and the aggregating activity of substances contained in the HW extract was heat stable; therefore, the active substances may be different from collagen. Furthermore, the platelet aggregating activity remained within the molecular weight (MW)≥100,000 fraction obtained by ultrafiltrating the HW extract. In contrast, the MW <100,000 fraction also had a platelet aggregation ability, but the aggregation pattern was reversible and the maximum extent decreased, compared with the MW≥100,000 fraction response. Our experiments have been conducted using a whole body extract from adult HWs to determine with certainty the aggregating activity of HW elements on canine platelets. More studies are necessary to evaluate the effects of the metabolic products released from live adult worms in pulmonary arteries and the symbiont bacterium Wolbachia-derived antigens on canine platelet aggregation. PMID:28049921

  2. Phosphorus recovery from wastewater by struvite crystallization: property of aggregates.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhilong; Shen, Yin; Ye, Xin; Zhang, Zhaoji; Chen, Shaohua; Shi, Jianwen

    2014-05-01

    Struvite crystallization is a promising method to remove and recover phosphorus from wastewater to ease both the scarcity of phosphorus rock resources and water eutrophication worldwide. To date, although various kinds of reactor systems have been developed, supporting methods are required to control the struvite fines flushing out of the reactors. As an intrinsic property, aggregation is normally disregarded in the struvite crystallization process, although it is the key factor in final particle size and therefore guarantees phosphorus recovery efficiency. The present study developed a method to analyze the characteristics of struvite aggregates using fractal geometry, and the influence of operational parameters on struvite aggregation was evaluated. Due to its typical orthorhombic molecular structure, struvite particles are prone to crystallize into needle or rod shapes, and aggregate at the corners or edges of crystals. The determined fractal dimension (Dpf) of struvite aggregates was 1.52-1.31, with the corresponding range of equivalent diameter (d0.5) at 295.9-85.4 μm. Aggregates formed in relatively low phosphorus concentrations (3.0-5.0 mmol/L) and mildly alkaline conditions (pH 9.0-9.5) displayed relatively compact structures, large aggregate sizes and high aggregation strength. Increasing pH values led to continuous decrease of aggregate sizes, while the variation of Dpf was insignificant. As to the aggregate evolution, fast growth in a short time followed by a long steady stage was observed.

  3. In vitro canine platelet aggregation caused by Dirofilaria immitis extract.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Yasuhiro; Onoda, Isako; Chiou, Shin-Pin; Kitoh, Katsuya

    2017-02-28

    Platelet function hyper-activity has been reported in Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm, HW)-infected dogs. Although the mechanism of increased platelet hyper-activity has not yet been elucidated, it is suggested to be mediated by unknown factors, which may be related to adult HW components. This study aims to determine whether adult male HW whole body extract induces canine platelet aggregation in vitro. The results indicate that HW extract caused an aggregation of canine platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. This aggregation ability of the HW extract was not mediated by the adenosine diphosphate receptor. In addition, the mechanisms of aggregation did not require cyclooxygenase-dependent pathways, and the aggregating activity of substances contained in the HW extract was heat stable; therefore, the active substances may be different from collagen. Furthermore, the platelet aggregating activity remained within the molecular weight (MW)≥100,000 fraction obtained by ultrafiltrating the HW extract. In contrast, the MW <100,000 fraction also had a platelet aggregation ability, but the aggregation pattern was reversible and the maximum extent decreased, compared with the MW≥100,000 fraction response. Our experiments have been conducted using a whole body extract from adult HWs to determine with certainty the aggregating activity of HW elements on canine platelets. More studies are necessary to evaluate the effects of the metabolic products released from live adult worms in pulmonary arteries and the symbiont bacterium Wolbachia-derived antigens on canine platelet aggregation.

  4. Cellular Strategies for Regulating Functional and Nonfunctional Protein Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Gsponer, Jörg; Babu, M. Madan

    2012-01-01

    Summary Growing evidence suggests that aggregation-prone proteins are both harmful and functional for a cell. How do cellular systems balance the detrimental and beneficial effect of protein aggregation? We reveal that aggregation-prone proteins are subject to differential transcriptional, translational, and degradation control compared to nonaggregation-prone proteins, which leads to their decreased synthesis, low abundance, and high turnover. Genetic modulators that enhance the aggregation phenotype are enriched in genes that influence expression homeostasis. Moreover, genes encoding aggregation-prone proteins are more likely to be harmful when overexpressed. The trends are evolutionarily conserved and suggest a strategy whereby cellular mechanisms specifically modulate the availability of aggregation-prone proteins to (1) keep concentrations below the critical ones required for aggregation and (2) shift the equilibrium between the monomeric and oligomeric/aggregate form, as explained by Le Chatelier’s principle. This strategy may prevent formation of undesirable aggregates and keep functional assemblies/aggregates under control. PMID:23168257

  5. Tracking protein aggregate interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Jason C; Nilsson, K Peter R

    2011-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils share a structural motif consisting of highly ordered β-sheets aligned perpendicular to the fibril axis.1, 2 At each fibril end, β-sheets provide a template for recruiting and converting monomers.3 Different amyloid fibrils often co-occur in the same individual, yet whether a protein aggregate aids or inhibits the assembly of a heterologous protein is unclear. In prion disease, diverse prion aggregate structures, known as strains, are thought to be the basis of disparate disease phenotypes in the same species expressing identical prion protein sequences.4–7 Here we explore the interactions reported to occur when two distinct prion strains occur together in the central nervous system. PMID:21597336

  6. Social Capital Theory and the Metropolitan University: Reframing Ideas about Neighborhood Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plagens, Gregory K.; Stapleton, Kenneth C.

    2011-01-01

    The idea that social relations can aggregate into social capital has intuitive appeal that scholars are finding useful as they seek to explain variations in community outcomes. This article suggests that it may be time for metropolitan university administrators to begin thinking beyond community relations or community engagement as they seek to…

  7. Zooplankton Aggregations Near Sills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    frequency echo-sounder system. This data were supplemented with multi-net (BIONESS) trawls, bongo nets, and otter trawls (operated by D. Mackas and group...side. The general composition of the zooplankton aggregations can be deduced from the relative levels of the three echo-sounder frequencies; krill ...Nov. 20th, 2002. Krill layer is evident at 66 – 90 m, coincident with BIONESS trawl through the region. 3 Figure 2 shows a comparison between

  8. Cultural capital as a measurand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taymanov, R.; Sapozhnikova, K.

    2016-11-01

    The necessity for developing metrology due to extension of its application sphere is noted. The efficiency of the metrological approach to measurement of multidimensional quantities in the field of humanities is shown using the development of cultural capital interpreted by L. Harrison. The cultural capital is defined as a measure of the society structure complexity and adaptive capacity.

  9. Transformative Pedagogy for Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which pedagogy for an elaborated form of transformative learning can be a useful catalyst for the development of social capital in community and workplace groups and networks. I begin with an example and then explore ideas of learning challenges embedded in building and maintaining social capital. I consider the…

  10. Schools, Social Capital and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie; Catts, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the significance of social capital in relation to education, exploring its relevance to teachers and other professionals as well as among young people. It draws on aspects of five case studies undertaken by the Schools and Social Capital Network, within the Applied Educational Research Scheme in Scotland. These case studies…

  11. Rethinking Higher Education Capital Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, George A.

    1988-01-01

    Capital finance in institutions of higher education is analyzed in light of changes in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 affecting the ability of institutions to finance capital projects and the likelihood of changes in the government's view of tax-exempt financing. The options for colleges and universities are analyzed in the following areas: (1)…

  12. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Human capital strategy: talent management.

    PubMed

    Nagra, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Large organizations, including the US Army Medical Department and the Army Nurse Corps, are people-based organizations. Consequently, effective and efficient management of the human capital within these organizations is a strategic goal for the leadership. Over time, the Department of Defense has used many different systems and strategies to manage people throughout their service life-cycle. The current system in use is called Human Capital Management. In the near future, the Army's human capital will be managed based on skills, knowledge, and behaviors through various measurement tools. This article elaborates the human capital management strategy within the Army Nurse Corps, which identifies, develops, and implements key talent management strategies under the umbrella of the Corps' human capital goals. The talent management strategy solutions are aligned under the Nurse Corps business strategy captured by the 2008 Army Nurse Corps Campaign Plan, and are implemented within the context of the culture and core values of the organization.

  14. Measuring social capital: further insights.

    PubMed

    Carrillo Álvarez, Elena; Riera Romaní, Jordi

    Social capital is defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. However, multiple definitions, distinct dimensions and subtypes of social capital have been used to investigate and theorise about its relationship to health on different scales, creating a confusing picture. This heterogeneity makes it necessary to systematise social capital measures in order to build a stronger foundation in terms of how these associations between the different aspects of social capital and each specific health indicator develop. We aim to provide an overview of the measurement approaches used to measure social capital in its different dimensions and scales, as well as the mechanisms through which it is presumed to influence health. Understanding the mechanisms through which these relationships develop may help to refine the existing measures or to identify new, more appropriate ones.

  15. Analysis of Aggregation Delay for Multisource Sensor Data with On-Off Traffic Pattern in Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Un-Ha; Kong, Eutteum; Choi, Hyun-Ho; Lee, Jung-Ryun

    2016-01-01

    Data aggregation plays an important role to improve the transmission efficiency in wireless body area networks (WBANs); however, it inherently induces additional aggregation delay. Therefore, the effect of packet aggregation on WBAN applications, which are vulnerable to delay, must be analyzed rigorously. In this paper, we analyze the packet aggregation delay for multisource sensor data with an on-off traffic pattern in WBANs. Considering two operational parameters of the aggregation threshold and aggregation timer, we calculate the probability that a packet aggregation occurs during a unit time and then derive the average aggregation delay in closed-form. The analysis results show that the aggregation delay increases as the aggregation timer or aggregation threshold increases, but is bounded below a certain level according to the number of active sensors and their on-off traffic attribute. This implies that the data aggregation technique can maximize the transmission efficiency while satisfying a given delay requirement in the WBAN system. PMID:27706029

  16. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member Banks; Market Risk Measure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... adequate capital to support that exposure. 1 This appendix supplements and adjusts the risk-based capital... Basle Committee on Banking Supervision and endorsed by the Group of Ten Central Bank Governors. The... capital requirements of this appendix support market risk associated with a bank's covered positions....

  17. Low workplace social capital as a predictor of depression: the Finnish Public Sector Study.

    PubMed

    Kouvonen, Anne; Oksanen, Tuula; Vahtera, Jussi; Stafford, Mai; Wilkinson, Richard; Schneider, Justine; Väänänen, Ari; Virtanen, Marianna; Cox, Sara J; Pentti, Jaana; Elovainio, Marko; Kivimäki, Mika

    2008-05-15

    In a prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees, the authors examined the association between workplace social capital and depression. Data were obtained from 33,577 employees, who had no recent history of antidepressant treatment and who reported no history of physician-diagnosed depression at baseline in 2000-2002. Their risk of depression was measured with two indicators: recorded purchases of antidepressants until December 31, 2005, and self-reports of new-onset depression diagnosed by a physician in the follow-up survey in 2004-2005. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to explore whether self-reported and aggregate-level workplace social capital predicted indicators of depression at follow-up. The odds for antidepressant treatment and physician-diagnosed depression were 20-50% higher for employees with low self-reported social capital than for those reporting high social capital. These associations were not accounted for by sex, age, marital status, socioeconomic position, place of work, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, and body mass index. The association between social capital and self-reported depression attenuated but remained significant after further adjustment for baseline psychological distress (a proxy for undiagnosed mental health problems). Aggregate-level social capital was not associated with subsequent depression.

  18. 78 FR 62017 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-11

    ... countercyclical capital buffer could be implemented if the agencies and the FDIC determined that credit growth in... increase capital only by accumulating retained earnings. Owing to slow economic growth and relatively low... sustained growth and high employment. Another commenter favored application of the Basel III NPR to...

  19. 78 FR 76973 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ..., and 225 Regulations H, Q, and Y RIN 7100-AD 87 Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital... System. ACTION: Correction, final rule. SUMMARY: The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System..., 2013. Robert deV. Frierson, Secretary of the Board. BILLING CODE 6210-01-P...

  20. The influence of erythrocyte aggregation on induced platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Ott, C; Lardi, E; Schulzki, T; Reinhart, W H

    2010-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) affect platelet aggregation in flowing blood (primary hemostasis). We tested the hypothesis that RBC aggregation could influence platelet aggregation. RBC aggregation was altered in vitro by: (i) changing plasma aggregatory properties with 3.7 g% dextran 40 (D40), 3.0 g% dextran 70 (D70) or 1.55 g% dextran 500 (D500); (ii) changing RBC aggregatory properties by incubating RBCs in 50 mU/ml neuraminidase for 60 min (reduction of the surface sialic acid content, thus reducing electrostatic repulsion) and subsequent RBC resuspension in platelet rich plasma (PRP) containing 1 g% dextran 70. RBC aggregation was assessed with the sedimentation rate (ESR). Platelet aggregation was measured: (i) in flowing whole blood with a platelet function analyzer PFA-100(R), which simulates in vivo conditions with RBCs flowing in the center and platelets along the wall, where they adhere to collagen and aggregate; and (ii) in a Chrono-log 700 Aggregometer, which measures changes of impedance by platelet aggregation in whole blood or changes in light transmission in PRP. We found that RBC aggregation increased with increasing molecular weight of dextran (ESR: 4 +/- 3 mm/h, 34 +/- 14 mm/h and 89 +/- 23 mm/hfor D40, D70 and D500, respectively, p < 0.0001) and with neuraminidase-treated RBCs (76 +/- 27 mm/h vs 27 +/- 8 mm/h, respectively, p < 0.0001). Platelet aggregation measured in whole blood under flow conditions (PFA-100) and without flow (Chronolog Aggregometer) was not affected by RBC aggregation. Our data suggest that RBC aggregation does not affect platelet aggregation in vitro and plays no role in primary hemostasis.

  1. 12 CFR 165.5 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... include all of the information required to be filed under section 38(e)(2) of the FDI Act. A Federal... FDI Act by each company that controls the savings association. (c) Review of capital restoration plans... that does not contain the guarantee required under section 38(e)(2) of the FDI Act, the...

  2. 12 CFR 165.5 - Capital restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... include all of the information required to be filed under section 38(e)(2) of the FDI Act. A Federal... FDI Act by each company that controls the savings association. (c) Review of capital restoration plans... that does not contain the guarantee required under section 38(e)(2) of the FDI Act, the...

  3. Structure of Viral Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Stephen; Luijten, Erik

    2010-03-01

    The aggregation of virus particles is a particular form of colloidal self-assembly, since viruses of a give type are monodisperse and have identical, anisotropic surface charge distributions. In small-angle X-ray scattering experiments, the Qbeta virus was found to organize in different crystal structures in the presence of divalent salt and non-adsorbing polymer. Since a simple isotropic potential cannot explain the occurrence of all observed phases, we employ computer simulations to investigate how the surface charge distribution affects the virus interactions. Using a detailed model of the virus particle, we find an asymmetric ion distribution around the virus which gives rise to the different phases observed.

  4. Conformational stability as a design target to control protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Joseph A; O'Brien, Christopher J; Tiller, Kathryn; Tamargo, Erin; Robinson, Anne Skaja; Roberts, Christopher J; Fernandez, Erik J

    2014-05-01

    Non-native protein aggregation is a prevalent problem occurring in many biotechnological manufacturing processes and can compromise the biological activity of the target molecule or induce an undesired immune response. Additionally, some non-native aggregation mechanisms lead to amyloid fibril formation, which can be associated with debilitating diseases. For natively folded proteins, partial or complete unfolding is often required to populate aggregation-prone conformational states, and therefore one proposed strategy to mitigate aggregation is to increase the free energy for unfolding (ΔGunf) prior to aggregation. A computational design approach was tested using human γD crystallin (γD-crys) as a model multi-domain protein. Two mutational strategies were tested for their ability to reduce/increase aggregation rates by increasing/decreasing ΔGunf: stabilizing the less stable domain and stabilizing the domain-domain interface. The computational protein design algorithm, RosettaDesign, was implemented to identify point variants. The results showed that although the predicted free energies were only weakly correlated with the experimental ΔGunf values, increased/decreased aggregation rates for γD-crys correlated reasonably well with decreases/increases in experimental ΔGunf, illustrating improved conformational stability as a possible design target to mitigate aggregation. However, the results also illustrate that conformational stability is not the sole design factor controlling aggregation rates of natively folded proteins.

  5. Aggregation of phospholipid vesicles by water-soluble polymers.

    PubMed Central

    Meyuhas, D; Nir, S; Lichtenberg, D

    1996-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers such as dextran and polyethylene glycol are known to induce aggregation and size growth of phospholipid vesicles. The present study addresses the dependence of these processes on vesicle size and concentration, polymer molecular weight, temperature, and compartmentalization of the vesicles and polymers, using static and dynamic light scattering. Increasing the molecular weight of the polymers resulted in a reduction of the concentration of polymer needed for induction of aggregation of small unilamellar vesicles. The aggregation was fully reversible (by dilution), within a few seconds, up to a polymer concentration of at least 20 wt %. At relatively low phosphatidylcholine (PC) concentrations (up to approximately 1 mM), increasing the PC concentration resulted in faster kinetics of aggregation and reduced the threshold concentration of polymer required for rapid aggregation (CA). At higher PC concentrations, CA was only slightly dependent on the concentration of PC and was approximately equal to the overlapping concentration of the polymer (C*). The extent of aggregation was similar at 37 and 4 degrees C. Aggregation of large unilamellar vesicles required a lower polymer concentration, probably because aggregation occurs in a secondary minimum (without surface contact). In contrast to experiments in which the polymers were added directly to the vesicles, dialysis of the vesicles against polymer-containing solutions did not induce aggregation. Based on this result, it appears that exclusion of polymer from the hydration sphere of vesicles and the consequent depletion of polymer molecules from clusters of aggregated vesicles play the central role in the induction of reversible vesicle aggregation. The results of all the other experiments are consistent with this conclusion. PMID:8913598

  6. Dielectric approach to investigation of erythrocyte aggregation. II. Kinetics of erythrocyte aggregation-disaggregation in quiescent and flowing blood.

    PubMed

    Pribush, A; Meiselman, H J; Meyerstein, D; Meyerstein, N

    2000-01-01

    A method based on dielectric properties of dispersed systems was applied to investigate the kinetics of RBC aggregation and the break-up of the aggregates. Experimentally, this method consists of measuring the capacitance at a frequency in the beginning of the beta-dispersion. Two experimental protocols were used to investigate the aggregation process. In the first case, blood samples were fully dispersed and then the flow was decreased or stopped to promote RBC aggregation. It was found that the initial phases of RBC aggregation are not affected by the shear rate. This finding indicates that RBC aggregation is a slow coagulation process. In the second case, RBCs aggregated under flow conditions at different shear rates and after the capacitance reached plateau levels, the flow was ceased. The steady-state capacitance of the quiescent blood and the kinetics of RBC aggregation after stoppage of shearing depend on the prior shear rate. To clarify the reasons for this effect, the kinetics of the disaggregation process was studied. In these experiments, time courses of the capacitance were recorded under different flow conditions and then a higher shear stress was applied to break up RBC aggregates. It was found that the kinetics of the disaggregation process depend on both the prior and current shear stresses. Results obtained in this study and their analysis show that the kinetics of RBC aggregation in stasis consists of two consecutive phases: At the onset, red blood cells interact face-to-face to form linear aggregates and then, after an accumulation of an appropriate concentration of these aggregates, branched rouleaux are formed via reactions of ends of the linear rouleaux with sides of other rouleaux (face-to-side interactions). Branching points are broken by low shear stresses whereas dispersion of the linear rouleaux requires significantly higher energy.

  7. Greening America's Capitals - Hartford, CT

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Greening America's Capitals report gives Hartford, CT, a new vision for Capitol Avenue that highlights existing assets and fills in gaps along the mile-long area of focus and into the surrounding neighborhoods.

  8. Greening America's Capitals - Charleston, WV

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Greening America’s Capitals report outlines design concepts that could improve Slack Plaza in Charleston, WV, by creating more opportunities for local businesses, better managing stormwater runoff, and increasing green space.

  9. Greening America's Capitals - Richmond, VA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report from the Greening America's Capitals project in Richmond, VA, to help the city develop design options to protect pedestrians, bicyclists, transit users, and drivers; improve stormwater management; and spur revitalization.

  10. Greening America's Capitals - Frankfort, KY

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report on the Greening America's Capitals project to help Frankfort, KY, improve the Second Street corridor to make pedestrians and bicyclists safer, improve water quality, and make the street more attractive.

