Science.gov

Sample records for aggregate fair market

  1. Does market competition explain fairness?

    PubMed

    Descioli, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The target article by Baumard et al. uses their previous model of bargaining with outside options to explain fairness and other features of human sociality. This theory implies that fairness judgments are determined by supply and demand but humans often perceive prices (divisions of surplus) in competitive markets to be unfair.

  2. 75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan... forms to describe their intent for marketing to ensure that they meet the Fair Housing...

  3. 48 CFR 19.807 - Estimating the fair market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Estimating the fair market...) Program) 19.807 Estimating the fair market price. (a) The contracting officer shall estimate the fair market price of the work to be performed by the 8(a) contractor. (b) In estimating the fair market...

  4. 48 CFR 19.807 - Estimating the fair market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Estimating the fair market...) Program) 19.807 Estimating the fair market price. (a) The contracting officer shall estimate the fair market price of the work to be performed by the 8(a) contractor. (b) In estimating the fair market...

  5. 75 FR 61842 - Fair Credit Reporting Affiliate Marketing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Fair Credit Reporting Affiliate Marketing Regulations AGENCY: Office of... concerning the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Fair Credit Reporting Affiliate Marketing... person from using certain information received from an affiliate to make a solicitation for...

  6. 75 FR 77048 - Fair Credit Reporting Affiliate Marketing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Fair Credit Reporting Affiliate Marketing Regulations AGENCY: Office of... on the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Fair Credit Reporting Affiliate Marketing... person from using certain information received from an affiliate to make a solicitation for...

  7. 41 CFR 51-2.7 - Fair market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Fair market price. 51-2.7... WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.7 Fair market price. (a) The Committee is responsible for determining fair market prices, and changes thereto, for commodities and services on the Procurement List....

  8. 25 CFR 700.119 - Establishment of fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Establishment of fair market value. 700.119 Section 700... PROCEDURES Acquisition and Disposal of Habitations and/or Improvements § 700.119 Establishment of fair market value. (a) General. The Commission shall establish the amount of fair market value to be offered to...

  9. 25 CFR 700.61 - Fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair market value. 700.61 Section 700.61 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.61 Fair market value. Fair market value shall mean the...

  10. 23 CFR 710.707 - Fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fair market value. 710.707 Section 710.707 Highways... REAL ESTATE Concession Agreements § 710.707 Fair market value. A highway agency shall receive fair market value for any concession agreement involving a federally funded highway....

  11. 25 CFR 700.61 - Fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fair market value. 700.61 Section 700.61 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.61 Fair market value. Fair market value shall mean the...

  12. 25 CFR 700.119 - Establishment of fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of fair market value. 700.119 Section 700... PROCEDURES Acquisition and Disposal of Habitations and/or Improvements § 700.119 Establishment of fair market value. (a) General. The Commission shall establish the amount of fair market value to be offered to...

  13. 41 CFR 51-2.7 - Fair market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fair market price. 51-2.7... WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.7 Fair market price. (a) The Committee is responsible for determining fair market prices, and changes thereto, for commodities and services on the Procurement List....

  14. 24 CFR 200.625 - Affirmative fair housing marketing plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Affirmative fair housing marketing... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Regulations § 200.625 Affirmative fair housing marketing plan. Each applicant for participation in FHA...

  15. 23 CFR 710.709 - Determination of fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Concession Agreements § 710.709 Determination of fair market value. (a) Fair market value may be determined either on a best value basis, highest net present value of the... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of fair market value. 710.709 Section...

  16. 23 CFR 710.709 - Determination of fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Concession Agreements § 710.709 Determination of fair market value. (a) Fair market value may be determined either on a best value basis, highest net present value of the... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of fair market value. 710.709 Section...

  17. 23 CFR 710.709 - Determination of fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Concession Agreements § 710.709 Determination of fair market value. (a) Fair market value may be determined either on a best value basis, highest net present value of the... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of fair market value. 710.709 Section...

  18. 23 CFR 710.709 - Determination of fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Concession Agreements § 710.709 Determination of fair market value. (a) Fair market value may be determined either on a best value basis, highest net present value of the... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of fair market value. 710.709 Section...

  19. 23 CFR 710.709 - Determination of fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Concession Agreements § 710.709 Determination of fair market value. (a) Fair market value may be determined either on a best value basis, highest net present value of the... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of fair market value. 710.709 Section...

  20. 7 CFR 760.5 - Fair market value of milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fair market value of milk. 760.5 Section 760.5... Farmers for Milk § 760.5 Fair market value of milk. (a) The county committee shall determine the fair... the case of an affected farmer who markets his whole milk through a milk handler, by multiplying...

  1. 7 CFR 760.5 - Fair market value of milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fair market value of milk. 760.5 Section 760.5... Farmers for Milk § 760.5 Fair market value of milk. (a) The county committee shall determine the fair... the case of an affected farmer who markets his whole milk through a milk handler, by multiplying...

  2. 7 CFR 760.5 - Fair market value of milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fair market value of milk. 760.5 Section 760.5... Farmers for Milk § 760.5 Fair market value of milk. (a) The county committee shall determine the fair... the case of an affected farmer who markets his whole milk through a milk handler, by multiplying...

  3. 25 CFR 700.61 - Fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fair market value. 700.61 Section 700.61 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.61 Fair market value. Fair market value shall mean the...

  4. 25 CFR 700.61 - Fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fair market value. 700.61 Section 700.61 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.61 Fair market value. Fair market value shall mean the...

  5. 7 CFR 3565.353 - Affirmative fair housing marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affirmative fair housing marketing. 3565.353 Section... fair housing marketing. As a condition of the guarantee, the lender must ensure that the lender and borrower are in compliance with the approved Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. This plan must...

  6. 23 CFR 710.707 - Fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REAL ESTATE Concession Agreements § 710.707 Fair market value. A highway agency shall receive fair market value for any concession agreement involving a federally funded highway. ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair market value. 710.707 Section 710.707...

  7. 24 CFR 200.625 - Affirmative fair housing marketing plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Regulations § 200.625 Affirmative fair housing marketing plan. Each applicant for participation in FHA housing... information indicating his affirmative fair housing marketing plan to comply with the requirements set forth... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affirmative fair housing...

  8. 36 CFR 223.60 - Determining fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., through issuance of agency directives (36 CFR 200.4). Valid methods to determine fair market value include... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.60 Determining fair market value. The objective of Forest Service timber appraisals is to determine fair...

  9. 7 CFR 3560.626 - Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. 3560.626 Section 3560.626 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... § 3560.626 Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. On-farm labor housing must meet the requirements...

  10. 50 CFR 34.7 - Fair market value appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fair market value appraisals. 34.7 Section 34.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.7 Fair market...

  11. 50 CFR 34.7 - Fair market value appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fair market value appraisals. 34.7 Section 34.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.7 Fair market...

  12. 50 CFR 34.7 - Fair market value appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fair market value appraisals. 34.7 Section 34.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.7 Fair market...

  13. 50 CFR 34.7 - Fair market value appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair market value appraisals. 34.7 Section 34.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.7 Fair market...

  14. 7 CFR 3560.626 - Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. 3560.626 Section 3560.626 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... § 3560.626 Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. On-farm labor housing must meet the requirements...

  15. 36 CFR 223.60 - Determining fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (36 CFR 200.4). Valid methods to determine fair market value include, but are not limited to... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.60 Determining fair market value. The...

  16. 7 CFR 3560.626 - Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. 3560.626 Section 3560.626 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.626 Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing...

  17. Political risk in fair market value estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Gruy, H.J.; Hartsock, J.H.

    1996-09-01

    Political risk arises from unstable governments, commercial establishments and infrastructure as well as labor unrest. All these factors vary from country to country and from time to time. Banks and insurance companies quantify these risks, but they are reluctant to divulge their opinions for fear of alienating possible customers that have been assigned a high risk. An investment in a fixed property such as an oil and gas lease, concession or other mineral interest is subject to political risk. No one will deny that money to be received several years in the future has a greater value today in a country with a stable government, stable tax regime, a sound economy and reliable labor force than in a Third World country where a revolution is brewing. Even in stable countries, the risk of tax law changes, exorbitant environmental production regulations and cleanup costs may vary. How do these factors affect fair market value and how are these calculations made? An important consideration discussed in this paper is the treatment of capital investments.

  18. Fair Trade: Social Regulation in Global Food Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raynolds, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the theoretical and empirical parameters of social regulation in contemporary global food markets, focusing on the rapidly expanding Fair Trade initiative. Fair Trade seeks to transform North/South relations by fostering ethical consumption, producer empowerment, and certified commodity sales. This initiative joins an array…

  19. 24 CFR 888.115 - Fair market rents for existing housing: Manner of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fair market rents for existing... SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM-FAIR MARKET RENTS AND CONTRACT RENT ANNUAL ADJUSTMENT FACTORS Fair Market Rents § 888.115 Fair market...

  20. 24 CFR 888.111 - Fair market rents for existing housing: Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair market rents for existing... HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM-FAIR MARKET RENTS AND CONTRACT RENT ANNUAL ADJUSTMENT FACTORS Fair Market Rents § 888.111 Fair market rents...

  1. 24 CFR 888.111 - Fair market rents for existing housing: Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fair market rents for existing... HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM-FAIR MARKET RENTS AND CONTRACT RENT ANNUAL ADJUSTMENT FACTORS Fair Market Rents § 888.111 Fair market rents...

  2. 24 CFR 888.115 - Fair market rents for existing housing: Manner of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair market rents for existing... SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM-FAIR MARKET RENTS AND CONTRACT RENT ANNUAL ADJUSTMENT FACTORS Fair Market Rents § 888.115 Fair market...

  3. 7 CFR 760.5 - Fair market value of milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fair market value of milk. 760.5 Section 760.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Indemnity Payment Program Payments to...

  4. 7 CFR 760.5 - Fair market value of milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fair market value of milk. 760.5 Section 760.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Indemnity Payment Program Payments to...

  5. 7 CFR 3560.626 - Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. 3560.626 Section 3560.626 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor...

  6. 7 CFR 3560.626 - Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. 3560.626 Section 3560.626 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor...

  7. 7 CFR 3565.353 - Affirmative fair housing marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affirmative fair housing marketing. 3565.353 Section 3565.353 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.353...

  8. 7 CFR 3565.353 - Affirmative fair housing marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affirmative fair housing marketing. 3565.353 Section 3565.353 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.353...

  9. 7 CFR 3565.353 - Affirmative fair housing marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affirmative fair housing marketing. 3565.353 Section 3565.353 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.353...

  10. 7 CFR 3565.353 - Affirmative fair housing marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affirmative fair housing marketing. 3565.353 Section 3565.353 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.353...

  11. The evolution of fairness in a biological market.

    PubMed

    André, Jean-Baptiste; Baumard, Nicolas

    2011-05-01

    Human beings universally express a concern for the fairness of social interactions, and it remains an open question that which ultimate factors led to the evolution of this preference. Here, we present a model accounting for the evolution of fairness on the basis of individual selection alone. We consider a simple social interaction based on the Dictator Game. Two individuals, a "proposer" and a "responder," have an opportunity to split a resource. When they have no choice but to interact together, the most powerful (here the proposer) reaps all the profits and fairness cannot evolve. Partner choice is the key lever to overcome this difficulty. Rather than just two individuals, we consider a population composed of two classes of individuals (either proposers or responders), and we allow the responders to choose their partner. In such a "biological market," fairness evolves as an "equilibrium price," resulting from an ecological equivalent of the law of supply and demand. If a class is disadvantaged by the chosen resource partition (i.e., if it frequently receives less than half of the resource), it is outcompeted by the other one, and automatically becomes rarer. This rarity grants it an advantage on the market, which yields in turn to the evolution of a more favorable partition. Splitting the resource into two identical halves, or more generally in a way that equalizes the payoffs of the two classes, is then the only evolutionarily stable outcome. Beyond human fairness, this mechanism also opens up new ways of explaining the distribution of benefits in many mutualistic interactions.

  12. 48 CFR 1252.228-71 - Fair market value of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....228-71 Fair market value of aircraft. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1228.306-70(a) and (c), insert the following clause: Fair Market Value of Aircraft (OCT 1994) For purposes of the clause entitled “Loss of or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair market value...

  13. 48 CFR 1352.228-74 - Fair market value of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Fair market value of aircraft. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1328.310-70(e) and 48 CFR 1328.310-70(g) insert the following in all applicable contracts for leased aircraft: Fair Market Value of Aircraft (APR 2010... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair market value...

  14. 48 CFR 1352.228-74 - Fair market value of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Fair market value of aircraft. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1328.310-70(e) and 48 CFR 1328.310-70(g) insert the following in all applicable contracts for leased aircraft: Fair Market Value of Aircraft (APR 2010... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fair market value...

  15. 43 CFR 3422.1 - Fair market value and maximum economic recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fair market value and maximum economic... Lease Sales § 3422.1 Fair market value and maximum economic recovery. (a) Not less than 30 days prior to the publication of a notice of sale, the Secretary shall solicit public comments on fair market...

  16. 48 CFR 1252.228-71 - Fair market value of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....228-71 Fair market value of aircraft. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1228.306-70(a) and (c), insert the following clause: Fair Market Value of Aircraft (OCT 1994) For purposes of the clause entitled “Loss of or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fair market value...

  17. 75 FR 33821 - Section 8 Random Digit Dialing Fair Market Rent Surveys

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Section 8 Random Digit Dialing Fair Market Rent Surveys AGENCY: Office of the Chief... provides HUD with a fast, inexpensive way to estimate Section 8 Fair Market Rents (FMRs) in areas not... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Section 8 Random Digit Dialing Fair Market...

  18. 20 CFR 416.1246 - Disposal of resources at less than fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disposal of resources at less than fair... at less than fair market value. (a) General. (1) An individual (or eligible spouse) who gives away or sells a nonexcluded resource for less than fair market value for the purpose of establishing SSI...

  19. 78 FR 19727 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Marketing (AFHM) Plan AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity, HUD.... Developers of new projects describe their intent (marketing efforts) to assure that they meet the Fair.... This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Affirmative Fair Housing...

  20. 13 CFR 124.511 - How is fair market price determined for an 8(a) contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... take into account prevailing market conditions, commercial prices for similar products or services, or... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How is fair market price... Development Contractual Assistance § 124.511 How is fair market price determined for an 8(a) contract? (a)...

  1. 48 CFR 19.202-6 - Determination of fair market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... market price. 19.202-6 Section 19.202-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 19.202-6 Determination of fair market price. (a) The fair market price shall be the price achieved in accordance with the reasonable...

  2. 48 CFR 19.202-6 - Determination of fair market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... market price. 19.202-6 Section 19.202-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 19.202-6 Determination of fair market price. (a) The fair market price shall be the price achieved in accordance with the reasonable...

  3. 78 FR 38070 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing... Marketing (AFHM) Plan. OMB Approval Number: 2529-0013. Type of Request: Extension of a currently approved collection. Form Number: HUD-935.2A Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan (Multifamily),...

  4. 43 CFR 3141.6-5 - Fair market value for combined hydrocarbon leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fair market value for combined hydrocarbon leases. 3141.6-5 Section 3141.6-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-5 Fair market value for combined...

  5. 43 CFR 3141.6-5 - Fair market value for combined hydrocarbon leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fair market value for combined hydrocarbon leases. 3141.6-5 Section 3141.6-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-5 Fair market value for combined...

  6. 43 CFR 3141.6-5 - Fair market value for combined hydrocarbon leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fair market value for combined hydrocarbon leases. 3141.6-5 Section 3141.6-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-5 Fair market value for combined...

  7. 43 CFR 3141.6-5 - Fair market value for combined hydrocarbon leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fair market value for combined hydrocarbon leases. 3141.6-5 Section 3141.6-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-5 Fair market value for combined...

  8. 48 CFR 3052.228-92 - Fair market value of aircraft (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.228-92 Fair market value of aircraft (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3028.306-90(a) and (c), insert the following... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fair market value...

  9. 36 CFR 18.5 - May property be leased without receiving fair market value rent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the property or terms of the lease that limit the value and/or the highest and best use of the... without receiving fair market value rent? 18.5 Section 18.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... leased without receiving fair market value rent? Property may be leased under this part only if the...

  10. 36 CFR 18.5 - May property be leased without receiving fair market value rent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the property or terms of the lease that limit the value and/or the highest and best use of the... without receiving fair market value rent? 18.5 Section 18.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... leased without receiving fair market value rent? Property may be leased under this part only if the...

  11. 36 CFR 18.5 - May property be leased without receiving fair market value rent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the property or terms of the lease that limit the value and/or the highest and best use of the... without receiving fair market value rent? 18.5 Section 18.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... leased without receiving fair market value rent? Property may be leased under this part only if the...

  12. 48 CFR 3052.228-92 - Fair market value of aircraft (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.228-92 Fair market value of aircraft (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3028.306-90(a) and (c), insert the following... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair market value...

  13. 48 CFR 1352.228-74 - Fair market value of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Fair market value of aircraft. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1328.310-70(e) and 48 CFR 1328.310-70(g) insert... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fair market value of aircraft. 1352.228-74 Section 1352.228-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 48 CFR 1252.228-71 - Fair market value of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....228-71 Fair market value of aircraft. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1228.306-70(a) and (c), insert the following clause: Fair Market Value of Aircraft (OCT 1994) For purposes of the clause entitled “Loss of or... aircraft. 1252.228-71 Section 1252.228-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  15. 25 CFR 700.121 - Statement of the basis for the determination of fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statement of the basis for the determination of fair... Statement of the basis for the determination of fair market value. At the time of the initiation of... the initial written purchase offer, a written statement of the basis for the determination of...

  16. 25 CFR 700.121 - Statement of the basis for the determination of fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Statement of the basis for the determination of fair... Statement of the basis for the determination of fair market value. At the time of the initiation of... the initial written purchase offer, a written statement of the basis for the determination of...

  17. 50 CFR 34.7 - Fair market value appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... appraisal techniques will involve a market data comparison of these areas with similar properties which have... market value. The only structures that will be included in the appraisal are those that were present...

  18. 43 CFR 2720.3 - Action upon determination of the fair market value of the mineral interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Action upon determination of the fair... Interests § 2720.3 Action upon determination of the fair market value of the mineral interests. (a) Upon the... interests have been met by the applicant and all actions necessary to determine the fair market value of...

  19. 20 CFR 416.1246 - Disposal of resources at less than fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... value. (c) Compensation. The compensation for a resource includes all money, real or personal property... market value. 416.1246 Section 416.1246 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... at less than fair market value. (a) General. (1) An individual (or eligible spouse) who gives away...

  20. Fairness Is an Emergent Self-Organized Property of the Free Market for Labor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatasubramanian, Venkat

    2010-06-01

    The excessive compensation packages of CEOs of U.S. corporations in recent years have brought to the foreground the issue of fairness in economics. The conventional wisdom is that the free market for labor, which determines the pay packages, cares only about efficiency and not fairness. We present an alternative theory that shows that an ideal free market environment also promotes fairness, as an emergent property resulting from the self-organizing market dynamics. Even though an individual employee may care only about his or her salary and no one else's, the collective actions of all the employees, combined with the profit maximizing actions of all the companies, in a free market environment under budgetary constraints, lead towards a more fair allocation of wages, guided by Adam Smith's invisible hand of self-organization. By exploring deep connections with statistical thermodynamics, we show that entropy is the appropriate measure of fairness in a free market environment which is maximized at equilibrium to yield the lognormal distribution of salaries as the fairest inequality of pay in an organization under ideal conditions.

  1. Markets, religion, community size, and the evolution of fairness and punishment.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Joseph; Ensminger, Jean; McElreath, Richard; Barr, Abigail; Barrett, Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Cardenas, Juan Camilo; Gurven, Michael; Gwako, Edwins; Henrich, Natalie; Lesorogol, Carolyn; Marlowe, Frank; Tracer, David; Ziker, John

    2010-03-19

    Large-scale societies in which strangers regularly engage in mutually beneficial transactions are puzzling. The evolutionary mechanisms associated with kinship and reciprocity, which underpin much of primate sociality, do not readily extend to large unrelated groups. Theory suggests that the evolution of such societies may have required norms and institutions that sustain fairness in ephemeral exchanges. If that is true, then engagement in larger-scale institutions, such as markets and world religions, should be associated with greater fairness, and larger communities should punish unfairness more. Using three behavioral experiments administered across 15 diverse populations, we show that market integration (measured as the percentage of purchased calories) positively covaries with fairness while community size positively covaries with punishment. Participation in a world religion is associated with fairness, although not across all measures. These results suggest that modern prosociality is not solely the product of an innate psychology, but also reflects norms and institutions that have emerged over the course of human history.

