Science.gov

Sample records for aggregate energy demand

  1. Energy Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Ron

    2010-01-01

    When construction slows and campus operating expenses are under the microscope, it is more important than ever to save energy dollars with the equipment and staff on hand. For the facilities manager who thinks out of the box, significant savings can be found on most school and college campuses. This article provides energy-conservation tips that…

  2. The Aggregate Demand Curve: A Reply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Richard B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Responds to claims about the instructional value of the downward-sloping aggregate demand curve in teaching principles of macroeconomics. Examines the effects of interest-rates and the role of money on demand curves. Concludes by arguing against the use of downward-sloping aggregate demand curves in textbooks. (RKM)

  3. Teaching Aggregate Demand and Supply Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Graeme

    2010-01-01

    The author analyzes the inflation-targeting model that underlies recent textbook expositions of the aggregate demand-aggregate supply approach used in introductory courses in macroeconomics. He shows how numerical simulations of a model with inflation inertia can be used as a tool to help students understand adjustments in response to demand and…

  4. Impact of Energy Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambel, Ali B.

    1970-01-01

    The types of pollutants associated with the process of power production are identified. A nine-point proposal is presented on the ways the increase in power demands might be achieved with the minimum threat to the environment. (PR)

  5. Turkey's energy demand and supply

    SciTech Connect

    Balat, M.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present article is to investigate Turkey's energy demand and the contribution of domestic energy sources to energy consumption. Turkey, the 17th largest economy in the world, is an emerging country with a buoyant economy challenged by a growing demand for energy. Turkey's energy consumption has grown and will continue to grow along with its economy. Turkey's energy consumption is high, but its domestic primary energy sources are oil and natural gas reserves and their production is low. Total primary energy production met about 27% of the total primary energy demand in 2005. Oil has the biggest share in total primary energy consumption. Lignite has the biggest share in Turkey's primary energy production at 45%. Domestic production should be to be nearly doubled by 2010, mainly in coal (lignite), which, at present, accounts for almost half of the total energy production. The hydropower should also increase two-fold over the same period.

  6. Role of Standard Demand Response Signals for Advanced Automated Aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Kiliccote, Sila

    2011-11-18

    Emerging standards such as OpenADR enable Demand Response (DR) Resources to interact directly with Utilities and Independent System Operators to allow their facility automation equipment to respond to a variety of DR signals ranging from day ahead to real time ancillary services. In addition, there are Aggregators in today’s markets who are capable of bringing together collections of aggregated DR assets and selling them to the grid as a single resource. However, in most cases these aggregated resources are not automated and when they are, they typically use proprietary technologies. There is a need for a framework for dealing with aggregated resources that supports the following requirements: • Allows demand-side resources to participate in multiple DR markets ranging from wholesale ancillary services to retail tariffs without being completely committed to a single entity like an Aggregator; • Allow aggregated groups of demand-side resources to be formed in an ad hoc fashion to address specific grid-side issues and support the optimization of the collective response of an aggregated group along a number of different dimensions. This is important in order to taylor the aggregated performance envelope to the needs to of the grid; • Allow aggregated groups to be formed in a hierarchical fashion so that each group can participate in variety of markets from wholesale ancillary services to distribution level retail tariffs. This paper explores the issues of aggregated groups of DR resources as described above especially within the context of emerging smart grid standards and the role they will play in both the management and interaction of various grid-side entities with those resources.

  7. Oil-Price Shocks: Beyond Standard Aggregate Demand/Aggregate Supply Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwood, S. Kirk

    2001-01-01

    Explores the problems of portraying oil-price shocks using the aggregate demand/aggregate supply model. Presents a simple modification of the model that differentiates between production and absorption of goods, which enables it to better reflect the effects of oil-price shocks on open economies. (RLH)

  8. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Ghatikar, Girish; Ni, Chun Chun; Dudley, Junqiao; Martin, Phil; Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  9. Energy demand and population change.

    PubMed

    Allen, E L; Edmonds, J A

    1981-09-01

    During the post World War 2 years energy consumption has grown 136% while population grew about 51%; per capita consumption of energy expanded, therefore, about 60%. For a given population size, demographic changes mean an increase in energy needs; for instance the larger the group of retirement age people, the smaller their energy needs than are those for a younger group. Estimates indicate that by the year 2000 the energy impact will be toward higher per capita consumption with 60% of the population in the 19-61 age group of workers. Rising female labor force participation will increase the working group even more; it has also been found that income and energy grow at a proportional rate. The authors predict that gasoline consumption within the US will continue to rise with availability considering the larger number of female drivers and higher per capita incomes. The flow of illegal aliens (750,000/year) will have a major impact on income and will use greater amounts of energy than can be expected. A demographic change which will lower energy demands will be the slowdown of the rate of household formation caused by the falling number of young adults. The response of energy demand to price changes is small and slow but incomes play a larger role as does the number of personal automobiles and social changes affecting household formation. Households, commercial space, transportation, and industry are part of every demand analysis and population projections play a major role in determining these factors.

  10. Energy demand and population changes

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E.L.; Edmonds, J.A.

    1980-12-01

    Since World War II, US energy demand has grown more rapidly than population, so that per capita consumption of energy was about 60% higher in 1978 than in 1947. Population growth and the expansion of per capita real incomes have led to a greater use of energy. The aging of the US population is expected to increase per capita energy consumption, despite the increase in the proportion of persons over 65, who consume less energy than employed persons. The sharp decline in the population under 18 has led to an expansion in the relative proportion of population in the prime-labor-force age groups. Employed persons are heavy users of energy. The growth of the work force and GNP is largely attributable to the growing participation of females. Another important consequence of female employment is the growth in ownership of personal automobiles. A third factor pushing up labor-force growth is the steady influx of illegal aliens.

  11. Energy supply and demand in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, E. D.

    1978-01-01

    The author expresses his views on future energy demand on the west coast of the United States and how that energy demand translates into demand for major fuels. He identifies the major uncertainties in determining what future demands may be. The major supply options that are available to meet projected demands and the policy implications that flow from these options are discussed.

  12. Automation of energy demand forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique, Sanzad

    Automation of energy demand forecasting saves time and effort by searching automatically for an appropriate model in a candidate model space without manual intervention. This thesis introduces a search-based approach that improves the performance of the model searching process for econometrics models. Further improvements in the accuracy of the energy demand forecasting are achieved by integrating nonlinear transformations within the models. This thesis introduces machine learning techniques that are capable of modeling such nonlinearity. Algorithms for learning domain knowledge from time series data using the machine learning methods are also presented. The novel search based approach and the machine learning models are tested with synthetic data as well as with natural gas and electricity demand signals. Experimental results show that the model searching technique is capable of finding an appropriate forecasting model. Further experimental results demonstrate an improved forecasting accuracy achieved by using the novel machine learning techniques introduced in this thesis. This thesis presents an analysis of how the machine learning techniques learn domain knowledge. The learned domain knowledge is used to improve the forecast accuracy.

  13. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part 2: Modeling Demand Response in a Production Cost Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, Marissa; Palchak, David; Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Olsen, Daniel J.; Kiliccote, Sila; Matson, Nance; Sohn, Michael; Rose, Cody; Dudley, Junqiao; Goli, Sasank; Ma, Ookie

    2013-12-01

    This report is one of a series stemming from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study. This study is a multi-national-laboratory effort to assess the potential value of demand response (DR) and energy storage to electricity systems with different penetration levels of variable renewable resources and to improve our understanding of associatedmarkets and institutions. This report implements DR resources in the commercial production cost model PLEXOS.

  14. Teaching Keynes's Principle of Effective Demand Using the Aggregate Labor Market Diagram.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalziel, Paul; Lavoie, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Suggests a method to teach John Keynes's principle of effective demand using a standard aggregate labor market diagram familiar to students taking advanced undergraduate macroeconomics courses. States the analysis incorporates Michal Kalecki's version to show Keynesian unemployment as a point on the aggregate labor demand curve inside the…

  15. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  16. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Arun

    2008-08-14

    July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  17. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities

    ScienceCinema

    Majumdar, Arun

    2016-07-12

    July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  18. Energy demand in sludge dewatering.

    PubMed

    Chu, C P; Lee, D J; Chang, C Y

    2005-05-01

    This work investigates the energy required to dewater a suspension, i.e., activated sludge dewatered by centrifugation or consolidation. Total energy input to the suspension from the dewatering device, bond strength between adjacent water and solid surface, and intra-cake friction loss were evaluated for original and flocculated sludges. In centrifugal dewatering, most energy input during the initial stage was consumed by overcoming process irreversibility other than intra-cake friction, and, thereby, had a low energy efficiency. To increase centrifuge speed or to flocculate the sludge at optimal flocculant dosage would yield a high-energy input. In the consolidation test, most energy input at the initial stage was consumed in breaking down the bond strength until the moisture content reduced to less than the critical content. During subsequent dewatering stages, friction loss became the dominant source of energy loss. Dewatering sludge with high-energy efficiency is beneficial to optimally operate a dewatering process.

  19. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  20. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ookie; Cheung, Kerry

    2016-03-01

    Demand response and energy storage resources present potentially important sources of bulk power system services that can aid in integrating variable renewable generation. While renewable integration studies have evaluated many of the challenges associated with deploying large amounts of variable wind and solar generation technologies, integration analyses have not yet fully incorporated demand response and energy storage resources. This report represents an initial effort in analyzing the potential integration value of demand response and energy storage, focusing on the western United States. It evaluates two major aspects of increased deployment of demand response and energy storage: (1) Their operational value in providing bulk power system services and (2) Market and regulatory issues, including potential barriers to deployment.

  1. Energy technologies and their impact on demand

    SciTech Connect

    Drucker, H.

    1995-06-01

    Despite the uncertainties, energy demand forecasts must be made to guide government policies and public and private-sector capital investment programs. Three principles can be identified in considering long-term energy prospects. First energy demand will continue to grow, driven by population growth, economic development, and the current low per capita energy consumption in developing countries. Second, energy technology advancements alone will not solve the problem. Energy-efficient technologies, renewable resource technologies, and advanced electric power technologies will all play a major role but will not be able to keep up with the growth in world energy demand. Third, environmental concerns will limit the energy technology choices. Increasing concern for environmental protection around the world will restrict primarily large, centralized energy supply facilities. The conclusion is that energy system diversity is the only solution. The energy system must be planned with consideration of both supply and demand technologies, must not rely on a single source of energy, must take advantage of all available technologies that are specially suited to unique local conditions, must be built with long-term perspectives, and must be able to adapt to change.

  2. Shifts in the Aggregate Demand Curve: Treatment and Mistreatment in Intermediate Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangazas, Peter; Shapiro, Edward

    1987-01-01

    Claims that many intermediate macroeconomic textbooks contain incorrect examples of aggregate demand curves. Diagrams correct and incorrect curves and discusses how incorrect diagrams can lead students to draw wrong conclusions. Argues that textbooks should not sacrifice correctness for simplicity. (RKM)

  3. An energy landscape approach to protein aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buell, Alexander; Knowles, Tuomas

    2012-02-01

    Protein aggregation into ordered fibrillar structures is the hallmark of a class of diseases, the most prominent examples of which are Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Recent results (e.g. Baldwin et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011) suggest that the aggregated state of a protein is in many cases thermodynamically more stable than the soluble state. Therefore the solubility of proteins in a cellular context appears to be to a large extent under kinetic control. Here, we first present a conceptual framework for the description of protein aggregation ( see AK Buell et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2010) that is an extension to the generally accepted energy landscape model for protein folding. Then we apply this model to analyse and interpret a large set of experimental data on the kinetics of protein aggregation, acquired mainly with a novel biosensing approach (see TPJK Knowles et al, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 2007). We show how for example the effect of sequence modifications on the kinetics and thermodynamics of human lysozyme aggregation can be understood and quantified (see AK Buell et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011). These results have important implications for therapeutic strategies against protein aggregation disorders, in this case lysozyme systemic amyloidosis.

  4. Automated Demand Response for Energy Sustainability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    ahead price incentives to customers for reducing energy consumption during a DBP Event. The DR controlled electric loads at Fort Irwin consisted of...offers Day-Ahead price incentives to customers for reducing energy consumption during a DBP Event. A Day-Ahead DBP Event may be called at SCE’s...sometimes struggle to meet customer demands, which can cause instability, rolling blackouts, and high energy prices . This technology enables the

  5. Automation of Capacity Bidding with an Aggregator Using Open Automated Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-10-01

    This report summarizes San Diego Gas& Electric Company?s collaboration with the Demand Response Research Center to develop and test automation capability for the Capacity Bidding Program in 2007. The report describes the Open Automated Demand Response architecture, summarizes the history of technology development and pilot studies. It also outlines the Capacity Bidding Program and technology being used by an aggregator that participated in this demand response program. Due to delays, the program was not fully operational for summer 2007. However, a test event on October 3, 2007, showed that the project successfully achieved the objective to develop and demonstrate how an open, Web?based interoperable automated notification system for capacity bidding can be used by aggregators for demand response. The system was effective in initiating a fully automated demand response shed at the aggregated sites. This project also demonstrated how aggregators can integrate their demand response automation systems with San Diego Gas& Electric Company?s Demand Response Automation Server and capacity bidding program.

  6. Reduced-Order Modeling of Aggregated Thermostatic Loads With Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit; Sun, Yannan

    2012-12-12

    Demand Response is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid control strategies. Modeling the behavior of populations of appliances under demand response is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of these demand response programs. In this paper, an aggregated model is proposed for a class of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs). The model efficiently includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with heterogeneity, and accounts for a second-order effect necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. However, an accurate characterization of the collective dynamics however requires the aggregate model to have a high state space dimension. Most of the existing model reduction techniques require the stability of the underlying system which does not hold for the proposed aggregated model. In this work, a novel model reduction approach is developed for the proposed aggregated model, which can significantly reduce its complexity with small performance loss. The original and the reducedorder aggregated models are validated against simulations of thousands of detailed building models using GridLAB-D, which is a realistic open source distribution simulation software. Index Terms – demand response, aggregated model, ancillary

  7. Flow based vs. demand based energy-water modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozos, Evangelos; Nikolopoulos, Dionysis; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koukouvinos, Antonios; Makropoulos, Christos

    2015-04-01

    The water flow in hydro-power generation systems is often used downstream to cover other type of demands like irrigation and water supply. However, the typical case is that the energy demand (operation of hydro-power plant) and the water demand do not coincide. Furthermore, the water inflow into a reservoir is a stochastic process. Things become more complicated if renewable resources (wind-turbines or photovoltaic panels) are included into the system. For this reason, the assessment and optimization of the operation of hydro-power systems are challenging tasks that require computer modelling. This modelling should not only simulate the water budget of the reservoirs and the energy production/consumption (pumped-storage), but should also take into account the constraints imposed by the natural or artificial water network using a flow routing algorithm. HYDRONOMEAS, for example, uses an elegant mathematical approach (digraph) to calculate the flow in a water network based on: the demands (input timeseries), the water availability (simulated) and the capacity of the transmission components (properties of channels, rivers, pipes, etc.). The input timeseries of demand should be estimated by another model and linked to the corresponding network nodes. A model that could be used to estimate these timeseries is UWOT. UWOT is a bottom up urban water cycle model that simulates the generation, aggregation and routing of water demand signals. In this study, we explore the potentials of UWOT in simulating the operation of complex hydrosystems that include energy generation. The evident advantage of this approach is the use of a single model instead of one for estimation of demands and another for the system simulation. An application of UWOT in a large scale system is attempted in mainland Greece in an area extending over 130×170 km². The challenges, the peculiarities and the advantages of this approach are examined and critically discussed.

  8. Impact of improved building thermal efficiency on residential energy demand

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.; Rockwood, A.D.

    1983-04-01

    The impact of improved building shell thermal efficiency on residential energy demand is explored in a theoretical framework. The important economic literature on estimating the price elasticity of residential energy demand is reviewed. The specification of the residential energy demand model is presented. The data used are described. The empirical estimation of the residential energy demand model is described. (MHR)

  9. What Drives University Applications? An Attempt to Explain Aggregate Demand for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Carlos; Vieira, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Low educational attainment is frequently pointed out as a barrier to social and economic development and most governments aim at increasing participation in higher education. However, effective strategies to increase aggregate demand require information on its most relevant determinants, which is difficult to obtain because applications to higher…

  10. Forecast of transportation energy demand through the year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.M.; Vyas, A.D.

    1991-04-01

    Since 1979, the Center for Transportation Research (CTR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has produced baseline projections of US transportation activity and energy demand. These projections and the methodologies used to compute them are documented in a series of reports and research papers. As the lastest in this series of projections, this report documents the assumptions, methodologies, and results of the most recent projection -- termed ANL-90N -- and compares those results with other forecasts from the current literature, as well as with the selection of earlier Argonne forecasts. This current forecast may be used as a baseline against which to analyze trends and evaluate existing and proposed energy conservation programs and as an illustration of how the Transportation Energy and Emission Modeling System (TEEMS) works. (TEEMS links disaggregate models to produce an aggregate forecast of transportation activity, energy use, and emissions). This report and the projections it contains were developed for the US Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT). The projections are not completely comprehensive. Time and modeling effort have been focused on the major energy consumers -- automobiles, trucks, commercial aircraft, rail and waterborne freight carriers, and pipelines. Because buses, rail passengers services, and general aviation consume relatively little energy, they are projected in the aggregate, as other'' modes, and used primarily as scaling factors. These projections are also limited to direct energy consumption. Projections of indirect energy consumption, such as energy consumed in vehicle and equipment manufacturing, infrastructure, fuel refining, etc., were judged outside the scope of this effort. The document is organized into two complementary sections -- one discussing passenger transportation modes, and the other discussing freight transportation modes. 99 refs., 10 figs., 43 tabs.

  11. Water demands for expanding energy development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, G.H.; Wood, Leonard A.

    1974-01-01

    Water is used in producing energy for mining and reclamation of mined lands, onsite processing, transportation, refining, and conversion of fuels to other forms of energy. In the East, South, Midwest, and along the seacoasts, most water problems are related to pollution rather than to water supply. West of about the 100th meridian, however, runoff is generally less than potential diversions, and energy industries must compete with other water users. Water demands for extraction of coal, oil shale, uranium, and oil and gas are modest, although large quantities of water are used in secondary recovery operations for oil. The only significant use of water for energy transportation, aside from in-stream navigation use, is for slurry lines. Substantial quantities of water are required in the retorting and the disposal of spent oil shale. The conversion of coal to synthetic gas or oil or to electric power and the generation of electric power with nuclear energy require large quantities of water, mostly for cooling. Withdrawals for cooling of thermal-electric plants is by far the largest category of water use in energy industry, totaling about 170 billion gallons (644 million m3) per day in 1970. Water availability will dictate the location and design of energy-conversion facilities, especially in water deficient areas of the West.

  12. Asymmetric demand for energy: A cointegration approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, Thomas Frank

    1997-12-01

    This paper uses time series data in a study of the demand for energy. One goal is to compare the results from the traditional autoregressive distributed lag (ADL) model to the error correction model (ECM) using cointegration. The second goal is to determine if the demand elasticity is asymmetric with respect to increasing and decreasing prices. This paper discusses three topics that are important to the use of time series data. The first topic is the presence and consequences unit roots which are common in time series data. The second topic is the identification of cointegrated variables and the third topic is a development of the ECM. This results in a model that can be used in either a single equation or multivariate system context and it will estimate both long run and short run elasticities. Asymmetry theory and its implications are studied along with an investigation into competing methods of creating the asymmetric variables. Simulations provided evidence that the use of dummy variables results in biased estimates and that the cumulative difference method of Wolffram/Houck gives valid estimates. The results of the empirical part of the paper show that the short run estimates of the ADL model are like those of the error correction model, but the cointegration method's long run estimates are better since they are known to be consistent and asymptotically unbiased. Tests for asymmetry do not support the theory of asymmetric long run price elasticities; however there is evidence to support the presence of asymmetric demand in the short run.

  13. Aggregate supply and demand modeling using GIS methods for the front range urban corridor, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakas, Ahmet; Turner, Keith

    2004-07-01

    The combined use of allocation modeling and geographical information system (GIS) technologies for providing quantitative assessments of aggregate supply and demand is evaluated using representative data for the Front Range Urban Corridor (FRUC) in Colorado. The FRUC extends from the Colorado-Wyoming border to south of Colorado Springs, and includes Denver and the major urban growth regions of Colorado. In this area, aggregate demand is high and is increasing in response to population growth. Neighborhood opposition to the establishment of new pits and quarries and the depletion of many deposits are limiting aggregate supplies. Many sources are already covered by urban development or eliminated from production by zoning. Transport of aggregate by rail from distant resources may be required in the future. Two allocation-modeling procedures are tested in this study. Network analysis procedures provided within the ARC/INFO software, are unsatisfactory. Further aggregate allocation modeling used a model specifically designed for this task; a modified version of an existing Colorado School of Mines allocation model allows for more realistic market analyses. This study evaluated four scenarios. The entire region was evaluated with a scenario reflecting the current market and by a second scenario in which some existing suppliers were closed down and new potential suppliers were activated. The conditions within the Denver metropolitan area were studied before and after the introduction of three possible rail-to-truck aggregate distribution centers. GIS techniques are helpful in developing the required database to describe the Front Range Urban Corridor aggregate market conditions. GIS methods allow the digital representation of the regional road network, and the development of a distance matrix relating all suppliers and purchasers.

  14. Sociocultural dimensions of supply and demand for natural aggregate; examples from the Mid-Atlantic region, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Brown, William M.

    2002-01-01

    The United States uses large quantities of natural aggregate to build and maintain a continuously expanding infrastructure. In recent years, per capita demand for aggregate in the United States has grown to about 9.7 metric tons (10.7 tons) per person per year. Over the next 25 years, the aggregate industry expects to mine quantities equivalent to all aggregate mined in the United States over the past 100 years. The issues surrounding supply and demand for aggregate in the mid-Atlantic states of Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia illustrate competing requirements for industrial minerals and many simultaneous social and environmental objectives.

  15. Energy demand on dairy farms in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Upton, J; Humphreys, J; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; French, P; Dillon, P; De Boer, I J M

    2013-10-01

    Reducing electricity consumption in Irish milk production is a topical issue for 2 reasons. First, the introduction of a dynamic electricity pricing system, with peak and off-peak prices, will be a reality for 80% of electricity consumers by 2020. The proposed pricing schedule intends to discourage energy consumption during peak periods (i.e., when electricity demand on the national grid is high) and to incentivize energy consumption during off-peak periods. If farmers, for example, carry out their evening milking during the peak period, energy costs may increase, which would affect farm profitability. Second, electricity consumption is identified in contributing to about 25% of energy use along the life cycle of pasture-based milk. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to document electricity use per kilogram of milk sold and to identify strategies that reduce its overall use while maximizing its use in off-peak periods (currently from 0000 to 0900 h). We assessed, therefore, average daily and seasonal trends in electricity consumption on 22 Irish dairy farms, through detailed auditing of electricity-consuming processes. To determine the potential of identified strategies to save energy, we also assessed total energy use of Irish milk, which is the sum of the direct (i.e., energy use on farm) and indirect energy use (i.e., energy needed to produce farm inputs). On average, a total of 31.73 MJ was required to produce 1 kg of milk solids, of which 20% was direct and 80% was indirect energy use. Electricity accounted for 60% of the direct energy use, and mainly resulted from milk cooling (31%), water heating (23%), and milking (20%). Analysis of trends in electricity consumption revealed that 62% of daily electricity was used at peak periods. Electricity use on Irish dairy farms, therefore, is substantial and centered around milk harvesting. To improve the competitiveness of milk production in a dynamic electricity pricing environment, therefore, management

  16. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-06-21

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in the efficient and reliable operation of the electric grid. Modeling the dynamic behavior of a large population of responsive loads is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various demand response strategies. In this paper, a highly-accurate aggregated model is developed for a population of air conditioning loads. The model effectively includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with load heterogeneity, and accounts for second-order dynamics necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Based on the model, a novel aggregated control strategy is designed for the load population under realistic conditions. The proposed controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing end-use performance. The proposed aggregated modeling and control strategies are validated through realistic simulations using GridLAB-D. Extensive simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can effectively manage a large number of air conditioning systems to provide various demand response services, such as frequency regulation and peak load reduction.

  17. A Novel Method to Quantify Soil Aggregate Stability by Measuring Aggregate Bond Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efrat, Rachel; Rawlins, Barry G.; Quinton, John N.; Watts, Chris W.; Whitmore, Andy P.

    2016-04-01

    Soil aggregate stability is a key indicator of soil quality because it controls physical, biological and chemical functions important in cultivated soils. Micro-aggregates are responsible for the long term sequestration of carbon in soil, therefore determine soils role in the carbon cycle. It is thus vital that techniques to measure aggregate stability are accurate, consistent and reliable, in order to appropriately manage and monitor soil quality, and to develop our understanding and estimates of soil as a carbon store to appropriately incorporate in carbon cycle models. Practices used to assess the stability of aggregates vary in sample preparation, operational technique and unit of results. They use proxies and lack quantification. Conflicting results are therefore drawn between projects that do not provide methodological or resultant comparability. Typical modern stability tests suspend aggregates in water and monitor fragmentation upon exposure to an un-quantified amount of ultrasonic energy, utilising a laser granulometer to measure the change in mean weight diameter. In this project a novel approach has been developed based on that of Zhu et al., (2009), to accurately quantify the stability of aggregates by specifically measuring their bond energies. The bond energies are measured operating a combination of calorimetry and a high powered ultrasonic probe, with computable output function. Temperature change during sonication is monitored by an array of probes which enables calculation of the energy spent heating the system (Ph). Our novel technique suspends aggregates in heavy liquid lithium heteropolytungstate, as opposed to water, to avoid exposing aggregates to an immeasurable disruptive energy source, due to cavitation, collisions and clay swelling. Mean weight diameter is measured by a laser granulometer to monitor aggregate breakdown after successive periods of calculated ultrasonic energy input (Pi), until complete dispersion is achieved and bond

  18. Aggregated Modeling of Thermostatic Loads in Demand Response: A Systems and Control Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Chassin, Forrest S.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-12-12

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid research and technologies being examined in recently undertaken demonstration projects. The behavior of load as it is affected by various load control strategies is important to understanding the degree to which different classes of end-use load can contribute to demand response programs at various times. This paper focuses on developing aggregated models for a homogeneous population of thermostatically controlled loads. The different types of loads considered in this paper include, but are not limited to, water heaters and HVAC units. The effects of demand response and user over-ride on the load population dynamics are investigated. The controllability of the developed lumped models is validated which forms the basis for designing different control strategies.

  19. Game Design and Analysis for Price-Based Demand Response: An Aggregate Game Approach.

    PubMed

    Ye, Maojiao; Hu, Guoqiang

    2016-02-18

    In this paper, an aggregate game is adopted for the modeling and analysis of energy consumption control in smart grid. Since the electricity users' cost functions depend on the aggregate energy consumption, which is unknown to the end users, an average consensus protocol is employed to estimate it. By neighboring communication among the users about their estimations on the aggregate energy consumption, Nash seeking strategies are developed. Convergence properties are explored for the proposed Nash seeking strategies. For energy consumption game that may have multiple isolated Nash equilibria, a local convergence result is derived. The convergence is established by utilizing singular perturbation analysis and Lyapunov stability analysis. Energy consumption control for a network of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems is investigated. Based on the uniqueness of the Nash equilibrium, it is shown that the players' actions converge to a neighborhood of the unique Nash equilibrium nonlocally. More specially, if the unique Nash equilibrium is an inner Nash equilibrium, an exponential convergence result is obtained. Energy consumption game with stubborn players is studied. In this case, the actions of the rational players can be driven to a neighborhood of their best response strategies by using the proposed method. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  20. Monetary Policy Rules, Supply Shocks, and the Price-Level Elasticity of Aggregate Demand: A Graphical Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyer, Ben L.; Maggs, Gary E.

    1995-01-01

    Utilizes two-dimensional price and output graphs to demonstrate the way that the price-level elasticity of aggregate demand affects alternative monetary policy rules designed to cope with random aggregate supply shocks. Includes graphs illustrating price-level, real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), nominal GDP, and nominal money supply targeting.…

  1. Commercial Building Tenant Energy Usage Aggregation and Privacy

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, Olga V.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Anderson, David M.; Wang, Na

    2014-10-31

    A growing number of building owners are benchmarking their building energy use. This requires the building owner to acquire monthly whole-building energy usage information, which can be challenging for buildings in which individual tenants have their own utility meters and accounts with the utility. Some utilities and utility regulators have turned to aggregation of customer energy use data (CEUD) as a way to give building owners whole-building energy usage data while protecting customer privacy. Meter profile aggregation adds a layer of protection that decreases the risk of revealing CEUD as the number of meters aggregated increases. The report statistically characterizes the similarity between individual energy usage patterns and whole-building totals at various levels of meter aggregation.

  2. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Arun

    2008-07-29

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  3. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Majumdar, Arun

    2016-07-12

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  4. Energy: Can We Meet the Increasing Demand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is the lifeblood of the United States. It powers its industries and keeps its economy humming. The nation's progress has relied on making energy abundantly available to support the growth of new ideas and products, and the issue of renewable energy is an increasingly important one. In this article, the author discusses some of the basics of…

  5. Public Policy, Technology Adoption, and Aggregate Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, W.; Kopp, R.J.; Morgenstern, R.D.; Pizer, W.A.; Shih, J.S.

    1999-04-01

    This research examines the factors that influence the adoption of new energy-saving technologies among U.S. manufacturing plants and explores their potential impact on aggregate energy efficiency. We conduct this analysis using two models: a conventional diffusion model and a stand-alone model of new technology adoption we develop in this paper. The latter model allows us to compute effects on aggregate efficiency based solely on adoption data.

  6. Demand for oil and energy in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, C. Jr.; Relles, D.A.; Navarro, J.

    1980-05-01

    How much of the world's oil and energy supply will the non-OPEC less-developed countries (NOLDCs) demand in the next decade. Will their requirements be small and thus fairly insignificant compared with world demand, or large and relatively important. How will world demand be affected by the economic growth of the NOLDCs. In this report, we try to develop some reasonable forecasts of NOLDC energy demands in the next 10 years. Our focus is mainly on the demand for oil, but we also give some attention to the total commercial energy requirements of these countries. We have tried to be explicit about the uncertainties associated with our forecasts, and with the income and price elasticities on which they are based. Finally, we consider the forecasts in terms of their implications for US policies concerning the NOLDCs and suggest areas of future research on NOLDC energy issues.

  7. Holiday in Lights: Tracking Cultural Patterns in Demand for Energy Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Miguel O.; Stokes, Eleanor C.

    2015-01-01

    Successful climate change mitigation will involve not only technological innovation, but also innovation in how we understand the societal and individual behaviors that shape the demand for energy services. Traditionally, individual energy behaviors have been described as a function of utility optimization and behavioral economics, with price restructuring as the dominant policy lever. Previous research at the macro-level has identified economic activity, power generation and technology, and economic role as significant factors that shape energy use. However, most demand models lack basic contextual information on how dominant social phenomenon, the changing demographics of cities, and the sociocultural setting within which people operate, affect energy decisions and use patterns. Here we use high-quality Suomi-NPP VIIRS nighttime environmental products to: (1) observe aggregate human behavior through variations in energy service demand patterns during the Christmas and New Year's season and the Holy Month of Ramadan and (2) demonstrate that patterns in energy behaviors closely track sociocultural boundaries at the country, city, and district level. These findings indicate that energy decision making and demand is a sociocultural process as well as an economic process, often involving a combination of individual price-based incentives and societal-level factors. While nighttime satellite imagery has been used to map regional energy infrastructure distribution, tracking daily dynamic lighting demand at three major scales of urbanization is novel. This methodology can enrich research on the relative importance of drivers of energy demand and conservation behaviors at fine scales. Our initial results demonstrate the importance of seating energy demand frameworks in a social context.

  8. Holidays in lights: Tracking cultural patterns in demand for energy services.

    PubMed

    Román, Miguel O; Stokes, Eleanor C

    2015-06-01

    Successful climate change mitigation will involve not only technological innovation, but also innovation in how we understand the societal and individual behaviors that shape the demand for energy services. Traditionally, individual energy behaviors have been described as a function of utility optimization and behavioral economics, with price restructuring as the dominant policy lever. Previous research at the macro-level has identified economic activity, power generation and technology, and economic role as significant factors that shape energy use. However, most demand models lack basic contextual information on how dominant social phenomenon, the changing demographics of cities, and the sociocultural setting within which people operate, affect energy decisions and use patterns. Here we use high-quality Suomi-NPP VIIRS nighttime environmental products to: (1) observe aggregate human behavior through variations in energy service demand patterns during the Christmas and New Year's season and the Holy Month of Ramadan and (2) demonstrate that patterns in energy behaviors closely track sociocultural boundaries at the country, city, and district level. These findings indicate that energy decision making and demand is a sociocultural process as well as an economic process, often involving a combination of individual price-based incentives and societal-level factors. While nighttime satellite imagery has been used to map regional energy infrastructure distribution, tracking daily dynamic lighting demand at three major scales of urbanization is novel. This methodology can enrich research on the relative importance of drivers of energy demand and conservation behaviors at fine scales. Our initial results demonstrate the importance of seating energy demand frameworks in a social context.

  9. Holidays in lights: Tracking cultural patterns in demand for energy services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román, Miguel O.; Stokes, Eleanor C.

    2015-06-01

    Successful climate change mitigation will involve not only technological innovation, but also innovation in how we understand the societal and individual behaviors that shape the demand for energy services. Traditionally, individual energy behaviors have been described as a function of utility optimization and behavioral economics, with price restructuring as the dominant policy lever. Previous research at the macro-level has identified economic activity, power generation and technology, and economic role as significant factors that shape energy use. However, most demand models lack basic contextual information on how dominant social phenomenon, the changing demographics of cities, and the sociocultural setting within which people operate, affect energy decisions and use patterns. Here we use high-quality Suomi-NPP VIIRS nighttime environmental products to: (1) observe aggregate human behavior through variations in energy service demand patterns during the Christmas and New Year's season and the Holy Month of Ramadan and (2) demonstrate that patterns in energy behaviors closely track sociocultural boundaries at the country, city, and district level. These findings indicate that energy decision making and demand is a sociocultural process as well as an economic process, often involving a combination of individual price-based incentives and societal-level factors. While nighttime satellite imagery has been used to map regional energy infrastructure distribution, tracking daily dynamic lighting demand at three major scales of urbanization is novel. This methodology can enrich research on the relative importance of drivers of energy demand and conservation behaviors at fine scales. Our initial results demonstrate the importance of seating energy demand frameworks in a social context.

  10. Oil and Energy Demand in Developing Countries in 1990,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    demand adjusts rapidly to income and price changes, and hence desired demand is realized quickly; the converse is implied asX approaches unity). a... principle , reconciliation between these differing U. S. policy interests may lie in our encouraging the NOLDCs to follow "soft energy paths" (i.e

  11. (Energy and electricity supply and demand)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, T.J.

    1990-10-09

    At the request of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), representing eleven international agencies which are sponsoring the 1991 Helsinki Symposium on Electricity and the Environment, I traveled to Brussels to participate in the second meeting of one of four advisory groups established to prepare for the Symposium. At the meeting, I was involved in a review of a draft issue paper being prepared for the Symposium and of the Symposium program.

  12. Commercial and Multifamily Building Tenant Energy Usage Aggregation and Privacy

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, Olga V.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Wang, Na

    2014-11-17

    In a number of cities and states, building owners are required to disclose and/or benchmark their building energy use. This requires the building owner to possess monthly whole-building energy usage information, which can be challenging for buildings in which individual tenants have their own utility meters and accounts with the utility. Some utilities and utility regulators have turned to aggregation of customer data as a way to give building owners the whole-building energy usage data while protecting customer privacy. However, no utilities or regulators appear to have conducted a concerted statistical, cybersecurity, and privacy analysis to justify the level of aggregation selected. Therefore, the Tennant Data Aggregation Task was established to help utilities address these issues and provide recommendations as well as a theoretical justification of the aggregation threshold. This study is focused on the use case of submitting data for ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager (ESPM), but it also looks at other potential use cases for monthly energy consumption data.

  13. Water supply and demand in an energy supply model

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, D; Loose, V

    1980-12-01

    This report describes a tool for water and energy-related policy analysis, the development of a water supply and demand sector in a linear programming model of energy supply in the United States. The model allows adjustments in the input mix and plant siting in response to water scarcity. Thus, on the demand side energy conversion facilities can substitute more costly dry cooling systems for conventional evaporative systems. On the supply side groundwater and water purchased from irrigators are available as more costly alternatives to unappropriated surface water. Water supply data is developed for 30 regions in 10 Western states. Preliminary results for a 1990 energy demand scenario suggest that, at this level of spatial analysis, water availability plays a minor role in plant siting. Future policy applications of the modeling system are discussed including the evaluation of alternative patterns of synthetic fuels development.

  14. Linking Continuous Energy Management and Open Automated Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Ghatikar, Girish

    2008-10-03

    Advances in communications and control technology, the strengthening of the Internet, and the growing appreciation of the urgency to reduce demand side energy use are motivating the development of improvements in both energy efficiency and demand response (DR) systems. This paper provides a framework linking continuous energy management and continuous communications for automated demand response (Auto-DR) in various times scales. We provide a set of concepts for monitoring and controls linked to standards and procedures such as Open Automation Demand Response Communication Standards (Open Auto-DR or OpenADR). Basic building energy science and control issues in this approach begin with key building components, systems, end-uses and whole building energy performance metrics. The paper presents a framework about when energy is used, levels of services by energy using systems, granularity of control, and speed of telemetry. DR, when defined as a discrete event, requires a different set of building service levels than daily operations. We provide examples of lessons from DR case studies and links to energy efficiency.

  15. Energy demand analytics using coupled technological and economic models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Impacts of a range of policy scenarios on end-use energy demand are examined using a coupling of MARKAL, an energy system model with extensive supply and end-use technological detail, with Inforum LIFT, a large-scale model of the us. economy with inter-industry, government, and c...

  16. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  17. The Self-energy Of Growing Aggregates: "Strength Regime"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimaraes, Ana H. F.; Spahn, F.; Seiss, M.; Brilliantov, N. V.

    2009-09-01

    The vivid appearance of the outer regions of Saturn's rings points to a balance of ongoing fragmentation and coagulation processes. This idea finds support especially in the F-ring, where collisional processes occur on an almost daily basis stirred by perturbations of the satellites Prometheus and Pandora, and in addition due the presence of putative moonlets. In order to quantify this balance in a kinetic theory we propose to calculate the resistivity of small agglomerates ("dynamic ephemeral bodies") against rupture due collisional processes and tidal pull. Earlies studies have shown that the resistivity of an aggregate is divided into two phases: "strength regime" and "gravitational regime". Early in their formation, small agglomerates are supported basically by their "glue" between the particles (adhesion) - "strength regime". For larger agglomerates the "gravitational regime" takes over provided their sizes to be bigger than a threshold in which the self-gravitational energy exceeds the adhesive binding energy, in this case the cluster's constituents are held together gravitationally. We calculated the self-energy caused by adhesion and gravity of ring's aggregates which has been considered as the threshold of impact energy or of tidal work to disrupt the agglomerate. Using a Ballistic Particle Cluster Aggregate Model (BPCA) we varied the densities of the aggregates and the size distribution of their constituents (1-10cm), calculated their self-energy and identified the transition between the "strength" to "gravitational regime". The transition between the regimes occurs at house-size aggregates (diameter of approximately 20m), a fact, that fits to the cut-off on the dense rings' main population (cm - 5m in size). Acknowledgments: A.H.F.G. thanks Dr. E. Vieira-Neto for the discussions, and also the DAAD and Uni-Potsdam for the financial support of this project.

  18. Reducing energy demand: what are the practical limits?

    PubMed

    Cullen, Jonathan M; Allwood, Julian M; Borgstein, Edward H

    2011-02-15

    Concern over the global energy system, whether driven by climate change, national security, or fears of shortage, is being discussed widely and in every arena but with a bias toward energy supply options. While demand reduction is often mentioned in passing, it is rarely a priority for implementation, whether through policy or through the search for innovation. This paper aims to draw attention to the opportunity for major reduction in energy demand, by presenting an analysis of how much of current global energy demand could be avoided. Previous work led to a "map" of global energy use that traces the flow of energy from primary sources (fuels or renewable sources), through fuel refinery, electricity generation, and end-use conversion devices, to passive systems and the delivery of final energy services (transport, illumination, and sustenance). The key passive systems are presented here and analyzed through simple engineering models with scalar equations using data based on current global practice. Physically credible options for change to key design parameters are identified and used to predict the energy savings possible for each system. The result demonstrates that 73% of global energy use could be saved by practically achievable design changes to passive systems. This reduction could be increased by further efficiency improvements in conversion devices. A list of the solutions required to achieve these savings is provided.

  19. Regional Demand Models for Water-Based Recreation: Combining Aggregate and Individual-Level Choice Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimating the effect of changes in water quality on non-market values for recreation involves estimating a change in aggregate consumer surplus. This aggregate value typically involves estimating both a per-person, per-trip change in willingness to pay, as well as defining the m...

  20. 'Energy landscapes': Meeting energy demands and human aspirations.

    PubMed

    Blaschke, Thomas; Biberacher, Markus; Gadocha, Sabine; Schardinger, Ingrid

    2013-08-01

    Renewable energy will play a crucial role in the future society of the 21st century. The various renewable energy sources need to be balanced and their use carefully planned since they are characterized by high temporal and spatial variability that will pose challenges to maintaining a well balanced supply and to the stability of the grid. This article examines the ways that future 'energy landscapes' can be modelled in time and space. Biomass needs a great deal of space per unit of energy produced but it is an energy carrier that may be strategically useful in circumstances where other renewable energy carriers are likely to deliver less. A critical question considered in this article is whether a massive expansion in the use of biomass will allow us to construct future scenarios while repositioning the 'energy landscape' as an object of study. A second important issue is the utilization of heat from biomass energy plants. Biomass energy also has a larger spatial footprint than other carriers such as, for example, solar energy. This article seeks to provide a bridge between energy modelling and spatial planning while integrating research and techniques in energy modelling with Geographic Information Science. This encompasses GIS, remote sensing, spatial disaggregation techniques and geovisualization. Several case studies in Austria and Germany demonstrate a top-down methodology and some results while stepwise calculating potentials from theoretical to technically feasible potentials and setting the scene for the definition of economic potentials based on scenarios and assumptions.

  1. 75 FR 54063 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets; Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...-000] Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets; Technical Conference AGENCY.... \\1\\ Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets, Notice of Proposed...

  2. Algeria to use gas to meet energy demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Sonelgaz, Algeria's natural gas distribution monopoly, plans to supply all major towns in the country with natural gas for domestic energy demands by 1989. The utility uses copper tubing in residences and plastic pipe for distribution mains and services to the houses for new construction and conversion to natural gas from LPG systems.

  3. Energy Demands and Efficiency Strategies in Data Center Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shehabi, Arman

    2009-01-01

    Information technology (IT) is becoming increasingly pervasive throughout society as more data is digitally processed, stored, and transferred. The infrastructure that supports IT activity is growing accordingly, and data center energy demands have increased by nearly a factor of four over the past decade. This dissertation investigates how…

  4. Testing simulation and structural models with applications to energy demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Hendrik

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation deals with energy demand and consists of two parts. Part one proposes a unified econometric framework for modeling energy demand and examples illustrate the benefits of the technique by estimating the elasticity of substitution between energy and capital. Part two assesses the energy conservation policy of Daylight Saving Time and empirically tests the performance of electricity simulation. In particular, the chapter "Imposing Monotonicity and Curvature on Flexible Functional Forms" proposes an estimator for inference using structural models derived from economic theory. This is motivated by the fact that in many areas of economic analysis theory restricts the shape as well as other characteristics of functions used to represent economic constructs. Specific contributions are (a) to increase the computational speed and tractability of imposing regularity conditions, (b) to provide regularity preserving point estimates, (c) to avoid biases existent in previous applications, and (d) to illustrate the benefits of our approach via numerical simulation results. The chapter "Can We Close the Gap between the Empirical Model and Economic Theory" discusses the more fundamental question of whether the imposition of a particular theory to a dataset is justified. I propose a hypothesis test to examine whether the estimated empirical model is consistent with the assumed economic theory. Although the proposed methodology could be applied to a wide set of economic models, this is particularly relevant for estimating policy parameters that affect energy markets. This is demonstrated by estimating the Slutsky matrix and the elasticity of substitution between energy and capital, which are crucial parameters used in computable general equilibrium models analyzing energy demand and the impacts of environmental regulations. Using the Berndt and Wood dataset, I find that capital and energy are complements and that the data are significantly consistent with duality

  5. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Canadian Energy Demand

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The residential sector is one of the main end-use sectors in Canada accounting for 16.7% of total end-use site energy consumption in 2009 (computed from NRCan 2012. pp, 4-5). In this year, the residential sector accounted for 54.5% of buildings total site energy consumption. Between 1990 and 2009, Canadian household energy consumption grew by less than 11%. Nonetheless, households contributed to 14.6% of total energy-related greenhouse gas emissions in Canada in 2009 (computed from NRCan 2012). This is the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s second study to help provide a better understanding of the factors impacting residential energy consumption and intensity in North America (mainly the United States and Canada) by using similar methodology for analyses in both countries.

  6. National patterns of energy demand and expenditures by Hispanics

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is based on ongoing research, at Argonne National Laboratory, being done for the Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) of the US Department of Energy. Under its legislative mandate MI is required to assess the impact of government policy, programs, and actions on US minorities. In line with this mission Argonne is currently involved in characterizing and analyzing the patterns of energy demand and expenditures of minorities. A major barrier associated with this task is the availability of sufficient data. With the possible exception of blacks, analysis of the patterns of energy demand for most minority population categories is all but impossible because of small sample sizes. The major source of residential energy consumption data, the Residential Energy Consumption Survey, only collects data on 5000 to 7000 households. For many minority population categories, this number of observations make any meaningful statistical analysis at least at the regional Census level practically impossible, with any further refinement of the analysis becoming even more difficult. In this paper our primary purpose is to describe the patterns of energy demand for Hispanics and nonhispanics but ancillary to that briefly present one possible solution to the data availability problem.

  7. Energy consumption in buildings and female thermal demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingma, Boris; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2015-12-01

    Energy consumption of residential buildings and offices adds up to about 30% of total carbon dioxide emissions; and occupant behaviour contributes to 80% of the variation in energy consumption. Indoor climate regulations are based on an empirical thermal comfort model that was developed in the 1960s (ref. ). Standard values for one of its primary variables--metabolic rate--are based on an average male, and may overestimate female metabolic rate by up to 35% (ref. ). This may cause buildings to be intrinsically non-energy-efficient in providing comfort to females. Therefore, we make a case to use actual metabolic rates. Moreover, with a biophysical analysis we illustrate the effect of miscalculating metabolic rate on female thermal demand. The approach is fundamentally different from current empirical thermal comfort models and builds up predictions from the physical and physiological constraints, rather than statistical association to thermal comfort. It provides a substantiation of the thermal comfort standard on the population level and adds flexibility to predict thermal demand of subpopulations and individuals. Ultimately, an accurate representation of thermal demand of all occupants leads to actual energy consumption predictions and real energy savings of buildings that are designed and operated by the buildings services community.

  8. Three Essays on National Oil Company Efficiency, Energy Demand and Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, Stacy L.

    This dissertation is composed of three separate essays in the field of energy economics. In the first paper, both data envelopment analysis and stochastic production frontier estimation are employed to provide empirical evidence on the revenue efficiency of national oil companies (NOCs) and private international oil companies (IOCs). Using a panel of 80 oil producing firms, the analysis suggests that NOCs are generally less efficient at generating revenue from a given resource base than IOCs, with some exceptions. Due to differing firm objectives, however, structural and institutional features may help explain much of the inefficiency. The second paper analyzes the relationship between economic development and the demand for energy. Energy consumption is modeled using panel data from 1990 to 2004 for 50 countries spanning all levels of development. We find the relationship between energy consumption and economic development corresponds to the structure of aggregate output and the nature of derived demand for electricity and direct-use fuels in each sector. Notably, the evidence of non-constant income elasticity of demand is much greater for electricity demand than for direct-use fuel consumption. In addition, we show that during periods of rapid economic development, one in which the short-term growth rate exceeds the long-run average, an increase in aggregate output is met by less energy-efficient capital. This is a result of capital being fixed in the short-term. As additional, more efficient capital stock is added to the production process, the short-term increase in energy intensity will diminish. In the third essay, we develop a system of equations to estimate a model of motor vehicle fuel consumption, vehicle miles traveled and implied fuel efficiency for the 67 counties of the State of Florida from 2001 to 2008. This procedure allows us to decompose the factors of fuel demand into elasticities of vehicle driving demand and fuel efficiency. Particular

  9. Seismic Energy Demand of Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyunhoon; Kim, Jinkoo

    2008-07-01

    In this study seismic analyses of steel structures were carried out to examine the effect of ground motion characteristics and structural properties on energy demands using 60 earthquake ground motions recorded in different soil conditions, and the results were compared with those of previous works. Analysis results show that ductility ratios and the site conditions have significant influence on input energy. The ratio of hysteretic to input energy is considerably influenced by the ductility ratio and the strong motion duration. It is also observed that as the predominant periods of the input energy spectra are significantly larger than those of acceleration response spectra used in the strength design, the strength demand on a structure designed based on energy should be checked especially in short period structures. For that reason framed structures with buckling-restrained-braces (BRBs) were designed in such a way that all the input energy was dissipated by the hysteretic energy of the BRBs, and the results were compared with those designed by conventional strength-based design procedure.

  10. Insatiable demands: Income, energy and environmental policy in Madagascar

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    The island nation of Madagascar is suffering the collision of three distinct trends: economic stagnation, a rapidly expanding population and a severely threatened natural resource base. Demands for growth, new energy reserves and environmental conservation, especially of forest resources, are creating a policy dilemma for both government officials and donors. This study seeks to bring new evidence to bear on this policy dilemma. Primary data on urban household income, family size and consumption of various energy types are used to test two main hypothesis (1) that charcoal, which constitutes the fuel of choice for a vast majority of the sample, is a normal rather than an inferior good, and (2) that demand for wood-fuels constitutes a genuine threat to the viability of the forest resource. The data indicate that income elasticities of demand for charcoal are positive over a broad range of per capita income levels, revealing that charcoal is, indeed a normal good for a large portion of the population represented by the sample. A model of forest degradation is built which establishes a clear link between wood-fuel demand and forest degradation. Together, these findings make clear that under current income patterns, and for the forseeable future, charcoal is a normal good and its consumption by urban residents constitutes a serious threat to the natural forest resource. The study concludes with a policy analysis which identifies existing market failures due to government policies and recommends changes based on tested policy prescriptions in other parts of the developing world.

  11. Market and energy demand analysis of a US maglev system

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.D.; Rote, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    High-speed magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles can provide an alternative mode of transportation for intercity travel, particularly for short- and medium-distance trips between 100 to 600 mi (160 and 960 km). The patterns of growth and the underlying factors affecting that growth In the year 2010 are evaluated to determine the magnitude of US Intercity travel that would become the basis for maglev demand. A methodology that is sensitive to the travelers' socioeconomic attributes was developed to Forecast intercity travel. Travel between 78 major metropolitan areas by air and highway modes is projected, and 12 high-density travel corridors are Identified and selected. The potential for a maglev system to substitute for part or that travel is calculated by using a model that estimates the extent of diversion from highway and air to maglev. Energy demand is estimated on the basis of energy usage during acceleration and cruise phases for each corridor and corridor connections.

  12. Market and energy demand analysis of a US maglev system

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.D.; Rote, D.M.

    1993-06-01

    High-speed magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles can provide an alternative mode of transportation for intercity travel, particularly for short- and medium-distance trips between 100 to 600 mi (160 and 960 km). The patterns of growth and the underlying factors affecting that growth In the year 2010 are evaluated to determine the magnitude of US Intercity travel that would become the basis for maglev demand. A methodology that is sensitive to the travelers` socioeconomic attributes was developed to Forecast intercity travel. Travel between 78 major metropolitan areas by air and highway modes is projected, and 12 high-density travel corridors are Identified and selected. The potential for a maglev system to substitute for part or that travel is calculated by using a model that estimates the extent of diversion from highway and air to maglev. Energy demand is estimated on the basis of energy usage during acceleration and cruise phases for each corridor and corridor connections.

  13. Using high frequency consumption data to identify demand response potential for solar energy integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.; Borgeson, S.; Fredman, D.; Hans, L.; Spurlock, A.; Todd, A.

    2015-12-01

    California's renewable portfolio standard (2012) requires the state to get 33% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2020. Increased share of variable renewable sources such as solar and wind in the California electricity system may require more grid flexibility to insure reliable power services. Such grid flexibility can be potentially provided by changes in end use electricity consumptions in response to grid conditions (demand-response). In the solar case, residential consumption in the late afternoon can be used as reserve capacity to balance the drop in solar generation. This study presents our initial attempt to identify, from a behavior perspective, residential demand response potentials in relation to solar ramp events using a data-driven approach. Based on hourly residential energy consumption data, we derive representative daily load shapes focusing on discretionary consumption with an innovative clustering analysis technique. We aggregate the representative load shapes into behavior groups in terms of the timing and rhythm of energy use in the context of solar ramp events. Households of different behavior groups that are active during hours with high solar ramp rates are identified for capturing demand response potential. Insights into the nature and predictability of response to demand-response programs are provided.

  14. Behavioral Economics Applied to Energy Demand Analysis: A Foundation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Neoclassical economics has shaped our understanding of human behavior for several decades. While still an important starting point for economic studies, neoclassical frameworks have generally imposed strong assumptions, for example regarding utility maximization, information, and foresight, while treating consumer preferences as given or external to the framework. In real life, however, such strong assumptions tend to be less than fully valid. Behavioral economics refers to the study and formalizing of theories regarding deviations from traditionally-modeled economic decision-making in the behavior of individuals. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) has an interest in behavioral economics as one influence on energy demand.

  15. Demand Response Resources for Energy and Ancillary Services (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.

    2014-04-01

    Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility particularly on future systems with high penetrations of variable wind an solar power generation. However, DR in grid models is limited by data availability and modeling complexity. This presentation focuses on the co-optimization of DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services in a production cost model of the Colorado test system. We assume each DR resource can provide energy services by either shedding load or shifting its use between different times, as well as operating

  16. Economic development and the structure of the demand for commercial energy

    SciTech Connect

    Judson, R.A.; Schmalensee, R.; Stoker, T.M.

    1999-07-01

    To deepen understanding of the relation between economic development and energy demand, this study estimates the relations between per-capita GDP and per-capita energy consumption in major economic sectors. Panel data covering up to 123 nations are employed, and measurement problems are treated both in dataset construction and in estimation. Time and country fixed effects are assumed, and flexible forms for income effects are employed. There are substantial differences among sectors in the structure of country, time, and income effects. In particular, the household sector's share of aggregate energy consumption tends to fall with income, the share of transportation tends to rise, and the share of industry follows an inverse-U pattern.

  17. Demand-driven energy supply from stored biowaste for biomethanisation.

    PubMed

    Aichinger, Peter; Kuprian, Martin; Probst, Maraike; Insam, Heribert; Ebner, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Energy supply is a global hot topic. The social and political pressure forces a higher percentage of energy supplied by renewable resources. The production of renewable energy in form of biomethane can be increased by co-substrates such as municipal biowaste. However, a demand-driven energy production or its storage needs optimisation, the option to store the substrate with its inherent energy is investigated in this study. The calorific content of biowaste was found unchanged after 45 d of storage (19.9±0.19 kJ g(-1) total solids), and the methane yield obtained from stored biowaste was comparable to fresh biowaste or even higher (approx. 400 m(3) Mg(-1) volatile solids). Our results show that the storage supports the hydrolysis of the co-substrate via acidification and production of volatile fatty acids. The data indicate that storage of biowaste is an efficient way to produce bioenergy on demand. This could in strengthen the role of biomethane plants for electricity supply the future.