  11. Greening America's Capitals - Washington, DC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Greening America's Capitals report describes design options for the Anacostia Metro station in Washington, DC, that could help people feel safer and more comfortable walking to and from the station.

  12. 12 CFR 725.5 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The capital stock subscriptions provided for in §§...

  13. 12 CFR 725.5 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The capital stock subscriptions provided for in §§...

  14. 12 CFR 725.5 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The capital stock subscriptions provided for in §§...

  15. 12 CFR 725.5 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The capital stock subscriptions provided for in §§...

  16. Minority Capital Resource Handbook. A Guide to Raising Capital for Minority Entrepreneurs. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Samuel D., Jr.; Maloney, Clifton H. W.

    This minority capital resource handbook consists of a guide to raising capital for minority entrepreneurs and a listing of sources that provide such capital. The first section deals with the process of raising capital. The realities of raising capital, intermediaries and financial advisors, and assessing needs are outlined. Factors considered in…

  17. Fractal structure of asphaltene aggregates.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Nazmul H G; Dabros, Tadeusz; Masliyah, Jacob H

    2005-05-15

    A photographic technique coupled with image analysis was used to measure the size and fractal dimension of asphaltene aggregates formed in toluene-heptane solvent mixtures. First, asphaltene aggregates were examined in a Couette device and the fractal-like aggregate structures were quantified using boundary fractal dimension. The evolution of the floc structure with time was monitored. The relative rates of shear-induced aggregation and fragmentation/restructuring determine the steady-state floc structure. The average floc structure became more compact or more organized as the floc size distribution attained steady state. Moreover, the higher the shear rate is, the more compact the floc structure is at steady state. Second, the fractal dimensions of asphaltene aggregates were also determined in a free-settling test. The experimentally determined terminal settling velocities and characteristic lengths of the aggregates were utilized to estimate the 2D and 3D fractal dimensions. The size-density fractal dimension (D(3)) of the asphaltene aggregates was estimated to be in the range from 1.06 to 1.41. This relatively low fractal dimension suggests that the asphaltene aggregates are highly porous and very tenuous. The aggregates have a structure with extremely low space-filling capacity.

  18. Aggregation dynamics of rigid polyelectrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tom, Anvy Moly; Rajesh, R.; Vemparala, Satyavani

    2016-01-01

    Similarly charged polyelectrolytes are known to attract each other and aggregate into bundles when the charge density of the polymers exceeds a critical value that depends on the valency of the counterions. The dynamics of aggregation of such rigid polyelectrolytes are studied using large scale molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the morphology of the aggregates depends on the value of the charge density of the polymers. For values close to the critical value, the shape of the aggregates is cylindrical with height equal to the length of a single polyelectrolyte chain. However, for larger values of charge, the linear extent of the aggregates increases as more and more polymers aggregate. In both the cases, we show that the number of aggregates decrease with time as power laws with exponents that are not numerically distinguishable from each other and are independent of charge density of the polymers, valency of the counterions, density, and length of the polyelectrolyte chain. We model the aggregation dynamics using the Smoluchowski coagulation equation with kernels determined from the molecular dynamics simulations and justify the numerically obtained value of the exponent. Our results suggest that once counterions condense, effective interactions between polyelectrolyte chains short-ranged and the aggregation of polyelectrolytes are diffusion-limited.

  19. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  20. IgG Conformer's Binding to Amyloidogenic Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Phay, Monichan; Welzel, Alfred T.; Williams, Angela D.; McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P.; Blinder, Veronika; O'Malley, Tiernan T.; Solomon, Alan; Walsh, Dominic M.; O'Nuallain, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid-reactive IgGs isolated from pooled blood of normal individuals (pAbs) have demonstrated clinical utility for amyloid diseases by in vivo targeting and clearing amyloidogenic proteins and peptides. We now report the following three novel findings on pAb conformer's binding to amyloidogenic aggregates: 1) pAb aggregates have greater activity than monomers (HMW species > dimers > monomers), 2) pAbs interactions with amyloidogenic aggregates at least partially involves unconventional (non-CDR) interactions of F(ab) regions, and 3) pAb's activity can be easily modulated by trace aggregates generated during sample processing. Specifically, we show that HMW aggregates and dimeric pAbs present in commercial preparations of pAbs, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), had up to ~200- and ~7-fold stronger binding to aggregates of Aβ and transthyretin (TTR) than the monomeric antibody. Notably, HMW aggregates were primarily responsible for the enhanced anti-amyloid activities of Aβ- and Cibacron blue-isolated IVIg IgGs. Human pAb conformer's binding to amyloidogenic aggregates was retained in normal human sera, and mimicked by murine pAbs isolated from normal pooled plasmas. An unconventional (non-CDR) component to pAb's activity was indicated from control human mAbs, generated against non-amyloid targets, binding to aggregated Aβ and TTR. Similar to pAbs, HMW and dimeric mAb conformers bound stronger than their monomeric forms to amyloidogenic aggregates. However, mAbs had lower maximum binding signals, indicating that pAbs were required to saturate a diverse collection of binding sites. Taken together, our findings strongly support further investigations on the physiological function and clinical utility of the inherent anti-amyloid activities of monomeric but not aggregated IgGs. PMID:26367058

  1. Measuring the value of groundwater and other forms of natural capital.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Eli P; Abbott, Joshua K; Bayham, Jude; Boone, Whitney; Haacker, Erin M K; Pfeiffer, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Valuing natural capital is fundamental to measuring sustainability. The United Nations Environment Programme, World Bank, and other agencies have called for inclusion of the value of natural capital in sustainability metrics, such as inclusive wealth. Much has been written about the importance of natural capital, but consistent, rigorous valuation approaches compatible with the pricing of traditional forms of capital have remained elusive. We present a guiding quantitative framework enabling natural capital valuation that is fully consistent with capital theory, accounts for biophysical and economic feedbacks, and can guide interdisciplinary efforts to measure sustainability. We illustrate this framework with an application to groundwater in the Kansas High Plains Aquifer, a rapidly depleting asset supporting significant food production. We develop a 10-y time series (1996-2005) of natural capital asset prices that accounts for technological, institutional, and physical changes. Kansas lost approximately $110 million per year (2005 US dollars) of capital value through groundwater withdrawal and changes in aquifer management during the decade spanning 1996-2005. This annual loss in wealth is approximately equal to the state's 2005 budget surplus, and is substantially more than investments in schools over this period. Furthermore, real investment in agricultural capital also declined over this period. Although Kansas' depletion of water wealth is substantial, it may be tractably managed through careful groundwater management and compensating investments in other natural and traditional assets. Measurement of natural capital value is required to inform management and ongoing investments in natural assets.

  2. Measuring the value of groundwater and other forms of natural capital

    PubMed Central

    Fenichel, Eli P.; Abbott, Joshua K.; Bayham, Jude; Boone, Whitney; Haacker, Erin M. K.; Pfeiffer, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Valuing natural capital is fundamental to measuring sustainability. The United Nations Environment Programme, World Bank, and other agencies have called for inclusion of the value of natural capital in sustainability metrics, such as inclusive wealth. Much has been written about the importance of natural capital, but consistent, rigorous valuation approaches compatible with the pricing of traditional forms of capital have remained elusive. We present a guiding quantitative framework enabling natural capital valuation that is fully consistent with capital theory, accounts for biophysical and economic feedbacks, and can guide interdisciplinary efforts to measure sustainability. We illustrate this framework with an application to groundwater in the Kansas High Plains Aquifer, a rapidly depleting asset supporting significant food production. We develop a 10-y time series (1996−2005) of natural capital asset prices that accounts for technological, institutional, and physical changes. Kansas lost approximately $110 million per year (2005 US dollars) of capital value through groundwater withdrawal and changes in aquifer management during the decade spanning 1996–2005. This annual loss in wealth is approximately equal to the state’s 2005 budget surplus, and is substantially more than investments in schools over this period. Furthermore, real investment in agricultural capital also declined over this period. Although Kansas’ depletion of water wealth is substantial, it may be tractably managed through careful groundwater management and compensating investments in other natural and traditional assets. Measurement of natural capital value is required to inform management and ongoing investments in natural assets. PMID:26858431

  3. Health-Based Capitation Risk Adjustment in Minnesota Public Health Care Programs

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Gregory A.; Edwards, Kevan R.; Knutson, David J.

    2004-01-01

    This article documents the history and implementation of health-based capitation risk adjustment in Minnesota public health care programs, and identifies key implementation issues. Capitation payments in these programs are risk adjusted using an historical, health plan risk score, based on concurrent risk assessment. Phased implementation of capitation risk adjustment for these programs began January 1, 2000. Minnesota's experience with capitation risk adjustment suggests that: (1) implementation can accelerate encounter data submission, (2) administrative decisions made during implementation can create issues that impact payment model performance, and (3) changes in diagnosis data management during implementation may require changes to the payment model. PMID:25372356

  4. Aggregating Hierarchical Service Level Agreements in Business Value Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ul Haq, Irfan; Huqqani, Altaf; Schikuta, Erich

    Business scenarios such as Business Value Networks and Extended Enterprises pose new challenges for service choreographies across heterogeneous Virtual Organizations. In such scenarios, services compose together hierarchically in a producer-consumer manner to form service supply-chains of added value. Service Level Agreements (SLAs) are defined at various levels in this hierarchy to ensure the expected quality of service for different stakeholders. Automation of service composition directly implies the aggregation of their corresponding SLAs. But so far, the aggregation of SLAs has been treated only as a single layer process which is insufficient to complement the hierarchical aggregation of services. In this paper we elaborate on the requirement of a hierarchical aggregation of SLAs corresponding to service choreographies in Business Value Networks. During the hierarchical aggregation of SLAs, certain SLA information pertaining to different stakeholders is meant to be restricted and can be only partially revealed to a subset of their business partners. We introduce the concept of SLA-Views to protect such privacy concerns. We, then formalize the notion of SLA Choreography and define an aggregation model based on SLA-Views to enable the automation of hierarchical aggregation of Service Level Agreements. The aggregation model has been designed to comply with the WS-Agreement standard.

  5. Control of binder viscosity and hygroscopicity on particle aggregation efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Sebastian B.; Kueppers, Ulrich; Ayris, Paul M.; Jacob, Michael; Delmelle, Pierre; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    In the course of explosive volcanic eruptions, large amounts of ash are released into the atmosphere and may subsequently pose a threat to infrastructure, such as aviation industry. Ash plume forecasting is therefore a crucial tool for volcanic hazard mitigation but may be significantly affected by aggregation, altering the aerodynamic properties of particles. Models struggle with the implementation of aggregation since external conditions promoting aggregation have not been completely understood; in a previous study we have shown the rapid generation of ash aggregates through liquid bonding via the use of fluidization bed technology and further defined humidity and temperature ranges necessary to trigger aggregation. Salt (NaCl) was required for the recovery of stable aggregates, acting as a cementation agent and granting aggregate cohesion. A numerical model was used to explain the physics behind particle aggregation mechanisms and further predicted a dependency of aggregation efficiency on liquid binder viscosity. In this study we proof the effect of viscosity on particle aggregation. HCl and H2SO4 solutions were diluted to various concentrations resulting in viscosities between 1 and 2 mPas. Phonolitic and rhyolitic ash samples as well as soda-lime glass beads (serving as analogue material) were fluidized in the ProCell Lab® of Glatt Ingenieurtechnik GmbH and treated with the acids via a bottom-spray technique. Chemically driven interaction between acid liquids and surfaces of the three used materials led to crystal precipitation. Salt crystals (e.g. NaCl) have been confirmed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and leachate analysis. Both volcanic ash samples as well as the glass beads showed a clear dependency of aggregation efficiency on viscosity of the sprayed HCl solution. Spraying H2SO4 provoked a collapse of the fluidized bed and no aggregation has been observed. This is accounted by the high hygroscopicity of H2SO4. Dissolving CaCl2 (known to be

  6. 12 CFR 652.90 - How to report your risk-based capital determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How to report your risk-based capital determination. 652.90 Section 652.90 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.90 How...

  7. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test. 652.100 Section 652.100 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.100 Audit...

  8. 12 CFR 652.80 - When you must determine the risk-based capital level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When you must determine the risk-based capital level. 652.80 Section 652.80 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.80 When...

  9. 12 CFR 652.85 - When to report the risk-based capital level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When to report the risk-based capital level. 652.85 Section 652.85 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.85 When...

  10. 38 CFR 61.13 - Rating criteria for capital grant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... capital grant applications. 61.13 Section 61.13 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... capital grant applications. (a) Applicants that meet the threshold requirements in § 61.12 of this part, will then be rated using the selection criteria listed in this section. To be eligible for a...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 3 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines; Market Risk Adjustment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... safe and sound banking practices. (3) The OCC may exclude a national bank otherwise meeting the... deems it consistent with safe and sound banking practices. (c) Scope. The capital requirements of this... maturity) if the payment would cause the issuing bank's risk-based capital ratio to fall or remain...

  12. Topics in Probabilistic Judgment Aggregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Guanchun

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a compilation of several studies that are united by their relevance to probabilistic judgment aggregation. In the face of complex and uncertain events, panels of judges are frequently consulted to provide probabilistic forecasts, and aggregation of such estimates in groups often yield better results than could have been made…

  13. Mineral of the month: aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, Valentin V.

    2005-01-01

    Natural aggregates, consisting of crushed stone, and sand and gravel, are a major contributor to economic health, and have an amazing variety of uses. Aggregates are among the most abundant mineral resources and are major basic raw materials used by construction, agriculture and other industries that employ complex chemical and metallurgical processes.

  14. Molecular aggregation of humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) form molecular aggregates in solution and on mineral surfaces. Elucidation of the mechanism of formation of these aggregates is important for an understanding of the interactions of HS in soils arid natural waters. The HS are formed mainly by enzymatic depolymerization and oxidation of plant biopolymers. These reactions transform the aromatic and lipid plant components into amphiphilic molecules, that is, molecules that consist of separate hydrophobic (nonpolar) and hydrophilic (polar) parts. The nonpolar parts of the molecules are composed of relatively unaltered segments of plant polymers and the polar parts of carboxylic acid groups. These amphiphiles form membrane-like aggregates on mineral surfaces and micelle-like aggregates in solution. The exterior surfaces of these aggregates are hydrophilic, and the interiors constitute separate hydrophobic liquid-like phases.

  15. The Economic Importance of Human Capital in Modernization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Theodore W.

    1993-01-01

    Human capital invests in new forms of physical capital, hence, human capital is key to economic progress. Lists eight attributes of human capital; for example, human capital cannot be separated from person who has it, and human capital is not visible. Human capital is necessary component when attempting to improve a person's income and welfare in…

  16. Financial capital and intellectual capital in physician practice management.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J C

    1998-01-01

    Medical groups need financial resources yet most retain no earnings and have no reserves. Physician practice management (PPM) companies have recognized the need for investment and the scarcity of indigenous capital in the physician sector and are rushing to fill the void. Resources are being contributed by venture capitalists, bond underwriters, private investors, pharmaceutical manufacturers, health plans, hospital systems, and public equity markets. The potential contribution of PPM firms is to nurture the intellectual capital of leading physician organizations and diffuse it throughout the health care system. The risk is that short-term financial imperatives will impede necessary long-term investments.

  17. Premature red blood cells have decreased aggregation and enhanced aggregability.

    PubMed

    Arbell, D; Orkin, B; Bar-Oz, B; Barshtein, G; Yedgar, S

    2008-06-01

    Preterm infants are highly susceptible to ischemic damage. This damage is most obvious in the brain, retina, and gastrointestinal tract. Studies focusing on the rheological properties of premature red blood cells (pRBCs) have consistently shown minimal or no RBC aggregation. Previously, measurements of pRBC aggregation kinetics indicated that specific plasma properties are responsible for the decreased RBC aggregation observed in the neonates, but that their specific RBC properties do not affect it. However, the strength of interaction in the pRBC aggregates as a function of medium composition has not been tested. In our previous research, we described clinically relevant parameters, that is, the aggregate resistance to disaggregation by flow. With the help of a cell flow property analyzer (CFA), we can monitor RBC aggregation by direct visualization of its dynamics during flow. We used the CFA to examine pRBC (from 9 premature babies) in the natural plasma and in PBS buffer supplemented with dextran (500 kDa) to distinguish between RBC intrinsic-cellular and plasma factors. pRBCs suspended in the native plasma showed minimal or no aggregation in comparison to normal adult RBC. When we transferred pRBCs from the same sample to the dextran solution, enhanced resistance to disaggregation by flow was apparent.

  18. Orthogonal flexible Rydberg aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, K.; Wüster, S.; Rost, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    We study the link between atomic motion and exciton transport in flexible Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light alkali-metal atoms, for which motion due to dipole-dipole interaction becomes relevant. In two one-dimensional atom chains crossing at a right angle adiabatic exciton transport is affected by a conical intersection of excitonic energy surfaces, which induces controllable nonadiabatic effects. A joint exciton-motion pulse that is initially governed by a single energy surface is coherently split into two modes after crossing the intersection. The modes induce strongly different atomic motion, leading to clear signatures of nonadiabatic effects in atomic density profiles. We have shown how this scenario can be exploited as an exciton switch, controlling direction and coherence properties of the joint pulse on the second of the chains [K. Leonhardt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 223001 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.223001]. In this article we discuss the underlying complex dynamics in detail, characterize the switch, and derive our isotropic interaction model from a realistic anisotropic one with the addition of a magnetic bias field.

  19. Aggregate Models of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooss, G.; Voss, R.; Hasselmann, K.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Joos, F.

    Integrated assessment of climate change generally requires the evaluation of many transient scenario simulations of century-timescale changes in atmospheric compo- sition and climate, desirably with the accuracy of state-of-the-art three-dimensional (3D) coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (GCMs). Such multi- scenario GCM computations are possible through appropriate representation of the models in aggregate forms. For this purpose, we developed Nonlinear Impulse- response projections of 3D models of the global (oceanic and terrestrial) Carbon cycle and the atmosphere-ocean Climate System (NICCS). For higher CO2 forcing, appli- cability is extended beyond the linear response domain through explicit treatment of dominant nonlinear effects. The climate change module was furthermore augmented with spatial patterns of change in some of the most impact-relevant fields. Applied to three long-term CO2 emission scenarios, the model demonstrates (a) the minor rela- tive role of the terrestrial carbon sink through CO2 fertilization, and (b) the necessity to reduce fossil carbon emissions to a very small fraction of today's rates within the next few decades if a major climate change is to be avoided.

  20. 12 CFR 5.46 - Changes in permanent capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Other Changes in Activities and Operations § 5.46 Changes in permanent... capital, the OCC considers whether the change is: (1) Consistent with law, regulation, and OCC policy... of association, if required; and (v) A statement that the bank has complied with all...

  1. Negotiating capitated rates for nurse-managed clinics.

    PubMed

    Green, A H; Conway-Welch, C

    1995-01-01

    Successful negotiation of capitated rates will dictate whether nurse-managed clinics will survive the financial restructuring of the health care industry. It requires a clear understanding of what the clinic is contracted to do and an ability to teach a managed-care company what the services are worth.

  2. 12 CFR 263.83 - Issuance of capital directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the notice unless the Board determines a shorter period is necessary because of the financial...: (1) An explanation why a directive should not be issued; (2) Any proposed modification of the terms... minimum capital levels, including requiring a reduction of assets or asset growth or restriction on...

  3. Putting Technology to Work on a Capital Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Dudley, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Managing complex capital construction projects provides formidable challenges to school leaders. Increasing enrollment, new state mandates, aging schools and the need for technology-rich environments are issues that require both more space and better quality facilities. Short-handed district leadership teams already find themselves more than fully…

  4. 76 FR 6653 - Public Housing Capital Fund Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... with the issuance of new and/or revised CFP forms, including the CFP Annual Statement/Performance and... include'' a mechanism to reward PHA performance. As required by statute, the Capital Fund formula (CF... other than small PHAs (that is, those with fewer than 250 units of public housing), a PHA may use up...

  5. 78 FR 63747 - Public Housing Capital Fund Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...This final rule combines and streamlines the former legacy public housing modernization programs, including the Comprehensive Grant Program (CGP), the Comprehensive Improvement Assistance Program (CIAP), and the Public Housing Development Program (which encompasses mixed-finance development), into the Capital Fund Program (CFP). This rule defines qualified PHAs, which are not required to file......

  6. Cost of capital to the hospital sector.

    PubMed

    Sloan, F A; Valvona, J; Hassan, M; Morrisey, M A

    1988-03-01

    This paper provides estimates of the cost of equity and debt capital to for-profit and non-profit hospitals in the U.S. for the years 1972-83. The cost of equity is estimated using, alternatively, the Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory. We find that the cost of equity capital, using either model, substantially exceeded anticipated inflation. The cost of debt capital was much lower. Accounting for the corporate tax shield on debt and capital paybacks by cost-based insurers lowered the net cost of capital to hospitals.