  2. Marketing: A Fair Opportunity for Promoting Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2007-01-01

    Some faculty and administrators naively believe that undergraduates come to campus as information literate individuals since these students know how to use computers and the Internet. Yet, as librarians, they know that there is more to IL than surfing search engines, IMing, and word processing. So marketing IL becomes a very important task. This…

  3. 77 FR 69651 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program for Small Area Fair Market Rent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ....html . Federal Register notices also are available electronically from http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr... Market Rents. Please see our Federal Register notice of April 20, 2011 (76 FR 22125) for more information... voucher family reporting in the PIH Information Center (PIC); (5) are not ``troubled'' as determined...

  4. 36 CFR 223.280 - Waiver of fees and/or fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Waiver of fees and/or fair market value. 223.280 Section 223.280 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  5. 36 CFR 223.280 - Waiver of fees and/or fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waiver of fees and/or fair market value. 223.280 Section 223.280 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  6. 36 CFR 223.280 - Waiver of fees and/or fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Waiver of fees and/or fair market value. 223.280 Section 223.280 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  7. 36 CFR 223.280 - Waiver of fees and/or fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Waiver of fees and/or fair market value. 223.280 Section 223.280 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  8. 36 CFR 223.280 - Waiver of fees and/or fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waiver of fees and/or fair market value. 223.280 Section 223.280 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Forest Botanical Products § 223.280 Waiver...

  9. 76 FR 52057 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single Room Occupancy Program; Fiscal Year 2012... of Housing and Urban Development Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program... Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) program, to determine initial renewal rents for some expiring...

  10. 77 FR 46447 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate... each year. The primary uses of FMRs are to determine payment standards for the Housing Choice Voucher... publication on August 19, 2011 (76 FR 52058). This trend factor is based on national gross rent data and...

  11. 75 FR 46958 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate... for the Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) program, to determine initial renewal rents for some expiring... reasonable rent standards. The interim rule published on October 2, 2000 (65 FR 58870), established...

  12. 13 CFR 124.511 - How is fair market price determined for an 8(a) contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How is fair market price determined for an 8(a) contract? 124.511 Section 124.511 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS 8(a)...

  13. 25 CFR 162.551 - How will BIA determine fair market rental for a WSR lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How will BIA determine fair market rental for a WSR lease? 162.551 Section 162.551 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Lease Monetary Compensation Requirements §...

  14. 25 CFR 162.551 - How will BIA determine fair market rental for a WSR lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How will BIA determine fair market rental for a WSR lease? 162.551 Section 162.551 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Lease Monetary Compensation Requirements §...

  15. 43 CFR 3422.1 - Fair market value and maximum economic recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... recovery. 3422.1 Section 3422.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... Lease Sales § 3422.1 Fair market value and maximum economic recovery. (a) Not less than 30 days prior to... (FMV) appraisal and the maximum economic recovery (MER) of the tract or tracts proposed to be...

  16. 43 CFR 3422.1 - Fair market value and maximum economic recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... recovery. 3422.1 Section 3422.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... Lease Sales § 3422.1 Fair market value and maximum economic recovery. (a) Not less than 30 days prior to... (FMV) appraisal and the maximum economic recovery (MER) of the tract or tracts proposed to be...

  17. 43 CFR 3422.1 - Fair market value and maximum economic recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... recovery. 3422.1 Section 3422.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... Lease Sales § 3422.1 Fair market value and maximum economic recovery. (a) Not less than 30 days prior to... (FMV) appraisal and the maximum economic recovery (MER) of the tract or tracts proposed to be...

  18. The treatment of capital in estimating fair market value of oil and gas properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hartsock, J.H.; Gruy, H.J.

    1995-12-31

    Fair market value has its origin in law and is defined as that price that a willing buyer will pay and a willing seller will sell at some point in time, with neither the buyer nor the seller under any compulsion to buy or sell, aid both having equal and reasonable knowledge of the facts. In reality, a perfect sale probably never occurs in which a willing buyer and a willing seller are under no compulsion to buy or sell and both are equally familiar with all the facts. Nonetheless, it is necessary to prepare fair market value estimates for oil and gas properties for the purpose of gift taxes, estate taxes, condemnation cases, mergers and divorce settlements. For the estimation of the fair market value of oil and gas properties, there are basically two approaches; namely, the income approach and the market data approach. The income approach requires the estimation of reserves, identification of their categories (proved, probable and possible), a detailed cash flow projection and the proper application of risk factors. The market data approach utilizes the comparable sales of properties The comparable sales approach is preferred, but for producing oil and gas properties it is difficult to identify sales comparable in net reserves, product prices, location, operating expenses, operator expertise, etc. Consequently, for proved, probable and possible reserves, the income approach has been accepted by the courts and is more generally applied. For nonproducing mineral interests the comparable sales approach is applied using multiples of lease bonuses in the area.

  19. Why managers should care about fairness: the effects of aggregate justice perceptions on organizational outcomes.

    PubMed

    Simons, Tony; Roberson, Quinetta

    2003-06-01

    This work examines the aggregation of justice perceptions to the departmental level and the business-unit level, the impact of these aggregate perceptions on business-unit-level outcomes, and the usefulness of the distinction between procedural and interpersonal justice at different levels of analysis. Latent variables analyses of individual-level and department-level data from 4,539 employees in 783 departments at 97 hotel properties showed that the 2 justice types exercise unique paths of impact on employees' organizational commitment and thus on turnover intentions and discretionary service behavior. Business-unit-level analyses further demonstrate paths of association between aggregate justice perceptions, aggregate commitment levels, and the business-unit-level outcomes of employee turnover rates and customer satisfaction ratings. PMID:12814293

  20. Outpatient imaging center valuations: do you need a fair-market value analysis?

    PubMed

    Koonsman, G S

    2001-01-01

    Typically, outpatient diagnostic imaging centers are formed as partnerships between radiologists, radiologists and hospitals, and/or radiologists and diagnostic imaging center management companies. As a result of these partnership structures, the question of equity valuation frequently arises. It is not only important to understand when an independent valuation would be required, but also what "type" of valuation needs to be performed. The type of valuation may vary based upon the use of the valuation. In partnerships that involve hospitals and physicians, the federal anti-kickback statutes (fraud and abuse laws) require that all transactions between referring physicians and hospitals be consummated at fair-market value. In addition, tax-exempt hospitals that enter into partnerships with physicians are required to enter into those transactions at fair-market value or risk losing their tax-exempt status. Fair-market value is also typically the standard of value that all partnerships strive to conduct equity transactions with shareholders. Qualifications required by those who perform independent fair-market value opinions include: Proper business valuation training and focus on valuations as a primary business Focus on the healthcare industry and specifically on the valuation of diagnostic imaging centers In order to perform a reasonable business valuation analysis, the appraiser must have access to a significant amount of financial, operational and legal information. The analyst must be able to understand the history of the imaging center as well as the projected future of the center. Ultimately, a valuation is a measurement of the estimated future cash flows of the center--risk adjusted--in order to quantify the present value of those cash flows. PMID:11680253

  1. Safe space. How you can define fair market value for medical-office building lease agreements with hospitals.

    PubMed

    Murray, Chuck

    2007-04-01

    When entering into office-space lease agreements with hospitals, physician practice administrators need to pay close attention to the federal antikick-back statute and the Stark law. Compliance with these regulations calls for adherence to fair market value and commercial reasonableness--blurry terms open to interpretation. This article provides you with a framework for defining fair market value and commercial reasonableness in regard to real-estate transactions with hospitals.

  2. A brief review of the construction aggregates market

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willett, Jason Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey defines the construction aggregates industry as those companies that mine and process crushed stone and/or construction sand and gravel. Aggregates have been used from the earliest times of our civilization for a variety of purposes - construction being the major use. As construction aggregates, crushed stone and construction sand and gravel are the basic raw materials used to build the foundation for modern society. The widespread use of construction aggregates is the result of their general availability throughout the country and around the world along with their relatively low cost. Although construction aggregates have a low unit value, their widespread use makes them major contributors to, and indicators of, the economic well-being of the nation.

  3. Teaching Keynes's Principle of Effective Demand Using the Aggregate Labor Market Diagram.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalziel, Paul; Lavoie, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Suggests a method to teach John Keynes's principle of effective demand using a standard aggregate labor market diagram familiar to students taking advanced undergraduate macroeconomics courses. States the analysis incorporates Michal Kalecki's version to show Keynesian unemployment as a point on the aggregate labor demand curve inside the…

  4. 76 FR 35905 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Section 8 Fair Market Rent Surveys

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Section 8 Fair Market... Development and Research, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street, SW., Room 8234..., Office of Policy Development and Research, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th...

  5. 76 FR 33333 - Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX Metropolitan Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX...-8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background On August 4, 2010 (75 FR 46958), HUD published for... FR 27808) Federal Register notice. Specifically, HUD noted that the methodology for calculating...

  6. 75 FR 12252 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single Room Occupancy Program for Fiscal Year 2010; Revised Correction AGENCY: Office of...

  7. 76 FR 60967 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single Room Occupancy Program Fiscal Year 2012...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program... Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) program, to determine initial renewal rents for some expiring...

  8. 77 FR 61157 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single Room Occupancy Program Fiscal Year 2013; Notice... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate... each year. This notice publishes the FMRs for the Housing Choice Voucher, the Moderate...

  9. 41 CFR 102-75.315 - Are appraisers authorized to consider the effect of historic covenants on the fair market value?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... authorized to consider the effect of historic covenants on the fair market value? 102-75.315 Section 102-75... Appraisal § 102-75.315 Are appraisers authorized to consider the effect of historic covenants on the fair market value? Yes, appraisers are authorized to consider the effect of historic covenants on the...

  10. 41 CFR 102-75.315 - Are appraisers authorized to consider the effect of historic covenants on the fair market value?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... authorized to consider the effect of historic covenants on the fair market value? 102-75.315 Section 102-75... Appraisal § 102-75.315 Are appraisers authorized to consider the effect of historic covenants on the fair market value? Yes, appraisers are authorized to consider the effect of historic covenants on the...

  11. 41 CFR 102-75.315 - Are appraisers authorized to consider the effect of historic covenants on the fair market value?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized to consider the effect of historic covenants on the fair market value? 102-75.315 Section 102-75... Appraisal § 102-75.315 Are appraisers authorized to consider the effect of historic covenants on the fair market value? Yes, appraisers are authorized to consider the effect of historic covenants on the...

  12. Migration-driven aggregation behaviors in job markets with direct foreign immigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ruoyan

    2014-09-01

    This Letter introduces a new set of rate equations describing migration-driven aggregation behaviors in job markets with direct foreign immigration. We divide the job market into two groups: native and immigrant. A reversible migration of jobs exists in both groups. The interaction between two groups creates a birth and death rate for the native job market. We find out that regardless of initial conditions or the rates, the total number of cities with either job markets decreases. This indicates a more concentrated job markets for both groups in the future. On the other hand, jobs available for immigrants increase over time but the ones for natives are uncertain. The native job markets can either expand or shrink or remain constant due to combined effects of birth and death rates. Finally, we test our analytical results with the population data of all counties in the US from 2000 to 2011.

  13. 24 CFR 888.113 - Fair market rents for existing housing: Methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... they are to be effective using Consumer Price Index (CPI) data for rents and for utilities or using... size adjustments. (1) For most areas the ratios developed from the most recent decennial Census are... most difficult to house families find units, higher ratios than the actual market ratios may be...

  14. 24 CFR 888.113 - Fair market rents for existing housing: Methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... they are to be effective using Consumer Price Index (CPI) data for rents and for utilities or using... size adjustments. (1) For most areas the ratios developed from the most recent decennial Census are... most difficult to house families find units, higher ratios than the actual market ratios may be...

  15. Public healthcare--welfare, market share or laissez-faire?--a Sentosa Carlsberg skytower view.

    PubMed

    Toh, Han-Chong

    2006-02-01

    How much the Government should provide for its people in sickness and in health, till death do us part, is open to different interpretation in different societies. One of the great paradoxes is that welfare states with high taxation can be globally competitive, innovative, successful market economies, and still provide quality universal healthcare. The Nordic countries, classical welfare states, have achieved top global ranking in economic competitiveness. Denmark's people are the most satisfied with their healthcare in the world, and the world's fourth most responsive healthcare system. This paper examines some of the factors that have made Denmark a successful, open and civil society that provides free-access healthcare to all of its people.

  16. 26 CFR 1.664-4T - Calculation of the fair market value of the remainder interest in a charitable remainder unitrust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... interpolation must be made. The present value of the remainder interest is determined by multiplying the net... its present value determined under paragraph (e) of this section. The fair market value of a remainder... valuation date is before May 1, 2009, is its present value determined under the following...

  17. 26 CFR 1.664-4 - Calculation of the fair market value of the remainder interest in a charitable remainder unitrust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determining present value. For purposes of sections 170, 2055, 2106, and 2522, the fair market value of a remainder interest in a charitable remainder unitrust (as described in § 1.664-3) is its present value determined under paragraph (d) of this section. The present value determined under this section shall...

  18. Contemporaneous aggregation and long-memory property of returns and volatility in the Korean stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sang Hoon; Cheong, Chongcheul; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2010-11-01

    The principal objective of this study is to determine whether the long-memory property is real or a spurious result caused by contemporaneous aggregation. In order to assess the presence of long memory in returns and volatility, two different long-memory detection techniques (modified R/S analysis and the GPH test) were applied to the KOSPI 50 index and its 50 constituent individual stock prices. According to the empirical evidence gleaned from the two long-memory tests, we conclude that there exists significant evidence for the long-memory property in volatility in both the market index and in a majority of individual stocks. These findings indicate that the observed evidence of the long-memory feature in volatility of index series is not spurious, and that we can reject the hypothesis that spurious long-memory evidence in the volatility of index series is the consequence of contemporaneous aggregation. However, this conclusion should be considered cautiously, given that a considerable number of the individual stock volatilities in square returns strongly show a short-memory property, as the level of significance in statistical decisions is lowered to the 1% level.

  19. How to Guide: Aggregate under-served markets into buying pools

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-26

    This activity promotes new opportunities to increase energy security and lower energy costs for under-served markets. It involves market analysis and collaboration with community partners, as well as outreach activities to inform target markets and technical assistance for participants.

  20. 7 CFR 51.2965 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.2965 Section 51.2965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that, from the viewpoint of general appearance, the lot is not...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2965 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.2965 Section 51.2965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2965 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2965 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.2965 Section 51.2965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that, from the viewpoint of general appearance, the lot is not...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1553 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that at least...

  5. 7 CFR 51.2965 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.2965 Section 51.2965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2965 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1553 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that at least...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1870 - Fairly smooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1870 Section 51.1870 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1870 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1910 - Fairly smooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1910 Section 51.1910 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1910 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1870 - Fairly smooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1870 Section 51.1870 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1870 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1870 - Fairly smooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1870 Section 51.1870 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1870 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1910 - Fairly smooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1910 Section 51.1910 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1910 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1910 - Fairly smooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1910 Section 51.1910 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1910 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2965 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.2965 Section 51.2965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2965 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1553 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that at least...

  17. 75 FR 11553 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Market Rents published on August 4, 2009 (74 FR 38716), HUD conducted Random Digit Dialing (RDD) surveys... (74 FR 50552), effective immediately. The FMRs for the two affected areas are revised as follows: FMR... $577 $690 $853 $1,239 $1,498 Ward County, ND $425 $512 $631 $872 $1,035 ] Dated: March 4, 2010...

  18. Fair innings.

    PubMed

    Bognar, Greg

    2015-05-01

    In many societies, the aging of the population is becoming a major problem. This raises difficult issues for ethics and public policy. On what is known as the fair innings view, it is not impermissible to give lower priority to policies that primarily benefit the elderly. Philosophers have tried to justify this view on various grounds. In this article, I look at a consequentialist, a fairness-based, and a contractarian justification. I argue that all of them have implausible implications and fail to correspond to our moral intuitions. I end by outlining a different kind of consequentialist justification that avoids those implications and corresponds better to our considered moral judgments. PMID:24909449

  19. Fair innings.

    PubMed

    Bognar, Greg

    2015-05-01

    In many societies, the aging of the population is becoming a major problem. This raises difficult issues for ethics and public policy. On what is known as the fair innings view, it is not impermissible to give lower priority to policies that primarily benefit the elderly. Philosophers have tried to justify this view on various grounds. In this article, I look at a consequentialist, a fairness-based, and a contractarian justification. I argue that all of them have implausible implications and fail to correspond to our moral intuitions. I end by outlining a different kind of consequentialist justification that avoids those implications and corresponds better to our considered moral judgments.

  20. How Are Science Fairs Fairing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    For more than half a century, the annual science fair has been a fixture in many a school's academic life, both for science teachers, who guide classes through the hands-on experience of researching topics of interest, and for students, who often hectically put the finishing touches on their work the night before it is exhibited in the school gym…

  1. 7 CFR 51.582 - Fairly compact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.582 Fairly compact. Fairly compact means that the branches on the... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly compact. 51.582 Section 51.582 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  2. 7 CFR 51.582 - Fairly compact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.582 Fairly compact. Fairly compact means that the branches on the... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly compact. 51.582 Section 51.582 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  3. 7 CFR 51.494b - Fairly well netted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL... covered with fairly good netting....

  4. U.S. Residential Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices, Q4 2013 Benchmarks: Cash Purchase, Fair Market Value, and Prepaid Lease Transaction Prices

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, C.; James, T. L.; Margolis, R.; Fu, R.; Feldman, D.

    2014-10-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. This report provides a Q4 2013 update for residential PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variation in business models, labor rates, and module choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.29/W for modeled standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon residential PV systems installed in the United States. This is a 46% decline from the 2013-dollar-adjusted price reported in the Q4 2010 benchmark report. In addition, this report frames the cash purchase price in the context of key price metrics relevant to the continually evolving landscape of third-party-owned PV systems by benchmarking the minimum sustainable lease price and the fair market value of residential PV systems.

  5. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... clean. Fairly clean means that at least 90 percent of the potatoes in any lot are reasonably free...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... clean. Fairly clean means that at least 90 percent of the potatoes in any lot are reasonably free...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1910 - Fairly smooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1910 Section 51.1910 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato is not conspicuously ridged or rough....

  8. 7 CFR 51.1910 - Fairly smooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1910 Section 51.1910 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato is not conspicuously ridged or rough....

  9. Planning a Science Fair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Jim

    1976-01-01

    Presented are views, on planning science fairs and science fair projects, of a fair coordinator, a science teacher, and students. Also included are 25 questions which might result in science fair projects. (SL)

  10. 7 CFR 51.1162 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1162 Section 51.1162 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Definitions § 51.1162 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1162 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1162 Section 51.1162 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Definitions § 51.1162 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and...

  12. 7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.772 Section 51.772 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Definitions § 51.772 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and...

  13. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Part of a special section on the market performance of industrial minerals in 1992. Production of construction aggregates increased by 4.6 percent in 1992. This increase was due, in part, to the increased funding for transportation and infrastructure projects. The U.S. produced about 1.05 Gt of crushed stone and an estimated 734 Mt of construction sand and gravel in 1992. Demand is expected to increase by about 5 percent in 1993.

  14. 7 CFR 51.771 - Fairly well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly well colored. 51.771 Section 51.771 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.771 Fairly well colored. Fairly well colored means that except for an aggregate area of green color which does not exceed the area of a circle 1...

  15. 7 CFR 51.771 - Fairly well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly well colored. 51.771 Section 51.771 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.771 Fairly well colored. Fairly well colored means that except for an aggregate area of green color...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1164 - Fairly well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly well colored. 51.1164 Section 51.1164... Definitions § 51.1164 Fairly well colored. Fairly well colored as applied to common oranges and tangelos means that except for an aggregate area of green color which does not exceed the area of a circle 1 inch...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1164 - Fairly well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly well colored. 51.1164 Section 51.1164... Definitions § 51.1164 Fairly well colored. Fairly well colored as applied to common oranges and tangelos means that except for an aggregate area of green color which does not exceed the area of a circle 1 inch...

  18. 7 CFR 51.771 - Fairly well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly well colored. 51.771 Section 51.771 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.771 Fairly well colored. Fairly well colored means that except for an aggregate area of green color which does not exceed the area of a circle 1...

  19. 7 CFR 51.771 - Fairly well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly well colored. 51.771 Section 51.771 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.771 Fairly well colored. Fairly well colored means that except for an aggregate area of green color...

  20. 24 CFR 200.300 - Nondiscrimination and fair housing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... administered in accordance with: (a) The nondiscrimination and fair housing requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5; and (b) The affirmative fair housing marketing requirements in 24 CFR part 200, subpart M and 24 CFR part 108....