  18. Aggregate modeling of fast-acting demand response and control under real-time pricing

    DOE PAGES

    Chassin, David P.; Rondeau, Daniel

    2016-08-24

    This paper develops and assesses the performance of a short-term demand response (DR) model for utility load control with applications to resource planning and control design. Long term response models tend to underestimate short-term demand response when induced by prices. This has two important consequences. First, planning studies tend to undervalue DR and often overlook its benefits in utility demand management program development. Second, when DR is not overlooked, the open-loop DR control gain estimate may be too low. This can result in overuse of load resources, control instability and excessive price volatility. Our objective is therefore to develop amore » more accurate and better performing short-term demand response model. We construct the model from first principles about the nature of thermostatic load control and show that the resulting formulation corresponds exactly to the Random Utility Model employed in economics to study consumer choice. The model is tested against empirical data collected from field demonstration projects and is shown to perform better than alternative models commonly used to forecast demand in normal operating conditions. Finally, the results suggest that (1) existing utility tariffs appear to be inadequate to incentivize demand response, particularly in the presence of high renewables, and (2) existing load control systems run the risk of becoming unstable if utilities close the loop on real-time prices.« less

  19. Aggregate modeling of fast-acting demand response and control under real-time pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Rondeau, Daniel

    2016-08-24

    This paper develops and assesses the performance of a short-term demand response (DR) model for utility load control with applications to resource planning and control design. Long term response models tend to underestimate short-term demand response when induced by prices. This has two important consequences. First, planning studies tend to undervalue DR and often overlook its benefits in utility demand management program development. Second, when DR is not overlooked, the open-loop DR control gain estimate may be too low. This can result in overuse of load resources, control instability and excessive price volatility. Our objective is therefore to develop a more accurate and better performing short-term demand response model. We construct the model from first principles about the nature of thermostatic load control and show that the resulting formulation corresponds exactly to the Random Utility Model employed in economics to study consumer choice. The model is tested against empirical data collected from field demonstration projects and is shown to perform better than alternative models commonly used to forecast demand in normal operating conditions. Finally, the results suggest that (1) existing utility tariffs appear to be inadequate to incentivize demand response, particularly in the presence of high renewables, and (2) existing load control systems run the risk of becoming unstable if utilities close the loop on real-time prices.

  20. Three Essays Examining Household Energy Demand and Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Anthony G.

    This dissertation consists of three essays examining household energy decisions and behavior. The first essay examines the adoption of energy efficient Energy Star home appliances by U.S. households. Program effectiveness requires that consumers be aware of the labeling scheme and also change their purchase decisions based on label information. The first essay examines the factors associated with consumer awareness of the Energy Star label of recently purchased major appliances and the factors associated with the choice of Energy Star labeled appliances. The findings suggest that eliminating identified gaps in Energy Star appliance adoption would result in house electricity cost savings of $164 million per year and associated carbon emission reductions of about 1.1 million metric tons per year. The second essay evaluates household energy security and the effectiveness of the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), the single largest energy assistance program available to poor households within the United States. Energy security is conceptually akin to the well-known concept of food security. Rasch models and household responses to energy security questions in the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey are used to generate an energy insecurity index that is consistent with those found in the food insecurity literature. Participating in LIHEAP is found to significantly reduce household energy insecurity score in the index. Further, simulations show that the elimination of the energy assistance safety net currently available to households increases the number of energy insecure house- holds by over 16 percent. The third essay develops a five equation demand system to estimate household own-price, cross-price and income elasticities between electricity, natural gas, food at home, food away from home, and non-durable commodity groups. Household cross-price elasticities between energy and food commodities are of particular importance. Energy price shocks

  1. An overview of energy supply and demand in China

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F.; Davis, W.B.; Levine, M.D.

    1992-05-01

    Although China is a poor country, with much of its population still farming for basic subsistence in rural villages, China is rich in energy resources. With the world`s largest hydropower potential, and ranking third behind the US and USSR in coal reserves, China is in a better position than many other developing countries when planning for its future energy development and self-sufficiency. China is now the third largest producer and consumer of commercial energy, but its huge populace dilutes this impressive aggregate performance into a per capita figure which is an order of magnitude below the rich industrialized nations. Despite this fact, it is still important to recognize that China`s energy system is still one of the largest in the world. A system this size allows risk taking and can capture economies of scale. The Chinese have maintained rapid growth in energy production for several decades. In order to continue and fully utilize its abundant resources however, China must successfully confront development challenges in many areas. For example, the geographic distribution of consumption centers poorly matches the distribution of resources, which makes transportation a vital but often weak link in the energy system. Another example -- capital -- is scarce relative to labor, causing obsolete and inefficiently installed technology to be operated well beyond what would be considered its useful life in the West. Major improvements in industrial processes, buildings, and other energy-using equipment and practices are necessary if China`s energy efficiency is to continue to improve. Chinese energy planners have been reluctant to invest in environmental quality at the expense of more tangible production quotas.

  2. An overview of energy supply and demand in China

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F.; Davis, W.B.; Levine, M.D.

    1992-05-01

    Although China is a poor country, with much of its population still farming for basic subsistence in rural villages, China is rich in energy resources. With the world's largest hydropower potential, and ranking third behind the US and USSR in coal reserves, China is in a better position than many other developing countries when planning for its future energy development and self-sufficiency. China is now the third largest producer and consumer of commercial energy, but its huge populace dilutes this impressive aggregate performance into a per capita figure which is an order of magnitude below the rich industrialized nations. Despite this fact, it is still important to recognize that China's energy system is still one of the largest in the world. A system this size allows risk taking and can capture economies of scale. The Chinese have maintained rapid growth in energy production for several decades. In order to continue and fully utilize its abundant resources however, China must successfully confront development challenges in many areas. For example, the geographic distribution of consumption centers poorly matches the distribution of resources, which makes transportation a vital but often weak link in the energy system. Another example -- capital -- is scarce relative to labor, causing obsolete and inefficiently installed technology to be operated well beyond what would be considered its useful life in the West. Major improvements in industrial processes, buildings, and other energy-using equipment and practices are necessary if China's energy efficiency is to continue to improve. Chinese energy planners have been reluctant to invest in environmental quality at the expense of more tangible production quotas.

  3. Solar energy demand (SED) of commodity life cycles.

    PubMed

    Rugani, Benedetto; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Mutel, Christopher; Bastianoni, Simone; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2011-06-15

    The solar energy demand (SED) of the extraction of 232 atmospheric, biotic, fossil, land, metal, mineral, nuclear, and water resources was quantified and compared with other energy- and exergy-based indicators. SED represents the direct and indirect solar energy required by a product or service during its life cycle. SED scores were calculated for 3865 processes, as implemented in the Ecoinvent database, version 2.1. The results showed that nonrenewable resources, and in particular minerals, formed the dominant contribution to SED. This large share is due to the indirect solar energy required to produce these resource inputs. Compared with other energy- and exergy-based indicators, SED assigns higher impact factors to minerals and metals and smaller impact factors to fossil energetic resources, land use, and nuclear energy. The highest differences were observed for biobased and renewable energy generation processes, whose relative contribution of renewable resources such as water, biomass, and land occupation was much lower in SED than in energy- and exergy-based indicators.

  4. Optimizing Aggregation Scenarios for Integrating Renewable Energy into the U.S. Electric Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcoran, B. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-12-01

    This study is an analysis of 2006 and 2007 electric load data, wind speed and solar irradiance data, and existing hydroelectric, geothermal, and other power plant data to quantify benefits of aggregating clean electric power from various Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regions in the contiguous United States. First, various time series, statistics, and probability methods are applied to the electric load data to determine if there are any desirable demand-side results—specifically reducing variability and/or coincidence of peak events, which could reduce the amount of required carbon-based generators—in combining the electricity demands from geographically and temporally diverse areas. Second, an optimization algorithm is applied to determine the least-cost portfolio of energy resources to meet the electric load for a range of renewable portfolio standards (RPS’s) for each FERC region and for various aggregation scenarios. Finally, the installed capacities, ramp rates, standard deviation, and corresponding generator requirements from these optimization test runs are compared against the transmission requirements to determine the most economical organizational structure of the contiguous U.S. electric grid. Ideally, results from this study will help to justify and identify a possible structure of a federal RPS and offer insight into how to best organize regions for transmission planning.

  5. The Impact of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Programs on the U.S. Electricity Market

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Young Sun; Hadley, Stanton W

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the impact of the energy efficiency (EE) and demand response (DR) programs on the grid and the consequent level of production. Changes in demand caused by EE and DR programs affect not only the dispatch of existing plants and new generation technologies, the retirements of old plants, and the finances of the market. To find the new equilibrium in the market, we use the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch Model (ORCED) developed to simulate the operations and costs of regional power markets depending on various factors including fuel prices, initial mix of generation capacity, and customer response to electricity prices. In ORCED, over 19,000 plant units in the nation are aggregated into up to 200 plant groups per region. Then, ORCED dispatches the power plant groups in each region to meet the electricity demands for a given year up to 2035. In our analysis, we show various demand, supply, and dispatch patterns affected by EE and DR programs across regions.

  6. Japan's Residential Energy Demand Outlook to 2030 Considering Energy Efficiency Standards"Top-Runner Approach"

    SciTech Connect

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Marnay, Chris

    2008-05-15

    As one of the measures to achieve the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions agreed to in the"Kyoto Protocol," an institutional scheme for determining energy efficiency standards for energy-consuming appliances, called the"Top-Runner Approach," was developed by the Japanese government. Its goal is to strengthen the legal underpinnings of various energy conservation measures. Particularly in Japan's residential sector, where energy demand has grown vigorously so far, this efficiency standard is expected to play a key role in mitigating both energy demand growth and the associated CO2 emissions. This paper presents an outlook of Japan's residential energy demand, developed by a stochastic econometric model for the purpose of analyzing the impacts of the Japan's energy efficiency standards, as well as the future stochastic behavior of income growth, demography, energy prices, and climate on the future energy demand growth to 2030. In this analysis, we attempt to explicitly take into consideration more than 30 kinds of electricity uses, heating, cooling and hot water appliances in order to comprehensively capture the progress of energy efficiency in residential energy end-use equipment. Since electricity demand, is projected to exhibit astonishing growth in Japan's residential sector due to universal increasing ownership of electric and other appliances, it is important to implement an elaborate efficiency standards policy for these appliances.

  7. Energy demand, energy substitution and economic growth : Evidence from developed and developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Aziz, Azlina

    This thesis contributes to the literature on energy demand in three ways. Firstly, it examines the major determinants of energy demand using a panel of 23 developed countries and 16 developing countries during 1978 to 2003. Secondly, it examines the demand for energy in the industrial sector and the extent of inter-fuel substitution, as well as substitution between energy and non-energy inputs, using data from 5 advanced countries and 5 energy producer's developing countries. Third, the thesis investigates empirically the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for these groups of countries over a 26-year period. The empirical results of this study confirm the majority of the findings in energy demand analysis. Income and price have shown to be important determinants for energy consumption in both developed and developing countries. Moreover, both economic structure and technical progress appear to exert significant impacts on energy consumption. Income has a positive impact on energy demand and the effect is larger in developing countries. In both developed and developing countries, price has a negative impact but these effects are larger in developed countries than in developing countries. The share of industry in GDP is positive and has a greater impact on energy demand in developing countries, whereas technological progress is found to be energy using in developed countries and energy saving in developing countries. With respect to the analysis of inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution in industrial energy demand, the results provide evidence for substitution possibilities between factor inputs and fuels. Substitutability is observed between capital and energy, capital and labour and labour and energy. These findings confirm previous evidence that production technologies in these countries allow flexibility in the capital-energy, capital-labour and labour-energy mix. In the energy sub-model, the elasticities of substitution show that large

  8. Heuristic Scheduling in Grid Environments: Reducing the Operational Energy Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenstein, Christian

    In a world where more and more businesses seem to trade in an online market, the supply of online services to the ever-growing demand could quickly reach its capacity limits. Online service providers may find themselves maxed out at peak operation levels during high-traffic timeslots but too little demand during low-traffic timeslots, although the latter is becoming less frequent. At this point deciding which user is allocated what level of service becomes essential. The concept of Grid computing could offer a meaningful alternative to conventional super-computing centres. Not only can Grids reach the same computing speeds as some of the fastest supercomputers, but distributed computing harbors a great energy-saving potential. When scheduling projects in such a Grid environment however, simply assigning one process to a system becomes so complex in calculation that schedules are often too late to execute, rendering their optimizations useless. Current schedulers attempt to maximize the utility, given some sort of constraint, often reverting to heuristics. This optimization often comes at the cost of environmental impact, in this case CO 2 emissions. This work proposes an alternate model of energy efficient scheduling while keeping a respectable amount of economic incentives untouched. Using this model, it is possible to reduce the total energy consumed by a Grid environment using 'just-in-time' flowtime management, paired with ranking nodes by efficiency.

  9. Commercial Building Tenant Energy Usage Data Aggregation and Privacy: Technical Appendix

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, Olga V.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Anderson, David M.

    2014-11-12

    This technical appendix accompanies report PNNL–23786 “Commercial Building Tenant Energy Usage Data Aggregation and Privacy”. The objective is to provide background information on the methods utilized in the statistical analysis of the aggregation thresholds.

  10. Energy demand and supply in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Barclay, C J

    2017-03-12

    The energy required for muscle contraction is provided by the breakdown of ATP but the amount of ATP in muscles cells is sufficient to power only a short duration of contraction. Buffering of ATP by phosphocreatine, a reaction catalysed by creatine kinase, extends the duration of activity possible but sustained activity depends on continual regeneration of PCr. This is achieved using ATP generated by oxidative processes and, during intense activity, by anaerobic glycolysis. The rate of ATP breakdown ranges from 70 to 140 mM min(-1) during isometric contractions of various intensity to as much as 400 mM min(-1) during intense, dynamic activity. The maximum rate of oxidative energy supply in untrained people is ~50 mM min(-1) which, if the contraction duty cycle is 0.5 as is often the case in cyclic activity, is sufficient to match an ATP breakdown rate during contraction of 100 mM min(-1). During brief, intense activity the rate of ATP turnover can exceed the rates of PCr regeneration by combined oxidative and glycolytic energy supply, resulting in a net decrease in PCr concentration. Glycolysis has the capacity to produce between 30 and 50 mM of ATP so that, for example, anaerobic glycolysis could provide ATP at an average of 100 mM min(-1) over 30 s of exhausting activity. The creatine kinase reaction plays an important role not only in buffering ATP but also in communicating energy demand from sites of ATP breakdown to the mitochondria. In that role, creatine kinases acts to slow and attenuate the response of mitochondria to changes in energy demand.

  11. Emissive Molecular Aggregates and Energy Migration in Luminescent Solar Concentrators.

    PubMed

    Banal, James L; Zhang, Bolong; Jones, David J; Ghiggino, Kenneth P; Wong, Wallace W H

    2017-01-17

    of chromophores exhibiting aggregation-induced emission (AIE) behavior are attractive candidates for LSC applications. Strategic application of AIE chromophores has led to the development of the first organic-based transparent solar concentrator that harvests UV light as well as the demonstration of reabsorption reduction by taking advantage of energy migration processes between chromophores. Further developments led us to the application of perylene diimides using an energy migration/energy transfer approach. To prevent concentration quenching, a molecularly insulated perylene diimide with bulky substituents attached to the imide positions was designed and synthesized. By combining the insulated perylene diimide with a commercial perylene dye as an energy donor-acceptor emitter pair, detrimental luminescence reabsorption was reduced while achieving a high chromophore concentration for efficient light absorption. This Account reviews and reinspects some of our recent work and the improvements in the field of LSCs.

  12. Proceedings of the Chinese-American symposium on energy markets and the future of energy demand

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.

    1988-11-01

    The Symposium was organized by the Energy Research Institute of the State Economic Commission of China, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Johns Hopkins University from the United States. It was held at the Johns Hopkins University Nanjing Center in late June 1988. It was attended by about 15 Chinese and an equal number of US experts on various topics related to energy demand and supply. Each presenter is one of the best observers of the energy situation in their field. A Chinese and US speaker presented papers on each topic. In all, about 30 papers were presented over a period of two and one half days. Each paper was translated into English and Chinese. The Chinese papers provide an excellent overview of the emerging energy demand and supply situation in China and the obstacles the Chinese planners face in managing the expected increase in demand for energy. These are matched by papers that discuss the energy situation in the US and worldwide, and the implications of the changes in the world energy situation on both countries. The papers in Part 1 provide historical background and discuss future directions. The papers in Part 2 focus on the historical development of energy planning and policy in each country and the methodologies and tools used for projecting energy demand and supply. The papers in Part 3 examine the pattern of energy demand, the forces driving demand, and opportunities for energy conservation in each of the major sectors in China and the US. The papers in Part 4 deal with the outlook for global and Pacific region energy markets and the development of the oil and natural gas sector in China.

  13. Modeling demand and competing use of forestry commodities for material and energy use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzenberger, Julian

    2013-04-01

    Model-based scenarios of the global energy sector predict with high agreement that both demand and international trade of biomass will increase strongly over the coming years. Competition for forestry products (and by-products), particularly for low-grade goods, will increase in the coming years due to the growing demand for bioenergy. Modeling and describing the competition between material and energy use of biomass fractions is thus of crucial importance in energy-economic assessments and scenario-building but is, so far, in the fewest models mapped in detail. In scientific literature various approaches exist to formulate demand equations and interdependence due to competing uses. The complexity of the factors and interactions, which influence the demand for commodities from the forestry sector and biogenic fuels (as well as in principle all products and services), can, in general, only be captured to a certain degree by model equations. Usually far-reaching assumptions about function form of the demand need to be made. An innovative modeling approach, that is able to model demand patterns with uncertain function form, uses neural networks with multiple output variables in combination with system dynamic modeling. Neural networks allow integration of flexible function forms, whereas the iterative set up of system dynamic models allows a feedback with system variables and exogenous variables, such as economic growth, population or policy driven blend-in targets. An extensive database has been established, based on the FAO ForeStat database, the World Bank's world development indicators as well as other economic indicators. This global data set has been aggregated in a total of 30 world regions and several forest products (charcoal, firewood, fiberboard, paper fractions, etc.). It is shown, that a methodology can be developed, that principally enables to reflect the competing use of biogenic fuels, can be calibrated along historical data, and can be used to

  14. Energy Demands and Efficiency Strategies in Data Center Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Shehabi, Arman

    2009-09-01

    Information technology (IT) is becoming increasingly pervasive throughout society as more data is digitally processed, stored, and transferred. The infrastructure that supports IT activity is growing accordingly, and data center energy demands haveincreased by nearly a factor of four over the past decade. Data centers house IT equipment and require significantly more energy to operate per unit floor area thanconventional buildings. The economic and environmental ramifications of continued data center growth motivate the need to explore energy-efficient methods to operate these buildings. A substantial portion of data center energy use is dedicated to removing the heat that is generated by the IT equipment. Using economizers to introduce large airflow rates of outside air during favorable weather could substantially reduce the energy consumption of data center cooling. Cooling buildings with economizers is an established energy saving measure, but in data centers this strategy is not widely used, partly owing to concerns that the large airflow rates would lead to increased indoor levels of airborne particles, which could damage IT equipment. The environmental conditions typical of data centers and the associated potential for equipment failure, however, are not well characterized. This barrier to economizer implementation illustrates the general relationship between energy use and indoor air quality in building design and operation. This dissertation investigates how building design and operation influence energy use and indoor air quality in data centers and provides strategies to improve both design goals simultaneously.As an initial step toward understanding data center air quality, measurements of particle concentrations were made at multiple operating northern California data centers. Ratios of measured particle concentrations in conventional data centers to the corresponding outside concentrations were significantly lower than those reported in the literature

  15. An Analysis of Extreme Heat and Energy Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, N. L.; Jin, J.; Hayhoe, K.

    2005-12-01

    Summer temperatures in the southwest U.S. are projected to increase more rapidly than previously expected, accompanied by longer, more frequent, and more severe extreme heat conditions. A heat and energy impacts analysis was performed using three Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models, the HadCM3, GFDL, and the PCM, forced with the A1fi, A2, and B1 greenhouse gas emissions detailed in the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios, and statistically downscaled to specific urban locations in California. Results show summer average temperature increases of 2-5oC under the lower B1 scenario and 4-8oC under the higher A1fi scenario. Results indicate that heat waves become longer and more frequent, with projections for California heat wave onset occurring by as much as 30 days earlier than present by 2050 and 70 days earlier by 2099. In addition, the number of heat wave days for six metropolitan areas in California (Los Angeles, Riverside/San Bernardino, San Francisco, Sacramento, Fresno and El Centro) show an increase by 15 to 40 more heat wave days in the 2050s than during the 1990s, and by the 2090s, the increase in heat wave days rises by 30 to 50 days under B1 and 70 to 100 days under A1fi. Heat waves are also projected to become more intense, with higher temperatures sustained over longer periods. Increases in mean and extreme heat events during the summer months have significant implications for energy demand in the heavily air-conditioned Southwest summers. Electricity load in these areas have a strong correlation with high temperature and increases proportionally, primarily due to increased air conditioning use. California's state-wide electricity demand at present increases by approximately 400 MW/oC for temperatures above 28oC, and the power grid is strained as temperatures increase, as this recent summer has seen energy alerts for Southern California. The projected temperature increases discussed here will likely further strain the California power grid

  16. Influence of the Mixing Energy Consumption Affecting Coagulation and Floc Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Vadasarukkai, Yamuna S; Gagnon, Graham A

    2017-03-21

    The operational significance of energy-intensive rapid mixing processes remains unaddressed in coagulation and flocculation of insoluble precipitates (flocs), which play an important role in the removal of impurities from drinking water supplies. In this study, the influence of rapid mixing and associated mixing energy on floc aggregation was examined for a surface water source characterized by a high fraction of aquatic humic matter. Infrared spectral analyses showed that the colloidal complexes resulting from ligand exchange between iron and dissolved natural organic matter (DOM) were not substantially influenced by the mixing energy input. This signified that DOM removal by coagulation can be achieved at lower mixing intensity, thereby reducing energy consumption. In contrast, macroscopic investigations showed the coagulation mixing energy affected floc size distributions during the slow mixing stage in flocculation and, to some extent, their settling characteristics. The results from analysis of floc properties clearly showed that more mixing energy was expended than necessary in coagulation, which is typically designed at a high mixing intensity range of 600-1000 s(-1) in treatment plants. The key findings from this study have practical implications to water utilities to strategically meet water quality goals while reducing energy demands.

  17. Pilot Evaluation of Energy Savings from Residential Energy Demand Feedback Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Danny S.; Hoak, David; Cummings, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    This report discusses instantaneous feedback on household electrical demand has shown promise to reduce energy consumption. This report reviews past research and describes a two year pilot evaluation of a low cost residential energy feedback system installed in twenty case study homes in FL.

  18. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part 1: Load Availability Profiles and Constraints for the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Daniel J.; Matson, Nance; Sohn, Michael D.; Rose, Cody; Dudley, Junqiao; Goli, Sasank; Kiliccote, Sila; Hummon, Marissa; Palchak, David; Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie

    2013-09-09

    Demand response (DR) has the potential to improve electric grid reliability and reduce system operation costs. However, including DR in grid modeling can be difficult due to its variable and non-traditional response characteristics, compared to traditional generation. Therefore, efforts to value the participation of DR in procurement of grid services have been limited. In this report, we present methods and tools for predicting demand response availability profiles, representing their capability to participate in capacity, energy, and ancillary services. With the addition of response characteristics mimicking those of generation, the resulting profiles will help in the valuation of the participation of demand response through production cost modeling, which informs infrastructure and investment planning.

  19. Effectiveness of building energy performance standards to curtail household energy demand: a theoretical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, V.K.

    1984-01-01

    The main purposes of Titles III and IV of the Energy Conservation and Production Act of 1976 are to curtail energy use in households and commercial buildings. The authors analyze the effectiveness of various policies emerging from these Titles, and compares them with alternate, though traditional, policies of pricing, taxes, and subsidies aimed at reducing energy demand. The study concludes that a pricing policy is more efficient than a direct regulatory policy that requires more bureaucracy. 10 references, 1 figure.

  20. Simulated thermal energy demand and actual energy consumption in refurbished and non-refurbished buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, C. A.; Visa, I.; Duta, A.

    2016-08-01

    The EU legal frame imposes the Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) status to any new public building starting with January 1st, 2019 and for any other new building starting with 2021. Basically, nZEB represents a Low Energy Building (LEB) that covers more than half of the energy demand by using renewable energy systems installed on or close to it. Thus, two steps have to be followed in developing nZEB: (1) reaching the LEB status through state- of-the art architectural and construction solutions (for the new buildings) or through refurbishing for the already existent buildings, followed by (2) implementing renewables; in Romania, over 65% of the energy demand in a building is directly linked to heating, domestic hot water (DHW), and - in certain areas - for cooling. Thus, effort should be directed to reduce the thermal energy demand to be further covered by using clean and affordable systems: solar- thermal systems, heat pumps, biomass, etc. or their hybrid combinations. Obviously this demand is influenced by the onsite climatic profile and by the building performance. An almost worst case scenario is approached in the paper, considering a community implemented in a mountain area, with cold and long winters and mild summers (Odorheiul Secuiesc city, Harghita county, Romania). Three representative types of buildings are analysed: multi-family households (in blocks of flats), single-family houses and administrative buildings. For the first two types, old and refurbished buildings were comparatively discussed.

  1. Energy demands during a judo match and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Degoutte, F; Jouanel, P; Filaire, E

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess energy demand during a judo match and the kinetics of recovery by measuring the metabolites of the oxypurine cascade, lipolytic activity, and glycolytic pathway. Methods: Venous blood samples were taken from 16 national judoists (mean (SEM) age 18.4 (1.6) years), before (T1) and three minutes (T2), one hour (T3), and 24 hours (T4) after a match. A seven day diet record was used to evaluate nutrient intake. Results: Nutrient analysis indicated that these athletes followed a low carbohydrate diet. Plasma lactate concentration had increased to 12.3 (1.8) mmol/l at the end of the match. An increase in the levels of extracellular markers of muscle adenine nucleotide catabolism, urea, and creatinine was observed at T2, while uric acid levels remained unchanged. High concentrations of urea persisted for 24 hours during the recovery period. Ammonia, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and creatinine returned to control levels within the 24 hour recovery period. Uric acid concentrations rose from T3 and had not returned to baseline 24 hours after the match. The levels of triglycerides, glycerol, and free fatty acids had increased significantly (p<0.05) after the match (T2) but returned to baseline values within 24 hours. Concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol were significantly increased after the match. Conclusions: These results show that a judo match induces both protein and lipid metabolism. Carbohydrate availability, training adaptation, and metabolic stress may explain the requirement for these types of metabolism. PMID:12782550

  2. 76 FR 16657 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ...\\ Demand response means a reduction in the consumption of electric energy by customers from their expected consumption in response to an increase in the price of electric energy or to incentive payments designed to induce lower consumption of electric energy. 18 CFR 35.28(b)(4) (2010). \\3\\ Demand response...

  3. Interim Data Changes in the Short-term Energy Outlook Data Systems Related to Electric Power Sector and Natural Gas Demand Data Revisions (Released in the STEO December 2002)

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    Beginning with the December 2002 issue of the Energy Information Administration's Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO), electricity generation and related fuel consumption totals will be presented on a basis that is consistent with the definitions and aggregates used in the 2001 edition of EIA's Annual Energy Review (AER). Particularly affected by these changes are the demand and balancing item totals for natural

  4. Energy demand for elimination of organic micropollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mousel, Danièle; Palmowski, Laurence; Pinnekamp, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Organic micropollutants (OMP), e.g. pharmaceuticals and household/industrial chemicals, are not fully eliminated in state-of-the-art municipal wastewater treatment plants and can potentially harm the aquatic environment. Therefore, several pilot and large-scale investigations on the elimination of organic micropollutants have taken place in recent years. Based on the present findings, the most efficient treatment steps to eliminate organic micropollutants have proven to be ozonation, adsorption on powdered activated carbon (PAC), or filtration through granular activated carbon (GAC). Yet a further treatment step implies an increase in energy demand of the wastewater treatment plant, which has to be considered along with OMP elimination. To this aim, data on energy demand of ten large-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) with processes for OMP elimination was collected and analyzed. Moreover, calculations on energy demand beyond the WWTP for production and transport of ancillary materials were performed to assess the cumulative energy demand of the processes. An assessment of the greenhouse gas emissions of the processes was achieved, which shall facilitate future life cycle analyses. The results show that energy demand of ozonation at the wastewater treatment plant is dependent upon the ozone dosage and is significantly higher than energy demand of PAC addition or GAC filtration (2 to 4 times higher without consideration of delivery heads). Despite uncertainties regarding the energy demand for production of activated carbon, it could be shown that the cumulative energy demand of adsorption steps is significantly higher than the energy demand at the WWTP. Using reactivated GAC can lead to energy and greenhouse gas emissions savings compared to using fresh GAC/PAC. Moreover, energy demand is always plant-specific and depends on different factors (delivery heads, existing filtration or post-treatment etc.). Since processes for elimination of organic

  5. Energy Demand and Its Effect on the Environment,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Topics included are: Energy use; crude oil production; environmental impacts; air pollution; electrical energy consumption; household appliances; population growth, residential and commercial; and related subjects.

  6. Electric energy demand and supply prospects for California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. G. M.

    1978-01-01

    A recent history of electricity forecasting in California is given. Dealing with forecasts and regulatory uncertainty is discussed. Graphs are presented for: (1) Los Angeles Department of Water and Power and Pacific Gas and Electric present and projected reserve margins; (2) California electricity peak demand forecast; and (3) California electricity production.

  7. Hawaii Energy Strategy: Program guide. [Contains special sections on analytical energy forecasting, renewable energy resource assessment, demand-side energy management, energy vulnerability assessment, and energy strategy integration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The Hawaii Energy Strategy program, or HES, is a set of seven projects which will produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. It will include a comprehensive energy vulnerability assessment with recommended courses of action to decrease Hawaii's energy vulnerability and to better prepare for an effective response to any energy emergency or supply disruption. The seven projects are designed to increase understanding of Hawaii's energy situation and to produce recommendations to achieve the State energy objectives of: Dependable, efficient, and economical state-wide energy systems capable of supporting the needs of the people, and increased energy self-sufficiency. The seven projects under the Hawaii Energy Strategy program include: Project 1: Develop Analytical Energy Forecasting Model for the State of Hawaii. Project 2: Fossil Energy Review and Analysis. Project 3: Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. Project 4: Demand-Side Management Program. Project 5: Transportation Energy Strategy. Project 6: Energy Vulnerability Assessment Report and Contingency Planning. Project 7: Energy Strategy Integration and Evaluation System.

  8. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-30

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may ‘eat up’ parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential ‘psychological rebound effects.’ It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough “rule of thumb”, in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  9. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-01

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may `eat up' parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential `psychological rebound effects.' It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough "rule of thumb", in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  10. Web-based energy information systems for energy management and demand response in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Herter, Karen

    2003-04-18

    Energy Information Systems (EIS) for buildings are becoming widespread in the U.S., with more companies offering EIS products every year. As a result, customers are often overwhelmed by the quickly expanding portfolio of EIS feature and application options, which have not been clearly identified for consumers. The object of this report is to provide a technical overview of currently available EIS products. In particular, this report focuses on web-based EIS products for large commercial buildings, which allow data access and control capabilities over the Internet. EIS products combine software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to collect, analyze and display building information to aid commercial building energy managers, facility managers, financial managers and electric utilities in reducing energy use and costs in buildings. Data types commonly processed by EIS include energy consumption data; building characteristics; building system data, such as heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting data; weather data; energy price signals; and energy demand-response event information. This project involved an extensive review of research and trade literature to understand the motivation for EIS technology development. This study also gathered information on currently commercialized EIS. This review is not an exhaustive analysis of all EIS products; rather, it is a technical framework and review of current products on the market. This report summarizes key features available in today's EIS, along with a categorization framework to understand the relationship between EIS, Energy Management and Control Systems (EMCSs), and similar technologies. Four EIS types are described: Basic Energy Information Systems (Basic-EIS); Demand Response Systems (DRS); Enterprise Energy Management (EEM); and Web-based Energy Management and Control Systems (Web-EMCS). Within the context of these four categories, the following characteristics of EIS are

  11. Exploring energy landscapes of protein folding and aggregation.

    PubMed

    Mousseau, Normand; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2008-05-01

    Human diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob's are associated with misfolding and aggregation of specific proteins into amyloid fibrils sharing a generic cross-beta structure. The self-assembly process is complex, but once a nucleus is formed, rapid fibril formation occurs. Insight into the structures of the oligomers during the lag phase, varying between hours and days, is very difficult experimentally because these species are transient, and numerically using all-atom molecular dynamics because the time scale explored is on the order of 10-100 ns. It is therefore important to develop simplified protein models and alternative methods to sample more efficiently the conformational space. In the past few years, we have developed the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau) coupled to the OPEP coarse-grained force field. This review reports the application of ART-OPEP on protein folding and aggregation.

  12. Enhancing State Clean Energy Workforce Training to Meet Demand. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saha, Devashree

    2010-01-01

    Recent state policy and federal funding initiatives are driving the demand for clean energy in both the short and long term. This increased demand has created the need for many more workers trained or retrained in a variety of clean energy jobs. In response, states are utilizing funding under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009…

  13. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Chinese Transportation Fuel Demand

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, China has experienced tremendous growth in its transportation sector. By the end of 2010, China's road infrastructure had emerged as the second-largest transportation system in the world after the United States. Passenger vehicle sales are dramatically increasing from a little more than half a million in 2000, to 3.7 million in 2005, to 13.8 million in 2010. This represents a twenty-fold increase from 2000 to 2010. The unprecedented motorization development in China led to a significant increase in oil demand, which requires China to import progressively more petroleum from other countries, with its share of petroleum imports exceeding 50% of total petroleum demand since 2009. In response to growing oil import dependency, the Chinese government is adopting a broad range of policies, including promotion of fuel-efficient vehicles, fuel conservation, increasing investments in oil resources around the world, and many others.

  14. Climate change, renewable energy and population impact on future energy demand for Burkina Faso build environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouedraogo, B. I.

    This research addresses the dual challenge faced by Burkina Faso engineers to design sustainable low-energy cost public buildings and domestic dwellings while still providing the required thermal comfort under warmer temperature conditions caused by climate change. It was found base don climate change SRES scenario A2 that predicted mean temperature in Burkina Faso will increase by 2oC between 2010 and 2050. Therefore, in order to maintain a thermally comfortable 25oC inside public buildings, the projected annual energy consumption for cooling load will increase by 15%, 36% and 100% respectively for the period between 2020 to 2039, 2040 to 2059 and 2070 to 2089 when compared to the control case. It has also been found that a 1% increase in population growth will result in a 1.38% and 2.03% increase in carbon emission from primary energy consumption and future electricity consumption respectively. Furthermore, this research has investigated possible solutions for adaptation to the severe climate change and population growth impact on energy demand in Burkina Faso. Shading devices could potentially reduce the cooling load by up to 40%. Computer simulation programming of building energy consumption and a field study has shown that adobe houses have the potential of significantly reducing energy demand for cooling and offer a formidable method for climate change adaptation. Based on the Net Present Cost, hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and Diesel generator energy production configuration is the most cost effective local electricity supply system, for areas without electricity at present, with a payback time of 8 years when compared to diesel generator stand-alone configuration. It is therefore a viable solution to increase electricity access to the majority of the population.

  15. Adaptive evolution of mitochondrial energy metabolism genes associated with increased energy demand in flying insects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunxia; Xu, Shixia; Xu, Junxiao; Guo, Yan; Yang, Guang

    2014-01-01

    Insects are unique among invertebrates for their ability to fly, which raises intriguing questions about how energy metabolism in insects evolved and changed along with flight. Although physiological studies indicated that energy consumption differs between flying and non-flying insects, the evolution of molecular energy metabolism mechanisms in insects remains largely unexplored. Considering that about 95% of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is supplied by mitochondria via oxidative phosphorylation, we examined 13 mitochondrial protein-encoding genes to test whether adaptive evolution of energy metabolism-related genes occurred in insects. The analyses demonstrated that mitochondrial DNA protein-encoding genes are subject to positive selection from the last common ancestor of Pterygota, which evolved primitive flight ability. Positive selection was also found in insects with flight ability, whereas no significant sign of selection was found in flightless insects where the wings had degenerated. In addition, significant positive selection was also identified in the last common ancestor of Neoptera, which changed its flight mode from direct to indirect. Interestingly, detection of more positively selected genes in indirect flight rather than direct flight insects suggested a stronger selective pressure in insects having higher energy consumption. In conclusion, mitochondrial protein-encoding genes involved in energy metabolism were targets of adaptive evolution in response to increased energy demands that arose during the evolution of flight ability in insects.

  16. Residential energy demand models: Current status and future improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peabody, G.

    1980-12-01

    Two models currently used to analyze energy use by the residential sector are described. The ORNL model is used to forecast energy use by fuel type for various end uses on a yearly basis. The MATH/CHRDS model analyzes variations in energy expenditures by households of various socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. The essential features of the ORNL and MATH/CHRDS models are retained in a proposed model and integrated into a framework that is more flexible than either model. The important determinants of energy use by households are reviewed.

  17. Comparing the energy landscapes for native folding and aggregation of PrP.

    PubMed

    Dee, Derek R; Woodside, Michael T

    2016-05-03

    Protein sequences are evolved to encode generally one folded structure, out of a nearly infinite array of possible folds. Underlying this code is a funneled free energy landscape that guides folding to the native conformation. Protein misfolding and aggregation are also a manifestation of free-energy landscapes. The detailed mechanisms of these processes are poorly understood, but often involve rare, transient species and a variety of different pathways. The inherent complexity of misfolding has hampered efforts to measure aggregation pathways and the underlying energy landscape, especially using traditional methods where ensemble averaging obscures important rare and transient events. We recently studied the misfolding and aggregation of prion protein by examining 2 monomers tethered in close proximity as a dimer, showing how the steps leading to the formation of a stable aggregated state can be resolved in the single-molecule limit and the underlying energy landscape thereby reconstructed. This approach allows a more quantitative comparison of native folding versus misfolding, including fundamental differences in the dynamics for misfolding. By identifying key steps and interactions leading to misfolding, it should help to identify potential drug targets. Here we describe the importance of characterizing free-energy landscapes for aggregation and the challenges involved in doing so, and we discuss how single-molecule studies can help test proposed structural models for PrP aggregates.

  18. Energy demand forecasting by means of Statistical Modelling: Assessing Benefits of Climate Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, M.; Alessandri, A.; Ruti, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    Energy demand forecasting is a critical task and it allows to anticipate any problems that might affect power systems operators, especially during periods with high demand peaks. The difficulties of this task are due to the complexity of the systems involved: energy usage patterns are particularly variable and influenced by many factors, such as weather conditions, social, economic and political aspects (i.e. national regulations, international relations). The strong influence of weather on electricity demand in Italy is due to the wide use of residential air-conditioning devices and, more in general, refrigeration and ventilation equipments. For this reasons, accurate climate information may help in obtaining precise energy demand forecasts, usually performed with statistical methods which show their effectiveness particularly where large amount of data is available. We present a study with the aim of assess the effects of the quality of weather data on statistical modelling performance on energy demand forecasting, using data provided by national transmission grid operator.

  19. Factor demand in Swedish manufacturing industry with special reference to the demand for energy. Instantaneous adjustment models; some results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjoeholm, K. R.

    1981-02-01

    The dual approach to the theory of production is used to estimate factor demand functions of the Swedish manufacturing industry. Two approximations of the cost function, the translog and the generalized Leontief models, are used. The price elasticities of the factor demand do not seem to depend on the choice of model. This is at least true as to the sign pattern and as to the inputs capital, labor, total energy and other materials. Total energy is separated into solid fuels, gasoline, fuel oil, electricity and a residual. Fuel oil and electricity are found to be substitutes by both models. Capital and energy are shown to be substitutes. This implies that Swedish industry will save more energy if the capital cost can be reduced. Both models are, in the best versions, able to detect an inappropriate variable. The assumption of perfect competition on the product market, is shown to be inadequate by both models. When this assumption is relaxed, the normal substitution pattern among the inputs is resumed.

  20. Energy demand of the German and Dutch residential building stock under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olonscheck, Mady; Holsten, Anne; Walther, Carsten; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    In order to mitigate climate change, extraordinary measures are necessary in the future. The building sector, in particular, offers considerable potential for transformation to lower energy demand. On a national level, however, successful and far-reaching measures will likely be taken only if reliable estimates regarding future energy demand from different scenarios are available. The energy demand for space heating and cooling is determined by a combination of behavioral, climatic, constructional, and demographic factors. For two countries, namely Germany and the Netherlands, we analyze the combined effect of future climate and building stock changes as well as renovation measures on the future energy demand for room conditioning of residential buildings until 2060. We show how much the heating energy demand will decrease in the future and answer the question of whether the energy decrease will be exceeded by an increase in cooling energy demand. Based on a sensitivity analysis, we determine those influencing factors with the largest impact on the future energy demand from the building stock. Both countries have national targets regarding the reduction of the energy demand for the future. We provide relevant information concerning the annual renovation rates that are necessary to reach these targets. Retrofitting buildings is a win-win option as it not only helps to mitigate climate change and to lower the dependency on fossil fuels but also transforms the buildings stock into one that is better equipped for extreme temperatures that may occur more frequently with climate change. For the Netherlands, the study concentrates not only on the national, but also the provincial level, which should facilitate directed policy measures. Moreover, the analysis is done on a monthly basis in order to ascertain a deeper understanding of the future seasonal energy demand changes. Our approach constitutes an important first step towards deeper insights into the internal dynamics

  1. India Energy Outlook: End Use Demand in India to 2020

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; McNeil, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-03-30

    Integrated economic models have been used to project both baseline and mitigation greenhouse gas emissions scenarios at the country and the global level. Results of these scenarios are typically presented at the sectoral level such as industry, transport, and buildings without further disaggregation. Recently, a keen interest has emerged on constructing bottom up scenarios where technical energy saving potentials can be displayed in detail (IEA, 2006b; IPCC, 2007; McKinsey, 2007). Analysts interested in particular technologies and policies, require detailed information to understand specific mitigation options in relation to business-as-usual trends. However, the limit of information available for developing countries often poses a problem. In this report, we have focus on analyzing energy use in India in greater detail. Results shown for the residential and transport sectors are taken from a previous report (de la Rue du Can, 2008). A complete picture of energy use with disaggregated levels is drawn to understand how energy is used in India and to offer the possibility to put in perspective the different sources of end use energy consumption. For each sector, drivers of energy and technology are indentified. Trends are then analyzed and used to project future growth. Results of this report provide valuable inputs to the elaboration of realistic energy efficiency scenarios.

  2. The energy required to produce materials: constraints on energy-intensity improvements, parameters of demand.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Timothy G; Sahni, Sahil; Allwood, Julian M; Ashby, Michael F; Worrell, Ernst

    2013-03-13

    In this paper, we review the energy requirements to make materials on a global scale by focusing on the five construction materials that dominate energy used in material production: steel, cement, paper, plastics and aluminium. We then estimate the possibility of reducing absolute material production energy by half, while doubling production from the present to 2050. The goal therefore is a 75 per cent reduction in energy intensity. Four technology-based strategies are investigated, regardless of cost: (i) widespread application of best available technology (BAT), (ii) BAT to cutting-edge technologies, (iii) aggressive recycling and finally, and (iv) significant improvements in recycling technologies. Taken together, these aggressive strategies could produce impressive gains, of the order of a 50-56 per cent reduction in energy intensity, but this is still short of our goal of a 75 per cent reduction. Ultimately, we face fundamental thermodynamic as well as practical constraints on our ability to improve the energy intensity of material production. A strategy to reduce demand by providing material services with less material (called 'material efficiency') is outlined as an approach to solving this dilemma.

  3. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Rockoff, Alexandra; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-05-11

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities for industrial refrigerated warehouses in California. The report describes refrigerated warehouses characteristics, energy use and demand, and control systems. It also discusses energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities and provides analysis results from three demand response studies. In addition, several energy efficiency, load management, and demand response case studies are provided for refrigerated warehouses. This study shows that refrigerated warehouses can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for open automated demand response (OpenADR) at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to OpenADR due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  4. Evaluating the sustainability of an energy supply system using renewable energy sources: An energy demand assessment of South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Cedric Fitzgerald

    Sustainable energy is defined as a dynamic harmony between the equitable availability of energy-intensive goods and services to all people and the preservation of the earth for future generations. Sustainable energy development continues to be a major focus within the government and regulatory governing bodies in the electric utility industry. This is as a result of continued demand for electricity and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generating plants on the environment by way of the greenhouse effect. A culmination of increasing concerns about climate change, the nuclear incident in Fukushima four years ago, and discussions on energy security in a world with growing energy demand have led to a movement for increasing the share of power generation from renewable energy sources. This work studies demand for electricity from primarily residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial customers in South Carolina (SC) and its effect on the environment from coal-fired electricity generating plants. Moreover, this work studies sustainable renewable energy source-options based on the renewable resources available in the state of SC, as viable options to supplement generation from coal-fired electricity generating plants. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants from primarily coal-fired plants will be defined and quantified. Fundamental renewable energy source options will be defined and quantified based on availability and sustainability of SC's natural resources. This work studies the environmental, economic, and technical aspects of each renewable energy source as a sustainable energy option to replace power generation from coal-fired plants. Additionally, social aspect implications will be incorporated into each of the three aspects listed above, as these aspects are explored during the research and analysis. Electricity demand data and alternative energy source-supply data in SC are carried out and are used to develop and

  5. Energy Demand and Resources of Japan. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-08-01

    of such cechnology trans- fers include: • Coal Utilization — Coal Gasification • Direct Process Use of Nuclear Energy — High Temperature Gas...not be large. Coal gasification , on the other hand, could contributp significantly towards offsetting an increasing Japanese dependence on...imported petroleum. Achievement of economical coal gasification in either the U.S. or Japan would provide both with a practical alternative energy source

  6. Optimal Sizing of Energy Storage and Photovoltaic Power Systems for Demand Charge Mitigation (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J.; Simpson, M.

    2013-10-01

    Commercial facility utility bills are often a strong function of demand charges -- a fee proportional to peak power demand rather than total energy consumed. In some instances, demand charges can constitute more than 50% of a commercial customer's monthly electricity cost. While installation of behind-the-meter solar power generation decreases energy costs, its variability makes it likely to leave the peak load -- and thereby demand charges -- unaffected. This then makes demand charges an even larger fraction of remaining electricity costs. Adding controllable behind-the-meter energy storage can more predictably affect building peak demand, thus reducing electricity costs. Due to the high cost of energy storage technology, the size and operation of an energy storage system providing demand charge management (DCM) service must be optimized to yield a positive return on investment (ROI). The peak demand reduction achievable with an energy storage system depends heavily on a facility's load profile, so the optimal configuration will be specific to both the customer and the amount of installed solar power capacity. We explore the sensitivity of DCM value to the power and energy levels of installed solar power and energy storage systems. An optimal peak load reduction control algorithm for energy storage systems will be introduced and applied to historic solar power data and meter load data from multiple facilities for a broad range of energy storage system configurations. For each scenario, the peak load reduction and electricity cost savings will be computed. From this, we will identify a favorable energy storage system configuration that maximizes ROI.

  7. Air conditioning versus heating: climate control is more energy demanding in Minneapolis than in Miami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivak, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Energy demand for climate control was analyzed for Miami (the warmest large metropolitan area in the US) and Minneapolis (the coldest large metropolitan area). The following relevant parameters were included in the analysis: (1) climatological deviations from the desired indoor temperature as expressed in heating and cooling degree days, (2) efficiencies of heating and cooling appliances, and (3) efficiencies of power-generating plants. The results indicate that climate control in Minneapolis is about 3.5 times as energy demanding as in Miami. This finding suggests that, in the US, living in cold climates is more energy demanding than living in hot climates.

  8. The Integration of Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, DemandResponse and Climate Change: Challenges and Opportunities for Evaluatorsand Planners

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, Edward

    2007-05-29

    This paper explores the feasibility of integrating energyefficiency program evaluation with the emerging need for the evaluationof programs from different "energy cultures" (demand response, renewableenergy, and climate change). The paper reviews key features andinformation needs of the energy cultures and critically reviews theopportunities and challenges associated with integrating these withenergy efficiency program evaluation. There is a need to integrate thedifferent policy arenas where energy efficiency, demand response, andclimate change programs are developed, and there are positive signs thatthis integration is starting to occur.

  9. Optimization Based Data Mining Approah for Forecasting Real-Time Energy Demand

    SciTech Connect

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Li, Xueping; Zhou, Shengchao

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide concern over environmental degradation, increasing pressure on electric utility companies to meet peak energy demand, and the requirement to avoid purchasing power from the real-time energy market are motivating the utility companies to explore new approaches for forecasting energy demand. Until now, most approaches for forecasting energy demand rely on monthly electrical consumption data. The emergence of smart meters data is changing the data space for electric utility companies, and creating opportunities for utility companies to collect and analyze energy consumption data at a much finer temporal resolution of at least 15-minutes interval. While the data granularity provided by smart meters is important, there are still other challenges in forecasting energy demand; these challenges include lack of information about appliances usage and occupants behavior. Consequently, in this paper, we develop an optimization based data mining approach for forecasting real-time energy demand using smart meters data. The objective of our approach is to develop a robust estimation of energy demand without access to these other building and behavior data. Specifically, the forecasting problem is formulated as a quadratic programming problem and solved using the so-called support vector machine (SVM) technique in an online setting. The parameters of the SVM technique are optimized using simulated annealing approach. The proposed approach is applied to hourly smart meters data for several residential customers over several days.

  10. An accelerator-driven reactor for meeting future energy demand

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Yang, Y.; Yu, A.

    1997-12-31

    Fissile fuel can be produced at a high rate using an accelerator-driven Pu-fueled subcritical fast reactor which avoids encountering a shortage of Pu during a high growth rate in the production of nuclear energy. Furthermore, the necessity of the early introduction of the fast reactor can be moderated. Subcritical operation provides flexible nuclear energy options along with high neutron economy for producing the fuel, for transmuting high-level waste such as minor actinides, and for efficiently converting excess and military Pu into proliferation-resistant fuel.

  11. Supply of and demand for selected energy related mineral commodities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibley, Scott F.

    2010-01-01

    In this report, subjects discussed include components of mineral supply, production, and consumption data, and information on selected mineral commodities in which the Energy Critical Elements Study Group has an interest, and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recycling studies, with some results of these studies.

  12. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    SciTech Connect

    Grenzeback, L. R.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Hutson, N.; Lamm, C. R.; Pei, Y. L.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Winebrake, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and by extrapolation, to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050, requiring ever-greater amounts of energy. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand; the possible trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand and related energy use. After describing federal policy actions that could influence freight demand, the report then summarizes the available analytical models for forecasting freight demand, and identifies possible areas for future action.

  13. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    SciTech Connect

    Grenzeback, L. R.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Hutson, N.; Lamm, C. R.; Pei, Y. L.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Winebrake, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand, the trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand. After describing federal policy actions that could influence future freight demand, the report then summarizes the capabilities of available analytical models for forecasting freight demand. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  14. Energy supply and demand modeling. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of mathematical models in trend analysis and forecasting of energy supply and demand factors. Models are presented for the industrial, transportation, and residential sectors. Aspects of long term energy strategies and markets are discussed at the global, national, state, and regional levels. Energy demand and pricing, and econometrics of energy, are explored for electric utilities and natural resources, such as coal, oil, and natural gas. Energy resources are modeled both for fuel usage and for reserves. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Energy supply and demand modeling. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of mathematical models in trend analysis and forecasting of energy supply and demand factors. Models are presented for the industrial, transportation, and residential sectors. Aspects of long term energy strategies and markets are discussed at the global, national, state, and regional levels. Energy demand and pricing, and econometrics of energy, are explored for electric utilities and natural resources, such as coal, oil, and natural gas. Energy resources are modeled both for fuel usage and for reserves. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Energy supply and demand modeling. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of mathematical models in trend analysis and forecasting of energy supply and demand factors. Models are presented for the industrial, transportation, and residential sectors. Aspects of long term energy strategies and markets are discussed at the global, national, state, and regional levels. Energy demand and pricing, and econometrics of energy, are explored for electric utilities and natural resources, such as coal, oil, and natural gas. Energy resources are modeled both for fuel usage and for reserves. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Energy Demand in China (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    Price, Lynn

    2016-07-12

    Lynn Price, LBNL scientist, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  18. Price and income elasticities of energy demand: Some estimates for Kuwait using two econometric models

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mutairi, N.H.; Eltony, M.N.

    1995-12-31

    This paper estimates the demand for energy in Kuwait for the period 1965-1989 using two econometric models: a cointegration and error correction model (ECM) and a simultaneous-equation model (SEM). The results obtained from both models are similar. It is found that the energy demand is inelastic with respect to price in the short and long run, and while it is elastic in the long run, the energy demand is inelastic with respect to income in the short run. Both models` validation shows that the ECM performed better in replicating the past than the simultaneous model, suggesting the need to use the ECM to identify future prospects for energy demand in Kuwait.

  19. Draft Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Guidance for Demand-Side Energy Efficiency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is sharing draft Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Guidance for Demand-Side Energy Efficiency for public comment. This guidance is not a regulatory document, and is intended to supplement information provided in the Clean Power Plan.

  20. Supply and demand for wood as a source of energy in Zambia: An econometric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mupimpila, C.

    1993-01-01

    This study examines the status of biomass energy in Zambia. In its current usage, the concept of biomass energy often implies woodfuel because woodfuel is the main biomass energy. This study develops an econometric model of household woodfuel demand and also evaluates the supply of woodfuel in Zambia. The study finds that there are significant sectoral differences in woodfuel demand between the rural and urban sectors. In the rural sector, inflation is by far the most significant determinant of household woodfuel demand. The coefficients on inflation are statistically significant at better than the one percent level and also have expected positive signs. In the urban sector, inflation is again by far the most significant determinant of woodfuel demand. However, in the urban sector, household income and woodfuel price are also significant determinants of demand. The coefficients on inflation, household income, and woodfuel price are all significant at better than the one percent level and have expected signs. The income elasticity of woodfuel demand is positive, suggesting that in the short-run, woodfuel is a normal good. However, the elasticity of woodfuel demand with respect to growth in investment is negative, indicating that long-run structural change in the economy reduces woodfuel demand.

  1. Energy development scenarios and water demands and supplies: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1977-01-01

    On the basis of average mean annual flows, ample water exists in the upper Missouri River basin for energy development. The lack of storage and diversion works upstream as well as State compacts preclude the ready use of this surplus water. These surplus flows are impounded in mainstream reservoirs on the Missouri downstream from coal mining areas but could be transported back at some expense for use in Wyoming and North Dakota. There are limited water supplies available for the development of coal and oil shale industries in the upper Colorado River Basin. Fortunately oil shale mining, retorting and reclamation do not require as much water as coal conversion; in-situ oil shale retorting would seem to be particularly desirable in the light of reduced water consumption. Existing patterns of energy production, transport, and conversion suggest that more of the coal to be mined out West is apt to be transmitted to existing load centers rather than converted to electricity or gas in the water-short West. Scenarios of development of the West 's fossil fuels may be overestimating the need for water since they have assumed that major conversion industries would develop in the West. Transport of coal to existing users will require all means of coal movement including unit trains, barges, and coal slurry pipelines. The latter is considered more desirable than the development of conversion industries in the West when overall water consumption is considered. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Nanotubular J-aggregates and quantum dots coupled for efficient resonance excitation energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yan; Polzer, Frank; Kirmse, Holm; Steeg, Egon; Kühn, Sergei; Friede, Sebastian; Kirstein, Stefan; Rabe, Jürgen P

    2015-02-24

    Resonant coupling between distinct excitons in organic supramolecular assemblies and inorganic semiconductors is supposed to offer an approach to optoelectronic devices. Here, we report on colloidal nanohybrids consisting of self-assembled tubular J-aggregates decorated with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) via electrostatic self-assembly. The role of QDs in the energy transfer process can be switched from a donor to an acceptor by tuning its size and thereby the excitonic transition energy while keeping the chemistry unaltered. QDs are located within a close distance (<4 nm) to the J-aggregate surface, without harming the tubular structures and optical properties of J-aggregates. The close proximity of J-aggregates and QDs allows the strong excitation energy transfer coupling, which is around 92% in the case of energy transfer from the QD donor to the J-aggregate acceptor and approximately 20% in the reverse case. This system provides a model of an organic-inorganic light-harvesting complex using methods of self-assembly in aqueous solution, and it highlights a route toward hierarchical synthesis of structurally well-defined supramolecular objects with advanced functionality.