  7. Statistical image analysis reveals features affecting fates of Myxococcus xanthus developmental aggregates.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chunyan; Zhang, Haiyang; Shimkets, Lawrence J; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2011-04-05

    Starving Myxococcus xanthus bacteria use their motility systems to self-organize into multicellular fruiting bodies, large mounds in which cells differentiate into metabolically inert spores. Despite the identification of the genetic pathways required for aggregation and the use of microcinematography to observe aggregation dynamics in WT and mutant strains, a mechanistic understanding of aggregation is still incomplete. For example, it is not clear why some of the initial aggregates mature into fruiting bodies, whereas others disperse, merge, or split into two. Here, we develop high-throughput image quantification and statistical analysis methods to gain insight into M. xanthus developmental aggregation dynamics. A quantitative metric of features characterizing each aggregate is used to deduce the properties of the aggregates that are correlated with each fate. The analysis shows that small aggregate size but not neighbor-related parameters correlate with aggregate dispersal. Furthermore, close proximity is necessary but not sufficient for aggregate merging. Finally, splitting occurs for those aggregates that are unusually large and elongated. These observations place severe constraints on the underlying aggregation mechanisms and present strong evidence against the role of long-range morphogenic gradients or biased cell exchange in the dispersal, merging, or splitting of transient aggregates. This approach can be expanded and adapted to study self-organization in other cellular systems.

  8. Spatial control of chirality in supramolecular aggregates.

    PubMed

    Castriciano, Maria A; Gentili, Denis; Romeo, Andrea; Cavallini, Massimiliano; Scolaro, Luigi Monsù

    2017-03-09

    Chirality is one of the most intriguing properties of matter related to a molecule's lack of mirror symmetry. The transmission of chirality from the molecular level up to the macroscopic scale has major implications in life sciences but it is also relevant for many chemical applications ranging from catalysis to spintronic. These technological applications require an accurate control of morphology, homogeneity and chiral handedness of thin films and nanostructures. We demonstrate a simple approach to specifically transfer chirality to the model supramolecular system of J aggregates of the protonated form of tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrin by utilizing a soft lithography technique. This approach successfully allows the fabrication of an ordered distribution of sub-micrometric structures in precise and controllable positions with programmed chirality, providing a fundamental breakthrough toward the exploitation of chiral supramolecular aggregates in technological applications, such as sensors, non-linear optics and spintronic.

  9. Spatial control of chirality in supramolecular aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Castriciano, Maria A.; Gentili, Denis; Romeo, Andrea; Cavallini, Massimiliano; Scolaro, Luigi Monsù

    2017-01-01

    Chirality is one of the most intriguing properties of matter related to a molecule’s lack of mirror symmetry. The transmission of chirality from the molecular level up to the macroscopic scale has major implications in life sciences but it is also relevant for many chemical applications ranging from catalysis to spintronic. These technological applications require an accurate control of morphology, homogeneity and chiral handedness of thin films and nanostructures. We demonstrate a simple approach to specifically transfer chirality to the model supramolecular system of J aggregates of the protonated form of tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrin by utilizing a soft lithography technique. This approach successfully allows the fabrication of an ordered distribution of sub-micrometric structures in precise and controllable positions with programmed chirality, providing a fundamental breakthrough toward the exploitation of chiral supramolecular aggregates in technological applications, such as sensors, non-linear optics and spintronic. PMID:28275239

  10. Spatial control of chirality in supramolecular aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castriciano, Maria A.; Gentili, Denis; Romeo, Andrea; Cavallini, Massimiliano; Scolaro, Luigi Monsù

    2017-03-01

    Chirality is one of the most intriguing properties of matter related to a molecule’s lack of mirror symmetry. The transmission of chirality from the molecular level up to the macroscopic scale has major implications in life sciences but it is also relevant for many chemical applications ranging from catalysis to spintronic. These technological applications require an accurate control of morphology, homogeneity and chiral handedness of thin films and nanostructures. We demonstrate a simple approach to specifically transfer chirality to the model supramolecular system of J aggregates of the protonated form of tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrin by utilizing a soft lithography technique. This approach successfully allows the fabrication of an ordered distribution of sub-micrometric structures in precise and controllable positions with programmed chirality, providing a fundamental breakthrough toward the exploitation of chiral supramolecular aggregates in technological applications, such as sensors, non-linear optics and spintronic.

  11. Important features of Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solar, Slavko V.; Shields, Deborah J.; Langer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Every society, whether developed, developing or in a phase of renewal following governmental change, requires stable, adequate and secure supplies of natural resources. In the latter case, there could be significant need for construction materials for rebuilding infrastructure, industrial capacity, and housing. It is essential that these large-volume materials be provided in a rational manner that maximizes their societal contribution and minimizes environmental impacts. We describe an approach to resource management based on the principles of sustainable developed. Sustainable Aggregate Resource Management offers a way of addressing the conflicting needs and interests of environmental, economic, and social systems. Sustainability is an ethics based concept that utilizes science and democratic processes to reach acceptable agreements and tradeoffs among interests, while acknowledging the fundamental importance of the environment and social goods. We discuss the features of sustainable aggregate resource management.

  12. Measuring and modeling hemoglobin aggregation below the freezing temperature.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Mónica; Lopes, Carlos; Melo, Eduardo P; Singh, Satish K; Geraldes, Vitor; Rodrigues, Miguel A

    2013-08-01

    Freezing of protein solutions is required for many applications such as storage, transport, or lyophilization; however, freezing has inherent risks for protein integrity. It is difficult to study protein stability below the freezing temperature because phase separation constrains solute concentration in solution. In this work, we developed an isochoric method to study protein aggregation in solutions at -5, -10, -15, and -20 °C. Lowering the temperature below the freezing point in a fixed volume prevents the aqueous solution from freezing, as pressure rises until equilibrium (P,T) is reached. Aggregation rates of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) increased at lower temperature (-20 °C) and higher BHb concentration. However, the addition of sucrose substantially decreased the aggregation rate and prevented aggregation when the concentration reached 300 g/L. The unfolding thermodynamics of BHb was studied using fluorescence, and the fraction of unfolded protein as a function of temperature was determined. A mathematical model was applied to describe BHb aggregation below the freezing temperature. This model was able to predict the aggregation curves for various storage temperatures and initial concentrations of BHb. The aggregation mechanism was revealed to be mediated by an unfolded state, followed by a fast growth of aggregates that readily precipitate. The aggregation kinetics increased for lower temperature because of the higher fraction of unfolded BHb closer to the cold denaturation temperature. Overall, the results obtained herein suggest that the isochoric method could provide a relatively simple approach to obtain fundamental thermodynamic information about the protein and the aggregation mechanism, thus providing a new approach to developing accelerated formulation studies below the freezing temperature.

  13. Role of Standard Demand Response Signals for Advanced Automated Aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Kiliccote, Sila

    2011-11-18

    Emerging standards such as OpenADR enable Demand Response (DR) Resources to interact directly with Utilities and Independent System Operators to allow their facility automation equipment to respond to a variety of DR signals ranging from day ahead to real time ancillary services. In addition, there are Aggregators in today’s markets who are capable of bringing together collections of aggregated DR assets and selling them to the grid as a single resource. However, in most cases these aggregated resources are not automated and when they are, they typically use proprietary technologies. There is a need for a framework for dealing with aggregated resources that supports the following requirements: • Allows demand-side resources to participate in multiple DR markets ranging from wholesale ancillary services to retail tariffs without being completely committed to a single entity like an Aggregator; • Allow aggregated groups of demand-side resources to be formed in an ad hoc fashion to address specific grid-side issues and support the optimization of the collective response of an aggregated group along a number of different dimensions. This is important in order to taylor the aggregated performance envelope to the needs to of the grid; • Allow aggregated groups to be formed in a hierarchical fashion so that each group can participate in variety of markets from wholesale ancillary services to distribution level retail tariffs. This paper explores the issues of aggregated groups of DR resources as described above especially within the context of emerging smart grid standards and the role they will play in both the management and interaction of various grid-side entities with those resources.

  14. Kinetics of Aggregation with Choice

    DOE PAGES

    Ben-Naim, Eli; Krapivsky, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Here we generalize the ordinary aggregation process to allow for choice. In ordinary aggregation, two random clusters merge and form a larger aggregate. In our implementation of choice, a target cluster and two candidate clusters are randomly selected and the target cluster merges with the larger of the two candidate clusters.We study the long-time asymptotic behavior and find that as in ordinary aggregation, the size density adheres to the standard scaling form. However, aggregation with choice exhibits a number of different features. First, the density of the smallest clusters exhibits anomalous scaling. Second, both the small-size and the large-size tailsmore » of the density are overpopulated, at the expense of the density of moderate-size clusters. Finally, we also study the complementary case where the smaller candidate cluster participates in the aggregation process and find an abundance of moderate clusters at the expense of small and large clusters. Additionally, we investigate aggregation processes with choice among multiple candidate clusters and a symmetric implementation where the choice is between two pairs of clusters.« less

  15. Kinetics of Aggregation with Choice

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Naim, Eli; Krapivsky, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Here we generalize the ordinary aggregation process to allow for choice. In ordinary aggregation, two random clusters merge and form a larger aggregate. In our implementation of choice, a target cluster and two candidate clusters are randomly selected and the target cluster merges with the larger of the two candidate clusters.We study the long-time asymptotic behavior and find that as in ordinary aggregation, the size density adheres to the standard scaling form. However, aggregation with choice exhibits a number of different features. First, the density of the smallest clusters exhibits anomalous scaling. Second, both the small-size and the large-size tails of the density are overpopulated, at the expense of the density of moderate-size clusters. Finally, we also study the complementary case where the smaller candidate cluster participates in the aggregation process and find an abundance of moderate clusters at the expense of small and large clusters. Additionally, we investigate aggregation processes with choice among multiple candidate clusters and a symmetric implementation where the choice is between two pairs of clusters.

  16. Natural capital in ecology and economics: an overview.

    PubMed

    Fenech, Adam; Foster, Jay; Hamilton, Kirk; Hansell, Roger

    2003-01-01

    The Brundtland Commission report, Our Common Future, defined sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Although the idea of sustainable development has been widely accepted, it has proved difficult to identify and implement policies and practices that promote sustainable economic growth. Some economists, environmental scientists and policy analysts believe that they can transform the consensus about sustainability into manageable practices. They propose to accomplish this feat with a set of new ideas about the relationships between the economy and the environment offered under the banner of 'natural capital'. An ideal account of natural capital would be one or more standard measures or models that would allow the direct comparison of environmental goods, like forests, fresh water and clean air, with economic goods, like money, capital and productivity. By bringing economic science and environmental science to an objective common ground, a natural capital model has the potential to provide a concrete means of comparing the economic and ecological costs and benefits of particular policies and programmes. This paper offers a survey and analysis of several new contributions to the formation of the natural capital concept from economists, ecologists, policy analysts, biometricians, foresters and a philosopher. The paper concludes that existing microeconomic theory may be 'ungreenable', if it is not reformulated. While macroeconomic approaches to natural capital have beenmore successful, they share the limitation that ecosystems and species are valued solely in monetary terms. These problems are taken to suggest that the development of a successful natural capital model may require economic theory to be recast to include non-monetary social preferences and values.

  17. An aggregation model for ash particles in volcanic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, A.; Folch, A.; Macedonio, G.; Durant, A.

    2009-12-01

    A large fraction of fine ash particles injected into the atmosphere during explosive eruptions aggregate through complex interactions of surface liquid layers, electrostatic forces, and differences in particle settling velocities. The aggregates formed have a different size and density compared to primary particles formed during eruption which dramatically changes the dynamics of sedimentation from the volcanic cloud. Consequently, the lifetime of ash particles in the atmosphere is reduced and a distal mass deposition maximum is often generated in resulting tephra deposits. A complete and rigorous description of volcanic ash fallout requires the full coupling of models of volcanic cloud dynamics and dispersion, and ash particle transport, aggregation and sedimentation. Furthermore, volcanic ash transport models should include an aggregation model that accounts for the interaction of all particle size classes. The problem with this approach is that simulations would require excessively long computational times thereby prohibiting its application in an operational setting during an explosive volcanic eruption. Here we present a simplified model for ash particle transport and aggregation that includes the effects of water in the volcanic cloud and surrounding atmosphere. The aggregation model assumes a fractal relationship for the number of primary particles in aggregates, average sticking efficiency factors, and collision frequency functions that account for Brownian motion, laminar and turbulent fluid shear, and differential settling velocity. A parametric study on the key parameters of the model was performed. We implemented the aggregation model in the WRF+FALL3D coupled modelling system and applied it to different eruptions where aggregation has been recognized to play an important role, including the August and September 1992 Crater Peak eruptions and the 1980 Mt St Helens eruption. In these cases, mass deposited as a function of deposit area and the particle

  18. Fractal aggregates in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabane, M.; Rannou, P.; Chassefiere, E.; Israel, G.

    1993-04-01

    The cluster structure of Titan's atmosphere was modeled by using an Eulerian microphysical model with the specific formulation of microphysical laws applying to fractal particles. The growth of aggregates in the settling phase was treated by introducing the fractal dimension as a parameter of the model. The model was used to obtain a vertical distribution of size and number density of the aggregates for different production altitudes. Results confirm previous estimates of the formation altitude of photochemical aerosols. The vertical profile of the effective radius of aggregates was calculated as a function of the visible optical depth.

  19. 12 CFR 932.7 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting requirements. 932.7 Section 932.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL... to the Finance Board by the 15th business day of each month its risk-based capital requirement...

  20. Role of Livelihood Capital in Reducing Climatic Vulnerability: Insights of Australian Wheat from 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    In many agricultural countries, development of rural livelihood through increasing capital is a major regional policy to adapt to climate change. However, the role of livelihood capital in reducing climatic vulnerability is uncertain. This study assesses vulnerability and identifies the effects of common capital indicators on it, using Australian wheat as an example. We calculate exposure (a climate index) and sensitivity (a wheat failure index) to measure vulnerability and classify the resilient and sensitive cases, and express adaptive capacity through financial, human, natural, physical, and social capital indicators for 12 regions in the Australian wheat-sheep production zone from 1991-2010. We identify relationships between 12 indicators of five types of capital and vulnerability with t-tests and six logistic models considering the capital indicator itself, its first-order lag and its square as dependent variables to test the hypothesis that a high level of each capital metric results in low vulnerability. Through differing adaptive capacities between resilient and sensitive groups, we found that only four of the 12 (e.g., the access to finance, cash income level, total crop gross revenues, and family share of farm income) relate to vulnerability, which challenges the hypothesis that increasing capital reduces vulnerability. We conclude that further empirical reexaminations are required to test the relationships between capital measures and vulnerability under the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF).

  1. Role of Livelihood Capital in Reducing Climatic Vulnerability: Insights of Australian Wheat from 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    In many agricultural countries, development of rural livelihood through increasing capital is a major regional policy to adapt to climate change. However, the role of livelihood capital in reducing climatic vulnerability is uncertain. This study assesses vulnerability and identifies the effects of common capital indicators on it, using Australian wheat as an example. We calculate exposure (a climate index) and sensitivity (a wheat failure index) to measure vulnerability and classify the resilient and sensitive cases, and express adaptive capacity through financial, human, natural, physical, and social capital indicators for 12 regions in the Australian wheat–sheep production zone from 1991–2010. We identify relationships between 12 indicators of five types of capital and vulnerability with t-tests and six logistic models considering the capital indicator itself, its first-order lag and its square as dependent variables to test the hypothesis that a high level of each capital metric results in low vulnerability. Through differing adaptive capacities between resilient and sensitive groups, we found that only four of the 12 (e.g., the access to finance, cash income level, total crop gross revenues, and family share of farm income) relate to vulnerability, which challenges the hypothesis that increasing capital reduces vulnerability. We conclude that further empirical reexaminations are required to test the relationships between capital measures and vulnerability under the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF). PMID:27022910

  2. Reports From Greening America's Capitals Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Reports from projects conducted under the Greening America's Capitals Program, which helped capital cities explore green infrastructure and sustainable design strategies to revitalize neighborhoods, improve public health, and protect the environment.

  3. 20 CFR 638.305 - Capital improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Funding, Site Selection, and Facilities Management § 638.305 Capital improvements. Capital improvement projects and new construction on Job Corps Centers...

  4. A Capital Assets Preservation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiman, Ralph

    1989-01-01

    New York State officials have created an efficient capital planning system that is a prescribed set of procedures and actions within a program planning manual and two software modules. The program is a series of logical steps that school districts must take to successfully implement their preservation plans. (MLF)

  5. Modeling and Measuring Organization Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkeson, Andrew; Kehoe, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    Manufacturing plants have a clear life cycle: they are born small, grow substantially with age, and eventually die. Economists have long thought that this life cycle is driven by organization capital, the accumulation of plant-specific knowledge. The location of plants in the life cycle determines the size of the payments, or organization rents,…

  6. Teachers, Networks and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Kaleen

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that school leaders and policymakers should attend to the social conditions within schools that promote instructional improvement and student achievement gains. This dissertation uses theoretical and empirical work on social capital to frame three aspects of the relationships among teachers. The three studies…

  7. 75 FR 6151 - Minimum Capital

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... comment on a proposed rule to effect a provision of the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and..., for rescinding such an increase and a time frame for review of such an increase. DATES: Comments on... effect the higher temporary minimum capital level, the Director must issue regulations setting...

  8. A Radical Redistribution of Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiston-Serdan, Torie L.

    2009-01-01

    The study of capital in all of its forms has provided key insights into the system of education: its structure, its inequities, its values and its contributions. While the research is a key component to understanding educational opportunity and inequity, it does not advance from research to application. There is a general consensus that the…

  9. Presidential Transitions during Capital Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehls, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    In the past few decades, capital campaigns at institutions of higher education have increased in duration, while collegiate presidential tenures have been doing just the opposite. Turnover in the top post was frequent, even during major fundraising campaigns. Before this study, presidential transitions during campaigns had not been previously…

  10. School Cheating and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paccagnella, Marco; Sestito, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between social capital and cheating behaviour in standardized tests. Given the low-stakes nature of these tests, we interpret the widespread presence of cheating as a signal of low trust towards central education authorities and as lack of respect for the rule of law. We find that cheating is…

  11. 76 FR 11668 - Minimum Capital

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... capital level. * * * Instead, we encourage the Finance Agency to develop an MVE model that reflects... adequately; that their operations foster liquid, efficient, competitive and resilient national housing... maturity lower than most other entities. The Banks pass along a portion of their funding advantage to...

  12. Capital Punishment: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Edy

    1983-01-01

    The debate over the death penalty in the United States has implications beyond our borders. Because of the lack of universal standards governing its use, only those countries which have abolished capital punishment may, with any moral authority, denounce its exploitation as an instrument of political expediency. (IS)

  13. Social Capital and Stability Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-26

    lowers drug use, criminality, and teenage pregnancies , while increasing youth academic success, economic development, and government effectiveness .49...peace, good governance, and open market economies – like those being pursued in Afghanistan – will be limited in effectiveness when social capital is... effective international system, providing the foundation for continued prosperity, and, not least, in protecting Americans from external threats to our

  14. Social Capital and Community Heterogeneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffe, Hilde

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the number of parties in the local party system as a more…

  15. Secure data aggregation in wireless sensor networks using homomorphic encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manish; Verma, Shekhar; Lata, Kusum

    2015-04-01

    In a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), aggregation exploits the correlation between spatially and temporally proximate sensor data to reduce the total data volume to be transmitted to the sink. Mobile agents (MAs) fit into this paradigm, and data can be aggregated and collected by an MA from different sensor nodes using context specific codes. The MA-based data collection suffers due to large size of a typical WSN and is prone to security problems. In this article, homomorphic encryption in a clustered WSN has been proposed for secure and efficient data collection using MAs. The nodes keep encrypted data that are given to an MA for data aggregation tasks. The MA performs all the data aggregation operations upon encrypted data as it migrates between nodes in a tree-like structure in which the nodes are leafs and the cluster head is the root of the tree. It returns and deposits the encrypted aggregated data to the cluster head after traversing through all the intra cluster nodes over a shortest path route. The homomorphic encryption and aggregation processing in encrypted domain makes the data collection process secure. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed secure data aggregation mechanism. In addition to security, MA-based mechanism leads to lesser delay and bandwidth requirements.