  1. 7 CFR 51.608 - Fairly compact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly compact. 51.608 Section 51.608 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  2. 7 CFR 51.608 - Fairly compact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly compact. 51.608 Section 51.608 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  3. An Alternative Science Fair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romjue, Mary Kalen; Clementson, John J.

    1992-01-01

    Proposes the organization of noncompetitive science fairs to create a more positive learning experience for children in the elementary grades. Describes methods of organizing and judging the fair, and provides a list of suggested resources for science fair projects. (MDH)

  4. How To Host a Library Technology Fair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudin, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the Northwestern State University library organized a successful technology fair that focused on the library and campus technology. Discusses reasons for organizing the fair, including the introduction of new workstations; academic department participation; vendor participation; marketing strategies and communication; and student…

  5. The Entrepreneur Fair: Fifth Grade Student Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    In twenty years of teaching, the author has never been involved in a project that sparked as much enthusiasm from students, parents, the administration, and other teachers as the Entrepreneur Fair. In an effort to challenge students to become entrepreneurs, the author developed a one-day market called the Entrepreneur Fair at Stonewall Elementary…

  6. The Aggregate National Supply of Job Openings and Firms' Procedures for Filling Positions. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magvas, Emil; Spitznagel, Eugen

    Surveys by the Institut fur Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB) of German firms' job openings have been combined with job registry data from the Bundesanstalt fur Arbeit on an annual basis since 1989 in order to determine the scope and structure of the aggregate national supply of job openings. The surveys also indicated problems encountered…

  7. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  8. Aggregate exposure modelling of zinc pyrithione in rinse-off personal cleansing products using a person-orientated approach with market share refinement.

    PubMed

    Tozer, Sarah A; Kelly, Seamus; O'Mahony, Cian; Daly, E J; Nash, J F

    2015-09-01

    Realistic estimates of chemical aggregate exposure are needed to ensure consumer safety. As exposure estimates are a critical part of the equation used to calculate acceptable "safe levels" and conduct quantitative risk assessments, methods are needed to produce realistic exposure estimations. To this end, a probabilistic aggregate exposure model was developed to estimate consumer exposure from several rinse off personal cleansing products containing the anti-dandruff preservative zinc pyrithione. The model incorporates large habits and practices surveys, containing data on frequency of use, amount applied, co-use along with market share, and combines these data at the level of the individual based on subject demographics to better estimate exposure. The daily-applied exposure (i.e., amount applied to the skin) was 3.79 mg/kg/day for the 95th percentile consumer. The estimated internal dose for the 95th percentile exposure ranged from 0.01-1.29 μg/kg/day after accounting for retention following rinsing and dermal penetration of ZnPt. This probabilistic aggregate exposure model can be used in the human safety assessment of ingredients in multiple rinse-off technologies (e.g., shampoo, bar soap, body wash, and liquid hand soap). In addition, this model may be used in other situations where refined exposure assessment is required to support a chemical risk assessment.

  9. Aggregate exposure modelling of zinc pyrithione in rinse-off personal cleansing products using a person-orientated approach with market share refinement.

    PubMed

    Tozer, Sarah A; Kelly, Seamus; O'Mahony, Cian; Daly, E J; Nash, J F

    2015-09-01

    Realistic estimates of chemical aggregate exposure are needed to ensure consumer safety. As exposure estimates are a critical part of the equation used to calculate acceptable "safe levels" and conduct quantitative risk assessments, methods are needed to produce realistic exposure estimations. To this end, a probabilistic aggregate exposure model was developed to estimate consumer exposure from several rinse off personal cleansing products containing the anti-dandruff preservative zinc pyrithione. The model incorporates large habits and practices surveys, containing data on frequency of use, amount applied, co-use along with market share, and combines these data at the level of the individual based on subject demographics to better estimate exposure. The daily-applied exposure (i.e., amount applied to the skin) was 3.79 mg/kg/day for the 95th percentile consumer. The estimated internal dose for the 95th percentile exposure ranged from 0.01-1.29 μg/kg/day after accounting for retention following rinsing and dermal penetration of ZnPt. This probabilistic aggregate exposure model can be used in the human safety assessment of ingredients in multiple rinse-off technologies (e.g., shampoo, bar soap, body wash, and liquid hand soap). In addition, this model may be used in other situations where refined exposure assessment is required to support a chemical risk assessment. PMID:26092325

  10. 7 CFR 51.581 - Fairly well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.581 Fairly well formed. Fairly well formed means that the branches are... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly well formed. 51.581 Section 51.581 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  11. 7 CFR 51.581 - Fairly well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.581 Fairly well formed. Fairly well formed means that the branches are... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly well formed. 51.581 Section 51.581 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1162 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1162 Section 51.1162 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1162 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1162 Section 51.1162 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the...

  14. 7 CFR 51.701 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.701 Section 51.701 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.701 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly...

  15. 7 CFR 51.641 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.641 Section 51.641 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.641 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin...

  16. 7 CFR 51.641 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.641 Section 51.641 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.641 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly...

  17. 7 CFR 51.701 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.701 Section 51.701 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.701 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly...

  18. 7 CFR 51.641 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.641 Section 51.641 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.641 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1008 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1008 Section 51.1008 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....1008 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the fruit is comparatively free...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1162 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1162 Section 51.1162 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the...

  1. 7 CFR 51.641 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.641 Section 51.641 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.641 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly...

  2. 7 CFR 51.701 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.701 Section 51.701 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.701 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin...

  3. 7 CFR 51.641 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.641 Section 51.641 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.641 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin...

  4. 7 CFR 51.701 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.701 Section 51.701 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.701 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1008 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1008 Section 51.1008 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....1008 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the fruit is comparatively free...

  6. 7 CFR 51.701 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.701 Section 51.701 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.701 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin...

  7. 7 CFR 51.2844 - Fairly well shaped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly well shaped. 51.2844 Section 51.2844 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...) Definitions § 51.2844 Fairly well shaped. Fairly well shaped means having the shape characteristic of...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2844 - Fairly well shaped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly well shaped. 51.2844 Section 51.2844 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...) Definitions § 51.2844 Fairly well shaped. Fairly well shaped means having the shape characteristic of...

  9. 7 CFR 51.3205 - Fairly well shaped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly well shaped. 51.3205 Section 51.3205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Fairly well shaped. Fairly well shaped means that the onion shows the characteristic shape,...

  10. 7 CFR 51.3205 - Fairly well shaped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly well shaped. 51.3205 Section 51.3205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Fairly well shaped. Fairly well shaped means that the onion shows the characteristic shape,...

  11. Iowa State Fair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of the "Goldfinch" focuses on the Iowa state fair. The magazine begins with a map of the fair as it looks today. The article explains that the first Iowa state fair was held in 1854. After traveling from town to town for several years, the fair settled in the capital city of Des Moines in 1878. Eight years later, in 1886, the first fair…

  12. A Fair Proposition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobman, Arnold

    1993-01-01

    Describes problems with school science fairs including poor judging and a lack of understanding by the students of their own projects. Suggests improvements to the system. One suggestion is for science fair projects to be displayed only in classrooms and not district or regional fairs. (PR)

  13. Resizing Triathlons for Fairness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard; De Veaux, Richard D.

    As currently configured, triathlons are dominated by cyclists and runners. The concept of fairness, as applied to triathlons, suggests that a cyclist, runner, and swimmer, all equally proficient, can each traverse the associated segment of the triathlon in approximately equal times. This definition of fairness is used to derive fair triathlon…

  14. Fair Access and Fee Setting in English Universities: What Do Institutional Statements Suggest about University Strategies in a Stratified Quasi-Market?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowl, Marion; Hughes, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how English universities operating in a "quasi-market" are managing the tension between two policy expectations: the first that they should encourage social mobility by widening the social base of their student population; the second that they should compete with other universities to attract students and thereby…

  15. 7 CFR 51.1164 - Fairly well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly well colored. 51.1164 Section 51.1164... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1164 Fairly... aggregate area of green color which does not exceed the area of a circle 1 inch (25.4 mm) in diameter,...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1830 - Fairly well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly well colored. 51.1830 Section 51.1830... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Definitions § 51.1830 Fairly well... exceed the aggregate area of a circle 1-1/4 inches (31.8 mm) in diameter and that the remainder of...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1164 - Fairly well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly well colored. 51.1164 Section 51.1164... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1164 Fairly... aggregate area of green color which does not exceed the area of a circle 1 inch (25.4 mm) in diameter,...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1830 - Fairly well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly well colored. 51.1830 Section 51.1830... Definitions § 51.1830 Fairly well colored. Fairly well colored means that the surface of the fruit may have green color which does not exceed the aggregate area of a circle 1-1/4 inches (31.8 mm) in diameter...

  19. Acquiring competitive power supplies in the new restructured electricity markets -- Aggregation opportunities, choosing the right supplier, and negotiating contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, K.L.

    1999-07-01

    While demand-side and energy efficiency measures conventionally bring more substantive cost savings than procuring competitive energy supplies, the new opportunity to create added electricity savings has been gaining momentum as deregulated electricity markets mature from their infancy to adolescence. As these markets evolve, more and more small and medium sized facilities are being approached by new entrants to switch electricity providers. Many of these new providers seem to have come from nowhere, while other don't seem any different than the current utility. Managers struggle to find an easy way to validate the claims and promises that often seem too good to be true; no matter how much assistance the incumbent utility offers. This paper will discuss the impact of Customer Choice for electricity as a commodity and will present the key issues that energy decisionmakers will contend with when deciding whether or not to switch. It will also address critical elements vital to contract negotiations that will protect a business' financial risk in the new deregulated market.

  20. Fairness and dynamic pricing: comments

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, William W.

    2010-07-15

    In ''The Ethics of Dynamic Pricing,'' Ahmad Faruqui lays out a case for improved efficiency in using dynamic prices for retail electricity tariffs and addresses various issues about the distributional effects of alternative pricing mechanisms. The principal contrast is between flat or nearly constant energy prices and time-varying prices that reflect more closely the marginal costs of energy and capacity. The related issues of fairness criteria, contracts, risk allocation, cost allocation, means testing, real-time pricing, and ethical policies of electricity market design also must be considered. (author)

  1. Rethinking the Science Fair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, John; Hogan, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors reflect on whether the competitiveness of science fairs does anything to enhance the learning environment of schools. The authors narrate how a visit to a local school's gymnasium to witness one of these gala events reminded them of why they so dislike science fairs. The authors mention that they applaud any sincere…

  2. Rethinking the Science Fair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, John; Hogan, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    Spring is the season when thousands of creased cardboard pests can be found lodged under the armpits of students and teachers as they observe the educational rite of spring known as the school science fair. A recent visit to a local school's gymnasium to witness one of these events reminded the authors of why they so dislike science fairs. In this…

  3. It's Not Fair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Is a "fair test" the only way to carry out science investigations? Many children (and primary teachers) following the National Curriculum in England and Wales would answer "yes" to this question. This is because fair test investigations have historically been promoted in national assessment, published curricula, schemes of work and assessment…

  4. Fairness Doctrine in Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Charles Vance

    After a decade of debate, numerous Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rulings, and many court decisions, the application of the "fairness doctrine"--an act that mandates objectivity in the presentation of facts concerning controversial issues--remains unsettled. This report discusses issues involved in the application of the fairness doctrine…

  5. Transportation energy conservation fairs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    An energy conservation fair sponsored by the Department of Transportation was described. It demonstrated how average drivers can save transportation dollars by changing driving habits at little or no cost. Exhibitors are listed. Methods for disseminating information and recommendations on how to set up such fairs are discussed. (MCW)

  6. Fairness and Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1983-01-01

    A recent controversy regarding ability grouping is that it is often perceived as a means whereby racial or class bias can be subtly transformed into mechanisms of discrimination which exhibit the appearance of fairness and objectivity. This article addresses the question of fairness in ability grouping. (CJB)

  7. A Virtual Careers Fair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leece, Rhonda

    2005-01-01

    In Australia, careers fairs have traditionally been one of the avenues used by major companies to recruit their graduate staff. Most Australian universities have a one- or two-day event of this type to promote their graduates to employers and to expose their students to employment opportunities. Attendance at careers fairs is expensive for…

  8. Fair Use and Copyright.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Scott; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Special section on fair use and copyright contains three articles: "The Management of Intellectual Property" (Scott Bennett); "The Meaning of Fair Use" (Kenneth Frazier), including electronic infringement and examples of court cases; and "Document Delivery" (Laura N. Gassaway), including copies for primary users, warning notices, electronic…

  9. A fair test of the fair innings?

    PubMed

    Oliver, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Priority setting in health care under conventional rules of health economic evaluation is based upon the ethos of attempting to maximize post-treatment health gain given available health care resources. In his later years, Alan Williams advocated the "fair innings argument,'' which balances differences in whole lifetime experiences of health with differences in post-treatment outcomes when prioritizing people for health care. This article reports a study that presented respondents with a number of abstract health care decision contexts in an attempt to test the extent to which post-treatment health maximization, the fair innings argument, or, indeed other "decision rules,'' are evident in the respondents' answers. The results indicate that the most commonly observed decision rule differs substantially across health care contexts, and therefore imply that rather than pursue an overarching decision rule, it may be more appropriate to vary the rule according to the particular health care decision context under consideration.

  10. A fair test of the fair innings?

    PubMed

    Oliver, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Priority setting in health care under conventional rules of health economic evaluation is based upon the ethos of attempting to maximize post-treatment health gain given available health care resources. In his later years, Alan Williams advocated the "fair innings argument,'' which balances differences in whole lifetime experiences of health with differences in post-treatment outcomes when prioritizing people for health care. This article reports a study that presented respondents with a number of abstract health care decision contexts in an attempt to test the extent to which post-treatment health maximization, the fair innings argument, or, indeed other "decision rules,'' are evident in the respondents' answers. The results indicate that the most commonly observed decision rule differs substantially across health care contexts, and therefore imply that rather than pursue an overarching decision rule, it may be more appropriate to vary the rule according to the particular health care decision context under consideration. PMID:19506083

  11. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care). PMID:20836416

  12. 7 CFR 3560.104 - Fair housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prepare and maintain an Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan (AFHMP) as defined in 24 CFR part 200... advertisement, pamphlets, or brochures used must identify that the complex is operated on an equal housing... logo type. Copies of the proposed material must be sent when requesting approval of the plan....

  13. 7 CFR 3560.104 - Fair housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... prepare and maintain an Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan (AFHMP) as defined in 24 CFR part 200... advertisement, pamphlets, or brochures used must identify that the complex is operated on an equal housing... logo type. Copies of the proposed material must be sent when requesting approval of the plan....

  14. 7 CFR 3560.104 - Fair housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... prepare and maintain an Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan (AFHMP) as defined in 24 CFR part 200... advertisement, pamphlets, or brochures used must identify that the complex is operated on an equal housing... logo type. Copies of the proposed material must be sent when requesting approval of the plan....

  15. 7 CFR 3560.104 - Fair housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... prepare and maintain an Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan (AFHMP) as defined in 24 CFR part 200... advertisement, pamphlets, or brochures used must identify that the complex is operated on an equal housing... logo type. Copies of the proposed material must be sent when requesting approval of the plan....

  16. 7 CFR 3560.104 - Fair housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... prepare and maintain an Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan (AFHMP) as defined in 24 CFR part 200... advertisement, pamphlets, or brochures used must identify that the complex is operated on an equal housing... logo type. Copies of the proposed material must be sent when requesting approval of the plan....

  17. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  18. Vehicle underbody fairing

    DOEpatents

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz; McCallen, Rose

    2010-11-09

    A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

  19. Science Fairs for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Donna Gail; Cook, Cheryl; Ribelin, Teralyn

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a science fair project with a diverse group of K-2 urban school students. Students experienced the purpose and procedure for a scientific investigation, although they learned in different ways and at different rates. (ASK)

  20. Rethinking Fair Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, David C.; Richardson, Mary G.

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses misconceptions related to what makes an unfair game fair and describes from a personal perspective the process of discovering for oneself when a particular mathematical method works. (Contains 3 figures and 2 tables.)

  1. 7 CFR 51.585 - Fairly well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly well trimmed. 51.585 Section 51.585 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  2. 7 CFR 51.585 - Fairly well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly well trimmed. 51.585 Section 51.585 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  3. On the Fairness of the Higher Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Min

    2012-01-01

    With the establishment of the socialist market economic system in China, the issue of social fairness has been paid more and more attentions. The fairness issue of higher education, which is responsible for training high-quality talents for the national economy construction, has become the focus of attention. We discuss and research on the…

  4. Book a Book Fair Today! It's a Celebration!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the value of book fairs to encourage reading and offers suggestions for planning them. Considers sponsorship, location and timing, sources to get books from, how to select books, marketing, library programs connected with the fair, volunteers, and who receives the profits. (LRW)

  5. 7 CFR 51.1407 - Fairly uniform in color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly uniform in color. 51.1407 Section 51.1407 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... in color. Fairly uniform in color means that the shells do not show sufficient variation in color...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1407 - Fairly uniform in color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly uniform in color. 51.1407 Section 51.1407 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... in color. Fairly uniform in color means that the shells do not show sufficient variation in color...

  7. 7 CFR 51.2085 - Fairly uniform color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly uniform color. 51.2085 Section 51.2085 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... color. Fairly uniform color means that the shells do not show excessive variation in color,...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2085 - Fairly uniform color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly uniform color. 51.2085 Section 51.2085 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... color. Fairly uniform color means that the shells do not show excessive variation in color,...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2085 - Fairly uniform color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly uniform color. 51.2085 Section 51.2085 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... color. Fairly uniform color means that the shells do not show excessive variation in color,...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1407 - Fairly uniform in color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly uniform in color. 51.1407 Section 51.1407 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... in color. Fairly uniform in color means that the shells do not show sufficient variation in color...

  11. 24 CFR 200.300 - Nondiscrimination and fair housing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... administered in accordance with: (a) The nondiscrimination and fair housing requirements set forth in 24 CFR... forth in 24 CFR 5.105(a)(2); and (b) The affirmative fair housing marketing requirements in 24 CFR part 200, subpart M and 24 CFR part 108....

  12. 24 CFR 200.300 - Nondiscrimination and fair housing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... administered in accordance with: (a) The nondiscrimination and fair housing requirements set forth in 24 CFR... forth in 24 CFR 5.105(a)(2); and (b) The affirmative fair housing marketing requirements in 24 CFR part 200, subpart M and 24 CFR part 108....

  13. 24 CFR 200.300 - Nondiscrimination and fair housing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... administered in accordance with: (a) The nondiscrimination and fair housing requirements set forth in 24 CFR... forth in 24 CFR 5.105(a)(2); and (b) The affirmative fair housing marketing requirements in 24 CFR part 200, subpart M and 24 CFR part 108....

  14. 7 CFR 51.1830 - Fairly well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND... colored. Fairly well colored means that the surface of the fruit may have green color which does...

  15. FAIR project at GSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kester, Oliver; Spiller, Peter; Stoecker, Horst

    FAIR -- the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe -- constructed at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH in Darmstadt comprises an international centre of heavy ion accelerators that will drive heavy ion and antimatter research (FBTR, 2006). FAIR will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing a large variety of fore-front research in physics and applied science. FAIR will deliver antiproton and ion beams of unprecedented intensities and qualities. The main part of the FAIR facility is a sophisticated and cost efficient accelerator system, which delivers parallel beams to different experiments of the FAIR experimental collaborations -- APPA, NuSTAR, CBM and PANDA. The accelerated primary beams will then be employed to create new, often highly exotic particles in a series of parallel experimental programs. Experiments with exotic particles will explore fundamental processes which are expected to have taken place in the early phases and still happen in the on-going evolution of the Universe. These processes produced the basic constituents of matter and overall structure we observe today...

  16. Fairness in technological design.

    PubMed

    Shelley, Cameron

    2012-12-01

    This paper addresses an important multi-disciplinary issue of current interest, that is, the implications of technological design for fairness. A visual, graphical methodology centered on the Taylor-Russell diagram is proposed to address this issue. The Taylor-Russell diagram helps to identify and explore ways in which predictions built into designs can pit the interests of different constituencies against one another. The configuration of the design represents a trade-off between the interests of the communities involved. Whether or not the trade-off is appropriate constitutes a problem of fairness or distributive justice. The breadth of this methodology is supported by a diversity of examples analyzed. These include a surveillance system, an automotive safety system, a civic information system, and the international food distribution system. These examples provide models for application of the methodology to the analysis of designs in further areas of concern. Limitations of the methodology are also discussed. While it helps to identify and clarify issues of fairness in technology design, the methodology does not provide a general theory of fairness, nor can it provide fair solutions to such issues without appeal to further principles or concepts.