  3. A Framework for Understanding and Generating Integrated Solutions for Residential Peak Energy Demand

    PubMed Central

    Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley; Ledwich, Gerard; Bell, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Morris, Peter; Lewis, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Supplying peak energy demand in a cost effective, reliable manner is a critical focus for utilities internationally. Successfully addressing peak energy concerns requires understanding of all the factors that affect electricity demand especially at peak times. This paper is based on past attempts of proposing models designed to aid our understanding of the influences on residential peak energy demand in a systematic and comprehensive way. Our model has been developed through a group model building process as a systems framework of the problem situation to model the complexity within and between systems and indicate how changes in one element might flow on to others. It is comprised of themes (social, technical and change management options) networked together in a way that captures their influence and association with each other and also their influence, association and impact on appliance usage and residential peak energy demand. The real value of the model is in creating awareness, understanding and insight into the complexity of residential peak energy demand and in working with this complexity to identify and integrate the social, technical and change management option themes and their impact on appliance usage and residential energy demand at peak times. PMID:25807384

  4. Energy demand hourly simulations and energy saving strategies in greenhouses for the Mediterranean climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priarone, A.; Fossa, M.; Paietta, E.; Rolando, D.

    2017-01-01

    This research has been devoted to the selection of the most favourable plant solutions for ventilation, heating and cooling, thermo-hygrometric control of a greenhouse, in the framework of the energy saving and the environmental protection. The identified plant solutions include shading of glazing surfaces, natural ventilation by means of controlled opening windows, forced convection of external air and forced convection of air treated by the HVAC system for both heating and cooling. The selected solution combines HVAC system to a Ground Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP), which is an innovative renewable technology applied to greenhouse buildings. The energy demand and thermal loads of the greenhouse to fulfil the requested internal design conditions have been evaluated through an hourly numerical simulation, using the Energy Plus (E-plus) software. The overall heat balance of the greenhouse also includes the latent heat exchange due to crop evapotranspiration, accounted through an original iterative calculation procedure that combines the E-plus dynamic simulations and the FAO Penman-Monteith method. The obtained hourly thermal loads have been used to size the borehole field for the geothermal heat pump by using a dedicated GCHP hourly simulation tool.

  5. Development of robust building energy demand-side control strategy under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sean Hay

    The potential of carbon emission regulations applied to an individual building will encourage building owners to purchase utility-provided green power or to employ onsite renewable energy generation. As both cases are based on intermittent renewable energy sources, demand side control is a fundamental precondition for maximizing the effectiveness of using renewable energy sources. Such control leads to a reduction in peak demand and/or in energy demand variability, therefore, such reduction in the demand profile eventually enhances the efficiency of an erratic supply of renewable energy. The combined operation of active thermal energy storage and passive building thermal mass has shown substantial improvement in demand-side control performance when compared to current state-of-the-art demand-side control measures. Specifically, "model-based" optimal control for this operation has the potential to significantly increase performance and bring economic advantages. However, due to the uncertainty in certain operating conditions in the field its control effectiveness could be diminished and/or seriously damaged, which results in poor performance. This dissertation pursues improvements of current demand-side controls under uncertainty by proposing a robust supervisory demand-side control strategy that is designed to be immune from uncertainty and perform consistently under uncertain conditions. Uniqueness and superiority of the proposed robust demand-side controls are found as below: a. It is developed based on fundamental studies about uncertainty and a systematic approach to uncertainty analysis. b. It reduces variability of performance under varied conditions, and thus avoids the worst case scenario. c. It is reactive in cases of critical "discrepancies" observed caused by the unpredictable uncertainty that typically scenario uncertainty imposes, and thus it increases control efficiency. This is obtainable by means of i) multi-source composition of weather forecasts

  6. Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies andStrategies in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2006-09-01

    Commercial buildings account for a large portion of summer peak electric demand. Research results show that there is significant potential to reduce peak demand in commercial buildings through advanced control technologies and strategies. However, a better understanding of commercial buildings contribution to peak demand and the use of energy management and control systems is required to develop this demand response resource to its full potential. The main objectives of the study were: (1) To evaluate the size of contributions of peak demand commercial buildings in the U.S.; (2) To understand how commercial building control systems support energy efficiency and DR; and (3) To disseminate the results to the building owners, facility managers and building controls industry. In order to estimate the commercial buildings contribution to peak demand, two sources of data are used: (1) Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and (2) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). These two sources indicate that commercial buildings noncoincidental peak demand is about 330GW. The project then focused on technologies and strategies that deliver energy efficiency and also target 5-10% of this peak. Based on a building operations perspective, a demand-side management framework with three main features: (1) daily energy efficiency, (2) daily peak load management and (3) dynamic, event-driven DR are outlined. A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide DR potential in commercial buildings are presented. Case studies involving these technologies and strategies are described. The findings of this project are shared with building owners, building controls industry, researchers and government entities through a webcast and their input is requested. Their input is presented in the appendix section of this report.

  7. On the Optimization of a Probabilistic Data Aggregation Framework for Energy Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Kafetzoglou, Stella; Aristomenopoulos, Giorgos; Papavassiliou, Symeon

    2015-08-11

    Among the key aspects of the Internet of Things (IoT) is the integration of heterogeneous sensors in a distributed system that performs actions on the physical world based on environmental information gathered by sensors and application-related constraints and requirements. Numerous applications of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have appeared in various fields, from environmental monitoring, to tactical fields, and healthcare at home, promising to change our quality of life and facilitating the vision of sensor network enabled smart cities. Given the enormous requirements that emerge in such a setting-both in terms of data and energy-data aggregation appears as a key element in reducing the amount of traffic in wireless sensor networks and achieving energy conservation. Probabilistic frameworks have been introduced as operational efficient and performance effective solutions for data aggregation in distributed sensor networks. In this work, we introduce an overall optimization approach that improves and complements such frameworks towards identifying the optimal probability for a node to aggregate packets as well as the optimal aggregation period that a node should wait for performing aggregation, so as to minimize the overall energy consumption, while satisfying certain imposed delay constraints. Primal dual decomposition is employed to solve the corresponding optimization problem while simulation results demonstrate the operational efficiency of the proposed approach under different traffic and topology scenarios.

  8. Advanced Controls and Communications for Demand Response andEnergy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Hansen, David

    2006-01-17

    Commercial buildings account for a large portion of summer peak demand. Research results show that there is significant potential to reduce peak demand in commercial buildings through advanced control technologies and strategies. However, a better understanding of commercial building's contribution to peak demand and the use of energy management and control systems is required to develop this demand response resource to its full potential. This paper discusses recent research results and new opportunities for advanced building control systems to provide demand response (DR) to improve electricity markets and reduce electric grid problems. The main focus of this paper is the role of new and existing control systems for HVAC and lighting in commercial buildings. A demand-side management framework from building operations perspective with three main features: daily energy efficiency, daily peak load management and event driven, dynamic demand response is presented. A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide potential in commercial buildings is outlined. Case studies involving energy management and control systems and DR savings opportunities are presented. The paper also describes results from three years of research in California to automate DR in buildings. Case study results and research on advanced buildings systems in New York are also presented.

  9. The Boom of Electricity Demand in the Residential Sector in the Developing World and the Potential for Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.

    2008-05-13

    With the emergence of China as the world's largest energy consumer, the awareness of developing country energy consumption has risen. According to common economic scenarios, the rest of the developing world will probably see an economic expansion as well. With this growth will surely come continued rapid growth in energy demand. This paper explores the dynamics of that demand growth for electricity in the residential sector and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. In 2000, only 66% of developing world households had access to electricity. Appliance ownership rates remain low, but with better access to electricity and a higher income one can expect that households will see their electricity consumption rise significantly. This paper forecasts developing country appliance growth using econometric modeling. Products considered explicitly - refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting, washing machines, fans, televisions, stand-by power, water heating and space heating - represent the bulk of household electricity consumption in developing countries. The resulting diffusion model determines the trend and dynamics of demand growth at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, the paper presents scenarios for reducing residential consumption through cost-effective and/or best practice efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, which allows for a realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities at the national or regional level. The past decades have seen some of the developing world moving towards a standard of living previously reserved for industrialized countries. Rapid economic development, combined with large populations has led to first China and now India to emerging as 'energy

  10. Global impacts of energy demand on the freshwater resources of nations.

    PubMed

    Holland, Robert Alan; Scott, Kate A; Flörke, Martina; Brown, Gareth; Ewers, Robert M; Farmer, Elizabeth; Kapos, Valerie; Muggeridge, Ann; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Taylor, Gail; Barrett, John; Eigenbrod, Felix

    2015-12-01

    The growing geographic disconnect between consumption of goods, the extraction and processing of resources, and the environmental impacts associated with production activities makes it crucial to factor global trade into sustainability assessments. Using an empirically validated environmentally extended global trade model, we examine the relationship between two key resources underpinning economies and human well--being-energy and freshwater. A comparison of three energy sectors (petroleum, gas, and electricity) reveals that freshwater consumption associated with gas and electricity production is largely confined within the territorial boundaries where demand originates. This finding contrasts with petroleum, which exhibits a varying ratio of territorial to international freshwater consumption, depending on the origin of demand. For example, although the United States and China have similar demand associated with the petroleum sector, international freshwater consumption is three times higher for the former than the latter. Based on mapping patterns of freshwater consumption associated with energy sectors at subnational scales, our analysis also reveals concordance between pressure on freshwater resources associated with energy production and freshwater scarcity in a number of river basins globally. These energy-driven pressures on freshwater resources in areas distant from the origin of energy demand complicate the design of policy to ensure security of fresh water and energy supply. Although much of the debate around energy is focused on greenhouse gas emissions, our findings highlight the need to consider the full range of consequences of energy production when designing policy.

  11. Global impacts of energy demand on the freshwater resources of nations

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Robert Alan; Scott, Kate A.; Flörke, Martina; Brown, Gareth; Ewers, Robert M.; Farmer, Elizabeth; Kapos, Valerie; Muggeridge, Ann; Taylor, Gail; Barrett, John; Eigenbrod, Felix

    2015-01-01

    The growing geographic disconnect between consumption of goods, the extraction and processing of resources, and the environmental impacts associated with production activities makes it crucial to factor global trade into sustainability assessments. Using an empirically validated environmentally extended global trade model, we examine the relationship between two key resources underpinning economies and human well-being—energy and freshwater. A comparison of three energy sectors (petroleum, gas, and electricity) reveals that freshwater consumption associated with gas and electricity production is largely confined within the territorial boundaries where demand originates. This finding contrasts with petroleum, which exhibits a varying ratio of territorial to international freshwater consumption, depending on the origin of demand. For example, although the United States and China have similar demand associated with the petroleum sector, international freshwater consumption is three times higher for the former than the latter. Based on mapping patterns of freshwater consumption associated with energy sectors at subnational scales, our analysis also reveals concordance between pressure on freshwater resources associated with energy production and freshwater scarcity in a number of river basins globally. These energy-driven pressures on freshwater resources in areas distant from the origin of energy demand complicate the design of policy to ensure security of fresh water and energy supply. Although much of the debate around energy is focused on greenhouse gas emissions, our findings highlight the need to consider the full range of consequences of energy production when designing policy. PMID:26627262

  12. Prediction-based manufacturing center self-adaptive demand side energy optimization in cyber physical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xinyao; Wang, Xue; Wu, Jiangwei; Liu, Youda

    2014-05-01

    Cyber physical systems(CPS) recently emerge as a new technology which can provide promising approaches to demand side management(DSM), an important capability in industrial power systems. Meanwhile, the manufacturing center is a typical industrial power subsystem with dozens of high energy consumption devices which have complex physical dynamics. DSM, integrated with CPS, is an effective methodology for solving energy optimization problems in manufacturing center. This paper presents a prediction-based manufacturing center self-adaptive energy optimization method for demand side management in cyber physical systems. To gain prior knowledge of DSM operating results, a sparse Bayesian learning based componential forecasting method is introduced to predict 24-hour electric load levels for specific industrial areas in China. From this data, a pricing strategy is designed based on short-term load forecasting results. To minimize total energy costs while guaranteeing manufacturing center service quality, an adaptive demand side energy optimization algorithm is presented. The proposed scheme is tested in a machining center energy optimization experiment. An AMI sensing system is then used to measure the demand side energy consumption of the manufacturing center. Based on the data collected from the sensing system, the load prediction-based energy optimization scheme is implemented. By employing both the PSO and the CPSO method, the problem of DSM in the manufacturing center is solved. The results of the experiment show the self-adaptive CPSO energy optimization method enhances optimization by 5% compared with the traditional PSO optimization method.

  13. Viscosity-temperature Relation of Aggregation Energies in Glass Forming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wan Q.; Shang, Xun Z.

    Based on the dynamics of vitrification process driven by the configurational entropy, a novel expression of viscosity- temperature relation with the form of Fermi-type function is deduced below melting temperature by supposed an exponential function of average aggregation energy with temperature. The 'molecular rearrangement' to form aggregated regions at temperatures below the melting temperature is major contribution to the aggregation energies for describing vitrification process. The expression of relaxation time or viscosity is confirmed with several super-cooled liquids in broad temperature region. The expression contains the Vogel-Fulcher relation in limited temperature region and can avoid Kauzmenn paradox. The derived fragility shows that a reduced temperature may be a common structural variable in comparing various glassy liquids.

  14. Calcium signaling as a mediator of cell energy demand and a trigger to cell death

    PubMed Central

    Bhosale, Gauri; Sharpe, Jenny A.; Sundier, Stephanie Y.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium signaling is pivotal to a host of physiological pathways. A rise in calcium concentration almost invariably signals an increased cellular energy demand. Consistent with this, calcium signals mediate a number of pathways that together serve to balance energy supply and demand. In pathological states, calcium signals can precipitate mitochondrial injury and cell death, especially when coupled to energy depletion and oxidative or nitrosative stress. This review explores the mechanisms that couple cell signaling pathways to metabolic regulation or to cell death. The significance of these pathways is exemplified by pathological case studies, such as those showing loss of mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 in patients and ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:26375864

  15. Model documentation report: Residential sector demand module of the national energy modeling system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code. This reference document provides a detailed description for energy analysts, other users, and the public. The NEMS Residential Sector Demand Module is currently used for mid-term forecasting purposes and energy policy analysis over the forecast horizon of 1993 through 2020. The model generates forecasts of energy demand for the residential sector by service, fuel, and Census Division. Policy impacts resulting from new technologies, market incentives, and regulatory changes can be estimated using the module. 26 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Summary of Characteristics and Energy Efficiency Demand-side Management Programs in the Southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Glatt, Sandy

    2010-04-01

    This report is the first in a series that seeks to characterize energy supply and industrial sector energy consumption, and summarize successful industrial demand-side management (DSM) programs within each of the eight North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) regions.

  17. Modeling future demand for energy resources: A study of residential electricity usage in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilagupta, Prapassara

    1999-12-01

    Thailand has a critical need for effective long-term energy planning because of the country's rapidly increasing energy consumption. In this study, the demand for electricity by the residential sector is modeled using a framework that provides detailed estimates of the timing and spatial distribution of changes in energy demand. A population model was developed based on the Cohort-Component method to provide estimates of population by age, sex and urban/non-urban residency in each province. A residential electricity end user model was developed to estimate future electricity usage in urban and non-urban households of the seventy-six provinces in Thailand during the period 1999--2019. Key variables in this model include population, the number of households, family household size, and characteristics of eleven types of electric household appliance such as usage intensity, input power, and saturation rate. The methodology employed in this study is a trending method which utilizes expert opinion to estimate future variables based on a percentage change from the most current value. This study shows that from 1994 to 2019 Thailand will experience an increase in population from 55.4 to 83.6 million. Large percentage population increases will take place in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, Samut Prakarn, Nakhon Pathom and Chonburi. At a national level, the residential electricity consumption will increase from approximately 19,000 to 8 1,000 GWh annually. Consumption in non-urban households will be larger than in urban households, with respective annual increases of 8.0% and 6.2% in 2019. The percent increase of the average annual electricity consumption will be four times the average annual percent population increase. Increased electricity demand is largely a function of increased population and increased demand for high-energy appliances such as air conditioners. In 1994, air conditioning was responsible for xx% of total residential electricity demand. This study estimates that in

  18. Renewable energy: GIS-based mapping and modelling of potentials and demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, Thomas; Biberacher, Markus; Schardinger, Ingrid.; Gadocha, Sabine; Zocher, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Worldwide demand of energy is growing and will continue to do so for the next decades to come. IEA has estimated that global primary energy demand will increase by 40 - 50% from 2003 to 2030 (IEA, 2005) depending on the fact whether currently contemplated energy policies directed towards energy-saving and fuel-diversification will be effectuated. The demand for Renewable Energy (RE) is undenied but clear figures and spatially disaggregated potentials for the various energy carriers are very rare. Renewable Energies are expected to reduce pressures on the environment and CO2 production. In several studies in Germany (North-Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony) and Austria we studied the current and future pattern of energy production and consumption. In this paper we summarize and benchmark different RE carriers, namely wind, biomass (forest and non-forest, geothermal, solar and hydro power. We demonstrate that GIS-based scalable and flexible information delivery sheds new light on the prevailing metaphor of GIS as a processing engine serving needs of users more on demand rather than through ‘maps on stock'. We compare our finding with those of several energy related EU-FP7 projects in Europe where we have been involved - namely GEOBENE, REACCESS, ENERGEO - and demonstrate that more and more spatial data will become available together with tools that allow experts to do their own analyses and to communicate their results in ways which policy makers and the public can readily understand and use as a basis for their own actions. Geoportals in combination with standardised geoprocessing today supports the older vision of an automated presentation of data on maps, and - if user privileges are given - facilities to interactively manipulate these maps. We conclude that the most critical factor in modelling energy supply and demand remain the economic valuation of goods and services, especially the forecast of future end consumer energy costs.

  19. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Part of the 1994 Industrial Minerals Review. The production, consumption, and applications of construction aggregates are reviewed. In 1994, the production of construction aggregates, which includes crushed stone and construction sand and gravel combined, increased 7.7 percent to 2.14 Gt compared with the previous year. These record production levels are mostly a result of funding for highway construction work provided by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Demand is expected to increase for construction aggregates in 1995.

  20. Projections of Demand for Waterborne Transportation, Ohio River Basin, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2020, 2040. Volume 6. Group IV. Aggregates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    supply then ever originating from the lei ,st . portion of the System, with urban-based demand steadily gr,,:. and with an increase in distance of the...AISI. Basic Oxygen Process Association. L-O Process Newsletter. Zurich, Switzerland, June 1977. Herod , Sandy. "NCSA Directors Hold Mid-Year Session

  1. Advertising and the Management of Aggregate Consumer Demand: A Cross-National Test of the Galbraithian Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarles, Rebecca C.; And Others

    John Kenneth Galbraith maintains that advertising is the prime instrument for the management of total consumer demand and results in increased consumption. Galbraith also maintains that television is a more effective advertising tool, in that it reaches people in all spectrums of intelligence. Other economists disagree, holding that it is actually…

  2. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    DOEpatents

    Chassin, David P.; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2006-12-12

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  3. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    DOEpatents

    Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA

    2011-12-06

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  4. Predicted changes in energy demands for heating and cooling due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinar, Mojca; Vidrih, Boris; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lučka; Medved, Sašo

    In the last 3 years in Slovenia we experienced extremely hot summers and demand for cooling the buildings have risen significantly. Since climate change scenarios predict higher temperatures for the whole country and for all seasons, we expect that energy demand for heating would decrease while demand for cooling would increase. An analysis for building with permitted energy demand and for low-energy demand building in two typical urban climates in Slovenia was performed. The transient systems simulation program (TRNSYS) was used for simulation of the indoor conditions and the energy use for heating and cooling. Climate change scenarios were presented in form of “future” Test Reference Years (TRY). The time series of hourly data for all meteorological variables for different scenarios were chosen from actual measurements, using the method of highest likelihood. The climate change scenarios predicted temperature rise (+1 °C and +3 °C) and solar radiation increase (+3% and +6%). With the selection of these scenarios we covered the spectra of possible predicted climate changes in Slovenia. The results show that energy use for heating would decrease from 16% to 25% (depends on the intensity of warming) in subalpine region, while in Mediterranean region the rate of change would not be significant. In summer time we would need up to six times more energy for cooling in subalpine region and approximately two times more in Mediterranean region. low-energy building proved to be very economical in wintertime while on average higher energy consumption for cooling is expected in those buildings in summertime. In case of significant warmer and more solar energy intensive climate, the good isolated buildings are more efficient than standard buildings. TRY proved not to be efficient for studying extreme conditions like installed power of the cooling system.

  5. Regional Differences in the Price-Elasticity of Demand for Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, M. A.; Griffin, J.

    2006-02-01

    At the request of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the RAND Corporation examined the relationship between energy demand and energy prices with the focus on whether the relationships between demand and price differ if these are examined at different levels of data resolution. In this case, RAND compares national, regional, state, and electric utility levels of data resolution. This study is intended as a first step in helping NREL understand the impact that spatial disaggregation of data can have on estimating the impacts of their programs. This report should be useful to analysts in NREL and other national laboratories, as well as to policy nationals at the national level. It may help them understand the complex relationships between demand and price and how these might vary across different locations in the United States.

  6. Breakage of the energy equipartition and aggregate formation in sheared system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baibolatov, Y.; Spahn, F.

    2015-10-01

    In classical thermodynamics any mixture of gases with different masses with any sort of initial temperature differences tend to relax into a stationary state with a unique temperature along the whole system. But this is not true in case of granular mixtures, where energy is dissipated during each collision between particles. As a result, in a granular mixture of species with different masses, the system does not have a unique thermodynamic temperature but each species has its own temperature. This effect has been paid much attention recently [1, 2, 3]. Apart from the dissipative particle interaction, the main reason for this behaviour is due to the mass difference of the colliding particles, causing an asymmetric energy loss of particles. The loss of energy can be compensated by external heating of the system. In the case of planetary rings system, the role of heating is played by gravitational shear caused by the planet. In this work we consider the model consisting of identical spherical and adhesive particles. Although the constituents are identical, they can form aggregates and effectively create particles with larger masses. The differences in masses lead to different velocity dispersions (granular temperatures) of the aggregates. This interplay between heat transfer among aggregates and the distribution of the aggregate sizes under the gravitational shear is of crucial importance for the formulation of mean-field balance equations for the ring particle ensembles.

  7. An overview of US energy options: Supply- and demand-side history and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirshberg, A. S.

    1977-01-01

    An overview was provided of nonsolar energy policy options available to the United States until solar energy conversion and utilization devices can produce power at a cost competitive with that obtained from fossil fuels. The economics of the development of new fossil fuel sources and of mandatory conservation measures in energy usage were clarified in the context of the historic annual rate of increase in U.S. energy demand. An attempt was made to compare the costs and relative efficiencies of energy obtainable from various sources by correlating the many confusing measurement units in current use.

  8. Co-optimization of Energy and Demand-Side Reserves in Day-Ahead Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surender Reddy, S.; Abhyankar, A. R.; Bijwe, P. R.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new multi-objective day-ahead market clearing (DAMC) mechanism with demand-side reserves/demand response (DR) offers, considering realistic voltage-dependent load modeling. The paper proposes objectives such as social welfare maximization (SWM) including demand-side reserves, and load served error (LSE) minimization. In this paper, energy and demand-side reserves are cleared simultaneously through co-optimization process. The paper clearly brings out the unsuitability of conventional SWM for DAMC in the presence of voltage-dependent loads, due to reduction of load served (LS). Under such circumstances multi-objective DAMC with DR offers is essential. Multi-objective Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2+ (SPEA 2+) has been used to solve the optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is confirmed with results obtained from IEEE 30 bus system.

  9. Mechanisms of mitochondrial response to variations in energy demand in eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Devin, Anne; Rigoulet, Michel

    2007-01-01

    This review focuses on the different mechanisms involved in the adjustment of mitochondrial ATP production to cellular energy demand. The oxidative phosphorylation steady state at constant mitochondrial enzyme content can vary in response to energy demand. However, such an adaptation is tightly linked to a modification in both oxidative phosphorylation yield and phosphate potential and is obviously very limited in eukaryotic cells. We describe the three main mechanisms involved in mitochondrial response to energy demand. In heart cells, a short-term adjustment can be reached mainly through metabolic signaling via phosphotransfer networks by the compartmentalized energy transfer and signal transmission. In such a complex regulatory mechanism, Ca(2+) signaling participates in activation of matricial dehydrogenases as well as mitochondrial ATP synthase. These processes allow a large increase in ATP production rate without an important modification in thermodynamic forces. For a long-term adaptation, two main mechanisms are involved: modulation of the mitochondrial enzyme content as a function of energy demand and/or kinetic regulation by covalent modifications (phosphorylations) of some respiratory chain complex subunits. Regardless of the mechanism involved (kinetic regulation by covalent modification or adjustment of mitochondrial enzyme content), the cAMP signaling pathway plays a major role in molecular signaling, leading to the mitochondrial response. We discuss the energetic advantages of these mechanisms.

  10. Impacts of Climate Change on Energy Consumption and Peak Demand in Buildings: A Detailed Regional Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dirks, James A.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Hathaway, John E.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Scott, Michael J.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of numerous commercial and residential building simulations, with the purpose of examining the impact of climate change on peak and annual building energy consumption over the portion of the Eastern Interconnection (EIC) located in the United States. The climate change scenario considered (IPCC A2 scenario as downscaled from the CASCaDE data set) has changes in mean climate characteristics as well as changes in the frequency and duration of intense weather events. This investigation examines building energy demand for three annual periods representative of climate trends in the CASCaDE data set at the beginning, middle, and end of the century--2004, 2052, and 2089. Simulations were performed using the Building ENergy Demand (BEND) model which is a detailed simulation platform built around EnergyPlus. BEND was developed in collaboration with the Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA), a modeling framework designed to simulate the complex interactions among climate, energy, water, and land at decision-relevant spatial scales. Over 26,000 building configurations of different types, sizes, vintages, and, characteristics which represent the population of buildings within the EIC, are modeled across the 3 EIC time zones using the future climate from 100 locations within the target region, resulting in nearly 180,000 spatially relevant simulated demand profiles for each of the 3 years. In this study, the building stock characteristics are held constant based on the 2005 building stock in order to isolate and present results that highlight the impact of the climate signal on commercial and residential energy demand. Results of this analysis compare well with other analyses at their finest level of specificity. This approach, however, provides a heretofore unprecedented level of specificity across multiple spectrums including spatial, temporal, and building characteristics. This capability enables the ability to

  11. Impacts of Climate Change on US Commercial and Residential Building Energy Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianhua

    Energy consumption in buildings, accounting for 41% of 2010 primary energy consumption in the United States (US), is particularly vulnerable to climate change due to the direct relationship between space heating/cooling and temperature. Past studies have assessed the impact of climate change on long-term mean and/or peak energy demands. However, these studies usually neglected spatial variations in the "balance point" temperature, population distribution effects, air-conditioner (AC) saturation, and the extremes at smaller spatiotemporal scales, making the implications of local-scale vulnerability incomplete. Here I develop empirical relationships between building energy consumption and temperature to explore the impact of climate change on long-term mean and extremes of energy demand, and test the sensitivity of these impacts to various factors. I find increases in summertime electricity demand exceeding 50% and decreases in wintertime non-electric energy demand of more than 40% in some states by the end of the century. The occurrence of the most extreme (appearing once-per-56-years) electricity demand increases more than 2600 fold, while the occurrence of the once per year extreme events increases more than 70 fold by the end of this century. If the changes in population and AC saturation are also accounted for, the impact of climate change on building energy demand will be exacerbated. Using the individual building energy simulation approach, I also estimate the impact of climate change to different building types at over 900 US locations. Large increases in building energy consumption are found in the summer, especially during the daytime (e.g., >100% increase for warehouses, 5-6 pm). Large variation of impact is also found within climate zones, suggesting a potential bias when estimating climate-zone scale changes with a small number of representative locations. As a result of climate change, the building energy expenditures increase in some states (as much as

  12. Study of soil aggregate breakdown dynamics under low dispersive ultrasonic energies with sedimentation and X-ray attenuation**

    PubMed Central

    Schomakers, Jasmin; Zehetner, Franz; Mentler, Axel; Ottner, Franz; Mayer, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    It has been increasingly recognized that soil organic matter stabilization is strongly controlled by physical binding within soil aggregates. It is therefore essential to measure soil aggregate stability reliably over a wide range of disruptive energies and different aggregate sizes. To this end, we tested high-accuracy ultrasonic dispersion in combination with subsequent sedimentation and X-ray attenuation. Three arable topsoils (notillage) from Central Europe were subjected to ultrasound at four different specific energy levels: 0.5, 6.7, 100 and 500 J cm−3, and the resulting suspensions were analyzed for aggregate size distribution by wet sieving (2 000-63 μm) and sedimentation/X-ray attenuation (63-2 μm). The combination of wet sieving and sedimentation technique allowed for a continuous analysis, at high resolution, of soil aggregate breakdown dynamics after defined energy inputs. Our results show that aggregate size distribution strongly varied with sonication energy input and soil type. The strongest effects were observed in the range of low specific energies (< 10 J cm−3), which previous studies have largely neglected. This shows that low ultrasonic energies are required to capture the full range of aggregate stability and release of soil organic matter upon aggregate breakdown. PMID:27099408

  13. Temperature effects on future energy demand in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivakumar, Abhishek

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is projected to adversely impact different parts of the world to varying extents. Preliminary studies show that Sub-Saharan Africa is particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts, including changes to precipitation levels and temperatures. This work will analyse the effect of changes in temperature on critical systems such as energy supply and demand. Factors that determine energy demand include income, population, temperature (represented by cooling and heating degree days), and household structures. With many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa projected to experience rapid growth in both income and population levels, this study aims to quantify the amplified effects of these factors - coupled with temperature changes - on energy demand. The temperature effects will be studied across a range of scenarios for each of the factors mentioned above, and identify which of the factors is likely to have the most significant impact on energy demand in Sub-Saharan Africa. Results of this study can help set priorities for decision-makers to enhance the climate resilience of critical infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. Comparison of Demand Response Performance with an EnergyPlus Model in a Low Energy Campus Building

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, Junqiao Han; Black, Doug; Apte, Mike; Piette, Mary Ann; Berkeley, Pam

    2010-05-14

    We have studied a low energy building on a campus of the University of California. It has efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, consisting of a dual-fan/dual-duct variable air volume (VAV) system. As a major building on the campus, it was included in two demand response (DR) events in the summers of 2008 and 2009. With chilled water supplied by thermal energy storage in the central plant, cooling fans played a critical role during DR events. In this paper, an EnergyPlus model of the building was developed and calibrated. We compared both whole-building and HVAC fan energy consumption with model predictions to understand why demand savings in 2009 were much lower than in 2008. We also used model simulations of the study building to assess pre-cooling, a strategy that has been shown to improve demand saving and thermal comfort in many types of building. This study indicates a properly calibrated EnergyPlus model can reasonably predict demand savings from DR events and can be useful for designing or optimizing DR strategies.

  15. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David G.

    2009-07-01

    Urbanization has re-shaped China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2007 China added 290 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 45%. This population adjustment spurred energy demand for construction of new buildings and infrastructure, as well as additional residential use as rural biomass was replaced with urban commercial energy services. Primary energy demand grew at an average annual rate of 10% between 2000 and 2007. Urbanization's effect on energy demand was compounded by the boom in domestic infrastructure investment, and in the export trade following World Trade Organization (WTO) accession in 2001. Industry energy consumption was most directly affected by this acceleration. Whereas industry comprised 32% of 2007 U.S. energy use, it accounted for 75% of China's 2007 energy consumption. Five sub-sectors accounted for 78% of China's industry energy use in 2007: iron and steel, energy extraction and processing, chemicals, cement, and non-ferrous metals. Ferrous metals alone accounted for 25% of industry and 18% of total primary energy use. The rapid growth of heavy industry has led China to become by far the world's largest producer of steel, cement, aluminum, and other energy-intensive commodities. However, the energy efficiency of heavy industrial production continues to lag world best practice levels. This study uses scenario analysis to quantify the impact of urbanization and trade on industrial and residential energy consumption from 2000 to 2025. The BAU scenario assumed 67% urbanization, frozen export amounts of heavy industrial products, and achievement of world best practices by 2025. The China Lightens Up (CLU) scenario assumed 55% urbanization, zero net exports of heavy industrial products, and more aggressive efficiency improvements by 2025. The five dominant industry sub-sectors were modeled in both scenarios using a LEAP energy end-use accounting model. The results of this study show that a CLU

  16. Chemical energy in cold-cloud aggregates - The origin of meteoritic chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    If interstellar particles and molecules accumulate into larger particles during the collapse of a cold cloud, the resulting aggregates contain a large store of internal chemical energy. It is here proposed that subsequent warming of these accumulates leads to a thermal runaway when exothermic chemical reactions begin within the aggregate. These, after cooling, are the crystalline chondrules found so abundantly within chondritic meteorites. Chemical energy can also heat meteoritic parent bodies of any size, and both thermal metamorphism and certain molten meteorites are proposed to have occurred in this way. If this new theory is correct, (1) the model of chemical condensation in a hot gaseous solar system is eliminated, and (2) a new way of studying the chemical evolution of the interstellar medium has been found. A simple dust experiment on a comet flyby is proposed to test some features of this controversy.

  17. Regional allocation of biomass to U.S. energy demands under a portfolio of policy scenarios.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Kimberley A; Venkatesh, Aranya; Nagengast, Amy L; Kocoloski, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The potential for widespread use of domestically available energy resources, in conjunction with climate change concerns, suggest that biomass may be an essential component of U.S. energy systems in the near future. Cellulosic biomass in particular is anticipated to be used in increasing quantities because of policy efforts, such as federal renewable fuel standards and state renewable portfolio standards. Unfortunately, these independently designed biomass policies do not account for the fact that cellulosic biomass can equally be used for different, competing energy demands. An integrated assessment of multiple feedstocks, energy demands, and system costs is critical for making optimal decisions about a unified biomass energy strategy. This study develops a spatially explicit, best-use framework to optimally allocate cellulosic biomass feedstocks to energy demands in transportation, electricity, and residential heating sectors, while minimizing total system costs and tracking greenhouse gas emissions. Comparing biomass usage across three climate policy scenarios suggests that biomass used for space heating is a low cost emissions reduction option, while biomass for liquid fuel or for electricity becomes attractive only as emissions reduction targets or carbon prices increase. Regardless of the policy approach, study results make a strong case for national and regional coordination in policy design and compliance pathways.

  18. Optimal Technology Investment and Operation in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings with Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler , Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; ,, Hirohisa Aki; Lai, Judy

    2009-05-26

    The US Department of Energy has launched the Zero-Net-Energy (ZNE) Commercial Building Initiative (CBI) in order to develop commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge energy-efficient technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. We examine how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cost- or carbon-minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various technologies, such as photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and passive / demand-response technologies. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has a multi-criteria objective function: the minimization of a weighted average of the building's annual energy costs and carbon / CO2 emissions. The MILP's constraints ensure energy balance and capacity limits. In addition, constraining the building's energy consumed to equal its energy exports enables us to explore how energy sales and demand-response measures may enable compliance with the CBI. Using a nursing home in northern California and New York with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find that a ZNE building requires ample PV capacity installed to ensure electricity sales during the day. This is complemented by investment in energy-efficient combined heat and power equipment, while occasional demand response shaves energy consumption. A large amount of storage is also adopted, which may be impractical. Nevertheless, it shows the nature of the solutions and costs necessary to achieve ZNE. For comparison, we analyze a nursing home facility in New York to examine the effects of a flatter tariff structure and different load profiles. It has trouble reaching ZNE status and its load reductions as well as efficiency measures need to be more effective than those in the CA case

  19. Deployment of Behind-The-Meter Energy Storage for Demand Charge Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J.; Simpson, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how economically motivated customers will use energy storage for demand charge reduction, as well as how this changes in the presence of on-site photovoltaic power generation, to investigate the possible effects of incentivizing increased quantities of behind-the-meter storage. It finds that small, short-duration batteries are most cost effective regardless of solar power levels, serving to reduce short load spikes on the order of 2.5% of peak demand. While profitable to the customer, such action is unlikely to adequately benefit the utility as may be desired, thus highlighting the need for modified utility rate structures or properly structured incentives.

  20. Implications of the Hidden Spatiotemporal Vulnerability of US Building Energy Demand to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Gurney, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Energy consumption in US buildings, accounting for 41% of primary energy consumption in 2010, is particularly vulnerable to climate change due to the direct relationship between space heating/cooling and outside temperature. Past assessments of climate change impacts on building energy consumption have neglected spatial variations in the "balance point" temperature and the extremes at smaller spatiotemporal scales, making the implications of local-scale vulnerability incomplete. Here we develop state-specific empirical relationships between building energy consumption and temperature to explore the vulnerability of building energy supply and demand under climate change. We find increases in summertime electricity demand exceeding 20% and decreases in wintertime non-electric energy demand of more than 30% in some states by the end of the century. When examined annually at the national scale, these extremes are hidden by numerical cancellation. The financial implications vary spatially with increases in total net building energy expenditures in some states (as much as 3 billion/year) while in others, costs decline (as much as 1 billion/year). Integrated across the contiguous US, these variations result in a net savings of roughly 1.4 billion/year. However, this must be weighed against the cost of adding electricity generation capacity ranging from 13.9 billion/year to 52.2 billion/year in order to maintain the electricity grid's reliability in summer. These results have wide implications for climate policy, the social cost of carbon and energy supply planning. It also demonstrates the importance of representing the climate change impacts on energy consumption at scales relevant to human decisions and actions.Energy consumption in US buildings, accounting for 41% of primary energy consumption in 2010, is particularly vulnerable to climate change due to the direct relationship between space heating/cooling and outside temperature. Past assessments of climate change

  1. Effects of Seismological and Soil Parameters on Earthquake Energy demand in Level Ground Sand Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    nabili, sara; shahbazi majd, nafiseh

    2013-04-01

    Liquefaction has been a source of major damages during severe earthquakes. To evaluate this phenomenon there are several stress, strain and energy based approaches. Use of the energy method has been more focused by researchers due to its advantages with respect to other approaches. The use of the energy concept to define the liquefaction potential is validated through laboratory element and centrifuge tests as well as field studies. This approach is based on the hypothesis that pore pressure buildup is directly related to the dissipated energy in sands which is the accumulated areas between the stress-strain loops. Numerous investigations were performed to find a relationship which correlates the dissipated energy to the soil parameters, but there are not sufficient studies to relate this dissipated energy, known as demand energy, concurrently, to the seismological and the soil parameters. The aim of this paper is to investigate the dependency of the demand energy in sands to seismological and the soil parameters. To perform this task, an effective stress analysis has been executed using FLAC finite difference program. Finn model, which is a built-in constitutive model implemented in FLAC program, was utilized. Since an important stage to predict the liquefaction is the prediction of excess pore water pressure at a given point, a simple numerical framework is presented to assess its generation during a cyclic loading in a given centrifuge test. According to the results, predicted excess pore water pressures did not closely match to the measured excess pore water pressure values in the centrifuge test but they can be used in the numerical assessment of excess pore water pressure with an acceptable degree of preciseness. Subsequently, the centrifuge model was reanalyzed using several real earthquake acceleration records with different seismological parameters such as earthquake magnitude and Hypocentral distance. The accumulated energies (demand energy) dissipated in

  2. Worldwide transportation/energy demand, 1975-2000. Revised Variflex model projections

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, R.U.; Ayres, L.W.

    1980-03-01

    The salient features of the transportation-energy relationships that characterize the world of 1975 are reviewed, and worldwide (34 countries) long-range transportation demand by mode to the year 2000 is reviewed. A worldwide model is used to estimate future energy demand for transportation. Projections made by the forecasting model indicate that in the year 2000, every region will be more dependent on petroleum for the transportation sector than it was in 1975. This report is intended to highlight certain trends and to suggest areas for further investigation. Forecast methodology and model output are described in detail in the appendices. The report is one of a series addressing transportation energy consumption; it supplants and replaces an earlier version published in October 1978 (ORNL/Sub-78/13536/1).

  3. Qualitative Screening Method for Impact Assessment of Uncertain Building Geometry on Thermal Energy Demand Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wate, P.; Coors, V.; Robinson, D.; Iglesias, M.

    2016-10-01

    Virtual 3D models of cities are now being extensively employed for the estimation of thermal energy demand at varying spatial and temporal scales. Efforts in preparing and management of the datasets required for the simulations have reached an advanced stage. Thus allowing to perform city scale simulations using simplified thermal energy balance models. However, the uncertainty inherent in datasets and the reliability of their data sources are often not given due consideration. Such consideration to the uncertainty problem would need a paradigm shift in simulation practices from a single value assignment to uncertainty characterization followed by assessment of qualitative and quantitative impact on the simulation results. The proposed study establishes a mechanism to handle the uncertainty arising from the building geometry reconstruction process and its possible consequences on the thermal energy demand calculations.

  4. Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects. The NEMS Industrial Demand Model is a dynamic accounting model, bringing together the disparate industries and uses of energy in those industries, and putting them together in an understandable and cohesive framework. The Industrial Model generates mid-term (up to the year 2015) forecasts of industrial sector energy demand as a component of the NEMS integrated forecasting system. From the NEMS system, the Industrial Model receives fuel prices, employment data, and the value of industrial output. Based on the values of these variables, the Industrial Model passes back to the NEMS system estimates of consumption by fuel types.

  5. The Energy Demand of Fast Neuronal Network Oscillations: Insights from Brain Slice Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Kann, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Fast neuronal network oscillations in the gamma range (30–100 Hz) in the cerebral cortex have been implicated in higher cognitive functions such as sensual perception, working memory, and, perhaps, consciousness. However, little is known about the energy demand of gamma oscillations. This is mainly caused by technical limitations that are associated with simultaneous recordings of neuronal activity and energy metabolism in small neuronal networks and at the level of mitochondria in vivo. Thus recent studies have focused on brain slice preparations to address the energy demand of gamma oscillations in vitro. Here, reports will be summarized and discussed that combined electrophysiological recordings, oxygen sensor microelectrodes, and live-cell fluorescence imaging in acutely prepared slices and organotypic slice cultures of the hippocampus from both, mouse and rat. These reports consistently show that gamma oscillations can be reliably induced in hippocampal slice preparations by different pharmacological tools. They suggest that gamma oscillations are associated with high energy demand, requiring both rapid adaptation of oxidative energy metabolism and sufficient supply with oxygen and nutrients. These findings might help to explain the exceptional vulnerability of higher cognitive functions during pathological processes of the brain, such as circulatory disturbances, genetic mitochondrial diseases, and neurodegeneration. PMID:22291647

  6. Cumulative energy demand as predictor for the environmental burden of commodity production.

    PubMed

    Huijbregts, Mark A J; Hellweg, Stefanie; Frischknecht, Rolf; Hendriks, Harrie W M; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Hendriks, A Jan

    2010-03-15

    Cumulative energy demand has been used as a methodology to assess life cycle environmental impacts of commodity production since the early seventies, but has also been criticized because it focuses on energy only. During the past 30 years there has been much research into the development of more complex single-score life cycle impact assessment methodologies. However, a comprehensive analysis of potential similarities and differences between these methodologies and cumulative energy demand has not been carried out so far. Here we compare the cumulative energy demand of 498 commodities with the results of six frequently applied environmental life cycle impact assessment methodologies. Commodity groups included are metals, glass, paper and cardboard, organic and inorganic chemicals, agricultural products, construction materials, and plastics. We show that all impact assessment methods investigated often provide converging results, in spite of the different philosophies behind these methodologies. Fossil energy use is identified by all methodologies as the most important driver of environmental burden of the majority of the commodities included,with the main exception of agricultural products. We conclude that a wide range of life cycle environmental assessment methodologies point into the same environmental direction for the production of many commodities.

  7. Energy demand and environmental implications in urban transport — Case of Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Ranjan Kumar

    A simple model of passenger transport in the city of Delhi has been developed using a computer-based software called—Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) and the associated Environmental Database (EDB) model. The hierarchical structure of LEAP represents the traffic patterns in terms of passenger travel demand, mode (rail/road), type of vehicle and occupancy (persons per vehicle). Transport database in Delhi together with fuel consumption values for the vehicle types, formed the basis of the transport demand and energy consumption calculations. Emission factors corresponding to the actual vehicle types and driving conditions in Delhi is introduced into the EDB and linked to the energy consumption values for estimating total emission of CO, HC, NO x, SO 2 Pb and TSP. The LEAP model is used to estimate total energy demand and the vehicular emissions for the base year-1990/91 and extrapolate for the future—1994/95, 2000/01, 2004/05 and 2009/10, respectively. The model is run under five alternative scenarios to study the impact of different urban transport policy initiatives that would reduce total energy requirement in the transport sector of Delhi and also reduce emission. The prime objective is to arrive at an optimal transport policy which limits the future growth of fuel consumption as well as air pollution.

  8. Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the national energy modeling system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirements of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its model. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects.

  9. Electrical energy and demand savings from a geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Ft. Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, LA the space conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation were installed. Pre- and post-retrofit data were taken at 15-minute intervals on energy flows through the electrical distribution feeders that serve the family housing areas of the post. 15-minute interval data was also taken on energy use from a sample of the residences. This paper summarizes the electrical energy and demand savings observed in this data. Analysis of feeder-level data shows that for a typical year, the project will result in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing. Results from analysis of building-level data compare well with this figure. Analysis of feeder-level data also shows that the project has resulted in a reduction of peak electrical demand of 6,541 kW, which is 39.6% of the pre-retrofit peak electrical demand. In addition to these electrical savings, the facility is also saving an estimated 260,000 therms per year of natural gas. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the apparent energy savings observed in the monitored data, and are not to be confused with the contracted energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the contracted energy savings, the apparent energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  10. Energy demand analysis via small scale hydroponic systems in suburban areas - An integrated energy-food nexus solution.

    PubMed

    Xydis, George A; Liaros, Stelios; Botsis, Konstantinos

    2017-03-28

    The study is a qualitative approach and looks into new ways for the effective energy management of a wind farm (WF) operation in a suburban or near-urban environment in order the generated electricity to be utilised for hydroponic farming purposes as well. Since soilless hydroponic indoor systems gain more and more attention one basic goal, among others, is to take advantage of this not typical electricity demand and by managing it, offering to the grid a less fluctuating electricity generation signal. In this paper, a hybrid business model is presented where the Distributed Energy Resources (DER) producer is participating in the electricity markets under competitive processes (spot market, real-time markets etc.) and at the same time acts as a retailer offering - based on the demand - to the hydroponic units for their mass deployment in an area, putting forward an integrated energy-food nexus approach.

  11. Model documentation report: Commercial Sector Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. The NEMS Commercial Sector Demand Module is a simulation tool based upon economic and engineering relationships that models commercial sector energy demands at the nine Census Division level of detail for eleven distinct categories of commercial buildings. Commercial equipment selections are performed for the major fuels of electricity, natural gas, and distillate fuel, for the major services of space heating, space cooling, water heating, ventilation, cooking, refrigeration, and lighting. The algorithm also models demand for the minor fuels of residual oil, liquefied petroleum gas, steam coal, motor gasoline, and kerosene, the renewable fuel sources of wood and municipal solid waste, and the minor services of office equipment. Section 2 of this report discusses the purpose of the model, detailing its objectives, primary input and output quantities, and the relationship of the Commercial Module to the other modules of the NEMS system. Section 3 of the report describes the rationale behind the model design, providing insights into further assumptions utilized in the model development process to this point. Section 3 also reviews alternative commercial sector modeling methodologies drawn from existing literature, providing a comparison to the chosen approach. Section 4 details the model structure, using graphics and text to illustrate model flows and key computations.

  12. Supply and demand in energy and agriculture: Emitters of CO{sub 2} and possibilities for global biomass energy strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Ahamer, G.; Hubergasse, J.

    1996-12-31

    As seen from the perspective of global E3-modelling (= environment-economy-energy), the sectors of energy and of agriculture are double players situated in a field of tension: both exhibit growing emissions--but both also exhibit reduction potentials for CO{sub 2}, if areas are used for growth of biomass energy carriers. On the one hand, meeting food demand requires increasing agricultural land use in some regions, on the other hand in other regions, an important input of fossil fuels buys higher efficiency levels. In the First World, newly set-aside land can be used for biomass energy production. Before envisaging global strategies for CO{sub 2} emission reductions and more specifically for an enhanced use of biomass for energy, the present boundary conditions of the global energy and agricultural systems have to be analyzed. In a second step, a likely future development has to be contrasted with the desirable increase of bioenergy.

  13. Calculating impacts of energy standards on energy demand in U.S. buildings with uncertainty in an integrated assessment model

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Hathaway, John E.; Lansing, Carina S.; Liu, Ying; McJeon, Haewon C.; Moss, Richard H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Peterson, Marty J.; Rice, Jennie S.; Zhou, Yuyu

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, an integrated assessment model (IAM) uses a newly-developed Monte Carlo analysis capability to analyze the impacts of more aggressive U.S. residential and commercial building-energy codes and equipment standards on energy consumption and energy service costs at the state level, explicitly recognizing uncertainty in technology effectiveness and cost, socioeconomics, presence or absence of carbon prices, and climate impacts on energy demand. The paper finds that aggressive building-energy codes and equipment standards are an effective, cost-saving way to reduce energy consumption in buildings and greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. states. This conclusion is robust to significant uncertainties in population, economic activity, climate, carbon prices, and technology performance and costs.

  14. Predicting conditional means of explanatory variables for energy-demand forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Parti, M.; Parti, C.B.; Gould, D.M.; Parris, K.M.

    1984-11-01

    The purpose of the research was to explore the feasibility of an economic and statistical approach to the problem of forecasting the conditional means of variables used to predict appliance-specific energy demand. The technique recognizes the necessity of using conditional means of explanatory variables, and it takes into account the changing distributions of these variables over time. Statistical relationships are used to derive the probability distribution of the explanatory variables, given ownership of an appliance such as a pool heater. The conditional means of the explanatory variables can then be calculated on the basis of this conditional probability distribution. The present research has found sizable differences in forecasts of appliance-specific energy demand generated from the conditional means approach and the non-specific approach.

  15. Correlations between Energy and Displacement Demands for Performance-Based Seismic Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollaioli, Fabrizio; Bruno, Silvia; Decanini, Luis; Saragoni, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    The development of a scientific framework for performance-based seismic engineering requires, among other steps, the evaluation of ground motion intensity measures at a site and the characterization of their relationship with suitable engineering demand parameters (EDPs) which describe the performance of a structure. In order to be able to predict the damage resulting from earthquake ground motions in a structural system, it is first necessary to properly identify ground motion parameters that are well correlated with structural response and, in turn, with damage. Since structural damage during an earthquake ground motion may be due to excessive deformation or to cumulative cyclic damage, reliable methods for estimating displacement demands on structures are needed. Even though the seismic performance is directly related to the global and local deformations of the structure, energy-based methodologies appear more helpful in concept, as they permit a rational assessment of the energy absorption and dissipation mechanisms that can be effectively accomplished to balance the energy imparted to the structure. Moreover, energy-based parameters are directly related to cycles of response of the structure and, therefore, they can implicitly capture the effect of ground motion duration, which is ignored by conventional spectral parameters. Therefore, the identification of reliable relationships between energy and displacement demands represents a fundamental issue in both the development of more reliable seismic code provisions and the evaluation of seismic vulnerability aimed at the upgrading of existing hazardous facilities. As these two aspects could become consistently integrated within a performance-based seismic design methodology, understanding how input and dissipated energy are correlated with displacement demands emerges as a decisive prerequisite. The aim of the present study is the establishment of functional relationships between input and dissipated energy

  16. Energy landscapes’: Meeting energy demands and human aspirations

    PubMed Central

    Blaschke, Thomas; Biberacher, Markus; Gadocha, Sabine; Schardinger, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy will play a crucial role in the future society of the 21st century. The various renewable energy sources need to be balanced and their use carefully planned since they are characterized by high temporal and spatial variability that will pose challenges to maintaining a well balanced supply and to the stability of the grid. This article examines the ways that future ‘energy landscapes’ can be modelled in time and space. Biomass needs a great deal of space per unit of energy produced but it is an energy carrier that may be strategically useful in circumstances where other renewable energy carriers are likely to deliver less. A critical question considered in this article is whether a massive expansion in the use of biomass will allow us to construct future scenarios while repositioning the ‘energy landscape’ as an object of study. A second important issue is the utilization of heat from biomass energy plants. Biomass energy also has a larger spatial footprint than other carriers such as, for example, solar energy. This article seeks to provide a bridge between energy modelling and spatial planning while integrating research and techniques in energy modelling with Geographic Information Science. This encompasses GIS, remote sensing, spatial disaggregation techniques and geovisualization. Several case studies in Austria and Germany demonstrate a top-down methodology and some results while stepwise calculating potentials from theoretical to technically feasible potentials and setting the scene for the definition of economic potentials based on scenarios and assumptions. PMID:26109751

  17. Exploring the aggregation free energy landscape of the amyloid-β protein (1-40).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weihua; Tsai, Min-Yeh; Chen, Mingchen; Wolynes, Peter G

    2016-10-18

    A predictive coarse-grained protein force field [associative memory, water-mediated, structure, and energy model for molecular dynamics (AWSEM)-MD] is used to study the energy landscapes and relative stabilities of amyloid-β protein (1-40) in the monomer and all of its oligomeric forms up to an octamer. We find that an isolated monomer is mainly disordered with a short α-helix formed at the central hydrophobic core region (L17-D23). A less stable hairpin structure, however, becomes increasingly more stable in oligomers, where hydrogen bonds can form between neighboring monomers. We explore the structure and stability of both prefibrillar oligomers that consist of mainly antiparallel β-sheets and fibrillar oligomers with only parallel β-sheets. Prefibrillar oligomers are polymorphic but typically take on a cylindrin-like shape composed of mostly antiparallel β-strands. At the concentration of the simulation, the aggregation free energy landscape is nearly downhill. We use umbrella sampling along a structural progress coordinate for interconversion between prefibrillar and fibrillar forms to identify a conversion pathway between these forms. The fibrillar oligomer only becomes favored over its prefibrillar counterpart in the pentamer where an interconversion bottleneck appears. The structural characterization of the pathway along with statistical mechanical perturbation theory allow us to evaluate the effects of concentration on the free energy landscape of aggregation as well as the effects of the Dutch and Arctic mutations associated with early onset of Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Water flows, energy demand, and market analysis of the informal water sector in Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Laura C.; Kelner-Levine, Evan; Eckelman, Matthew J.; McCarty, Kathleen M.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-01-01

    In rapidly growing urban areas of developing countries, infrastructure has not been able to cope with population growth. Informal water businesses fulfill unmet water supply needs, yet little is understood about this sector. This paper presents data gathered from quantitative interviews with informal water business operators (n=260) in Kisumu, Kenya, collected during the dry season. Sales volume, location, resource use, and cost were analyzed by using material flow accounting and spatial analysis tools. Estimates show that over 76% of the city's water is consumed by less than 10% of the population who have water piped into their dwellings. The remainder of the population relies on a combination of water sources, including water purchased directly from kiosks (1.5 million m3 per day) and delivered by hand-drawn water-carts (0.75 million m3 per day). Energy audits were performed to compare energy use among various water sources in the city. Water delivery by truck is the highest per cubic meter energy demand (35 MJ/m3), while the city's tap water has the highest energy use overall (21,000 MJ/day). We group kiosks by neighborhood and compare sales volume and cost with neighborhood-level population data. Contrary to popular belief, we do not find evidence of price gouging; the lowest prices are charged in the highest-demand low-income area. We also see that the informal sector is sensitive to demand, as the number of private boreholes that serve as community water collection points are much larger where demand is greatest. PMID:23543887

  19. DTE Energy Technologies With Detroit Edison Co. and Kinectrics Inc.: Distributed Resources Aggregation Modeling and Field Configuration Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    Summarizes the work of DTE Energy Technologies, Detroit Edison, and Kinectrics, under contract to DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D, to develop distributed resources aggregation modeling and field configuration testing.