  16. Effect of heparin on protein aggregation: inhibition versus promotion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yisheng; Seeman, Daniel; Yan, Yunfeng; Sun, Lianhong; Post, Jared; Dubin, Paul L

    2012-05-14

    The effect of heparin on both native and denatured protein aggregation was investigated by turbidimetry and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Turbidimetric data show that heparin is capable of inhibiting and reversing the native aggregation of bovine serum albumin (BSA), β-lactoglobulin (BLG), and Zn-insulin at a pH near pI and at low ionic strength I; however, the results vary with regard to the range of pH, I, and protein-heparin stoichiometry required to achieve these effects. The kinetics of this process were studied to determine the mechanism by which interaction with heparin could result in inhibition or reversal of native protein aggregates. For each protein, the binding of heparin to distinctive intermediate aggregates formed at different times in the aggregation process dictates the outcome of complexation. This differential binding was explained by changes in the affinity of a given protein for heparin, partly due to the effects of protein charge anisotropy as visualized by electrostatic modeling. The heparin effect can be further extended to include inhibition of denaturing protein aggregation, as seen from the kinetics of BLG aggregation under conditions of thermally induced unfolding with and without heparin.

  17. Ceramic ware waste as coarse aggregate for structural concrete production.

    PubMed

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia M; Guerra-Romero, M Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture of any kind of product inevitably entails the production of waste. The quantity of waste generated by the ceramic industry, a very important sector in Spain, is between 5% and 8% of the final output and it is therefore necessary to find an effective waste recovery method. The aim of the study reported in the present article was to seek a sustainable means of managing waste from the ceramic industry through the incorporation of this type of waste in the total replacement of conventional aggregate (gravel) used in structural concrete. Having verified that the recycled ceramic aggregates met all the technical requirements imposed by current Spanish legislation, established in the Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08), then it is prepared a control concrete mix and the recycled concrete mix using 100% recycled ceramic aggregate instead of coarse natural aggregate. The concretes obtained were subjected to the appropriate tests in order to conduct a comparison of their mechanical properties. The results show that the concretes made using ceramic sanitary ware aggregate possessed the same mechanical properties as those made with conventional aggregate. It is therefore possible to conclude that the reuse of recycled ceramic aggregate to produce recycled concrete is a feasible alternative for the sustainable management of this waste.

  18. Microelectrode Measurements of the Activity Distribution in Nitrifying Bacterial Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, D.; van den Heuvel, J. C.; Ottengraf, S. P. P.

    1993-01-01

    Microelectrodes for ammonium, oxygen, nitrate, and pH were used to study nitrifying aggregates grown in a fluidized-bed reactor. Local reactant fluxes and distribution of microbial activity could be determined from the microprofiles. The interfacial fluxes of the reactants closely reflected the stoichiometry of bacterial nitrification. Both ammonium consumption and nitrate production were localized in the outer shells, with a thickness of approximately 100 to 120 μm, of the aggregates. Under conditions in which ammonium and oxygen penetrated the whole aggregate, nitrification was restricted to this zone; oxygen was consumed in the central parts of the aggregates as well, probably because of oxidation of dead biomass. A sudden increase of the oxygen concentration to saturation (pure oxygen) was inhibitory to nitrification. The pH profiles showed acidification in the aggregates, but not to an inhibitory level. The distribution of activity was determined by the penetration depth of oxygen during aggregate development in the reactor. Mass transfer was significantly limited by the boundary layer surrounding the aggregates. Microelectrode measurements showed that the thickness of this layer was correlated with the diffusion coefficient of the species. Determination of the distribution of nitrifying activity required the use of ammonium or nitrate microelectrodes, whereas the use of oxygen microelectrodes alone would lead to erroneous results. Images PMID:16348875

  19. Surface fractals in liposome aggregation.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Vargas, Sándalo; Barnadas-Rodríguez, Ramon; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Estelrich, Joan; Callejas-Fernández, José

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the aggregation of charged liposomes induced by magnesium is investigated. Static and dynamic light scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and cryotransmission electron microscopy are used as experimental techniques. In particular, multiple intracluster scattering is reduced to a negligible amount using a cross-correlation light scattering scheme. The analysis of the cluster structure, probed by means of static light scattering, reveals an evolution from surface fractals to mass fractals with increasing magnesium concentration. Cryotransmission electron microscopy micrographs of the aggregates are consistent with this interpretation. In addition, a comparative analysis of these results with those previously reported in the presence of calcium suggests that the different hydration energy between lipid vesicles when these divalent cations are present plays a fundamental role in the cluster morphology. This suggestion is also supported by infrared spectroscopy data. The kinetics of the aggregation processes is also analyzed through the time evolution of the mean diffusion coefficient of the aggregates.

  20. Cell aggregation: Packing soft grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, J. A.; Karttunen, M.

    2006-06-01

    Cellular aggregates may be considered as collections of membrane enclosed units with a pressure difference between the internal and external liquid phases. Cells are kept together by membrane adhesion and/or confined space compression. Pattern formation and, in particular, intercellular spacing have important roles in controlling solvent diffusion within such aggregates. A physical approach is used to study generic aspects of cellular packings in a confined space. Average material properties are derived from the free energy. The appearance of penetrating intercellular void channels is found to be critically governed by the cell wall adhesion mechanisms during the formation of dense aggregates. A fully relaxed aggregate efficiently hinders solvent diffusion at high hydrostatic pressures, while a small fraction (˜0.1) of adhesion related packing frustration is sufficient for breaking such a blockage even at high a pressure.

  1. Calculating Amortized Capital Costs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  2. Positioning for capitation by redesigning internal processes.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J R; Maroney, R

    1995-07-01

    Now that healthcare reform is no longer at the forefront of President Clinton's agenda, competition among providers, practitioners, and health systems will become more common as they ready themselves for capitation. In addition, mergers, consolidations, acquisitions, alliances, and partnerships will continue to reshape the healthcare industry. In order for the parties to be successful in a capitated environment, providers, practitioners, and healthcare systems must manage and adapt to consolidation, capitation, communication, control, cost, customer, capital, and culture.

  3. Psychological Capital, Career Identity and Graduate Employability in Uganda: The Mediating Role of Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…

  4. Glycation precedes lens crystallin aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, M.S.; Perry, R.E.; Abraham, E.C.

    1987-05-01

    Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) seems to have the potential to alter the structure of crystallins and make them susceptible to thiol oxidation leading to disulfide-linked high molecular weight (HMW) aggregate formation. They used streptozotocin diabetic rats during precataract and cataract stages and long-term cell-free glycation of bovine lens crystallins to study the relationship between glycation and lens crystallin aggregation. HMW aggregates and other protein components of the water-soluble (WS) and urea-soluble (US) fractions were separated by molecular sieve high performance liquid chromatography. Glycation was estimated by both (/sup 3/H)NaBH/sub 4/ reduction and phenylboronate agarose affinity chromatography. Levels of total glycated protein (GP) in the US fractions were about 2-fold higher than in the WS fractions and there was a linear increase in GP in both WS and US fractions. This increase was parallelled by a corresponding increase in HMW aggregates. Total GP extracted by the affinity method from the US fraction showed a predominance of HMW aggregates and vice versa. Cell-free glycation studies with bovine crystallins confirmed the results of the animals studies. Increasing glycation caused a corresponding increase in protein insolubilization and the insoluble fraction thus formed also contained more glycated protein. It appears that lens protein glycation, HMW aggregate formation, and protein insolubilization are interrelated.

  5. Model for amorphous aggregation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranks, Samuel D.; Ecroyd, Heath; van Sluyter, Steven; Waters, Elizabeth J.; Carver, John A.; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2009-11-01

    The amorphous aggregation of proteins is associated with many phenomena, ranging from the formation of protein wine haze to the development of cataract in the eye lens and the precipitation of recombinant proteins during their expression and purification. While much literature exists describing models for linear protein aggregation, such as amyloid fibril formation, there are few reports of models which address amorphous aggregation. Here, we propose a model to describe the amorphous aggregation of proteins which is also more widely applicable to other situations where a similar process occurs, such as in the formation of colloids and nanoclusters. As first applications of the model, we have tested it against experimental turbidimetry data of three proteins relevant to the wine industry and biochemistry, namely, thaumatin, a thaumatinlike protein, and α -lactalbumin. The model is very robust and describes amorphous experimental data to a high degree of accuracy. Details about the aggregation process, such as shape parameters of the aggregates and rate constants, can also be extracted.

  6. 75 FR 61790 - Capital Southwest Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... COMMISSION Capital Southwest Corporation; Notice of Application September 29, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and...: Applicant, Capital Southwest Corporation (``Capital Southwest''), requests an order to permit it to issue.... Applicant's Representations 1. Capital Southwest, a Texas corporation, is an internally managed,...

  7. Spatial and Temporal Uncertainty of Crop Yield Aggregations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porwollik, Vera; Mueller, Christoph; Elliott, Joshua; Chryssanthacopoulos, James; Iizumi, Toshichika; Ray, Deepak K.; Ruane, Alex C.; Arneth, Almut; Balkovic, Juraj; Ciais, Philippe; Deryng, Delphine; Folberth, Christian; Izaurralde, Robert C.; Jones, Curtis D.; Khabarov, Nikolay; Lawrence, Peter J.; Liu, Wenfeng; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Reddy, Ashwan; Sakurai, Gen; Schmid, Erwin; Wang, Xuhui; Wu, Xiuchen; de Wit, Allard

    2016-01-01

    The aggregation of simulated gridded crop yields to national or regional scale requires information on temporal and spatial patterns of crop-specific harvested areas. This analysis estimates the uncertainty of simulated gridded yield time series related to the aggregation with four different harvested area data sets. We compare aggregated yield time series from the Global Gridded Crop Model Inter-comparison project for four crop types from 14 models at global, national, and regional scale to determine aggregation-driven differences in mean yields and temporal patterns as measures of uncertainty. The quantity and spatial patterns of harvested areas differ for individual crops among the four datasets applied for the aggregation. Also simulated spatial yield patterns differ among the 14 models. These differences in harvested areas and simulated yield patterns lead to differences in aggregated productivity estimates, both in mean yield and in the temporal dynamics. Among the four investigated crops, wheat yield (17% relative difference) is most affected by the uncertainty introduced by the aggregation at the global scale. The correlation of temporal patterns of global aggregated yield time series can be as low as for soybean (r = 0.28).For the majority of countries, mean relative differences of nationally aggregated yields account for10% or less. The spatial and temporal difference can be substantial higher for individual countries. Of the top-10 crop producers, aggregated national multi-annual mean relative difference of yields can be up to 67% (maize, South Africa), 43% (wheat, Pakistan), 51% (rice, Japan), and 427% (soybean, Bolivia).Correlations of differently aggregated yield time series can be as low as r = 0.56 (maize, India), r = 0.05*Corresponding (wheat, Russia), r = 0.13 (rice, Vietnam), and r = -0.01 (soybean, Uruguay). The aggregation to sub-national scale in comparison to country scale shows that spatial uncertainties can cancel out in countries with

  8. 47 CFR 69.310 - Capital leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital leases. 69.310 Section 69.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.310 Capital leases. Capital Leases in Account 2680 shall be...

  9. 12 CFR 615.5200 - Capital planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital planning. 615.5200 Section 615.5200 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Capital Adequacy § 615.5200 Capital planning. (a) The...

  10. Steps for Launching a Capital Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safranek, Thomas W.; Usyk, Patricia A.

    The capital campaign in the Catholic elementary and secondary school must be viewed as an essential component in the total development program. This document addresses many of the specifics regarding the proper positioning steps and procedures for a capital campaign. The introductory chapter provides a historical overview of the capital campaign.…

  11. Measuring Social Capital in Hamilton, Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…

  12. Capital Financing for Independent Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Kevin G.; Doherty, Robert F.; Wienk, Christopher O.

    This document contains summary materials from a presentation by Wye River Capital, Inc. of Annapolis, Maryland, on capital financing for independent private schools. The main sections of the presentation address: (1) overview of the capital financing process; (2) tax law considerations for tax-exempt financings by private schools; and (3) key…

  13. Cognitive Capitalism, Education and Digital Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A., Ed.; Bulut, Ergin, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive capitalism--sometimes referred to as "third capitalism," after mercantilism and industrial capitalism--is an increasingly significant theory, given its focus on the socio-economic changes caused by Internet and Web 2.0 technologies that have transformed the mode of production and the nature of labor. The theory of cognitive…

  14. Intergenerational Learning and Social Capital. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    The concept of social capital refers to the resources of networks, norms or shared values, and trust to which individuals have access as community members. A reason to consider intergenerational learning in the context of social capital is awareness of unequal access to positive social capital and the risk that social exclusion and disadvantage…

  15. 12 CFR 725.5 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is...

  16. Sociospatial Schooling Practices: A Spatial Capital Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barthon, Catherine; Monfroy, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance today of the spatial dimension within the analysis of parents' education strategies concerning their school choices at the secondary school level. This study is based on the 2 dimensions of the concept of spatial capital (Levy, 1994): position capital and situation capital. It explores sociospatial schooling…

  17. School Social Capital and School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Kwok-Kuen

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that school social capital is crucial for school effectiveness, but it has been disregarded in the traditional school administrative theory. Therefore, this article tries to illustrate the significance of school social capital to school effectiveness. School social capital is defined as the social resources embedded in internal…

  18. Internal modelling under Risk-Based Capital (RBC) framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Ang Siew; Hin, Pooi Ah

    2015-12-01

    Very often the methods for the internal modelling under the Risk-Based Capital framework make use of the data which are in the form of run-off triangle. The present research will instead extract from a group of n customers, the historical data for the sum insured si of the i-th customer together with the amount paid yij and the amount aij reported but not yet paid in the j-th development year for j = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. We model the future value (yij+1, aij+1) to be dependent on the present year value (yij, aij) and the sum insured si via a conditional distribution which is derived from a multivariate power-normal mixture distribution. For a group of given customers with different original purchase dates, the distribution of the aggregate claims liabilities may be obtained from the proposed model. The prediction interval based on the distribution for the aggregate claim liabilities is found to have good ability of covering the observed aggregate claim liabilities.

  19. 24 CFR 905.120 - Penalties for slow obligation or expenditure of Capital Fund program assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) The complexity of the capital program of the PHA; (iii) Any limitation on the ability of the PHA to... requirement of paragraph (d)(1) of this section through default remedies up to and including withdrawal of...

  20. Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

    2012-12-01

    Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within <1 km of the vent. The deposits within the A418 pipe, Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (<62 μm). Secondly, the ash aggregates indicate the involvement of moisture coupled with the presence of dilute expanded eruption clouds. The structure and distribution of these deposits throughout the kimberlite conduit demand that aggregation and deposition operate entirely within the confines of the vent; this indicates that aggregation is a rapid process. Ash aggregates within glaciovolcanic sequences are also rarely documented. The

  1. Perturbing Streaming in Dictyostelium discoidium Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rericha, Erin; Garcia, Gene; Parent, Carole; Losert, Wolfgang

    2009-03-01

    The ability of cells to move towards environmental cues is a critical process allowing the destruction of intruders by the immune system, the formation of the vascular system and the whole scale remodeling of tissues during embryo development. We examine the initial transition from single cell to group migration in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoidium. Upon starvation, D. discoidium cells enter into a developmental program that triggers solitary cells to aggregate into a multicellular structure. The aggregation is mediated by the small molecule, cyclic-AMP, that cells sense, synthesize, secrete and migrate towards often in a head-to-tail fashion called a stream. Using experiment and numerical simulation, we study the sensitivity of streams to perturbations in the cyclic-AMP concentration field. We find the stability of the streams requires cells to shape the cyclic-AMP field through localized secretion and degradation. In addition, we find the streaming phenotype is sensitive to changes in the substrate properties, with slicker surfaces leading to longer more branched streams that yield large initial aggregates.

  2. STAND: Surface Tension for Aggregation Number Determination.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Pablo F; Brocos, Pilar; Amigo, Alfredo; García-Río, Luis; Gracia-Fadrique, Jesús; Piñeiro, Ángel

    2016-04-26

    Taking advantage of the extremely high dependence of surface tension on the concentration of amphiphilic molecules in aqueous solution, a new model based on the double equilibrium between free and aggregated molecules in the liquid phase and between free molecules in the liquid phase and those adsorbed at the air/liquid interface is presented and validated using literature data and fluorescence measurements. A key point of the model is the use of both the Langmuir isotherm and the Gibbs adsorption equation in terms of free molecules instead of the nominal concentration of the solute. The application of the model should be limited to non ionic compounds since it does not consider the presence of counterions. It requires several coupled nonlinear fittings for which we developed a software that is publicly available in our server as a web application. Using this tool, it is straightforward to get the average aggregation number of an amphiphile, the micellization free energy, the adsorption constant, the maximum surface excess (and so the minimum area per molecule), the distribution of solute in the liquid phase between free and aggregate species, and the surface coverage in only a couple of seconds, just by uploading a text file with surface tension vs concentration data and the corresponding uncertainties.

  3. Negotiating strategies for capitation.

    PubMed

    Mildworm, L L

    1998-01-01

    The appropriate strategy to employ in contract negotiations will vary, depending on a number of important factors. These include the relative size and power of the network, the conditions of the local market, the strength of the managed-care payer in the market, and a host of other issues. The negotiating strategy ultimately adopted will be in accordance with the organizations overall preference, style, and needs. In approaching any contract negotiation, two key points should be kept in mind. First, networks must recognize they can become more prepared and empowered for contract negotiations through the acquisition of additional information. Second, form contracts can be changed; nothing is set in stone. Despite the frequent statements of payer organizations that the form cannot be modified to meet the provider's unique desires and needs, in most cases a contract can be modified in one way or another to meet the parties' mutual needs and desires. Everything is negotiable: Any party involved in such negotiations should be positive, avoiding conflict; use a problem-solving approach; agree whenever possible--strive to become "we"; acknowledge the payer's interest and position, expressing a desire to compromise; and acknowledge the authority and ability of the assigned negotiator. Once the managed-care contract is consummated, the network should attempt to ensure that the parties get maximum value from the agreement. One step to achieving such a desired end is to identify a leader who will be responsible for overseeing contract implementation and performance and responsible for knowing the requirements of the agreement inside out and for focusing on all other requirements of the managed-care program.

  4. Agrofuels capitalism: a view from political economy.

    PubMed

    White, Ben; Dasgupta, Anirban

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the global expansion of agrofuels feedstock production from a political economy perspective. It considers and dismisses the environmental and pro-poor developmental justifications attached to agrofuels. To local populations and direct producers, the specific destination of the crop as fuel, food, cosmetics or other final uses in faraway places is probably of less interest than the forms of (direct or indirect) appropriation of their land and the forms of their insertion or exclusion as producers in global commodity chains. Global demand for both agrofuels and food is stimulating new forms (or the resurgence of old forms) of corporate land grabbing and expropriation, and of incorporation of smallholders in contracted production. Drawing both on recent studies on agrofuels expansion and on the political economy literature on agrarian transition and capitalism in agriculture, this article raises the question whether "agrofuels capitalism" is in any way essentially different from other forms of capitalist agrarian monocrop production, and in turn whether the agrarian transitions involved require new tools of analysis.

  5. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725

  6. Multiple discrete soluble aggregates influence polyglutamine toxicity in a Huntington’s disease model system

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Wen; Wang, Xin; Laue, Thomas M.; Denis, Clyde L.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) results from expansions of polyglutamine stretches (polyQ) in the huntingtin protein (Htt) that promote protein aggregation, neurodegeneration, and death. Since the diversity and sizes of the soluble Htt-polyQ aggregates that have been linked to cytotoxicity are unknown, we investigated soluble Htt-polyQ aggregates using analytical ultracentrifugation. Soon after induction in a yeast HD model system, non-toxic Htt-25Q and cytotoxic Htt-103Q both formed soluble aggregates 29S to 200S in size. Because current models indicate that Htt-25Q does not form soluble aggregates, reevaluation of previous studies may be necessary. Only Htt-103Q aggregation behavior changed, however, with time. At 6 hr mid-sized aggregates (33S to 84S) and large aggregates (greater than 100S) became present while at 24 hr primarily only mid-sized aggregates (20S to 80S) existed. Multiple factors that decreased cytotoxicity of Htt-103Q (changing the length of or sequences adjacent to the polyQ, altering ploidy or chaperone dosage, or deleting anti-aging factors) altered the Htt-103Q aggregation pattern in which the suite of mid-sized aggregates at 6 hr were most correlative with cytotoxicity. Hence, the amelioration of HD and other neurodegenerative diseases may require increased attention to and discrimination of the dynamic alterations in soluble aggregation processes. PMID:27721444

  7. Commercial Building Tenant Energy Usage Aggregation and Privacy

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, Olga V.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Anderson, David M.; Wang, Na

    2014-10-31

    A growing number of building owners are benchmarking their building energy use. This requires the building owner to acquire monthly whole-building energy usage information, which can be challenging for buildings in which individual tenants have their own utility meters and accounts with the utility. Some utilities and utility regulators have turned to aggregation of customer energy use data (CEUD) as a way to give building owners whole-building energy usage data while protecting customer privacy. Meter profile aggregation adds a layer of protection that decreases the risk of revealing CEUD as the number of meters aggregated increases. The report statistically characterizes the similarity between individual energy usage patterns and whole-building totals at various levels of meter aggregation.