  17. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Part of the 1994 Industrial Minerals Review. The production, consumption, and applications of construction aggregates are reviewed. In 1994, the production of construction aggregates, which includes crushed stone and construction sand and gravel combined, increased 7.7 percent to 2.14 Gt compared with the previous year. These record production levels are mostly a result of funding for highway construction work provided by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Demand is expected to increase for construction aggregates in 1995.

  18. Is flat fair?

    SciTech Connect

    Bunzl, Martin

    2010-07-15

    Dynamic pricing holds out the promise of shifting peak demand as well as reducing overall demand. But it also raises thorny issues of fairness. All practical pricing systems involve tradeoffs between equity and efficiency. I examine the circumstances under which equity ought to be allowed to trump efficiency and whether or not this constitutes a defense of flat pricing. (author)

  19. No Stress Science Fair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Two recurring hurdles seem to reduce the effectiveness of science fairs--finding time in the regular curriculum and excessive parental involvement. The time issue too often manifests itself with the obviously last-minute, overnight project of dubious learning value. The pollution of parental handiwork ruins the student's opportunity to actually…

  20. Super Science Fair Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iritz, Maxine Haren

    This guide to science fair projects is designed for students and provides clear directions on how to complete a successful science project. Real projects are used as examples and information and advice is provided by teachers, judges, and participants and their families about the process. Topics covered in this book include choosing a science fair…

  1. Fairness and the Predictors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Frederick S., Jr.

    Certain conditions are investigated as to whether they are necessary or sufficient to indicate the fairness of a test, or predictor, in its role in the college admissions procedure. Eight general positions are considered that have claimed to provide sufficient conditions for the unbiasedness of a standardized test or predictor: (1) equal test…

  2. Aggregation Pheromone System: A Real-parameter Optimization Algorithm using Aggregation Pheromones as the Base Metaphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Shigeyosi

    This paper proposes an aggregation pheromone system (APS) for solving real-parameter optimization problems using the collective behavior of individuals which communicate using aggregation pheromones. APS was tested on several test functions used in evolutionary computation. The results showed APS could solve real-parameter optimization problems fairly well. The sensitivity analysis of control parameters of APS is also studied.

  3. 7 CFR 51.639 - Fairly well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... aggregate of green color, the yellow color predominates over the green color on that part of the fruit...

  4. 7 CFR 51.703 - Fairly well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... aggregate of green color, the yellow or orange color predominates over the green color on that part of...

  5. Bargaining and fairness.

    PubMed

    Binmore, Kenneth

    2014-07-22

    The idea that human morality might be the product of evolution is not popular. The reason is partly that the moral principles that actually govern our day-to-day behavior have been idealized in a way that makes a natural origin seem impossible. This paper puts the case for a more down-to-earth assessment of human morality by arguing that the evolution of our sense of fairness can be traced to the practicalities of food-sharing. When animals share food, they can be seen as enjoying the fruits of an implicit bargain to ensure each other against hunger. The implications of this observation are explored using the tools of game theory. The arguments lead to a structure for fair bargains that closely resembles the structure proposed by John Rawls, the leading moral philosopher of the last century. PMID:25024181

  6. Bargaining and fairness

    PubMed Central

    Binmore, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The idea that human morality might be the product of evolution is not popular. The reason is partly that the moral principles that actually govern our day-to-day behavior have been idealized in a way that makes a natural origin seem impossible. This paper puts the case for a more down-to-earth assessment of human morality by arguing that the evolution of our sense of fairness can be traced to the practicalities of food-sharing. When animals share food, they can be seen as enjoying the fruits of an implicit bargain to ensure each other against hunger. The implications of this observation are explored using the tools of game theory. The arguments lead to a structure for fair bargains that closely resembles the structure proposed by John Rawls, the leading moral philosopher of the last century. PMID:25024181

  7. Bargaining and fairness.

    PubMed

    Binmore, Kenneth

    2014-07-22

    The idea that human morality might be the product of evolution is not popular. The reason is partly that the moral principles that actually govern our day-to-day behavior have been idealized in a way that makes a natural origin seem impossible. This paper puts the case for a more down-to-earth assessment of human morality by arguing that the evolution of our sense of fairness can be traced to the practicalities of food-sharing. When animals share food, they can be seen as enjoying the fruits of an implicit bargain to ensure each other against hunger. The implications of this observation are explored using the tools of game theory. The arguments lead to a structure for fair bargains that closely resembles the structure proposed by John Rawls, the leading moral philosopher of the last century.

  8. Science Fair Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Sciences fair season is a time when seasoned non-science teachers typically give up all hope of cramming any more knowledge into the heads of their students. It's just too much. However, non-science types might be missing out on a pretty good deal. The science department has got these kids in a pretty tight grip as far as the process and the…

  9. 7 CFR 51.575 - Fairly well blanched.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly well blanched. 51.575 Section 51.575 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE...

  10. 7 CFR 51.611 - Fairly well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly well developed. 51.611 Section 51.611 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE...

  11. 7 CFR 51.611 - Fairly well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly well developed. 51.611 Section 51.611 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE...

  12. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.; Tepordei, V.V.; Bolen, W.P.

    2000-01-01

    Construction aggregates consist primarily of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. Total estimated production of construction aggregates increased in 1999 by about 2% to 2.39 Gt (2.64 billion st) compared with 1998. This record production level continued an expansion that began in 1992. By commodities, crushed stone production increased 3.3%, while sand and gravel production increased by about 0.5%.

  13. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on industrial minerals in 1993. The 1993 production of construction aggregates increased 6.3 percent over the 1992 figure, to reach 2.01 Gt. This represents the highest estimated annual production of combined crushed stone and construction sand and gravel ever recorded in the U.S. The outlook for construction aggregates and the issues facing the industry are discussed.

  14. Fractions: How to Fair Share

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, P. Holt; Edgington, Cynthia P.; Nguyen, Kenny H.; Pescosolido, Ryan S.; Confrey, Jere

    2011-01-01

    Children learn from a very early age what it means to get their "fair share." Whether it is candy or birthday cake, many children successfully create equal-size groups or parts of a collection or whole but later struggle to create fair shares of multiple wholes, such as fairly sharing four pies among a family of seven. Recent research suggests…

  15. Evolution of fairness in the dictator game by multilevel selection.

    PubMed

    Schank, Jeffrey C; Smaldino, Paul E; Miller, Matt L

    2015-10-01

    The most perplexing experimental results on fairness come from the dictator game where one of two players, the dictator, decides how to divide a resource with an anonymous player. The dictator, acting self-interestedly, should offer nothing to the anonymous second player, but in experimental studies, dictators offer much more than nothing. We developed a multilevel selection model to explain why people offer more than nothing in the dictator game. We show that fairness can evolve when population structure emerges from the aggregation and limited dispersal of offspring. We begin with an analytical model that shows how fair behavior can benefit groups by minimizing within-group variance in resources and thereby increasing group fitness. To investigate the generality of this result, we developed an agent-based model with agents that have no information about other agents. We allowed agents to aggregate into groups and evolve different levels of fairness by playing the dictator game for resources to reproduce. This allowed multilevel selection to emerge from the spatiotemporal properties of individual agents. We found that the population structure that emerged under low population densities was most conducive to the evolution of fairness, which is consistent with group selection as a major evolutionary force. We also found that fairness only evolves if resources are not too scarce relative to the lifespan of agents. We conclude that the evolution of fairness could evolve under multilevel selection. Thus, our model provides a novel explanation for the results of dictator game experiments, in which participants often fairly split a resource rather than keeping it all for themselves.

  16. Obesity, paternalism and fairness.

    PubMed

    Kniess, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Many liberal theories are committed to the promotion of population health, and the principle of non-interference in individual life plans. Public health interventions often bring out a tension between these two values. In this paper, I examine this tension by assessing the justifiability of liberty-restricting policies in the field of obesity prevention. As I want to show, a 'soft' form of paternalism, which interferes with people's choices to safeguard their true interests, goes some way in justifying such policies, but it leaves unaddressed the problem of limiting the liberty of those whose true interest is in pursuing an unhealthy lifestyle. I argue that in this latter case, the key to reconcile the promotion of population health with the respect for individual liberty is distributive justice: when we cannot help those who care about their health without doing the same for those who do not, fairness will often require us to do so.

  17. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  18. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Part of the Annual Commodities Review 1995. Production of construction aggregates such as crushed stone and construction sand and gravel showed a marginal increase in 1995. Most of the 1995 increases were due to funding for highway construction work. The major areas of concern to the industry included issues relating to wetlands classification and the classification of crystalline silica as a probable human carcinogen. Despite this, an increase in demand is anticipated for 1996.

  19. Astronomy Science Fair Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittichová, J.; Kadooka, M.-A.; Meech, K. J.

    2004-12-01

    ``Extrasolar Planet Transit", ``Lightcurve of a Variable Star", and ``Retrograde Motion of Mars" are some of the titles of high school students' projects entered in the Hawaii State Science Fair. TOPS (Toward Other Planetary Systems) teachers who participated in the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy summer outreach program under the direction of professor Karen J. Meech mentored their students. After attending the 3-week National Science Foundation Institute for several summers since 1999, these teachers in the summer of 2003 were trained to do observing plans to obtain images from telescopes, use image processing software MIRA for photometry, and produce light curves of variable stars and extrasolar planet transits. Others used the software ``Astrometrica" to do astrometry of Kuiper Belt Objects. Using Compaq laptop computers on long term loan, our teachers mentored students for astronomy projects during the 2003-2004 school year. These students made observing plans for images from the 31inch Lowell Telescope in Arizona and/or from the 2.2m University of Hawaii Telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. Learning about filters, exposure time, magnitude, frequency of taking CCD images, and ephemeris required many iterations between students, teachers, and astronomers and graduate students who were assisting. Poor weather conditions and other frustrations exposed the students to the realities of research. However, they were rewarded with projects that impressed the judges and that will be described.

  20. The New Faces of Fairness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Nancy S.; Zieky, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes additional ways for people in the measurement profession to think about the fairness of assessments and about the fairness of the uses of assessments. Suggests that measurement professionals must pay more attention to reducing group differences at the design stage of test development, to providing all examinees an opportunity to…

  1. Math Fair: Focus on Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokashi, Neelima A.

    2009-01-01

    This article depicts the rewarding experience of creating mathematical environments for kindergarten and elementary students by focusing on one of the most important and often difficult-to-grasp concepts (fractions) through play methods incorporated into a math fair. The basic concept of a math fair is threefold: (1) to create preplanned,…

  2. Speaking of Fairness in Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffore, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    In an article based on her presentation to the 114th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Janet Helms described a concept of test fairness. Helms's approach to fairness appears to be based on the premise that socialization consists of experiences received from one's environment, which are simply internalized as personal…

  3. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolen, W.P.; Tepordei, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The estimated production during 2000 of construction aggregates, crushed stone, and construction sand and gravel increased by about 2.6% to 2.7 Gt (3 billion st), compared with 1999. The expansion that started in 1992 continued with record production levels for the ninth consecutive year. By commodity, construction sand and gravel production increased by 4.5% to 1.16 Gt (1.28 billion st), while crushed stone production increased by 1.3% to 1.56 Gt (1.72 billion st).

  4. Nuclear Astrophysics at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingo-Pardo, C.

    2010-08-01

    An overview about the future international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research -FAIR- is given, with especial emphasis on the astrophysical aspects of the NUSTAR (NUclear StrucTure, Astrophysics and Reactions) project. Many types of astrophysically relevant experiments will be performed at NUSTAR. A common tool in all of them will be the large acceptance superconducting in-flight fragment separator (Super-FRS). Rare isotopes of all elements up to Uranium will be produced and spatially separated, thus allowing for the study of very short-lived nuclei. At the low energy branch of the SuperFRS the DESPEC-setup will allow for precise β-decay measurements, including neutron emission probabilities, and for the study of the nuclear structure of very exotic species. High precision Penning trap mass measurements will be carried out with the MATS setup installed at the low-energy branch. Large scale mass measurements will be performed using a complex of storage and cooler rings, the NESR and the CR. In summary, a vast amount of new data far off stability will become available. This will be particularly interesting for the study of explosive nucleosynthesis events, like the rapid neutron capture and the rapid proton capture processes. At the high-energy branch of the SuperFRS, the R3B setup will provide access to a large variety of kinematically complete measurements at relativistic energies, such as heavy ion induced electromagnetic excitation, knockout and breakup reactions or light-ion (in)elastic scattering in inverse kinematics. This will enable e.g. to study Gamow-Teller strengths or to determine astrophysical S-factors on exotic nuclei.

  5. 45 CFR 147.102 - Fair health insurance premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fair health insurance premiums. 147.102 Section 147.102 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETS §...

  6. 45 CFR 147.102 - Fair health insurance premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fair health insurance premiums. 147.102 Section 147.102 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETS §...

  7. Copyright Compliance: Conducting a Fair Use Training Session

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozumplik, Cindy; Kreutziger, John

    2010-01-01

    This article contains a teaching module on copyright compliance for higher education for faculty, staff, and administrators. The training class discusses fair use and its four factors. Those factors include purpose and characters of use, nature of the work, quantity to be borrowed, marketability of the work.

  8. Quality Certification, Regulation and Power in Fair Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renard, Marie-Christine

    2005-01-01

    This article examines governance changes and shifting power relations within the fair-labelling network. These shifts are framed analytically by reference to broader changes in the agrofoods sector tied to the increasingly key role played by quality relations and standards in the production and marketing of food. The author argues that evident…

  9. Fair use versus fair return: copyright legislation and its consequences.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, I L; Curtis, M E

    1984-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the ramifications of legislative recognition of the concept of fair use in the Copyright Act of 1976. The fair use concept, while of small consequence in its normative origins, has turned out to be the foundation of the most perplexing and divisive issues in the new legislative guidelines governing copyright. Legislative recognition of the concept of fair use, coupled with enormous growth of a new technology--extending from xerography to on-line database systems--creates de facto exemptions to both the intent and content of new copyright guidelines. The issue is not one of limiting use or suppressing information, but of mechanisms for safeguarding the rights of copyright holders, be they authors or publishers, and insuring the free flow of information by providing a proper return on both intellectual creativity and capital expenditures. The authors argue that the elimination, or at least curtailment of fair use doctrine, coupled with an increase in technological approaches to reporting of secondary use of copyrighted material, will benefit all sections of the knowledge industry. Authors will receive proper royalties on use; publishers will be able to sell more books and journals at lower prices; and librarians will be liberated from extensive chores such as monitoring usage or determining fee schedules and transferences. The issue is one of fair return--an issue obscured and ultimately subverted by fair use.

  10. Citrate Metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis FAIR-E 229

    PubMed Central

    Sarantinopoulos, Panagiotis; Kalantzopoulos, George; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2001-01-01

    Citrate metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis FAIR-E 229 was studied in various growth media containing citrate either in the presence of glucose or lactose or as the sole carbon source. In skim milk (130 mM lactose, 8 mM citrate), cometabolism of citrate and lactose was observed from the first stages of the growth phase. Lactose was stoichiometrically converted into lactate, while citrate was converted into acetate, formate, and ethanol. When de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) broth containing lactose (28 mM) instead of glucose was used, E. faecalis FAIR-E 229 catabolized only the carbohydrate. Lactate was the major end product, and small amounts of ethanol were also detected. Increasing concentrations of citrate (10, 40, 70, and 100 mM) added to MRS broth enhanced both the maximum growth rate of E. faecalis FAIR-E 229 and glucose catabolism, although citrate itself was not catabolized. Glucose was converted stoichiometrically into lactate, while small amounts of ethanol were produced as well. Finally, when increasing initial concentrations of citrate (10, 40, 70, and 100 mM) were used as the sole carbon sources in MRS broth without glucose, the main end products were acetate and formate. Small amounts of lactate, ethanol, and acetoin were also detected. This work strongly supports the suggestion that enterococcal strains have the metabolic potential to metabolize citrate and therefore to actively contribute to the flavor development of fermented dairy products. PMID:11722896

  11. The Economics of Fair Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmund, Karl; Fehr, Ernst; Nowak, Martin A.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the field of experimental economics and speculates about why we value fairness and cooperation over the seemingly more rational selfishness. Illustrates a typical decision making situation using the Ultimatum game. (DDR)

  12. Testing Orions Fairing Separation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Henry; Cloutier, Chris; Lemmon, Heber; Rakes, Daniel; Oldham, Joe; Schlagel, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Traditional fairing systems are designed to fully encapsulate and protect their payload from the harsh ascent environment including acoustic vibrations, aerodynamic forces and heating. The Orion fairing separation system performs this function and more by also sharing approximately half of the vehicle structural load during ascent. This load-share condition through launch and during jettison allows for a substantial increase in mass to orbit. A series of component-level development tests were completed to evaluate and characterize each component within Orion's unique fairing separation system. Two full-scale separation tests were performed to verify system-level functionality and provide verification data. This paper summarizes the fairing spring, Pyramidal Separation Mechanism and forward seal system component-level development tests, system-level separation tests, and lessons learned.

  13. [Sports participation and fair play].

    PubMed

    Cecchini Estrada, José A; González-Mesa, Carmen González; Méndez, Javier Montero

    2007-02-01

    This study examined whether the participation in intermediate contact sports affects the opinions about the behaviors and attitudes of fair play in the sports context and whether these effects are influenced by ego orientation. The participants were high level sportsmen from university and professional basketball and football players (N = 131). They filled in questionnaires to assess their participation in sports, their goal orientations, and their fair play attitudes and behaviors. The analyses of the structural equation model indicated that participation in intermediate contact sports predicted ego orientation; these analyses consecutively predicted low levels of fair play. The direct effects of sports participation in fair play decreased significantly in the presence of ego orientation, indicating that the last construct partially mediates the relation between the first two variables. These discoveries help us to better understand the processes that operate in contact sports. Finally, their implications for eliminating unsportsmanlike behaviors are discussed.

  14. Bringing the "Moral Charge" Home: Fair Trade within the North and within the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Daniel; Kloppenburg, Jack R.; Monroy, Mario B.

    2004-01-01

    Fair trade is typically understood as an alternative market system that aims to right historically inequitable terms of trade between the geopolitical North and South and foster more direct producer/consumer linkages. We suggest that a more expansive application of the term "fair trade" to encompass agro-food initiatives within the North and South…

  15. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2014: FAIR Next Generation ScientistS 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-04-01

    FAIRNESS 2014 was the third edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on September 22-27 2014 in Vietri sul Mare, Italy. The topics of the workshops cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Schwerionenforschung close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference is to bring together young scientists, e.g. advanced PhD students and postdocs and young researchers without permanent position to present their work, to foster active informal discussions and build up of networks. Every participant in the meeting with the exception of the organizers gives an oral presentation, and all sessions are followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks, questions are anonymously collected in a box to stimulate discussions. The broad physics program at FAIR is reflected in the wide range of topics covered by the workshop: • Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point • Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions • Hadron Spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei • New developments in atomic and plasma physics • Special emphasis is put on the experiments CBM, HADES, PANDA, NUSTAR, APPA and related experiments For each of these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2014 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the forefront of research that

  16. The Science Fair Experience: Profile of Science Fair Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellipanni, Lawrence J.

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if a significant relationship existed between the criterion variable of receiving or not receiving awards at the 1993 International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF) and the predictor variables of resources and facilities, resource personnel, personal costs, time, and personal characteristics.…

  17. Environmental Science: 49 Science Fair Projects. Science Fair Projects Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Robert L.; Keen, G. Daniel

    This book contains 49 science fair projects designed for 6th to 9th grade students. Projects are organized by the topics of soil, ecology (projects in habitat and life cycles), pests and controls (projects in weeds and insects), recycling (projects in resources and conservation), waste products (projects in decomposition), microscopic organisms,…

  18. Ongoing Issues in Test Fairness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilli, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In the attempt to identify or prevent unfair tests, both quantitative analyses and logical evaluation are often used. For the most part, fairness evaluation is a pragmatic attempt at determining whether procedural or substantive due process has been accorded to either a group of test takers or an individual. In both the individual and comparative…

  19. Playing FAIR in Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Craig K.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Brigham Young University's reading and study skills course for law students, which is designed to increase reading speed and comprehension. Explains the use of the FAIR (Facts, Action, Issues, and Reasoning) system for analyzing law cases. Covers student reactions and modifications implemented in course design. (AYC)

  20. A Kinder-Science Fair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Angelica; Vitti, Debbye

    2007-01-01

    A science fair might be the last thing you think of when planning a kindergarten science curriculum, but the authors found it to be the perfect avenue for teaching their students science-process skills. Here they share their steps in teaching science-process skills and assembling student projects in a kindergarten classroom throughout the year.…

  1. University--Science Fair Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallman, Erika; Taylor, Karen

    1997-01-01

    Describes a partnership between a fifth-grade teacher and a university methods professor that involved developing an elementary science fair project mentored by university students. Provides opportunities for elementary students to conduct scientific investigations to learn about science, and opportunities for education majors to have firsthand…

  2. Dissection & Science Fairs. [Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of pamphlets and articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to address the issues of classroom laboratory dissection and the use of animals in science fair projects. Three of the pamphlets contained in this packet are student handbooks designed to help students of elementary,…

  3. Science Fair Projects: The Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Bob; Keen, Dan

    This book approaches the development of science fair projects from the point of view that science should be enjoyable, interesting, and thought-provoking. The scientific concepts introduced here will later help young students to understand more advanced scientific principles. These projects develop skills such as classification, making measured…

  4. How "Fair" Should TV Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentoff, Nat

    1974-01-01

    The "Fairness Doctrine" amendment to the 1934 Communications Act has had a negative impact on radio and television broadcasting in the United States. While the amendment was intended to prevent the nation's airwaves from monopolization by individuals or groups with specific interests or viewpoints, it has, in fact, restrained freedom of…

  5. 7 CFR 51.1164 - Fairly well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND... aggregate area of green color which does not exceed the area of a circle 1 inch (25.4 mm) in diameter, the characteristic color predominates over the green color....