  20. A Successful Case Study of Small Business Energy Efficiency and Demand Response with Communicating Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Herter, Karen; Wayland, Seth; Rasin, Josh

    2009-08-12

    This report documents a field study of 78 small commercial customers in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District service territory who volunteered for an integrated energy-efficiency/demand-response (EE-DR) program in the summer of 2008. The original objective for the pilot was to provide a better understanding of demand response issues in the small commercial sector. Early findings justified a focus on offering small businesses (1) help with the energy efficiency of their buildings in exchange for occasional load shed, and (2) a portfolio of options to meet the needs of a diverse customer sector. To meet these expressed needs, the research pilot provided on-site energy efficiency advice and offered participants several program options, including the choice of either a dynamic rate or monthly payment for air-conditioning setpoint control. Overall results show that pilot participants had energy savings of 20%, and the potential for an additional 14% to 20% load drop during a 100 F demand response event. In addition to the efficiency-related bill savings, participants on the dynamic rate saved an estimated 5% on their energy costs compared to the standard rate. About 80% of participants said that the program met or surpassed their expectations, and three-quarters said they would probably or definitely participate again without the $120 participation incentive. These results provide evidence that energy efficiency programs, dynamic rates and load control programs can be used concurrently and effectively in the small business sector, and that communicating thermostats are a reliable tool for providing air-conditioning load shed and enhancing the ability of customers on dynamic rates to respond to intermittent price events.

  1. Leveraging Human-environment Systems in Residential Buildings for Aggregate Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoqi

    Reducing the energy consumed in the built environment is a key objective in many sustainability initiatives. Existing energy saving methods have consisted of physical interventions to buildings and/or behavioral modifications of occupants. However, such methods may not only suffer from their own disadvantages, e.g. high cost and transient effect, but also lose aggregate energy saving potential due to the oftentimes-associated single-building-focused view and an isolated examination of occupant behaviors. This dissertation attempts to overcome the limitations of traditional energy saving research and practical approaches, and enhance residential building energy efficiency and sustainability by proposing innovative energy strategies from a holistic perspective of the aggregate human-environment systems. This holistic perspective features: (1) viewing buildings as mutual influences in the built environment, (2) leveraging both the individual and contextualized social aspects of occupant behaviors, and (3) incorporating interactions between the built environment and human behaviors. First, I integrate three interlinked components: buildings, residents, and the surrounding neighborhood, and quantify the potential energy savings to be gained from renovating buildings at the inter-building level and leveraging neighborhood-contextualized occupant social networks. Following the confirmation of both the inter-building effect among buildings and occupants' interpersonal influence on energy conservation, I extend the research further by examining the synergy that may exist at the intersection between these "engineered" building networks and "social" peer networks, focusing specifically on the additional energy saving potential that could result from interactions between the two components. Finally, I seek to reach an alignment of the human and building environment subsystems by matching the thermostat preferences of each household with the thermal conditions within their

  2. Energy use in Minnesota schools: Aggregate performance and perspectives on energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Hatfield, B.; Lebot, B.; Kammerud, R.; Carroll, W.L.

    1988-07-01

    As part of an extensive and comprehensive evaluation of the US Department of Energy's Institutional Conservation Program (ICP), we present an analysis of the energy performance of Minnesota schools during the 1970s and 1980s. We also estimate energy savings for individual schools and for the entire group of schools participating in the ICP. Finally, we compare estimated energy savings, based on technical audits, with monitored energy reductions. 13 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Local government involvement in long term resource planning for community energy systems. Demand side management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    A program was developed to coordinate governmental, research, utility, and business energy savings efforts, and to evaluate future potential actions, based on actual field data obtained during the implementation of Phase I of the State Resource Plan. This has lead to the establishment of a state conservation and energy efficiency fund for the purpose of establishing a DSM Program. By taking a state wide perspective on resource planning, additional savings, including environmental benefits, can be achieved through further conservation and demand management. This effort has already blossomed into a state directive for DSM programs for the natural gas industry.

  4. Public perceptions of demand-side management and a smarter energy future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Alexa; Demski, Christina; Butler, Catherine; Parkhill, Karen; Pidgeon, Nick

    2015-06-01

    Demand-side management (DSM) is a key aspect of many future energy system scenarios. DSM refers to a range of technologies and interventions designed to create greater efficiency and flexibility on the demand-side of the energy system. Examples include the provision of more information to users to support efficient behaviour and new `smart’ technologies that can be automatically controlled. Key stated outcomes of implementing DSM are benefits for consumers, such as cost savings and greater control over energy use. Here, we use results from an online survey to examine public perceptions and acceptability of a range of current DSM possibilities in a representative sample of the British population (N = 2,441). We show that, although cost is likely to be a significant reason for many people to take up DSM measures, those concerned about energy costs are actually less likely to accept DSM. Notably, individuals concerned about climate change are more likely to be accepting. A significant proportion of people, particularly those concerned about affordability, indicated unwillingness or concerns about sharing energy data, a necessity for many forms of DSM. We conclude substantial public engagement and further policy development is required for widespread DSM implementation.

  5. Analysis of Time-of-Day Energy Demand and Supply in University and Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Yoichi

    The aim of this study was to estimate the time-of-day energy demand in University of Yamanashi. Our University consisted of Kofu campus (Faculty of Education & Human Sciences and Faculty of Engineering) and Faculty of Medicine campus (Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital). The energy data of 4 facilities were classified into hot water, heating, cooling and electric power demands based on electric power consumptions, city gas and heavy oil from 1996 to 2005. For 10 years, primary energy increased 1.2 times in the whole of the university. The amount of electric power consumption was 63% in the fuel classification. The amount of electric power consumption of faculty reacted to the change in temperature greatly. In 2005, it was found that thermoelectric-ratios for 4 facilities, i.e. Education, Engineering, Medicine and Hospital were 2.3, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.7 respectively. These data are very useful for the energy saving and energy management of university.

  6. [Energy and memory efficient calculation of the accommodation demand in the artificial accommodation system].

    PubMed

    Nagel, J A; Beck, C; Harms, H; Stiller, P; Guth, H; Stachs, O; Bretthauer, G

    2010-12-01

    Presbyopia and cataract are gaining more and more importance in the ageing society. Both age-related complaints are accompanied with a loss of the eye's ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore accommodation is the Artificial Accommodation System, an autonomous micro system, which will be implanted into the capsular bag instead of a rigid intraocular lens. The Artificial Accommodation System will, depending on the actual demand for accommodation, autonomously adapt the refractive power of its integrated optical element. One possibility to measure the demand for accommodation non-intrusively is to analyse eye movements. We present an efficient algorithm, based on the CORDIC technique, to calculate the demand for accommodation from magnetic field sensor data. It can be shown that specialised algorithms significantly shorten calculation time without violating precision requirements. Additionally, a communication strategy for the wireless exchange of sensor data between the implants of the left and right eye is introduced. The strategy allows for a one-sided calculation of the demand for accommodation, resulting in an overall reduction of calculation time by 50 %. The presented methods enable autonomous microsystems, such as the Artificial Accommodation System, to save significant amounts of energy, leading to extended autonomous run-times.

  7. Model documentation report: Residential sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description for energy analysts, other users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports according to Public Law 93-275, section 57(b)(1). Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements.

  8. Model documentation report: Residential sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document that provides a detailed description for energy analysts, other users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports according to Public Law 93-275, section 57(b)(1). Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements.

  9. Methane Adsorption on Aggregates of Fullerenes: Site-Selective Storage Capacities and Adsorption Energies

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Alexander; Zöttl, Samuel; Bartl, Peter; Leidlmair, Christian; Mauracher, Andreas; Probst, Michael; Denifl, Stephan; Echt, Olof; Scheier, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Methane adsorption on positively charged aggregates of C60 is investigated by both mass spectrometry and computer simulations. Calculated adsorption energies of 118–281 meV are in the optimal range for high-density storage of natural gas. Groove sites, dimple sites, and the first complete adsorption shells are identified experimentally and confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations, using a newly developed force field for methane–methane and fullerene–methane interaction. The effects of corrugation and curvature are discussed and compared with data for adsorption on graphite, graphene, and carbon nanotubes. PMID:23744834

  10. Methane adsorption on aggregates of fullerenes: site-selective storage capacities and adsorption energies.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Alexander; Zöttl, Samuel; Bartl, Peter; Leidlmair, Christian; Mauracher, Andreas; Probst, Michael; Denifl, Stephan; Echt, Olof; Scheier, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Methane adsorption on positively charged aggregates of C60 is investigated by both mass spectrometry and computer simulations. Calculated adsorption energies of 118-281 meV are in the optimal range for high-density storage of natural gas. Groove sites, dimple sites, and the first complete adsorption shells are identified experimentally and confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations, using a newly developed force field for methane-methane and fullerene-methane interaction. The effects of corrugation and curvature are discussed and compared with data for adsorption on graphite, graphene, and carbon nanotubes.

  11. Subtoxic product levels limit the epoxidation capacity of recombinant E. coli by increasing microbial energy demands.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Daniel; Fritzsch, Frederik S O; Zhang, Xiumei; Wendisch, Volker F; Blank, Lars M; Bühler, Bruno; Schmid, Andreas

    2013-01-20

    The utilization of the cellular metabolism for cofactor regeneration is a common motivation for the application of whole cells in redox biocatalysis. Introduction of an active oxidoreductase into a microorganism has profound consequences on metabolism, potentially affecting metabolic and biotransformation efficiency. An ambitious goal of systems biotechnology is to design process-relevant and knowledge-based engineering strategies to improve biocatalyst performance. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) has shown that the competition for NAD(P)H between redox biocatalysis and the energy metabolism becomes critical during asymmetric styrene epoxidation catalyzed by growing Escherichia coli containing recombinant styrene monooxygenase. Engineering TCA-cycle regulation allowed increased TCA-cycle activities, a delay of acetate formation, and enhanced NAD(P)H yields during batch cultivation. However, at low biomass and product concentrations, the cellular metabolism of both the mutants as well as the native host strains could cope with increased NADH demands during continuous two-liquid phase biotransformations, whereas elevated but still subtoxic product concentrations were found to cause a significantly increased NAD(P)H demand and a compromised efficiency of metabolic operation. In conclusion, operational conditions determine cellular energy and NAD(P)H demands and thus the biocatalytic efficiency of whole-cell redox biocatalysts.

  12. Automated Demand Response Approaches to Household Energy Management in a Smart Grid Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adika, Christopher Otieno

    The advancement of renewable energy technologies and the deregulation of the electricity market have seen the emergence of Demand response (DR) programs. Demand response is a cost-effective load management strategy which enables the electricity suppliers to maintain the integrity of the power grid during high peak periods, when the customers' electrical load is high. DR programs are designed to influence electricity users to alter their normal consumption patterns by offering them financial incentives. A well designed incentive-based DR scheme that offer competitive electricity pricing structure can result in numerous benefits to all the players in the electricity market. Lower power consumption during peak periods will significantly enhance the robustness of constrained networks by reducing the level of power of generation and transmission infrastructure needed to provide electric service. Therefore, this will ease the pressure of building new power networks as we avoiding costly energy procurements thereby translating into huge financial savings for the power suppliers. Peak load reduction will also reduce the inconveniences suffered by end users as a result of brownouts or blackouts. Demand response will also drastically lower the price peaks associated with wholesale markets. This will in turn reduce the electricity costs and risks for all the players in the energy market. Additionally, DR is environmentally friendly since it enhances the flexibility of the power grid through accommodation of renewable energy resources. Despite its many benefits, DR has not been embraced by most electricity networks. This can be attributed to the fact that the existing programs do not provide enough incentives to the end users and, therefore, most electricity users are not willing to participate in them. To overcome these challenges, most utilities are coming up with innovative strategies that will be more attractive to their customers. Thus, this dissertation presents various

  13. Robust optimization based energy dispatch in smart grids considering demand uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassourou, M.; Puig, V.; Blesa, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we discuss the application of robust optimization to the problem of economic energy dispatch in smart grids. Robust optimization based MPC strategies for tackling uncertain load demands are developed. Unexpected additive disturbances are modelled by defining an affine dependence between the control inputs and the uncertain load demands. The developed strategies were applied to a hybrid power system connected to an electrical power grid. Furthermore, to demonstrate the superiority of the standard Economic MPC over the MPC tracking, a comparison (e.g average daily cost) between the standard MPC tracking, the standard Economic MPC, and the integration of both in one-layer and two-layer approaches was carried out. The goal of this research is to design a controller based on Economic MPC strategies, that tackles uncertainties, in order to minimise economic costs and guarantee service reliability of the system.

  14. A New Thermostat for Real-Time Price Demand Response: Cost, Comfort and Energy Impacts of Discrete-Time Control without Deadband

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Agathoklis, Pan; Djilali, Ned

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a residential thermostat design that enables accurate aggregate load control systems for electricity demand response. The thermostat features a control strategy that can be modeled as a linear time-invariant system for short- term demand response signals from the utility. This control design maintains the same comfort and demand response characteristics of existing real-time price- responsive thermostats but gives rise to linear time-invariant models of aggregate load control and demand response, which facilitates the design of highly accurate load-based regulation services for electricity interconnections.

  15. A Gossip-based Energy Efficient Protocol for Robust In-network Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauji, Shantanu

    We consider the problem of energy efficient and fault tolerant in--network aggregation for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In-network aggregation is the process of aggregation while collecting data from sensors to the base station. This process should be energy efficient due to the limited energy at the sensors and tolerant to the high failure rates common in sensor networks. Tree based in--network aggregation protocols, although energy efficient, are not robust to network failures. Multipath routing protocols are robust to failures to a certain degree but are not energy efficient due to the overhead in the maintenance of multiple paths. We propose a new protocol for in-network aggregation in WSNs, which is energy efficient, achieves high lifetime, and is robust to the changes in the network topology. Our protocol, gossip--based protocol for in-network aggregation (GPIA) is based on the spreading of information via gossip. GPIA is not only adaptive to failures and changes in the network topology, but is also energy efficient. Energy efficiency of GPIA comes from all the nodes being capable of selective message reception and detecting convergence of the aggregation early. We experimentally show that GPIA provides significant improvement over some other competitors like the Ridesharing, Synopsis Diffusion and the pure version of gossip. GPIA shows ten fold, five fold and two fold improvement over the pure gossip, the synopsis diffusion and Ridesharing protocols in terms of network lifetime, respectively. Further, GPIA retains gossip's robustness to failures and improves upon the accuracy of synopsis diffusion and Ridesharing.

  16. Model documentation report: Commercial Sector Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. This report serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, section 57(b)(1)). Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects.

  17. The rising demand for energy: a potential for optical fiber sensors in the monitoring sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosselmann, Thomas; Willsch, Michael; Ecke, Wolfgang

    2008-03-01

    For a long time electric power was taken as a natural unlimited resource. With globalization the demand for energy has risen. This has brought rising prices for fossil fuels, as well as a diversification of power generation. Besides conventional fossil, nuclear plants are coming up again. Renewable energy sources are gaining importance resulting in recent boom of wind energy plants. In the past reliability and availability and an extremely long lifetime were of paramount importance. Today this has been added by cost, due to the global competition and the high fuel costs. New designs of power components have increased efficiency using lesser material. Higher efficiency causes inevitably higher stress on the materials, of which the machines are built. As a reduction of lifetime is not acceptable and maintenance costs are expected to be at a minimum, condition monitoring systems are going to being used now. This offers potentials for fiber optic sensor applications.

  18. Joint Real-Time Energy and Demand-Response Management using a Hybrid Coalitional-Noncooperative Game

    SciTech Connect

    He, Fulin; Gu, Yi; Hao, Jun; Zhang, Jun Jason; Wei, Jiaolong; Zhang, Yingchen

    2015-11-11

    In order to model the interactions among utility companies, building demands and renewable energy generators (REGs), a hybrid coalitional-noncooperative game framework has been proposed. We formulate a dynamic non-cooperative game to study the energy dispatch within multiple utility companies, while we take a coalitional perspective on REGs and buildings demands through a hedonic coalition formation game approach. In this case, building demands request different power supply from REGs, then the building demands can be organized into an ultimate coalition structure through a distributed hedonic shift algorithm. At the same time, utility companies can also obtain a stable power generation profile. In addition, the interactive progress among the utility companies and building demands which cannot be supplied by REGs is implemented by distributed game theoretic algorithms. Numerical results illustrate that the proposed hybrid coalitional-noncooperative game scheme reduces the cost of both building demands and utility companies compared with the initial scene.

  19. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response in the California Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2010-12-22

    This study examines the characteristics of cement plants and their ability to shed or shift load to participate in demand response (DR). Relevant factors investigated include the various equipment and processes used to make cement, the operational limitations cement plants are subject to, and the quantities and sources of energy used in the cement-making process. Opportunities for energy efficiency improvements are also reviewed. The results suggest that cement plants are good candidates for DR participation. The cement industry consumes over 400 trillion Btu of energy annually in the United States, and consumes over 150 MW of electricity in California alone. The chemical reactions required to make cement occur only in the cement kiln, and intermediate products are routinely stored between processing stages without negative effects. Cement plants also operate continuously for months at a time between shutdowns, allowing flexibility in operational scheduling. In addition, several examples of cement plants altering their electricity consumption based on utility incentives are discussed. Further study is needed to determine the practical potential for automated demand response (Auto-DR) and to investigate the magnitude and shape of achievable sheds and shifts.

  20. The General Evolving Model for Energy Supply-Demand Network with Local-World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mei; Han, Dun; Li, Dandan; Fang, Cuicui

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, two general bipartite network evolving models for energy supply-demand network with local-world are proposed. The node weight distribution, the "shifting coefficient" and the scaling exponent of two different kinds of nodes are presented by the mean-field theory. The numerical results of the node weight distribution and the edge weight distribution are also investigated. The production's shifted power law (SPL) distribution of coal enterprises and the installed capacity's distribution of power plants in the US are obtained from the empirical analysis. Numerical simulations and empirical results are given to verify the theoretical results.

  1. New generation of software? Modeling of energy demands for residential ventilation with HTML interface

    SciTech Connect

    Forowicz, T.

    1997-06-01

    The paper presents an interactive on-line package for calculation of energy and cost demands for residential infiltration and ventilation, with input and output data entry through a web browser. This is a unique tool. It represents a new kind of approach to developing software employing user (client) and server (package provider) computers. The main program, servicing {open_quotes}intelligent{close_quotes} CGI (Common Gateway Interface) calls, resides on the server and dynamically handles the whole package performance and the procedure of calculations. The {open_quotes}computing engine{close_quotes} consists of two parts: RESVENT - the previously existing program for ventilation calculations and ECONOMICS - for heating and cooling system energy and cost calculations. The user interface is designed in such a way, that it allows simultaneous access by many users from all over the world.

  2. A Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (CED), life cycle based, for industrial waste management decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Puig, Rita; Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere; Bala, Alba

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We developed a methodology useful to environmentally compare industrial waste management options. • The methodology uses a Net Energy Demand indicator which is life cycle based. • The method was simplified to be widely used, thus avoiding cost driven decisions. • This methodology is useful for governments to promote the best environmental options. • This methodology can be widely used by other countries or regions around the world. - Abstract: Life cycle thinking is a good approach to be used for environmental decision-support, although the complexity of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies sometimes prevents their wide use. The purpose of this paper is to show how LCA methodology can be simplified to be more useful for certain applications. In order to improve waste management in Catalonia (Spain), a Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (LCA-based) has been used to obtain four mathematical models to help the government in the decision of preventing or allowing a specific waste from going out of the borders. The conceptual equations and all the subsequent developments and assumptions made to obtain the simplified models are presented. One of the four models is discussed in detail, presenting the final simplified equation to be subsequently used by the government in decision making. The resulting model has been found to be scientifically robust, simple to implement and, above all, fulfilling its purpose: the limitation of waste transport out of Catalonia unless the waste recovery operations are significantly better and justify this transport.

  3. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  4. Energy transfer dynamics in trimers and aggregates of light-harvesting complex II probed by 2D electronic spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Enriquez, Miriam M.; Zhang, Cheng; Tan, Howe-Siang; Akhtar, Parveen; Garab, Győző; Lambrev, Petar H.

    2015-06-07

    The pathways and dynamics of excitation energy transfer between the chlorophyll (Chl) domains in solubilized trimeric and aggregated light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) are examined using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). The LHCII trimers and aggregates exhibit the unquenched and quenched excitonic states of Chl a, respectively. 2DES allows direct correlation of excitation and emission energies of coupled states over population time delays, hence enabling mapping of the energy flow between Chls. By the excitation of the entire Chl b Q{sub y} band, energy transfer from Chl b to Chl a states is monitored in the LHCII trimers and aggregates. Global analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) spectra reveals that energy transfer from Chl b to Chl a occurs on fast and slow time scales of 240–270 fs and 2.8 ps for both forms of LHCII. 2D decay-associated spectra resulting from the global analysis identify the correlation between Chl states involved in the energy transfer and decay at a given lifetime. The contribution of singlet–singlet annihilation on the kinetics of Chl energy transfer and decay is also modelled and discussed. The results show a marked change in the energy transfer kinetics in the time range of a few picoseconds. Owing to slow energy equilibration processes, long-lived intermediate Chl a states are present in solubilized trimers, while in aggregates, the population decay of these excited states is significantly accelerated, suggesting that, overall, the energy transfer within the LHCII complexes is faster in the aggregated state.

  5. Energy transfer dynamics in trimers and aggregates of light-harvesting complex II probed by 2D electronic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, Miriam M; Akhtar, Parveen; Zhang, Cheng; Garab, Győző; Lambrev, Petar H; Tan, Howe-Siang

    2015-06-07

    The pathways and dynamics of excitation energy transfer between the chlorophyll (Chl) domains in solubilized trimeric and aggregated light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) are examined using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). The LHCII trimers and aggregates exhibit the unquenched and quenched excitonic states of Chl a, respectively. 2DES allows direct correlation of excitation and emission energies of coupled states over population time delays, hence enabling mapping of the energy flow between Chls. By the excitation of the entire Chl b Qy band, energy transfer from Chl b to Chl a states is monitored in the LHCII trimers and aggregates. Global analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) spectra reveals that energy transfer from Chl b to Chl a occurs on fast and slow time scales of 240-270 fs and 2.8 ps for both forms of LHCII. 2D decay-associated spectra resulting from the global analysis identify the correlation between Chl states involved in the energy transfer and decay at a given lifetime. The contribution of singlet-singlet annihilation on the kinetics of Chl energy transfer and decay is also modelled and discussed. The results show a marked change in the energy transfer kinetics in the time range of a few picoseconds. Owing to slow energy equilibration processes, long-lived intermediate Chl a states are present in solubilized trimers, while in aggregates, the population decay of these excited states is significantly accelerated, suggesting that, overall, the energy transfer within the LHCII complexes is faster in the aggregated state.

  6. A comparative analysis of energy demand and expenditures by minority and majority households within the context of a conditional demand system

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.

    1992-08-01

    Analysis and evaluation of the impact that programs and policies have on energy consumption and expenditures are confounded by many intervening variables. A clear understanding of how these variables influence energy consumption patterns should be grounded in a rigorously developed framework. In this regard much is documented in the literature. However, an analysis of the comparative relationship between energy demand and variables which influence it among different socioeconomic groups has not been thoroughly explored with any theoretical rigor. It is proposed that differences in patterns of energy use between black, Hispanic, and majority households (where the household head is neither black nor Hispanic) are due to both structural and distribution differences. It is felt that the structural dissimilarities are primarily due to the dynamic nature in which energy consumption patterns evolve, with differences in changing housing patterns playing a significant role. For minorities, this implies a potential difference in the effect of policy and programs on economic welfare when compared to majority households.To test this hypothesis, separate conditional demand systems are estimated for majority, black, and Hispanic households. With the use of separate variance/covariance matrices, various parameter groups are tested for statistically significant differences.

  7. A comparative analysis of energy demand and expenditures by minority and majority households within the context of a conditional demand system

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis and evaluation of the impact that programs and policies have on energy consumption and expenditures are confounded by many intervening variables. A clear understanding of how these variables influence energy consumption patterns should be grounded in a rigorously developed framework. In this regard much is documented in the literature. However, an analysis of the comparative relationship between energy demand and variables which influence it among different socioeconomic groups has not been thoroughly explored with any theoretical rigor. It is proposed that differences in patterns of energy use between black, Hispanic, and majority households (where the household head is neither black nor Hispanic) are due to both structural and distribution differences. It is felt that the structural dissimilarities are primarily due to the dynamic nature in which energy consumption patterns evolve, with differences in changing housing patterns playing a significant role. For minorities, this implies a potential difference in the effect of policy and programs on economic welfare when compared to majority households.To test this hypothesis, separate conditional demand systems are estimated for majority, black, and Hispanic households. With the use of separate variance/covariance matrices, various parameter groups are tested for statistically significant differences.

  8. Climate change and its role in forecasting energy demand in buildings: A case study of Douala City, Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nematchoua, Modeste Kameni; Roshan, Gh R.; Tchinda, René; Nasrabadi, T.; Ricciardi, Paola

    2015-02-01

    The foremost role of a building is to assure the comfort of its occupants. The thermal comfort of a building depends on the outdoor climate and requires a demand in energy for heating and cooling. In this paper, demand of energy (heating/cooling) in the buildings is discussed in Douala, Cameroon. Daily data of the last 40 years coming from five weather stations of Cameroon have been studied. Some forecasts have been carried out with 14 GCM models, associated to three future climate scenarios B1, A2, and A1B. However, only INCM3 of General Circulation Model (GCM) and A2 scenario was used. Energy demand in buildings is valued by HDD (heating degree day) and CDD (cooling degree day) indices. Obtained results show that the temperature evolves more quickly in dry season than in rainy season in Douala. Climate rise indicates an increasing demand of energy in the buildings for cooling. Global Douala heating shows a definite effect on outdoor comfort. From 2045 to 2075, the demand of energy for cooling will be superior to 50%. The total demand in energy for heating in the buildings is estimated to be 67.882 kcal from 1970 to 2000 and will be around 67.774 kcal from 2013 to 2043.

  9. Residential-energy-demand modeling and the NIECS data base: an evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Cowing, T.G.; Dubin, J.A.; McFadden, D.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the 1978-1979 National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS) data base in terms of its usefulness for estimating residential energy demand models based on household appliance choice and utilization decisions. The NIECS contains detailed energy usage information at the household level for 4081 households during the April 1978 to March 1979 period. Among the data included are information on the structural and thermal characteristics of the housing unit, demographic characteristics of the household, fuel usage, appliance characteristics, and actual energy consumption. The survey covers the four primary residential fuels-electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gas - and includes detailed information on recent household conservation and retrofit activities. Section II contains brief descriptions of the major components of the NIECS data set. Discussions are included on the sample frame and the imputation procedures used in NIECS. There are also two extensive tables, giving detailed statistical and other information on most of the non-vehicle NIECS variables. Section III contains an assessment of the NIECS data, focusing on four areas: measurement error, sample design, imputation problems, and additional data needed to estimate appliance choice/use models. Section IV summarizes and concludes the report.

  10. Usage possibilities of diesel aggregate for room heating and electric energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Kegl, K.; Vor Ic, J.

    1998-07-01

    Article shows reasons for introduction of cogeneration generally. The present manner of heating and electricity connection at the Faculty of electrical engineering and computer science in Maribor is described. The idea is to build in the cogeneration complex in heating room next to the existent boilers. Gathered data of electricity and heat demand are presented. Paper deals with question of electrical, heat and fuel connections. Comparison between two types of cogeneration (motor and turbine) helps to make a decision: cogeneration with motor. Depending to the daily electricity demands diagram and arranged heating diagram the authors focused to the small cogeneration (around 200 kWe). Availability of natural gas at the placement of the cogeneration leads us to the gas motor but leaves the diesel engine possibility opened. A brief economical estimation includes common investment costs regarding to the savings of energy and fuel expenses. Payback time calculation gives precedence to the gas motor if diesel is used with motor instead of fuel oil. Except the energy savings there are greater benefits of the cogeneration: it can be good study case for students of electrotechnics as well as future mechanical engineers.

  11. US East Coast offshore wind energy resources and their relationship to time-varying electricity demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, M. J.; Corcoran, B. A.; Ten Hoeve, J. E.; Jacobson, M. Z.; McIntyre, N.

    2011-12-01

    This study characterizes the annual-mean US East Coast (USEC) offshore wind energy (OWE) resource based on 5 years of skillful, high resolution mesoscale model (WRF-ARW) results at the turbine hub height of 90 m. Model output was validated buoys and offshore towers, which provides insight into the relative errors of forecasting winds in the region. The most suitable locations for OWE are prescribed, based on their wind resource, shallow bathymetry, low hurricane risk, and peak-power generation potential. The offshore region from Maine to Virginia was found to have exceptional overall resource the best wind resource, shallow water, and low hurricane risk. The region east of Long Island, NY to Cape Cod, MA has the best summertime peak resource, due to regional upwelling that often strengthens the sea breeze. Overall, the resource from Maine to Florida out to 200-m depth, using turbine capacity factor cutoffs of 45% and 40% is between 1175-1672 TWh (134-191 GW avg.). Between 30-42% of the electricity demand for the entire US (2009) could be provided using USEC OWE alone and 93-133% of Maine to Florida (2008) demand.

  12. Energy efficient data representation and aggregation with event region detection in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Torsha

    Detection (PERD) for WSNs. When a single event occurs, a child of the tree sends a Flagged Polynomial (FP) to its parent, if the readings approximated by it falls outside the data range defining the existing phenomenon. After the aggregation process is over, the root having the two polynomials, P and FP can be queried for FP (approximating the new event region) instead of flooding the whole network. For multiple such events, instead of computing a polynomial corresponding to each new event, areas with same data range are combined by the corresponding tree nodes and the aggregated coefficients are passed on. Results reveal that a new event can be detected by PERD while error in detection remains constant and is less than a threshold of 10%. As the node density increases, accuracy and delay for event detection are found to remain almost constant, making PERD highly scalable. Whenever an event occurs in a WSN, data is generated by closeby sensors and relaying the data to the base station (BS) make sensors closer to the BS run out of energy at a much faster rate than sensors in other parts of the network. This gives rise to an unequal distribution of residual energy in the network and makes those sensors with lower remaining energy level die at much faster rate than others. We propose a scheme for enhancing network Lifetime using mobile cluster heads (CH) in a WSN. To maintain remaining energy more evenly, some energy-rich nodes are designated as CHs which move in a controlled manner towards sensors rich in energy and data. This eliminates multihop transmission required by the static sensors and thus increases the overall lifetime of the WSN. We combine the idea of clustering and mobile CH to first form clusters of static sensor nodes. A collaborative strategy among the CHs further increases the lifetime of the network. Time taken for transmitting data to the BS is reduced further by making the CHs follow a connectivity strategy that always maintain a connected path to the BS

  13. Is cumulative fossil energy demand a useful indicator for the environmental performance of products?

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A.J. Huijbregts; Linda J.A. Rombouts; Stefanie Hellweg; Rolf Frischknecht; A. Jan Hendriks; Dik van de Meent; Ad M.J. Ragas; Lucas Reijnders; Jaap Struijs

    2006-02-01

    The appropriateness of the fossil Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) as an indicator for the environmental performance of products and processes is explored with a regression analysis between the environmental life-cycle impacts and fossil CEDs of 1218 products, divided into the product categories 'energy production' (including heat and electricity production), 'material production', 'transport', and 'waste treatment'. Results show that, for all product groups but waste treatment, the fossil CED correlates well with most impact categories, such as global warming, resource depletion, acidification, eutrophication, tropospheric ozone formation, ozone depletion, and human toxicity (explained variance between 46% and 100%). It is concluded that the use of fossil fuels is an important driver of several environmental impacts and thereby indicative for many environmental problems. It may therefore serve as a screening indicator for environmental performance. However, the usefulness of fossil CED as a stand-alone indicator for environmental impact is limited by the large uncertainty in the product-specific fossil CED-based impact scores (larger than a factor of 10 for the majority of the impact categories; 95% confidence interval). A major reason for this high uncertainty is nonfossil energy related emissions and land use, such as landfill leachates, radionuclide emissions, and land use in agriculture and forestry. 38 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Operation of Battery Energy Storage System in Demand Side using Local Load Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hida, Yusuke; Yokoyama, Ryuichi; Shimizukawa, Jun; Iba, Kenji; Tanaka, Kouji; Seki, Tomomichi

    Recently, the various political movements, which reduce CO2-emission, have been proposed against global warming. Therefore, battery energy storage systems (BESSs) such as NAS (sodium and sulfur) battery are attracting attention around the world. The first purpose of BESS was the improvement of load factors. The second purpose is the improvement of power quality, especially against voltage-sag. The recent interest is oriented to utilize BESS to mitigate the intermittency of renewable energy. NAS battery has two operation modes. The first one is a fixed pattern operation, which is time-schedule in advance. The second mode is the load following operation. Although this mode can perform more the flexible operation by adjusting the change of load, it has the risks of shortage/surplus of battery energy. In this paper, an accurate demand forecasting method, which is based on multiple regression models, is proposed. Using this load forecasting, the more advanced control of load following operation for NAS battery is proposed.

  15. Is cumulative fossil energy demand a useful indicator for the environmental performance of products?

    PubMed

    Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rombouts, Linda J A; Hellweg, Stefanie; Frischknecht, Rolf; Hendriks, A Jan; Van de Meent, Dik; Ragas, Ad M J; Reijnders, Lucas; Struijs, Jaap

    2006-02-01

    The appropriateness of the fossil Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) as an indicator for the environmental performance of products and processes is explored with a regression analysis between the environmental life-cycle impacts and fossil CEDs of 1218 products, divided into the product categories "energy production", "material production", "transport", and "waste treatment". Our results show that, for all product groups but waste treatment, the fossil CED correlates well with most impact categories, such as global warming, resource depletion, acidification, eutrophication, tropospheric ozone formation, ozone depletion, and human toxicity (explained variance between 46% and 100%). We conclude that the use of fossil fuels is an important driver of several environmental impacts and thereby indicative for many environmental problems. It maytherefore serve as a screening indicatorfor environmental performance. However, the usefulness of fossil CED as a stand-alone indicator for environmental impact is limited by the large uncertainty in the product-specific fossil CED-based impact scores (larger than a factor of 10 for the majority of the impact categories; 95% confidence interval). A major reason for this high uncertainty is nonfossil energy related emissions and land use, such as landfill leachates, radionuclide emissions, and land use in agriculture and forestry.

  16. Measuring welfare changes and modeling demand systems: Theory and applications to energy efficiency and environmental externalities in New York state residential energy demand

    SciTech Connect

    Dumagan, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    This study implements a generalized logit model of consumer demand. The generalized logit model conforms to the theory of consumer behavior better than the standard flexible functional form demand systems. This generalized logit was estimated using New York state-level and company-level data on residential consumption of electricity, natural gas, and fuel oil, including a composite good to complete the demand system. Results show that the estimated model satisfies the theoretical conditions of a well-behaved demand system for every data point in the sample and for a range of hypothetical households distinctly different from the sample. Results demonstrate that the generalized logit embodies utility-maximizing behavior over a much wider range of observations than standard flexible functional forms. The estimated generalized logit and money metric were combined to measure the money-metric welfare effects of (a) a variety of specific electricity-conservation options in the residential sector of New York state, and of (b) carbon taxes on electricity and fuels and an emissions penalty only on electricity.

  17. Recommended Changes to Specifications for Demand Controlled Ventilation in California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David

    2010-04-08

    In demand-controlled ventilation (DCV), rates of outdoor air ventilation are automatically modulated as occupant density varies. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. DCV is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. In almost all cases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors installed in buildings provide the signal to the ventilation rate control system. People produce and exhale CO{sub 2} as a consequence of their normal metabolic processes; thus, the concentrations of CO{sub 2} inside occupied buildings are higher than the concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the outdoor air. The magnitude of the indoor-outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration difference decreases as the building's ventilation rate per person increases. The difference between the indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration is also a proxy for the indoor concentrations of other occupant-generated bioeffluents, such as body odors. Reviews of the research literature on DCV indicate a significant potential for energy savings, particularly in buildings or spaces with a high and variable occupancy. Based on modeling, cooling energy savings from applications of DCV are as high as 20%. With support from the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has performed research on the performance of CO{sub 2} sensing technologies and optical people counters for DCV. In addition, modeling was performed to evaluate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of using DCV in general office spaces within the range of California climates. The above-described research has implications for the specifications pertaining to DCV in section 121 of the California Title 24 Standard. Consequently, this document suggests possible changes in these specifications based on the research findings. The suggested changes

  18. Seabird aggregative patterns: a new tool for offshore wind energy risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Christel, Isadora; Certain, Grégoire; Cama, Albert; Vieites, David R; Ferrer, Xavier

    2013-01-15

    The emerging development of offshore wind energy has raised public concern over its impact on seabird communities. There is a need for an adequate methodology to determine its potential impacts on seabirds. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are mostly relying on a succession of plain density maps without integrated interpretation of seabird spatio-temporal variability. Using Taylor's power law coupled with mixed effect models, the spatio-temporal variability of species' distributions can be synthesized in a measure of the aggregation levels of individuals over time and space. Applying the method to a seabird aerial survey in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean Sea, we were able to make an explicit distinction between transitional and feeding areas to define and map the potential impacts of an offshore wind farm project. We use the Ebro Delta study case to discuss the advantages of potential impacts maps over density maps, as well as to illustrate how these potential impact maps can be applied to inform on concern levels, optimal EIA design and monitoring in the assessment of local offshore wind energy projects.

  19. Eliminating Electricity Deficit through Energy Efficiency in India: An Evaluation of Aggregate Economic and Carbon Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant; Gupta, Arjun

    2010-04-30

    Electricity demand has consistently exceeded available supply in India. While the electricity deficit varies across states, nationally it was estimated to be of the order of 12percent on peak and 11percent for electricity during 2008-09. This paper explores a demand-side focused potential for energy efficiency improvement to eliminate the electricity deficit compared to a business as usual (BAU) supply-side focused scenario. The limited availability of finance and other legal and administrative barriers have constrained the construction of new power plant capacity in India. As a result, under the BAU scenario, India continues to face an electricity deficit beyond the end of the Twelfth Five Year Plan. The demand-side cost-effective potential achieved through replacement of new electricity-using products, however, is large enough to eliminate the deficit as early as 2013 and subsequently reduce the future construction of power plants and thus reduce air pollutant emissions. Moreover, energy efficiency improvements cost a fraction of the cost for new supply and can lead to a substantial increase in India's economic output or gross domestic product (GDP). Eliminating the deficit permits businesses that have experienced electricity cutbacks to restore production. We estimate the size of the cumulative production increase in terms of the contribution to GDP at a $505 billion between 2009 and 2017, the end of India's Twelfth Five Year Plan, which may be compared with India's 2007-08 GDP of $911 billion. The economic output is influenced by the size of the electricity savings and rate of penetration of energy efficient technologies, and that of self-generation equipment and inverters used by businesses faced with electricity cuts. Generation and inverters are estimated to service 23percent of these customers in 2009, which increase to 48percent by 2020. The reduction in the construction and operation of new power plants reduces the cumulative CO2 emissions by 65 Mt, and

  20. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Part of the Annual Commodities Review 1995. Production of construction aggregates such as crushed stone and construction sand and gravel showed a marginal increase in 1995. Most of the 1995 increases were due to funding for highway construction work. The major areas of concern to the industry included issues relating to wetlands classification and the classification of crystalline silica as a probable human carcinogen. Despite this, an increase in demand is anticipated for 1996.

  1. Optimization of Ventilation Energy Demands and Indoor Air Quality in High-Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Hun, Diana E; Jackson, Mark C; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    High-performance homes require that ventilation energy demands and indoor air quality (IAQ) be simultaneously optimized. We attempted to bridge these two areas by conducting tests in a research house located in Oak Ridge, TN, that was 20 months old, energy-efficient (i.e., expected to consume 50% less energy than a house built per the 2006 IRC), tightly-built (i.e., natural ventilation rate ~0.02 h-1), unoccupied, and unfurnished. We identified air pollutants of concern in the test home that could generally serve as indicators of IAQ, and conduced field experiments and computer simulations to determine the effectiveness and energy required by various techniques that lessened the concentration of these contaminants. Formaldehyde was selected as the main pollutant of concern among the contaminants that were sampled in the initial survey because it was the only compound that showed concentrations that were greater than the recommended exposure levels. Field data indicate that concentrations were higher during the summer primarily because emissions from sources rise with increases in temperature. Furthermore, supply ventilation and gas-phase filtration were effective means to reduce formaldehyde concentrations; however, exhaust ventilation had minimal influence on this pollutant. Results from simulations suggest that formaldehyde concentrations obtained while ventilating per ASHRAE 62.2-2010 could be decreased by about 20% from May through September through three strategies: 1) increasing ASHRAE supply ventilation by a factor of two, 2) reducing the thermostat setpoint from 76 to 74 F, or 3) running a gas-phase filtration system while decreasing supply ventilation per ASHRAE by half. In the mixed-humid climate of Oak Ridge, these strategies caused increases in electricity cost of ~$5 to ~$15/month depending on outdoor conditions.

  2. Optimization of Ventilation Energy Demands and Indoor Air Quality in the ZEBRAlliance Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Hun, D.; Jackson, M.; Shrestha, S.

    2013-09-01

    High-performance homes require that ventilation energy demands and indoor air quality (IAQ) be simultaneously optimized. In this project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers attempted to bridge these two areas by conducting tests in research houses located in Oak Ridge, TN, that were less than 2 years old, energy-efficient (i.e., expected to consume 50% less energy than a house built per the 2006 IRC), tightly-built, unoccupied, and unfurnished. The team identified air pollutants of concern in the test homes that could generally serve as indicators of IAQ, and conduced field experiments and computer simulations to determine the effectiveness and energy required by various techniques that lessened the concentration of these contaminants. Formaldehyde was selected as the main pollutant of concern from initial air sampling surveys. Field data indicate that concentrations were higher during the summer primarily because emissions from sources rise with increases in temperature. Furthermore, supply ventilation and gas-phase filtration were effective means to reduce formaldehyde concentrations; however, exhaust ventilation had minimal influence on this pollutant. Results from simulations suggest that formaldehyde concentrations obtained while ventilating per ASHRAE 62.2-2010 could be decreased by about 20% from May through September through three strategies: 1) increasing ASHRAE supply ventilation by a factor of two, 2) reducing the thermostat setpoint from 76 to 74°F, or 3) running a gas-phase filtration system while decreasing supply ventilation per ASHRAE by half. In the mixed-humid climate of Oak Ridge, these strategies caused minimal to modest increases in electricity cost of ~$5 to ~$15/month depending on outdoor conditions.

  3. Life-cycle implications of using crop residues for various energy demands in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2010-05-15

    Crop residues are a critical component of the sustainable energy and natural resource strategy within a country. In this study, we use hybrid life-cycle environmental and economic analyses to evaluate and compare the atmospheric chemical, climatic, ecological, and economic issues associated with a set of energy conversion technologies that use crop residues for various energy demands in China. Our analysis combines conventional process-based life cycle assessment with economic input-output life cycle assessment. The results show that the return of crop residues to the fields, silo/amination and anaerobic digestion (household scale) offer the greatest ecological benefits, with net greenhouse gas reduction costs of US$3.1/tC, US$11.5/tC, and US$14.9/tC, respectively. However, if a positive net income for market-oriented operations is the overriding criterion for technology selection, the cofiring of crop residues with coal and crop residue gasification for power generation offer greater economic scope and technical feasibility, with net incomes of US$4.4/Mg and US$4.9/Mg, respectively. We identify that poor economies of scale and the absence of key technologies mean that enterprises that use pure combustion for power generation (US$212/tC), gasification for heat generation (US$366/tC) and large-scale anaerobic digestion for power generation (US$169/tC) or heat generation (US$206/tC) are all prone to operational deficits. In the near term, the Chinese government should also be cautious about any large-scale investment in bioethanol derived from crop residues because, with a carbon price of as high as US$748/tC, bioethanol is the most expensive of all energy conversion technologies in China.

  4. Sensitivity Analysis and Uncertainty Characterization of Subnational Building Energy Demand in an Integrated Assessment Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, M. J.; Daly, D.; McJeon, H.; Zhou, Y.; Clarke, L.; Rice, J.; Whitney, P.; Kim, S.

    2012-12-01

    Residential and commercial buildings are a major source of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in the United States, accounting for 41% of energy consumption and 40% of carbon emissions in 2011. Integrated assessment models (IAMs) historically have been used to estimate the impact of energy consumption on greenhouse gas emissions at the national and international level. Increasingly they are being asked to evaluate mitigation and adaptation policies that have a subnational dimension. In the United States, for example, building energy codes are adopted and enforced at the state and local level. Adoption of more efficient appliances and building equipment is sometimes directed or actively promoted by subnational governmental entities for mitigation or adaptation to climate change. The presentation reports on new example results from the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) IAM, one of a flexibly-coupled suite of models of human and earth system interactions known as the integrated Regional Earth System Model (iRESM) system. iRESM can evaluate subnational climate policy in the context of the important uncertainties represented by national policy and the earth system. We have added a 50-state detailed U.S. building energy demand capability to GCAM that is sensitive to national climate policy, technology, regional population and economic growth, and climate. We are currently using GCAM in a prototype stakeholder-driven uncertainty characterization process to evaluate regional climate mitigation and adaptation options in a 14-state pilot region in the U.S. upper Midwest. The stakeholder-driven decision process involves several steps, beginning with identifying policy alternatives and decision criteria based on stakeholder outreach, identifying relevant potential uncertainties, then performing sensitivity analysis, characterizing the key uncertainties from the sensitivity analysis, and propagating and quantifying their impact on the relevant decisions. In the

  5. Visualization of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor aggregation in plasma membranes by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Correlation of receptor activation with aggregation.

    PubMed

    Carraway, K L; Koland, J G; Cerione, R A

    1989-05-25

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer between epidermal growth factor (EGF) molecules, labeled with fluorescent reporter groups, was used as a monitor for EGF receptor-receptor interactions in plasma membranes isolated from human epidermoid A431 cells. Epidermal growth factor molecules labeled at the amino terminus with fluorescein isothiocyanate served as donor molecules in these energy transfer measurements, while EGF molecules labeled with eosin isothiocyanate at the amino terminus served as the energy acceptors. Both of these derivatives were shown to be active in binding to membrane receptors and in the activation of the endogenous receptor/tyrosine kinase activity. We found that membranes in the absence of added metal ion activators showed relatively little energy transfer (approximately 10% donor quenching) between the labeled growth factors. However, divalent metal ion activators of the EGF receptor/tyrosine kinase caused a significant increase in the extent of energy transfer between the labeled EGF molecules. Specifically, in the presence of 20 mM MgCl2, the extent of quenching of the donor fluorescence increased to 25% (from 10% in the absence of metal), while in the presence of 4 mM MnCl2, the extent of energy transfer was increased still further to 40-50%. The addition of an excess of EDTA resulted in the reversal of the observed energy transfer to basal levels. The increased energy transfer in the presence of these divalent cations correlated well with the ability of these metals to stimulate the EGF receptor/tyrosine kinase activity. However, the extent of receptor-receptor interactions measured by energy transfer was independent of receptor autophosphorylation. Overall, these results suggest that conditions under which the EGF receptor is primed to be active as a tyrosine kinase, within a lipid milieu, result in an increased aggregation of the receptor.

  6. Demand-driven energy requirement of world economy 2007: A multi-region input-output network simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhan-Ming; Chen, G. Q.

    2013-07-01

    This study presents a network simulation of the global embodied energy flows in 2007 based on a multi-region input-output model. The world economy is portrayed as a 6384-node network and the energy interactions between any two nodes are calculated and analyzed. According to the results, about 70% of the world's direct energy input is invested in resource, heavy manufacture, and transportation sectors which provide only 30% of the embodied energy to satisfy final demand. By contrast, non-transportation services sectors contribute to 24% of the world's demand-driven energy requirement with only 6% of the direct energy input. Commodity trade is shown to be an important alternative to fuel trade in redistributing energy, as international commodity flows embody 1.74E + 20 J of energy in magnitude up to 89% of the traded fuels. China is the largest embodied energy exporter with a net export of 3.26E + 19 J, in contrast to the United States as the largest importer with a net import of 2.50E + 19 J. The recent economic fluctuations following the financial crisis accelerate the relative expansions of energy requirement by developing countries, as a consequence China will take over the place of the United States as the world's top demand-driven energy consumer in 2022 and India will become the third largest in 2015.

  7. Secret weapon. [The Energy Act's assault against in-house utility demand side management (DSM)

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, J.H.

    1993-01-15

    With all the attention focused on electric transmission and reform of the Public Utility Holding Company Act, few people noticed new provisions in the Energy Policy Act protecting small business from unfair utility competition in demand-side management. Congressional staffers reportedly received more mail supporting a ban on unfair utility competition than for all of the rest of the energy bill. As a result, the Act directs state utility commissions to consider the effect of DSM programs on small business and to assure that utility actions would not provide such utilities with unfair competitive advantages over such small businesses. It also requires a report by the Federal Trade Commission on the competitive effects of DSM programs and whether any unfair, deceptive, or predatory acts or practices exist, or are likely to exist, from implementation of such programs. Where did this anti-utility weapon come from What does it do And, now that it has been adopted into law, how can electric utilities deal with it

  8. Can the cultivation of microalgae meet U.S. energy demands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2011-08-01

    As biofuels such as ethanol and esters become increasingly attractive alternatives to nonrenewable resources such as oil and coal, scientists have become interested in determining the feasibility of biofuels to help meet U.S. energy demands in light of governmental efforts to develop cleaner-burning, renewable fuels. Of particular interest are microalgae—single-celled, photosynthetic organisms—which have been shown to have high biomass yields per acre cultivated. But does the United States have the resources to cultivate microalgae as a viable alternative to fossil fuel consumption? To answer this question, Wigmosta et al. sought to quantify how much water and land would be needed for commercial-scale algal biofuel production, based on where production could feasibly occur. They find that with current technology, the United States has the potential to produce 220 billion liters per year of microalgal oil, equivalent to about 48% of current domestic imports. However, they caution that meeting this potential would require that roughly 5.5% of land in the continental United States and 3 times the amount of water currently used for irrigation be devoted to algal production, though optimizing the locations of microalgae production to maximize efficiency of water usage could significantly reduce water demands. These optimal locations include areas around the Great Lakes, the Gulf Coast, and the southeastern seaboard; these coastal locations would allow a 75% reduction in freshwater use and a 67% reduction in land use to cultivate biofuel resources. Moreover, biofuel production through these optimized locations could substitute for up to 17% of oil currently imported for transportation, indicating that with proper planning, U.S. goals for renewable fuels could be met. (Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/2010WR009966, 2011)

  9. Reliable Adaptive Data Aggregation Route Strategy for a Trade-off between Energy and Lifetime in WSNs

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenzhong; Hong, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Yuzhong; Xiong, Naixue

    2014-01-01

    Mobile security is one of the most fundamental problems in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The data transmission path will be compromised for some disabled nodes. To construct a secure and reliable network, designing an adaptive route strategy which optimizes energy consumption and network lifetime of the aggregation cost is of great importance. In this paper, we address the reliable data aggregation route problem for WSNs. Firstly, to ensure nodes work properly, we propose a data aggregation route algorithm which improves the energy efficiency in the WSN. The construction process achieved through discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) saves node energy costs. Then, to balance the network load and establish a reliable network, an adaptive route algorithm with the minimal energy and the maximum lifetime is proposed. Since it is a non-linear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, in this paper we propose a DPSO with the multi-objective fitness function combined with the phenotype sharing function and penalty function to find available routes. Experimental results show that compared with other tree routing algorithms our algorithm can effectively reduce energy consumption and trade off energy consumption and network lifetime. PMID:25215944

  10. A comparison of thermal zone aggregation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, Justin R.; Hencey, Brandon M.

    2012-12-10

    The impact of increasing energy prices on building operation budgets has fueled demand for more energy-efficient structures. Existing building energy simulation tools generate an immense amount of data yet comparatively little knowledge. This paper introduces a framework that allows aggregation-based model reduction to operate on geometric building information models. The resulting aggregation sequence provides designers with faster simulations and affords insight into complex multi-scale thermal interactions. A comparison of the trade-off between simulation speed and accuracy for three hierarchical cluster partitioning methods concludes the discussion.

  11. Structural and thermodynamic investigations on the aggregation and folding of acylphosphatase by molecular dynamics simulations and solvation free energy analysis.

    PubMed

    Chong, Song-Ho; Lee, Chewook; Kang, Guipeun; Park, Mirae; Ham, Sihyun

    2011-05-11

    Protein engineering method to study the mutation effects on muscle acylphosphatase (AcP) has been actively applied to describe kinetics and thermodynamics associated with AcP aggregation as well as folding processes. Despite the extensive mutation experiments, the molecular origin and the structural motifs for aggregation and folding kinetics as well as thermodynamics of AcP have not been rationalized at the atomic resolution. To this end, we have investigated the mutation effects on the structures and thermodynamics for the aggregation and folding of AcP by using the combination of fully atomistic, explicit-water molecular dynamics simulations, and three-dimensional reference interaction site model theory. The results indicate that the A30G mutant with the fastest experimental aggregation rate displays considerably decreased α1-helical contents as well as disrupted hydrophobic core compared to the wild-type AcP. Increased solvation free energy as well as hydrophobicity upon A30G mutation is achieved due to the dehydration of hydrophilic side chains in the disrupted α1-helix region of A30G. In contrast, the Y91Q mutant with the slowest aggregation rate shows a non-native H-bonding network spanning the mutation site to hydrophobic core and α1-helix region, which rigidifies the native state protein conformation with the enhanced α1-helicity. Furthermore, Y91Q exhibits decreased solvation free energy and hydrophobicity compared to wild type due to more exposed and solvated hydrophilic side chains in the α1-region. On the other hand, the experimentally observed slower folding rates in both mutants are accompanied by decreased helicity in α2-helix upon mutation. We here provide the atomic-level structures and thermodynamic quantities of AcP mutants and rationalize the structural origin for the changes that occur upon introduction of those mutations along the AcP aggregation and folding processes.

  12. FITPULS: a code for obtaining analytic fits to aggregate fission-product decay-energy spectra. [In FORTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    LaBauve, R.J.; George, D.C.; England, T.R.

    1980-03-01

    The operation and input to the FITPULS code, recently updated to utilize interactive graphics, are described. The code is designed to retrieve data from a library containing aggregate fine-group spectra (150 energy groups) from fission products, collapse the data to few groups (up to 25), and fit the resulting spectra along the cooling time axis with a linear combination of exponential functions. Also given in this report are useful results for aggregate gamma and beta spectra from the decay of fission products released from /sup 235/U irradiated with a pulse (10/sup -4/ s irradiation time) of thermal neutrons. These fits are given in 22 energy groups that are the first 22 groups of the LASL 25-group decay-energy group structure, and the data are expressed both as MeV per fission second and particles per fission second; these pulse functions are readily folded into finite fission histories. 65 figures, 11 tables.

  13. A cumulative energy demand indicator (CED), life cycle based, for industrial waste management decision making.

    PubMed

    Puig, Rita; Fullana-I-Palmer, Pere; Baquero, Grau; Riba, Jordi-Roger; Bala, Alba

    2013-12-01

    Life cycle thinking is a good approach to be used for environmental decision-support, although the complexity of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies sometimes prevents their wide use. The purpose of this paper is to show how LCA methodology can be simplified to be more useful for certain applications. In order to improve waste management in Catalonia (Spain), a Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (LCA-based) has been used to obtain four mathematical models to help the government in the decision of preventing or allowing a specific waste from going out of the borders. The conceptual equations and all the subsequent developments and assumptions made to obtain the simplified models are presented. One of the four models is discussed in detail, presenting the final simplified equation to be subsequently used by the government in decision making. The resulting model has been found to be scientifically robust, simple to implement and, above all, fulfilling its purpose: the limitation of waste transport out of Catalonia unless the waste recovery operations are significantly better and justify this transport.