  8. Utilization of sewage sludge in the manufacture of lightweight aggregate.

    PubMed

    Franus, Małgorzata; Barnat-Hunek, Danuta; Wdowin, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study on the possibility of sewage sludge management in a sintered ceramic material such as a lightweight aggregate. Made from clay and sludge lightweight aggregates were sintered at two temperatures: 1100 °C (name of sample LWA1) and 1150 °C (name of sample LWA2). Physical and mechanical properties indicate that the resulting expanded clay aggregate containing sludge meets the basic requirements for lightweight aggregates. The presence of sludge supports the swelling of the raw material, thereby causing an increase in the porosity of aggregates. The LWA2 has a lower value of bulk particle density (0.414 g/cm(3)), apparent particle density (0.87 g/cm(3)), and dry particle density (2.59 g/cm(3)) than it is in the case of LWA1 where these parameters were as follows: bulk particle density 0.685 g/cm(3), apparent particle density 1.05 g/cm(3), and dry particle density 2.69 g/cm(3). Water absorption and porosity of LWA1 (WA = 14.4 %, P = 60 %) are lower than the LWA2 (WA = 16.2 % and P = 66 %). This is due to the higher heating temperature of granules which make the waste gases, liberating them from the decomposition of organic sewage sludge. The compressive strength of LWA2 aggregate is 4.64 MPa and for LWA1 is 0.79 MPa. Results of leaching tests of heavy metals from examined aggregates have shown that insoluble metal compounds are placed in silicate and aluminosilicate structure of the starting materials (clays and sludges), whereas soluble substances formed crystalline skeleton of the aggregates. The thermal synthesis of lightweight aggregates from clay and sludge mixture is a waste-free method of their development.

  9. Neighborhood social capital and crime victimization: comparison of spatial regression analysis and hierarchical regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Daisuke; Ikeda, Ken'ichi; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-11-01

    Crime is an important determinant of public health outcomes, including quality of life, mental well-being, and health behavior. A body of research has documented the association between community social capital and crime victimization. The association between social capital and crime victimization has been examined at multiple levels of spatial aggregation, ranging from entire countries, to states, metropolitan areas, counties, and neighborhoods. In multilevel analysis, the spatial boundaries at level 2 are most often drawn from administrative boundaries (e.g., Census tracts in the U.S.). One problem with adopting administrative definitions of neighborhoods is that it ignores spatial spillover. We conducted a study of social capital and crime victimization in one ward of Tokyo city, using a spatial Durbin model with an inverse-distance weighting matrix that assigned each respondent a unique level of "exposure" to social capital based on all other residents' perceptions. The study is based on a postal questionnaire sent to 20-69 years old residents of Arakawa Ward, Tokyo. The response rate was 43.7%. We examined the contextual influence of generalized trust, perceptions of reciprocity, two types of social network variables, as well as two principal components of social capital (constructed from the above four variables). Our outcome measure was self-reported crime victimization in the last five years. In the spatial Durbin model, we found that neighborhood generalized trust, reciprocity, supportive networks and two principal components of social capital were each inversely associated with crime victimization. By contrast, a multilevel regression performed with the same data (using administrative neighborhood boundaries) found generally null associations between neighborhood social capital and crime. Spatial regression methods may be more appropriate for investigating the contextual influence of social capital in homogeneous cultural settings such as Japan.

  10. 12 CFR 932.8 - Minimum liquidity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum liquidity requirements. 932.8 Section... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.8 Minimum liquidity requirements. In addition to meeting the deposit liquidity requirements contained in § 965.3 of this chapter, each...

  11. Labile aggregation stimulating substance, free fatty acids, and platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, J M; White, J G; Krivit, W

    1976-01-01

    Labile aggregation stimulating substance (LASS), an intermediate produced during platelet biosynthesis of PGE2 and PGF2alpha, acts as a physiologic intercellular messenger to promote platelet aggregation and the release reaction. The activity is formed by intact cells after physiologic stimulation or can be generated from platelet membrane fractions after combination with arachidonate. In the present investigation, small amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids added to an incubation mixture of platelet microsomes and arachidonate were found to significantly inhibit subsequent platelet aggregation. Saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids in the same concentrations were without effect. However, in higher concentrations mono-unsaturated fatty acids were found to be inhibitory and stearic acid was found to enhance subsequent platelet aggregation. The inhibition caused by the polyunsaturated fatty acid, linoleate, was shown to be the result of an effect on the production of LASS through an interaction with the platelet enzyme responsible for conversion of arachidonate to LASS. In contrast, stearic acid was found to enhance platelet aggregation by acting on the platelets and not directly on LASS production. The results suggest that small changes in the fatty acid composition of platelet phospholipids could significantly influence platelet reactivity.

  12. 13 CFR 108.230 - Private Capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Private Capital for NMVC Companies... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.230 Private Capital for NMVC Companies. (a) General. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a...

  13. 13 CFR 108.230 - Private Capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Private Capital for NMVC Companies... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.230 Private Capital for NMVC Companies. (a) General. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a...

  14. 13 CFR 108.230 - Private Capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private Capital for NMVC Companies... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.230 Private Capital for NMVC Companies. (a) General. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a...

  15. 13 CFR 108.230 - Private Capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Private Capital for NMVC Companies... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.230 Private Capital for NMVC Companies. (a) General. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a...

  16. 13 CFR 108.230 - Private Capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Private Capital for NMVC Companies... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.230 Private Capital for NMVC Companies. (a) General. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a...

  17. The Case for Capitation.

    PubMed

    James, Brent C; Poulsen, Gregory P

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that at least 35%--and maybe over 5o%--of all health care spending in the U.S. is wasted on inadequate, unnecessary, and inefficient care and suboptimal business processes. But efforts to get rid of that waste face a huge challenge: Under current payment methods, the providers who develop more-cost-effective approaches don't receive any of the savings. Instead, the money goes mainly to insurers. The providers, who are paid for the volume of services delivered, end up actually losing money, which undermines their finances and their ability to invest in more cost-saving innovations. To address this quandary, say two top execs from the nonprofit Intermountain Healthcare system, we need a different way to pay for health care: population-based payment. PBP gives care delivery groups a fixed per-person payment that covers all of an individual's health care services in a given year. Under it, providers benefit from the savings of all efforts to attack waste, encouraging them to do it more. And though PBP may sound similar to the HMOs of the 1990s, there are significant twists: Payments go directly to care delivery groups, and patients' physicians--not insurance companies--assume responsibility for overseeing and managing the cost of treatment. Provider groups are also required to meet quality standards that further protect patients. By applying PBP in just part of its system, Intermountain, which serves 2 million people, has been able to chop $688 million in annual waste and bring total costs down 13%.

  18. Fractal Aggregates in Tennis Ball Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabin, J.; Bandin, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the…

  19. Capital, population and urban patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W

    1994-04-01

    The author develops an approach to urban dynamics with endogenous capital and population growth, synthesizing the Alonso location model, the two-sector neoclassical growth model, and endogenous population theory. A dynamic model for an isolated island economy with endogenous capital, population, and residential structure is developed on the basis of Alonso's residential model and the two-sector neoclassical growth model. The model describes the interdependence between residential structure, economic growth, population growth, and economic structure over time and space. It has a unique long-run equilibrium, which may be either stable or unstable, depending upon the population dynamics. Applying the Hopf theorem, the author also shows that when the system is unstable, the economic geography exhibits permanent endogenous oscillations.

  20. Thermodynamic modeling of asphaltene aggregation.

    PubMed

    Rogel, E

    2004-02-03

    A new molecular thermodynamic model for the description of the aggregation behavior of asphaltenes in different solvents is presented. This new model is relatively simple and strictly predictive and does not use any experimental information from asphaltene solutions. In this model, asphaltene aggregates are described as composed of an aromatic core formed by stacked aromatic sheets surrounded by aliphatic chains. The proposed model qualitatively predicts the asphaltene aggregation behavior in a series of different solvents. In particular, the experimental trends observed for the variation of aggregate size with (1) asphaltene molecular characteristics (condensation index, aromaticity, and chain length), (2) asphaltene concentration, (3) solvent characteristics, and (4) temperature have been successfully reproduced by the proposed model. The model also provides a plausible explanation for the existence or absence of a critical micelle concentration (cmc) for asphaltene solutions. Specifically, the model predicted that the asphaltenes with low aromaticities and low aromatic condensations do not exhibit cmc behavior. Finally, the obtained results clearly support the classical model for asphaltene aggregates.

  1. Spatial aggregation: Language and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey-Kellogg, C.; Zhao, F.; Yip, K.

    1996-12-31

    Spatial aggregation is a framework for organizing computations around image-like, analogue representations of physical processes in data interpretation and control tasks. It conceptualizes common computational structures in a class of implemented problem solvers for difficult scientific and engineering problems. It comprises a mechanism, a language, and a programming style. The spatial aggregation mechanism transforms a numerical input field to successively higher-level descriptions by applying a small, identical set of operators to each layer given a metric, neighborhood relation and equivalence relation. This paper describes the spatial aggregation language and its applications. The spatial aggregation language provides two abstract data types - neighborhood graph and field - and a set of interface operators for constructing the transformations of the field, together with a library of component implementations from which a user can mix-and-match and specialize for a particular application. The language allows users to isolate and express important computational ideas in different problem domains while hiding low-level details. We illustrate the use of the language with examples ranging from trajectory grouping in dynamics interpretation to region growing in image analysis. Programs for these different task domains can be written in a modular, concise fashion in the spatial aggregation language.

  2. Leaching behaviour of synthetic aggregates.

    PubMed

    van der Sloot, H A; Hoede, D; Cresswell, D J; Barton, J R

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of EU project "Utilising innovative kiln technology to recycle waste into synthetic aggregate" (BRST-CT98-5234), the leaching behaviour of synthetic aggregates has been studied to assess its environmental compatibility in the various stages of its use. Since the conditions are very different for the different uses, the assessment calls for a variety of different leaching conditions. The pH dependence test is used to cover important differences in pH environment to which the materials are exposed to as well as for an assessment of the buffering capacity of the material. Synthetic aggregate features a low buffer capacity, which makes it sensitive to externally imposed pH conditions. Utilisation and storage exposed to acidic conditions needs to be avoided. The results of the pH dependence test and column leaching test are mutually consistent. The CEN TC 154 method appears to provide systematically low values due to the arbitrary selection of test conditions. Synthetic aggregate studied to date will not adversely affect the concrete in its service life. The main issue for aggregate use is the recycling and the "end of life" condition, when the material becomes construction debris. Not metals, but oxyanions, such as Cr VI and Mo are most relevant under these conditions. A concise test has been applied to assess crucial aspects of leaching for different production mixes.

  3. Novel insights into amylin aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Karen; Govender, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Amylin is a peptide that aggregates into species that are toxic to pancreatic beta cells, leading to type II diabetes. This study has for the first time quantified amylin association and dissociation kinetics (association constant (ka) = 28.7 ± 5.1 L mol−1 s−1 and dissociation constant (kd) = 2.8 ± 0.6 ×10−4 s−1) using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Thus far, techniques used for the sizing of amylin aggregates do not cater for the real-time monitoring of unconstrained amylin in solution. In this regard we evaluated recently innovated nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). In addition, both SPR and NTA were used to study the effect of previously synthesized amylin derivatives on amylin aggregation and to evaluate their potential as a cell-free system for screening potential inhibitors of amylin-mediated cytotoxicity. Results obtained from NTA highlighted a predominance of 100–300 nm amylin aggregates and correlation to previously published cytotoxicity results suggests the toxic species of amylin to be 200–300 nm in size. The results seem to indicate that NTA has potential as a new technique to monitor the aggregation potential of amyloid peptides in solution and also to screen potential inhibitors of amylin-mediated cytotoxicity. PMID:26019498

  4. Aggregated Recommendation through Random Forests

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aggregated recommendation refers to the process of suggesting one kind of items to a group of users. Compared to user-oriented or item-oriented approaches, it is more general and, therefore, more appropriate for cold-start recommendation. In this paper, we propose a random forest approach to create aggregated recommender systems. The approach is used to predict the rating of a group of users to a kind of items. In the preprocessing stage, we merge user, item, and rating information to construct an aggregated decision table, where rating information serves as the decision attribute. We also model the data conversion process corresponding to the new user, new item, and both new problems. In the training stage, a forest is built for the aggregated training set, where each leaf is assigned a distribution of discrete rating. In the testing stage, we present four predicting approaches to compute evaluation values based on the distribution of each tree. Experiments results on the well-known MovieLens dataset show that the aggregated approach maintains an acceptable level of accuracy. PMID:25180204

  5. Trends in U.S. Venture Capital Investments Related to Energy: 1980 through the Second Quarter of 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2010-07-29

    This report documents trends in U.S. venture capital investments over the period 1980 through the second quarter of calendar year 2010 (2010Q1+Q2). Particular attention is given to U.S. venture capital investments in the energy/industrial sector over the period 1980-2010Q1+Q2 as well as in the more recently created cross-cutting category of CleanTech over the period 1995-2010Q1+Q2. During the early 1980s, U.S. venture capital investments in the energy/industrial sector accounted for more than 20% of all venture capital investments. However subsequent periods of low energy prices, the deregulation of large aspects of the energy industry, and the emergence of fast growing new industries like computers (both hardware and software), biotechnology and the Internet quickly reduced the priority accorded to energy/industrial investments. To wit, venture capital investments related to the energy/industrial sector accounted for only 1% of the $119 billion dollars invested in 2000 by the U.S. venture capital community. The significant increase in the real price of oil that began in 2003-2004 correlates with renewed interest and increased investment by the venture capital community in energy/industrial investment opportunities. Venture capital investments for 2009 for the energy/industrial sector accounted for $2.1 billion or slightly more than 13% of all venture capital invested that year. The total venture capital invested in energy/industrial during the first two quarters of 2010 is close to $1.8 billion accounting for 17% of all venture capital investments during the first two quarters of 2010. In 2009, the aggregate amount invested in CleanTech was $1.8 billion (30% of the total US venture capital invested in that lean year) and for the first two quarters of 2010 US venture capital investments in CleanTech have already exceeded $1.9 billion (19% of all US venture capital investments made during the first half of 2010). Between 2004 and 2009, U.S. venture capital

  6. Trends in U.S. Venture Capital Investments Related to Energy: 1980 through the Third Quarter of 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2010-11-08

    This report documents trends in U.S. venture capital investments over the period 1980 through the third quarter of calendar year 2010 (2010 Q1+Q2+Q3). Particular attention is given to U.S. venture capital investments in the energy/industrial sector over the period 1980-2010 Q1+Q2+Q3 as well as in the more recently created cross-cutting category of CleanTech over the period 1995-2010 Q1+Q2+Q3. During the early 1980s, U.S. venture capital investments in the energy/industrial sector accounted for more than 20% of all venture capital investments. However subsequent periods of low energy prices, the deregulation of large aspects of the energy industry, and the emergence of fast growing new industries like computers (both hardware and software), biotechnology and the Internet quickly reduced the priority accorded to energy/industrial investments. To wit, venture capital investments related to the energy/industrial sector accounted for only 1% of the $132 billion (in real 2010 US$) invested in 2000 by the U.S. venture capital community. The significant increase in the real price of oil that began in 2003-2004 correlates with renewed interest and increased investment by the venture capital community in energy/industrial investment opportunities. Venture capital investments for 2009 for the energy/industrial sector accounted for $2.4 billion or slightly more than 13% of all venture capital invested that year. The total venture capital invested in energy/industrial during the first three quarters of 2010 is close to $2.4 billion accounting for slightly less than 15% of all venture capital investments during the first three quarters of 2010. In 2009, the aggregate amount invested in CleanTech was $2.1 billion (11% of the total US venture capital invested in that lean year) and for the first three quarters of 2010 US venture capital investments in CleanTech have already exceeded $2.8 billion (18% of all US venture capital investments made during the first three quarters of

  7. Role of intensive and extensive variables in a soup of firms in economy to address long run prices and aggregate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseiny, Ali; Gallegati, Mauro

    2017-03-01

    We review the production function and the hypothesis of equilibrium in the neoclassical framework. We notify that in a soup of sectors in economy, while capital and labor resemble extensive variables, wage and rate of return on capital act as intensive variables. As a result, Baumol and Bowen's statement of equal wages is inevitable from the thermodynamics point of view. We try to see how aggregation can be performed concerning the extensive variables in a soup of firms. We provide a toy model to perform aggregation for production and the labor income as extensive quantities in a neoclassical framework.

  8. Customer Aggregation: An Opportunity for Green Power?

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, E.; Bird, L.

    2001-02-26

    We undertook research into the experience of aggregation groups to determine whether customer aggregation offers an opportunity to bring green power choices to more customers. The objectives of this report, therefore, are to (1) identify the different types of aggregation that are occurring today, (2) learn whether aggregation offers an opportunity to advance sales of green power, and (3) share these concepts and approaches with potential aggregators and green power advocates.

  9. Equilibrium structure of ferrofluid aggregates.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mina; Tománek, David

    2010-11-17

    We study the equilibrium structure of large but finite aggregates of magnetic dipoles, representing a colloidal suspension of magnetite particles in a ferrofluid. With increasing system size, the structural motif evolves from chains and rings to multi-chain and multi-ring assemblies. Very large systems form single- and multi-wall coils, tubes and scrolls. These structural changes result from a competition between various energy terms, which can be approximated analytically within a continuum model. We also study the effect of external parameters such as magnetic field on the relative stability of these structures. Our results may give insight into experimental data obtained during solidification of ferrofluid aggregates at temperatures where thermal fluctuations become negligible in comparison to inter-particle interactions. These data may also help to experimentally control the aggregation of magnetic particles.

  10. Equilibrium structure of ferrofluid aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Mina; Tomanek, David

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium structure of large but finite aggregates of magnetic dipoles, representing a colloidal suspension of magnetite particles in a ferrofluid. With increasing system size, the structural motif evolves from chains and rings to multi-chain and multi-ring assemblies. Very large systems form single- and multi-wall coils, tubes and scrolls. These structural changes result from a competition between various energy terms, which can be approximated analytically within a continuum model. We also study the effect of external parameters such as magnetic field on the relative stability of these structures. Our results may give insight into experimental data obtained during solidification of ferrofluid aggregates at temperatures where thermal fluctuations become negligible in comparison to inter-particle interactions. These data may also help to experimentally control the aggregation of magnetic particles.

  11. Aggregation and Gelation of Anisometric Colloidal Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohraz, Ali; Solomon, Michael J.

    2002-11-01

    The quiescent and flow-induced structure and dynamics of colloidal aggregates and gels of anisometric particles are studied by means of static and dynamic light scattering. Ground-based studies of weak gels are possible due to the submicron size of the boehmite rod suspensions investigated; however, microgravity conditions would be required for more general studies. The properties of colloidal rod suspensions are compared to typical properties of spherical particle gels to understand the role of anisotropic excluded volume on gel structure and dynamics. The structure and dynamics of colloidal aggregates and gels have long been of scientific and technological interest; however, most research has focused on suspensions of spherical particles. Yet, aggregates and gels of anisometric particles - colloidal rods and platelets - may exhibit structure and dynamics that are quite different from spherical colloids. For example, suspensions of colloidal rods gel at extremely low volume fractions and form birefringent sediments. The rheology of solutions and gels of colloidal rods and platelets differs dramatically from that of colloidal spheres. Scientifically, studies with anisometric particles offer the opportunity to assess the role of anisotropic excluded volume and particle orientation in aggregates and gels. Technologically, anisometric colloids find use in a wide range of materials such as ceramics, polymer nanocomposites, well-bore drilling fluids and magnetic storage media. Model colloidal boehmite rods of approximately monodisperse dimension and aspect ratio have been synthesized according to the method of Philipse and coworkers. In aqueous solution, these materials undergo gelation upon the addition of divalent salt. By means of a novel grafting reaction and procedure for solvent refractive index matching, the rods have also been dispersed in mixed organic solvents. In this case, gelation is induced by means of depletion interaction. We report the effect of

  12. A specialist's audit of aggregated occurrence records: An 'aggregator's' perspective.

    PubMed

    Belbin, Lee; Daly, Joanne; Hirsch, Tim; Hobern, Donald; Salle, John La

    2013-01-01

    A recent ZooKeys' paper (Mesibov, 2013: http://www.pensoft.net/journal_home_page.php?journal_id=1&page=article&SESID=df7bcb35b02603283dcb83ee0e0af0c9&type=show&article_id=5111) has highlighted data quality issues in aggregated data sets, but did not provide a realistic way to address these issues. This paper provides an aggregator's perspective including ways that the whole community can help to address data quality issues. The establishment of GBIF and national nodes (national aggregators) such as the Atlas of Living Australia (ALA) have integrated and exposed a huge diversity of biological observations along with many associated issues. Much of the admirable work by Mesibov (2013) was enabled by having the data exposed. Data quality, one of the highest priorities for GBIF, the national nodes and other aggregators, depends on both automatic methods and community experts to detect and correct data issues. Not all issues can however be automatically detected or corrected, so community assistance is needed to help improve the quality of exposed biological data. We do need to improve the infrastructure and associated processes to more easily identify data issues and document all changes to ensure a full record is permanently and publicly available.