  6. Segmentation in Urban Housing Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnare, Ann B.; Struyk, Raymond J.

    1976-01-01

    In this study, the hypothesis that urban housing markets are segmented, in the sense that significantly different prices per unit of housing services exist contemporaneously in spatially or structurally defined markets, is tested. A main conclusion is that the market is working fairly efficiently to eliminate price premiums and discounts.…

  7. Collector ring project at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinskii, A.; Berkaev, D.; Blell, U.; Dimopoulou, C.; Gorda, O.; Leibrock, H.; Litvinov, S.; Laier, U.; Koop, I.; Schurig, I.; Starostenko, A.; Shatunov, P.; Weinrich, U.

    2015-11-01

    The collector ring is a dedicated ring for fast cooling of ions coming from separators at the FAIR project. To accommodate optimal technical solutions, a structure of a magnet lattice was recently reviewed and modified. Consequently, more appropriate technical solutions for the main magnets could be adopted. A general layout and design of the present machine is shown. The demanding extraction schemes have been detailed and open design issues were completed.

  8. Exploration of risk factors contributing to the presence of influenza A virus in swine at agricultural fairs.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Andrew S; Workman, Jeffrey D; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Nelson, Sarah W; Slemons, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A virus infections occurring in exhibition swine populations at agricultural fairs during 2012 served as a source of H3N2 variant influenza A viruses transmitted to humans resulting in more than 300 documented cases. Prior to the outbreak, this investigation was initiated to identify fair-level risk factors contributing to influenza A virus infections in pigs at agricultural fairs. As part of an ongoing active surveillance program, nasal swabs and associated fair-level metadata were collected from pigs at 40 junior fair market swine shows held in Ohio during the 2012 fair season. Analyses of the data show that the adjusted odds of having influenza A virus-infected pigs at a fair were 1.27 (95% confidential interval (CI): 1.04-1.66) higher for every 20 pig increase in the size of the swine show. Additionally, four of the five fairs that hosted breeding swine shows in addition to their junior fair market swine shows had pigs test positive for influenza A virus. While the current study was limited to 40 fairs within one state, the findings provided insight for veterinary and public health officials developing mitigation strategies to decrease the intra- and inter-species transmission of influenza A virus at fairs.

  9. Exploration of risk factors contributing to the presence of influenza A virus in swine at agricultural fairs

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Andrew S; Workman, Jeffrey D; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Nelson, Sarah W; Slemons, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A virus infections occurring in exhibition swine populations at agricultural fairs during 2012 served as a source of H3N2 variant influenza A viruses transmitted to humans resulting in more than 300 documented cases. Prior to the outbreak, this investigation was initiated to identify fair-level risk factors contributing to influenza A virus infections in pigs at agricultural fairs. As part of an ongoing active surveillance program, nasal swabs and associated fair-level metadata were collected from pigs at 40 junior fair market swine shows held in Ohio during the 2012 fair season. Analyses of the data show that the adjusted odds of having influenza A virus-infected pigs at a fair were 1.27 (95% confidential interval (CI): 1.04–1.66) higher for every 20 pig increase in the size of the swine show. Additionally, four of the five fairs that hosted breeding swine shows in addition to their junior fair market swine shows had pigs test positive for influenza A virus. While the current study was limited to 40 fairs within one state, the findings provided insight for veterinary and public health officials developing mitigation strategies to decrease the intra- and inter-species transmission of influenza A virus at fairs. PMID:26038494

  10. Playing Fair: An Essential Element in Contracting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeler, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Playing fair has a value with which people are all familiar. From the sandboxes of childhood and the competitive sports of youth to the business transactions of adulthood, people have been told how important it is to play fair. Playing fair in contracting is not only essential, it's the legal and ethical thing to do. In this article, the author…

  11. A Science Fair Companion. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Wendy Sherman

    This digest comments on various aspects of school science fairs. General expectations for science fair projects and participants are discussed, and tips for choosing a topic and completing a project are given. Organizational strategies for teachers charged with conducting science fairs are presented. Guidelines for parents in helping children with…

  12. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from the viewpoint of general appearance, the potatoes in the container...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from the viewpoint of general appearance, the potatoes in the container...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1870 - Fairly smooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1870 Section 51.1870 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1870 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato is not conspicuously ridged or rough....

  15. 7 CFR 51.1870 - Fairly smooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly smooth. 51.1870 Section 51.1870 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1870 Fairly smooth. Fairly smooth means that the tomato is not conspicuously ridged or rough....

  16. Inside the Science Fair: The Judge's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter; Zambo, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Science fair judges provide secrets to a successful science fair. Whether students are competing in science fairs at the high school, local, district, regional, state, or international level, their success is dependent on the judges' interpretation of their work. In this article, the authors present a series of questions and answers from past…

  17. Fairness and Using Reflective Journals in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkeburn, Henriikka; Kettula, Kirsi

    2012-01-01

    This study looks at the fairness of assessing learning journals both as the fairness in creating a valid and robust marking process as well as how different student groups may have unfair disadvantages in performing well in reflective assessment tasks. The fairness of a marking process is discussed through reflecting on the practical process and…

  18. Test Fairness and Toulmin's Argument Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunnan, Antony John

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's response to Xiaoming Xi's article titled "How do we go about investigating test fairness?" In this response, the author focuses on test fairness and Toulmin's model of argument structure, Xi's proposal, and the challenges the proposal brings. Xi proposes an approach to investigating test fairness to guide…

  19. 24 CFR 886.121 - Marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marketing. 886.121 Section 886.121... Projects With HUD-Insured and HUD-Held Mortgages § 886.121 Marketing. (a) Marketing of units and selection... Housing Marketing Plan, if required, and with all regulations relating to fair housing...

  20. 24 CFR 886.121 - Marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marketing. 886.121 Section 886.121... Projects With HUD-Insured and HUD-Held Mortgages § 886.121 Marketing. (a) Marketing of units and selection... Housing Marketing Plan, if required, and with all regulations relating to fair housing...

  1. 24 CFR 886.121 - Marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marketing. 886.121 Section 886.121... Projects With HUD-Insured and HUD-Held Mortgages § 886.121 Marketing. (a) Marketing of units and selection... Housing Marketing Plan, if required, and with all regulations relating to fair housing...

  2. 24 CFR 886.121 - Marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marketing. 886.121 Section 886.121... Projects With HUD-Insured and HUD-Held Mortgages § 886.121 Marketing. (a) Marketing of units and selection... Housing Marketing Plan, if required, and with all regulations relating to fair housing...

  3. 24 CFR 886.121 - Marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marketing. 886.121 Section 886.121... Projects With HUD-Insured and HUD-Held Mortgages § 886.121 Marketing. (a) Marketing of units and selection... Housing Marketing Plan, if required, and with all regulations relating to fair housing...

  4. Thermodynamics of Protein Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Kenneth L.; Barz, Bogdan; Bachmann, Michael; Strodel, Birgit

    Amyloid protein aggregation characterizes many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Creutz- feldt-Jakob disease. Evidence suggests that amyloid aggregates may share similar aggregation pathways, implying simulation of full-length amyloid proteins is not necessary for understanding amyloid formation. In this study we simulate GNNQQNY, the N-terminal prion-determining domain of the yeast protein Sup35 to investigate the thermodynamics of structural transitions during aggregation. We use a coarse-grained model with replica-exchange molecular dynamics to investigate the association of 3-, 6-, and 12-chain GNNQQNY systems and we determine the aggregation pathway by studying aggregation states of GN- NQQNY. We find that the aggregation of the hydrophilic GNNQQNY sequence is mainly driven by H-bond formation, leading to the formation of /3-sheets from the very beginning of the assembly process. Condensation (aggregation) and ordering take place simultaneously, which is underpinned by the occurrence of a single heat capacity peak only.

  5. Hyperons at CBM-FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Hans Rudolf

    2016-08-01

    The CBM experiment is one of the four scientific pillars of the Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. Its discovery potential - complementary to heavy-ion experiments at colliders - is based on high-luminosity ion beams. This enables access to extremely rare probes such as charmed particles, vector mesons or multi-strange hyperons with high statistics. However, 3rd generations readout systems and detectors are required to handle the large interaction rates (up to 10 MHz for Au+Au) with sufficient precision and bandwidth. In this contribution we will outline the unique CBM physics program focusing onto hyperons.

  6. Marketing veterinary services.

    PubMed

    Lee, David E

    2006-03-01

    Marketing is a holistic process that goes far beyond a Yellow Page advertisement or a glossy brochure. A thorough evaluation of a market before entry, including best and worst case scenarios, is critical to mak-ing good investments. Veterinarians are fortunate to have a market that is largely protected by barriers to entry and characterized by reasonably high rates of return given minimal risk. Our market base continues to expand and, overall, remains fairly price insensitive. The extent to which a practice can align its capabilities with a product mix that ideally meets its clients' needs will ultimately determine its success.

  7. Marketing veterinary services.

    PubMed

    Lee, David E

    2006-03-01

    Marketing is a holistic process that goes far beyond a Yellow Page advertisement or a glossy brochure. A thorough evaluation of a market before entry, including best and worst case scenarios, is critical to mak-ing good investments. Veterinarians are fortunate to have a market that is largely protected by barriers to entry and characterized by reasonably high rates of return given minimal risk. Our market base continues to expand and, overall, remains fairly price insensitive. The extent to which a practice can align its capabilities with a product mix that ideally meets its clients' needs will ultimately determine its success. PMID:16442443

  8. A nutrition fair cosponsored by dietitians and legislators.

    PubMed

    Gilbride, J A; Baird, P M

    1984-10-01

    A nutrition fair was held in New York City through the cooperative efforts of the local Consulting Nutritionists in Private Practice, the Greater New York Dietetic Association, and two state assembly members. This event was undertaken to market the services of registered dietitians and to enhance the dietitian's role in the local legislative arena. The three-hour fair provided a forum at which the public could obtain direct information and educational materials on various nutrition topics and receive referrals for further consultation. The attendees were mostly women (72%); 63% were in the 21 to 50 age group; and 32% were more than 50 years old. The public response was positive, and the majority of attendees found answers to specific questions. The collaboration of the dietitians and the legislators was also positive. The two assembly members were able to communicate with their constituents and to see how dietitians practice. PMID:6481046

  9. Altruism and fairness: Unnatural selection?

    PubMed

    Cela-Conde, Camilo J; Burges, Lucrecia; Nadal, Marcos; Olivera, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Darwin admitted that the evolution of moral phenomena such as altruism and fairness, which are usually in opposition to the maximization of individual reproductive success, was not easily accounted for by natural selection. Later, authors have proposed additional mechanisms, including kin selection, inclusive fitness, and reciprocal altruism. In the present work, we explore the extent to which sexual selection has played a role in the appearance of human moral traits. It has been suggested that because certain moral virtues, including altruism and kindness, are sexually attractive, their evolution could have been shaped by the process of sexual selection. Our review suggests that although it is possible that sexual selection played such a role, it is difficult to determine the extent of its relevance, the specific form of this influence, and its interplay with other evolutionary mechanisms.

  10. Science Fairs for Science Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    Science literacy is imperative for well informed civic and personal decision making, yet only a quarter of American adults are proficient enough in science to understand science stories reported in the popular press. Hands-on research increases confidence in and understanding of science. When guiding students in designing and conducting science fair projects, mentors can foster science literacy by helping students focus on three goals: (1) articulating hypotheses or questions, (2) designing feasible projects, and (3) learning to make and interpret graphs. These objectives introduce students to the methodological nature of scientific research and give them the tools to interpret scientific facts and data in order to make informed decisions for themselves and society.

  11. The PANDA experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destefanis, M.

    2013-12-01

    The PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt) experiment is one of the major projects in preparation at the upcoming FAIR facility in Darmstadt, Germany. It will study interactions between antiprotons and protons or nuclei in the momentum range from 1.5 GeV/c to 15 GeV/c. The PANDA scientific program will address a wide range of topics, all aiming at improving our understanding of the strong interaction and hadron structure. The PANDA detector is a general-purpose spectrometer that will collect high quality and high statistics data in the fields of meson spectroscopy, baryon-antibaryon production, baryon spectroscopy, hypernuclear physics, hadron properties in the nuclear medium, and nucleon structure. This paper reviews some of the main physics topics of the experiment, together with a presentation of the detector.

  12. Nuclear isoscaling and fair sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jorge

    2008-10-01

    The isoscaling phenomenon was first observed in nuclear multifragmentation experiments and has become a hot topic as it could provide a probe of the nuclear equation of state to understand nuclear matter at extreme condition of isospin such as in neutron stars. The present work studies isoscaling using 1) classical molecular dynamics simulations, 2) percolation and 3) probabilistic arguments, and determines that isoscaling is a general phenomenon that can exist independent of the nuclear reaction, and it is expected to occur in disassemblying systems with no more than fair sampling. In collaboration with Alan Davila, University of Texas at Austin; Claudio Dorso, Universidad de Buenos Aires; Carlos Hernandez, Universidad de Colima; Christian Escudero, University of Texas at El Paso; and Jorge Muñoz, CalTech.

  13. 7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Definitions § 51.772 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and size of the fruit. “Fairly thin” means that the skin thickness does...

  14. 48 CFR 19.807 - Estimating the fair market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting With the Small Business Administration (the 8(a..., available in-house cost estimates, data (including certified cost or pricing data) submitted by the SBA...

  15. 48 CFR 19.807 - Estimating the fair market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting With the Small Business Administration (the 8(a..., available in-house cost estimates, data (including certified cost or pricing data) submitted by the SBA...

  16. 48 CFR 19.807 - Estimating the fair market price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting With the Small Business Administration (the 8(a..., available in-house cost estimates, data (including certified cost or pricing data) submitted by the SBA...

  17. Fairness and the development of inequality acceptance.

    PubMed

    Almås, Ingvild; Cappelen, Alexander W; Sørensen, Erik Ø; Tungodden, Bertil

    2010-05-28

    Fairness considerations fundamentally affect human behavior, but our understanding of the nature and development of people's fairness preferences is limited. The dictator game has been the standard experimental design for studying fairness preferences, but it only captures a situation where there is broad agreement that fairness requires equality. In real life, people often disagree on what is fair because they disagree on whether individual achievements, luck, and efficiency considerations of what maximizes total benefits can justify inequalities. We modified the dictator game to capture these features and studied how inequality acceptance develops in adolescence. We found that as children enter adolescence, they increasingly view inequalities reflecting differences in individual achievements, but not luck, as fair, whereas efficiency considerations mainly play a role in late adolescence. PMID:20508132

  18. 19 CFR 147.44 - Entry for another fair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Entry for another fair. 147.44 Section 147.44... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.44 Entry for another fair. Articles entered for a fair which are to be entered for another fair under the provisions of this...

  19. 19 CFR 147.44 - Entry for another fair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Entry for another fair. 147.44 Section 147.44... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.44 Entry for another fair. Articles entered for a fair which are to be entered for another fair under the provisions of this...

  20. 19 CFR 147.44 - Entry for another fair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry for another fair. 147.44 Section 147.44... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.44 Entry for another fair. Articles entered for a fair which are to be entered for another fair under the provisions of this...

  1. 19 CFR 147.44 - Entry for another fair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Entry for another fair. 147.44 Section 147.44... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.44 Entry for another fair. Articles entered for a fair which are to be entered for another fair under the provisions of this...

  2. 19 CFR 147.44 - Entry for another fair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Entry for another fair. 147.44 Section 147.44... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.44 Entry for another fair. Articles entered for a fair which are to be entered for another fair under the provisions of this...

  3. Astrobiology Student Science Fair Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadooka, M.; Meech, K. J.

    2004-11-01

    Extrasolar Planet Transit and The Light Curve of a Variable Star are some titles of high school student projects entered in the Hawaii State Science Fair. These students were mentored by teachers who participated in the UH Institute for Astronomy Toward Other Planetary Systems summer program under the direction of professor Karen J. Meech. After attending several 3-week TOPS NSF workshops from 1999, these teachers in 2003 were trained to do observing plans to obtain telescope images, use image processing software MIRA for photometry, and produce light curves of variable stars and extrasolar planet transits. Others used the software Astrometrica to do astrometry of Kuiper Belt Objects. Using Compaq laptop computers on long term loan, our teachers mentored their students for astronomy projects during the 2003-2004 school year with the assistance of IfA astronomers and graduate students. Observing plans for images from the 31 inch Lowell Telescope in Arizona and the 2.2 meter UH telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory were followed. Students had to learn about variables such as exposure time, magnitude, frequency requirements, and ephemeris. The many iterations were time consuming and demanded patience and perseverance. Poor weather conditions exposed the students to the realities of astronomy research, so they experienced the highs of successful projects. Future projects will be related to the UH NAI team research using the 2.0 meter Faulkes Telescope located on Haleakala on island of Maui. The TOPS program is funded by National Science Foundation.

  4. Aggregations in Flatworms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Hunter, M.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a school project to investigate aggregations in flatworms which may be influenced by light intensity, temperature, and some form of chemical stimulus released by already aggregating flatworms. Such investigations could be adopted to suit many educational levels of science laboratory activities. (DS)

  5. Theory of Mind Enhances Preference for Fairness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takagishi, Haruto; Kameshima, Shinya; Schug, Joanna; Koizumi, Michiko; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of theory of mind in fairness-related behavior in preschoolers and to introduce a tool for examining fairness-related behavior in children. A total of 68 preschoolers played the Ultimatum Game in a face-to-face setting. Acquisition of theory of mind was defined as the understanding of false…

  6. Fair Shares, Matey, or Walk the Plank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, P. Holt; Myers, Marrielle; Edgington, Cyndi; Confrey, Jere

    2012-01-01

    Whether sharing a collection of toys among friends or a pie for dessert, children as young as kindergarten age are keen on making sure that everyone gets their "fair share." In the classroom, fair-sharing activities call for creating equal-size groups from a collection of objects or creating equal-size parts of a whole and are generally used by…

  7. Making sense of fairness in sports.

    PubMed

    Murray, Thomas H

    2010-01-01

    Cheating evolves constantly. Dozens of athletes were barred from the Winter Olympics for taking banned substances. Gene doping is on the horizon. Questions have arisen about which athletes count as "female." What does it take to keep sports fair? And what does fairness require? PMID:20394123

  8. Helicopter hub fairing and pylon interference drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, D. R.; Sung, D. Y.; Young, L. A.; Louie, A. W.; Stroub, R. H.

    1989-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted to study the aerodynamics of helicopter hub and pylon fairings. The test was conducted in the 7-by 10 Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel (Number 2) at Ames Research Center using a 1/5-scale XH-59A fuselage model. The primary focus of the test was on the rotor hub fairing and pylon mutual interference drag. Parametric studies of pylon and hub fairing geometry were also conducted. This report presents the major findings of the test as well as tabulated force and moment data, flow visualization photographs, and graphical presentations of the drag data. The test results indicate that substantial drag reduction can be attained through the use of a cambered hub fairing with circular arc upper surface and flat lower surface. Furthermore, a considerable portion of the overall drag reduction is attributed to the reduction in the hub-on-pylon interference drag. It is also observed that the lower surface curvature of the fairing has a strong influence on the hub fairing and on pylon interference drag. However, the drag reduction benefit that was obtained by using the cambered hub fairing with a flat lower surface was adversely affected by the clearance between the hub fairing and the pylon.