  14. Methodological considerations for documenting the energy demand of dance activity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Sarah; Redding, Emma; Wyon, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has explored the intensity of dance class, rehearsal, and performance and attempted to document the body's physiological adaptation to these activities. Dance activity is frequently described as: complex, diverse, non-steady state, intermittent, of moderate to high intensity, and with notable differences between training and performance intensities and durations. Many limitations are noted in the methodologies of previous studies creating barriers to consensual conclusion. The present study therefore aims to examine the previous body of literature and in doing so, seeks to highlight important methodological considerations for future research in this area to strengthen our knowledge base. Four recommendations are made for future research. Firstly, research should continue to be dance genre specific, with detailed accounts of technical and stylistic elements of the movement vocabulary examined given wherever possible. Secondly, a greater breadth of performance repertoire, within and between genres, needs to be closely examined. Thirdly, a greater focus on threshold measurements is recommended due to the documented complex interplay between aerobic and anaerobic energy systems. Lastly, it is important for research to begin to combine temporal data relating to work and rest periods with real-time measurement of metabolic data in work and rest, in order to be able to quantify demand more accurately. PMID:25999885

  15. Methodological considerations for documenting the energy demand of dance activity: a review.

    PubMed

    Beck, Sarah; Redding, Emma; Wyon, Matthew A

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has explored the intensity of dance class, rehearsal, and performance and attempted to document the body's physiological adaptation to these activities. Dance activity is frequently described as: complex, diverse, non-steady state, intermittent, of moderate to high intensity, and with notable differences between training and performance intensities and durations. Many limitations are noted in the methodologies of previous studies creating barriers to consensual conclusion. The present study therefore aims to examine the previous body of literature and in doing so, seeks to highlight important methodological considerations for future research in this area to strengthen our knowledge base. Four recommendations are made for future research. Firstly, research should continue to be dance genre specific, with detailed accounts of technical and stylistic elements of the movement vocabulary examined given wherever possible. Secondly, a greater breadth of performance repertoire, within and between genres, needs to be closely examined. Thirdly, a greater focus on threshold measurements is recommended due to the documented complex interplay between aerobic and anaerobic energy systems. Lastly, it is important for research to begin to combine temporal data relating to work and rest periods with real-time measurement of metabolic data in work and rest, in order to be able to quantify demand more accurately.

  16. THE DYT1 CARRIER STATE INCREASES ENERGY DEMAND IN THE OLIVOCEREBELLAR NETWORK

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu; Sharma, Nutan; LeDoux, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    DYT1 dystonia is caused by a GAG deletion in TOR1A, the gene which encodes torsinA. Gene expression studies in rodents and functional imaging studies in humans suggest that DYT1 dystonia may be a network disorder of neurodevelopmental origin. To generate high resolution metabolic maps of DYT1 dystonia and pinpoint dysregulated network elements, we performed 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography and cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry in transgenic mice expressing human mutant (hMT1) torsinA and wild-type littermates. In comparison with controls, hMT1 mice showed increased glucose utilization (GU) in the inferior olive (IO) medial nucleus (IOM), IO dorsal accessory nucleus and substantia nigra compacta, and decreased GU in the medial globus pallidus (MGP) and lateral globus pallidus. The hMT1 mice showed increased CO activity in the IOM and Purkinje cell layer of cerebellar cortex, and decreased CO activity in the caudal caudate-putamen, substantia nigra reticulata and MGP. These findings suggest that (1) the DYT1 carrier state increases energy demand in the olivocerebellar network and (2) the IO may be a pivotal node for abnormal basal ganglia-cerebellar interactions in dystonia. PMID:21241782

  17. Renewable Energy Resources Portfolio Optimization in the Presence of Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Behboodi, Sahand; Chassin, David P.; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned

    2016-01-15

    In this paper we introduce a simple cost model of renewable integration and demand response that can be used to determine the optimal mix of generation and demand response resources. The model includes production cost, demand elasticity, uncertainty costs, capacity expansion costs, retirement and mothballing costs, and wind variability impacts to determine the hourly cost and revenue of electricity delivery. The model is tested on the 2024 planning case for British Columbia and we find that cost is minimized with about 31% renewable generation. We also find that demand responsive does not have a significant impact on cost at the hourly level. The results suggest that the optimal level of renewable resource is not sensitive to a carbon tax or demand elasticity, but it is highly sensitive to the renewable resource installation cost.

  18. Citywide Impacts of Cool Roof and Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic Deployment on Near-Surface Air Temperature and Cooling Energy Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamanca, F.; Georgescu, M.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.; Martilli, A.

    2016-10-01

    Assessment of mitigation strategies that combat global warming, urban heat islands (UHIs), and urban energy demand can be crucial for urban planners and energy providers, especially for hot, semi-arid urban environments where summertime cooling demands are excessive. Within this context, summertime regional impacts of cool roof and rooftop solar photovoltaic deployment on near-surface air temperature and cooling energy demand are examined for the two major USA cities of Arizona: Phoenix and Tucson. A detailed physics-based parametrization of solar photovoltaic panels is developed and implemented in a multilayer building energy model that is fully coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting mesoscale numerical model. We conduct a suite of sensitivity experiments (with different coverage rates of cool roof and rooftop solar photovoltaic deployment) for a 10-day clear-sky extreme heat period over the Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas at high spatial resolution (1-km horizontal grid spacing). Results show that deployment of cool roofs and rooftop solar photovoltaic panels reduce near-surface air temperature across the diurnal cycle and decrease daily citywide cooling energy demand. During the day, cool roofs are more effective at cooling than rooftop solar photovoltaic systems, but during the night, solar panels are more efficient at reducing the UHI effect. For the maximum coverage rate deployment, cool roofs reduced daily citywide cooling energy demand by 13-14 %, while rooftop solar photovoltaic panels by 8-11 % (without considering the additional savings derived from their electricity production). The results presented here demonstrate that deployment of both roofing technologies have multiple benefits for the urban environment, while solar photovoltaic panels add additional value because they reduce the dependence on fossil fuel consumption for electricity generation.

  19. Impact of Temperature Trends on Short-Term Energy Demand, The (Released in the STEO September 1999)

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed unusually warm weather, as evidenced by both mild winters and hot summers. The analysis shows that the 30-year norms--the basis of weather-related energy demand projections--do not reflect the warming trend or its regional and seasonal patterns.

  20. Analysis of the electricity demand of Greece for optimal planning of a large-scale hybrid renewable energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyralis, Hristos; Karakatsanis, Georgios; Tzouka, Katerina; Mamassis, Nikos

    2015-04-01

    The Greek electricity system is examined for the period 2002-2014. The demand load data are analysed at various time scales (hourly, daily, seasonal and annual) and they are related to the mean daily temperature and the gross domestic product (GDP) of Greece for the same time period. The prediction of energy demand, a product of the Greek Independent Power Transmission Operator, is also compared with the demand load. Interesting results about the change of the electricity demand scheme after the year 2010 are derived. This change is related to the decrease of the GDP, during the period 2010-2014. The results of the analysis will be used in the development of an energy forecasting system which will be a part of a framework for optimal planning of a large-scale hybrid renewable energy system in which hydropower plays the dominant role. Acknowledgement: This research was funded by the Greek General Secretariat for Research and Technology through the research project Combined REnewable Systems for Sustainable ENergy DevelOpment (CRESSENDO; grant number 5145)

  1. Policy implications of the GRI baseline projection of U. S. energy supply and demand to 2010, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand is summarized. Three broad implications concerning the future of the natural gas industry are highlighted: the residual impact of the August 1990 Gulf War on crude oil prices and the factors influencing the long-term price path, the impact of the growing number of environmental constraints on future energy use, and the effect of recent developments in gas production on future gas supply and price.

  2. Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lai, Judy; Borgeson, Sam; Coffey, Brian; Azevedo, Ines Lima

    2009-09-01

    In this analysis, the authors projected Japan's energy demand/supply and energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions to 2050. Their analysis of various scenarios indicated that Japan's CO{sub 2} emissions in 2050 could be potentially reduced by 26-58% from the current level (FY 2005). These results suggest that Japan could set a CO{sub 2} emission reduction target for 2050 at between 30% and 60%. In order to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 60% in 2050 from the present level, Japan will have to strongly promote energy conservation at the same pace as an annual rate of 1.9% after the oil crises (to cut primary energy demand per GDP (TPES/GDP) in 2050 by 60% from 2005) and expand the share of non-fossil energy sources in total primary energy supply in 2050 to 50% (to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions per primary energy demand (CO{sub 2}/TPES) in 2050 by 40% from 2005). Concerning power generation mix in 2050, nuclear power will account for 60%, solar and other renewable energy sources for 20%, hydro power for 10% and fossil-fired generation for 10%, indicating substantial shift away from fossil fuel in electric power supply. Among the mitigation measures in the case of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 60% in 2050, energy conservation will make the greatest contribution to the emission reduction, being followed by solar power, nuclear power and other renewable energy sources. In order to realize this massive CO{sub 2} abatement, however, Japan will have to overcome technological and economic challenges including the large-scale deployment of nuclear power and renewable technologies.

  3. Impact of active and break wind spells on the demand-supply balance in wind energy in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Sumeet; Deo, M. C.; Ghosh, Subimal

    2017-01-01

    With an installed capacity of over 19,000 MW, the wind power currently accounts for almost 70% of the total installed capacity among the renewable energy sector in India. The extraction of wind power mainly depends on prevailing meteorology which is strongly influenced by monsoon variability. The monsoon season is characterized by significant fluctuations in between periods of wet and dry spells. During the dry spells, the demand for power from agriculture and cooling equipment increases, whereas during the wet periods, such demand reduces, although, at the same time, the power supply increases because of strong westerly winds contributing to an enhanced production of wind energy. At this backdrop, we aim to assess the impact of intra-seasonal wind variability on the balance of energy supply and demand during monsoon seasons in India. Further, we explore the probable cause of wind variability by relating it to El Nino events. It is observed that the active and break phases in wind significantly impact the overall wind potential output. Although the dry spells are generally found to reduce the overall wind potential, their impact on the potential seems to have declined after the year 2000. The impact of meteorological changes on variations in wind power studied in this work should find applications typically in taking investment decisions on conventional generation facilities, like thermal, which are currently used to maintain the balance of power supply and demand.

  4. A microcomputer program for energy assessment and aggregation using the triangular probability distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.; Balay, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    A general risk-analysis method was developed for petroleum-resource assessment and other applications. The triangular probability distribution is used as a model with an analytic aggregation methodology based on probability theory rather than Monte-Carlo simulation. Among the advantages of the analytic method are its computational speed and flexibility, and the saving of time and cost on a microcomputer. The input into the model consists of a set of components (e.g. geologic provinces) and, for each component, three potential resource estimates: minimum, most likely (mode), and maximum. Assuming a triangular probability distribution, the mean, standard deviation, and seven fractiles (F100, F95, F75, F50, F25, F5, and F0) are computed for each component, where for example, the probability of more than F95 is equal to 0.95. The components are aggregated by combining the means, standard deviations, and respective fractiles under three possible siutations (1) perfect positive correlation, (2) complete independence, and (3) any degree of dependence between these two polar situations. A package of computer programs named the TRIAGG system was written in the Turbo Pascal 4.0 language for performing the analytic probabilistic methodology. The system consists of a program for processing triangular probability distribution assessments and aggregations, and a separate aggregation routine for aggregating aggregations. The user's documentation and program diskette of the TRIAGG system are available from USGS Open File Services. TRIAGG requires an IBM-PC/XT/AT compatible microcomputer with 256kbyte of main memory, MS-DOS 3.1 or later, either two diskette drives or a fixed disk, and a 132 column printer. A graphics adapter and color display are optional. ?? 1991.

  5. Aggregation and Disaggregation Techniques Applied on Remotely Sensed Data to Obtain Optimum Resolution for Surface Energy Fluxes Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agam, N.; Kustas, W. P.; Li, F.; Anderson, M. C.

    2006-05-01

    Continuous monitoring of surface energy fluxes provides an important tool for precision agriculture management. It is, therefore, desirable to obtain these fluxes at agricultural field size (length scale ~ 10-100 m). To date, land surface temperature (LST), a fundamental input required for flux computations, is usually available at a nominal resolution of 1 km, which disables field-scale monitoring. Disaggregating LST data into field-scale sub-pixels was found to be possible, with deterioration in temperature accuracy as sub-pixel size is reduced. In contrast to LST, land use and fractional vegetation cover (LU and FC, additional key inputs) are available at high spatial resolution (e.g., 30 m). Aggregation of LU and FC to meet the lower resolution LST data introduces errors when aggregating to larger pixel sizes. The objective of this research is to find the optimum resolution that will minimize the errors due to aggregation of LU/FC and disaggregation of LST data, to provide continuous estimates of field scale surface energy fluxes. Data were used from the 2002 Soil Moisture-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX02) conducted over the upper Midwest corn and soybean production region of Iowa. Three dates during the period of rapid crops growth (June 23, July 1, and July 8) for which Landsat TM images are available were analyzed. The original pixels were aggregated to form 960 m pixels (to mimic thermal data currently available from MODIS) and were then disaggregated following the procedure suggested by Kustas et al. (2003)* to form 60, 120, and 240 m sub-pixels. LU and FC were obtained at 30 m resolution and then aggregated to 60, 120, 240, and 960 m. The Two-Source-Model was run at each of the resolutions using the pertinent inputs. The model output at 60 m resolution, using the original LST data was considered the base line, to which all other outputs were compared. For comparing the flux results at the lower resolutions, the 60 m flux output was aggregated. The

  6. Life Cycle Assessment Projection of Photovoltaic Cells: A Case Study on Energy Demand of Quantum Wire Based Photovoltaic Technology Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Shilpi

    With increasing clean-energy demand, photovoltaic (PV) technologies have gained attention as potential long-term alternative to fossil fuel energy. However, PV research and manufacture still utilize fossil fuel-powered grid electricity. With continuous enhancement of solar conversion efficiency, it is imperative to assess whether overall life cycle efficiency is also being enhanced. Many new-material PV technologies are still in their research phase, and life cycle analyses of these technologies have not yet been performed. For best results, grid dependency must be minimized for PV research, and this can be accomplished by an analytical instrument called Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). LCA is the study of environmental impacts of a product throughout its life cycle. While there are some non-recoverable costs of research, energy is precious, and the PV research community should be aware of its energy consumption. LCA can help identify options for energy conservation through process optimization. A case study was conducted on the energy demand of a test-bed emerging PV technology using life cycle assessment methodology. The test-bed system chosen for this study was a new-material PV cell. The objective was to quantify the total energy demand for the research phase of the test-bed solar cell's life cycle. The objective was accomplished by collecting primary data on energy consumption for each process in the development of this solar cell. It was found that 937 kWh of energy was consumed for performing research on a single sample of the solar cell. For comparison, this energy consumption is 83% of Arkansas's average monthly residential electricity consumption. Life cycle inventory analysis showed that heating, ventilation, and air conditioning consumed the bulk of the energy of research. It is to be noted that the processes studied as part of the solar cell test-bed system are representative of a research process only. Life cycle thinking can identify energy hot-spots and

  7. Preliminary assessment of the availability of U.S. natural gas resources to meet U.S. transportation energy demand.

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. K.; Moore, J. S.

    2002-03-04

    Recent studies have indicated that substitutes for conventional petroleum resources will be needed to meet U.S. transportation energy demand in the first half of this century. One possible substitute is natural gas which can be used as a transportation fuel directly in compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas vehicles or as resource fuel for the production of hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles. This paper contains a preliminary assessment of the availability of U.S. natural gas resources to meet future U.S. transportation fuel demand. Several scenarios of natural gas demand, including transportation demand, in the U.S. to 2050 are developed. Natural gas resource estimates for the U. S. are discussed. Potential Canadian and Mexican exports to the U.S. are estimated. Two scenarios of potential imports from outside North America are also developed. Considering all these potential imports, U.S. natural gas production requirements to 2050 to meet the demand scenarios are developed and compared with the estimates of U.S. natural gas resources. The comparison results in a conclusion that (1) given the assumptions made, there are likely to be supply constraints on the availability of U.S. natural gas supply post-2020 and (2) if natural gas use in transportation grows substantially, it will have to compete with other sectors of the economy for that supply-constrained natural gas.

  8. Production efficiencies of U.S. electric generation plants: Effects of data aggregation and greenhouse gas and renewable energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynes, Melissa Kate

    Over the last few decades there has been a shift in electricity production in the U.S. Renewable energy sources are becoming more widely used. In addition, electric generation plants that use coal inputs are more heavily regulated than a couple decades ago. This shift in electricity production was brought on by changes in federal policy -- a desire for electricity produced in the U.S. which led to policies being adopted that encourage the use of renewable energy. The change in production practices due to policies may have led to changes in the productivity of electric generation plants. Multiple studies have examined the most efficient electric generation plants using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. This study builds on past research to answer three questions: 1) Does the level of aggregation of fuel input variables affect the plant efficiency scores and how does the efficiency of renewable energy input compare to nonrenewable energy inputs; 2) Are policies geared toward directly or indirectly reducing greenhouse gas emissions affecting the production efficiencies of greenhouse gas emitting electric generation plants; and 3) Do renewable energy policies and the use of intermittent energy sources (i.e. wind and solar) affect the productivity growth of electric generation plants. All three analysis, presented in three essays, use U.S. plant level data obtained from the Energy Information Administration to answer these questions. The first two essays use DEA to determine the pure technical, overall technical, and scale efficiencies of electric generation plants. The third essay uses DEA within the Malmquist index to assess the change in productivity over time. Results indicate that the level of aggregation does matter particularly for scale efficiency. This implies that valuable information is likely lost when fuel inputs are aggregated together. Policies directly focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions may improve the production efficiencies of

  9. Energy Demand-Side Management: New Perspectives for a New Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carley, Sanya

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade and a half, state governments have assumed greater responsibility over demand-side management (DSM) operations. Whereas DSM programs formerly were initiated primarily by utilities or state public utility commissions, they are now becoming increasingly state-initiated and incentivized through funding mechanisms or…

  10. Lessons learned from new construction utility demand side management programs and their implications for implementing building energy codes

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, B.K.; Hughes, K.R.; Danko, S.L.; Gilbride, T.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report was prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) through its Building Energy Standards Program (BESP). The purpose of this task was to identify demand-side management (DSM) strategies for new construction that utilities have adopted or developed to promote energy-efficient design and construction. PNL conducted a survey of utilities and used the information gathered to extrapolate lessons learned and to identify evolving trends in utility new-construction DSM programs. The ultimate goal of the task is to identify opportunities where states might work collaboratively with utilities to promote the adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy-efficient building energy codes.

  11. Discriminating in vitro cell fusion from cell aggregation by flow cytometry combined with fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Huerta, Leonor; López-Balderas, Nayali; Larralde, Carlos; Lamoyi, Edmundo

    2006-12-01

    Expression of fusion proteins in the plasma membrane enables cells to bind and fuse with surrounding cells to form syncytia. Cell fusion can have important functional outcomes for the interacting cells, as syncytia formation does in AIDS pathogenesis. Studies on cell fusion would be facilitated by a quantitative method able to discriminate between cellular aggregates and bona fide fused cells in a cell population. Flow cytometry with fluorescence resonance energy transfer is applied here for analyzing fusion of HIV-1 envelope-expressing cells with CD4+ Jurkat cells. Fusion partners were labeled with the vital lipophilic fluorescent probes DiO (green) and DiI (red) and FRET is manifested by an enhancement of the DiI red fluorescence intensity in double fluorescent cells, thus allowing discrimination between fused and aggregated cells. The inhibitory effect of anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies and the inhibitory peptide T-20 upon cell fusion were readily quantified by this technique. This method allows the distinction of fused and aggregated cells even when they are at low frequencies.

  12. 75 FR 47499 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Markets AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking... markets administered by Independent System Operators or Regional Transmission Organizations. The... competitiveness of organized wholesale energy markets and thus ensure just and reasonable wholesale rates....

  13. Energy demands for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, and lactation of female Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noren, Shawn R.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Jay, Chadwick V.

    2014-01-01

    Decreases in sea ice have altered habitat use and activity patterns of female Pacific walruses Odobenus rosmarus divergens and could affect their energetic demands, reproductive success, and population status. However, a lack of physiological data from walruses has hampered efforts to develop the bioenergetics models required for fully understanding potential population-level impacts. We analyzed long-term longitudinal data sets of caloric consumption and body mass from nine female Pacific walruses housed at six aquaria using a hierarchical Bayesian approach to quantify relative energetic demands for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, and lactation. By examining body mass fluctuations in response to food consumption, the model explicitly uncoupled caloric demand from caloric intake. This is important for pinnipeds because they sequester and deplete large quantities of lipids throughout their lifetimes. Model outputs were scaled to account for activity levels typical of free-ranging Pacific walruses, averaging 83% of the time active in water and 17% of the time hauled-out resting. Estimated caloric requirements ranged from 26,900 kcal d−1 for 2-yr-olds to 93,370 kcal d−1 for simultaneously lactating and pregnant walruses. Daily consumption requirements were higher for pregnancy than lactation, reflecting energetic demands of increasing body size and lipid deposition during pregnancy. Although walruses forage during lactation, fat sequestered during pregnancy sustained 27% of caloric requirements during the first month of lactation, suggesting that walruses use a mixed strategy of capital and income breeding. Ultimately, this model will aid in our understanding of the energetic and population consequences of sea ice loss.

  14. Energy demands for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, and lactation of female Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens).

    PubMed

    Noren, Shawn R; Udevitz, Mark S; Jay, Chadwick V

    2014-01-01

    Decreases in sea ice have altered habitat use and activity patterns of female Pacific walruses Odobenus rosmarus divergens and could affect their energetic demands, reproductive success, and population status. However, a lack of physiological data from walruses has hampered efforts to develop the bioenergetics models required for fully understanding potential population-level impacts. We analyzed long-term longitudinal data sets of caloric consumption and body mass from nine female Pacific walruses housed at six aquaria using a hierarchical Bayesian approach to quantify relative energetic demands for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, and lactation. By examining body mass fluctuations in response to food consumption, the model explicitly uncoupled caloric demand from caloric intake. This is important for pinnipeds because they sequester and deplete large quantities of lipids throughout their lifetimes. Model outputs were scaled to account for activity levels typical of free-ranging Pacific walruses, averaging 83% of the time active in water and 17% of the time hauled-out resting. Estimated caloric requirements ranged from 26,900 kcal d(-1) for 2-yr-olds to 93,370 kcal d(-1) for simultaneously lactating and pregnant walruses. Daily consumption requirements were higher for pregnancy than lactation, reflecting energetic demands of increasing body size and lipid deposition during pregnancy. Although walruses forage during lactation, fat sequestered during pregnancy sustained 27% of caloric requirements during the first month of lactation, suggesting that walruses use a mixed strategy of capital and income breeding. Ultimately, this model will aid in our understanding of the energetic and population consequences of sea ice loss.

  15. China’s Growing Energy Demand: Implications for the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    way to characterize China’s use of coal: About 85 percent of all coal burned in China is used to generate heat , called steam coal or thermal coal; the... heat is converted to electricity or used in manufacturing. The remaining 10 decades. If growth were less than expected, or if China fully...2013 to about 4 percent by 2040. EIA also projects that the demand for natural gas as a source of heating will increase over the next few decades

  16. Temperature- and field-dependent energy transfer in CdSe nanocrystal aggregates studied by magneto-photoluminescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Blumling, Daniel E; Tokumoto, Takahisa; McGill, Stephen; Knappenberger, Kenneth L

    2012-08-21

    The influence of temperature and applied magnetic fields on photoluminescence (PL) emission and electronic energy transfer (ET) of both isolated and aggregated CdSe nanocrystals was investigated. Following 400-nm excitation, temperature-dependent, intensity-integrated and energy-resolved PL measurements were used to quantify the emission wavelength and amplitude of isolated CdSe nanocrystals. The results indicated an approximately three-fold increase in PL intensity upon decreasing the temperature from 300 K to 6 K; this was attributed to a reduction of charge carrier access to nanocrystal surface trap states and suppression of thermal loss channels. Temperature-dependent PL measurements of aggregated CdSe nanocrystals, which included both energy-donating and -accepting particles, were analyzed using a modified version of Förster theory. Temperature-dependent ET efficiency increased from 0.55 to 0.75 upon decreasing the sample temperature from 225 K to 6 K, and the ET data contained the same trend observed for the PL of isolated nanoclusters. The application of magnetic fields to increase nanocrystal ET efficiency was studied using magneto-photoluminescence measurements recorded at a sample temperature of 1.6 K. We demonstrated that the exciton fine structure population of the donor was varied using applied magnetic fields, which in turn dictated the PL yield and the resultant ET efficiency of the CdSe nanocrystal aggregate system. The experimental data indicated an ET efficiency enhancement of approximately 7%, which was limited by the random orientation of the spherical nanocrystals in the thin film.

  17. Renewable Energy Zones: Delivering Clean Power to Meet Demand, Greening the Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, David; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2016-05-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document describes the renewable energy zone concept that has emerged as a transmission planning tool to help scale up the penetration of solar, wind, and other resources on the power system.

  18. Water demands for electricity generation in the U.S.: Modeling different scenarios for the water–energy nexus

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lu; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Patel, Pralit L.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.

    2015-05-01

    Water withdrawal for electricity generation in the United States accounts for approximately half the total freshwater withdrawal. With steadily growing electricity demands, a changing climate, and limited water supplies in many water-scarce states, meeting future energy and water demands poses a significant socio-economic challenge. Employing an integrated modeling approach that can capture the energy-water interactions at regional and national scales is essential to improve our understanding of the key drivers that govern those interactions and the role of national policies. In this study, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a technologically-detailed integrated model of the economy, energy, agriculture and land use, water, and climate systems, was extended to model the electricity and water systems at the state level in the U.S. (GCAM-USA). GCAM-USA was employed to estimate future state-level electricity generation and consumption, and their associated water withdrawals and consumption under a set of six scenarios with extensive details on the generation fuel portfolio, cooling technology mix, and their associated water use intensities. Six scenarios of future water demands of the U.S. electric-sector were explored to investigate the implications of socioeconomics development and growing electricity demands, climate mitigation policy, the transition of cooling systems, electricity trade, and water saving technologies. Our findings include: 1) decreasing water withdrawals and substantially increasing water consumption from both climate mitigation and the conversion from open-loop to closed-loop cooling systems; 2) open trading of electricity benefiting energy scarce yet demand intensive states; 3) within state variability under different driving forces while across state homogeneity under certain driving force ; 4) a clear trade-off between water consumption and withdrawal for the electricity sector in the U.S. The paper discusses this withdrawal

  19. Real-time appraisal of the spatially distributed heat related health risk and energy demand of cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Kiranoudis, Chris T.; Sismanidis, Panagiotis

    2016-08-01

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is an adverse environmental effect of urbanization that increases the energy demand of cities, impacts the human health, and intensifies and prolongs heatwave events. To facilitate the study of UHIs the Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing of the National Observatory of Athens (IAASARS/NOA) has developed an operational real-time system that exploits remote sensing image data from Meteosat Second Generation - Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (MSG-SEVIRI) and generates high spatiotemporal land surface temperature (LST) and 2 m air temperature (TA) time series. These datasets form the basis for the generation of higher value products and services related to energy demand and heat-related health issues. These products are the heatwave hazard (HZ); the HUMIDEX (i.e. an index that describes the temperature felt by an individual exposed to heat and humidity); and the cooling degrees (CD; i.e. a measure that reflects the energy needed to cool a building). The spatiotemporal characteristics of HZ, HUMIDEX and CD are unique (1 km/5 min) and enable the appraisal of the spatially distributed heat related health risk and energy demand of cities. In this paper, the real time generation of the high spatiotemporal HZ, HUMIDEX and CD products is discussed. In addition, a case study corresponding to Athens' September 2015 heatwave is presented so as to demonstrate their capabilities. The overall aim of the system is to provide high quality data to several different end users, such as health responders, and energy suppliers. The urban thermal monitoring web service is available at http://snf-652558.vm.okeanos.grnet.gr/treasure/portal/info.html.

  20. An Economic Evalution of Demand-side Energy Storage Systems by using a Multi-agent based Electricity Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Ken; Sugihara, Hideharu; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    Opened wholesale electric power market in April 2005, deregulation of electric power industry in Japan has faced a new competitive environment. In the new environment, Independent Power Producer (: IPP), Power Producer and Supplier (: PPS), Load Service Entity (: LSE) and electric utility can trade electric energy through both bilateral contracts and single-price auction at the electricity market. In general, the market clearing price (: MCP) is largely changed by amount of total load demand in the market. The influence may cause price spike, and consequently the volatility of MCP will make LSEs and their customers to face a risk of revenue and cost. DSM is attracted as a means of load leveling, and has effect on decreasing MCP at peak load period. Introducing Energy Storage systems (: ES) is one of DSM in order to change demand profile at customer-side. In case that customers decrease their own demand at jumped MCP, a bidding strategy of generating companies may be changed their strategy. As a result, MCP is changed through such complex mechanism. In this paper the authors evaluate MCP by multi-agent. It is considered that customer-side ES has an effect on MCP fluctuation. Through numerical examples, this paper evaluates the influence on MCP by controlling customer-side ES corresponding to variation of MCP.

  1. Lactate Effectively Covers Energy Demands during Neuronal Network Activity in Neonatal Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Anton; Mukhtarov, Marat; Bregestovski, Piotr; Zilberter, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experimental data indicate that lactate is efficiently used for energy by the mature brain, the direct measurements of energy metabolism parameters during neuronal network activity in early postnatal development have not been performed. Therefore, the role of lactate in the energy metabolism of neurons at this age remains unclear. In this study, we monitored field potentials and contents of oxygen and NAD(P)H in correlation with oxidative metabolism during intense network activity in the CA1 hippocampal region of neonatal brain slices. We show that in the presence of glucose, lactate is effectively utilized as an energy substrate, causing an augmentation of oxidative metabolism. Moreover, in the absence of glucose lactate is fully capable of maintaining synaptic function. Therefore, during network activity in neonatal slices, lactate can be an efficient energy substrate capable of sustaining and enhancing aerobic energy metabolism. PMID:21602909

  2. Technology Solutions Case Study: Zero Energy Ready Home and the Challenge of Hot Water on Demand

    SciTech Connect

    2016-02-12

    Production builders in the Stapleton community of Denver, Colorado, now build 2,300-ft2 or larger homes that earn the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ENERGY STAR® through the Certified Homes Program, Version 3. These builders are repositioning to build comparably sized homes to the standards of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) program. Most ZERH criteria align closely with ENERGY STAR and are familiar to these builders.

  3. Scenarios of Building Energy Demand for China with a Detailed Regional Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Zhou, Yuyu; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-02-07

    Building energy consumption currently accounts for 28% of China’s total energy use and is expected to continue to grow induced by floorspace expansion, income growth, and population change. Fuel sources and building services are also evolving over time as well as across regions and building types. To understand sectoral and regional difference in building energy use and how socioeconomic, physical, and technological development influence the evolution of the Chinese building sector, this study developed a building energy use model for China downscaled into four climate regions under an integrated assessment framework. Three building types (rural residential, urban residential, and commercial) were modeled specifically in each climate region. Our study finds that the Cold and Hot Summer Cold Winter regions lead in total building energy use. The impact of climate change on heating energy use is more significant than that of cooling energy use in most climate regions. Both rural and urban households will experience fuel switch from fossil fuel to cleaner fuels. Commercial buildings will experience rapid growth in electrification and energy intensity. Improved understanding of Chinese buildings with climate change highlighted in this study will help policy makers develop targeted policies and prioritize building energy efficiency measures.

  4. Evaluating the Relationship between the Population Trends, Prices, Heat Waves, and the Demands of Energy Consumption in Cities

    DOE PAGES

    Fu, Katherine; Allen, Melissa; Archibald, Richard

    2015-11-18

    The demands of energy consumption have been projected as a key factor that affects an economy at the city, national, and international level. Contributions to total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2012 by various urban sectors include electricity (31%), transportation (28%), industry (20%), agriculture (10%), and commercial and residential (10%). Moreover, the heavy demands of energy consumption in the cities by residents, commercial businesses, industries, and transportation are important for maintaining and sustaining sufficient economic growth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between population trends, historical energy consumptions, the changes of average electricity price, average annualmore » temperature, and extreme weather events for three selected cities: New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles. These cities are exemplary of, metropolitan areas in the East, Middle, and the Western regions of the U.S. Here, we find that the total energy consumptions of New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles are influenced to various degrees by changes in population, temperature and the average price of electricity and that only one city, Los Angeles, does price significantly affect electricity use. Our finding has implications for policy making, suggesting that each city s climate, size and general economic priorities must be considered in developing climate change mitigation strategies and incentives.« less

  5. Evaluating the Relationship between the Population Trends, Prices, Heat Waves, and the Demands of Energy Consumption in Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Katherine; Allen, Melissa; Archibald, Richard

    2015-11-18

    The demands of energy consumption have been projected as a key factor that affects an economy at the city, national, and international level. Contributions to total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2012 by various urban sectors include electricity (31%), transportation (28%), industry (20%), agriculture (10%), and commercial and residential (10%). Moreover, the heavy demands of energy consumption in the cities by residents, commercial businesses, industries, and transportation are important for maintaining and sustaining sufficient economic growth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between population trends, historical energy consumptions, the changes of average electricity price, average annual temperature, and extreme weather events for three selected cities: New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles. These cities are exemplary of, metropolitan areas in the East, Middle, and the Western regions of the U.S. Here, we find that the total energy consumptions of New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles are influenced to various degrees by changes in population, temperature and the average price of electricity and that only one city, Los Angeles, does price significantly affect electricity use. Our finding has implications for policy making, suggesting that each city s climate, size and general economic priorities must be considered in developing climate change mitigation strategies and incentives.

  6. Maximizing Energy Savings Reliability in BC Hydro Industrial Demand-side Management Programs: An Assessment of Performance Incentive Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosman, Nathaniel

    For energy utilities faced with expanded jurisdictional energy efficiency requirements and pursuing demand-side management (DSM) incentive programs in the large industrial sector, performance incentive programs can be an effective means to maximize the reliability of planned energy savings. Performance incentive programs balance the objectives of high participation rates with persistent energy savings by: (1) providing financial incentives and resources to minimize constraints to investment in energy efficiency, and (2) requiring that incentive payments be dependent on measured energy savings over time. As BC Hydro increases its DSM initiatives to meet the Clean Energy Act objective to reduce at least 66 per cent of new electricity demand with DSM by 2020, the utility is faced with a higher level of DSM risk, or uncertainties that impact the costeffective acquisition of planned energy savings. For industrial DSM incentive programs, DSM risk can be broken down into project development and project performance risks. Development risk represents the project ramp-up phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not materialize due to low customer response to program incentives. Performance risk represents the operational phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not persist over the effective measure life. DSM project development and performance risks are, in turn, a result of industrial economic, technological and organizational conditions, or DSM risk factors. In the BC large industrial sector, and characteristic of large industrial sectors in general, these DSM risk factors include: (1) capital constraints to investment in energy efficiency, (2) commodity price volatility, (3) limited internal staffing resources to deploy towards energy efficiency, (4) variable load, process-based energy saving potential, and (5) a lack of organizational awareness of an operation's energy efficiency over time (energy performance). This research assessed the capacity

  7. The capital, energy, and time economics of an automated, on-demand transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Dearien, J.A.; Plum, M.M. )

    1993-11-01

    It is the feeling of many transit and rail planners today that the only way to decrease the capital and operating cost of rail and transit systems is to decrease the size and weight of the vehicles (FTA, 1991). This paper will discuss the requirements of such a downsized transportation system and the benefits to be gained by decreasing the size of the operational vehicles. Not only can the capital and operating cost of the system be dramatically decreased, but the operational requirements of a system involving the use of smaller vehicles permits its use as an on-demand system, further increasing system utility to the passenger and system operator. An on-demand transportation system is one that provides transportation to a traveler when the traveler desires it and as directly as possible to the desired destination. At present, the only systems providing this type service are bikes, automobiles, elevators, and taxis, if you can get one. All other systems are either scheduled time (airplanes, intercity trains) or scheduled frequency (metro buses, rail transit).

  8. Intrinsic gas production kinetics of selected intermediates in anaerobic filters for demand-orientated energy supply.

    PubMed

    Krümpel, Johannes Hagen; Illi, Lukas; Lemmer, Andreas

    2017-04-11

    As a consequence of a growing share of solar and wind power, recent research on biogas production highlighted a need for demand-orientated, flexible gas production to provide grid services and enable a decentralized stabilization of the electricity infrastructure. Two-staged anaerobic digestion is particularly suitable for shifting the methane production into times of higher demand due to the spatio-temporal separation of hydrolysis and methanogenesis. To provide a basis for predicting gas production in an anaerobic filter, kinetic parameters of gas production have been determined experimentally in this study. A new methodology is used, enabling their determination during continuous operation. An order in methane production rate could be established by comparing the half lives of methane production. The order was beginning with the fastest: acetic acid>ethanol>butyric acid>iso-butyric acid>valeric acid>propionic acid>1,2propanediol>lactic acid. However, the mixture of a natural hydrolysate from the acidification tank appeared to produce methane faster than all single components tested.

  9. Systems and methods for controlling energy use during a demand limiting period

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Michael J.; Drees, Kirk H.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for limiting power consumption by a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) subsystem of a building are shown and described. A feedback controller is used to generate a manipulated variable based on an energy use setpoint and a measured energy use. The manipulated variable may be used for adjusting the operation of an HVAC device.

  10. 75 FR 15362 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... of electric energy by customers from their expected consumption in response to an increase in the price of electric energy or to incentive payments designed to induce lower consumption of electric... elsewhere. See e.g., Wholesale Competition in Regions with Organized Electric Markets, Order No. 719, 73...

  11. Origin of non-Gaussian site energy disorder in molecular aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rancova, Olga; Jakučionis, Mantas; Valkunas, Leonas; Abramavicius, Darius

    2017-04-01

    Gaussian site energy disorder is an ad hoc concept usually implemented in simulations of excitation dynamics in molecular systems. In this letter we suggest a mechanism which may cause correlated static energy disorder in a broad range of molecular systems. Our approach leads to non-Gaussian site energy distribution, which strongly affects statistical properties of exciton wavefunctions and consequently changes material functional characteristics.

  12. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for

  13. Materials Flows Through Industry Tool to Track Supply Chain Energy Demand

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Alberta; Mann, Margaret; Gelman, Rachel; Lewis, John; Benson, David; Cresko, Joe; Ma, Seungwook

    2014-10-01

    In evaluating next-generation materials and processes, the supply chain can have a large impact on the life cycle energy impacts. The Materials Flow through Industry (MFI) tool was developed for the Department of Energy's Advanced Manufacturing Office to be able to evaluate the energy impacts of the U.S. supply chain. The tool allows users to perform process comparisons, material substitutions, and grid modifications, and to see the effects of implementing sector efficiency potentials (Masanet, et al. 2009). This paper reviews the methodology of the tool and provides results around specific scenarios.

  14. Flexible biogas production for demand-driven energy supply--feeding strategies and types of substrates.

    PubMed

    Mauky, Eric; Jacobi, H Fabian; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Purpose of this work was the evaluation of demand driven biogas production. In laboratory-scale experiments it could be demonstrated that with diurnal flexible feeding and specific combination of substrates with different degradation kinetics biogas can be produced highly flexible in CSTR systems. Corresponding to the feedings the diurnal variation leads to alternations of the methane, carbon dioxide and acid concentrations as well as the pH-value. The long-time process stability was not negatively affected by the dynamic feeding regime at high OLRs of up to 6 kg VS m(-3) d(-1). It is concluded that the flexible gas production can give the opportunity to minimize the necessary gas storage capacity which can save investments for non-required gas storage at site.

  15. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Supply and Demand

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The hydrocarbon gas liquids (ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline) module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of U.S. production, consumption, refinery inputs, net imports, and inventories.

  16. Using Sensor-based Demand Controlled Ventilation to Realize Energy Savings in Laboratories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    Department of Systems and Engineering Management Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University...examines a CO2-based DCV system in an elementary school gymnasium located in West Lafayette, Indiana, which has a humid continental climate (Ng et al...gymnasium of an elementary school at West Lafayette, Indiana. Energy and Buildings, 3216 - 3225. Nielsen, T. R., & Drivsholm, C. (2010). Energy efficient

  17. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike

    SciTech Connect

    DeForest, Nicholas; Mendes, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Feng, Wei; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris

    2013-06-02

    In much of the developed world, air-conditioning in buildings is the dominant driver of summer peak electricity demand. In the developing world a steadily increasing utilization of air-conditioning places additional strain on already-congested grids. This common thread represents a large and growing threat to the reliable delivery of electricity around the world, requiring capital-intensive expansion of capacity and draining available investment resources. Thermal energy storage (TES), in the form of ice or chilled water, may be one of the few technologies currently capable of mitigating this problem cost effectively and at scale. The installation of TES capacity allows a building to meet its on-peak air conditioning load without interruption using electricity purchased off-peak and operating with improved thermodynamic efficiency. In this way, TES has the potential to fundamentally alter consumption dynamics and reduce impacts of air conditioning. This investigation presents a simulation study of a large office building in four distinct geographical contexts: Miami, Lisbon, Shanghai, and Mumbai. The optimization tool DER-CAM (Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model) is applied to optimally size TES systems for each location. Summer load profiles are investigated to assess the effectiveness and consistency in reducing peak electricity demand. Additionally, annual energy requirements are used to determine system cost feasibility, payback periods and customer savings under local utility tariffs.

  18. An Innovative Enhanced Wall to Reduce the Energy Demand in Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantozzi, F.; Filipeschi, S.; Mameli, M.; Nesi, S.; Cillari, G.; Mantelli, M. B. H.; Milanez, F. H.

    2017-01-01

    Energy saving in buildings is one of most important issues for European countries. Although in the last years many studies have been carried out in order to reach the zero-consumption house the energy rate due to passive solar heating could be further enhanced. This paper proposes a method for increasing the energy rate absorbed by opaque walls by using a two phase loop thermosyphon connecting the internal and the external façade of a prefabricated house wall. The evaporator zone is embedded into the outside facade and the condenser is indoor placed to heat the domestic environment. The thermosyphon has been preliminary designed and implanted into a wall for a prefabricated house in Italy. An original dynamic thermal model of the building equipped with the thermosyphon wall allowed the evolution of the indoor temperature over time and the energy saving rates. The transient behaviour of the building has been simulated during the winter period by using the EnergyPlusTM software. The annual saving on the heating energy is higher than 50% in the case of a low consumption building.

  19. A model of the evolution of larval feeding rate in Drosophila driven by conflicting energy demands.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Laurence D; Barter, Thomas T

    2015-02-01

    Energy allocation is believed to drive trade-offs in life history evolution. We develop a physiological and genetic model of energy allocation that drives evolution of feeding rate in a well-studied model system. In a variety of stressful environments Drosophila larvae adapt by altering their rate of feeding. Drosophila larvae adapted to high levels of ammonia, urea, and the presence of parasitoids evolve lower feeding rates. Larvae adapted to crowded conditions evolve higher feeding rates. Feeding rates should affect gross food intake, metabolic rates, and efficiency of food utilization. We develop a model of larval net energy intake as a function of feeding rates. We show that when there are toxic compounds in the larval food that require energy for detoxification, larvae can maximize their energy intake by slowing their feeding rates. While the reduction in feeding rates may increase development time and decrease competitive ability, we show that genotypes with lower feeding rates can be favored by natural selection if they have a sufficiently elevated viability in the toxic environment. This work shows how a simple phenotype, larval feeding rates, may be of central importance in adaptation to a wide variety of stressful environments via its role in energy allocation.

  20. Charge Scheduling of an Energy Storage System under Time-of-Use Pricing and a Demand Charge

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yourim

    2014-01-01

    A real-coded genetic algorithm is used to schedule the charging of an energy storage system (ESS), operated in tandem with renewable power by an electricity consumer who is subject to time-of-use pricing and a demand charge. Simulations based on load and generation profiles of typical residential customers show that an ESS scheduled by our algorithm can reduce electricity costs by approximately 17%, compared to a system without an ESS and by 8% compared to a scheduling algorithm based on net power. PMID:25197720

  1. The impacts of climate change on energy: An aggregate expenditure model for the US

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.; Mendelsohn, R.

    1998-09-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model to measure the climate change impacts to the energy sector. Welfare effects are approximately equal to the resulting change in expenditures on energy and buildings. Using micro data on individuals and firms across the United States, energy expenditures are regressed on climate and other control variables to estimate both short-run and long-run climate response functions. The analysis suggests that energy expenditures have a quadratic U-shaped relationship with respect to temperature. Future warming of 2 C is predicted to cause annual damages of about $6 billion but increases of 5 C would increase damages to almost $30 billion.

  2. Demand controlled ventilating systems: Sensor market survey. Energy conservation in buildings and community systems programme, annex 18, December 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raatschen, W.; Sjoegren, M.

    The subject of indoor and outdoor air quality has generated a great deal of attention in many countries. Areas of concern include outgassing of building materials as well as occupant-generated pollutants such as carbon dioxide, moisture, and odors. Progress has also been made towards addressing issues relating to the air tightness of the building envelope. Indoor air quality studies indicate that better control of supply flow rates as well as the air distribution pattern within buildings are necessary. One method of maintaining good indoor air quality without extensive energy consumption is to control the ventilation rate according to the needs and demands of the occupants, or to preserve the building envelope. This is accomplished through the use of demand controlled ventilating (DCV) systems. The specific objective of Annex 18 is to develop guidelines for demand controlled ventilating systems based on state of the art analyses, case studies on ventilation effectiveness, and proposed ventilation rates for different users in domestic, office, and school buildings.

  3. The Charcoal Trap: Miombo Woddlands and the Energy Demands of People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, W. L.; Merbold, L.; Mukelabai, M. M.

    2012-04-01

    Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between dry open savannas and moist forests in Southern Africa. They cover about 2.7 million km2 in southern Africa and provide many ecosystem services that support rural life, including medical products, wild foods, construction timber and fuel. In Zambia, as in many of its neighbouring countries, miombo woodlands are currently experiencing accelerating degradation and clearing, mostly with charcoal production as the initial driver. Domestic energy needs in the growing urban areas are largely satisfied by charcoal, which is less energy-efficient fuel on a tree-to-table basis than the firewood that is used in rural areas, but has a higher energy density and is thus cheaper to transport. This study uses data from inventories and from eddy covariance measurements of carbon exchange to characterize the impact of charcoal production on miombo woodlands. We address the following questions: (i) how much carbon is lost at local as well as at national scale and (ii) does forest degradation result in the loss of a carbon sink? On the basis of our data we (iii) estimate the per capita emissions through deforestation and forest degradation in Zambia and relate it to fossil fuel emissions. Furthermore, (iv) a rough estimate of the energy that is provided by charcoal production to private households at a national level is calculated and (v) options for alternative energy supply to private households are discussed.

  4. Combined energy production and waste management in manned spacecraft utilizing on-demand hydrogen production and fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitzur, Shani; Rosenband, Valery; Gany, Alon

    2016-11-01

    Energy supply and waste management are among the most significant challenges in human spacecraft. Great efforts are invested in managing solid waste, recycling grey water and urine, cleaning the atmosphere, removing CO2, generating and saving energy, and making further use of components and products. This paper describes and investigates a concept for managing waste water and urine to simultaneously produce electric and heat energies as well as fresh water. It utilizes an original technique for aluminum activation to react spontaneously with water at room temperature to produce hydrogen on-site and on-demand. This reaction has further been proven to be effective also when using waste water and urine. Applying the hydrogen produced in a fuel cell, one obtains electric energy as well as fresh (drinking) water. The method was compared to the traditional energy production technology of the Space Shuttle, which is based on storing the fuel cell reactants, hydrogen and oxygen, in cryogenic tanks. It is shown that the alternative concept presented here may provide improved safety, compactness (reduction of more than one half of the volume of the hydrogen storage system), and management of waste liquids for energy generation and drinking water production. Nevertheless, it adds mass compared to the cryogenic hydrogen technology. It is concluded that the proposed method may be used as an emergency and backup power system as well as an additional hydrogen source for extended missions in human spacecraft.

  5. Carbon-Neutral Energy Supply and Energy Demand-Reduction Technology Needed for Continued Economic Growth Without Dangerous Interference in the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffert, M. I.; Caldeira, K.

    2007-12-01

    Stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at levels likely to avoid unacceptable climate risk will require a major transformation in the ways we produce and use energy. Most of our energy will need to come from sources that do not emit carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and that energy will need to be used efficiently. The required reduction of carbon dioxide emissions as global energy consumption and GDP grow imposes quantitative requirements on some combination of carbon-neutral primary power and energy demand reduction. (Emission reductions are expressed relative to an implicit or explicit baseline; explicit being better for policy-making. Energy demand reduction involves both efficiency improvements and lifestyle changes.) These requirements can be expressed as CO2 emission reductions needed, or as carbon-neutral primary power production needed combined with power not used by virtue of increased energy end use efficiency or lifestyle changes ("negawatts"), always subject to some reasonably well-characterized uncertainty limits. Climatic changes thus far have been closer to the more extreme zone of the climatic uncertainty envelope of global warming indicating the potential for disastrous impacts by mid-century and beyond for business-as-usual. Emission reductions needed to avoid "dangerous interference in the climate system" imply a revolutionary change in the global energy system beginning now; particularly ominous are massive conventional coal-fired electric power energy infrastructures under construction by the US, China & India. Strong arguments, based on physical science considerations, exist for prompt measures such as (1) an immediate moratorium on coal-fired plants that don't sequester CO2, (2) a gradually increasing price on carbon emissions and (3) regulatory standards, for example, that would encourage utilities and car manufacturers to improve efficiency, and (4) Apollo-scale R & D projects beginning now to develop sustainable carbon-neutral power that can be

  6. Facing Water Scarcity in Jordan: Reuse, Demand Reduction, Energy and Transboundary Approaches to Assure Future Water Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C. A.; El-Naser, H.; Hagan, R. E.; Hijazi, A.

    2001-05-01

    Jordan is extremely water-scarce with just 170 cubic meters per capita per year to meet domestic, industrial, agricultural, tourism, and environmental demands for water. Given the natural climatological conditions, demographic pressure, and transboundary nature of water resources, all renewable water resources of suitable quality are being exploited and some non-renewable aquifers are being depleted. The heavy exploitation of water resources has contributed to declines in the level of the Dead Sea. Rapid growth in demand, particularly for higher quality water for domestic, industrial and tourism uses, is significantly increasing pressure on agricultural and environmental uses of water, both of which must continue to adapt to reduced volumes and lower quality water. The agricultural sector has begun to respond by improving irrigation efficiency and increasing the use of recycled water. Total demand for water still exceeds renewable supplies while inadequate treatment of sewage used for irrigation creates potential environmental and health risks and presents agricultural marketing challenges that undermine the competitiveness of exports. The adaptive capability of the natural environment may already be past sustainable limits with groundwater discharge oasis wetlands that have been seriously affected. Development of new water resources is extremely expensive in Jordan with an average investment cost of US\\$ 4-5 per cubic meter. Integrated water resources management (IWRM) that incorporates factors external to the 'water sector' as conventionally defined will help to assure sustainable future water supplies in Jordan. This paper examines four IWRM approaches of relevance to Jordan: water reuse, demand management, energy-water linkages, and transboundary water management. While progress in Jordan has been made, the Ministry of Water and Irrigation continues to be concerned about the acute water scarcity the country faces as well as the need to continue working with

  7. Temporalization of peak electric generation particulate matter emissions during high energy demand days.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Caroline M; Moeller, Michael D; Felder, Frank A; Baker, Kirk R; Rodgers, Mark; Carlton, Annmarie G

    2015-04-07

    Underprediction of peak ambient pollution by air quality models hinders development of effective strategies to protect health and welfare. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model routinely underpredicts peak ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations. Temporal misallocation of electricity sector emissions contributes to this modeling deficiency. Hourly emissions are created for CMAQ by use of temporal profiles applied to annual emission totals unless a source is matched to a continuous emissions monitor (CEM) in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). More than 53% of CEMs in the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) electricity market and 45% nationally are unmatched in the 2008 NEI. For July 2006, a United States heat wave with high electricity demand, peak electric sector emissions, and elevated ambient PM2.5 mass, we match hourly emissions for 267 CEM/NEI pairs in PJM (approximately 49% and 12% of unmatched CEMs in PJM and nationwide) using state permits, electricity dispatch modeling and CEMs. Hourly emissions for individual facilities can differ up to 154% during the simulation when measurement data is used rather than default temporalization values. Maximum CMAQ PM2.5 mass, sulfate, and elemental carbon predictions increase up to 83%, 103%, and 310%, at the surface and 51%, 75%, and 38% aloft (800 mb), respectively.

  8. ENERGY DEMANDS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ACROSS THE LIFE CYCLE OF BIOETHANOL USED AS FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most assessments of converting biomass to fuels are limited to energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances to determine if there is a net loss or gain. A fairly consistent conclusion of these studies is that the use of bio-ethanol in place of conventional fuels leads to a net gain....

  9. Colleges Offer New Alternative-Energy Degrees, Fueled by Student Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul

    2009-01-01

    More U.S. college students are enrolling in power- and energy-engineering courses, but the increase is not enough to meet the need, says a new report by the IEEE, the professional association of electrical engineers. About 45% of engineers at electric utilities are expected to retire or leave their jobs within five years, creating as many as…

  10. Electric-Field-Induced Energy Tuning of On-Demand Entangled-Photon Emission from Self-Assembled Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Zallo, Eugenio; Höfer, Bianca; Chen, Yan; Keil, Robert; Zopf, Michael; Böttner, Stefan; Ding, Fei; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2017-01-11

    We explore a method to achieve electrical control over the energy of on-demand entangled-photon emission from self-assembled quantum dots (QDs). The device used in our work consists of an electrically tunable diode-like membrane integrated onto a piezoactuator, which is capable of exerting a uniaxial stress on QDs. We theoretically reveal that, through application of the quantum-confined Stark effect to QDs by a vertical electric field, the critical uniaxial stress used to eliminate the fine structure splitting of QDs can be linearly tuned. This feature allows experimental realization of a triggered source of energy-tunable entangled-photon emission. Our demonstration represents an important step toward realization of a solid-state quantum repeater using indistinguishable entangled photons in Bell state measurements.

  11. Pharmacological chaperone reshapes the energy landscape for folding and aggregation of the prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Amar Nath; Neupane, Krishna; Rezajooei, Negar; Cortez, Leonardo M.; Sim, Valerie L.; Woodside, Michael T.

    2016-06-01

    The development of small-molecule pharmacological chaperones as therapeutics for protein misfolding diseases has proven challenging, partly because their mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we study Fe-TMPyP, a tetrapyrrole that binds to the prion protein PrP and inhibits misfolding, examining its effects on PrP folding at the single-molecule level with force spectroscopy. Single PrP molecules are unfolded with and without Fe-TMPyP present using optical tweezers. Ligand binding to the native structure increases the unfolding force significantly and alters the transition state for unfolding, making it more brittle and raising the barrier height. Fe-TMPyP also binds the unfolded state, delaying native refolding. Furthermore, Fe-TMPyP binding blocks the formation of a stable misfolded dimer by interfering with intermolecular interactions, acting in a similar manner to some molecular chaperones. The ligand thus promotes native folding by stabilizing the native state while also suppressing interactions driving aggregation.

  12. Pharmacological chaperone reshapes the energy landscape for folding and aggregation of the prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amar Nath; Neupane, Krishna; Rezajooei, Negar; Cortez, Leonardo M.; Sim, Valerie L.; Woodside, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    The development of small-molecule pharmacological chaperones as therapeutics for protein misfolding diseases has proven challenging, partly because their mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we study Fe-TMPyP, a tetrapyrrole that binds to the prion protein PrP and inhibits misfolding, examining its effects on PrP folding at the single-molecule level with force spectroscopy. Single PrP molecules are unfolded with and without Fe-TMPyP present using optical tweezers. Ligand binding to the native structure increases the unfolding force significantly and alters the transition state for unfolding, making it more brittle and raising the barrier height. Fe-TMPyP also binds the unfolded state, delaying native refolding. Furthermore, Fe-TMPyP binding blocks the formation of a stable misfolded dimer by interfering with intermolecular interactions, acting in a similar manner to some molecular chaperones. The ligand thus promotes native folding by stabilizing the native state while also suppressing interactions driving aggregation. PMID:27346148

  13. Energy demand for harvesting aquatic biomass in the natural environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Broussard, N.D.; Broussard, P.A.

    1982-02-01

    The goal of this project is to utilize water hyacinths for the production of energy. The results of the research indicated that although the net energy balance from a system involving harvesting, transporting, and anaerobically digesting wild water hyacinths is severely impacted by the collection of the biomass in the wild state, the impact is not nearly as severe as that resultant from the requirements for digestion heat input. Research into the utility of biota as pestilent as the water hyacinth can only advance man's intergration into environmental harmony. This is especially true in the abundant waterways of Louisiana, where this experiment was carried out, which are typical of the semi-tropical coast-lands adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico.