  13. Hydrodynamic behavior of fractal aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltzius, Pierre

    1987-02-01

    Measurements of the radius of gyration RG and the hydrodynamic radius RH of colloidal silica aggregates are reported. These aggregates have fractal geometry and RH is proportional to RG for 500 Å<=RH<=7000 Å, with a ratio RH/RG=0.72+/-0.02. The results are compared with predictions for macromolecules of various shapes. The proportionality of the two radii can be understood with use of the pair correlation function of fractal objects and hydrodynamic interactions on the Oseen level. The value of the ratio remains to be explained.

  14. ';Best' Practices for Aggregating Subset Results from Archived Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, W. E.; Perez, J.

    2013-12-01

    In response to the exponential growth in science data analysis and visualization capabilities Data Centers have been developing new delivery mechanisms to package and deliver large volumes of aggregated subsets of archived data. New standards are evolving to help data providers and application programmers deal with growing needs of the science community. These standards evolve from the best practices gleaned from new products and capabilities. The NASA Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC) has developed and deployed production provider-specific search and subset web applications for the CALIPSO, CERES, TES, and MOPITT missions. This presentation explores several use cases that leverage aggregated subset results and examines the standards and formats ASDC developers applied to the delivered files as well as the implementation strategies for subsetting and processing the aggregated products. The following topics will be addressed: - Applications of NetCDF CF conventions to aggregated level 2 satellite subsets - Data-Provider-Specific format requirements vs. generalized standards - Organization of the file structure of aggregated NetCDF subset output - Global Attributes of individual subsetted files vs. aggregated results - Specific applications and framework used for subsetting and delivering derivative data files

  15. Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Peter J; Hills, Colin D; Carey, Paula J

    2009-10-01

    The concomitant recycling of waste and carbon dioxide emissions is the subject of developing technology designed to close the industrial process loop and facilitate the bulk-re-use of waste in, for example, construction. The present work discusses a treatment step that employs accelerated carbonation to convert gaseous carbon dioxide into solid calcium carbonate through a reaction with industrial thermal residues. Treatment by accelerated carbonation enabled a synthetic aggregate to be made from thermal residues and waste quarry fines. The aggregates produced had a bulk density below 1000 kg/m(3) and a high water absorption capacity. Aggregate crushing strengths were between 30% and 90% stronger than the proprietary lightweight expanded clay aggregate available in the UK. Cast concrete blocks containing the carbonated aggregate achieve compressive strengths of 24 MPa, making them suitable for use with concrete exposed to non-aggressive service environments. The energy intensive firing and sintering processes traditionally required to produce lightweight aggregates can now be augmented by a cold-bonding, low energy method that contributes to the reduction of green house gases to the atmosphere.

  16. The history of aggregate development in the denver, Co area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    At the start of the 20th century Denver's population was 203,795. Most streets were unpaved. Buildings were constructed of wood frame or masonry. Transport was by horse-drawn-wagon or rail. Statewide, aggregate consumption was less than 0.25 metric tons per person per year. One hundred years later Denver had a population of 2,365,345. Today Denver is a major metropolitan area at the crossroads of two interstates, home to a new international airport, and in the process of expanding its light rail transit system. The skyline is punctuated with skyscrapers. The urban center is surrounded with edge cities. These changes required huge amounts of aggregate. Statewide, aggregate consumption increased 50 fold to over 13 metric tons per person per year. Denver has a large potential supply of aggregate, but sand and gravel quality decreases downstream from the mountain front and potential sources of crushed stone occur in areas prized for their scenic beauty. These issues, along with urban encroachment and citizen opposition, have complicated aggregate development and have paved a new path for future aggregate development including sustainable resource management and reclamation techniques.

  17. Aggregating tags for column-free protein purification.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhanglin; Zhao, Qing; Xing, Lei; Zhou, Bihong; Wang, Xu

    2015-12-01

    Protein purification remains a central need for biotechnology. In recent years, a class of aggregating tags has emerged, which offers a quick, cost-effective and column-free alternative for producing recombinant proteins (and also peptides) with yield and purity comparable to that of the popular His-tag. These column-free tags induce the formation of aggregates (during or after expression) when fused to a target protein or peptide, and upon separation from soluble impurities, the target protein or peptide is subsequently released via a cleavage site. In this review, we categorize these tags as follows: (i) tags that induce inactive protein aggregates in vivo; (ii) tags that induce active protein aggregates in vivo; and (iii) tags that induce soluble expression in vivo, but aggregates in vitro. The respective advantages and disadvantages of these tags are discussed, and compared to the three conventional tags (His-tag, maltose-binding protein [MBP] tag, and intein-mediated purification with a chitin-binding tag [IMPACT-CN]). While this new class of aggregating tags is promising, more systematic tests are required to further the use. It is conceivable, however, that the combination of these tags and the more traditional columns may significantly reduce the costs for resins and columns, particularly for the industrial scale.

  18. Social capital, economics, and health: new evidence.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Richard M; Brown, Timothy T

    2008-10-01

    In introducing this Special Issue on Social Capital and Health, this article tracks the popularization of the term and sheds light on the controversy surrounding the term and its definitions. It sets out four mechanisms that link social capital with health: making information available to community members, impacting social norms, enhancing the health care services and their accessibility in a community, and offering psychosocial support networks. Approaches to the measurement of social capital include the Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey (SCCBS) developed by Robert Putnam, and the Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), which looks at community voluntary organizations using public data available for the entire United States. The article defines community social capital (CSC) as the extent and density of trust, cooperation, and associational links and activity within a given population. Four articles on CSC are introduced in two categories: those that address behaviors -- particularly utilization of health services and use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs; and those that look at links between social capital and physical or mental health. Policy implications include: funding and/or tax subsidies that would support the creation of social capital; laws and regulations; and generation of enthusiasm among communities and leaders to develop social capital. The next steps in the research programme are to continue testing the mechanisms; to look for natural experiments; and to find better public policies to foster social capital.

  19. Where's the capital? A geographical essay.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth A

    2014-12-01

    This paper is inspired by Thomas Piketty's book Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Piketty does a wonderful job of tracing income and wealth over time, and relating changes to trends of economic and population growth, and drawing out the implications for inequality, inheritance and even democracy. But, he says relatively little about where capital is located, how capital accumulation in one place relies on activities elsewhere, how capital is urbanized with advanced capitalism and what life is like in spaces without capital. This paper asks 'where is the geography in Capital' or 'where is the geography of capital in Capital'? Following Piketty's lead, the paper develops its analysis through a number of important novels. It examines, first, the debate that Jane Austen ignored colonialism and slavery in her treatment of nineteenth century Britain, second, how Balzac and then Zola provide insight to the urban political economy of capital later in the century, and third, how Katherine Boo attends to inequality as the everyday suffering of the poor.

  20. Lightweight alumina refractory aggregate. Phase 2, Pilot scale development

    SciTech Connect

    Swansiger, T.G.; Pearson, A.

    1994-11-01

    Kilogram quantities of refractory aggregate were prepared from both a paste and a pelletized form of extruder feed material in both bench and pilot-scale equipment. The 99{sup +} % alumina aggregate exhibited a bulk density approaching 2.5 g/cm{sup 3} and a fired strength slightly lower than fused alumina. Based on initial evaluation by two refractory manufacturers in brick or castable applications, the new aggregate offered adequate strength with thermal conductivity reductions up to 34%, depending on the temperature and application of the new aggregate in these initial trials. The new aggregate was simply substituted for Tabular{trademark} in the refractory formulation. Thus, there is room for improvement through formulation optimization with the lightweight aggregate. The new aggregate offers a unique combination of density, strength, and thermal properties not available in current aggregate. To this point in time, technical development has led to a pelletized formulation with borderline physical form leaving the Eirich mixer. The formulation requires further development to provide more latitude for the production of pelletized material without forming paste, while still reducing the bulk density slightly to reach the 2.5 g/cm{sup 3} target. The preferred, pelletized process flowsheet was outlined and a preliminary economic feasibility study performed based on a process retrofit into Alcoa`s Arkansas tabular production facilities. Based on an assumed market demand of 20,000 mt/year and an assumed selling price of $0.65/lb (25% more than the current selling price of Tabular{trademark}, on a volume basis), economics were favorable. Decision on whether to proceed into Phase 3 (full- scale demonstration) will be based on a formal market survey in 1994 October.

  1. Assessing relationships among properties of demolished concrete, recycled aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete using regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Wang, K; Tam, C M

    2008-04-01

    Recycled demolished concrete (DC) as recycled aggregate (RA) and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) is generally suitable for most construction applications. Low-grade applications, including sub-base and roadwork, have been implemented in many countries; however, higher-grade activities are rarely considered. This paper examines relationships among DC characteristics, properties of their RA and strength of their RAC using regression analysis. Ten samples collected from demolition sites are examined. The results show strong correlation among the DC samples, properties of RA and RAC. It should be highlighted that inferior quality of DC will lower the quality of RA and thus their RAC. Prediction of RAC strength is also formulated from the DC characteristics and the RA properties. From that, the RAC performance from DC and RA can be estimated. In addition, RAC design requirements can also be developed at the initial stage of concrete demolition. Recommendations are also given to improve the future concreting practice.

  2. 42 CFR 412.46 - Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.46 Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement. (a) Basis....

  3. The Influence of Fisher Knowledge on the Susceptibility of Reef Fish Aggregations to Fishing

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jan; Cinner, Joshua E.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Reef fishes that exhibit predictable aggregating behaviour are often considered vulnerable to overexploitation. However, fisher knowledge of this behaviour is often heterogeneous and, coupled with socioeconomic factors that constrain demand for or access to aggregated fish, will influence susceptibility to fishing. At two case study locations in Papua New Guinea, Ahus and Karkar islands, we conducted interview-based surveys to examine how local context influenced heterogeneity in knowledge of fish aggregations. We then explored the role of fisher knowledge in conferring susceptibility to fishing relative to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort. Local heterogeneity in knowledge of aggregating behaviour differed between our case studies. At Ahus, variable access rights among fishers and genders to the main habitats were sources of heterogeneity in knowledge. By contrast, knowledge was more homogenous at Karkar and the sole source of variation was gear type. Differences between locations in the susceptibility of aggregations to fishing depended primarily on socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort rather than catchability. While Ahus fishers were knowledgeable of fish aggregations and used more selective gears, Karkar fishers were less constrained by tenure in their access to aggregation habitat. However, fishing effort was greater at Ahus and likely related to high dependency on fishing, greater access to provincial capital markets than Karkar and a weakening of customary management. Moreover, highly efficient fishing techniques have emerged at Ahus to exploit the non-reproductive aggregating behaviour of target species. Understanding how knowledge is structured within fishing communities and its relation to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort is important if customary practices for conservation, such as tambu areas, are to be supported. The findings of this study call for a holistic approach to assessing the risks posed to reef fish aggregations by fishing

  4. The influence of fisher knowledge on the susceptibility of reef fish aggregations to fishing.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jan; Cinner, Joshua E; Graham, Nicholas A J

    2014-01-01

    Reef fishes that exhibit predictable aggregating behaviour are often considered vulnerable to overexploitation. However, fisher knowledge of this behaviour is often heterogeneous and, coupled with socioeconomic factors that constrain demand for or access to aggregated fish, will influence susceptibility to fishing. At two case study locations in Papua New Guinea, Ahus and Karkar islands, we conducted interview-based surveys to examine how local context influenced heterogeneity in knowledge of fish aggregations. We then explored the role of fisher knowledge in conferring susceptibility to fishing relative to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort. Local heterogeneity in knowledge of aggregating behaviour differed between our case studies. At Ahus, variable access rights among fishers and genders to the main habitats were sources of heterogeneity in knowledge. By contrast, knowledge was more homogenous at Karkar and the sole source of variation was gear type. Differences between locations in the susceptibility of aggregations to fishing depended primarily on socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort rather than catchability. While Ahus fishers were knowledgeable of fish aggregations and used more selective gears, Karkar fishers were less constrained by tenure in their access to aggregation habitat. However, fishing effort was greater at Ahus and likely related to high dependency on fishing, greater access to provincial capital markets than Karkar and a weakening of customary management. Moreover, highly efficient fishing techniques have emerged at Ahus to exploit the non-reproductive aggregating behaviour of target species. Understanding how knowledge is structured within fishing communities and its relation to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort is important if customary practices for conservation, such as tambu areas, are to be supported. The findings of this study call for a holistic approach to assessing the risks posed to reef fish aggregations by fishing

  5. Studies on recycled aggregates-based concrete.

    PubMed

    Rakshvir, Major; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2006-06-01

    Reduced extraction of raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits, reduced environmental impact and fast-depleting reserves of conventional natural aggregates has necessitated the use of recycling, in order to be able to conserve conventional natural aggregate. In this study various physical and mechanical properties of recycled concrete aggregates were examined. Recycled concrete aggregates are different from natural aggregates and concrete made from them has specific properties. The percentages of recycled concrete aggregates were varied and it was observed that properties such as compressive strength showed a decrease of up to 10% as the percentage of recycled concrete aggregates increased. Water absorption of recycled aggregates was found to be greater than natural aggregates, and this needs to be compensated during mix design.

  6. Mesoscale Simulation of Asphaltene Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiang; Ferguson, Andrew L

    2016-08-18

    Asphaltenes constitute a heavy aromatic crude oil fraction with a propensity to aggregate and precipitate out of solution during petroleum processing. Aggregation is thought to proceed according to the Yen-Mullins hierarchy, but the molecular mechanisms underlying mesoscopic assembly remain poorly understood. By combining coarse-grained molecular models parametrized using all-atom data with high-performance GPU hardware, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of the aggregation of hundreds of asphaltenes over microsecond time scales. Our simulations reveal a hierarchical self-assembly mechanism consistent with the Yen-Mullins model, but the details are sensitive and depend on asphaltene chemistry and environment. At low concentrations asphaltenes exist predominantly as dispersed monomers. Upon increasing concentration, we first observe parallel stacking into 1D rod-like nanoaggregates, followed by the formation of clusters of nanoaggregates associated by offset, T-shaped, and edge-edge stacking. Asphaltenes possessing long aliphatic side chains cannot form nanoaggregate clusters due to steric repulsions between their aliphatic coronae. At very high concentrations, we observe a porous percolating network of rod-like nanoaggregates suspended in a sea of interpenetrating aliphatic side chains with a fractal dimension of ∼2. The lifetime of the rod-like aggregates is described by an exponential distribution reflecting a dynamic equilibrium between coagulation and fragmentation.

  7. RAGG - R EPISODIC AGGREGATION PACKAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The RAGG package is an R implementation of the CMAQ episodic model aggregation method developed by Constella Group and the Environmental Protection Agency. RAGG is a tool to provide climatological seasonal and annual deposition of sulphur and nitrogen for multimedia management. ...

  8. Does low workplace social capital have detrimental effect on workers' health?

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Takao, Soshi; Subramanian, S V; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2010-05-01

    While the majority of studies of social capital and health have focused on conceptualizing social capital at the geographic level, evidence remains sparse on workplace social capital. We examined the association between workplace social capital and health status among Japanese private sector employees in a cross-sectional study. By employing a two-stage stratified random sampling procedure, 1147 employees were identified from 46 companies in Okayama in 2007. Workplace social capital was measured based on two components; trust and reciprocity. Company-level social capital was based on aggregating employee responses and calculating the proportion of workers reporting mistrust and lack of reciprocity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to explore whether individual- and company-level mistrust and lack of reciprocity were associated with poor self-rated health. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% credible intervals (CIs) for poor health were obtained for each variable. Workers reporting individual-level mistrust and lack of reciprocity had approximately double the odds of poor health even after controlling for sex, age, occupation, educational attainment, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, body mass index, and chronic diseases. While we found some suggestion of a contextual association between company-level mistrust and poor health, no association was found between company-level lack of reciprocity and health. Despite the thorough examination of cross-level interaction terms between company-level social capital and individual characteristics, no clear patterns were observed. Individual perceptions of mistrust and lack of reciprocity at work have adverse effects on self-rated health among Japanese workers. Although the present study possibly suggests the contextual effect of workplace mistrust on workers' health, the contextual effect of workplace lack of reciprocity was not supported.

  9. LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T

    2011-04-14

    Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

  10. 49 CFR 639.11 - Lease qualification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lease qualification requirements. 639.11 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Requirements § 639.11 Lease qualification requirements. (a) A lease may qualify for capital assistance if it meets the following criteria: (1)...

  11. Social Capital and Technological Literacy in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsieh-Hua; Huang, Fen Fen; Lai, Yi-Horng; Yang, Hung-Jen; Yu, Jui-Chen

    2012-01-01

    The burgeoning interest in social capital within the technology community represents a welcome move towards a concern for the social elements of technological adaptation and capacity. Since technology plays an ever larger role in our daily life, it is necessary to articulate social capital and its relationship to technological literacy. A nationwide data was collected by area sampling, and position generator was used to measure social capital. Regression model was constructed for technological literacy. Age, gender, education, income, web access, and social capital were included as independent variables. The results show that age, gender, education, web access, and social capital were good predictors of technological literacy. It is concluded that social capital is helpful in coping with rapid technological change. Theoretical and empirical implications and future research are discussed. PMID:22619593

  12. Piketty's capital and social policy.

    PubMed

    Piachaud, David

    2014-12-01

    Piketty's Capital (2014) primarily describes and analyses changes in the distribution of wealth and annual incomes. This paper focuses on his policy proposals that make up Part Four of the book. Piketty defends the 'social state' but he discusses it largely in terms of distribution and redistribution between tax units. This neglects the important role of social policy in promoting recognition and redistribution of income and opportunities that is related to gender, race, disability and sexual orientation. Nor does Piketty consider inequalities in health which effect life-time incomes, nor the impact of housing policies on house prices and the distribution of wealth. It is argued that Piketty's approach to social security is simplistic and plays down the complexity of competing policy goals. On taxation, Piketty defends progressive taxation and proposes a global capital levy. The latter proposal runs into formidable problems in seeking global taxation in a world of nation states. Rather than seeking a policy that is, for the foreseeable future, wholly politically impractical, a case is made for less idealistic but more practical and urgent tax coordination between nations to address the widespread avoidance of taxation that large corporations and the very wealthy are now permitted - taxation on which the future of the social state depends. The importance of human and social capital, which are largely set aside by Piketty, are discussed. Finally,it is argued that his approach to policy is to describe trends and propose amelioration of growing inequality rather than to identify causes of the trends and propose policies that might address the causes. Nevertheless, the importance of his work in bringing issues of inequality to the fore, especially among economists, is recognized and applauded.

  13. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 225 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Bank Holding Companies: Market Risk Measure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to market risk maintain adequate capital to support that exposure. 1 This appendix supplements and... countries represented on the Basle Committee on Banking Supervision and endorsed by the Group of Ten Central... capital requirements of this appendix support market risk associated with an organization's...

  14. 77 FR 33760 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Public Housing Capital Fund Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Program will be changed to Capital Fund Program (CFP). The PHA certification section will have two check... CFP grant specified on the AMCC (1-check box for SAA requirement applicable, 1-check box for SAA... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Public Housing Capital Fund Program. OMB...

  15. A critique of social capital.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Vicente

    2002-01-01

    This article critiques the concepts of communitarianism and social capital as used in the United States and in Europe. For the United States, the author focuses on Robert Putnam's understanding of both concepts, showing that the apolitical analysis of the Progressive Era, of the progressive developments in Northern Italy, and of the situation of labor unions in the United States is not only insufficient but wrong. The critique also includes the difference between U.S. communitarianism and its European versions, Christian democracy and New Labour, and the limitations of both approaches. The uses and misuses of these concepts in the political debate are discussed.

  16. 12 CFR 303.203 - Applications for capital distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requires an application under section 18(i) of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1828(i)) as implemented by § 303.241... with, or made a part of, the application filed pursuant to section 38 of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1831o). ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for capital distributions....