  9. A Standards-Based Science Fair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In standards-based science fairs, children learn more about what they are interested in. They deepen understandings of how science works and improve inquiry skills--including the ability to communicate and share research results. Parents learn more about science inquiry and their child's science abilities. The standards-based science fair builds…

  10. Science Fairs in Elementary School. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balas, Andrea K.

    This digest presents a summary discussion of the value of holding science fairs in the elementary school context. Reasons for conducting science fairs for elementary students are discussed in terms of several learning theories. Developmentally appropriate types of elementary science projects are suggested. Goals for elementary school science fairs…

  11. What Do We Mean by FAIR?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Liz

    2011-01-01

    "Fair" is a word people are hearing a lot at the moment if they listen to political discussion. There is much debate about how it means different things to politicians of different hues and can be used to justify seemly contradictory courses of action. In science, "fair" is also a word that is used by children and teachers in different ways.…

  12. Science Fair Project Index 1981-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Cynthia, Ed.; Crowe, Deborah, Ed.

    This second supplement to the "Science Fair Project Index 1960-1972" indexes science projects and experiments found in books and magazines published from 1981 through 1984. This index is intended for use by students in grade five through high school and by teachers who are involved in creating science fair projects. Emphasis is on actual projects,…

  13. Science Fair Scene: Turning Ideas into Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, David R.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines the steps necessary to conduct a science fair project and examines two specific examples of how a basic idea for a science fair topic can be followed to its completion. Provides examples of day-to-day operational science in a basic botany project and a lunar geography project. (JJK)

  14. Science Fair Project Index 1973-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akron - Summit County Public Library, OH.

    This supplement to the "Science Fair Project Index 1960-1972" indexes science projects and experiments found in books and magazines published from 1973 through 1980. This index is intended for use by students in grade five through high school and by teachers who are involved in creating science fair projects. Emphasis is on actual projects,…

  15. Making sense of fairness in sports.

    PubMed

    Murray, Thomas H

    2010-01-01

    Cheating evolves constantly. Dozens of athletes were barred from the Winter Olympics for taking banned substances. Gene doping is on the horizon. Questions have arisen about which athletes count as "female." What does it take to keep sports fair? And what does fairness require?

  16. 78 FR 43709 - Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ...Through this rule, HUD proposes to provide HUD program participants with more effective means to affirmatively further the purposes and policies of the Fair Housing Act, which is Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968. The Fair Housing Act not only prohibits discrimination but, in conjunction with other statutes, directs HUD's program participants to take steps proactively to overcome......

  17. 7 CFR 735.111 - Fair treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fair treatment. 735.111 Section 735.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... treatment. (a) Contingent upon the capacity of a warehouse, a warehouse operator will deal in a fair...

  18. 7 CFR 735.111 - Fair treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fair treatment. 735.111 Section 735.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... treatment. (a) Contingent upon the capacity of a warehouse, a warehouse operator will deal in a fair...

  19. 7 CFR 735.111 - Fair treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fair treatment. 735.111 Section 735.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... treatment. (a) Contingent upon the capacity of a warehouse, a warehouse operator will deal in a fair...

  20. 7 CFR 735.111 - Fair treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fair treatment. 735.111 Section 735.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... treatment. (a) Contingent upon the capacity of a warehouse, a warehouse operator will deal in a fair...

  1. 7 CFR 735.111 - Fair treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fair treatment. 735.111 Section 735.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... treatment. (a) Contingent upon the capacity of a warehouse, a warehouse operator will deal in a fair...

  2. The Education Fair: From Concept to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    Representatives of 13 states and of the United States Office of Education developed this handbook to assist educators in the administration of Education Fairs. Such fairs are a valuable means for providing for the diffusion of educational innovations and should be designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of new and exemplary practices. Chapter I…

  3. 7 CFR 273.15 - Fair hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or replace the fair hearing process. The agency conferences may be attended by the eligibility worker... resolution of the dispute. However, a fair hearing must still be held unless the household makes a written... the hearing process. Households shall be advised of any legal services available that can...

  4. 7 CFR 273.15 - Fair hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or replace the fair hearing process. The agency conferences may be attended by the eligibility worker... resolution of the dispute. However, a fair hearing must still be held unless the household makes a written... the hearing process. Households shall be advised of any legal services available that can...

  5. 7 CFR 273.15 - Fair hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or replace the fair hearing process. The agency conferences may be attended by the eligibility worker... resolution of the dispute. However, a fair hearing must still be held unless the household makes a written... the hearing process. Households shall be advised of any legal services available that can...

  6. 7 CFR 273.15 - Fair hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or replace the fair hearing process. The agency conferences may be attended by the eligibility worker... resolution of the dispute. However, a fair hearing must still be held unless the household makes a written... the hearing process. Households shall be advised of any legal services available that can...

  7. 7 CFR 247.33 - Fair hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... hearing? A fair hearing is a process that allows a CSFP applicant or participant to appeal an adverse... agencies must ensure that CSFP applicants and participants understand their right to appeal an adverse action through the fair hearing process, which includes providing written notification of the...

  8. 7 CFR 247.33 - Fair hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... hearing? A fair hearing is a process that allows a CSFP applicant or participant to appeal an adverse... agencies must ensure that CSFP applicants and participants understand their right to appeal an adverse action through the fair hearing process, which includes providing written notification of the...

  9. 7 CFR 247.33 - Fair hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... hearing? A fair hearing is a process that allows a CSFP applicant or participant to appeal an adverse... agencies must ensure that CSFP applicants and participants understand their right to appeal an adverse action through the fair hearing process, which includes providing written notification of the...

  10. 7 CFR 247.33 - Fair hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... hearing? A fair hearing is a process that allows a CSFP applicant or participant to appeal an adverse... agencies must ensure that CSFP applicants and participants understand their right to appeal an adverse action through the fair hearing process, which includes providing written notification of the...

  11. 7 CFR 247.33 - Fair hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... hearing? A fair hearing is a process that allows a CSFP applicant or participant to appeal an adverse... agencies must ensure that CSFP applicants and participants understand their right to appeal an adverse action through the fair hearing process, which includes providing written notification of the...

  12. Experiencing Fairness at School: An International Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses survey responses from around 13,000 grade 9 pupils in French-speaking Belgium, the Czech Republic, England, France and Italy to examine their experiences of fairness in schools. Can differences between countries, types of schools or interactions with teachers, influence what pupils regard as fair, either at school or more widely?…

  13. NEW IDEAS FOR SCIENCE FAIR PROJECTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARMER, ROBERT A.; SAWYER, ROGER WILLIAMS

    THIS GUIDE FOR THE SCIENCE FAIR PARTICIPANTS BEGINS WITH A CHAPTER ON THE NATURE OF SCIENCE, AND THE SCIENCE FAIR, AND CONTINUES THROUGH THE FIVE CHAPTERS OF PART ONE, PLANNING AND EXECUTING YOUR PROJECT, TO EXPLAIN THE DETAILS INVOLVED IN SELECTING, DEVELOPING, AND EXHIBITING A PROJECT. PART II OF THE VOLUME CONSIDERS THE STRUCTURE OF SCIENCE…

  14. 78 FR 30384 - Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing; Region X Regulatory Fairness Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing; Region X Regulatory Fairness Board AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of open meeting of the Regional (Region X) Small... requested. Anyone wishing to attend and/or make a presentation to the Region X Regulatory Fairness...

  15. 24 CFR 884.214 - Marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marketing. 884.214 Section 884.214... HOUSING PROJECTS Project Development and Operation § 884.214 Marketing. (a) Compliance with equal... with the Owner's FmHA-approved Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan, if required, and with...

  16. 24 CFR 884.214 - Marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marketing. 884.214 Section 884.214... HOUSING PROJECTS Project Development and Operation § 884.214 Marketing. (a) Compliance with equal... with the Owner's FmHA-approved Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan, if required, and with...

  17. 24 CFR 884.214 - Marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marketing. 884.214 Section 884.214... HOUSING PROJECTS Project Development and Operation § 884.214 Marketing. (a) Compliance with equal... with the Owner's FmHA-approved Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan, if required, and with...

  18. Medium of exchange matters: what's fair for goods is unfair for money.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, Sanford E; Iyengar, Sheena S

    2010-02-01

    Organized groups face a fundamental problem of how to distribute resources fairly. We found people view it as less fair to distribute resources equally when the allocated resource invokes the market by being a medium of exchange than when the allocated resource is a good that holds value in use. These differences in fairness can be attributed to being a medium of exchange, and not to other essential properties of money (i.e., being a unit of account or a store of value). These findings suggest that egalitarian outcomes have a greater likelihood of being accepted as fair when the resources being distributed take the form of in-kind goods rather than of cash transfers. PMID:20424037

  19. Fair share on high performance computing systems : what does fair really mean?

    SciTech Connect

    Clearwater, Scott Harvey; Kleban, Stephen David

    2003-03-01

    We report on a performance evaluation of a Fair Share system at the ASCI Blue Mountain supercomputer cluster. We study the impacts of share allocation under Fair Share on wait times and expansion factor. We also measure the Service Ratio, a typical figure of merit for Fair Share systems, with respect to a number of job parameters. We conclude that Fair Share does little to alter important performance metrics such as expansion factor. This leads to the question of what Fair Share means on cluster machines. The essential difference between Fair Share on a uni-processor and a cluster is that the workload on a cluster is not fungible in space or time. We find that cluster machines must be highly utilized and support checkpointing in order for Fair Share to function more closely to the spirit in which it was originally developed.

  20. Unlocking the Gates to the Peasants: Are Policies of "Fairness" or "Inclusion" More Important for Equity in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitman, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Attempts to make higher education more equitable more readily succeed at the aggregate (sector) level than at the institutional, with students from disadvantaged groups being overrepresented in low-status institutions. It is suggested that this is because policies of "fairness" (i.e. proportional representation) dominate the contemporary…

  1. Aggregate and the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sachs, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to help you understand our aggregate resources-their importance, where they come from, how they are processed for our use, the environmental concerns related to their mining and processing, how those concerns are addressed, and the policies and regulations designed to safeguard workers, neighbors, and the environment from the negative impacts of aggregate mining. We hope this understanding will help prepare you to be involved in decisions that need to be made-individually and as a society-to be good stewards of our aggregate resources and our living planet.

  2. Young Children's Development of Fairness Preference.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Wen; Yu, Jing; Zhu, Liqi

    2016-01-01

    Fairness is one of the most important foundations of morality and may have played a key role in the evolution of cooperation in humans beings. As an important type of fairness concern, inequity aversion is the preference for fairness and the resistance to inequitable outcomes. To examine the early development of fairness preference in young children, sixty 2- and 3-year-old children were recruited to examine young children's preferences for fairness using a forced choice paradigm. We tested how toddlers acted when they took charge of distributing resources (two candies) to themselves and others and when they were the recipients of both other-advantageous distribution and self-advantageous distribution. Different alternative options were paired with the same fair option in the two conditions. In the other-advantageous condition, children had fewer resources in the alternative options than others, whereas their resources in the alternative options were greater than others' in the self-advantageous condition. The results showed that more children displayed fairness preferences when they distributed resources between two friends than when they distributed resources between a friend and themselves. In both scenarios, 3-year-old children were more likely to demonstrate fairness preference than 2-year-old children. The findings suggest that inequity aversion develops in young children and increases with age over the course of early childhood. When they were recipients, there was a trend in young children's preference for fairness in the other-advantageous condition compared with the self-advantageous condition. This suggests that children might tend to be more likely to display inequity aversion when they are in a disadvantageous position. PMID:27625616

  3. 7 CFR 3575.40 - Equal opportunity and Fair Housing Act requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Marketing Plan and compliance with the Housing and Urban Development accessibility guidelines except for... Federal Reserve Board Regulation, 12 CFR part 202.) (b) Fair Housing Act. Certain housing-related projects... seq.). The lender will determine that the borrower has a valid plan in effect at all times....

  4. Teaching Fair Use with Astronomy Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism among students is most common because of a misunderstanding of copyright and fair use. Images and text are frequently used without proper credit to the original author, and works are frequently acknowledged improperly. For example, space imagery is often used in posters, presentations, on the web, on Facebook, and even in the classrooms, but often are not properly cited. A lesson plan on fair use is presented, outlining what constitutes fair use and how to properly acknowledge the work done by artists and authors everywhere, with examples drawn from the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD).

  5. 7 CFR 51.2084 - Fairly bright.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... the shells show good characteristic color....

  6. 24 CFR 125.501 - Fair Housing Organizations Initiative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fair Housing Organizations... FAIR HOUSING FAIR HOUSING INITIATIVES PROGRAM § 125.501 Fair Housing Organizations Initiative. (a) The Fair Housing Organizations Initiative of the FHIP provides funding to develop or expand the ability...

  7. 24 CFR 125.501 - Fair Housing Organizations Initiative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair Housing Organizations... FAIR HOUSING FAIR HOUSING INITIATIVES PROGRAM § 125.501 Fair Housing Organizations Initiative. (a) The Fair Housing Organizations Initiative of the FHIP provides funding to develop or expand the ability...

  8. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  9. Aggregates from natural and recycled sources; economic assessments for construction applications; a materials flow study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.; Goonan, Thomas G.

    1998-01-01

    Increased amounts of recycled materials are being used to supplement natural aggregates (derived from crushed stone, sand and gravel) in road construction. An understanding of the economics and factors affecting the level of aggregates recycling is useful in estimating the potential for recycling and in assessing the total supply picture of aggregates. This investigation includes a descriptive analysis of the supply sources, technology, costs, incentives, deterrents, and market relationships associated with the production of aggregates.

  10. Cell aggregation and sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Davis, R H

    1995-01-01

    The aggregation of cells into clumps or flocs has been exploited for decades in such applications as biological wastewater treatment, beer brewing, antibiotic fermentation, and enhanced sedimentation to aid in cell recovery or retention. More recent research has included the use of cell aggregation and sedimentation to selectively separate subpopulations of cells. Potential biotechnological applications include overcoming contamination, maintaining plasmid-bearing cells in continuous fermentors, and selectively removing nonviable hybridoma cells from perfusion cultures.

  11. Role of Standard Demand Response Signals for Advanced Automated Aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Kiliccote, Sila

    2011-11-18

    Emerging standards such as OpenADR enable Demand Response (DR) Resources to interact directly with Utilities and Independent System Operators to allow their facility automation equipment to respond to a variety of DR signals ranging from day ahead to real time ancillary services. In addition, there are Aggregators in today’s markets who are capable of bringing together collections of aggregated DR assets and selling them to the grid as a single resource. However, in most cases these aggregated resources are not automated and when they are, they typically use proprietary technologies. There is a need for a framework for dealing with aggregated resources that supports the following requirements: • Allows demand-side resources to participate in multiple DR markets ranging from wholesale ancillary services to retail tariffs without being completely committed to a single entity like an Aggregator; • Allow aggregated groups of demand-side resources to be formed in an ad hoc fashion to address specific grid-side issues and support the optimization of the collective response of an aggregated group along a number of different dimensions. This is important in order to taylor the aggregated performance envelope to the needs to of the grid; • Allow aggregated groups to be formed in a hierarchical fashion so that each group can participate in variety of markets from wholesale ancillary services to distribution level retail tariffs. This paper explores the issues of aggregated groups of DR resources as described above especially within the context of emerging smart grid standards and the role they will play in both the management and interaction of various grid-side entities with those resources.

  12. Knoxville World's Fair OSS-1 display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Knoxville World's Fair OSS-1 display. Photo is of an upright exhibit giving an explanation of each experiment in the OSS-1 pallet and a line drawing showing either the experiment or its location in the shuttle payload bay.

  13. Science Fairs: A Primer for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamrick, Linda; Harty, Harold

    1983-01-01

    Guidelines for parents whose children may be involved in preparing a science fair project are outlined and discussed. Suggests that this article (or a teacher prepared letter) be sent home with students when they are assigned a science project. (JN)

  14. The evolution of fairness through spite

    PubMed Central

    Forber, Patrick; Smead, Rory

    2014-01-01

    The presence of apparently irrational fair play in the ultimatum game remains a focal point for studies in the evolution of social behaviour. We investigate the role of negative assortment in the evolution of fair play in the ultimatum game. Spite—social behaviour that inflicts harm with no direct benefit to the actor—can evolve when it is disproportionally directed at individuals playing different strategies. The introduction of negative assortment alters the dynamics in a way that increases the chance fairness evolves, but at a cost: spite also evolves. Fairness is usually linked to cooperation and prosocial behaviour, but this study shows that it may have evolutionary links to harmful antisocial behaviour. PMID:24523265

  15. The evolution of fairness through spite.

    PubMed

    Forber, Patrick; Smead, Rory

    2014-04-01

    The presence of apparently irrational fair play in the ultimatum game remains a focal point for studies in the evolution of social behaviour. We investigate the role of negative assortment in the evolution of fair play in the ultimatum game. Spite-social behaviour that inflicts harm with no direct benefit to the actor-can evolve when it is disproportionally directed at individuals playing different strategies. The introduction of negative assortment alters the dynamics in a way that increases the chance fairness evolves, but at a cost: spite also evolves. Fairness is usually linked to cooperation and prosocial behaviour, but this study shows that it may have evolutionary links to harmful antisocial behaviour.

  16. 24 CFR 200.929a - Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... with the Fair Housing Act. The Guidelines may be found in the 24 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A, Appendix... Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines. Builders and developers may use the Department's Fair...

  17. 24 CFR 200.929a - Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... with the Fair Housing Act. The Guidelines may be found in the 24 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A, Appendix... Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines. Builders and developers may use the Department's Fair...

  18. 24 CFR 200.929a - Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... with the Fair Housing Act. The Guidelines may be found in the 24 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A, Appendix... Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines. Builders and developers may use the Department's Fair...

  19. 24 CFR 200.929a - Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with the Fair Housing Act. The Guidelines may be found in the 24 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A, Appendix... Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines. Builders and developers may use the Department's Fair...

  20. 24 CFR 200.929a - Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... with the Fair Housing Act. The Guidelines may be found in the 24 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A, Appendix... Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines. Builders and developers may use the Department's Fair...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1555 - Fairly well matured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....1555 Fairly well matured. Fairly well matured means that the skins of the potatoes are generally fairly firmly set and not more than 10 percent of the potatoes in the lot have more than one-fourth of the...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1555 - Fairly well matured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....1555 Fairly well matured. Fairly well matured means that the skins of the potatoes are generally fairly firmly set and not more than 10 percent of the potatoes in the lot have more than one-fourth of the...

  3. 7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and size of the fruit. “Fairly thin” means that the skin thickness does not average more than 1/2 inch...

  4. Fibronectin Aggregation and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Tomoo; Erickson, Harold P.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of fibronectin (FN) assembly and the self-association sites are still unclear and contradictory, although the N-terminal 70-kDa region (I1–9) is commonly accepted as one of the assembly sites. We previously found that I1–9 binds to superfibronectin, which is an artificial FN aggregate induced by anastellin. In the present study, we found that I1–9 bound to the aggregate formed by anastellin and a small FN fragment, III1–2. An engineered disulfide bond in III2, which stabilizes folding, inhibited aggregation, but a disulfide bond in III1 did not. A gelatin precipitation assay showed that I1–9 did not interact with anastellin, III1, III2, III1–2, or several III1–2 mutants including III1–2KADA. (In contrast to previous studies, we found that the III1–2KADA mutant was identical in conformation to wild-type III1–2.) Because I1–9 only bound to the aggregate and the unfolding of III2 played a role in aggregation, we generated a III2 domain that was destabilized by deletion of the G strand. This mutant bound I1–9 as shown by the gelatin precipitation assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis, and it inhibited FN matrix assembly when added to cell culture. Next, we introduced disulfide mutations into full-length FN. Three disulfide locks in III2, III3, and III11 were required to dramatically reduce anastellin-induced aggregation. When we tested the disulfide mutants in cell culture, only the disulfide bond in III2 reduced the FN matrix. These results suggest that the unfolding of III2 is one of the key factors for FN aggregation and assembly. PMID:21949131

  5. The Secondary Markets of Higher Education: A Canadian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwin, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Viewed through a market paradigm, universities can appear as the aggregation of numerous and varied markets. While universities' primary markets focus on teaching and research, they are active in many other markets, most of which support and contribute to their smooth, effective and efficient operation. Using financial and real estate markets as…

  6. Justice and organizational citizenship behavior intentions: fair rewards versus fair treatment.

    PubMed

    Williams, Steve; Pitre, Richard; Zainuba, Mohamed

    2002-02-01

    In a sample of 114 employees from various industries, organizations, and positions, the likelihood of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) increased when employee perceptions of fair treatment by supervisors became more positive. Perceptions of fair rewards and fair formal procedures were not predictors of OCB intentions. After the authors controlled for established patterns of OCB and demographic characteristics, interactional justice perceptions were significantly related to the intention of performing specific organizationally beneficial activities.