  14. Impacts of High Resolution Extreme Events on U.S. Energy Demand and CO{sub 2} Emissions in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2013-06-21

    Progress is reported in these areas: Validation of temperature and precipitation extremes; Time of emergence of severe heat stress in the United States; Quantifying the effects of temperature extremes on energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions.

  15. Efficient light harvesting of a luminescent solar concentrator using excitation energy transfer from an aggregation-induced emitter.

    PubMed

    Banal, James L; Ghiggino, Kenneth P; Wong, Wallace W H

    2014-12-14

    The compromise between light absorption and reabsorption losses limits the potential light conversion efficiency of luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs). Current approaches do not fully address both issues. By using the excitation energy transfer (EET) strategy with a donor chromophore that exhibits aggregation-induced emission (AIE) behaviour, it is shown that both transmission and reabsorption losses can be minimized in a LSC device achieving high light collection and concentration efficiencies. The light harvesting performance of the LSC developed has been characterized using fluorescence quantum yield measurements and Monte Carlo ray tracing simulations. Comparative incident photon conversion efficiency and short-circuit current data based on the LSC coupled to a silicon solar cell provide additional evidence for improved performance.

  16. The Energy-Efficient Quarry: Towards improved understanding and optimisation of energy use and minimisation of CO2 generation in the aggregates industry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Ian; White, Toby; Owen, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    Extraction and processing of rock materials to produce aggregates is carried out at some 20,000 quarries across the EU. All stages of the processing and transport of hard and dense materials inevitably consume high levels of energy and have consequent significant carbon footprints. The FP7 project "the Energy Efficient Quarry" (EE-Quarry) has been addressing this problem and has devised strategies, supported by modelling software, to assist the quarrying industry to assess and optimise its energy use, and to minimise its carbon footprint. Aggregate quarries across Europe vary enormously in the scale of the quarrying operations, the nature of the worked mineral, and the processing to produce a final market product. Nevertheless most quarries involve most or all of a series of essential stages; deposit assessment, drilling and blasting, loading and hauling, and crushing and screening. The process of determining the energy-efficiency of each stage is complex, but is broadly understood in principle and there are numerous sources of information and guidance available in the literature and on-line. More complex still is the interaction between each of these stages. For example, using a little more energy in blasting to increase fragmentation may save much greater energy in later crushing and screening, but also generate more fines material which is discarded as waste and the embedded energy in this material is lost. Thus the calculation of the embedded energy in the waste material becomes an input to the determination of the blasting strategy. Such feedback loops abound in the overall quarry optimisation. The project has involved research and demonstration operations at a number of quarries distributed across Europe carried out by all partners in the EE-Quarry project, working in collaboration with many of the major quarrying companies operating in the EU. The EE-Quarry project is developing a sophisticated modelling tool, the "EE-Quarry Model" available to the quarrying

  17. Gas-phase dissociation of ionic liquid aggregates studied by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry and energy-variable collision induced dissociation.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ana M; Coutinho, João A P; Marrucho, Isabel M

    2009-01-01

    Positive singly charged ionic liquid aggregates [(C(n)mim)(m+1)(BF(4))(m)](+) (mim = 3-methylimidazolium; n = 2, 4, 8 and 10) and [(C(4)mim)(m+1)(A)(m)](+) (A = Cl(-), BF(4) (-), PF(6) (-), CF(3)SO(3) (-) and (CF(3)SO(2))(2)N(-)) were investigated by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry and energy-variable collision induced dissociation. The electrospray ionisation mass spectra (ESI-MS) showed the formation of an aggregate with extra stability for m = 4 for all the ionic liquids with the exception of [C(4)mim][CF(3)SO(3)]. ESI-MS-MS and breakdown curves of aggregate ions showed that their dissociation occurred by loss of neutral species ([C(n)mim][A])(a) with a >or= 1. Variable-energy collision induced dissociation of each aggregate from m = 1 to m = 8 for all the ionic liquids studied enabled the determination of E(cm, 1/2) values, whose variation with m showed that the monomers were always kinetically much more stable than the larger aggregates, independently of the nature of cation and anion. The centre-of-mass energy values correlate well with literature data on ionic volumes and interaction and hydrogen bond energies.

  18. Real-time changes in hippocampal energy demands during a spatial working memory task.

    PubMed

    Kealy, John; Bennett, Rachel; Woods, Barbara; Lowry, John P

    2017-02-27

    Activity-dependent changes in hippocampal energy consumption have largely been determined using microdialysis. However, real-time recordings of brain energy consumption can be more accurately achieved using amperometric sensors, allowing for sensitive real-time monitoring of concentration changes. Here, we test the theory that systemic pre-treatment with glucose in rats prevents activity-dependent decreases in hippocampal glucose levels and thus enhances their performance in a spontaneous alternation task. Male Sprague Dawley rats were implanted into the hippocampus with either: 1) microdialysis probe; or 2) an oxygen sensor and glucose biosensor co-implanted together. Animals were pre-treated with either saline or glucose (250mg/kg) 30min prior to performing a single 20-min spontaneous alternation task in a +-maze. There were no significant differences found between either treatment group in terms of spontaneous alternation performance. Additionally, there was a significant difference found between treatment groups on hippocampal glucose levels measured using microdialysis (a decrease associated with glucose pre-treatment in control animals) but not amperometry. There were significant increases in hippocampal oxygen during +-maze exploration. Combining the findings from both methods, it appears that hippocampal activity in the spontaneous alternation task does not cause an increase in glucose consumption, despite an increase in regional cerebral blood flow (using oxygen supply as an index of blood flow) and, as such, pre-treatment with glucose does not enhance spontaneous alternation performance.

  19. Cost and energy demand of producing nickel manganese cobalt cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Nelson, Paul A.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Susarla, Naresh; Dees, Dennis W.

    2017-02-01

    The price of the cathode active materials in lithium ion batteries is a key cost driver and thus significantly impacts consumer adoption of devices that utilize large energy storage contents (e.g. electric vehicles). A process model has been developed and used to study the production process of a common lithium-ion cathode material, lithiated nickel manganese cobalt oxide, using the co-precipitation method. The process was simulated for a plant producing 6500 kg day-1. The results indicate that the process will consume approximately 4 kWh kgNMC-1 of energy, 15 L kgNMC-1 of process water, and cost 23 to produce a kg of Li-NMC333. The calculations were extended to compare the production cost using two co-precipitation reactions (with Na2CO3 and NaOH), and similar cathode active materials such as lithium manganese oxide and lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide. A combination of cost saving opportunities show the possibility to reduce the cost of the cathode material by 19%.

  20. State Approaches to Demand Reduction Induced Price Effects: Examining How Energy Efficiency Can Lower Prices for All

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Colin; Hedman, Bruce; Goldberg, Amelie

    2015-12-01

    Effects (DRIPE) as a real, quantifiable benefit of energy efficiency and demand response programs. DRIPE is a measurement of the value of demand reductions in terms of the decrease in wholesale energy prices, resulting in lower total expenditures on electricity or natural gas across a given grid. Crucially for policymakers and consumer advocates, DRIPE savings accrue not only to the subset of customers who consume less, but to all consumers. Rate-paying customers realize DRIPE savings when price reductions across an electricity or natural gas system are passed on to all retail customers as lower rates (depending upon regulation and market structure, residual savings may be wholly or partially retained by utilities). DRIPE savings, though seemingly small in terms of percent price reductions or dollars per household, can amount to hundreds of millions of dollars per year across entire states or grids. Therefore, accurately assessing DRIPE benefits can help to ensure appropriate programs are designed and implemented for energy efficiency measures. This paper reviews the existing knowledge and experience from select U.S. states regarding DRIPE (including New York and Ohio), and the potential for expanded application of the concept of DRIPE by regulators. Policymakers and public utility commissions have a critical role to play in setting the methodology for determining DRIPE, encouraging its capture by utilities, and allocating DRIPE benefits among utilities, various groups of customers, and/or society at large. While the methodologies for estimating DRIPE benefits are still being perfected, policymakers can follow the examples of states such as Maryland and Vermont in including conservative DRIPE estimates in their resource planning.

  1. Activation energy of aggregation-disaggregation self-oscillation of polymer chain.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yusuke; Jahan, Rumana A

    2012-12-03

    In this paper, we investigated the activation energies of the aggregation−disaggregation self-oscillation induced by the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction by utilizing the nonthermoresponsive polymer chain in a wide temperature range. This is because the conventional type self-oscillating polymer chain, with thermoresponsive poly(Nisopropylacrylamide) (poly(NIPAAm) main-chain covalently bonded to the ruthenium catalyst (Ru(bpy)(3)) of the BZ reaction, cannot evaluate the activation energy over the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). The nonthermoresponsive self-oscillating polymer chain is composed of a poly-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) main-chain with the ruthenium catalyst (Ru(bpy)(3)). As a result, we clarified that the activation energy of the aggregation−disaggregation self-oscillation of the polymer chain is hardly affected by the concentrations of the BZ substrates. In addition, the activation energy of the nonthermoresponsive self-oscillating polymer chain was found to be almost the same value as normal BZ reaction, i.e., not including the self-oscillating polymer system with Ru moiety.

  2. Drivers for the Value of Demand Response under Increased Levels of Wind and Solar Power; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Elaine

    2015-07-30

    Demand response may be a valuable flexible resource for low-carbon electric power grids. However, there are as many types of possible demand response as there are ways to use electricity, making demand response difficult to study at scale in realistic settings. This talk reviews our state of knowledge regarding the potential value of demand response in several example systems as a function of increasing levels of wind and solar power, sometimes drawing on the analogy between demand response and storage. Overall, we find demand response to be promising, but its potential value is very system dependent. Furthermore, demand response, like storage, can easily saturate ancillary service markets.

  3. A role of accelerator-driven reactor to meet future energy demands

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, H.; An, Y.; Yang, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Tsoupas, N.

    1998-03-01

    Fissile fuel can be produced at a high rate using an accelerator driven Pu fueled fast reactor operated at deep subcriticality; this approach avoids encountering a shortage of Pu during a high rate of growth in the production of nuclear energy. Slightly reducing the acceleration field minimizes the tripping of the beam and the radiation dose from the accelerator; hence the accelerator can be operated as a highly reliable industrial machine. The usefulness of a windowless liquid jet target, which eliminates the spreading of the beam and problems of radiation damage is emphasized, in association with the small size of the target. The requirements for a proton beam accelerator for this system are discussed.

  4. Energy transfer on demand: photoswitch-directed behavior of metal-porphyrin frameworks.

    PubMed

    Williams, Derek E; Rietman, Joseph A; Maier, Josef M; Tan, Rui; Greytak, Andrew B; Smith, Mark D; Krause, Jeanette A; Shustova, Natalia B

    2014-08-27

    In this paper, a photochromic diarylethene-based derivative that is coordinatively immobilized within an extended porphyrin framework is shown to maintain its photoswitchable behavior and to direct the photophysical properties of the host. In particular, emission of a framework composed of bis(5-pyridyl-2-methyl-3-thienyl)cyclopentene (BPMTC) and tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (H4TCPP) ligands anchored by Zn(2+) ions can be altered as a function of incident light. We attribute the observed cyclic fluorescence behavior of the synthesized porphyrin-BPMTC array to activation of energy transfer (ET) pathways through BPMTC photoisomerization. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements show a decrease in average porphyrin emission lifetime upon BPMTC insertion, consistent with an ET-based mechanism. These studies portend the possible utilization of photochromic ligands to direct chromophore behavior in large light-harvesting ensembles.

  5. Haematological and iron-related parameters in male and female athletes according to different metabolic energy demands.

    PubMed

    Milic, Radoje; Martinovic, Jelena; Dopsaj, Milivoj; Dopsaj, Violeta

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the iron-related haematological parameters in both male and female athletes participating in different sporting disciplines necessitating different metabolic energy demands. A total of 873 athletes (514 males, mean age: 22.08 ± 4.95 years and 359 females, mean age: 21.38 ± 3.88 years) were divided according to gender and to the predominant energy system required for participation in sport (aerobic, anaerobic or mixed) and haematological and iron-related parameters were measured. For both male and female athletes, significant differences related to the predominant energy system were found at a general level: male (Wilks' λ = 0.798, F = 3.047, p < 0.001) and female (Wilks' λ = 0.762, F = 2.591, p < 0.001). According to the ferritin cutoff value of 35 μg/L, whole body iron and sTfR significantly differed in all three groups of male and female athletes (p < 0.001). The percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes in male athletes was significantly higher only in those who required an anaerobic energy source (p < 0.001), whilst in the females hypochromic erythrocytes (p < 0.001) and haemoglobin (anaerobic, p = 0.042; mixed, p = 0.006) were significantly different only in anaerobic and mixed energy source athletes. According to the ferritin cutoff value of 22 μg/L, in females, whole body iron, sTfR and hypochromic erythrocytes were significantly higher in all three groups of athletes than those below the aforementioned cutoff value (p < 0.001). We conclude that the predominant energy system required for participation in sport affects haematological parameters. sTfR and body iron proved to be reliable parameters for monitoring the dynamics of iron metabolism and could contribute to successful iron-deficiency prevention.

  6. Impact of solar-energy development: the aggregate impact on basic economic objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, A.; Kirschner, C.; Roach, F.

    1982-01-01

    Two categories of incentives for the development of solar energy are described: those that increase the benefits associated with the ownership of a solar energy system and those that reduce the cost of the system. The impact of two alternative (or complementary) programs are presented. The discussion distinguishes between short-run (one to five years) and long-run (over five years) impacts expected to result from the installation of passive solar designs on existing housing stock. Impacts associated with a program to deregulate natural gas and one combining tax credits and low interest loans are compared. The impacts of solar programs on seven basic economic goals are analyzed. The goals are full employment, price stability, economic efficiency, equitable distribution of income, economic growth, balancing the federal budget, and a strong national defense. (LEW)

  7. Impact of solar-energy development. The aggregate impact on basic economic objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A.; Kirschner, C.; Roach, F.

    Two categories of incentives for the development of solar energy are described: those that increase the benefits associated with the ownership of a solar energy system and those that reduce the cost of the system. The impact of two alternative programs are presented. Short run and long run impacts expected to result from the installation of passive solar designs on existing housing rock are distinguished. Impacts associated with a program to deregulate natural gas and one combining tax credits and low interest loans are compared. The impacts of solar programs on seven basic economic goals are analyzed. The goals are full employment, price stability, economic efficienty, equitable distribution of income, economic growth, balancing the federal budget, and a strong national defense.

  8. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on utility demand-side management and conservation and renewable energy programs

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, J.D.; Germer, M.F.; Tompkins, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) requires all of its long-term firm power customers to implement programs that promote the conservation of electric energy or facilitate the use of renewable energy resources. Western has also proposed that all customers develop integrated resource plans that include cost-effective demand-side management programs. As part of the preparation of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) developed estimates of the reductions in energy demand resulting from Western`s conservation and renewable energy activities in its Salt Lake City Area Office. ANL has also estimated the energy-demand reductions from cost-effective, demand-side management programs that could be included in the integrated resource plans of the customers served by Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The results of this study have been used to adjust the expected hourly demand for Western`s major systems in the Salt Lake City Area. The expected hourly demand served as the basis for capacity expansion plans develops with ANL`s Production and Capacity Expansion (PACE) model.

  9. SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN CEREBRAL ENERGY METABOLISM: THE ROLE OF NUTRIENT TRANSPORTERS

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Ian A.; Carruthers, Anthony; Vannucci, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    Glucose is the obligate energetic fuel for the mammalian brain and most studies of cerebral energy metabolism assume that the vast majority of cerebral glucose utilization fuels neuronal activity via oxidative metabolism, both in the basal and activated state. Glucose transporter proteins (GLUTs) deliver glucose from the circulation to the brain: GLUT1 in the microvascular endothelial cells of the blood brain barrier (BBB) and glia; GLUT3 in neurons. Lactate, the glycolytic product of glucose metabolism, is transported into and out of neural cells by the monocarboxylate transporters: MCT1 in the BBB and astrocytes and MCT2 in neurons. The proposal of the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis (Pellerin and Magistretti, 1994) suggested that astrocytes play the primary role in cerebral glucose utilization and generate lactate for neuronal energetics, especially during activation. Since the identification of the GLUTs and MCTs in brain, much has been learned about their transport properties, i.e. capacity and affinity for substrate, which must be considered in any model of cerebral glucose uptake and utilization. Using concentrations and kinetic parameters of GLUT1 and GLUT3 in BBB endothelial cells, astrocytes and neurons, along with the corresponding kinetic properties of the monocarboxylate transporters, we have successfully modeled brain glucose and lactate levels as well as lactate transients in response to neuronal stimulation. Simulations based on these parameters suggest that glucose readily diffuses through the basal lamina and interstitium to neurons, which are primarily responsible for glucose uptake, metabolism, and the generation of the lactate transients observed upon neuronal activation. PMID:17579656

  10. Proteomic analysis of mitochondria from embryonic and postnatal rat brains reveals response to developmental changes in energy demands

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Lance M.; Stauch, Kelly L.; Fox, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Many biological processes converge on the mitochondria. In such systems, where many pathways converge, manipulation of the components can produce varied and far-reaching effects. Due to the centrality of the mitochondria in many cellular pathways, we decided to investigate the brain mitochondrial proteome during early development. Using a SWATH mass spectrometry-based technique, we were able to identify vast proteomic alterations between whole brain mitochondria from rats at embryonic day 18 compared to postnatal day 7. These findings include statistically significant alterations in proteins involved in glycolysis and mitochondrial trafficking/dynamics. Additionally, bioinformatic analysis enabled the identification of HIF1A and XBP1 as upstream transcriptional regulators of many of the differentially expressed proteins. These data suggest that the cell is rearranging mitochondria to accommodate special energy demands and that cytosolic proteins exert mitochondrial effects through dynamic interactions with mitochondria. PMID:25046836

  11. Component-Based Modelling for Scalable Smart City Systems Interoperability: A Case Study on Integrating Energy Demand Response Systems

    PubMed Central

    Palomar, Esther; Chen, Xiaohong; Liu, Zhiming; Maharjan, Sabita; Bowen, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Smart city systems embrace major challenges associated with climate change, energy efficiency, mobility and future services by embedding the virtual space into a complex cyber-physical system. Those systems are constantly evolving and scaling up, involving a wide range of integration among users, devices, utilities, public services and also policies. Modelling such complex dynamic systems’ architectures has always been essential for the development and application of techniques/tools to support design and deployment of integration of new components, as well as for the analysis, verification, simulation and testing to ensure trustworthiness. This article reports on the definition and implementation of a scalable component-based architecture that supports a cooperative energy demand response (DR) system coordinating energy usage between neighbouring households. The proposed architecture, called refinement of Cyber-Physical Component Systems (rCPCS), which extends the refinement calculus for component and object system (rCOS) modelling method, is implemented using Eclipse Extensible Coordination Tools (ECT), i.e., Reo coordination language. With rCPCS implementation in Reo, we specify the communication, synchronisation and co-operation amongst the heterogeneous components of the system assuring, by design scalability and the interoperability, correctness of component cooperation. PMID:27801829

  12. Impact of the renewable oxygenate standard for reformulated gasoline on ethanol demand, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, K.C.; Singh, M.K.

    1995-04-01

    To assure a place for renewable oxygenates in the national reformulated gasoline (RFG) program, the US Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated the renewable oxygenate standard (ROS) for RFG. It is assumed that ethanol derived from corn will be the only broadly available renewable oxygenate during Phase I of the RFG program. This report analyzes the impact that the ROS could have on the supply of ethanol, its transported volume, and its displacement from existing markets. It also considers the energy and crude oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that could result from the production and use of various RFGs that could meet the ROS requirements. The report concludes that on the basis of current and projected near-term ethanol capacity, if ethanol is the only available renewable oxygenate used to meet the requirements of the ROS, diversion of ethanol from existing use as a fuel is likely to be necessary. Year-round use of ethanol and ETBE would eliminate the need for diversion by reducing winter demand for ethanol. On an RFG-program-wide basis, using ethanol and ETBE to satisfy the ROS can be expected to slightly reduce fossil energy use, increase crude oil use, and have essentially no effect on GHG emissions or total energy use relative to using RFG oxygenated only with MTBE.

  13. Component-Based Modelling for Scalable Smart City Systems Interoperability: A Case Study on Integrating Energy Demand Response Systems.

    PubMed

    Palomar, Esther; Chen, Xiaohong; Liu, Zhiming; Maharjan, Sabita; Bowen, Jonathan

    2016-10-28

    Smart city systems embrace major challenges associated with climate change, energy efficiency, mobility and future services by embedding the virtual space into a complex cyber-physical system. Those systems are constantly evolving and scaling up, involving a wide range of integration among users, devices, utilities, public services and also policies. Modelling such complex dynamic systems' architectures has always been essential for the development and application of techniques/tools to support design and deployment of integration of new components, as well as for the analysis, verification, simulation and testing to ensure trustworthiness. This article reports on the definition and implementation of a scalable component-based architecture that supports a cooperative energy demand response (DR) system coordinating energy usage between neighbouring households. The proposed architecture, called refinement of Cyber-Physical Component Systems (rCPCS), which extends the refinement calculus for component and object system (rCOS) modelling method, is implemented using Eclipse Extensible Coordination Tools (ECT), i.e., Reo coordination language. With rCPCS implementation in Reo, we specify the communication, synchronisation and co-operation amongst the heterogeneous components of the system assuring, by design scalability and the interoperability, correctness of component cooperation.

  14. Examination of food waste co-digestion to manage the peak in energy demand at wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Lensch, D; Schaum, C; Cornel, P

    2016-01-01

    Many digesters in Germany are not operated at full capacity; this offers the opportunity for co-digestion. Within this research the potentials and limits of a flexible and adapted sludge treatment are examined with a focus on the digestion process with added food waste as co-substrate. In parallel, energy data from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) are analysed and lab-scale semi-continuous and batch digestion tests are conducted. Within the digestion tests, the ratio of sewage sludge to co-substrate was varied. The final methane yields show the high potential of food waste: the higher the amount of food waste the higher the final yield. However, the conversion rates directly after charging demonstrate better results by charging 10% food waste instead of 20%. Finally, these results are merged with the energy data from the WWTP. As an illustration, the load required to cover base loads as well as peak loads for typical daily variations of the plant's energy demand are calculated. It was found that 735 m³ raw sludge and 73 m³ of a mixture of raw sludge and food waste is required to cover 100% of the base load and 95% of the peak load.

  15. Dynamic Controls for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response:Framework Concepts and a New Construction Study Case in New York

    SciTech Connect

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Hughes, Glenn

    2006-06-20

    Many of today's advanced building control systems are designed to improve granularity of control for energy efficiency. Examples include direct digital controls for building heating, ventilation, and cooling systems (HVAC), and dimmable ballasts for continuous dimming for daylighting applications. This paper discusses recent research on the use of new and existing controls in commercial buildings for integrated energy efficiency and demand response (DR). The paper discusses the use of DR controls strategies in commercial buildings and provides specific details on DR control strategy design concepts for a new building in New York. We present preliminary results from EnergyPlus simulations of the DR strategies at the New York Times Headquarters building currently under construction. The DR strategies at the Times building involve unique state of the art systems with dimmable ballasts, movable shades on the glass facade, and underfloor air HVAC. The simulation efforts at this building are novel, with an innovative building owner considering DR and future DR program participation strategies during the design phase. This paper also discusses commissioning plans for the DR strategies. The trends in integration of various systems through the EMCS, master versus supervisory controls and dynamic operational modes concepts are presented and future research directions are outlined.

  16. A Study of Economic Evaluation of Demand-side Energy Storage System in Consideration of Market Clearing Price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Ken; Sugihara, Hideharu; Tsuji, Kiichiro; Mitani, Yasunori

    In Japan electricity market will open on 1st April 2004. Electric utility, Power Producer and Supplier (:PPS) and Load Service Entity (:LSE) will join to the electricity market. LSEs purchase electricity based on Market Clearing Price (:MCP) from electricity market. LSEs supply electricity to the customers contracted with the LSEs on a certain electricity price, and one to the customers introduced Energy Storage System (:ES) on a time of use pricing. It is difficult for LSEs to estimate whether they have incentive to promote customers to introduce ES or not. In this paper, it is evaluated the reduction of LSEs' purchasing cost from electricity market and other LSEs' purchasing cost by introducing customers ES. It is clarified that which kind of customers has the effect of decreasing LSEs' purchasing cost and how much MCP of whole power system the demand-side energy storage systems change. Through numerical examples, this paper evaluates the possibility to give the cost merit to both customers with energy storage systems and LSE by using a real data of yearly MCP.

  17. Aggregation and vertical migration behavior of Euphausia superba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Meng; Dorland, Ryan D.

    2004-08-01

    Aggregation and vertical migration behavior of Euphausia superba were studied in Marguerite Bay and its vicinity west of the Antarctic Peninsula using a vessel-mounted, Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, and a Multiple Opening and Closing Nets and Environmental Sensing System, during the 2001 and 2002 fall US Southern Ocean GLOBEC project cruises. The kinematics of aggregation behavior of E. superba associated with diel migration is studied using observations of their abundance and swimming velocities: during the day, E. superba reduce their swimming at a depth of 250 m; and at night, they swim randomly at their cruising speed in the upper part of an aggregation near the surface, and coherently as schooling in the lower part of an aggregation. The causes for the aggregation behavior and vertical migration of krill are explored by examining the relationship with ice coverage and presence of predators. The motion of euphausiids is further analyzed in terms of kinetic energy and force balance, leading to new considerations of mathematical theories and models of aggregation behavior. The results show a diel variation of the energy demand for maintaining their locomotion. The horizontal scale of an aggregation is studied in conjunction with horizontal gradients of currents. Results indicate that the swimming capability of euphausiids determines the maintenance of an aggregation in the mesoscale circulation field.

  18. Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-09-20

    Policy makers and program designers in the U.S. and abroad are deeply concerned with the question of how to scale up energy efficiency to a level that is commensurate both to the scale of the energy and climate challenges we face, and to the potential for energy savings that has been touted for decades. When policy makers ask what energy efficiency can do, the answers usually revolve around the technical and economic potential of energy efficiency - they rarely hone in on the element of energy demand that matters most for changing energy usage in existing homes: the consumer. A growing literature is concerned with the behavioral underpinnings of energy consumption. We examine a narrower, related subject: How can millions of Americans be persuaded to divert valued time and resources into upgrading their homes to eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy? With hundreds of millions of public dollars flowing into incentives, workforce training, and other initiatives to support comprehensive home energy improvements, it makes sense to review the history of these programs and begin gleaning best practices for encouraging comprehensive home energy improvements. Looking across 30 years of energy efficiency programs that targeted the residential market, many of the same issues that confronted past program administrators are relevant today: How do we cost-effectively motivate customers to take action? Who can we partner with to increase program participation? How do we get residential efficiency programs to scale? While there is no proven formula - and only limited success to date with reliably motivating large numbers of Americans to invest in comprehensive home energy improvements, especially if they are being asked to pay for a majority of the improvement costs - there is a rich and varied history of experiences that new programs can draw upon. Our primary audiences are policy makers and program designers - especially those that are relatively

  19. Nuclear energy acceptance and potential role to meet future energy demand. Which technical/scientific achievements are needed?

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, Roland

    2012-06-19

    25 years after Chernobyl, the Fukushima disaster has changed the perspectives of nuclear power. The disaster has shed a negative light on the independence, reliability and rigor of the national nuclear regulator and plant operator and the usefulness of the international IAEA guidelines on nuclear safety. It has become clear that, in the light of the most severe earthquake in the history of Japan, the plants at Fukushima Daiichi were not adequately protected against tsunamis. Nuclear acceptance has suffered enormously and has changed the perspectives of nuclear energy dramatically in countries that have a very risk-sensitive population, Germany is an example. The paper analyses the reactions in major countries and the expected impact on future deployment of reactors and on R and D activities. On the positive side, the disaster has demonstrated a remarkable robustness of most of the 14 reactors closest to the epicentre of the Tohoku Seaquake although not designed to an event of level 9.0. Public acceptance can only be regained with a rigorous and worldwide approach towards inherent reactor safety and design objectives that limit the impact of severe accidents to the plant itself (like many of the new Gen III reactors). A widespread release of radioactivity and the evacuation (temporary or permanent) of the population up to 30 km around a facility are simply not acceptable. Several countries have announced to request more stringent international standards for reactor safety. The IAEA should take this move forward and intensify and strengthen the different peer review mission schemes. The safety guidelines and peer reviews should in fact become legally binding for IAEA members. The paper gives examples of the new safety features developed over the last 20 years and which yield much safer reactors with lesser burden to the environment under severe accident conditions. The compatibility of these safety systems with the current concepts for fusion-fission hybrids, which

  20. Nuclear energy acceptance and potential role to meet future energy demand. Which technical/scientific achievements are needed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenkel, Roland

    2012-06-01

    25 years after Chernobyl, the Fukushima disaster has changed the perspectives of nuclear power. The disaster has shed a negative light on the independence, reliability and rigor of the national nuclear regulator and plant operator and the usefulness of the international IAEA guidelines on nuclear safety. It has become clear that, in the light of the most severe earthquake in the history of Japan, the plants at Fukushima Daiichi were not adequately protected against tsunamis. Nuclear acceptance has suffered enormously and has changed the perspectives of nuclear energy dramatically in countries that have a very risk-sensitive population, Germany is an example. The paper analyses the reactions in major countries and the expected impact on future deployment of reactors and on R&D activities. On the positive side, the disaster has demonstrated a remarkable robustness of most of the 14 reactors closest to the epicentre of the Tohoku Seaquake although not designed to an event of level 9.0. Public acceptance can only be regained with a rigorous and worldwide approach towards inherent reactor safety and design objectives that limit the impact of severe accidents to the plant itself (like many of the new Gen III reactors). A widespread release of radioactivity and the evacuation (temporary or permanent) of the population up to 30 km around a facility are simply not acceptable. Several countries have announced to request more stringent international standards for reactor safety. The IAEA should take this move forward and intensify and strengthen the different peer review mission schemes. The safety guidelines and peer reviews should in fact become legally binding for IAEA members. The paper gives examples of the new safety features developed over the last 20 years and which yield much safer reactors with lesser burden to the environment under severe accident conditions. The compatibility of these safety systems with the current concepts for fusion-fission hybrids, which have

  1. Calculating Impacts of Energy Standards on Energy Demand in U.S. Buildings under Uncertainty with an Integrated Assessment Model: Technical Background Data

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Hathaway, John E.; Lansing, Carina S.; Liu, Ying; McJeon, Haewon C.; Moss, Richard H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Peterson, Marty J.; Rice, Jennie S.; Zhou, Yuyu

    2014-12-06

    This report presents data and assumptions employed in an application of PNNL’s Global Change Assessment Model with a newly-developed Monte Carlo analysis capability. The model is used to analyze the impacts of more aggressive U.S. residential and commercial building-energy codes and equipment standards on energy consumption and energy service costs at the state level, explicitly recognizing uncertainty in technology effectiveness and cost, socioeconomics, presence or absence of carbon prices, and climate impacts on energy demand. The report provides a summary of how residential and commercial buildings are modeled, together with assumptions made for the distributions of state–level population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per worker, efficiency and cost of residential and commercial energy equipment by end use, and efficiency and cost of residential and commercial building shells. The cost and performance of equipment and of building shells are reported separately for current building and equipment efficiency standards and for more aggressive standards. The report also details assumptions concerning future improvements brought about by projected trends in technology.

  2. Impact of postconsumer recycling initiatives on industrial energy demand-opportunities and threats for natural gas. Final report, December 1991-June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Artz, N.; Kinkelaar, M.; Kirk, M.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid change in municipal solid waste and industrial waste management practices in the U.S. could have significant impact on industrial energy demand and ultimately, natural gas demand. The study examines the impact of increased rates of postconsumer recycling and waste used as fuel on industrial natural gas demand for the time period 1990 to 2005. Increased postconsumer recycling and waste used as fuel are projected to decrease natural gas demand in the U.S. by 29 trillion Btu per year by 1995 and over 71 trillion Btu by 2005. Increased ferrous scrap use in electric are furnaces and postconsumer plastics recycling are projected to cause the most significant loss in natural gas demand.

  3. Comparison of Water Demand for Hydraulic Fracturing relative to Energy Production in Major U.S. Shale Oil Plays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.; Nicot, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable concern about the volume of water used for hydraulic fracturing to produce oil and gas from shale plays, particularly in semiarid regions with limited water supplies. Many analyses focus on water use per well because these data are readily available through the FracFocus database; however, a critical factor is the water use intensity (i.e., water use for hydraulic fracturing per unit of energy produced). In this study we quantified water use for hydraulic fracturing on a per well basis in the Eagle Ford, Permian Basin, and Bakken shale plays and compared these data with the volumes of oil produced to assess the water use intensity. Water demand per well varies markedly among the three plays. Controls on water use include type of well, length of lateral, frac fluid type, number of frac stages, and geology. For example, preliminary results indicate that less water is used for hydraulic fracturing per unit of energy in the Bakken relative to that in the other plays that was attributed to geologic differences. Most production is from the Middle Bakken, which is a tight sand/silt formation rather than shales as in the Eagle Ford and Permian plays. Water use per unit of energy production decreases with time after well completion, assuming a well is not refractured, and water use intensity estimates are based on estimated ultimate recovery. Quantifying water use in the Bakken is complicated because of additional water required after well completion to flush high levels of salts. Water use for oil production from unconventional reservoirs is within the lower range of that used for oil production from conventional reservoirs. Therefore, high levels of water use for hydraulic fracturing reflect increased energy production from unconventional reservoirs rather than higher water intensity.

  4. Coordinating Demand-Side Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Among Western States: Options for Documenting Energy and Non-Energy Impacts for the Power Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, Steven R.; Schwartz, Lisa C.

    2016-06-22

    Demand-side energy efficiency (efficiency) represents a low-cost opportunity to reduce electricity consumption and demand and provide a wide range of non-energy benefits, including avoiding air pollution. Efficiency-related energy and non-energy impacts are determined and documented by implementing evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) systems. This technical brief describes efficiency EM&V coordination strategies that Western states can consider taking on together, outlines EM&V-related products that might be appropriate for multistate coordination, and identifies some implications of coordination. Coordinating efficiency EM&V activities can save both time and costs for state agencies and stakeholders engaged in efficiency activities and can be particularly beneficial for multiple states served by the same utility. First, the brief summarizes basic information on efficiency, its myriad potential benefits and EM&V for assessing those benefits. Second, the brief introduces the concept of multistate EM&V coordination in the context of assessing such benefits, including achievement of state and federal goals to reduce air pollutants.1 Next, the brief presents three coordination strategy options for efficiency EM&V: information clearinghouse/exchange, EM&V product development, and a regional energy efficiency tracking system platform. The brief then describes five regional EM&V products that could be developed on a multistate basis: EM&V reporting formats, database of consistent deemed electricity savings values, glossary of definitions and concepts, efficiency EM&V methodologies, and EM&V professional standards or accreditation processes. Finally, the brief discusses options for next steps that Western states can take to consider multistate coordination on efficiency EM&V. Appendices provide background information on efficiency and EM&V, as well as definitions and suggested resources on the covered topics. This brief is intended to inform state public

  5. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Controlled Ventilation in General Office Spaces in California

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Fisk, William

    2010-01-01

    A prototypical office building meeting the prescriptive requirements of the 2008 California building energy efficiency standards (Title 24) was used in EnergyPlus simulations to calculate the energy savings potential of demand controlled ventilation (DCV) in five typical California climates per three design occupancy densities and two minimum ventilation rates. The assumed minimum ventilation rates in offices without DCV, based on two different measurement methods employed in a large survey, were 38 and 13 L/s per occupant. The results of the life cycle cost analysis show DCV is cost effective for office spaces if the typical minimum ventilation rate without DCV is 38 L/s per person, except at the low design occupancy of 10.8 people per 100 m2 in climate zones 3 (north coast) and 6 (south Coast). DCV was not found to be cost effective if the typical minimum ventilation rate without DCV is 13 L/s per occupant, except at high design occupancy of 21.5 people per 100 m2 in climate zones 14 (desert) and 16 (mountains). Until the large uncertainties about the base case ventilation rates in offices without DCV are reduced, the case for requiring DCV in general office spaces will be a weak case. Under the Title 24 Standards office occupant density of 10.8 people per 100 m2, DCV becomes cost effective when the base case minimum ventilation rate is greater than 42.5, 43.0, 24.0, 19.0, and 18.0 L/s per person for climate zone 3, 6, 12, 14, and 16 respectively.

  6. Program Design Analysis using BEopt Building Energy Optimization Software: Defining a Technology Pathway Leading to New Homes with Zero Peak Cooling Demand; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.

    2006-08-01

    An optimization method based on the evaluation of a broad range of different combinations of specific energy efficiency and renewable-energy options is used to determine the least-cost pathway to the development of new homes with zero peak cooling demand. The optimization approach conducts a sequential search of a large number of possible option combinations and uses the most cost-effective alternatives to generate a least-cost curve to achieve home-performance levels ranging from a Title 24-compliant home to a home that uses zero net source energy on an annual basis. By evaluating peak cooling load reductions on the least-cost curve, it is then possible to determine the most cost-effective combination of energy efficiency and renewable-energy options that both maximize annual energy savings and minimize peak-cooling demand.

  7. Energy transfer in aggregated CuInS2/ZnS core-shell quantum dots deposited as solid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardelis, S.; Fakis, M.; Droseros, N.; Georgiadou, D.; Travlos, A.; Nassiopoulou, A. G.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the morphology and optical properties of CuInS2/ZnS core-shell quantum dots in solid films by means of AFM, SEM, HRTEM, steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The amount of aggregation of the CuInS2/ZnS QDs was controlled by changing the preparation conditions of the films. A red-shift of the PL spectrum of CuInS2/ZnS core-shell quantum dots, deposited as solid films on silicon substrates, is observed upon increasing the amount of aggregation. The presence of larger aggregates was found to lead to a larger PL red-shift. Besides, as the degree of aggregation increased, the PL decay became slower. We attribute the observed PL red-shift to energy transfer from the smaller to the larger dots within the aggregates, with the emission being realized via a long decay recombination mechanism (100-200 ns), the origin of which is discussed.

  8. Demand-side management project for Tenaga Nasional Berhad. Energy efficiency guidelines. Progress report No. 3. Volume 1. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    This study, conducted by the California Energy Commission, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report summarizes a demand-side management study performed for the Tenaga Nasional Berhad Headquarters Building. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate demand side management measures (DSMs) that would reduce energy costs of the facility. Volume 1 is divided into the following sections: (1.0) Executive Summary; (2.0) Facility Background; (3.0) Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems Description; (4.0) Lightning System Description; Figures, Tables, and Appendices.

  9. Turnkey Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning and Lighting Retrofit Solution Combining Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Doebber, Ian; Deru, Michael; Trenbath, Kim

    2016-04-12

    NREL worked with the Bonneville Power Administration's Technology Innovation Office to demonstrate a turnkey, retrofit technology that combines demand response (DR) and energy efficiency (EE) benefits for HVAC and lighting in retail buildings. As a secondary benefit, we also controlled various plug loads and electric hot water heaters (EHWH). The technology demonstrated was Transformative Wave's eIQ Building Management System (BMS) automatically responding to DR signals. The BMS controlled the HVAC rooftop units (RTU) using the CATALYST retrofit solution also developed by Transformative Wave. The non-HVAC loads were controlled using both hardwired and ZigBee wireless communication. The wireless controllers, manufactured by Autani, were used when the building's electrical layout was too disorganized to leverage less expensive hardwired control. The six demonstration locations are within the Seattle metro area. Based on the assets curtailed by the BMS at each location, we projected the DR resource. We were targeting a 1.7 W/ft2 shed for the summer Day-Ahead events and a 0.7 W/ft2 shed for the winter events. While summarized in Table ES-1, only one summer DR event was conducted at Casino #2.

  10. Evolution of future energy demands till 2030 in different world regions: An assessment made for the two International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A. M.; Hoelzl, A.

    1982-04-01

    Trends in energy demand, per capita consumption, production, and transportation were assessed for all the major world regions, except China and Asian countries with centrally planned economies. High and low economic growth rates relative to 1975, were considered. Energy demand in developed regions is expected to increase by a factor of 1.8 to 2.6. In developing regions it increases by a factor of 7 to 12. Per capita consumption in developed regions increases from a level of 2.8 to 7.9 kw to 3.9 to 11.6 kw; in developing countries it increases from 0.2 to 0.8 kw to 0.5 to 4.6 kw. The share of electricity in final energy continues to increase. Manufacturing activities remain the major energy consumers. Fossil fuels will remain the most important energy source.

  11. Dynamic modeling, experimental evaluation, optimal design and control of integrated fuel cell system and hybrid energy systems for building demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Gia Luong Huu

    obtained experimental data, the research studied the control of airflow to regulate the temperature of reactors within the fuel processor. The dynamic model provided a platform to test the dynamic response for different control gains. With sufficient sensing and appropriate control, a rapid response to maintain the temperature of the reactor despite an increase in power was possible. The third part of the research studied the use of a fuel cell in conjunction with photovoltaic panels, and energy storage to provide electricity for buildings. This research developed an optimization framework to determine the size of each device in the hybrid energy system to satisfy the electrical demands of buildings and yield the lowest cost. The advantage of having the fuel cell with photovoltaic and energy storage was the ability to operate the fuel cell at baseload at night, thus reducing the need for large battery systems to shift the solar power produced in the day to the night. In addition, the dispatchability of the fuel cell provided an extra degree of freedom necessary for unforeseen disturbances. An operation framework based on model predictive control showed that the method is suitable for optimizing the dispatch of the hybrid energy system.

  12. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Control Ventilation Systems in General Office Spaces in California

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Fisk, William J.

    2009-07-08

    Demand controlled ventilation (DCV) was evaluated for general office spaces in California. A medium size office building meeting the prescriptive requirements of the 2008 California building energy efficiency standards (CEC 2008) was assumed in the building energy simulations performed with the EnergyPlus program to calculate the DCV energy savings potential in five typical California climates. Three design occupancy densities and two minimum ventilation rates were used as model inputs to cover a broader range of design variations. The assumed values of minimum ventilation rates in offices without DCV, based on two different measurement methods, were 81 and 28 cfm per occupant. These rates are based on the co-author's unpublished analyses of data from EPA's survey of 100 U.S. office buildings. These minimum ventilation rates exceed the 15 to 20 cfm per person required in most ventilation standards for offices. The cost effectiveness of applying DCV in general office spaces was estimated via a life cycle cost analyses that considered system costs and energy cost reductions. The results of the energy modeling indicate that the energy savings potential of DCV is largest in the desert area of California (climate zone 14), followed by Mountains (climate zone 16), Central Valley (climate zone 12), North Coast (climate zone 3), and South Coast (climate zone 6). The results of the life cycle cost analysis show DCV is cost effective for office spaces if the typical minimum ventilation rates without DCV is 81 cfm per person, except at the low design occupancy of 10 people per 1000 ft{sup 2} in climate zones 3 and 6. At the low design occupancy of 10 people per 1000 ft{sup 2}, the greatest DCV life cycle cost savings is a net present value (NPV) of $0.52/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 14, followed by $0.32/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 16 and $0.19/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 12. At the medium design occupancy of 15 people per 1000 ft{sup 2}, the DCV savings are higher with a NPV $0

  13. Modeling the effect of climate change on U.S. state-level buildings energy demands in an integrated assessment framework

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.; Kim, Son H.; Dirks, James A.; Jensen, Erik A.; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie S.; Schmidt, Laurel C.; Seiple, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    As long-term socioeconomic transformation and energy service expansion show large spatial heterogeneity, advanced understanding of climate impact on building energy use at the sub-national level will offer useful insights into climate policy and regional energy system planning. In this study, we presented a detailed building energy model with a U.S. state-level representation, nested in the GCAM integrated assessment framework. We projected state-level building energy demand and its spatial pattern over the century, considering the impact of climate change based on the estimates of heating and cooling degree days derived from downscaled USGS CASCaDE temperature data. The result indicates that climate change has a large impact on heating and cooling building energy and fuel use at the state level, exhibiting large spatial heterogeneity across states (ranges from -10% to +10%). The sensitivity analysis reveals that the building energy demand is subject to multiple key factors, such as the magnitude of climate change, the choice of climate models, and the growth of population and GDP, and that their relative contributions vary greatly across the space. The scale impact in building energy use modeling highlights the importance of constructing a building energy model with the spatially-explicit representation of socioeconomics, energy system development, and climate change. These findings will help the climate-based policy decision and energy system, especially utility planning related to building sector at the U.S. state and regional level facing the potential climate change.

  14. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Chang, Wen-Kuei; Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-05-01

    Buildings consume more than one third of the world?s total primary energy. Weather plays a unique and significant role as it directly affects the thermal loads and thus energy performance of buildings. The traditional simulated energy performance using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data represents the building performance for a typical year, but not necessarily the average or typical long-term performance as buildings with different energy systems and designs respond differently to weather changes. Furthermore, the single-year TMY simulations do not provide a range of results that capture yearly variations due to changing weather, which is important for building energy management, and for performing risk assessments of energy efficiency investments. This paper employs large-scale building simulation (a total of 3162 runs) to study the weather impact on peak electricity demand and energy use with the 30-year (1980 to 2009) Actual Meteorological Year (AMY) weather data for three types of office buildings at two design efficiency levels, across all 17 ASHRAE climate zones. The simulated results using the AMY data are compared to those from the TMY3 data to determine and analyze the differences. Besides further demonstration, as done by other studies, that actual weather has a significant impact on both the peak electricity demand and energy use of buildings, the main findings from the current study include: 1) annual weather variation has a greater impact on the peak electricity demand than it does on energy use in buildings; 2) the simulated energy use using the TMY3 weather data is not necessarily representative of the average energy use over a long period, and the TMY3 results can be significantly higher or lower than those from the AMY data; 3) the weather impact is greater for buildings in colder climates than warmer climates; 4) the weather impact on the medium-sized office building was the greatest, followed by the large office and then the small

  15. A Method of Data Aggregation for Wearable Sensor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bo; Fu, Jun-Song

    2016-01-01

    Data aggregation has been considered as an effective way to decrease the data to be transferred in sensor networks. Particularly for wearable sensor systems, smaller battery has less energy, which makes energy conservation in data transmission more important. Nevertheless, wearable sensor systems usually have features like frequently dynamic changes of topologies and data over a large range, of which current aggregating methods can’t adapt to the demand. In this paper, we study the system composed of many wearable devices with sensors, such as the network of a tactical unit, and introduce an energy consumption-balanced method of data aggregation, named LDA-RT. In the proposed method, we develop a query algorithm based on the idea of ‘happened-before’ to construct a dynamic and energy-balancing routing tree. We also present a distributed data aggregating and sorting algorithm to execute top-k query and decrease the data that must be transferred among wearable devices. Combining these algorithms, LDA-RT tries to balance the energy consumptions for prolonging the lifetime of wearable sensor systems. Results of evaluation indicate that LDA-RT performs well in constructing routing trees and energy balances. It also outperforms the filter-based top-k monitoring approach in energy consumption, load balance, and the network’s lifetime, especially for highly dynamic data sources. PMID:27347953

  16. A Method of Data Aggregation for Wearable Sensor Systems.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bo; Fu, Jun-Song

    2016-06-23

    Data aggregation has been considered as an effective way to decrease the data to be transferred in sensor networks. Particularly for wearable sensor systems, smaller battery has less energy, which makes energy conservation in data transmission more important. Nevertheless, wearable sensor systems usually have features like frequently dynamic changes of topologies and data over a large range, of which current aggregating methods can't adapt to the demand. In this paper, we study the system composed of many wearable devices with sensors, such as the network of a tactical unit, and introduce an energy consumption-balanced method of data aggregation, named LDA-RT. In the proposed method, we develop a query algorithm based on the idea of 'happened-before' to construct a dynamic and energy-balancing routing tree. We also present a distributed data aggregating and sorting algorithm to execute top-k query and decrease the data that must be transferred among wearable devices. Combining these algorithms, LDA-RT tries to balance the energy consumptions for prolonging the lifetime of wearable sensor systems. Results of evaluation indicate that LDA-RT performs well in constructing routing trees and energy balances. It also outperforms the filter-based top-k monitoring approach in energy consumption, load balance, and the network's lifetime, especially for highly dynamic data sources.

  17. Induction of efficient energy dissipation in the isolated light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II in the absence of protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Ilioaia, Cristian; Johnson, Matthew P; Horton, Peter; Ruban, Alexander V

    2008-10-24

    Under excess illumination, the Photosystem II light-harvesting antenna of higher plants has the ability to switch into an efficient photoprotective mode, allowing safe dissipation of excitation energy into heat. In this study, we show induction of the energy dissipation state, monitored by chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, in the isolated major light-harvesting complex (LHCII) incorporated into a solid gel system. Removal of detergent caused strong fluorescence quenching, which was totally reversible. Singlet-singlet annihilation and gel electrophoresis experiments suggested that the quenched complexes were in the trimeric not aggregated state. Both the formation and recovery of this quenching state were inhibited by a cross-linker, implying involvement of conformational changes. Absorption and CD measurements performed on the samples in the quenched state revealed specific alterations in the spectral bands assigned to the red forms of chlorophyll a, neoxanthin, and lutein 1 molecules. The majority of these alterations were similar to those observed during LHCII aggregation. This suggests that not the aggregation process as such but rather an intrinsic conformational transition in the complex is responsible for establishment of quenching. 77 K fluorescence measurements showed red-shifted chlorophyll a fluorescence in the 690-705 nm region, previously observed in aggregated LHCII. The fact that all spectral changes associated with the dissipative mode observed in the gel were different from those of the partially denatured complex strongly argues against the involvement of protein denaturation in the observed quenching. The implications of these findings for proposed mechanisms of energy dissipation in the Photosystem II antenna are discussed.

  18. Three essays in energy consumption: Time series analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Hee Bai

    1997-10-01

    Firstly, this dissertation investigates that which demand specification is an appropriate model for long-run energy demand between the conventional demand specification and the limited demand specification. In order to determine the components of a stable long-run demand for different sectors of the energy industry, I perform cointegration tests by using the Johansen test procedure. First, I test the conventional demand specification including prices and income as components. Second, I test a limited demand specification only income as a component. The reason for performing these tests is that we can determine that which demand specification is a good long-run predictor of energy consumption between the two demand specifications by using the cointegration tests. Secondly, for the purpose of planning and forecasting energy demand in case of cointegrated system, long-run elasticities are of particular interest. To retrieve the optimal level of energy demand in case of price shock, we need long-run elasticities rather than short-run elasticities. The energy demand study provides valuable information to the energy policy makers who are concerned about the long-run impact of taxes and tariffs. A long-run price elasticity is a primary barometer of the substitution effect between energy and non-energy inputs and long-run income elasticity is an important factor since we can measure the energy demand growing slowly or fast than in the past depending on the magnitude of long-run elasticity. The one other problem in estimating the total energy demand is that there exists an aggregation bias stemming from the process of summation in four different energy types for the total aggregation prices and total aggregation energy consumption. In order to measure the aggregation bias between the Btu aggregation method and the Divisia Index method, i.e., which methodology has less aggregation bias in the long-run, I compare the two estimation results with calculated results estimated on

  19. Synergies Between Wind and Solar Generation and Demand Response: An IEA Task 25 Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, Sheila; Burke, Daniel; Wajahat Qazi, Hassan; Flynn, Damian; O'Malley, Mark; Kiviluoma, Juha; Hummon, Marissa; Kirby, Brendan; Milligan, Michael

    2014-11-13

    Recent years have seen the interest in demand response increase, in academia and in industry, for both large scale demands and aggregated domestic demands. A number of power systems have established demand response programs in energy, ancillary services and capacity markets, while many are currently undertaking system specific customizations. One of the key reasons for the burgeoning interest in demand response lies in its ability to enhance variable renewable penetration levels, through the provision of flexibility, wind/solar curtailment reduction and other system ancillary services. This paper will review and evaluate various demand response studies, projects and programs from different countries, examining the synergies with renewables integration, also identify some of the main barriers which exist to the deployment of such demand response at greater scale.

  20. Consumer behavior and energy-demand forecasts for the United States: a synthesis of neoclassical and behavioral approaches using the Standord Pilot CESM

    SciTech Connect

    Barzelay, M.; Iusem, A.

    1984-08-01

    The Stanford PILOT Consumer Energy Services Module (CESM) assumes that consumers have specific goals and the capacity to realize those goals within the constraints, primarily disposable income, they face. The model details two sets of choice possibilities affecting utility maximization: the level of demand for energy services and the selection of energy systems. The principal weakness of the neoclassical CESM approach is its assumption that consumers are able to adjust to changes in their external environment in a predictable manner. Combining CESM with techniques of marketing research offers forecasters a more realistic, flexible, and comprehensive planning tool. 7 references, 6 tables.

  1. Kinetic study of the aggregation and lipid mixing produced by alpha-sarcin on phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylserine vesicles: stopped-flow light scattering and fluorescence energy transfer measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Mancheño, J. M.; Gasset, M.; Lacadena, J.; Ramón, F.; Martínez del Pozo, A.; Oñaderra, M.; Gavilanes, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    alpha-Sarcin is a fungal cytotoxic protein that inactivates the eukaryotic ribosomes. A kinetic study of the aggregation and lipid mixing promoted by this protein on phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylserine (PS) vesicles has been performed. Egg yolk PG, bovine brain PS, dimyristoyl-PG (DMPG) and dimyristoyl-PS (DMPS) vesicles have been considered. The initial rates of the vesicle aggregation induced by the protein have been measured by stopped-flow 90 degrees light scattering. The formation of a vesicle dimer as the initial step of this process was deduced from the second-order dependence of the initial rates on phospholipid concentration. The highest alpha-sarcin concentration studied did not inhibit the vesicle aggregation, indicating that many protein molecules are involved in the vesicle cross-linking. These are common characteristics of the initial steps of the aggregation produced by alpha-sarcin in the four types of phospholipid vesicles considered. However, the kinetics of the scattering values revealed that more complex changes occurred in the later steps of the aggregation process of egg PG and brain PS vesicles than in those of their synthetic counterparts. alpha-Sarcin produced lipid mixing in vesicles composed of DMPG or DMPS, which was measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays. A delay in the onset of the process, dependent on the protein concentration, was observed. Measurement of the rates of lipid mixing revealed that the process is first order on phospholipid concentration. Egg PG and brain PS vesicles did not show lipid mixing, although they avidly aggregated. However, alpha-sarcin was able to promote lipid mixing in heterogeneous systems composed of egg PG+DMPG or brain PS+DMPS vesicles. The dilution of the fluorescence probes was faster when these were incorporated into the bilayers made of synthetic phospholipids than were present in those made of natural phospholipids. The bilayer destabilization produced by the

  2. Charged Dust Aggregate Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle aggregates immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust aggregate as well as the manner in which the aggregate interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like aggregates levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as aggregates approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, aggregates are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the aggregate while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.

  3. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  4. A Test Bed for Self-regulating Distribution Systems: Modeling Intergrated Renewable Energy and Demand Response in the GridLAB-D/MATLAB Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dan; de Wit, Braydon; Parkinson, Simon; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned

    2012-01-16

    This paper discusses the development of a simulation test bed permitting the study of integrated renewable energy generators and controlled distributed heat pumps operating within distribution systems. The test bed is demonstrated in this paper by addressing the important issue of the self-regulating effect of consumer-owned air-source heat pumps on the variability induced by wind power integration, particularly when coupled with increased access to demand response realized through a centralized load control strategy.