  17. Data Collection for Capital Expenditure Project Proposals: A Case Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN MANAGEMENT from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL December 1983 Author: Approved by: Thesis Advisor...decreased cost. In the financial management literature the procedures used by organizations to evaluate capital expenditure proposals are identified and...Mao [Ref. 23 found that managers in general do not explicitly state that the objective of their firm is to maximize the market value of its common

  18. Effects of iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon on aggregate stability of bauxite residues.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Li, Yubing; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Wu, Hao

    2016-05-01

    In order to successfully establish vegetation on bauxite residue, properties such as aggregate structure and stability require improvement. Spontaneous plant colonization on the deposits in Central China over the last 20 years has revealed that natural processes may improve the physical condition of bauxite residues. Samples from three different stacking ages were selected to determine aggregate formation and stability and its relationship with iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon. The residue aggregate particles became coarser in both dry and wet sieving processes. The mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometry mean diameter (GMD) increased significantly, and the proportion of aggregate destruction (PAD) decreased. Natural stacking processes could increase aggregate stability and erosion resistant of bauxite residues. Free iron oxides and amorphous aluminium oxides were the major forms in bauxite residues, but there was no significant correlation between the iron-aluminium oxides and aggregate stability. Aromatic-C, alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C were the major functional groups present in the residues. With increasing stacking age, total organic carbon content and aggregate-associated organic carbon both increased. Alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C increased and were mainly distributed in macro-aggregates, whereas aromatic-C was mainly distributed in <0.05-mm aggregates. Organic carbon stability in micro-aggregates was higher than that in macro-aggregates and became more stable. Organic carbon contents in total residues, and within different aggregate sizes, were all negatively correlated with PAD. It indicated that organic materials had a more significant effect on macro-aggregate stability and the effects of iron-aluminium oxides maybe more important for stability of micro-aggregates.

  19. HESI EXPOSURE FACTORS DATABASE FOR AGGREGATE AND CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, the risk analysis community has broadened its use of complex aggregate and cumulative residential exposure models (e.g., to meet the requirements of the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act). The value of these models is their ability to incorporate a range of inp...

  20. 76 FR 27621 - Margin Requirements for Uncleared Swaps for Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... Federal Register, the Commission is proposing to adopt capital, financial reporting, and recordkeeping... supplemental financial reporting requirements for these FCMs. The Commission now is extending the comment... the Federal Register, the Commission is proposing to adopt capital, financial reporting,...

  1. Capital optimization: linking investment with strategic intent.

    PubMed

    Fine, Allan; Bacchetti, J Alex

    2004-01-01

    With operating margins showing some improvement in 2003, Y2K being a distant memory, and many critical capital investment decisions delayed as long as possible, hospitals have been on a relative spending spree, building new facilities, renovating operating rooms and inpatient units, and investing in new medical and information technologies. However, with pressure on both cost and revenue expected to continue, if not increase, this spending spree may be short-lived, and hospitals must improve their capital planning efforts; align them with their mission, vision, and strategies; and ensure that capital is available when unplanned or even expected needs arise. This article explores some of the challenges that hospitals face in their capital planning efforts and, more importantly, suggests the necessity for hospitals to integrate capital and strategic planning. Capital planning must be driven by an organization's strategies; however, we also argue that an organization's ability to execute its strategies is highly dependent on the existence of a cohesive capital prioritization and planning process. In this article, we explore a number of issues critical to developing a comprehensive capital plan, including estimating capital costs, evaluating and designing strategies to contend with risk, saving for the proverbial "rainy day," and recognizing the role and value of philanthropy, while challenging some conventional thinking of hospital executives with respect to investment, growth, and planning.

  2. 12 CFR 565.4 - Capital measures and capital category definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-based capital ratio; (2) The Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio; and (3) The leverage ratio. (b) Capital...; and (ii) Has a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6.0 percent or greater; and (iii) Has a leverage... of 4.0 percent or greater; and (iii) Has: (A) A leverage ratio of 4.0 percent or greater; or (B)...

  3. 12 CFR 1750.4 - Minimum capital requirement computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... equivalent amount of interest rate contracts and foreign exchange rate contracts, except to the extent of the... foreign exchange rate contracts, not to exceed the credit equivalent amount of such contracts, computed in... rate contracts and foreign exchange rate contracts), except as adjusted by the Director to...

  4. 12 CFR 1750.4 - Minimum capital requirement computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... credit equivalent amount of interest rate contracts and foreign exchange rate contracts, except to the... interest rate and foreign exchange rate contracts, not to exceed the credit equivalent amount of such... remittances pending, and interest rate contracts and foreign exchange rate contracts), except as adjusted...

  5. 12 CFR 1750.4 - Minimum capital requirement computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... equivalent amount of interest rate contracts and foreign exchange rate contracts, except to the extent of the... foreign exchange rate contracts, not to exceed the credit equivalent amount of such contracts, computed in... rate contracts and foreign exchange rate contracts), except as adjusted by the Director to...

  6. 12 CFR 1750.4 - Minimum capital requirement computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... equivalent amount of interest rate contracts and foreign exchange rate contracts, except to the extent of the... foreign exchange rate contracts, not to exceed the credit equivalent amount of such contracts, computed in... rate contracts and foreign exchange rate contracts), except as adjusted by the Director to...

  7. 12 CFR 1750.4 - Minimum capital requirement computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... dollar amount of commitments outstanding each quarter over the preceding four quarters; (4) 0.45 percent... amount, or other measure determined appropriate by the Director, of other off-balance sheet obligations (excluding commitments, multifamily credit enhancements, sold portfolio remittances pending, and...

  8. 12 CFR 567.3 - Individual minimum capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., including concentrations of credit; (7) A savings association with a portfolio reflecting weak credit... associations; has management deficiencies, including failure to adequately monitor and control financial and... or potential problems; (3) The overall condition, management strength, and future prospects of...

  9. 7 CFR 4290.210 - Minimum capital requirements for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., as determined solely by the Secretary; (ii) Has a viable business plan reasonably projecting... Section 4290.210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT...

  10. 7 CFR 4290.210 - Minimum capital requirements for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., as determined solely by the Secretary; (ii) Has a viable business plan reasonably projecting... Section 4290.210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT...

  11. 12 CFR 211.12 - Lending limits and capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FRA (12 U.S.C. 372), as follows: (i) All acceptances outstanding in excess of 200 percent of its tier... described in section 13(7) of the FRA (12 U.S.C. 372); (ii) Any liability of the lender to advance funds to... kind described in section 13(7) of the FRA (12 U.S.C. 372), that is issued and outstanding;...

  12. 12 CFR 211.12 - Lending limits and capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... corporation shall be and remain fully secured for acceptances of the types described in section 13(7) of the... part 8 and, for purposes of this paragraph (b), also include: 8 In the case of a foreign government, these includes loans and extensions of credit to the foreign government's departments or...

  13. Securities and Exchange Commission: Human Capital Challenges Require Management Attention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    1. Division of Corporate Finance ..........................................................11% [154] 2. Division of Enforcement... Corporate Finance ..........................................................18%.. [51] 2. Division of Enforcement

  14. 40 CFR 35.3550 - Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting system used for the DWSRF program must allow for proper measurement of: (1) Revenues earned and... services. (i) Use generally accepted accounting principles. A State must agree to ensure that the State and public water systems receiving assistance will use accounting, audit, and fiscal procedures conforming...

  15. 40 CFR 35.3550 - Specific capitalization grant agreement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Board or, in the case of privately-owned systems, the Financial Accounting Standards Board. The...) mechanism or similar financial arrangement for the State match. Under this mechanism, payments to this LOC... services. (i) Use generally accepted accounting principles. A State must agree to ensure that the State...

  16. 42 CFR 489.28 - Special capitalization requirements for HHAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... such factors as geographic location and urban/rural status, number of visits, provider-based versus....28 Section 489.28 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION PROVIDER AGREEMENTS AND SUPPLIER...

  17. Role of streams in myxobacteria aggregate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiskowski, Maria A.; Jiang, Yi; Alber, Mark S.

    2004-10-01

    Cell contact, movement and directionality are important factors in biological development (morphogenesis), and myxobacteria are a model system for studying cell-cell interaction and cell organization preceding differentiation. When starved, thousands of myxobacteria cells align, stream and form aggregates which later develop into round, non-motile spores. Canonically, cell aggregation has been attributed to attractive chemotaxis, a long range interaction, but there is growing evidence that myxobacteria organization depends on contact-mediated cell-cell communication. We present a discrete stochastic model based on contact-mediated signaling that suggests an explanation for the initialization of early aggregates, aggregation dynamics and final aggregate distribution. Our model qualitatively reproduces the unique structures of myxobacteria aggregates and detailed stages which occur during myxobacteria aggregation: first, aggregates initialize in random positions and cells join aggregates by random walk; second, cells redistribute by moving within transient streams connecting aggregates. Streams play a critical role in final aggregate size distribution by redistributing cells among fewer, larger aggregates. The mechanism by which streams redistribute cells depends on aggregate sizes and is enhanced by noise. Our model predicts that with increased internal noise, more streams would form and streams would last longer. Simulation results suggest a series of new experiments.

  18. Production of lightweight aggregates from washing aggregate sludge and fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Corrochano, Beatriz; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto; Rodas, Magdalena

    2010-05-01

    Increasing generation of wastes is one of the main environmental problems in industrialised countries. Heat treatment at high temperatures can convert some types of wastes into ceramic products with a wide range of microstructural features and properties (Bethanis et al., 2004). A lightweight aggregate (LWA) is a granular material with a bulk density (bd) not exceeding 1.20 g/cm3 or with a particle density not exceeding 2.00 g/cm3 (UNE-EN-13055-1, 2003). They have become a focus of interest because the low particle density and the low bulk density entail a decrease in the load transmitted to the ground, and less work and effort are required to transport them (De' Gennaro et al., 2004). The benefits associated with these low densities, which are due to the formation of voids and pores, are very good thermal and acoustic insulation and materials with a good resistance to fire (Benbow, 1987; Fakhfakh et al., 2007). The objective was to recycle fly ash, used motor oil from cars and mineral wastes from washing aggregate sludge, in order to obtain a usable material such as lightweight aggregates, and also to ensure that they are of good quality for different applications. Raw materials have been physically, chemically and mineralogically characterized. On the basis of the results obtained, they were mixed, milled to a grain size of less than 200 μm (Yasuda, 1991), formed into pellets, pre-heated for 5 min and sintered in a rotary kiln at 1150°C, 1175°C, 1200°C and 1225°C for 10 and 15 min at each temperature (Theating). Effects of raw material characteristics, heating temperature and dwell time on the following LWAs properties were determined: loss on ignition (LOI), bloating index (BI), loose bulk density (bd), apparent and dry particle density (ad, dd), voids (H), water absorption (WA24h) and compressive strength (S). The products obtained were lightweight aggregates in accordance with norm UNE-EN-13055-1 (bd ≤1.20 g/cm3 or particle density ≤2.00 g/cm3). LWAs

  19. The Cycle of Reciprocity: A Social Capital Intervention Strategy for SSTR Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    B.S., Regents College , New York, 1990 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN DEFENSE...author used high school dropout statistics to illustrate the impact of social capital (family, friends and community organizations) on successful and...decline in social capital “pop sociology” and “fuzzy thinking.”40 Greeley presented compelling data on the dropout rates between religious and secular

  20. Social Capital Theory: Implications for Women's Networking and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter describes social capital theory as a framework for exploring women's networking and social capital resources. It presents the foundational assumptions of the theory, the benefits and risks of social capital engagement, a feminist critique of social capital, and the role of social capital in adult learning.

  1. 12 CFR 931.6 - Transfer of capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer of capital stock. 931.6 Section 931.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.6 Transfer of capital stock. A Bank in its capital...

  2. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.6 Minimum capital ratios. (a) Risk-based capital ratio....

  3. "Capitalizing on Sport": Sport, Physical Education and Multiple Capitals in Scottish Independent Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, John; Lingard, Bob; Weiner, Gaby; Forbes, Joan

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on a research study into the existence and use of different forms of capital--including social, cultural and physical capital--in three independent schools in Scotland. We were interested in understanding how these forms of capital work to produce and reproduce "advantage" and "privilege". Analysis is framed by…

  4. Should We Use a Capital Framework to Understand Culture? Applying Cultural Capital to Communities of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Kip Austin

    2015-01-01

    Social science research on communities of color has long been shaped by theories of social and cultural capital. This article is a hermeneutic reading of metaphorical capital frameworks, including community cultural wealth and funds of knowledge. Financial capital, the basis of these frameworks, is premised on unequal exchange. Money only becomes…

  5. 13 CFR 107.240 - Limitations on including non-cash capital contributions in Private Capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on including non-cash capital contributions in Private Capital. 107.240 Section 107.240 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing...

  6. 12 CFR 933.5 - Disclosure to members concerning capital plan and capital stock conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the liquidity, capital, earnings or continuing operations of the Bank, including those affecting... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure to members concerning capital plan and capital stock conversion. 933.5 Section 933.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE...

  7. 12 CFR 325.103 - Capital measures and capital category definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital measures and capital category definitions. 325.103 Section 325.103 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND... subpart, a bank shall be deemed to be: (1) Well capitalized if the bank: (i) Has a total...

  8. Modulus enhancement of natural rubber through the dispersion size reduction of protein/fiber aggregates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved mechanical properties of natural rubber are required for various rubber applications. Aggregates of protein and fiber that constitute soy protein concentrate were shear-reduced and used to enhance the tensile modulus of natural rubber. The aqueous dispersion of the shear-reduced aggregates ...

  9. Optimal experiment design: Link between the concentration and the accuracy of estimation of aggregation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evstigneev, Vladislav P.; Pashkova, Irina S.; Kostjukov, Viktor V.; Hernandez Santiago, Adrian A.; Evstigneev, Maxim P.

    2016-11-01

    The principal condition for optimal experiment design, required for getting reasonable error for equilibrium aggregation constant, K, determination is obtained. This condition states that the selected concentration range for performing titration experiment should be inversely proportional to the expected value of K. As a consequence, the choice of physico-chemical methods for determination of aggregation parameters must obey this condition.

  10. Privacy-preserving data aggregation protocols for wireless sensor networks: a survey.

    PubMed

    Bista, Rabindra; Chang, Jae-Woo

    2010-01-01

    Many wireless sensor network (WSN) applications require privacy-preserving aggregation of sensor data during transmission from the source nodes to the sink node. In this paper, we explore several existing privacy-preserving data aggregation (PPDA) protocols for WSNs in order to provide some insights on their current status. For this, we evaluate the PPDA protocols on the basis of such metrics as communication and computation costs in order to demonstrate their potential for supporting privacy-preserving data aggregation in WSNs. In addition, based on the existing research, we enumerate some important future research directions in the field of privacy-preserving data aggregation for WSNs.

  11. Privacy-Preserving Data Aggregation Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bista, Rabindra; Chang, Jae-Woo

    2010-01-01

    Many wireless sensor network (WSN) applications require privacy-preserving aggregation of sensor data during transmission from the source nodes to the sink node. In this paper, we explore several existing privacy-preserving data aggregation (PPDA) protocols for WSNs in order to provide some insights on their current status. For this, we evaluate the PPDA protocols on the basis of such metrics as communication and computation costs in order to demonstrate their potential for supporting privacy-preserving data aggregation in WSNs. In addition, based on the existing research, we enumerate some important future research directions in the field of privacy-preserving data aggregation for WSNs. PMID:22399893

  12. Social Capital and Educational Aspiration of Students: Does Family Social Capital Affect More Compared to School Social Capital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahidul, S. M.; Karim, A. H. M. Zehadul; Mustari, S.

    2015-01-01

    Resources from multiple social contexts influence students' educational aspiration. In the field of social capital a neglected issue is how students obtain social capital from varying contexts and which contexts benefit them more to shape their future educational plan which consequently affects their level of aspiration. In this study, we aim to…

  13. Hierarchical Clustering and Visualization of Aggregate Cyber Data

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Robert M; Beaver, Justin M; Steed, Chad A; Potok, Thomas E; Treadwell, Jim N

    2011-01-01

    Most commercial intrusion detections systems (IDS) can produce a very high volume of alerts, and are typically plagued by a high false positive rate. The approach described here uses Splunk to aggregate IDS alerts. The aggregated IDS alerts are retrieved from Splunk programmatically and are then clustered using text analysis and visualized using a sunburst diagram to provide an additional understanding of the data. The equivalent of what the cluster analysis and visualization provides would require numerous detailed queries using Splunk and considerable manual effort.

  14. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VIII. Capital cost estimate

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of the Initial Effort for the Breckinridge Project is to develop engineering to the point where realistic economics for the construction and operation of the plant can be made. The plant is designed to process 23,000 tons per day of run-of-mine coal to produce a nominal 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products using the H-COAL and standard industry technology. The plant will be located in Breckinridge County, Kentucky. Considerable preliminary engineering has been performed for this estimate. This work uses a single-point design based on the Process Demonstration Unit (PDU) data from run 5, period 29 of the pilot plant. The design basis is discussed in Volume II of this report. Many aspects of plant construction and cost have been considered that were not taken into account in the past studies. Ashland and Bechtel believe the accuracy of the capital estimate to be +19%, -17%. This accuracy is postulated on January 1981 dollars, the as-spent dollar amount naturally depending upon the inflation rate through the construction period. Considerable attention has been devoted to reliability of operation, and redundant equipment has been used where it was deemed necessary to assure reasonable onstream time. This equipment is included in the capital estimate. The capital is summarized by total plant cost on Table 1. The subtotal plant cost, excluding contingency, fee, and adjustment is $2,710,940,000. Adding the contingency, fee and adjustment, the total depreciable cost of the plant is $3,167,430,000. Adding the working capital to the total plant cost results in total capital requirements of $3,258,430,000 as shown on the individual plant cost summary Table 2.

  15. Oligomeric baroeffect and gas aggregation states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The baroeffect is analyzed to include a gas that aggregates into higher-order polymers or oligomers. The resulting pressure change is found to vary independently of the molecular weight of the gas components and to depend only on the aggregation or oligomeric order of the gas. With increasing aggregation, diffusive slip velocities are found to increase. The calculations are extended to include general counterdiffusion of two distinct aggregation states (k-, j-mer) for the gas, and the pressure change is derived as a function that is independent of both molecular weight and the absolute aggregation. The only parameter that determines the baroeffect is the ratio of aggregated states, beta = k/j. For gases that reversibly aggregate, possible oscillatory behavior and complex dynamics for pressure are discussed. Gas aggregation may play a role for low-temperature crystal-growth conditions in which vapor concentrations of one (or more) species are high.

  16. Virus-induced aggregates in infected cells.

    PubMed

    Moshe, Adi; Gorovits, Rena

    2012-10-17

    During infection, many viruses induce cellular remodeling, resulting in the formation of insoluble aggregates/inclusions, usually containing viral structural proteins. Identification of aggregates has become a useful diagnostic tool for certain viral infections. There is wide variety of viral aggregates, which differ by their location, size, content and putative function. The role of aggregation in the context of a specific virus is often poorly understood, especially in the case of plant viruses. The aggregates are utilized by viruses to house a large complex of proteins of both viral and host origin to promote virus replication, translation, intra- and intercellular transportation. Aggregated structures may protect viral functional complexes from the cellular degradation machinery. Alternatively, the activation of host defense mechanisms may involve sequestration of virus components in aggregates, followed by their neutralization as toxic for the host cell. The diversity of virus-induced aggregates in mammalian and plant cells is the subject of this review.

  17. High-Throughput Screening Methodology to Identify Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pujols, Jordi; Peña-Díaz, Samuel; Conde-Giménez, María; Pinheiro, Francisca; Navarro, Susanna; Sancho, Javier; Ventura, Salvador

    2017-03-02

    An increasing number of neurodegenerative diseases are being found to be associated with the abnormal accumulation of aggregated proteins in the brain. In Parkinson's disease, this process involves the aggregation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) into intraneuronal inclusions. Thus, compounds that inhibit α-syn aggregation represent a promising therapeutic strategy as disease-modifying agents for neurodegeneration. The formation of α-syn amyloid aggregates can be reproduced in vitro by incubation of the recombinant protein. However, the in vitro aggregation of α-syn is exceedingly slow and highly irreproducible, therefore precluding fast high throughput anti-aggregation drug screening. Here, we present a simple and easy-to-implement in-plate method for screening large chemical libraries in the search for α-syn aggregation modulators. It allows us to monitor aggregation kinetics with high reproducibility, while being faster and requiring lower protein amounts than conventional aggregation assays. We illustrate how the approach enables the identification of strong aggregation inhibitors in a library of more than 14,000 compounds.