  7. Identifying and Removing Barriers to Expanding Municipal Aggregation in the Commonwealth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, Micaelah Burke

    This thesis examines the process to become a municipal aggregator in Massachusetts and offers recommendations on improving the process. In 1997, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts restructured its electricity market and allowed municipalities and those working jointly to purchase electricity for their constituents. Municipal aggregators provide additional competition in the electricity market, public control of electricity purchases, and are in a unique position to provide consumers additional options to promote specific types of electricity generation. Since 1997, only six municipal aggregators have been approved in Massachusetts. In order to identify reasons why, this thesis includes interviews with people involved in the municipal aggregation process in Massachusetts and comparisons with other states that also have municipal aggregation programs. It also includes a historical look at electricity markets both on the federal level and in Massachusetts, and provides information on regulatory requirements municipal aggregators must meet.

  8. Software Development Infrastructure for the FAIR Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlig, F.; Al-Turany, M.; Bertini, D.; Karabowicz, R.

    2011-12-01

    The proposed project FAIR (Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research) is an international accelerator facility of the next generation. It builds on top of the experience and technological developments already made at the existing GSI facility, and incorporate new technological concepts. The four scientific pillars of FAIR are NUSTAR (nuclear structure and astrophysics), PANDA (QCD studies with cooled beams of anti-protons), CBM (physics of hadronic matter at highest baryon densities), and APPA (atomic physics, plasma physics, and applications). The FairRoot framework used by all of the big FAIR experiments as a base for their own specific developments, provides basic functionality like IO, geometry handling etc. The challenge is to support all the different experiments with their heterogeneous requirements. Due to the limited manpower, one of the first design decisions was to (re)use as much as possible already available and tested software and to focus on the development of the framework. Beside the framework itself, the FairRoot core team also provides some software development tools. We will describe the complete set of tools in this article. The Makefiles for all projects are generated using CMake. For software testing and the corresponding quality assurance, we use CTest to generate the results and CDash as web front end. The tools are completed by subversion as source code repository and trac as tool for the complete source code management. This set of tools allows us to offer the full functionality we have for FairRoot also to the experiments based on FairRoot.

  9. Technology meets aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Swan, C.

    2007-07-01

    New technology carried out at Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts on synthetic lightweight aggregate has created material from various qualities of fly ash from coal-fired power plants for use in different engineered applications. In pilot scale manufacturing tests an 'SLA' containing 80% fly ash and 20% mixed plastic waste from packaging was produced by 'dry blending' mixed plastic with high carbon fly ash. A trial run was completed to produce concrete masonry unit (CMU) blocks at a full-scale facility. It has been shown that SLA can be used as a partial substitution of a traditional stone aggregate in hot asphalt mix. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  10. How much inequality in income is fair? A microeconomic game theoretic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatasubramanian, Venkat; Luo, Yu; Sethuraman, Jay

    2015-10-01

    The increasing inequality in income and wealth in recent years, and the associated excessive pay packages of CEOs in the US and elsewhere, is of growing concern among policy makers as well as the common person. However, there seems to be no satisfactory answer, in conventional economic theories and models, to the fundamental questions of what kind of income distribution we ought to see, at least under ideal conditions, in a free market environment, and whether this distribution is fair. We propose a novel microeconomic game theoretic framework that addresses these questions and proves that the lognormal distribution is the fairest inequality of pay in an organization comprising of homogeneous agents, under ideal free market conditions at equilibrium. We also show that for a population of two different classes of agents, the equilibrium distribution is a combination of two different lognormal distributions where one of them, corresponding to the top ˜3-5% of the population, can be misidentified as a Pareto distribution. We compare our predictions with empirical data on global income inequality trends provided by Piketty and others. Our analysis suggests that the Scandinavian countries, and to a lesser extent Switzerland, Netherlands and Australia, have managed to get close to the ideal distribution for the bottom ˜99% of the population, while the US and UK remain less fair at the other extreme. Other European countries such as France and Germany, and Japan and Canada, are in the middle. Our theory also shows the deep and direct connection between potential game theory and statistical mechanics through entropy, which we identify as a measure of fairness in a distribution. This leads us to propose the fair market hypothesis, that the self-organizing dynamics of the ideal free market, i.e., Adam Smith's "invisible hand", not only promotes efficiency but also maximizes fairness under the given constraints.

  11. Partner choice creates fairness in humans

    PubMed Central

    Debove, Stéphane; André, Jean-Baptiste; Baumard, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Many studies demonstrate that partner choice has played an important role in the evolution of human cooperation, but little work has tested its impact on the evolution of human fairness. In experiments involving divisions of money, people become either over-generous or over-selfish when they are in competition to be chosen as cooperative partners. Hence, it is difficult to see how partner choice could result in the evolution of fair, equal divisions. Here, we show that this puzzle can be solved if we consider the outside options on which partner choice operates. We conduct a behavioural experiment, run agent-based simulations and analyse a game-theoretic model to understand how outside options affect partner choice and fairness. All support the conclusion that partner choice leads to fairness only when individuals have equal outside options. We discuss how this condition has been met in our evolutionary history, and the implications of these findings for our understanding of other aspects of fairness less specific than preferences for equal divisions of resources. PMID:25972467

  12. Trust, confidence, procedural fairness, outcome fairness, moral conviction, and the acceptance of GM field experiments.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Michael; Connor, Melanie; Keller, Carmen

    2012-08-01

    In 2005, Swiss citizens endorsed a moratorium on gene technology, resulting in the prohibition of the commercial cultivation of genetically modified crops and the growth of genetically modified animals until 2013. However, scientific research was not affected by this moratorium, and in 2008, GMO field experiments were conducted that allowed us to examine the factors that influence their acceptance by the public. In this study, trust and confidence items were analyzed using principal component analysis. The analysis revealed the following three factors: "economy/health and environment" (value similarity based trust), "trust and honesty of industry and scientists" (value similarity based trust), and "competence" (confidence). The results of a regression analysis showed that all the three factors significantly influenced the acceptance of GM field experiments. Furthermore, risk communication scholars have suggested that fairness also plays an important role in the acceptance of environmental hazards. We, therefore, included measures for outcome fairness and procedural fairness in our model. However, the impact of fairness may be moderated by moral conviction. That is, fairness may be significant for people for whom GMO is not an important issue, but not for people for whom GMO is an important issue. The regression analysis showed that, in addition to the trust and confidence factors, moral conviction, outcome fairness, and procedural fairness were significant predictors. The results suggest that the influence of procedural fairness is even stronger for persons having high moral convictions compared with persons having low moral convictions. PMID:22150405

  13. Fairness: How to Achieve It and How to Optimize in a Fair-Division Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael A.; Cohen, Stanley F.

    2004-01-01

    A simple and practical application of mathematics is for fairly resolving the dispute of division of items for which two parties have equal claim. Basic properties of fair division are explained, which would enable students to learn concepts on optimization without introducing calculus.

  14. Getting a Fair Share: Attitudes and Perceptions of Biobank Stakeholders Concerning the Fairness of Sample Sharing.

    PubMed

    Colledge, Flora; Elger, Bernice

    2015-07-01

    Biobanks are essential tools for furthering a broad range of medical research areas. However, despite the plethora of national and international laws and guidelines which apply to them, the access and sharing policies of biobanks are only sparsely addressed by regulatory bodies. The 'give and take' process of biosample sharing is largely left up to biobank stakeholders themselves to oversee; it is therefore both in stakeholders' power, and in their interest, to ensure that sample accessibility is fair. This is an important step in motivating researchers to collaborate and pool samples, and is crucial to fostering trust in the absence of universally accepted standard practices. To date, little attention has been paid to how fairness considerations affect scientific material sharing, and no empirical research has been carried out to determine the role that fairness plays in collaborative studies. In order to begin to gain understanding in this area, we interviewed 36 biobank stakeholders currently working in Switzerland, focusing on their perceptions of current and optimal fair sharing practices. Our findings reveal that fairness is an important feature of exchange situations for these stakeholders, and that they have well-formed notions about the practical elements of fair sample access, although ideas about the concept of fairness itself are vague. In order to support efforts to network biobanks, attention should be paid to this issue to reassure all involved that they are getting a fair share in their cooperative efforts.

  15. What's fair is fair--or is it? Value differences underlying public views about social justice.

    PubMed

    Rasinski, K A

    1987-07-01

    Individual differences in judgments of the fairness of various sociopolitical phenomena were examined in three surveys. Scales measuring two value dimensions thought to underlie the meaning of fairness were constructed, and survey respondents endorsing these different values were compared on their evaluation of the procedural and distributive fairness of political objects. Those endorsing the value of proportionality, hypothesized by equity theorists to underlie fairness judgments, judged equity-based public policies to be fairer than equality-based policies and judged that Ronald Reagan would be a fairer president than Walter Mondale. These people also emphasized the procedural aspects of government when judging government fairness. Respondents endorsing the value of egalitarianism, hypothesized by developmental theorists and some political philosophers to underlie fairness judgments, judged equality-based public policies to be fairer than equity-based policies and judged that Mondale would be a fairer president than Reagan. These people emphasized the distributive aspects of government when judging government fairness. Results support the naive moral philosopher image of the individual as judge of political objects (Tyler, 1984a). Political fairness judgments are ideological responses and are subject to the influence of the value structure of the judge (Tetlock, 1986).

  16. Science Fair Scene: How to Conduct a Science-Fair Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, David R.

    1991-01-01

    Advice on how to transform a practical idea into a first-class science fair project is provided. How to do scientific research, what to include in a science fair report, how to pick a topic, when to begin, writing the report, and making the display are topics of discussion. (KR)

  17. A Spoonful of Fairness: Training in Fairness Principles Helps Communicate Bad News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streicher, Bernhard; Graupmann, Verena; Weisweiler, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Fairness training was examined in its effect on resulting third party perceptions of communicating a negative outcome. Twenty-nine students were videotaped communicating an unfavourable decision twice within a one-week interval: before and after having participated in fairness training, or--in the control group--remaining untrained. Results showed…

  18. Trust, confidence, procedural fairness, outcome fairness, moral conviction, and the acceptance of GM field experiments.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Michael; Connor, Melanie; Keller, Carmen

    2012-08-01

    In 2005, Swiss citizens endorsed a moratorium on gene technology, resulting in the prohibition of the commercial cultivation of genetically modified crops and the growth of genetically modified animals until 2013. However, scientific research was not affected by this moratorium, and in 2008, GMO field experiments were conducted that allowed us to examine the factors that influence their acceptance by the public. In this study, trust and confidence items were analyzed using principal component analysis. The analysis revealed the following three factors: "economy/health and environment" (value similarity based trust), "trust and honesty of industry and scientists" (value similarity based trust), and "competence" (confidence). The results of a regression analysis showed that all the three factors significantly influenced the acceptance of GM field experiments. Furthermore, risk communication scholars have suggested that fairness also plays an important role in the acceptance of environmental hazards. We, therefore, included measures for outcome fairness and procedural fairness in our model. However, the impact of fairness may be moderated by moral conviction. That is, fairness may be significant for people for whom GMO is not an important issue, but not for people for whom GMO is an important issue. The regression analysis showed that, in addition to the trust and confidence factors, moral conviction, outcome fairness, and procedural fairness were significant predictors. The results suggest that the influence of procedural fairness is even stronger for persons having high moral convictions compared with persons having low moral convictions.

  19. Changing Dynamics in the Voluntary Market (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This presentation, presented at the Renewable Energy Markets Conference in December 2014, outlines the voluntary market in 2013, including community choice aggregation and community solar.

  20. A 90° fair circular waveguide bend.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin-hua; Deng, Ji-liang; Cao, Wei-ping; Li, Si-min; Gao, Xi; Jiang, Yan-nan

    2015-01-01

    We propose a synthesis method to design a 90° bent fair circular waveguide TE01 mode transition based on the non-uniform rational B-spline technique. The transition by this method has advantages of small geometry, high transmission with wide band and high profile fairness. An example of design of such a transition is presented. The simulation shows that the transition exhibits a transmission as high as 99.3% at the central frequency 35 GHz and has a bandwidth of 16.7% when keeping the transmission over 95%. Furthermore, the profile is extremely fair, which meets the requirements to decrease the geometry errors between actual device and its design, to reduce the machining difficulty in the machining process. The hot test data indicate that good transmission of the TE01 mode is obtained. PMID:25638106

  1. A 90° fair circular waveguide bend.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin-hua; Deng, Ji-liang; Cao, Wei-ping; Li, Si-min; Gao, Xi; Jiang, Yan-nan

    2015-01-01

    We propose a synthesis method to design a 90° bent fair circular waveguide TE01 mode transition based on the non-uniform rational B-spline technique. The transition by this method has advantages of small geometry, high transmission with wide band and high profile fairness. An example of design of such a transition is presented. The simulation shows that the transition exhibits a transmission as high as 99.3% at the central frequency 35 GHz and has a bandwidth of 16.7% when keeping the transmission over 95%. Furthermore, the profile is extremely fair, which meets the requirements to decrease the geometry errors between actual device and its design, to reduce the machining difficulty in the machining process. The hot test data indicate that good transmission of the TE01 mode is obtained.

  2. Fair drug prices and the patent system.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2004-06-01

    This paper uses John Rawls' theory of justice to defend the patent system against charges that it has an unfair effect on access to medications,from the perspective of national and international justice. The paper argues that the patent system is fair in a national context because it respects intellectual property rights and it benefits the least advantaged members of society by providing incentives for inventors, investors, and entrepreneurs. The paper also argues that the patent system is fair in an international context, provided that developed nations take steps to help disease-stricken countries secure internal justice. Fairness in a national or international context also requires that the patent system should include emergency exceptions to deal with short-term inequities.

  3. Aggregates, broccoli and cauliflower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.

    1989-09-01

    Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type aggregates. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.

  4. Humanbecoming and practice: fairness-unfairness.

    PubMed

    Hegge, Margaret J

    2012-04-01

    In this column a synthetic definition of fairness-unfairness is followed by a situation study involving an exchange between two undergraduate nursing students and their professor. A series of situations unfolds in which the students encounter a refugee and her family as they enter the American healthcare system. Students share their impressions of fairness-unfairness in this family's experiences. The professor interacts with the students to demonstrate the humanbecoming way of being with persons while bearing witness to the choices made in living out their values.

  5. Effects of Procedural Fairness on Student Judgments of Professors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodabaugh, Rita Cobb; Kravitz, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Three experiments (n=300) were conducted to investigate college student reactions to classroom fairness issues. In two experiments, student ratings of fairness were affected by manipulations of procedural fairness and grade outcome. Effects of procedural fairness were stronger than grade. In the third experiment, ratings of professors were…

  6. 19 CFR 147.33 - Reimbursement by fair operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reimbursement by fair operator. 147.33 Section 147... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Customs Supervision § 147.33 Reimbursement by fair operator. All... reimbursed by the fair operator to the Government, payment to be made on demand to the port director...

  7. 19 CFR 147.13 - Transfer to fair building.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer to fair building. 147.13 Section 147.13... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Procedure for Importation § 147.13 Transfer to fair building. (a... to articles for a fair. (b) After entry. Upon the entry being made, a permit may be issued by...

  8. 19 CFR 147.33 - Reimbursement by fair operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursement by fair operator. 147.33 Section 147... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Customs Supervision § 147.33 Reimbursement by fair operator. All... reimbursed by the fair operator to the Government, payment to be made on demand to the port director...

  9. 19 CFR 147.13 - Transfer to fair building.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transfer to fair building. 147.13 Section 147.13... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Procedure for Importation § 147.13 Transfer to fair building. (a... to articles for a fair. (b) After entry. Upon the entry being made, a permit may be issued by...

  10. 7 CFR 51.612 - Fairly good heart formation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly good heart formation. 51.612 Section 51.612... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.612 Fairly good heart formation. Fairly good heart formation means that the stalk has a moderate number of fairly stocky...

  11. 7 CFR 51.612 - Fairly good heart formation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly good heart formation. 51.612 Section 51.612... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.612 Fairly good heart formation. Fairly good heart formation means that the stalk has a moderate number of fairly stocky...

  12. 7 CFR 51.612 - Fairly good heart formation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly good heart formation. 51.612 Section 51.612....612 Fairly good heart formation. Fairly good heart formation means that the stalk has a moderate number of fairly stocky inner heart branches for its size....

  13. 7 CFR 51.612 - Fairly good heart formation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly good heart formation. 51.612 Section 51.612....612 Fairly good heart formation. Fairly good heart formation means that the stalk has a moderate number of fairly stocky inner heart branches for its size....

  14. 7 CFR 51.612 - Fairly good heart formation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly good heart formation. 51.612 Section 51.612... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.612 Fairly good heart formation. Fairly good heart formation means that the stalk has a moderate number of fairly stocky...

  15. 7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.772 Section 51.772... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.772 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and...

  16. 7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.772 Section 51.772... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.772 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and...

  17. 41 CFR 102-33.395 - What is FAIRS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is FAIRS? 102-33...) § 102-33.395 What is FAIRS? FAIRS is a management information system operated by GSA (MTA) to collect... site. The “FAIRS User's Manual” contains the business rules for using the system and is available...

  18. 41 CFR 102-33.395 - What is FAIRS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is FAIRS? 102-33...) § 102-33.395 What is FAIRS? FAIRS is a management information system operated by GSA (MTA) to collect... site. The “FAIRS User's Manual” contains the business rules for using the system and is available...

  19. 41 CFR 102-33.395 - What is FAIRS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is FAIRS? 102-33...) § 102-33.395 What is FAIRS? FAIRS is a management information system operated by GSA (MTA) to collect... site. The “FAIRS User's Manual” contains the business rules for using the system and is available...

  20. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual Science Fair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolognese, Jeff; Walden, Harvey; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the development of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual Science Fair, including its history and outgrowth from the traditional regional science fairs supported by NASA. The results of the 1999 Virtual Science Fair pilot program, the mechanics of running the 2000 Virtual Science Fair and its results, and comments and suggestions for future Virtual Science Fairs are provided. The appendices to the report include the original proposal for this project, the judging criteria, the user's guide and the judge's guide to the Virtual Science Fair Web site, the Fair publicity brochure and the Fair award designs, judges' and students' responses to survey questions about the Virtual Science Fair, and lists of student entries to both the 1999 and 2000 Fairs.

  1. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual Science Fair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolognese, Jeff; Walden, Harvey; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the development of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Virtual Science Fair, including its history and outgrowth from the traditional regional science fairs supported by NASA. The results of the 1999 Virtual Science Fair pilot program, the mechanics of running the 2000 Virtual Science Fair and its results, and comments and suggestions for future Virtual Science Fairs are provided. The appendices to the report contain supporting documentation, including the original proposal for this project, the judging criteria, the user's guide and the judge's guide to the Virtual Science Fair Web site, the Fair publicity brochure and the Fair award designs, judges' and students' responses to survey questions about the Virtual Science Fair, and lists of student entries to both the 1999 and 2000 Fairs.

  2. Defining the components of fairness in the allocation of water to environmental and human uses

    SciTech Connect

    Syme, G.J.; Nancarrow, B.E.; McCreddin, J.A.

    1999-09-01

    In many countries, water allocation has become increasingly controversial as competition has increased. This paper summarizes a research program of seven studies over 10 years that has developed social psychological theories of justice, equity and fairness for application to the implementation and evaluation of water allocation decisions. Much of the research has been conducted in the context of the development of government sponsored water reform in Australia. this reform has emphasized the need for integrated approaches to water management which encourage efficiency of use through markets, and environmental sustainability through the introduction of environmental (in-stream) flows. The initial study tested the adequacy of equity and procedural justice theories to provide explanations about people's evaluation of decision making in the context of water allocation. They were found to provide insufficient scope for the evaluations. Therefore, the second and third studies developed alternative universal fairness principles and adopted the fairness heuristic as a concept for judging the justice of individual water allocation decisions.

  3. Strategic Audit and Marketing Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Lianna S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this audit was to revise the marketing plan for ADSum Professional Development School and give the owner a long-term vision of the school to operate competitively in the crowded field of for-profit schools. It is fairly simple to create a strategic plan but harder to implement and execute. Execution requires weeks and months of…

  4. Teaching Fairness in Journalism: A Challenging Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objectivity has long been contentious in American journalism. Many practitioners call it essential to a news organization's credibility. Critics, however, hold objectivity is impossible and urge reporters simply to reveal their biases. For educators, teaching objectivity is challenging. Some, seeking a middle ground, instead urge fairness and…

  5. Living Learning Theory through My Fair Lady

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenzer, Holly

    2005-01-01

    In My Fair Lady ( Lerner & Lowe, 1956), the play, the renowned linguistics professor, Henry Higgins, attempts to instruct the common flower-vendor, Eliza Doolittle, in proper English etiquette and speech. Revisit the colourful story from the perspective of a twenty-first century instructional designer. Set in the 1910s, but written in the heyday…

  6. Schools and the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Robert P.

    1986-01-01

    Traces the history of the Fair Labor Standards Act's applicability to public employees. Beginning in April 1986, schools must pay covered employees who work more than 40 hours in a workweek time-and-a-half (in money or compensatory time off). Defines terms and lists recordkeeping requirements. (MLF)

  7. The Third International San Francisco Book Fair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmon, Winn; And Others

    Friends of Books and Comics presents its catalog of the Third International San Francisco Book Fair, a marketplace of alternative books, comics, and magazines. Nearly 200 alternative and small presses are listed alphabetically with address, telephone number, names of principal people involved, and a brief description of type and subject of…

  8. Fair Play: Accepting Responsibility for Student Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karns, Michelle S.; Parker, Dennis R.