  5. Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Watson, David; Kiliccote, Sila; Auslander, David; Paprotny, Igor; Makarov, Yuri

    2012-12-31

    The Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource project consists of six technical tasks: • Task 2.1. Test Plan and Conduct Tests: Contingency Reserves Demand Response (DR) Demonstration—a pioneering demonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can provide an important electricity system reliability resource known as contingency reserve. • Task 2.2. Participation in Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) IntelliGrid—technical assistance to the EPRI IntelliGrid team in developing use cases and other high-level requirements for the architecture. • Task 2.3. Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) Planning for Demand Response Technology Development—technical support to the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program on five topics: Sub-task 1. PIER Smart Grid RD&D Planning Document; Sub-task 2. System Dynamics of Programmable Controllable Thermostats; Sub-task 3. California Independent System Operator (California ISO) DR Use Cases; Sub-task 4. California ISO Telemetry Requirements; and Sub-task 5. Design of a Building Load Data Storage Platform. • Task 2.4. Time Value of Demand Response—research that will enable California ISO to take better account of the speed of the resources that it deploys to ensure compliance with reliability rules for frequency control. • Task 2.5. System Integration and Market Research: Southern California Edison (SCE)—research and technical support for efforts led by SCE to conduct demand response pilot demonstrations to provide a contingency reserve service (known as non-spinning reserve) through a targeted sub-population of aggregated residential and small commercial customers enrolled in SCE’s traditional air conditioning (AC) load cycling program, the Summer Discount Plan. • Task 2.6. Demonstrate Demand Response Technologies: Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E)—research and technical support for efforts led by PG&E to conduct a demand response pilot demonstration to provide non

  6. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.; Davies, Molly; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Faulkner, David; Hong, Tienzen; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2012-05-01

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling.

  7. Projections of highway vehicle population, energy demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions in India through 2040.

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, S.; Vyas, A.; Johnson, L.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-22

    This paper presents projections of motor vehicles, oil demand, and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions for India through the year 2040. The populations of highway vehicles and two-wheelers are projected under three different scenarios on the basis of economic growth and average household size in India. The results show that by 2040, the number of highway vehicles in India would be 206-309 million. The oil demand projections for the Indian transportation sector are based on a set of nine scenarios arising out of three vehicle-growth and three fuel-economy scenarios. The combined effects of vehicle-growth and fuel-economy scenarios, together with the change in annual vehicle usage, result in a projected demand in 2040 by the transportation sector in India of 404-719 million metric tons (8.5-15.1 million barrels per day). The corresponding annual CO{sub 2} emissions are projected to be 1.2-2.2 billion metric tons.

  8. A statistical analysis of energy and power demand for the tractive purposes of an electric vehicle in urban traffic - an analysis of a short and long observation period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaski, G.; Ohde, B.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the results of a statistical dispersion analysis of an energy and power demand for tractive purposes of a battery electric vehicle. The authors compare data distribution for different values of an average speed in two approaches, namely a short and long period of observation. The short period of observation (generally around several hundred meters) results from a previously proposed macroscopic energy consumption model based on an average speed per road section. This approach yielded high values of standard deviation and coefficient of variation (the ratio between standard deviation and the mean) around 0.7-1.2. The long period of observation (about several kilometers long) is similar in length to standardized speed cycles used in testing a vehicle energy consumption and available range. The data were analysed to determine the impact of observation length on the energy and power demand variation. The analysis was based on a simulation of electric power and energy consumption performed with speed profiles data recorded in Poznan agglomeration.

  9. Aggregated Residential Load Modeling Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Vlachopoulou, Maria; Chin, George; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai

    2014-09-28

    Abstract—It is already obvious that the future power grid will have to address higher demand for power and energy, and to incorporate renewable resources of different energy generation patterns. Demand response (DR) schemes could successfully be used to manage and balance power supply and demand under operating conditions of the future power grid. To achieve that, more advanced tools for DR management of operations and planning are necessary that can estimate the available capacity from DR resources. In this research, a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) is derived, trained, and tested that can model aggregated load of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems. DBNs can provide flexible and powerful tools for both operations and planing, due to their unique analytical capabilities. The DBN model accuracy and flexibility of use is demonstrated by testing the model under different operational scenarios.

  10. An application of input-output analysis in analyzing the impacts of final demands changes on the total outputs of Japanese energy sectors: A further study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to continue the previous study which discussed the impacts of final demands changes on the total outputs of Japanese energy sectors. More specifically, this study aims to conduct a deeper analysis regarding these impacts. This study employs a demand-pull Input- Output (IO) quantity model, one of the calculation instruments in IO analysis, as a tool of analysis. This study focuses on two sectors, namely (1) petroleum refinery products, and (2) non-ferrous metals. Two conditions are considered in the analysis part, namely (1) “whole sector change”, and (2) “pure change”. The results show that in both conditions, both discussed sectors have similar patterns. The results also explain that, in both conditions, the biggest positive impact for the sector of petroleum refinery products is given by scenario 4, the modification of consumption expenditures of private.

  11. Demanding Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2010-01-01

    It was the kind of crisis most universities dread. In November 2006, a group of minority student leaders at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) threatened to sue the university if administrators did not heed demands that included providing more funding for multicultural student groups. This article discusses how this threat…

  12. Disaggregating regional energy supply/demand and flow data to 173 BEAs in support of export coal analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    This report documents the procedures and results of a study sponsored jointly by the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy. The study was conducted to provide, Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)-level production/consumption data for energy materials for 1985 and 1990 in support of an analysis of transportation requirements for export coal. Base data for energy forecasts at the regional level were obtained from the Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. The forecasts selected for this study are described in DOE/EIA's 1980 Annual Report to Congress, and are: 1985 Series, B, medium oil import price ($37.00/barrel); and 1990 Series B, medium oil import price ($41.00/barrel). Each forecast period is extensively described by approximately forty-three statistical tables prepared by EIA and made available to TERA for this study. This report provides sufficient information to enable the transportation analyst to appreciate the procedures employed by TERA to produce the BEA-level energy production/consumption data. The report presents the results of the procedures, abstracts of data tabulations, and various assumptions used for the preparation of the BEA-level data. The end-product of this effort was the BEA to BEA energy commodity flow data by more which serve as direct input to DOT's transportation network model being used for a detailed analysis of export coal transportation.

  13. Future US energy demands based upon traditional consumption patterns lead to requirements which significantly exceed domestic supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Energy consumption in the United States has risen in response to both increasing population and to increasing levels of affluence. Depletion of domestic energy reserves requires consumption modulation, production of fossil fuels, more efficient conversion techniques, and large scale transitions to non-fossile fuel energy sources. Widening disparity between the wealthy and poor nations of the world contributes to trends that increase the likelihood of group action by the lesser developed countries to achieve political and economic goals. The formation of anticartel cartels is envisioned.

  14. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    SciTech Connect

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R; Ma, Ookie

    2013-11-01

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  15. Fibronectin Aggregation and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Tomoo; Erickson, Harold P.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of fibronectin (FN) assembly and the self-association sites are still unclear and contradictory, although the N-terminal 70-kDa region (I1–9) is commonly accepted as one of the assembly sites. We previously found that I1–9 binds to superfibronectin, which is an artificial FN aggregate induced by anastellin. In the present study, we found that I1–9 bound to the aggregate formed by anastellin and a small FN fragment, III1–2. An engineered disulfide bond in III2, which stabilizes folding, inhibited aggregation, but a disulfide bond in III1 did not. A gelatin precipitation assay showed that I1–9 did not interact with anastellin, III1, III2, III1–2, or several III1–2 mutants including III1–2KADA. (In contrast to previous studies, we found that the III1–2KADA mutant was identical in conformation to wild-type III1–2.) Because I1–9 only bound to the aggregate and the unfolding of III2 played a role in aggregation, we generated a III2 domain that was destabilized by deletion of the G strand. This mutant bound I1–9 as shown by the gelatin precipitation assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis, and it inhibited FN matrix assembly when added to cell culture. Next, we introduced disulfide mutations into full-length FN. Three disulfide locks in III2, III3, and III11 were required to dramatically reduce anastellin-induced aggregation. When we tested the disulfide mutants in cell culture, only the disulfide bond in III2 reduced the FN matrix. These results suggest that the unfolding of III2 is one of the key factors for FN aggregation and assembly. PMID:21949131

  16. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  17. Using Hydrated Salt Phase Change Materials for Residential Air Conditioning Peak Demand Reduction and Energy Conservation in Coastal and Transitional Climates in the State of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyoung Ok

    The recent rapid economic and population growth in the State of California have led to a significant increase in air conditioning use, especially in areas of the State with coastal and transitional climates. This fact makes that the electric peak demand be dominated by air conditioning use of residential buildings in the summer time. This extra peak demand caused by the use of air conditioning equipment lasts only a few days out of the year. As a result, unavoidable power outages have occurred when electric supply could not keep up with such electric demand. This thesis proposed a possible solution to this problem by using building thermal mass via phase change materials to reduce peak air conditioning demand loads. This proposed solution was tested via a new wall called Phase Change Frame Wall (PCFW). The PCFW is a typical residential frame wall in which Phase Change Materials (PCMs) were integrated to add thermal mass. The thermal performance of the PCFWs was first evaluated, experimentally, in two test houses, built for this purpose, located in Lawrence, KS and then via computer simulations of residential buildings located in coastal and transitional climates in California. In this thesis, a hydrated salt PCM was used, which was added in concentrations of 10% and 20% by weight of the interior sheathing of the walls. Based on the experimental results, under Lawrence, KS weather, the PCFWs at 10% and 20% of PCM concentrations reduced the peak heat transfer rates by 27.0% and 27.3%, on average, of all four walls, respectively. Simulated results using California climate data indicated that PCFWs would reduce peak heat transfer rates by 8% and 19% at 10% PCM concentration and 12.2% and 27% at 20% PCM concentration for the coastal and transitional climates, respectively. Furthermore, the PCFWs, at 10% PCM concentration, would reduce the space cooling load and the annual energy consumption by 10.4% and 7.2%, on average in both climates, respectively.

  18. Generalized Aggregation and Coordination of Residential Loads in a Smart Community

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, He; Somani, Abhishek; Lian, Jianming; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2015-11-02

    Flexibility from residential loads presents an enormous potential to provide various services to the smart grid. In this paper, we propose a unified hierarchical framework for aggregation and coordination of various residential loads in a smart community, such as Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs), Distributed Energy Storages (DESs), residential Pool Pumps (PPs), and Electric Vehicles (EVs). A central idea of this framework is a virtual battery model, which provides a simple and intuitive tool to aggregate the flexibility of distributed loads. Moreover, a multi-stage Nash-bargainingbased coordination strategy is proposed to coordinate different aggregations of residential loads for demand response. Case studies are provided to demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed framework and coordination strategy in managing peak power demand in a smart residential community.

  19. On the Inclusion of Energy-Shifting Demand Response in Production Cost Models: Methodology and a Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, Niamh; Hale, Elaine; Doebber, Ian; Jorgenson, Jennie

    2015-07-20

    In the context of future power system requirements for additional flexibility, demand response (DR) is an attractive potential resource. Its proponents widely laud its prospective benefits, which include enabling higher penetrations of variable renewable generation at lower cost than alternative storage technologies, and improving economic efficiency. In practice, DR from the commercial and residential sectors is largely an emerging, not a mature, resource, and its actual costs and benefits need to be studied to determine promising combinations of physical DR resource, enabling controls and communications, power system characteristics, regulatory environments, market structures, and business models. The work described in this report focuses on the enablement of such analysis from the production cost modeling perspective. In particular, we contribute a bottom-up methodology for modeling load-shifting DR in production cost models. The resulting model is sufficiently detailed to reflect the physical characteristics and constraints of the underlying flexible load, and includes the possibility of capturing diurnal and seasonal variations in the resource. Nonetheless, the model is of low complexity and thus suitable for inclusion in conventional unit commitment and market clearing algorithms. The ability to simulate DR as an operational resource on a power system over a year facilitates an assessment of its time-varying value to the power system.

  20. Building America Case Study: Zero Energy Ready Home and the Challenge of Hot Water on Demand, Denver, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    2016-02-01

    "This report outlines the steps a developer can use when looking to create and implement higher performance standards such as the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) standards in a community. The report also describes the specific examples of how this process was followed by a developer, Forest City, in the Stapleton community in Denver, Colorado. IBACOS described the steps used to begin to bring the DOE ZERH standard to the Forest City Stapleton community based on 15 years of community-scale development work done by IBACOS. As a result of this prior IBACOS work, the team gained an understanding of the various components that a master developer needs to consider and created strategies for incorporating those components in the initial phases of development to achieve higher performance buildings in the community. An automated scoring system can be used to perform an internal audit that provides a detailed and consistent evaluation of how several homes under construction or builders' floor plans compare with the requirements of the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home program. This audit can be performed multiple times at specific milestones during construction to allow the builder to make changes as needed throughout construction for the project to meet Zero Energy Ready Home standards. This scoring system also can be used to analyze a builder's current construction practices and design.

  1. A Secure Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Considering Secure Data Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Rahayu, Triana Mugia; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2015-01-01

    The commonly unattended and hostile deployments of WSNs and their resource-constrained sensor devices have led to an increasing demand for secure energy-efficient protocols. Routing and data aggregation receive the most attention since they are among the daily network routines. With the awareness of such demand, we found that so far there has been no work that lays out a secure routing protocol as the foundation for a secure data aggregation protocol. We argue that the secure routing role would be rendered useless if the data aggregation scheme built on it is not secure. Conversely, the secure data aggregation protocol needs a secure underlying routing protocol as its foundation in order to be effectively optimal. As an attempt for the solution, we devise an energy-aware protocol based on LEACH and ESPDA that combines secure routing protocol and secure data aggregation protocol. We then evaluate its security effectiveness and its energy-efficiency aspects, knowing that there are always trade-off between both. PMID:26131669

  2. Modeling high resolution space-time variations in energy demand/CO2 emissions of human inhabited landscapes in the United States under a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbole, A. V.; Gurney, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    With urban and exurban areas now accounting for more than 50% of the world's population, projected to increase 20% by 2050 (UN World Urbanization Prospects, 2009), urban-climate interactions are of renewed interest to the climate change scientific community (Karl et. al, 1988; Kalnay and Cai, 2003; Seto and Shepherd, 2009). Until recently, climate modeling efforts treated urban-human systems as independent of the earth system. With studies pointing to the disproportionately large influence of urban areas on their surrounding environment (Small et. al, 2010), modeling efforts have begun to explicitly account for urban processes in land models, like the CLM 4.0 urban layer, for example (Oleson.et. al, 2008, 2010). A significant portion of the urban energy demand comes from the space heating and cooling requirement of the residential and commercial sectors - as much as 51% (DOE, RECS 2005) and 11% (Belzer, D. 2006) respectively, in the United States. Thus, these sectors are both responsible for a significant fraction of fossil fuel CO2 emissions and will be influenced by a changing climate through changes in energy use and energy supply planning. This points to the possibility of interactive processes and feedbacks with the climate system. Space conditioning energy demand is strongly driven by external air temperature (Ruth, M. et.al, 2006) in addition to other socio-economic variables such as building characteristics (age of structure, activity cycle, weekend/weekday usage profile), occupant characteristics (age of householder, household income) and energy prices (Huang, 2006; Santin et. al, 2009; Isaac and van Vuuren, 2009). All of these variables vary both in space and time. Projections of climate change have begun to simulate changes in temperature at much higher resolution than in the past (Diffenbaugh et. al, 2005). Hence, in order to understand how climate change and variability will potentially impact energy use/emissions and energy planning, these two

  3. High prevalence of malnutrition and deranged relationship between energy demands and food intake in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Mohan, A; Poulose, R; Kulshreshtha, I; Chautani, A M; Madan, K; Hadda, V; Guleria, R

    2016-04-21

    The relation between dietary intake and metabolic profile in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was evaluated. Patients with NSCLC were recruited and their caloric requirement and resting energy expenditure (REE) were calculated using the Harris-Benedict equation and Katch-McArdle formula respectively. Hypermetabolic state was defined as REE more than 10% above the basal metabolic rate (BMR). Body composition parameters were calculated by bioelectric impedance method. The 24-h dietary intake method and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool assessed nutritional intake. One hundred and forty-eight subjects were included (87% males). Of these, 46.6% subjects were hypermetabolic and 31% cachexic, with lower calorie and protein intakes than recommended, although per cent of total energy derived from protein, fat and carbohydrates were similar. Hypermetabolic patients had lower BMI, though the per cent deficit in energy and protein consumption was similar. Cachexia was associated with lower BMR but not with deficit in energy or protein consumption. No correlation was seen between dietary intake and body composition parameters. The calorie and protein intake of NSCLC patients is lower than recommended. The discordance between elevated REE and dietary intake implies that the relationship between increased energy demands and food intake may be altered.

  4. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems. Final Report of the Princeton Power Systems Development of the 100kW Demand Response Inverter.

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Ward Isaac; Heavener, Paul; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; Hammell, Darren; Holveck, Mark; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali; Gonzalez, Sigifredo

    2012-01-01

    Initiated in 2008, the Solar Energy Grid Integration (SEGIS) program is a partnership involving the U.S. Department of Energy, Sandia National Laboratories, electric utilities, academic institutions and the private sector. Recognizing the need to diversify the nation's energy portfolio, the SEGIS effort focuses on specific technologies needed to facilitate the integration of large-scale solar power generation into the nation's power grid Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) awarded a contract to Princeton Power Systems, Inc., (PPS) to develop a 100kW Advanced AC-link SEGIS inverter prototype under the Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for near-term commercial applications. This SEGIS initiative emphasizes the development of advanced inverters, controllers, communications and other balance-of-system components for photovoltaic (PV) distributed power applications. The SEGIS Stage 3 Contract was awarded to PPS on July 28, 2010. PPS developed and implemented a Demand Response Inverter (DRI) during this three-stage program. PPS prepared a 'Site Demonstration Conference' that was held on September 28, 2011, to showcase the cumulative advancements. This demo of the commercial product will be followed by Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., certification by the fourth quarter of 2011, and simultaneously the customer launch and commercial production sometime in late 2011 or early 2012. This final report provides an overview of all three stages and a full-length reporting of activities and accomplishments in Stage 3.

  5. Investigation of the impacts of selected nanotechnology products with view to their demand for raw materials and energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, M.; Diesner, M.; Manhart, A.; Küppers, P.; Spieth-Achtnich, A.; Pistner, C.

    2014-08-01

    In the study presented here qualitative and quantitative life-cycle considerations were employed to assess the potential material and energy savings that might be achieved through nanoenabled applications. Ten nanotechnology application fields with broad market coverage and immediate impact to either the generation of renewable energies or the use of critical resources were analyzed. Organic photovoltaic modules (solar cells that essentially consist of organic materials) and electronically dimmable windows (electrochromic laminated glass, which can be adjusted to conform to the ambient light conditions) as two very promising nano-enabled applications were quantitatively analyzed. Eight further products including neodymium magnets were evaluated on a qualitative basis. All assessments contain classical indicators such as energy efficiency, product carbon footprint, and resource consumption. In addition, pollutant aspects (exposure and toxicology) as well as other sustainability aspects (such as user benefits) were taken into account in the framework of a so-called "hot spot analysis". Furthermore, drivers behind the innovation as well as associated rebound effects were identified. The results highlight the importance of product specific analyses based on a life-cycle thinking approach.

  6. A High-Energy Charge-Separated State of 1.70 eV from a High-Potential Donor-Acceptor Dyad: A Catalyst for Energy-Demanding Photochemical Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Gary N; Obondi, Christopher O; D'Souza, Francis

    2016-09-12

    A high potential donor-acceptor dyad composed of zinc porphyrin bearing three meso-pentafluorophenyl substituents covalently linked to C60 , as a novel dyad capable of generating charge-separated states of high energy (potential) has been developed. The calculated energy of the charge-separated state was found to be 1.70 eV, the highest reported for a covalently linked porphyrin-fullerene dyad. Intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer leading to charge-separated states of appreciable lifetimes in polar and nonpolar solvents has been established from studies involving femto- to nanosecond transient absorption techniques. The high energy stored in the form of charge-separated states along with its persistence of about 50-60 ns makes this dyad a potential electron-transporting catalyst to carry out energy-demanding photochemical reactions. This type of high-energy harvesting dyad is expected to open new research in the areas of artificial photosynthesis especially producing energy (potential) demanding light-to-fuel products.

  7. The Demand for Scientific and Technical Manpower in Selected Energy-Related Industries, 1970-85: A Methodology Applied to a Selected Scenario of Energy Output. A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutmanis, Ivars; And Others

    The primary purpose of the study was to develop and apply a methodology for estimating the need for scientists and engineers by specialty in energy and energy-related industries. The projections methodology was based on the Case 1 estimates by the National Petroleum Council of the results of "maximum efforts" to develop domestic fuel sources by…

  8. International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 40 — Sustainable International Energy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand -- Country Report 2009 for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    J. Richard Hess; Jacob J. Jacobson; Richard Nelson; Carl Wolf

    2009-06-01

    This report outlines the status of U.S. biomass resources currently and future potentials for domestic and export markets of residues, energy crops, and woody resources. Includes energy and fuel production and consumption statistics, driving policies, targets, and government investment in bioenergy industry development.

  9. International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 40 — Sustainable International Energy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand -- Country Report 2010 for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    J. Richard Hess; Jacob J. Jacobson; Richard Nelson; Carl Wolf

    2011-12-01

    This report updates the status of U.S. biomass resources currently and future potentials for domestic and export markets of residues, energy crops, and woody resources. Includes energy and fuel production and consumption statistics, driving policies, targets, and government investment in bioenergy industry development.

  10. HOME ENERGY SUPPLY-DEMAND ANALYSIS FOR COMBINED SYSTEM OF SOLAR HEAT COLLECTOR AND HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Takashi; Kataoka, Kazuto; Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko

    In order to evaluate effectiveness of a combined system of solar heat collecctor (SHC) and heat pump water heater (HPWH), optimum operation scheduling moldel of domestic electric appliances using the mixed integer linear programming was enhanced. Applying this model with one house data in Tokyo, it was found that the combined system of the SHC and the HPWH has the enough energy-saving and CO2 emission reduction potential under the existing electricity late and the operation method of the HPWH. Furthermore, the calculation results under the future system show that the combined system of the SHC and the HPWH has also the reduction effect of reverse power flow from residential photovoltaic system.

  11. Retiring the Short-Run Aggregate Supply Curve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwood, S. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that the aggregate demand/aggregate supply (AD/AS) model is significantly improved--although certainly not perfected--by trimming it of the short-run aggregate supply (SRAS) curve. Problems with the SRAS curve are shown first for the AD/AS model that casts the AD curve as identifying the equilibrium level of output associated…

  12. Mitigating the Impacts of Uncontrolled Air Flow on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Demand in Non-Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hugh I. Henderson; Jensen Zhang; James B. Cummings; Terry Brennan

    2006-07-31

    This multi-faceted study evaluated several aspects of uncontrolled air flows in commercial buildings in both Northern and Southern climates. Field data were collected from 25 small commercial buildings in New York State to understand baseline conditions for Northern buildings. Laboratory wall assembly testing was completed at Syracuse University to understand the impact of typical air leakage pathways on heat and moisture transport within wall assemblies for both Northern and Southern building applications. The experimental data from the laboratory tests were used to verify detailed heat and moisture (HAM) simulation models that could be used to evaluate a wider array of building applications and situations. Whole building testing at FSEC's Building Science Laboratory (BSL) systematically evaluated the energy and IAQ impacts of duct leakage with various attic and ceiling configurations. This systematic test carefully controlled all aspects of building performance to quantify the impact of duct leakage and unbalanced flow. The newest features of the EnergyPlus building simulation tool were used to model the combined impacts of duct leakage, ceiling leakage, unbalanced flows, and air conditioner performance. The experimental data provided the basis to validate the simulation model so it could be used to study the impact of duct leakage over a wide range of climates and applications. The overall objective of this project was to transfer work and knowledge that has been done on uncontrolled air flow in non-residential buildings in Florida to a national basis. This objective was implemented by means of four tasks: (1) Field testing and monitoring of uncontrolled air flow in a sample of New York buildings; (2) Detailed wall assembly laboratory measurements and modeling; (3) Whole building experiments and simulation of uncontrolled air flows; and (4) Develop and implement training on uncontrolled air flows for Practitioners in New York State.

  13. Energy, Water and Fish: Biodiversity Impacts of Energy-Sector Water Demand in the United States Depend on Efficiency and Policy Measures

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Robert I.; Olden, Julian D.; Opperman, Jeffrey J.; Miller, William M.; Fargione, Joseph; Revenga, Carmen; Higgins, Jonathan V.; Powell, Jimmie

    2012-01-01

    Rising energy consumption in coming decades, combined with a changing energy mix, have the potential to increase the impact of energy sector water use on freshwater biodiversity. We forecast changes in future water use based on various energy scenarios and examine implications for freshwater ecosystems. Annual water withdrawn/manipulated would increase by 18–24%, going from 1,993,000–2,628,000 Mm3 in 2010 to 2,359,000–3,271,000 Mm3 in 2035 under the Reference Case of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Water consumption would more rapidly increase by 26% due to increased biofuel production, going from 16,700–46,400 Mm3 consumption in 2010 to 21,000–58,400 Mm3 consumption in 2035. Regionally, water use in the Southwest and Southeast may increase, with anticipated decreases in water use in some areas of the Midwest and Northeast. Policies that promote energy efficiency or conservation in the electric sector would reduce water withdrawn/manipulated by 27–36 m3GJ−1 (0.1–0.5 m3GJ−1 consumption), while such policies in the liquid fuel sector would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 0.4–0.7 m3GJ−1 (0.2–0.3 m3GJ−1 consumption). The greatest energy sector withdrawal/manipulation are for hydropower and thermoelectric cooling, although potential new EPA rules that would require recirculating cooling for thermoelectric plants would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 441,000 Mm3 (20,300 Mm3 consumption). The greatest consumptive energy sector use is evaporation from hydroelectric reservoirs, followed by irrigation water for biofuel feedstocks and water used for electricity generation from coal. Historical water use by the energy sector is related to patterns of fish species endangerment, where water resource regions with a greater fraction of available surface water withdrawn by hydropower or consumed by the energy sector correlated with higher probabilities of imperilment. Since future increases in energy-sector surface water use will occur in

  14. Energy, water and fish: biodiversity impacts of energy-sector water demand in the United States depend on efficiency and policy measures.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Robert I; Olden, Julian D; Opperman, Jeffrey J; Miller, William M; Fargione, Joseph; Revenga, Carmen; Higgins, Jonathan V; Powell, Jimmie

    2012-01-01

    Rising energy consumption in coming decades, combined with a changing energy mix, have the potential to increase the impact of energy sector water use on freshwater biodiversity. We forecast changes in future water use based on various energy scenarios and examine implications for freshwater ecosystems. Annual water withdrawn/manipulated would increase by 18-24%, going from 1,993,000-2,628,000 Mm(3) in 2010 to 2,359,000-3,271,000 Mm(3) in 2035 under the Reference Case of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Water consumption would more rapidly increase by 26% due to increased biofuel production, going from 16,700-46,400 Mm(3) consumption in 2010 to 21,000-58,400 Mm(3) consumption in 2035. Regionally, water use in the Southwest and Southeast may increase, with anticipated decreases in water use in some areas of the Midwest and Northeast. Policies that promote energy efficiency or conservation in the electric sector would reduce water withdrawn/manipulated by 27-36 m(3)GJ(-1) (0.1-0.5 m(3)GJ(-1) consumption), while such policies in the liquid fuel sector would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 0.4-0.7 m(3)GJ(-1) (0.2-0.3 m(3)GJ(-1) consumption). The greatest energy sector withdrawal/manipulation are for hydropower and thermoelectric cooling, although potential new EPA rules that would require recirculating cooling for thermoelectric plants would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 441,000 Mm(3) (20,300 Mm(3) consumption). The greatest consumptive energy sector use is evaporation from hydroelectric reservoirs, followed by irrigation water for biofuel feedstocks and water used for electricity generation from coal. Historical water use by the energy sector is related to patterns of fish species endangerment, where water resource regions with a greater fraction of available surface water withdrawn by hydropower or consumed by the energy sector correlated with higher probabilities of imperilment. Since future increases in energy-sector surface water use will occur

  15. Evaluating Future Land-use Change Scenarios: Trade-offs between Bio-energy Demand, Food Production, and Carbon Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, E.; Yamagata, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In the construction of consistent future climate scenario, land use scenario has important role through both biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects on climate change. In terms of carbon emissions by the land-use change, relative importance may be high in the lower radiative forcing and lower carbon emission scenarios, which may use large amount of bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). In this study, we first evaluated the CO2 emissions by land-use change in the 21st century using each RCPs scenarios. We use an offline terrestrial biogeochemical model VISIT, with book-keeping consideration of the carbon emission from deforested biomass and the regrowing uptake from abandoned cropland and pasture employing the gridded transition land-use data from RCPs. Effect of CO2 fertilization, land-use transition itself, and climate change are evaluated in the analysis. We found that constructing consistent land-use change carbon emission scenario with the gridded land-use change data requires precise considerations of effects of CO2 fertilization and climate change particularly for the regrowing uptake. Also, our result showed more emission of CO2 by the land-use change than the assumption in the integrated assessment model for RCP2.6 scenario. Then, we estimated the land-use area required to sustain the required biofuel production to match the assumption of BECCS use in RCPs with a global process based crop model. In the evaluation, we also estimated the further changes in carbon emissions by the required land-use change due to differences in crop yield assumptions, which also take into account of climate change. The trade-offs between land-use for crop, biocrop, and natural vegetation low-carbon scenario are discussed using the integrated terrestrial modeling approach.

  16. Impact of the Growing Population and Energy Demand on the Climatic Conditions of the Indo-Gangetic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.; Prasad, A. K.; Kafatos, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Indo-Gangetic (IG) basin is one of the largest basins in the world which is densely populated and suffers with dense fog, haze and smog during winter season. About 500 million people live in the IG basin and due to the dense fog, haze and smog day to day life suffers. India is the third largest producer of the coal in the world and a large share is used in power and industrial sector. The coal used in the power plants is of poor quality (mostly E-F grade or lignite) with high ash content (35-50%) and low calorific value. India's energy consumption has increased 208% from 4.16 quadrillion Btu (quads) in 1980 to 12.8 quads in 2001 with a coal share of ~50.9%. Recent studies using satellite (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR)) and AERONET measurements show high aerosol optical depth (AOD) representing the intense air pollution over the IG basin that persists throughout the year. Such high concentrations of AOD show spatial and temporal variations which are controlled by the meteorological conditions (wind pattern, relative humidity, air temperature etc.) and topography. The high AOD observed over the IG basin is attributed to the emissions of fossil fuel SO2 and black carbon which has increased about 6 fold since 1930. The high AOD over the IG basin is attributed to the huge emission from the dense network of coal based thermal power plants in the IG basin and its surroundings that may be the probable cause for the atmospheric brown clouds (ABC). The impact of aerosol parameters on the climatic conditions will be discussed.

  17. Demand Response Availability Profiles for California in the Year 2020

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Daniel; Sohn, Michael; Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2014-11-01

    Demand response (DR) is being considered as a valuable resource for keeping the electrical grid stable and efficient, and deferring upgrades to generation, transmission, and distribution systems. However, simulations to determine how much infrastructure upgrades can be deferred are necessary in order to plan optimally. Production cost modeling is a technique, which simulates the dispatch of generators to meet demand and reserves in each hour of the year, at minimal cost. By integrating demand response resources into a production cost model (PCM), their value to the grid can be estimated and used to inform operations and infrastructure planning. DR availability profiles and constraints for 13 end-uses in California for the year 2020 were developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and integrated into a production cost model by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), for the California Energy Commission’s Value of Energy Storage and Demand Response for Renewable Integration in California Study. This report summarizes the process for developing the DR availability profiles for California, and their aggregate capabilities. While LBNL provided potential DR hourly profiles for regulation product in the ancillary services market and five-minute load following product in the energy market for LLNL’s study, additional results in contingency reserves and an assumed flexible product are also defined. These additional products are included in the analysis for managing high ramps associated with renewable generation and capacity products and they are also presented in this report.

  18. An atmospheric turbulence model for spatiotemporal variability of geographically-diverse, aggregated wind-generated electricity to accelerate wide-scale wind energy deployment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Handschy, M.

    2013-12-01

    During the year 2012, the cumulative wind power capacity installed in the United States could provide roughly 4.4% of electricity demand. Although the wind resource can provide many times over the entire US electrical needs, and costs for onshore wind deployment are continually dropping, the variability of the wind represents one of the greatest remaining barriers to wide-scale wind deployment. This study focuses on the nature of this variability. We quantify the axiom 'geographic diversity reduces variability' (of wind generation) by relating resource variability characteristics to the well-understood physical phenomena of turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere. Many existing studies focus on datasets of a few years' duration in a particular geographic area; such results are difficult to generalize. Our approach builds on the fundamental nonlinear characteristics of turbulence in the atmosphere to characterize wind speed and power generation correlations between wind plants from local to continental scales. The resulting general principles enable estimation of the benefits of geographic aggregation absent detailed site-specific historical data, thereby enabling more efficient transmission grid models, expediting transmission plans, and providing a framework for evaluating the requirements and benefits of electric storage at higher wind penetrations. To validate these general principles, we compare them to observed inter-station correlations in a number of wind-speed data sets, including a 40-year Canadian dataset that spans the continent of North America, as well as shorter-duration datasets in smaller regions within the United States. This presentation will present general rules for the dependence of correlation between wind turbines on separation and time scale. We suggest these general rules could help shift renewable integration planning from simulation towards optimization.

  19. Cardiorespiratory physiology and swimming energetics of a high-energy-demand teleost, the yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi).

    PubMed

    Clark, T D; Seymour, R S

    2006-10-01

    This study utilizes a swimming respirometer to investigate the effects of exercise and temperature on cardiorespiratory function of an active teleost, the yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi). The standard aerobic metabolic rate (SMR) of S. lalandi (mean body mass 2.1 kg) ranges from 1.55 mg min(-1) kg(-1) at 20 degrees C to 3.31 mg min(-1) kg(-1) at 25 degrees C. This 2.1-fold increase in SMR with temperature is associated with a 1.5-fold increase in heart rate from 77 to 117 beats min(-1), while cardiac stroke volume remains constant at 0.38 ml beat(-1) kg(-1) and the difference in oxygen content between arterial and mixed venous blood [(Ca(O2)-Cv(O2))] increases marginally from 0.06 to 0.08 mg ml(-1). During maximal aerobic exercise (2.3 BL s(-1)) at both temperatures, however, increases in cardiac output are limited to about 1.3-fold, and increases in oxygen consumption rates (up to 10.93 mg min(-1) kg(-1) at 20 degrees C and 13.32 mg min(-1) kg(-1) at 25 degrees C) are mediated primarily through augmentation of (Ca(O2)-Cv(O2)) to 0.29 mg ml(-1) at 20 degrees C and 0.25 mg ml(-1) at 25 degrees C. It seems, therefore, that the heart of S. lalandi routinely works close to its maximum capacity at a given temperature, and changes in aerobic metabolism due to exercise are greatly reliant on high blood oxygen-carrying capacity and (Ca(O2)-Cv(O2)). Gross aerobic cost of transport (GCOT) is 0.06 mg kg(-1) BL(-1) at 20 degrees C and 0.09 mg kg(-1) BL(-1) at 25 degrees C at the optimal swimming velocities (U(opt)) of 1.2 BL s(-1) (opt) and 1.7 BL s(-1), respectively. These values are comparable with those reported for salmon and tuna, implying that the interspecific diversity in locomotor mode (e.g. subcarangiform, carangiform and thunniform) is not concomitant with similar diversity in swimming efficiency. A low GCOT is maintained as swimming velocity increases above U(opt), which may partly result from energy savings associated with the progressive transition from

  20. Low-dose calcium antagonists reduce energy demand and cellular damage of isolated hearts during both ischemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Becker, B F; Möbert, J

    1999-09-01

    Calcium antagonists may protect against postischemic reperfusion injury of the heart, but neither the time and mode of action leading to cardioprotection is resolved, nor is the generality of this effect proven. Accordingly, the functional and metabolic influence of four different Ca2+-antagonists (diltiazem, 3x10(-8) M; nifedipine, 3x10(-9) M; amlodipine, 3x 10(-9) M; barnidipine, 3x10(-11) M) was examined in preparations of guinea pig hearts (n=7/group) performing pressure-volume work after being subjected to low-flow ischemia (30 min) and reperfusion (35 min). The drugs were applied throughout the study at concentrations without negative inotropic or chronotropic effect, as would be mandatory for any therapeutic application, and without overt coronary dilatation. All calcium antagonists improved postischemic recovery of external heart work: from 42% in controls (post- vs. preischemic value) to 59% for diltiazem, 61% for nifedipine, 65% for amlodipine, and 73% for barnidipine (all P<0.05). Efficiency of myocardial performance (work in relation to oxygen consumption) was low in postischemic controls (8% of total energy equivalents), but significantly improved in treated hearts, especially by barnidipine (15% efficiency). Release of lactate dehydrogenase in the first 5 min of reperfusion, a sign of cell damage, increased from basal (65 mU/min) to 208 mU/min in controls. This increase was fully suppressed by all drugs tested. Myocardial release of lactate and of purine catabolites of adenine nucleotides (markers of anaerobic metabolism) was markedly reduced by Ca2+-antagonists. Interestingly, these metabolic effects were evident not only in the reperfusion phase, but already in the period of low-flow ischemia. Oxidative consumption of pyruvate was enhanced, whereas coronary flow and heart rate showed no postischemic effect of treatment. These findings on isolated guinea pig hearts suggest that Ca2+-antagonists generally improve postischemic pump function and aerobic

  1. Effect of bleaching agents having a neutral pH on the surface of mineral trioxide aggregate using electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Kazia, Nooh; Suvarna, Nithin; Shetty, Harish Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of bleaching agents having a neutral pH on the surface of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) used as a coronal seal material for nonvital bleaching, beneath the bleaching agent, with the help of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Six samples of plastic tubes filled with white MTA (Angelus white) were kept in 100% humidity for 21 days. Each sample was divided into 2 and made into 12 samples. These were then divided into three groups. Group A was exposed to Opalescence Boost 40% hydrogen peroxide (HP) (Ultradent). Group B to Opalescence 10% carbamide peroxide (Ultradent) and Group C (control group) not exposed to any bleaching agent. After recommended period of exposure to bleaching agents according to manufacturers’ instructions, the samples were observed under SEM with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis system (JSM-6380 LA). Results: There were no relevant changes in color and no statistically significant surface structure changes of the MTA in both the experimental groups. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that even high concentration HP containing bleaching agents with neutral pH can be used on the surface of MTA without causing structural changes. The superior sealing ability of MTA and the high alkalinity would prevent cervical resorption postbleaching. PMID:27656061

  2. A Combined Limited Energy Study of Electrical Energy Demand and Use and Heating Systems at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. Volume 2. Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    opening hour and date specified. 12 ACCOUNTING AND APPROPRIATION DATA (If required) ^2152050 08- 8071 P7000 S34066 RA521250001B400 $92,554.00...APPROPRIATION DATA (// required) 52050 08- 8071 P7000 S34066 RA521250001B400 $92,554.00 TOTAL DIRECT CITE ORG: NT 13. THIS ITEM...0. G. TOTAL INVESTMENT (ID - IE - IF) $ 117539. 2. ENERGY SAVINGS (+) / COST (-) DATE OF NISTIR 85-3273-X USED FOR DISCOUNT FACTORS OCT

  3. Industrial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  4. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  5. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.; Zhou, Nan

    2009-05-18

    The time when energy-related carbon emissions come overwhelmingly from developed countries is coming to a close. China has already overtaken the United States as the world's leading emitter of greenhouse gas emissions. The economic growth that China has experienced is not expected to slow down significantly in the long term, which implies continued massive growth in energy demand. This paper draws on the extensive expertise from the China Energy Group at LBNL on forecasting energy consumption in China, but adds to it by exploring the dynamics of demand growth for electricity in the residential sector -- and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. This paper forecasts ownership growth of each product using econometric modeling, in combination with historical trends in China. The products considered (refrigerators, air conditioners, fans, washing machines, lighting, standby power, space heaters, and water heating) account for 90percent of household electricity consumption in China. Using this method, we determine the trend and dynamics of demandgrowth and its dependence on macroeconomic drivers at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, we present scenarios for reducing residential consumption through efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, thus allowing for a technologically realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities specifically in the Chinese context.

  6. GPP Webinar: The Power of Aggregated Purchasing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green Power Partnership webinar examining the use of an aggregated model for renewable energy purchases which can lead to significant energy, environmental and financial benefits by addressing administrative cost barriers and leveraging the shared purchasi

  7. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-03-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home’s total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the ‘ground truth’ demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset.

  8. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home’s total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the ‘ground truth’ demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset. PMID:25984347

  9. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home's total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the 'ground truth' demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset.

  10. Surface fractals in liposome aggregation.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Vargas, Sándalo; Barnadas-Rodríguez, Ramon; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Estelrich, Joan; Callejas-Fernández, José

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the aggregation of charged liposomes induced by magnesium is investigated. Static and dynamic light scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and cryotransmission electron microscopy are used as experimental techniques. In particular, multiple intracluster scattering is reduced to a negligible amount using a cross-correlation light scattering scheme. The analysis of the cluster structure, probed by means of static light scattering, reveals an evolution from surface fractals to mass fractals with increasing magnesium concentration. Cryotransmission electron microscopy micrographs of the aggregates are consistent with this interpretation. In addition, a comparative analysis of these results with those previously reported in the presence of calcium suggests that the different hydration energy between lipid vesicles when these divalent cations are present plays a fundamental role in the cluster morphology. This suggestion is also supported by infrared spectroscopy data. The kinetics of the aggregation processes is also analyzed through the time evolution of the mean diffusion coefficient of the aggregates.

  11. Cell aggregation: Packing soft grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, J. A.; Karttunen, M.

    2006-06-01

    Cellular aggregates may be considered as collections of membrane enclosed units with a pressure difference between the internal and external liquid phases. Cells are kept together by membrane adhesion and/or confined space compression. Pattern formation and, in particular, intercellular spacing have important roles in controlling solvent diffusion within such aggregates. A physical approach is used to study generic aspects of cellular packings in a confined space. Average material properties are derived from the free energy. The appearance of penetrating intercellular void channels is found to be critically governed by the cell wall adhesion mechanisms during the formation of dense aggregates. A fully relaxed aggregate efficiently hinders solvent diffusion at high hydrostatic pressures, while a small fraction (˜0.1) of adhesion related packing frustration is sufficient for breaking such a blockage even at high a pressure.

  12. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

  13. A comparative analysis of well-to-wheel primary energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions for the operation of alternative and conventional vehicles in Switzerland, considering various energy carrier production pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanie, Mashael; Noembrini, Fabrizio; Dossetto, Lionel; Boulouchos, Konstantinos

    2014-03-01

    This study provides a comprehensive analysis of well-to-wheel (WTW) primary energy demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the operation of conventional and alternative passenger vehicle drivetrains. Results are determined based on a reference vehicle, drivetrain/production process efficiencies, and lifecycle inventory data specific to Switzerland. WTW performance is compared to a gasoline internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). Both industrialized and novel hydrogen and electricity production pathways are evaluated. A strong case is presented for pluggable electric vehicles (PEVs) due to their high drivetrain efficiency. However, WTW performance strongly depends on the electricity source. A critical electricity mix can be identified which divides optimal drivetrain performance between the EV, ICEV, and plug-in hybrid vehicle. Alternative drivetrain and energy carrier production pathways are also compared by natural resource. Fuel cell vehicle (FCV) performance proves to be on par with PEVs for energy carrier (EC) production via biomass and natural gas resources. However, PEVs outperform FCVs via solar energy EC production pathways. ICE drivetrains using alternative fuels, particularly biogas and CNG, yield remarkable WTW energy and emission reductions as well, indicating that alternative fuels, and not only alternative drivetrains, play an important role in the transition towards low-emission vehicles in Switzerland.

  14. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    This document describes a course designed to acquaint students with the many societal and technological problems facing the United States and the world due to the increasing demand for energy. The course begins with a writing assignment that involves readings on the environmental philosophy of Native Americans and the Chernobyl catastrophe.…

  15. Learning an energy-demanding and biomechanically constrained motor skill, racewalking: movement reorganization and contribution of metabolic efficiency and sensory information.

    PubMed

    Majed, L; Heugas, A-M; Chamon, M; Siegler, I A

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated how novices learn an energy demanding and biomechanically constrained task like racewalking. The first aim was to examine if movement reorganizes according to some fundamental strategies, proceeding in different stages (Newell, 1985). The second aim was to investigate the link between movement reorganization, metabolic efficiency and perceived exertion. Seven participants undertook seven racewalking learning sessions on a motorized treadmill, with increased velocity as the experiment progressed, in order to reach a goal performance speed of 10 kmh(-1). Peripheral/central perceived exertion ratings, kinematic and metabolic data were collected during the 1st, 4th, 6th and 7th session. Repeated-measures (Learning Session×Speed) ANOVAs on kinematic data showed a proximal-to-distal directional trend in movement reorganization, with significant practice-related changes in pattern coordination and decreased variability. Early movement reorganization occurred at the 1st session ("coordination stage") and progressed until the 4th session ("control stage") to reach a plateau. In contrast, metabolic efficiency and peripheral perceived exertion continued optimizing until the last session, probably occurring in concurrence with the control stage. Peripheral perceived exertion presented the highest correlation with the global movement reorganization variables suggesting that it could play a key role in guiding movement reorganization in the learning process, improving efficiency as a result.

  16. Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

    2012-12-01

    Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within <1 km of the vent. The deposits within the A418 pipe, Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (<62 μm). Secondly, the ash aggregates indicate the involvement of moisture coupled with the presence of dilute expanded eruption clouds. The structure and distribution of these deposits throughout the kimberlite conduit demand that aggregation and deposition operate entirely within the confines of the vent; this indicates that aggregation is a rapid process. Ash aggregates within glaciovolcanic sequences are also rarely documented. The

  17. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) aggregation and absence of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)/PBR association in the mitochondrial membrane as determined by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET).

    PubMed

    Bogan, Randy L; Davis, Tracy L; Niswender, Gordon D

    2007-04-01

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is responsible for acute control of cholesterol transport across the mitochondrial membrane, however the mechanism of StAR-associated cholesterol transport is unknown and may involve the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR)/endozepine system. Several molecules of PBR may associate to form a channel through which cholesterol passes to the inner mitochondrial membrane, and endozepine is the natural ligand for PBR. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) was used to test StAR/PBR/endozepine interactions, PBR aggregation, and the effect of second messengers on interactions. There was no evidence of StAR/PBR, StAR/endozepine, or PBR/endozepine interactions. The StAR and PBR fusion proteins were trafficking to the mitochondria as expected, but the endozepine fusion protein was not localized to the mitochondria indicating that it was not biologically active. Data were obtained indicating that PBR forms aggregates in the mitochondrial membrane. Energy transfer between PBR fusion proteins was dose and time dependent, but there was no effect induced by PK11195 ligand binding or pharmacologic activation of PKA or PKC second messenger pathways. It appears that PBR aggregates in the mitochondrial membrane, however there was no evidence that PBR aggregation is regulated in the acute control of steroidogenesis, or that PBR and StAR interact.

  18. U.S. Regional Demand Forecasts Using NEMS and GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Jesse A.; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-07-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a multi-sector, integrated model of the U.S. energy system put out by the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration. NEMS is used to produce the annual 20-year forecast of U.S. energy use aggregated to the nine-region census division level. The research objective was to disaggregate this regional energy forecast to the county level for select forecast years, for use in a more detailed and accurate regional analysis of energy usage across the U.S. The process of disaggregation using a geographic information system (GIS) was researched and a model was created utilizing available population forecasts and climate zone data. The model's primary purpose was to generate an energy demand forecast with greater spatial resolution than what is currently produced by NEMS, and to produce a flexible model that can be used repeatedly as an add-on to NEMS in which detailed analysis can be executed exogenously with results fed back into the NEMS data flow. The methods developed were then applied to the study data to obtain residential and commercial electricity demand forecasts. The model was subjected to comparative and statistical testing to assess predictive accuracy. Forecasts using this model were robust and accurate in slow-growing, temperate regions such as the Midwest and Mountain regions. Interestingly, however, the model performed with less accuracy in the Pacific and Northwest regions of the country where population growth was more active. In the future more refined methods will be necessary to improve the accuracy of these forecasts. The disaggregation method was written into a flexible tool within the ArcGIS environment which enables the user to output the results in five year intervals over the period 2000-2025. In addition, the outputs of this tool were used to develop a time-series simulation showing the temporal changes in electricity forecasts in terms of absolute, per capita, and density of demand.

  19. Evaluation of energies of interaction correlated with observed stabilities and rheological properties of asphalt-aggregate mixtures of western shale-oil residue as a modifier to petroleum asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Tauer, J.E.; Ensley, E.K.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Robertson, R.E.

    1993-02-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of improving bonding and aging characteristics using a distillation residue from the Green River Formation (western) shale oil as a modifier to a petroleum asphalt for use as a crack and joint filler material in portland cement concrete and asphaltic pavements. This study was to examine the differences in moisture damage resistance and adhesion properties, as measured by bonding energy, of shale-oil modified asphalts compared with non-modified asphalts. The shale-oil modified asphalts mechanical properties were not expected to match those of the rubberized asphalt. A commercially available rubberized asphalt crack and joint filler material was also tested only for comparison of mechanical properties. Portland cement concrete briquets prepared with an asphalt material sandwiched between two concrete wafers were tested in a stress-relaxation type of experiment to evaluate the relaxation and recovery properties of the sealant materials. Energy of interaction (bonding energy) measurements were performed on asphalt materials with portland cement concrete, two silicate aggregates, and a limestone aggregate to evaluate the compatibility of the asphalt materials with various aggregates. The results show that the shale-oil modified petroleum asphalt improved the relaxation time, percent recovery, and bonding energy compared with the petroleum asphalt.

  20. Development of a technical-economic model for dynamic calculation of COE, energy demand and CO2 emissions of an integrated UCG-CCS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaten, N.; Kempka, T.; Green, M.; Preshelkova, A.; Merachev, D.; Schlüter, R.; Azzam, R.

    2012-04-01

    World-wide coal reserves can provide energy supply for several hundred years. Underground coal gasification (UCG) offers an economic and sustainable approach to convert these coal reserves into syngas. As combustion of fossil fuels releases CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, the present study considers a coupling of UCG with CO2 capture and its subsequent storage (CCS) in the previously converted seams, thereby offering a low carbon solution to coal fired power generation. The aim of the present study is to develop a technical-economic model in order to evaluate costeffectiveness, energy demand and CO2 emissions for a coupled UCG-CCS process. The model consists of five dynamic submodels which take into account the processes of air separation (ASU), UCG, syngas processing, electricity production and CCS. Capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) of these process stages are combined to establish the overall levelised costs of electricity generation (COE). Therefore, the modeling approach developed within the present study allows for a comparison of the COE of the coupled processes with different technologies for electricity production. The influence of parameters relevant for COE (e.g. seam thickness and depth as well as syngas quality) and CO2 emissions (e.g. quality of coal, plant efficiency) were analysed in the context of a sensitivity analysis. Within the UCG&CO2STORAGE project, funded by the EU Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS), a theoretical UCG-CCS feasibility study is being performed for the Dobrudzha coal basin, the selected study area in northeast of Bulgaria. The concealed coalfield is of carboniferous age with high rank bituminous coals. The tectonic conditions in the area are complicated and some of the faults determine coal formation distribution. Explored are four coal formations, but only three of them (Krupen, Gurkovo, Makedonka) are of interest for the project. Investigated for the Dobrudzha coal deposit were 120 geological sections

  1. Parameter identification of aggregated thermostatically controlled loads for smart grids using PDE techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Scott; Bendtsen, Jan; Ruiz, Victor

    2014-07-01

    This paper develops methods for model identification of aggregated thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) in smart grids, via partial differential equation (PDE) techniques. Control of aggregated TCLs provides a promising opportunity to mitigate the mismatch between power generation and demand, thus enhancing grid reliability and enabling renewable energy penetration. To this end, this paper focuses on developing parameter identification algorithms for a PDE-based model of aggregated TCLs. First, a two-state boundary-coupled hyperbolic PDE model for homogenous TCL populations is derived. This model is extended to heterogeneous populations by including a diffusive term, which provides an elegant control-oriented model. Next, a passive parameter identification scheme and a swapping-based identification scheme are derived for the PDE model structure. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of each method under various autonomous and non-autonomous scenarios. The proposed models can subsequently be employed to provide system critical information for power system monitoring and control.

  2. Smart Buildings and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

    2011-11-01

    Advances in communications and control technology, the strengthening of the Internet, and the growing appreciation of the urgency to reduce demand side energy use are motivating the development of improvements in both energy efficiency and demand response (DR) systems in buildings. This paper provides a framework linking continuous energy management and continuous communications for automated demand response (Auto-DR) in various times scales. We provide a set of concepts for monitoring and controls linked to standards and procedures such as Open Automation Demand Response Communication Standards (OpenADR). Basic building energy science and control issues in this approach begin with key building components, systems, end-uses and whole building energy performance metrics. The paper presents a framework about when energy is used, levels of services by energy using systems, granularity of control, and speed of telemetry. DR, when defined as a discrete event, requires a different set of building service levels than daily operations. We provide examples of lessons from DR case studies and links to energy efficiency.

  3. Advertising media and cigarette demand.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rajeev K

    2011-01-01

    Using state-level panel data for the USA spanning three decades, this research estimates the demand for cigarettes. The main contribution lies in studying the effects of cigarette advertising disaggregated across five qualitatively different groups. Results show cigarette demand to be near unit elastic, the income effects to be generally insignificant and border price effects and habit effects to be significant. Regarding advertising effects, aggregate cigarette advertising has a negative effect on smoking. Important differences across advertising media emerge when cigarette advertising is disaggregated. The effects of public entertainment and Internet cigarette advertising are stronger than those of other media. Anti-smoking messages accompanying print cigarette advertising seem relatively more effective. Implications for smoking control policy are discussed.

  4. Macroeconomic Effects of Social Insurance on Aggregate Demand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroman, Wayne G.

    The great changes in social security laws which have taken place in the United States since World War II and the likelihood that others will take place in the future make it important to understand what effects these changes have on the rest of the economy. This study, adapted from the author's 1967 dissertation at the University of Michigan,…

  5. Aggregrate consumer expenditures on energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, D.W.

    1984-08-01

    This report presents a new economic model for the allocation of aggregate consumer expenditures on energy in the United States. Our model is based on a theory of consumer behavior involving two stages. In the first stage total expenditures are allocated between and nonenergy commodities. Allocation depends on the price of energy, prices of all nonenergy commodities, and the level of total expenditure. Total energy expenditure in the second stage is allocated among individual types of energy. The second stage allocation depends on the prices of individual types of energy and the level of total energy expenditure. Our econometric model can be applied to the generation of projection of aggregrate energy demand in the United States. Projected future energy prices, the future level and distribution of total energy expenditure, and the future demographic development of the population for projections. The model can also be used to make projections for individual consumer groups within the United States, classified by total energy expenditure and by demographic characteristics. Finally, it can be integrated into a model of energy and nonenergy expenditures to provide a complete model of aggregate consumer behavior. Our econometric model of aggregate consumer behavior can be applied to the generation of projection of demand individual types of energy and for all nonenergy commodities in the United States.

  6. Propagating of uncertainties due to human-induced surface-heterogeneities in regional estimation of energy and mass exchange from flux aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, M. B.