  18. Mechanisms of m-cresol induced protein aggregation studied using a model protein cytochrome c†

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surinder M.; Hutchings, Regina L.; Mallela, Krishna M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-dose protein formulations require an effective antimicrobial preservative (AP) to inhibit microbial growth during long-term storage of unused formulations. m-cresol is one such AP, but has been shown to cause protein aggregation. However, the fundamental physical mechanisms underlying such AP-induced protein aggregation are not understood. In this study, we used a model protein cytochrome c to identify the protein unfolding that triggers protein aggregation. m-cresol induced cytochrome c aggregation at preservative concentrations that are commonly used to inhibit microbial growth. Addition of m-cresol decreased the temperature at which the protein aggregated and increased the aggregation rate. However, m-cresol did not perturb the tertiary or secondary structure of cytochrome c. Instead, it populated an “invisible” partially unfolded intermediate where a local protein region around the methionine residue at position 80 was unfolded. Stabilizing the Met80 region drastically decreased the protein aggregation, which conclusively shows that this local protein region acts as an aggregation “hot-spot”. Based on these results, we propose that APs induce protein aggregation by partial rather than global unfolding. Because of the availability of site-specific probes to monitor different levels of protein unfolding, cytochrome c provided a unique advantage in characterizing the partial protein unfolding that triggers protein aggregation. PMID:21229618

  19. Bacterial colonization and extinction on marine aggregates: stochastic model of species presence and abundance

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Andrew M; Lyons, M Maille; Dobbs, Fred C; Drake, John M

    2013-01-01

    Organic aggregates provide a favorable habitat for aquatic microbes, are efficiently filtered by shellfish, and may play a major role in the dynamics of aquatic pathogens. Quantifying this role requires understanding how pathogen abundance in the water and aggregate size interact to determine the presence and abundance of pathogen cells on individual aggregates. We build upon current understanding of the dynamics of bacteria and bacterial grazers on aggregates to develop a model for the dynamics of a bacterial pathogen species. The model accounts for the importance of stochasticity and the balance between colonization and extinction. Simulation results suggest that while colonization increases linearly with background density and aggregate size, extinction rates are expected to be nonlinear on small aggregates in a low background density of the pathogen. Under these conditions, we predict lower probabilities of pathogen presence and reduced abundance on aggregates compared with predictions based solely on colonization. These results suggest that the importance of aggregates to the dynamics of aquatic bacterial pathogens may be dependent on the interaction between aggregate size and background pathogen density, and that these interactions are strongly influenced by ecological interactions and pathogen traits. The model provides testable predictions and can be a useful tool for exploring how species-specific differences in pathogen traits may alter the effect of aggregates on disease transmission. PMID:24340173

  20. High-Throughput Screening Methodology to Identify Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Pujols, Jordi; Peña-Díaz, Samuel; Conde-Giménez, María; Pinheiro, Francisca; Navarro, Susanna; Sancho, Javier; Ventura, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of neurodegenerative diseases are being found to be associated with the abnormal accumulation of aggregated proteins in the brain. In Parkinson’s disease, this process involves the aggregation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) into intraneuronal inclusions. Thus, compounds that inhibit α-syn aggregation represent a promising therapeutic strategy as disease-modifying agents for neurodegeneration. The formation of α-syn amyloid aggregates can be reproduced in vitro by incubation of the recombinant protein. However, the in vitro aggregation of α-syn is exceedingly slow and highly irreproducible, therefore precluding fast high throughput anti-aggregation drug screening. Here, we present a simple and easy-to-implement in-plate method for screening large chemical libraries in the search for α-syn aggregation modulators. It allows us to monitor aggregation kinetics with high reproducibility, while being faster and requiring lower protein amounts than conventional aggregation assays. We illustrate how the approach enables the identification of strong aggregation inhibitors in a library of more than 14,000 compounds. PMID:28257086

  1. Hydrolysis of whey protein isolate with Bacillus licheniformis protease: aggregating capacities of peptide fractions.

    PubMed

    Creusot, Nathalie; Gruppen, Harry

    2008-11-12

    In a previous study, peptides aggregating at pH 7.0 derived from a whey protein hydrolysate made with Bacillus licheniformis protease were fractionated and identified. The objective of the present work was to investigate the solubility of the fractionated aggregating peptides, as a function of concentration, and their aggregating capacities toward added intact proteins. The amount of aggregated material and the composition of the aggregates obtained were measured by nitrogen concentration and size exclusion chromatography, respectively. The results showed that of the four fractions obtained from the aggregating peptides, two were insoluble, while the other two consisted of 1:1 mixture of low and high solubility peptides. Therefore, insoluble peptides coaggregated, assumedly via hydrophobic interactions, other relatively more soluble peptides. It was also shown that aggregating peptides could aggregate intact protein nonspecifically since the same peptides were involved in the aggregation of whey proteins, beta-casein, and bovine serum albumin. Both insoluble and partly insoluble peptides were required for the aggregation of intact protein. These results are of interest for the applications of protein hydrolysates, as mixtures of intact protein and peptides are often present in these applications.

  2. Coupled human erythrocyte velocity field and aggregation measurements at physiological haematocrit levels.

    PubMed

    Dusting, Jonathan; Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Balabani, Stavroula; Yianneskis, Michael

    2009-07-22

    Simultaneous measurement of erythrocyte (RBC) velocity fields and aggregation properties has been successfully performed using an optical shearing microscope and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Blood at 45% haematocrit was sheared at rates of 5.4< or =gamma < or = 252 s(-1) and imaged using a high speed camera. The images were then processed to yield aggregation indices and flow velocities. Negligible levels of aggregation were observed for gamma > or = 54.0 s(-1), while high levels of aggregation and network formation occurred for gamma < or = 11.7 s(-1). The results illustrate that the velocity measurements are dependent on the extent of RBC aggregation. High levels of network formation cause the velocities at gamma > or = 5.4 s(-1) to deviate markedly from the expected solid body rotation profile. The effect of aggregation level on the PIV accuracy was assessed by monitoring the two-dimensional (2D) correlation coefficients. Lower levels of aggregation result in poorer image correlation, from which it can be inferred that PIV accuracy is reduced. Moreover, aggregation is time-dependent, and consequently PIV accuracy may decrease during recording as the cells break up. It is therefore recommended that aggregation and its effects are taken into account in future when undertaking blood flow studies using PIV. The simplicity of the technique, which requires no lasers, filters, or special pretreatments, demonstrates the potential wide-spread applicability of the data acquisition system for accurate blood flow PIV and aggregation measurement.

  3. Prion-like transmission of neuronal huntingtin aggregates to phagocytic glia in the Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Margaret M.P.; Spartz, Ellen J.; Hong, Weizhe; Luo, Liqun; Kopito, Ron R.

    2015-01-01

    The brain has a limited capacity to self-protect against protein aggregate-associated pathology, and mounting evidence supports a role for phagocytic glia in this process. We have established a Drosophila model to investigate the role of phagocytic glia in clearance of neuronal mutant huntingtin (Htt) aggregates associated with Huntington disease. We find that glia regulate steady-state numbers of Htt aggregates expressed in neurons through a clearance mechanism that requires the glial scavenger receptor Draper and downstream phagocytic machinery. Remarkably, some of these engulfed neuronal Htt aggregates effect prion-like conversion of soluble, wild-type Htt in the glial cytoplasm. We provide genetic evidence that this conversion depends strictly on the Draper signaling pathway, unveiling a previously unanticipated role for phagocytosis in transfer of pathogenic protein aggregates in an intact brain. These results suggest a potential mechanism by which phagocytic glia contribute to both protein aggregate-related neuroprotection and pathogenesis in neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25866135

  4. Are neighborhood bonding and bridging social capital protective against depressive mood in old age? A multilevel analysis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Nofuji, Yu; Matsuo, Eri; Nishi, Mariko; Taniguchi, Yu; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    While the importance of distinguishing between bonding and bridging social capital is now understood, evidence remains sparse on their contextual effects on health. We examined the associations of neighborhood bonding and bridging social capital with depressive mood among older Japanese. A questionnaire survey of all community residents aged 65 and older in the city of Yabu, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan was conducted in July and August 2012. Bonding and bridging social capital were assessed by evaluating individual homogeneous and heterogeneous social networks in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Individual responses in each neighborhood were aggregated to create an index of neighborhood-level bonding/bridging social capital. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the associations of such social capital with depressive mood using multilevel binomial logistic regression analysis. Of the 7271 questionnaires distributed, 6416 were analyzed (covering 152 administrative neighborhoods). Approximately 56.8% of respondents were women, and the mean age was 76.2 ± 7.1 years. Neighborhood-level bonding social capital was inversely associated with depressive mood (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.75-0.94), but neighborhood-level bridging social capital was not. Gender-stratified analysis revealed that neighborhood-level bonding social capital was inversely associated with depressive mood in both genders (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72-0.96 for men; OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.72-0.99 for women), while neighborhood-level bridging social capital was positively associated with depressive mood in women (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.00-1.34). There was also a significant interaction between individual- and neighborhood-level bonding social capital, indicating that people with a weaker homogeneous network and living in a neighborhood with weaker bonding social capital were more likely to have depressive mood. Our results suggest that neighborhood social

  5. Substance use in rural adolescents: The impact of social capital, anti-social capital, and social capital deprivation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Rose, Roderick A; Smokowski, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Middle- and high-school substance use is a pressing public health problem in the United States. Despite similar or, in some cases, elevated rates of substance use among rural youth, much of the extant research on adolescent substance use has focused on urban areas. The current study aims to uncover forms of social capital (e.g., ethnic identity), social capital deprivation (e.g., parent-child conflict), and anti-social capital (e.g., delinquent friends) that impact the use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana in a sample of middle- and high-school students from the rural south. It was hypothesized that social capital factors would be associated with decreased substance use while social capital deprivation and anti-social capital factors would be associated with increased substance use. The hypotheses were tested using logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations. The findings indicated that for middle school youth, anti-social capital in the form of aggression and delinquent friends was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. For high school students, anti-social capital in the form of aggression and delinquent friends and social capital deprivation in the form of neighborhood crime were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Violent behavior was also significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using marijuana. Females reported less substance use in both middle and high school; reports of use increased with age. Implications are discussed. Given the salience of social capital deprivation, substance use programs should emphasize the skills necessary to avoid or disengage from antisocial relationships.

  6. Aggregation of Heterogeneously Charged Colloids.

    PubMed

    Dempster, Joshua M; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2016-06-28

    Patchy colloids are attractive as programmable building blocks for metamaterials. Inverse patchy colloids, in which a charged surface is decorated with patches of the opposite charge, are additionally noteworthy as models for heterogeneously charged biological materials such as proteins. We study the phases and aggregation behavior of a single charged patch in an oppositely charged colloid with a single-site model. This single-patch inverse patchy colloid model shows a large number of phases when varying patch size. For large patch sizes we find ferroelectric crystals, while small patch sizes produce cross-linked gels. Intermediate values produce monodisperse clusters and unusual worm structures that preserve finite ratios of area to volume. The polarization observed at large patch sizes is robust under extreme disorder in patch size and shape. We examine phase-temperature dependence and coexistence curves and find that large patch sizes produce polarized liquids, in contrast to mean-field predictions. Finally, we introduce small numbers of unpatched charged colloids. These can either suppress or encourage aggregation depending on their concentration and the size of the patches on the patched colloids. These effects can be exploited to control aggregation and to measure effective patch size.

  7. 24 CFR 58.32 - Project aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Project aggregation. 58.32 Section... Environmental Review Process: Documentation, Range of Activities, Project Aggregation and Classification § 58.32 Project aggregation. (a) A responsible entity must group together and evaluate as a single project...

  8. 24 CFR 58.32 - Project aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Project aggregation. 58.32 Section... Environmental Review Process: Documentation, Range of Activities, Project Aggregation and Classification § 58.32 Project aggregation. (a) A responsible entity must group together and evaluate as a single project...

  9. 24 CFR 58.32 - Project aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Project aggregation. 58.32 Section... Environmental Review Process: Documentation, Range of Activities, Project Aggregation and Classification § 58.32 Project aggregation. (a) A responsible entity must group together and evaluate as a single project...

  10. 24 CFR 58.32 - Project aggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Project aggregation. 58.32 Section... Environmental Review Process: Documentation, Range of Activities, Project Aggregation and Classification § 58.32 Project aggregation. (a) A responsible entity must group together and evaluate as a single project...

  11. Mineral resource of the month: aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willett, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    Crushed stone and construction sand and gravel, the two major types of natural aggregates, are among the most abundant and accessible natural resources on the planet. The earliest civilizations used aggregates for various purposes, mainly construction. Today aggregates provide the basic raw materials for the foundation of modern society.

  12. 78 FR 68945 - Aggregation of Positions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... the aggregation provisions of part 150 of the Commission's regulations that are substantially similar... modifications proposed here to the aggregation provisions of part 150 would apply to the position limits regimes... position limits because it believes that these proposed amendments regarding aggregation of...

  13. Aggregate Constraints for Virtual Manipulation with Soft Fingers.

    PubMed

    Talvas, Anthony; Marchal, Maud; Duriez, Christian; Otaduy, Miguel A

    2015-04-01

    Interactive dexterous manipulation of virtual objects remains a complex challenge that requires both appropriate hand models and accurate physically-based simulation of interactions. In this paper, we propose an approach based on novel aggregate constraints for simulating dexterous grasping using soft fingers. Our approach aims at improving the computation of contact mechanics when many contact points are involved, by aggregating the multiple contact constraints into a minimal set of constraints. We also introduce a method for non-uniform pressure distribution over the contact surface, to adapt the response when touching sharp edges. We use the Coulomb-Contensou friction model to efficiently simulate tangential and torsional friction. We show through different use cases that our aggregate constraint formulation is well-suited for simulating interactively dexterous manipulation of virtual objects through soft fingers, and efficiently reduces the computation time of constraint solving.

  14. Evaluation of Nanoparticle Tracking for Characterization of Fibrillar Protein Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dennis T.; Lu, Xiaomeng; Fan, Yamin; Murphy, Regina M.

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidogenesis is the process of formation of protein aggregates with fibrillar morphology. Because amyloidogenesis is linked to neurodegenerative disease, there is interest in understanding the mechanism of fibril growth. Kinetic models of amyloidogenesis require data on the number concentration and size distribution of aggregates, but this information is difficult to obtain using conventional methods. Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) is a relatively new technique that may be uniquely suited for obtaining these data. In NTA, the two-dimensional (2-D) trajectory of individual particles is tracked, from which the diffusion coefficient, and, hence, hydrodynamic radius is obtained. Here we examine the validity of NTA in tracking number concentration and size of DNA, as a model of a fibrillar macromolecule. We use NTA to examine three amyloidogenic materials: beta-amyloid, transthyretin, and polyglutamine-containing peptides. Our results are instructive in demonstrating the advantages and some limitations of single-particle diffusion measurements for investigating aggregation in protein systems. PMID:25843955

  15. Racial disparity in capital punishment and its impact on family members of capital defendants.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A review of the literature was conducted to explore the continuing racial disparity in capital punishment and its effects on family members of African American capital defendants. Statistical studies conducted on both the state and national level conclude that racial bias influences all stages of the death penalty process, with race of the victim being one of the most significant factors. This racial bias places an added burden on family members of African American capital defendants. While research has explored the impact of capital punishment on family members of capital defendants, the unique experiences of family members of African American defendants has not been addressed in the research literature.

  16. Cultural Capital: A Thesaurus for Teaching Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickfaden, Megan; Heylighen, Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unravel what is hypothesised as being at the root of design education: the cultural capital of design educators. The premise is that capital is developed within the design learning environment: that is, designers-to-be and educators-to-be are encultured into design while studying, the same way that parents enculture children…

  17. Family Capital: Implications for Interventions with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, John R.; Peckuonis, Edward V.; Deforge, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Social capital has been extensively discussed in the literature as building blocks that individuals and communities utilize to leverage system resources. Similarly, some families also create capital, which can enable members of the family, such as children, to successfully negotiate the outside world. Families in poverty confront serious…

  18. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  19. State Spending on Higher Education Capital Outlays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Jennifer A.; Doyle, William R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the role that state spending on higher education capital outlays plays in state budgets by considering the functional form of the relationship between state spending on higher education capital outlays and four types of state expenditures. Three possible functional forms are tested: a linear model, a quadratic model, and the…

  20. Youth Sport Volunteering: Developing Social Capital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Tess; Bradbury, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the capacity of youth sport volunteering to contribute to the development of social capital. Following a review of the emergence of social capital as a key theme in UK sport policy, the paper focuses on the ability of a structured sports volunteering programme to equip young people with skills for effective volunteering, and…

  1. 47 CFR 32.4510 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital stock. 32.4510 Section 32.4510... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4510 Capital stock. (a) This account shall include the par value, stated amount, or in the case of no-par stock, the...

  2. 47 CFR 32.4510 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Capital stock. 32.4510 Section 32.4510... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4510 Capital stock. (a) This account shall include the par value, stated amount, or in the case of no-par stock, the...

  3. 47 CFR 32.4510 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Capital stock. 32.4510 Section 32.4510... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4510 Capital stock. (a) This account shall include the par value, stated amount, or in the case of no-par stock, the...

  4. 47 CFR 32.4510 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Capital stock. 32.4510 Section 32.4510... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4510 Capital stock. (a) This account shall include the par value, stated amount, or in the case of no-par stock, the...

  5. 47 CFR 32.4510 - Capital stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Capital stock. 32.4510 Section 32.4510... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4510 Capital stock. (a) This account shall include the par value, stated amount, or in the case of no-par stock, the...

  6. 47 CFR 65.304 - Capital structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital structure. 65.304 Section 65.304 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.304 Capital structure....

  7. Campus Master Planning and Capital Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruthers, J. Kent; Lazell, Daniel T.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the concept of college and university campus master planning, describes factors and actors in the process, discusses the relationship to capital budgeting, and offers a typical master planning and capital-budgeting process as illustration. Developing a comprehensive institutional master plan can profoundly affect the institution's…

  8. A Shift towards Academic Capitalism in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka; Kaidesoja, Tuukka

    2014-01-01

    Academic capitalism is currently a widely studied topic amongst higher education scholars, especially in the United States. This paper demonstrates that the theory of academic capitalism also provides a fruitful perspective for analysing the restructuring of Finnish higher education since the 1990s, although with reservations. It will be argued…

  9. Academic Capitalism in the Pasteur's Quadrant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    Based on previous empirical studies, in this work the author presents an analysis of the role of context in academic capitalism. In particular, she argues that the literature on academic capitalism fails to properly acknowledge disciplinary and institutional differences, which results in an oversimplification of the effects of industry-academia…

  10. Political Capital in a Market Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…

  11. Social Capital: Its Constructs and Survey Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enfield, Richard P.; Nathaniel, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in the…

  12. New Superintendents: Trust, Networking, and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripley, Joan; Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Richman, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This instrumental case study explored how five newly appointed superintendents identified key stakeholders and built trust and social capital with stakeholders in their districts. Stakeholder, trust, and social capital theory were the lenses that guided this study. We utilized a pragmatic research design and thematic data analysis to interpret our…

  13. The Labor Market and Human Capital Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallmann, Judith I.; And Others

    This study tests the hypothesis that the local labor market structure, particularly the proportions of high- and low-paying occupations, affects human capital investment. Most studies have assumed that the direction of causation flows from the supply of human capital to employment growth. However, the creation of low-skilled jobs merely reshuffles…

  14. Developing Functional Networks of Frontier Capital Markets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    ABSTRACT Examining the structure , dynamics, and unique characteristics of a capital market network in which it operates is vital to understanding...opportunities. Examining the structure , dynamics, and unique characteristics of the capital market network in which they operate is vital to...behavior and economics. The individual motivations, information availability, transaction systems , and cultural realities in these markets provide a rich

  15. 40 CFR 35.2012 - Capitalization grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Capitalization grants. 35.2012 Section 35.2012 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2012 Capitalization...

  16. 40 CFR 35.2012 - Capitalization grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Capitalization grants. 35.2012 Section 35.2012 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2012 Capitalization...

  17. 40 CFR 35.2012 - Capitalization grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Capitalization grants. 35.2012 Section 35.2012 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2012 Capitalization...

  18. 40 CFR 35.2012 - Capitalization grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Capitalization grants. 35.2012 Section 35.2012 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2012 Capitalization...

  19. 40 CFR 35.2012 - Capitalization grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Capitalization grants. 35.2012 Section 35.2012 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2012 Capitalization...

  20. 47 CFR 32.4540 - Other capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other capital. 32.4540 Section 32.4540 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4540 Other capital....