    2013-05-01

    Agriculture and forestry practices have added a multitude of vegetation heterogeneity scales to the landscape. The effects of the human induced heterogeneity, such as multi-crop agriculture and selective logging, on regional estimates of gas exchange from remote sensing platforms can now be added to the list of major problems that must be confronted by the ecohydrology communities. The last decade provided perhaps the most rapid advances given developments in satellite remote sensing products and computational methods. Recent studies on sub-pixel heterogeneity effects on pixel-averaged fluxes using a two-source (soil + vegetation) energy balance model over semi-arid landscapes have concluded that sub-pixel variability could lead to significantly biased results when compared to true turbulent energy fluxes. Moreover, these studies have shown that errors in outputs from flux models driven by remotely sensed surface properties would be dependent on the distribution and the magnitude of the sub-pixel spatial variability. In addition, it has been demonstrated that the discrepancy is not only associated with the spatial variability level but also a function of the wind speed (i.e. the turbulent state of the atmosphere), suggesting that a formal analysis of turbulence on scalar transport is the logical step to increase confidence in subpixel flux estimates under these circumstances. Computational-fluid-mechanic studies point towards the importance of sub-pixel spatial heterogeneity on regional flux estimates, suggesting that they are sensitive to the scale of the land surface heterogeneity. These studies primarily considered the effects of small-scale (sub-grid) heterogeneity on pixel-scale energy budgets. However, the emergent theme remains the same - large uncertainties are associated with fluxes derived from spatially averaged surface properties. To advance in this topic, the heterogeneity should be confronted with two dynamic-length-scale, namely, the convective scale

  7. Electricity Markets: Actions Needed to Expand GSA and DOD Participation in Demand-Response Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    consumes about 60 watts, and a comparable compact fluorescent light bulb consumes approximately 15 watts. In fiscal year 2012, DOD installations...enrollment in programs offered by utilities and retail electricity providers, “demand-response aggregators ”—private companies that combine the demand...time. Demand-response aggregators typically enroll multiple electricity consumers in demand-response programs that otherwise would only be open to

  8. Equilibrium structure of ferrofluid aggregates.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mina; Tománek, David

    2010-11-17

    We study the equilibrium structure of large but finite aggregates of magnetic dipoles, representing a colloidal suspension of magnetite particles in a ferrofluid. With increasing system size, the structural motif evolves from chains and rings to multi-chain and multi-ring assemblies. Very large systems form single- and multi-wall coils, tubes and scrolls. These structural changes result from a competition between various energy terms, which can be approximated analytically within a continuum model. We also study the effect of external parameters such as magnetic field on the relative stability of these structures. Our results may give insight into experimental data obtained during solidification of ferrofluid aggregates at temperatures where thermal fluctuations become negligible in comparison to inter-particle interactions. These data may also help to experimentally control the aggregation of magnetic particles.

  9. Equilibrium structure of ferrofluid aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Mina; Tomanek, David

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium structure of large but finite aggregates of magnetic dipoles, representing a colloidal suspension of magnetite particles in a ferrofluid. With increasing system size, the structural motif evolves from chains and rings to multi-chain and multi-ring assemblies. Very large systems form single- and multi-wall coils, tubes and scrolls. These structural changes result from a competition between various energy terms, which can be approximated analytically within a continuum model. We also study the effect of external parameters such as magnetic field on the relative stability of these structures. Our results may give insight into experimental data obtained during solidification of ferrofluid aggregates at temperatures where thermal fluctuations become negligible in comparison to inter-particle interactions. These data may also help to experimentally control the aggregation of magnetic particles.

  10. Thermodynamics of Protein Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Kenneth L.; Barz, Bogdan; Bachmann, Michael; Strodel, Birgit

    Amyloid protein aggregation characterizes many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Creutz- feldt-Jakob disease. Evidence suggests that amyloid aggregates may share similar aggregation pathways, implying simulation of full-length amyloid proteins is not necessary for understanding amyloid formation. In this study we simulate GNNQQNY, the N-terminal prion-determining domain of the yeast protein Sup35 to investigate the thermodynamics of structural transitions during aggregation. We use a coarse-grained model with replica-exchange molecular dynamics to investigate the association of 3-, 6-, and 12-chain GNNQQNY systems and we determine the aggregation pathway by studying aggregation states of GN- NQQNY. We find that the aggregation of the hydrophilic GNNQQNY sequence is mainly driven by H-bond formation, leading to the formation of /3-sheets from the very beginning of the assembly process. Condensation (aggregation) and ordering take place simultaneously, which is underpinned by the occurrence of a single heat capacity peak only.

  11. The 30/20 GHz fixed communications systems service demand assessment. Volume 2: Main report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, R. B.; Seltzer, H. R.; Speter, K. M.; Westheimer, M.

    1979-01-01

    A forecast of demand for telecommunications services through the year 2000 is presented with particular reference to demand for satellite communications. Estimates of demand are provided for voice, video, and data services and for various subcategories of these services. The results are converted to a common digital measure in terms of terabits per year and aggregated to obtain total demand projections.

  12. 10 CFR 15.21 - Written demands for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Written demands for payment. 15.21 Section 15.21 Energy... Written demands for payment. (a) The NRC shall make appropriate written demands upon the debtor for... made (which is normally the date the initial written demand letter statement was mailed or...

  13. 10 CFR 15.21 - Written demands for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written demands for payment. 15.21 Section 15.21 Energy... Written demands for payment. (a) The NRC shall make appropriate written demands upon the debtor for... made (which is normally the date the initial written demand letter statement was mailed or...

  14. High-resolution temperature fields to evaluate the response of Italian electricity demand to meteorological variables: an example of climate service for the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapin, Simone; Apadula, Francesco; Brunetti, Michele; Maugeri, Maurizio

    2016-08-01

    The dependence of Italian daily electricity demand on cooling degree-days, heating degree-days and solar radiation is investigated by means of a regression model applied to 12 consecutive 2-year intervals in the 1990-2013 period. The cooling and heating degree-days records used in the model are obtained by (i) estimating, by means of a network of 92 synoptic stations and high-resolution gridded temperature climatologies, a daily effective temperature record for all urbanised grid points of a high-resolution grid covering Italy; (ii) using these records to calculate corresponding grid point degree-days records; and (iii) averaging them to get national degree-days records representative of urban areas. The solar radiation record is obtained with the same averaging approach, with grid point solar radiation estimated from the corresponding daily temperature range. The model is based on deterministic components related to the weekly cyclical pattern of demand and to long-term demand changes and on weather-sensitive components related to cooling degree-days, heating degree-days and solar radiation. It establishes a strong contribution of cooling degree-days to the Italian electricity demand, with values peaking in summer months of the latest years up to 211 GWh day-1 (i.e. about 23 % of the corresponding average Italian electricity demand). This contribution shows a strong positive trend in the period considered here: the coefficient of the cooling degree-days term in the regression models increases from the first 2-year period (1990-1991) to the last one (2012-2013) by a factor 3.5, which is much greater than the increase of the Italian total electricity demand.

  15. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Roger; Kiliccote, Sila

    2013-01-12

    The objective of this project was to develop a “roadmap” to guide the Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) demand response (DR) planning and implementation in support of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) 70% clean energy goal by 2030.

  16. On mean type aggregation.

    PubMed

    Yager, R R

    1996-01-01

    We introduce and define the concept of mean aggregation of a collection of n numbers. We point out that the lack of associativity of this operation compounds the problem of the extending mean of n numbers to n+1 numbers. The closely related concepts of self identity and the centering property are introduced as one imperative for extending mean aggregation operators. The problem of weighted mean aggregation is studied. A new concept of prioritized mean aggregation is then introduced. We next show that the technique of selecting an element based upon the performance of a random experiment can be considered as a mean aggregation operation.

  17. A competitive aggregation model for flash nanoprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Janine Chungyin; Vigil, R D; Fox, R O

    2010-11-15

    Flash NanoPrecipitation (FNP) is a novel approach for producing functional nanoparticles stabilized by amphiphilic block copolymers. FNP involves the rapid mixing of a hydrophobic active (organic) and an amphiphilic di-block copolymer with a non-solvent (water) and subsequent co-precipitation of nanoparticles composed of both the organic and copolymer. During this process, the particle size distribution (PSD) is frozen and stabilized by the hydrophilic portion of the amphiphilic di-block copolymer residing on the particle surface. That is, the particle growth is kinetically arrested and thus a narrow PSD can be attained. To model the co-precipitation process, a bivariate population balance equation (PBE) has been formulated to account for the competitive aggregation of the organic and copolymer versus pure organic-organic or copolymer-copolymer aggregation. Aggregation rate kernels have been derived to account for the major aggregation events: free coupling, unimer insertion, and aggregate fusion. The resulting PBE is solved both by direct integration and by using the conditional quadrature method of moments (CQMOM). By solving the competitive aggregation model under well-mixed conditions, it is demonstrated that the PSD is controlled primarily by the copolymer-copolymer aggregation process and that the energy barrier to aggregate fusion plays a key role in determining the PSD. It is also shown that the characteristic aggregation times are smaller than the turbulent mixing time so that the FNP process is always mixing limited.

  18. Aggregation of colloidal particles modeled as a dynamical process.

    PubMed Central

    Bentz, J; Nir, S

    1981-01-01

    Aggregation kinetics of sonicated phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) vesicles in NaCl indicate that the process is fully reversible and dynamical, involving the rapid formation and dispersal of aggregates. Accordingly, the general mass action kinetic equations are analyzed with respect to the equilibrium state and the formation of higher order aggregates. For a general class of systems, the values for the mass average aggregate size at equilibrium are obtained from simple closed-form expressions. It is shown that an analysis of the aggregation equilibrium will yield estimates for the potential energy well that holds the aggregates together. A fit to the experimental data for kinetics of Na+-induced aggregation of the vesicles has been achieved by employing mass action kinetic equations that include the dissociation reactions. The threshold of NaCl concentration required for aggregation involves the clear distinction between the rate and extent of aggregation. PMID:6940176

  19. Multi-period Nash bargaining for Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-09

    Flexibility from distributed energy resources presents an enormous potential to provide various services to the smart grid. In this paper, we propose a unified hierarchical framework for aggregation and coordination of various flexible loads, such as commercial building Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems, Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs), Distributed Energy Storages (DESs), residential Pool Pumps (PPs), and Electric Vehicles (EVs). Moreover, a multistage Nash-bargaining-based control strategy is proposed to coordinate different aggregations of flexible loads for demand response. Case studies are provided to demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed framework and coordination strategy in managing peak power demand in a community.

  20. Responses of the red blood cells from two high-energy-demand teleosts, yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), to catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Lowe, T E; Brill, R W; Cousins, K L

    1998-08-01

    affinity of yellowfin tuna blood. Our results, therefore, do not support our original hypothesis. The catecholamine response of red blood cells from high-energy-demand teleosts (i.e., tunas) is not enhanced compared to other teleosts. There are data on changes in cardio-respiratory function in tunas caused by acute hypoxia and modest increases in activity, but there are no data on the changes in cardio-respiratory function in tunas accompanying the large increases in metabolic rate seen during recovery from exhaustive exercise. However, we conclude that during those instances where high rates of O2 delivery to the tissues are needed, tunas' ability to increase cardiac output, ventilation volume, blood O2 carrying capacity, and effective respiratory (i.e., gill) surface area are probably more important than are the responses of red blood cells to catecholamines. We also use our data to investigate the extent of the Haldane effect and its relationship to blood O2 and CO2 transport in yellowfin tuna. Yellowfin tuna blood shows a large Haldane effect; intracellular pH increases 0.20 units during oxygenation. The largest change in intracellular pH occurs between 40-100% O2 saturation, indicating that yellowfin tuna, like other teleosts, fully exploit the Haldane effect over the normal physiological range of blood O2 saturation.

  1. Commercial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  2. Orthogonal flexible Rydberg aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, K.; Wüster, S.; Rost, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    We study the link between atomic motion and exciton transport in flexible Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light alkali-metal atoms, for which motion due to dipole-dipole interaction becomes relevant. In two one-dimensional atom chains crossing at a right angle adiabatic exciton transport is affected by a conical intersection of excitonic energy surfaces, which induces controllable nonadiabatic effects. A joint exciton-motion pulse that is initially governed by a single energy surface is coherently split into two modes after crossing the intersection. The modes induce strongly different atomic motion, leading to clear signatures of nonadiabatic effects in atomic density profiles. We have shown how this scenario can be exploited as an exciton switch, controlling direction and coherence properties of the joint pulse on the second of the chains [K. Leonhardt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 223001 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.223001]. In this article we discuss the underlying complex dynamics in detail, characterize the switch, and derive our isotropic interaction model from a realistic anisotropic one with the addition of a magnetic bias field.

  3. Demand Side Bidding. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Spahn, Andrew

    2003-12-31

    This document sets forth the final report for a financial assistance award for the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) to enhance coordination between the building operators and power system operators in terms of demand-side responses to Location Based Marginal Pricing (LBMP). Potential benefits of this project include improved power system reliability, enhanced environmental quality, mitigation of high locational prices within congested areas, and the reduction of market barriers for demand-side market participants. NARUC, led by its Committee on Energy Resources and the Environment (ERE), actively works to promote the development and use of energy efficiency and clean distributive energy policies within the framework of a dynamic regulatory environment. Electric industry restructuring, energy shortages in California, and energy market transformation intensifies the need for reliable information and strategies regarding electric reliability policy and practice. NARUC promotes clean distributive generation and increased energy efficiency in the context of the energy sector restructuring process. NARUC, through ERE's Subcommittee on Energy Efficiency, strives to improve energy efficiency by creating working markets. Market transformation seeks opportunities where small amounts of investment can create sustainable markets for more efficient products, services, and design practices.

  4. Electricity demand curtailment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Allentuck, J; Carroll, O; Schnader, M

    1980-01-01

    The state of electricity demand curtailment planning for long term electricity supply disruptions is reviewed. Legal, institutional and technological problems associated with demand curtailment plans are examined, and the existence of well defined social objectives on the part of planners is questioned. A linear programming approach to electricity demand curtailment planning is presented.

  5. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be used by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.

  6. U. S. Energy and Economic Growth, 1975--2010

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Allen, E. L.; Cooper, C. L.; Edmonds, F. C.; Edmonds, J. A.; Reister, D. B.; Weinberg, A. M.; Whittle, C. E.; Zelby, L. W.

    1976-09-01

    This study projects economic growth (GNP) and energy demand for the U.S. to the year 2010. The main finding is that both GNP and total energy demand are likely to grow significantly more slowly than has been assumed in most analyses of energy policy. Projections of energy, GNP, and electricity (total and per capita) are summarized, with electricity demand expected to grow more rapidly than total energy demand. Two scenarios designated ''high'' and ''low'' were developed in this study. However, even the ''high'' scenario, 126 quads (q; 1 q equals 10/sup 15/ Btu) in 2000, is much lower than most previous estimates. It is felt that this raises serious questions about fundamental energy and energy R and D policies which, generally, have been based on perceptions of more lavish energy futures. Although the aggregate demands and GNP are projected to increase rather modestly, the energy demands per capita and GNP per capita increase at rates comparable to or even higher than historic rates. The authors believe that the projections developed in this study represent a logical culmination of many trends toward lower growth. These trends have not yet been factored into the older energy projections upon which so much energy policy is based.

  7. Exciton dynamics in perturbed vibronic molecular aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Brüning, C.; Wehner, J.; Hausner, J.; Wenzel, M.; Engel, V.

    2015-01-01

    A site specific perturbation of a photo-excited molecular aggregate can lead to a localization of excitonic energy. We investigate this localization dynamics for laser-prepared excited states. Changing the parameters of the electric field significantly influences the exciton localization which offers the possibility for a selective control of this process. This is demonstrated for aggregates possessing a single vibrational degree of freedom per monomer unit. It is shown that the effects identified for the molecular dimer can be generalized to larger aggregates with a high density of vibronic states. PMID:26798840

  8. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  9. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  10. Aggregations in Flatworms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Hunter, M.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a school project to investigate aggregations in flatworms which may be influenced by light intensity, temperature, and some form of chemical stimulus released by already aggregating flatworms. Such investigations could be adopted to suit many educational levels of science laboratory activities. (DS)

  11. Unbonded Aggregate Surface Roads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    are sufficiently angular and rough in texture, thus ensuring mixture stability. A popular asphalt mixture design method called Superpave Level 1...would not pass either of the Superpave aggregate requirements. Table 18 Additional Characteristics for the Fine Fraction Abbreviated Common Name...CBR values when compacted wet of optimum. This is likely attributable to their relatively high permeabilities . For soaked CBR tests, the aggregates

  12. Erosion of dust aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seizinger, A.; Krijt, S.; Kley, W.

    2013-12-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to gain a deeper insight into how much different aggregate types are affected by erosion. Especially, it is important to study the influence of the velocity of the impacting projectiles. We also want to provide models for dust growth in protoplanetary disks with simple recipes to account for erosion effects. Methods: To study the erosion of dust aggregates we employed a molecular dynamics approach that features a detailed micro-physical model of the interaction of spherical grains. For the first time, the model has been extended by introducing a new visco-elastic damping force, which requires a proper calibration. Afterwards, different sample generation methods were used to cover a wide range of aggregate types. Results: The visco-elastic damping force introduced in this work turns out to be crucial to reproduce results obtained from laboratory experiments. After proper calibration, we find that erosion occurs for impact velocities of 5 ms-1 and above. Though fractal aggregates as formed during the first growth phase are most susceptible to erosion, we observe erosion of aggregates with rather compact surfaces as well. Conclusions: We find that bombarding a larger target aggregate with small projectiles results in erosion for impact velocities as low as a few ms-1. More compact aggregates suffer less from erosion. With increasing projectile size the transition from accretion to erosion is shifted to higher velocities. This allows larger bodies to grow through high velocity collisions with smaller aggregates.

  13. Multi-state time-varying reliability evaluation of smart grid with flexible demand resources utilizing Lz transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Heping; Jin, Wende; Ding, Yi; Song, Yonghua; Yu, Dezhao

    2017-01-01

    With the expanding proportion of renewable energy generation and development of smart grid technologies, flexible demand resources (FDRs) have been utilized as an approach to accommodating renewable energies. However, multiple uncertainties of FDRs may influence reliable and secure operation of smart grid. Multi-state reliability models for a single FDR and aggregating FDRs have been proposed in this paper with regard to responsive abilities for FDRs and random failures for both FDR devices and information system. The proposed reliability evaluation technique is based on Lz transform method which can formulate time-varying reliability indices. A modified IEEE-RTS has been utilized as an illustration of the proposed technique.

  14. Protein aggregation in salt solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kastelic, Miha; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V.; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregation is broadly important in diseases and in formulations of biological drugs. Here, we develop a theoretical model for reversible protein–protein aggregation in salt solutions. We treat proteins as hard spheres having square-well-energy binding sites, using Wertheim’s thermodynamic perturbation theory. The necessary condition required for such modeling to be realistic is that proteins in solution during the experiment remain in their compact form. Within this limitation our model gives accurate liquid–liquid coexistence curves for lysozyme and γ IIIa-crystallin solutions in respective buffers. It provides good fits to the cloud-point curves of lysozyme in buffer–salt mixtures as a function of the type and concentration of salt. It than predicts full coexistence curves, osmotic compressibilities, and second virial coefficients under such conditions. This treatment may also be relevant to protein crystallization. PMID:25964322

  15. Simulations of kinetically irreversible protein aggregate structure.

    PubMed Central

    Patro, S Y; Przybycien, T M

    1994-01-01

    We have simulated the structure of kinetically irreversible protein aggregates in two-dimensional space using a lattice-based Monte-Carlo routine. Our model specifically accounts for the intermolecular interactions between hydrophobic and hydrophilic protein surfaces and a polar solvent. The simulations provide information about the aggregate density, the types of inter-monomer contacts and solvent content within the aggregates, the type and extent of solvent exposed perimeter, and the short- and long-range order all as a function of (i) the extent of monomer hydrophobic surface area and its distribution on the model protein surface and (ii) the magnitude of the hydrophobic-hydrophobic contact energy. An increase in the extent of monomer hydrophobic surface area resulted in increased aggregate densities with concomitant decreased system free energies. These effects are accompanied by increases in the number of hydrophobic-hydrophobic contacts and decreases in the solvent-exposed hydrophobic surface area of the aggregates. Grouping monomer hydrophobic surfaces in a single contiguous stretch resulted in lower aggregate densities and lower short range order. More favorable hydrophobic-hydrophobic contact energies produced structures with higher densities but the number of unfavorable protein-protein contacts was also observed to increase; greater configurational entropy produced the opposite effect. Properties predicted by our model are in good qualitative agreement with available experimental observations. Images FIGURE 6 FIGURE 13 PMID:8061184

  16. Biological framework for soil aggregation: Implications for ecological functions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzehei, Teamrat; Or, Dani

    2016-04-01

    Soil aggregation is heuristically understood as agglomeration of primary particles bound together by biotic and abiotic cementing agents. The organization of aggregates is believed to be hierarchical in nature; whereby primary particles bond together to form secondary particles and subsequently merge to form larger aggregates. Soil aggregates are not permanent structures, they continuously change in response to internal and external forces and other drivers, including moisture, capillary pressure, temperature, biological activity, and human disturbances. Soil aggregation processes and the resulting functionality span multiple spatial and temporal scales. The intertwined biological and physical nature of soil aggregation, and the time scales involved precluded a universally applicable and quantifiable framework for characterizing the nature and function of soil aggregation. We introduce a biophysical framework of soil aggregation that considers the various modes and factors of the genesis, maturation and degradation of soil aggregates including wetting/drying cycles, soil mechanical processes, biological activity and the nature of primary soil particles. The framework attempts to disentangle mechanical (compaction and soil fragmentation) from in-situ biophysical aggregation and provides a consistent description of aggregate size, hierarchical organization, and life time. It also enables quantitative description of biotic and abiotic functions of soil aggregates including diffusion and storage of mass and energy as well as role of aggregates as hot spots of nutrient accumulation, biodiversity, and biogeochemical cycles.

  17. Identification of supplier induced demand in the health care sector.

    PubMed

    Auster, R D; Oaxaca, R L

    1981-01-01

    This paper explores the issues and pitfalls encountered when attempting to test empirically the hypothesis that physician, hospital, or any other input supply level induces increasing demand for health services in the strict sense of demand shift and, through that, increased demand for the input in question. Evidence is presented which suggests that an empirical test of the supplier induced demand (SID) hypothesis of the type traditionally performed may not in fact be feasible with cross-sectional aggregate data such as is usually used.

  18. Impact of Particle Aggregation on Nanoparticle Reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassby, David

    2011-12-01

    The prevalence of nanoparticles in the environment is expected to grow in the coming years due to their increasing pervasiveness in consumer and industrial applications. Once released into the environment, nanoparticles encounter conditions of pH, salinity, UV light, and other solution conditions that may alter their surface characteristics and lead to aggregation. The unique properties that make nanoparticles desirable are a direct consequence of their size and increased surface area. Therefore, it is critical to recognize how aggregation alters the reactive properties of nanomaterials, if we wish to understand how these properties are going to behave once released into the environment. The size and structure of nanoparticle aggregates depend on surrounding conditions, including hydrodynamic ones. Depending on these conditions, aggregates can be large or small, tightly packed or loosely bound. Characterizing and measuring these changes to aggregate morphology is important to understanding the impact of aggregation on nanoparticle reactive properties. Examples of decreased reactivity due to aggregation include the case where tightly packed aggregates have fewer available surface sites compared to loosely packed ones; also, photocatalytic particles embedded in the center of large aggregates will experience less light when compared to particles embedded in small aggregates. However, aggregation also results in an increase in solid-solid interfaces between nanoparticles. This can result in increased energy transfer between neighboring particles, surface passivation, and altered surface tension. These phenomena can lead to an increase in reactivity. The goal of this thesis is to examine the impacts of aggregation on the reactivity of a select group of nanomaterials. Additionally, we examined how aggregation impacts the removal efficiency of fullerene nanoparticles using membrane filtration. The materials we selected to study include ZnS---a metal chalcogenide

  19. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration -- Phase 2 Findings from the Summer of 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Parker, Eric; Bernier, Clark; Young, Paul; Sheehan, Dave; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan

    2009-04-30

    the second phase of this demonstration are:1. Demand-response resources can provide full response significantly faster than required by NERC and WECC reliability rules.2. The aggregate impact of demand response from many small, individual sources can be estimated with varying degrees of reliability through analysis of distribution feeder loads.3. Monitoring individual AC units helps to evaluate the efficacy of the SCE load management dispatch system and better understand AC energy use by participating customers.4. Monitoring individual AC units provides an independent data source to corroborate the estimates of the magnitude of aggregate load curtailments and gives insight into results from estimation methods that rely solely on distribution feeder data.

  20. Aggregate and the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sachs, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to help you understand our aggregate resources-their importance, where they come from, how they are processed for our use, the environmental concerns related to their mining and processing, how those concerns are addressed, and the policies and regulations designed to safeguard workers, neighbors, and the environment from the negative impacts of aggregate mining. We hope this understanding will help prepare you to be involved in decisions that need to be made-individually and as a society-to be good stewards of our aggregate resources and our living planet.

  1. A Methology for Assessing the Regional Transportation Energy Demands of Different Spatial Residential Development Scenarios: a Case Study for the Upper Housatonic River Basin, Massachusetts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oski, J. A.; Fabos, J. G.; Gross, M.

    1982-01-01

    A method is suggested whereby regional landscape planning efforts can be aided by the use of a geographic information system to determine sites for more energy efficient residential and mixed use developments within a study area. The location of land parcels suited for residential and mixed land use developments in the Upper Housatonic River Basin Study Area in Berkshire County, Massachusetts is described as well as the three development options. Significant steps in the procedure are discussed and the computation of the transportation energy requirement is elaborated.

  2. Marine aggregate dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The direction and scope of the Office of Naval Research's Marine Aggregate Dynamics Accelerated Research Initiative will be the topic of an open-house style meeting February 14, 7:30-10:00 P.M. in Ballroom D of the Hyatt Regency New Orleans at the Louisiana Superdome. This meeting is scheduled during the AGU/American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Ocean Sciences Meeting February 12-16 in New Orleans.The critical focus of the ARI is the measurement and modeling of the dynamics of the biological, physical, chemical and molecular processes that drive aggregation and produce aggregates. This new ARI will provide funding in Fiscal Years 1991-1995 to identify and quantify mechanisms that determine the distribution, abundance and size spectrum of aggregated particulate matter in the ocean.

  3. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  4. Aggregation and Averaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Irving H.

    The arithmetic processes of aggregation and averaging are basic to quantitative investigations of employment, unemployment, and related concepts. In explaining these concepts, this report stresses need for accuracy and consistency in measurements, and describes tools for analyzing alternative measures. (BH)

  5. Salt-induced aggregation of stiff polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Fazli, Hossein; Mohammadinejad, Sarah; Golestanian, Ramin

    2009-10-21

    Molecular dynamics simulation techniques are used to study the process of aggregation of highly charged stiff polyelectrolytes due to the presence of multivalent salt. The dominant kinetic mode of aggregation is found to be the case of one end of one polyelectrolyte meeting others at right angles, and the kinetic pathway to bundle formation is found to be similar to that of flocculation dynamics of colloids as described by Smoluchowski. The aggregation process is found to favor the formation of finite bundles of 10-11 filaments at long times. Comparing the distribution of the cluster sizes with the Smoluchowski formula suggests that the energy barrier for the aggregation process is negligible. Also, the formation of long-lived metastable structures with similarities to the raft-like structures of actin filaments is observed within a range of salt concentration.

  6. Agricultural Irrigation Demand Response Estimation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    This program is used to model the energy demand of agricultural irrigation pumps, used to maintain soil moisture levels in irrigated fields. This modeling is accomplished using historical data from evapotranspirationmeasuring weather stations (from the California Irrigation Management Information System) as well as irrigation system characteristics for the field(s) to be modeled. The modelled energy demand is used to estimate the achievable demand response (DR) potential of the field(s), for use in assessing the value of the DR for the utility company. The program can accept input data with varying degrees of rigor, and estimate the uncertainty of the output accordingly.

  7. Two global scenarios: The evolution of energy use and the economy to 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chant, V. G.

    1981-11-01

    Energy in a Finite World: A Global Systems Analysis (Ballinger, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 181, 880 pages) documents the seven-year study of the future balance of energy supply and demand made by the IIASA Energy Systems Program. Part IV of this book, Balancing Supply and Demand: The Quantitative Analysis, presents results based on two scenarios of global and regional development. Based on the data available when the work was done, these scenarios specify population growth, aggregate economic development in five sectors, and detailed energy use and supply for seven global regions. The scenarios specify energy requirements for households, transportation, and economic activity, and estimate energy supply regionally and globally. These scenario projections are described and analyzed within the economic framework, including aggregate economic models, that was used in deriving the projections. To understand the context of this report and to appreciate the full range of its findings, one must read it in conjunction with the book cited above.

  8. Beyond Renewable Portfolio Standards: An Assessment of Regional Supply and Demand Conditions Affecting the Future of Renewable Energy in the West; Report and Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, D. J.; McLaren, J.; Gelman, R.

    2013-08-01

    This study assesses the outlook for utility-scale renewable energy development in the West once states have met their renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements. In the West, the last state RPS culminates in 2025, so the analysis uses 2025 as a transition point on the timeline of RE development. Most western states appear to be on track to meet their final requirements, relying primarily on renewable resources located relatively close to the customers being served. What happens next depends on several factors including trends in the supply and price of natural gas, greenhouse gas and other environmental regulations, consumer preferences, technological breakthroughs, and future public policies and regulations. Changes in any one of these factors could make future renewable energy options more or less attractive.

  9. Projecting Electricity Demand in 2050

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Markel, Tony; Marnay, Chris; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% - 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.

  10. Energy Savings and Peak Demand Reduction of a SEER 21 Heat Pump vs. a SEER 13 Heat Pump with Attic and Indoor Duct Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.

    2014-03-01

    This report describes results of experiments that were conducted in an unoccupied 1600 square foot house--the Manufactured Housing (MH Lab) at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC)--to evaluate the delivered performance as well as the relative performance of a SEER 21 variable capacity heat pump versus a SEER 13 heat pump. The performance was evaluated with two different duct systems: a standard attic duct system and an indoor duct system located in a dropped-ceiling space.

  11. Clarifying and illustrating the electronic energy transfer pathways in trimeric and hexameric aggregation state of cyanobacteria allophycocyanin within the framework of Förster theory.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yanliang; Melhem, Osama; Li, Yongjian; Chi, Bo; Han, Xinya; Zhu, Hao; Feng, Lingling; Wan, Jian; Xu, Xin

    2015-01-30

    Within the framework of the Förster theory, the electronic excitation energy transfer pathways in the cyanobacteria allophycocyanin (APC) trimer and hexamer were studied. The associated physical quantities (i.e., excitation energy, oscillator strength, and transition dipole moments) of the phycocyanobilins (PCBs) located in APC were calculated at time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) level of theory. To estimate the influence of protein environment on the preceding calculated physical quantities, the long-range interactions were approximately considered with the polarizable continuum model at the TDDFT level of theory, and the short-range interaction caused by surrounding aspartate residue of PCBs were taken into account as well. The shortest energy transfer time calculated in the framework of the Förster model at TDDFT/B3LYP/6-31+G* level of theory are about 0.10 ps in the APC trimer and about 170 ps in the APC monomer, which are in qualitative agreement with the experimental finding that a very fast lifetime of 0.43-0.44 ps in APC trimers, whereas its monomers lacked any corresponding lifetime. These results suggest that the lifetime of 0.43-0.44 ps in the APC trimers determined by Sharkov et al. was most likely attributed to the energy transfer of α(1) -84 ↔ β(3) -84 (0.23 ps), β(1) -84 ↔ α(2) -84 (0.11 ps) or β(2) -84 ↔ α(3) -84 (0.10 ps). So far, no experimental or theoretical energy transfer rates between two APC trimmers were reported, our calculations predict that the predominate energy transfer pathway between APC trimers is likely to occur from α(3) -84 in one trimer to α(5) -84 in an adjacent trimer with a rate of 32.51 ps.

  12. Morphological and metabolic adjustments in the small intestine to energy demands of growth, storage, and fasting in the first annual cycle of a hibernating lizard (Tupinambis merianae).

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Lucas Francisco R; da Silveira, Lilian Cristina; Nisembaum, Laura Gabriela; Colquhoun, Alison; Abe, Agusto S; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; de Souza, Silvia Cristina R

    2016-05-01

    Seasonal plasticity in the small intestine of neonatal tegu lizards was investigated using morphometry and analysis of enzymes involved in supplying energy to the intestinal tissue. In the autumn, the intestinal mass (Mi) was 1.0% of body mass and the scaling exponent b=0.92 indicated that Mi was larger in smaller neonates. During arousal from dormancy Mi was 23% smaller; later in spring, Mi increased 60% in relation to the autumn and the exponent b=0.14 indicated that the recovery was disproportionate in smaller tegus. During the autumn, the intestinal villi were greatly elongated; by midwinter, the Hv, SvEp, and VvEp were smaller than during the autumn (59%, 54%, 29%) and were restored to autumn levels during spring. In the active tegus, the maximum activity (Vmax) of enzymes indicated that the enterocytes can obtain energy from different sources, and possess gluconeogenic capacity. During winter, the Vmax of CS, HOAD, GDH, PEPCK was 40-50% lower in relation to the autumn and spring, while the Vmax of HK, PK, LDH, AST was unchanged. The hypoglycemia and the mucosal atrophy/ischemia during winter would prevent the enterocytes from using glucose, whereas they could slowly oxidize fatty acids released from body stores and amino acids from the tissue proteolysis to satisfy their needs of energy. Contrastingly, starvation during spring caused severe mass loss (50%); the tissue protein and the VvEp and VvLP did not change while the thickness of the muscular layer increased 51%, which suggested different effects along the length of the organ. In addition, the Vmax of the glycolytic enzymes was lower, indicating that a regulatory mechanism would spare blood glucose for vital organs during unanticipated food restriction.

  13. Near-infrared room temperature luminescence of few-atom Au aggregates in silica: a path for the energy-transfer to Er³⁺ ions.

    PubMed

    Cesca, Tiziana; Kalinic, Boris; Maurizio, Chiara; Scian, Carlo; Battaglin, Giancarlo; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Mattei, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-small molecule-like AuN nanoclusters made by a number of atoms N less than 30 were produced by ion implantation in silica substrates. Their room temperature photoluminescence properties in the visible and near-infrared range have been investigated and correlated with the Er sensitization effects observed in Er-Au co-implanted samples. The intense photoluminescence emission under 488 nm laser excitation occurs in three different spectral regions around 750 nm (band A), 980 nm (band B) and 1150 nm (band C) as a consequence of the formation of discrete energy levels in the electronic structure of the molecule-like AuN nanoclusters. Indeed, energy maxima of bands A and C scale with N(-1/3) as expected for quantum confined systems. Conversely, the energy maximum of band B appears to be almost independent of size, suggesting a contribution of electronic surface states. A clear correlation between the formation of band B in the samples and Er-related photoemission is demonstrated: the band at 980 nm related to AuN nanoclusters resonant with the corresponding Er(3+) absorption level, is suggested as an effective de-excitation channel through which the Au-related photon energy may be transferred from Au nanoclusters to Er ions (either directly or mediated by photon absorption), eventually producing the Er-related infrared emission at 1540 nm.

  14. Concrete Waste Recycling Process for High Quality Aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Fujii, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-15

    Large amount of concrete waste generates during nuclear power plant (NPP) dismantling. Non-contaminated concrete waste is assumed to be disposed in a landfill site, but that will not be the solution especially in the future, because of decreasing tendency of the site availability and natural resources. Concerning concrete recycling, demand for roadbeds and backfill tends to be less than the amount of dismantled concrete generated in a single rural site, and conventional recycled aggregate is limited of its use to non-structural concrete, because of its inferior quality to ordinary natural aggregate. Therefore, it is vital to develop high quality recycled aggregate for general uses of dismantled concrete. If recycled aggregate is available for high structural concrete, the dismantling concrete is recyclable as aggregate for industry including nuclear field. Authors developed techniques on high quality aggregate reclamation for large amount of concrete generated during NPP decommissioning. Concrete of NPP buildings has good features for recycling aggregate; large quantity of high quality aggregate from same origin, record keeping of the aggregate origin, and little impurities in dismantled concrete such as wood and plastics. The target of recycled aggregate in this development is to meet the quality criteria for NPP concrete as prescribed in JASS 5N 'Specification for Nuclear Power Facility Reinforced Concrete' and JASS 5 'Specification for Reinforced Concrete Work'. The target of recycled aggregate concrete is to be comparable performance with ordinary aggregate concrete. The high quality recycled aggregate production techniques are assumed to apply for recycling for large amount of non-contaminated concrete. These techniques can also be applied for slightly contaminated concrete dismantled from radiological control area (RCA), together with free release survey. In conclusion: a technology on dismantled concrete recycling for high quality aggregate was developed

  15. From Dark to Light to Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET): Polarity-Sensitive Aggregation-Induced Emission (AIE)-Active Tetraphenylethene-Fused BODIPY Dyes with a Very Large Pseudo-Stokes Shift.

    PubMed

    Şen, Esra; Meral, Kadem; Atılgan, Serdar

    2016-01-11

    The work presented herein is devoted to the fabrication of large Stokes shift dyes in both organic and aqueous media by combining dark resonance energy transfer (DRET) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in one donor-acceptor system. In this respect, a series of donor-acceptor architectures of 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) dyes substituted by one, two, or three tetraphenylethene (TPE) luminogens were designed and synthesised. The photophysical properties of these three chromophore systems were studied to provide insight into the nature of donor-acceptor interactions in both THF and aqueous media. Because the generation of emissive TPE donor(s) is strongly polarity dependent, due to its aggregation-induced emission (AIE) feature, one might expect the formation of appreciable fluorescence emission intensity with a very large pseudo-Stokes shift in aqueous media when considering FRET process. Interestingly, similar results were also recorded in THF for the chromophore systems, although the TPE fragment(s) of the dyes are non-emissive. The explanation for this photophysical behaviour lies in the DRET. This is the first report on combining two energy-transfer processes, namely, FRET and DRET, in one polarity-sensitive donor-acceptor pair system. The accuracy of the dark-emissive donor property of the TPE luminogen is also presented for the first time as a new feature for AIE phenomena.

  16. Refrigerated Warehouse Demand Response Strategy Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Doug; Castillo, Rafael; Larson, Kyle; Dobbs, Brian; Olsen, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    This guide summarizes demand response measures that can be implemented in refrigerated warehouses. In an appendix, it also addresses related energy efficiency opportunities. Reducing overall grid demand during peak periods and energy consumption has benefits for facility operators, grid operators, utility companies, and society. State wide demand response potential for the refrigerated warehouse sector in California is estimated to be over 22.1 Megawatts. Two categories of demand response strategies are described in this guide: load shifting and load shedding. Load shifting can be accomplished via pre-cooling, capacity limiting, and battery charger load management. Load shedding can be achieved by lighting reduction, demand defrost and defrost termination, infiltration reduction, and shutting down miscellaneous equipment. Estimation of the costs and benefits of demand response participation yields simple payback periods of 2-4 years. To improve demand response performance, it’s suggested to install air curtains and another form of infiltration barrier, such as a rollup door, for the passageways. Further modifications to increase efficiency of the refrigeration unit are also analyzed. A larger condenser can maintain the minimum saturated condensing temperature (SCT) for more hours of the day. Lowering the SCT reduces the compressor lift, which results in an overall increase in refrigeration system capacity and energy efficiency. Another way of saving energy in refrigerated warehouses is eliminating the use of under-floor resistance heaters. A more energy efficient alternative to resistance heaters is to utilize the heat that is being rejected from the condenser through a heat exchanger. These energy efficiency measures improve efficiency either by reducing the required electric energy input for the refrigeration system, by helping to curtail the refrigeration load on the system, or by reducing both the load and required energy input.

  17. Aerobic Production and Utilization of Lactate Satisfy Increased Energy Demands Upon Neuronal Activation in Hippocampal Slices and Provide Neuroprotection Against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Schurr, Avital; Gozal, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Ever since it was shown for the first time that lactate can support neuronal function in vitro as a sole oxidative energy substrate, investigators in the field of neuroenergetics have been debating the role, if any, of this glycolytic product in cerebral energy metabolism. Our experiments employed the rat hippocampal slice preparation with electrophysiological and biochemical methodologies. The data generated by these experiments (a) support the hypothesis that lactate, not pyruvate, is the end-product of cerebral aerobic glycolysis; (b) indicate that lactate plays a major and crucial role in affording neural tissue to respond adequately to glutamate excitation and to recover unscathed post-excitation; (c) suggest that neural tissue activation is accompanied by aerobic lactate and NADH production, the latter being produced when the former is converted to pyruvate by mitochondrial lactate dehydrogenase (mLDH); (d) imply that NADH can be utilized as an endogenous scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to provide neuroprotection against ROS-induced neuronal damage. PMID:22275901

  18. Latin American demand

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    From Mexico to Argentina, independent power companies are finding great demand for their services in Latin America. But while legal and economic conditions are increasingly favorable, political and financial uncertainties make power development challenging.

  19. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for both reliability and economic conditions.

  20. Water Use in the US Electric Power Sector: Energy Systems ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation reviews the water demands of long-range electricity scenarios. It addresses questions such as: What are the aggregate water requirements of the U.S. electric power sector? How could water requirements evolve under different long-range regional generation mixes? It also looks at research addressing the electricity generation water demand from a life cycle perspective, such as water use for the fuel cycle (natural gas, coal, uranium, etc.) and water use for the materials/equipment/manufacturing of new power plants. The presentation is part of panel session on the Water-Energy Nexus at the World Energy Engineering Congress

  1. Influence of Phenylalanine on Carotenoid Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, L.; Ni, X.; Luo, X.

    2015-01-01

    The carotenoids lutein and β-carotene form, in 1:1 ethanol-water mixtures H-aggregates, of different strengths. The effects of phenylalanine on these aggregates were recorded by UV-Vis absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and Raman spectra. The H-aggregate of lutein was characterized by a large 78 nm blue shift in the absorption spectra, confirming the strong coupling between hydroxyl groups of adjacent molecules. The 15 nm blue shift in the β-carotene mixture also indicates that it was assembled by weak coupling between polyenes. After adding phenylalanine, the reducing absorption strength of the aggregates of lutein and reappearance of vibrational substructure indicate that the hydroxyl and amino groups of phenylalanine may coordinate to lutein and disaggregate the H-aggregates. However, phenylalanine had no effect on aggregates of β-carotene. The Raman spectra show three bands of carotenoids whose intensities decreased with increasing phenylalanine concentration. The frequency of ν1 corresponding to the length of the conjugated region was more sensitive to the solution of lutein. This coordination of phenylalanine to lutein could increase the length of the conjugated region. In addition, phenylalanine significantly affected the excited electronic states of carotenoids, which were crucial in the energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophyll a in vivo.

  2. Technology meets aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Swan, C.

    2007-07-01

    New technology carried out at Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts on synthetic lightweight aggregate has created material from various qualities of fly ash from coal-fired power plants for use in different engineered applications. In pilot scale manufacturing tests an 'SLA' containing 80% fly ash and 20% mixed plastic waste from packaging was produced by 'dry blending' mixed plastic with high carbon fly ash. A trial run was completed to produce concrete masonry unit (CMU) blocks at a full-scale facility. It has been shown that SLA can be used as a partial substitution of a traditional stone aggregate in hot asphalt mix. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  3. Role of Storage and Demand Response, Greening the Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of a Greening the Grid toolkit, examines storage and demand response as means to match renewable energy supply with demand.

  4. Incentive-compatible demand-side management for smart grids based on review strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jie; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2015-12-01

    Demand-side load management is able to significantly improve the energy efficiency of smart grids. Since the electricity production cost depends on the aggregate energy usage of multiple consumers, an important incentive problem emerges: self-interested consumers want to increase their own utilities by consuming more than the socially optimal amount of energy during peak hours since the increased cost is shared among the entire set of consumers. To incentivize self-interested consumers to take the socially optimal scheduling actions, we design a new class of protocols based on review strategies. These strategies work as follows: first, a review stage takes place in which a statistical test is performed based on the daily prices of the previous billing cycle to determine whether or not the other consumers schedule their electricity loads in a socially optimal way. If the test fails, the consumers trigger a punishment phase in which, for a certain time, they adjust their energy scheduling in such a way that everybody in the consumer set is punished due to an increased price. Using a carefully designed protocol based on such review strategies, consumers then have incentives to take the socially optimal load scheduling to avoid entering this punishment phase. We rigorously characterize the impact of deploying protocols based on review strategies on the system's as well as the users' performance and determine the optimal design (optimal billing cycle, punishment length, etc.) for various smart grid deployment scenarios. Even though this paper considers a simplified smart grid model, our analysis provides important and useful insights for designing incentive-compatible demand-side management schemes based on aggregate energy usage information in a variety of practical scenarios.

  5. Massachusetts Study of Teacher Supply and Demand: Trends and Projections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Jesse; Berg-Jacobson, Alex; Atchison, Drew; Lee, Katelyn; Vontsolos, Emily

    2015-01-01

    In April 2015, the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (ESE) commissioned American Institutes for Research (AIR) to develop a comprehensive set of 10-year projections of teacher supply and demand in order to inform planning for future workforce needs. This included state-level projections both in the aggregate, as well…

  6. Automated Demand Response Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Lisa; Song, Katherine; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee

    2008-11-19

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process which, together with water treatment, comprises about three percent of U.S. annual energy use. Yet, since wastewater treatment facilities are often peripheral to major electricity-using industries, they are frequently an overlooked area for automated demand response opportunities. Demand response is a set of actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies or congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, and/or market conditions occur that raise electric supply costs. Demand response programs are designed to improve the reliability of the electric grid and to lower the use of electricity during peak times to reduce the total system costs. Open automated demand response is a set of continuous, open communication signals and systems provided over the Internet to allow facilities to automate their demand response activities without the need for manual actions. Automated demand response strategies can be implemented as an enhanced use of upgraded equipment and facility control strategies installed as energy efficiency measures. Conversely, installation of controls to support automated demand response may result in improved energy efficiency through real-time access to operational data. This paper argues that the implementation of energy efficiency opportunities in wastewater treatment facilities creates a base for achieving successful demand reductions. This paper characterizes energy use and the state of demand response readiness in wastewater treatment facilities and outlines automated demand response opportunities.

  7. From Aggregate Availability to Sustainability in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, S. M.; Parrish, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    California leads the nation in the production of sand and gravel, and ranks second behind Texas in the production of portland cement. Prior to 1960, the California Geological Survey (CGS, formerly the Division of Mines and Geology) and the State Mining and Geology Board (SMGB, formerly State Mining Board) placed an emphasis "in obtaining and providing information of benefit to the State's mineral industry". By the late 1960s, the Division initiated activities in the area of geologic hazards, and also expressed concern over the loss of aggregate resources via urbanization, which were among the state's most valuable mineral resource. Under the California Surface Mining and Reclamation Act of 1975 (SMARA), the State Geologist classifies mineral resources solely on geologic factors, and without regard to existing land use and land ownership. Following classification, the SMGB may consider "designating" such lands should the classified area contain mineral resources of regional or statewide economic significance and that may be needed to meet future demands. In 1979, the classification of aggregate resources in the three-county area of Los Angeles, Orange, and Ventura, was completed, with designation of such resources in Los Angeles County in 1981. Maps and descriptions of the designated mineral lands were placed in the California Public Resources Code and officially transmitted to those county and city governments having permitting authority over the use of those lands. In 1999, the SMGB in concert with CGS implemented the SMARA Regional Synthesis Map series, with the first (and last) of the series covering the Los Angeles Basin. This map was very useful for regional planners and the general citizenry since it provided a broader perspective not readily apparent in the smaller scale Production-Consumption (P-C) regional maps. CGS's statewide Aggregate Availability Map, commonly referred to as Map Sheet 52, was developed in 2002 and updated in 2006. The purpose of Map 52

  8. Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

    2006-06-20

    This paper describes strategies that can be used in commercial buildings to temporarily reduce electric load in response to electric grid emergencies in which supplies are limited or in response to high prices that would be incurred if these strategies were not employed. The demand response strategies discussed herein are based on the results of three years of automated demand response field tests in which 28 commercial facilities with an occupied area totaling over 11 million ft{sup 2} were tested. Although the demand response events in the field tests were initiated remotely and performed automatically, the strategies used could also be initiated by on-site building operators and performed manually, if desired. While energy efficiency measures can be used during normal building operations, demand response measures are transient; they are employed to produce a temporary reduction in demand. Demand response strategies achieve reductions in electric demand by temporarily reducing the level of service in facilities. Heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting are the systems most commonly adjusted for demand response in commercial buildings. The goal of demand response strategies is to meet the electric shed savings targets while minimizing any negative impacts on the occupants of the buildings or the processes that they perform. Occupant complaints were minimal in the field tests. In some cases, ''reductions'' in service level actually improved occupant comfort or productivity. In other cases, permanent improvements in efficiency were discovered through the planning and implementation of ''temporary'' demand response strategies. The DR strategies that are available to a given facility are based on factors such as the type of HVAC, lighting and energy management and control systems (EMCS) installed at the site.

  9. Metaconcrete: Engineered aggregates for enhanced dynamic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J.

    This work presents the development and investigation of a new type of concrete for the attenuation of waves induced by dynamic excitation. Recent progress in the field of metamaterials science has led to a range of novel composites which display unusual properties when interacting with electromagnetic, acoustic, and elastic waves. A new structural metamaterial with enhanced properties for dynamic loading applications is presented, which is named metaconcrete. In this new composite material the standard stone and gravel aggregates of regular concrete are replaced with spherical engineered inclusions. Each metaconcrete aggregate has a layered structure, consisting of a heavy core and a thin compliant outer coating. This structure allows for resonance at or near the eigenfrequencies of the inclusions, and the aggregates can be tuned so that resonant oscillations will be activated by particular frequencies of an applied dynamic loading. The activation of resonance within the aggregates causes the overall system to exhibit negative effective mass, which leads to attenuation of the applied wave motion. To investigate the behavior of metaconcrete slabs under a variety of different loading conditions a finite element slab model containing a periodic array of aggregates is utilized. The frequency dependent nature of metaconcrete is investigated by considering the transmission of wave energy through a slab, which indicates the presence of large attenuation bands near the resonant frequencies of the aggregates. Applying a blast wave loading to both an elastic slab and a slab model that incorporates the fracture characteristics of the mortar matrix reveals that a significant portion of the supplied energy can be absorbed by aggregates which are activated by the chosen blast wave profile. The transfer of energy from the mortar matrix to the metaconcrete aggregates leads to a significant reduction in the maximum longitudinal stress, greatly improving the ability of the material

  10. Aggregates, broccoli and cauliflower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.

    1989-09-01

    Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type aggregates. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.

  11. A Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response Building Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Auslander, David; Culler, David; Wright, Paul; Lu, Yan; Piette, Mary

    2013-03-31

    during the study period was 1175 kW. Several new tools facilitated this work, such as the Smart Energy Box, the distributed load controller or Energy Information Gateway, the web-­based DR controller (dubbed the Central Load-­Shed Coordinator or CLSC), and the Demand Response Capacity Assessment & Operation Assistance Tool (DRCAOT). In addition, an innovative data aggregator called sMAP (simple Measurement and Actuation Profile) allowed data from different sources collected in a compact form and facilitated detailed analysis of the building systems operation. A smart phone application (RAP or Rapid Audit Protocol) facilitated an inventory of the building’s plug loads. Carbon dioxide sensors located in conference rooms and classrooms allowed demand controlled ventilation. The extensive submetering and nimble access to this data provided great insight into the details of the building operation as well as quick diagnostics and analyses of tests. For example, students discovered a short-­cycling chiller, a stuck damper, and a leaking cooling coil in the first field tests. For our final field tests, we were able to see how each zone was affected by the DR strategies (e.g., the offices on the 7th floor grew very warm quickly) and fine-­tune the strategies accordingly.

  12. Asphalt-Aggregate Interactions in Hot Recycling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    showed that recycled systems resisted the action of water better than virgin systems. Bonding energy measurements indicated that asphalt-aggregate mixtures...Mexico Powders and Granular Materials Laboratory for surface area/porosity measurements and discussion of results John Husler and Les Mcfadden at the...FORMUJLA MIXTURE RESULTS.................. 70 22 F VALUES DERIVED FROM THE TWO-WAY ANOVA................. 79 23 BONDING ENERGY MEASUREMENTS FOR - #16 + #50

  13. APEC's greener energy outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isa, A. M.; Samuelson, R. D.

    2013-06-01

    The APEC member economies combined accounts for more than 50% of the world's GDP and consume almost 60% of the world's energy. Under the 2011 Honolulu Declaration, APEC Leaders have set an aspirational goal to reduce APEC's aggregate energy intensity by 45 percent by 2035, compared to 2005 levels. This article summarises the results from an APEC-wide study on APEC energy demand and supply outlook from 2010 to 2035. Our business-as-usual projections show that by 2035, APEC energy demand will have increased by 40% of 2010 levels. We also found that historical trends for declining energy intensity will continue and that APEC will likely achieve its aspirational intensity reduction goal. However, our results also suggest that CO2 emissions will continue to rise and energy security will become less assured. Recognizing these vulnerabilities, APEC has already initiated a broad range of activities to achieve its 'green growth' objectives. While these have been fairly successful in guiding APEC economies towards a path of more sustainable development, these efforts will need to be intensified further to avoid serious environmental degradation.

  14. Travel Demand Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank; Garrow, Dr. Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the principal types of both passenger and freight demand models in use today, providing a brief history of model development supported by references to a number of popular texts on the subject, and directing the reader to papers covering some of the more recent technical developments in the area. Over the past half century a variety of methods have been used to estimate and forecast travel demands, drawing concepts from economic/utility maximization theory, transportation system optimization and spatial interaction theory, using and often combining solution techniques as varied as Box-Jenkins methods, non-linear multivariate regression, non-linear mathematical programming, and agent-based microsimulation.

  15. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations.

  16. Forecasting Pell Program Applications Using Structural Aggregate Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavin, Edward S.

    1995-01-01

    Demand for Pell Grant financial aid has become difficult to predict when using the current microsimulation model. This paper proposes an alternative model that uses aggregate data (based on individuals' microlevel decisions and macrodata on family incomes, college costs, and opportunity wages) and avoids some limitations of simple linear models.…

  17. Conformational stability as a design target to control protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Joseph A; O'Brien, Christopher J; Tiller, Kathryn; Tamargo, Erin; Robinson, Anne Skaja; Roberts, Christopher J; Fernandez, Erik J

    2014-05-01

    Non-native protein aggregation is a prevalent problem occurring in many biotechnological manufacturing processes and can compromise the biological activity of the target molecule or induce an undesired immune response. Additionally, some non-native aggregation mechanisms lead to amyloid fibril formation, which can be associated with debilitating diseases. For natively folded proteins, partial or complete unfolding is often required to populate aggregation-prone conformational states, and therefore one proposed strategy to mitigate aggregation is to increase the free energy for unfolding (ΔGunf) prior to aggregation. A computational design approach was tested using human γD crystallin (γD-crys) as a model multi-domain protein. Two mutational strategies were tested for their ability to reduce/increase aggregation rates by increasing/decreasing ΔGunf: stabilizing the less stable domain and stabilizing the domain-domain interface. The computational protein design algorithm, RosettaDesign, was implemented to identify point variants. The results showed that although the predicted free energies were only weakly correlated with the experimental ΔGunf values, increased/decreased aggregation rates for γD-crys correlated reasonably well with decreases/increases in experimental ΔGunf, illustrating improved conformational stability as a possible design target to mitigate aggregation. However, the results also illustrate that conformational stability is not the sole design factor controlling aggregation rates of natively folded proteins.

  18. Energy manager design for microgrids

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01

    On-site energy production, known as distributed energy resources (DER), offers consumers many benefits, such as bill savings and predictability, improved system efficiency, improved reliability, control over power quality, and in many cases, greener electricity. Additionally, DER systems can benefit electric utilities by reducing congestion on the grid, reducing the need for new generation and transmission capacity, and offering ancillary services such as voltage support and emergency demand response. Local aggregations of distributed energy resources (DER) that may include active control of on-site end-use energy devices can be called microgrids. Microgrids require control to ensure safe operation and to make dispatch decisions that achieve system objectives such as cost minimization, reliability, efficiency and emissions requirements, while abiding by system constraints and regulatory rules. This control is performed by an energy manager (EM). Preferably, an EM will achieve operation reasonably close to the attainable optimum, it will do this by means robust to deviations from expected conditions, and it will not itself incur insupportable capital or operation and maintenance costs. Also, microgrids can include supervision over end-uses, such as curtailing or rescheduling certain loads. By viewing a unified microgrid as a system of supply and demand, rather than simply a system of on-site generation devices, the benefits of integrated supply and demand control can be exploited, such as economic savings and improved system energy efficiency.

  19. Demanding Divestment from Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Bowing to student demands to "stop supporting genocide," the University of California regents voted earlier this year to divest millions of dollars from companies working in the war-torn African nation of Sudan, the first major public university in the nation to take such action. Since student protests on the subject began at Harvard…

  20. Demand, Growth, and Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The paradigm shift to engaged and collaborative learning delivered via distance education technologies has been led by practitioners in adult and continuing education. Online and blended courses are experiencing increased demand and continued growth at all levels of higher education, professional development, and K-12 education. Adult and…