    2007-01-01

    Equity in education relies on equal access to learning experiences and fair play during those experiences. Too often policy makers, voters and even some educators define equity only in terms of equal access. Equity is less about the same treatment for all and more about holding everyone to the same high standards and high expectations. All…

  9. Fair Use: Articulating the Liberal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Anthony, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of "Cambridge University Press et al. v. Patton et al.", this article provides the rationale for the academic distribution of scholarly articles without requesting copyright permission or paying the corresponding fees. The fair use of scholarly articles is examined legally, historically, and in an economic context. This article…

  10. Fair process: managing in the knowledge economy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W C; Mauborgne, R

    1997-01-01

    Unlike the traditional factors of production--land, labor, and capital--knowledge is a resource that can't be forced out of people. But creating and sharing knowledge is essential to fostering innovation, the key challenge of the knowledge-based economy. To create a climate in which employees volunteer their creativity and expertise, managers need to look beyond the traditional tools at their disposal. They need to build trust. The authors have studied the links between trust, idea sharing, and corporate performance for more than a decade. They have explored the question of why managers of local subsidiaries so often fail to share information with executives at headquarters. They have studied the dynamics of idea sharing in product development teams, joint ventures, supplier partnerships, and corporate transformations. They offer an explanation for why people resist change even when it would benefit them directly. In every case, the decisive factor was what the authors call fair process--fairness in the way a company makes and executes decisions. The elements of fair process are simple: Engage people's input in decisions that directly affect them. Explain why decisions are made the way they are. Make clear what will be expected of employees after the changes are made. Fair process may sound like a soft issue, but it is crucial to building trust and unlocking ideas. Without it, people are apt to withhold their full cooperation and their creativity. The results are costly: ideas that never see daylight and initiatives that are never seized.

  11. Approval Plans and Departmental Fair Share.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Kathleen

    Some university academic departments contend that they do not receive a fair share of approval-plan books. The study attempts to measure the proportion of books for each departmental subject in general publishing and to compare those ratios to their proportion in approval plan receipts. It also sought to determine whether, and to what extent, book…

  12. A World of Discovery Online: Science Fairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Linda C.

    1996-01-01

    K-12 students and teachers can use the Internet for planning science fair activities--for project ideas, resources, and interactive Web sites. Lists 26 science Web sites specializing in question answering, activities, experiments, optics, math, dissection, inventions, physics, space, genetics, cockroaches and worms, and Twinkies (sponge cakes).…

  13. Fair and optimistic quantum contract signing

    SciTech Connect

    Paunkovic, N.; Mateus, P.; Bouda, J.

    2011-12-15

    We present a fair and optimistic quantum-contract-signing protocol between two clients that requires no communication with the third trusted party during the exchange phase. We discuss its fairness and show that it is possible to design such a protocol for which the probability of a dishonest client to cheat becomes negligible and scales as N{sup -1/2}, where N is the number of messages exchanged between the clients. Our protocol is not based on the exchange of signed messages: Its fairness is based on the laws of quantum mechanics. Thus, it is abuse free, and the clients do not have to generate new keys for each message during the exchange phase. We discuss a real-life scenario when measurement errors and qubit-state corruption due to noisy channels and imperfect quantum memories occur and argue that for a real, good-enough measurement apparatus, transmission channels, and quantum memories, our protocol would still be fair. Apart from stable quantum memories, the other segments of our protocol could be implemented by today's technology, as they require in essence the same type of apparatus as the one needed for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) cryptographic protocol. Finally, we briefly discuss two alternative versions of the protocol, one that uses only two states [based on the Bennett 1992 (B92) protocol] and the other that uses entangled pairs, and show that it is possible to generalize our protocol to an arbitrary number of clients.

  14. Four Tools for Science Fair Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sherry Weaver; Messmer, Barbara; Storm, Bill; Weaver, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    These teacher-tested ideas will guide students in creating true inquiry-based projects. Two of the ideas, the Topic Selection Wizard and Science Project Timeline, are appropriate for all science fair programs, even new ones. For existing programs, the Black Box of Project Improvement and After-School Project Clinic improve project quality and…

  15. Reverse Your Science Fair with Educational Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Jordan; Zardetto-Smith, Andrea; Mu, Keli; Demetrikopoulos, Melissa K.

    2004-01-01

    This article suggests several ways teachers can get their students really excited about science by bringing scientists to the science fair in a different role than the traditional "judge." With a bit more effort, scientists can become actively involved as presenters of hands-on activities. This article discusses: what happens when the tables are…

  16. 24 CFR 1715.27 - Fair housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fair housing. 1715.27 Section 1715.27 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND......

  17. Science Fair Projects. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    This bibliography assists junior and senior high school students and teachers in planning, preparing, executing, and evaluating science fair projects. A few books with experiments suitable for elementary grade students are listed. This publication is not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography but is designed to put the reader "on target."…

  18. Science Fair Projects. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howland, Joyce, Comp.

    The sources listed in this document are selected to provide guidance to students, parents, and teachers throughout the process of planning, developing, implementing, and competing in science fair activities. While sources range in suitability from elementary to high school levels, the emphasis is on materials for grades 9-12. This guide updates LC…

  19. [Law Enforcement Standards of Decency and Fairness].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxbe, William B.

    Effective policemen need to have as much knowledge as possible about society; they need to be fair, like the criminal justice system they represent. Society cannot be protected unless there is full accordance with the law. Questions of concern are whether the poor man or the black man are receiving the same treatment as the rich or influential…

  20. Guidelines for Fair Use of Copyrighted Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Guidelines issued separately by the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW) and the American Library Association (ALA) concerning the fair use of copyrighted materials are presented. In addition, a UW memo is presented that covers background information on the Copyright Law and multiple copy reproduction of copyrighted materials for classroom use.…

  1. Thinking Through Worlds Fair: Evolutionary Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syverson, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the creation of Worlds Fair, a project that evolved over several years from a sketchy short-story idea into a full-blown Web-based multimedia project with over 80 contributors, and proved to be an education in incorporating visual rhetoric into composition pedagogy. (SG)

  2. A Future Fair: Building Tomorrow Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherly, Myra S.

    1992-01-01

    Gifted intermediate-level students in Greenville, South Carolina, held a Future Fair in which students completed projects and developed critical and creative thinking skills as they investigated real problems. Projects such as models, inventions, photo essays, and creative writing focused on future schools, art, fashions, space travel, and other…

  3. A Geometric Approach to Fair Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbanel, Julius

    2010-01-01

    We wish to divide a cake among some collection of people (who may have very different notions of the comparative value of pieces of cake) in a way that is both "fair" and "efficient." We explore the meaning of these terms, introduce two geometric tools to aid our analysis, and present a proof (due to Dietrich Weller) that establishes the existence…

  4. Putting Science into Elementary Science Fairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Helen Ross

    In a world where science has become too confined to books and too reliant on technology, and science fairs have been taken over by parents, this paper offers suggestions to help young people have actual hands-on experience with nature. Topics include soil formation; ants; earthworms; temperature; weather predictions; rain acidity; physical science…

  5. Fair and optimistic quantum contract signing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunković, N.; Bouda, J.; Mateus, P.

    2011-12-01

    We present a fair and optimistic quantum-contract-signing protocol between two clients that requires no communication with the third trusted party during the exchange phase. We discuss its fairness and show that it is possible to design such a protocol for which the probability of a dishonest client to cheat becomes negligible and scales as N-1/2, where N is the number of messages exchanged between the clients. Our protocol is not based on the exchange of signed messages: Its fairness is based on the laws of quantum mechanics. Thus, it is abuse free, and the clients do not have to generate new keys for each message during the exchange phase. We discuss a real-life scenario when measurement errors and qubit-state corruption due to noisy channels and imperfect quantum memories occur and argue that for a real, good-enough measurement apparatus, transmission channels, and quantum memories, our protocol would still be fair. Apart from stable quantum memories, the other segments of our protocol could be implemented by today's technology, as they require in essence the same type of apparatus as the one needed for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) cryptographic protocol. Finally, we briefly discuss two alternative versions of the protocol, one that uses only two states [based on the Bennett 1992 (B92) protocol] and the other that uses entangled pairs, and show that it is possible to generalize our protocol to an arbitrary number of clients.

  6. The HADES-at-FAIR project

    SciTech Connect

    Lapidus, K.; Agakishiev, G.; Balanda, A.; Bassini, R.; Behnke, C.; Belyaev, A.; Blanco, A.; Boehmer, M.; Cabanelas, P.; Carolino, N.; Chen, J. C.; Chernenko, S.; Diaz, J.; Dybczak, A.; Collaboration: HADES Collaboration; and others

    2012-05-15

    After the completion of the experimental program at SIS18 the HADES setup will migrate to FAIR, where it will deliver high-quality data for heavy-ion collisions in an unexplored energy range of up to 8 A GeV. In this contribution, we briefly present the physics case, relevant detector characteristics and discuss the recently completed upgrade of HADES.

  7. Fairing Separation Analysis Using SepTOOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalewski, Bart F.; Dial, William B.; Kosareo, Daniel N.

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the relevant equations programmed in spreadsheet software, SepTOOL, developed by ZIN Technologies, Inc. (ZIN) to determine the separation clearance between a launch vehicle payload fairing and remaining stages. The software uses closed form rigid body dynamic solutions of the vehicle in combination with flexible body dynamics of the fairing, which is obtained from flexible body dynamic analysis or from test data, and superimposes the two results to obtain minimum separation clearance for any given set of flight trajectory conditions. Using closed form solutions allows SepTOOL to perform separation calculations several orders of magnitude faster compared to numerical methods which allows users to perform real time parameter studies. Moreover, SepTOOL can optimize vehicle performance to minimize separation clearance. This tool can evaluate various shapes and sizes of fairings along with different vehicle configurations and trajectories. These geometries and parameters are inputted in a user friendly interface. Although the software was specifically developed for evaluating the separation clearance of launch vehicle payload fairings, separation dynamics of other launch vehicle components can be evaluated provided that aerodynamic loads acting on the vehicle during the separation event are negligible. This document describes the development of SepTOOL providing analytical procedure and theoretical equations whose implementation of these equations is not disclosed. Realistic examples are presented, and the results are verified with ADAMS (MSC Software Corporation) simulations. It should be noted that SepTOOL is a preliminary separation clearance assessment software for payload fairings and should not be used for final clearance analysis.

  8. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  9. An Experimental Investigation of Helicopter Rotor Hub Fairing Drag Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sung, D. Y.; Lance, M. B.; Young, L. A.; Stroub, R. H.

    1989-01-01

    A study was done in the NASA 14- by 22-Foot Wind Tunnel at Langley Research Center on the parasite drag of different helicopter rotor hub fairings and pylons. Parametric studies of hub-fairing camber and diameter were conducted. The effect of hub fairing/pylon clearance on hub fairing/pylon mutual interference drag was examined in detail. Force and moment data are presented in tabular and graphical forms. The results indicate that hub fairings with a circular-arc upper surface and a flat lower surface yield maximum hub drag reduction; and clearance between the hub fairing and pylon induces high mutual-interference drag and diminishes the drag-reduction benefit obtained using a hub fairing with a flat lower surface. Test data show that symmetrical hub fairings with circular-arc surfaces generate 74 percent more interference drag than do cambered hub fairings with flat lower surfaces, at moderate negative angle of attack.

  10. Experiential Learning of the Efficient Market Hypothesis: Two Trading Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In goods markets, an equilibrium price balances demand and supply. In a financial market, an equilibrium price also aggregates people's information to reveal the true value of a financial security. Although the underlying idea of informationally efficient markets is one of the centerpieces of capital market theory, students often have difficulties…

  11. Dynamics of fire ant aggregations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennenbaum, Michael; Hu, David; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    Fire ant aggregations are an inherently active system. Each ant harvests its own energy and can convert it into motion. The motion of individual ants contributes non-trivially to the bulk material properties of the aggregation. We have measured some of these properties using plate-plate rheology, where the response to an applied external force or deformation is measured. In this talk, we will present data pertaining to the aggregation behavior in the absence of any external force. We quantify the aggregation dynamics by monitoring the rotation of the top plate and by measuring the normal force. We then compare the results with visualizations of 2D aggregations.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus Faecium Fair-E 198 against gram-positive pathogens

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Maristela da Silva; Moreno, Izildinha; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Using the critical-dilution method, the bacteriocin produced by E. faecium FAIR-E 198 inhibited all L. monocytogenes strains evaluated (1,600 to 19,200 AU mL-1). However, none of the B. cereus and S. aureus strains investigated were inhibited. The maximum activity of this bacteriocin (800 AU mL-1) was observed in MRS broth, while the activity in milk was 100 AU mL-1. In the co-cultivation test in milk, B. cereus K1-B041 was reduced to below the detection limit (1.00 log CFU mL-1) after 48 h. E. faecium reduced the initial L. monocytogenes Scott A population by 1 log CFU mL-1 after 3 h at 35°C, However, the pathogen regained growth, reaching 3.68 log CFU mL-1 after 48 h. E. faecium did not influence the growth of S. aureus ATCC 27154 during the 48 h of co-cultivation, Therefore, it can be concluded that the effectiveness of the antimicrobial activity of E. faecium FAIR-E 198 is strictly related to the species and strain of the target microorganism and to the culture medium, PMID:24031466

  13. Telecommunications equipment at 1984 Leipzig Spring Fair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidenbruch, K. H.

    1984-12-01

    Radio and telecommunications technology (RFT) communication electronics for world-wide communications was the governing topic under which the VEB Combine Communication Electronics presented its Fair equipment for the 1984 Leipzig Spring Fair. The high scientific-technical level of devices and systems from the GDR becomes clear in five user-oriented equipment complexes in conjunction with other combines, using selected problem and system solutions as examples. New documentation is presented using micro-electronics, digital technology, optoelectronics, and fiber-optic light-guide communication transmission in a well-directed manner, and which can satisfy even the most stringent claims as regards utility for the user, use-value properties, weight/performance ratio, specific energy consumption, as well as easy assembly and optimum service.

  14. Evolution of responses to (un)fairness.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Sarah F; de Waal, Frans B M

    2014-10-17

    The human sense of fairness is an evolutionary puzzle. To study this, we can look to other species, in which this can be translated empirically into responses to reward distribution. Passive and active protest against receiving less than a partner for the same task is widespread in species that cooperate outside kinship and mating bonds. There is less evidence that nonhuman species seek to equalize outcomes to their own detriment, yet the latter has been documented in our closest relatives, the apes. This reaction probably reflects an attempt to forestall partner dissatisfaction with obtained outcomes and its negative impact on future cooperation. We hypothesize that it is the evolution of this response that allowed the development of a complete sense of fairness in humans, which aims not at equality for its own sake but for the sake of continued cooperation. PMID:25324394

  15. Emergence of Fairness in Repeated Group Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Segbroeck, S.; Pacheco, J. M.; Lenaerts, T.; Santos, F. C.

    2012-04-01

    Often groups need to meet repeatedly before a decision is reached. Hence, most individual decisions will be contingent on decisions taken previously by others. In particular, the decision to cooperate or not will depend on one’s own assessment of what constitutes a fair group outcome. Making use of a repeated N-person prisoner’s dilemma, we show that reciprocation towards groups opens a window of opportunity for cooperation to thrive, leading populations to engage in dynamics involving both coordination and coexistence, and characterized by cycles of cooperation and defection. Furthermore, we show that this process leads to the emergence of fairness, whose level will depend on the dilemma at stake.

  16. FAIR: a Horizon for Future Charming Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ritman, James

    2007-11-07

    The science goals underlying the future international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research--FAIR--[1] that is being realized in Darmstadt span a broad range of research activities on the structure of matter. One component of this facility is directed towards studies of hadronic matter at the sub-nuclear level with beams of antiprotons. These studies focus on two key aspects: confinement of quarks and the generation of the hadron masses. These goals will be pursued by performing precision measurements of charged and neutral decay products from antiproton-proton annihilation in the charmonium mass region. In this talk I present some of the issues connected to FAIR in which the groups in Cracow and Juelich are extending and intensifying our cooperation.

  17. How to Restore Fairness After Doping Infringement?

    PubMed

    Hämäläinen, Mika

    2016-10-01

    This article addresses the question how to restore the biggest possible amount of fairness after a discovery of doping infringement. I will analyse eight actions that could be taken: (1) disqualification and re-ranking, (2) change in official result, (3) medal stripping and medal re-awarding, (4) ban, (5) rematch, (6) legal action, (7) apology and (8) forgiveness. I conclude that the best way to restore the biggest possible amount of fairness seems to be a selected combination of actions. I also propose that re-ranking and medal re-awarding should be accompanied by a ceremony in which the new winners are celebrated because they typically did not have the possibility of enjoying their success in front of the original audience. PMID:27369122

  18. How to Restore Fairness After Doping Infringement?

    PubMed

    Hämäläinen, Mika

    2016-10-01

    This article addresses the question how to restore the biggest possible amount of fairness after a discovery of doping infringement. I will analyse eight actions that could be taken: (1) disqualification and re-ranking, (2) change in official result, (3) medal stripping and medal re-awarding, (4) ban, (5) rematch, (6) legal action, (7) apology and (8) forgiveness. I conclude that the best way to restore the biggest possible amount of fairness seems to be a selected combination of actions. I also propose that re-ranking and medal re-awarding should be accompanied by a ceremony in which the new winners are celebrated because they typically did not have the possibility of enjoying their success in front of the original audience.

  19. Negative incidental emotions augment fairness sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuizhen; Chai, Jing Wen; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that task-unrelated emotions induced incidentally exert carryover effects on individuals' subsequent decisions in financial negotiations. However, the specificity of these emotion effects are not clear. In three experiments, we systematically investigated the role of seven transiently induced basic emotions (disgust, sadness, anger, fear, happiness, surprise and neutral) on rejection of unfair offers using the ultimatum game. We found that all negative emotions (disgust, sadness, anger and fear), but not happiness or surprise, significantly increased rejection rates, suggesting that the effect of incidental negative emotions on fairness is not specific to the type of negative emotion. Our findings highlight the role of fleeting emotions in biasing decision-making processes and suggest that all incidental negative emotions exert similar effects on fairness sensitivity, possibly by potentiating attention towards negative aspects of the situation. PMID:27101931

  20. Negative incidental emotions augment fairness sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cuizhen; Chai, Jing Wen; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that task-unrelated emotions induced incidentally exert carryover effects on individuals’ subsequent decisions in financial negotiations. However, the specificity of these emotion effects are not clear. In three experiments, we systematically investigated the role of seven transiently induced basic emotions (disgust, sadness, anger, fear, happiness, surprise and neutral) on rejection of unfair offers using the ultimatum game. We found that all negative emotions (disgust, sadness, anger and fear), but not happiness or surprise, significantly increased rejection rates, suggesting that the effect of incidental negative emotions on fairness is not specific to the type of negative emotion. Our findings highlight the role of fleeting emotions in biasing decision-making processes and suggest that all incidental negative emotions exert similar effects on fairness sensitivity, possibly by potentiating attention towards negative aspects of the situation. PMID:27101931

  1. Evolution of responses to (un)fairness

    PubMed Central

    Brosnan, Sarah F.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2015-01-01

    The human sense of fairness is an evolutionary puzzle. To study this, we can look to other species, in which this can be translated empirically into responses to reward distribution. Passive and active protest against receiving less than a partner for the same task is widespread in species that cooperate outside kinship and mating bonds. There is less evidence that nonhuman species seek to equalize outcomes to their own detriment, yet the latter has been documented in our closest relatives, the apes. This reaction probably reflects an attempt to forestall partner dissatisfaction with obtained outcomes and its negative impact on future cooperation. We hypothesize that it is the evolution of this response that allowed the development of a complete sense of fairness in humans, which aims not at equality for its own sake but for the sake of continued cooperation. PMID:25324394

  2. Animal behaviour: fair refusal by capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wynne, Clive D L

    2004-03-11

    Brosnan and de Waal report that capuchin monkeys show evidence of a sense of fairness or 'inequity aversion' because they rejected a less preferred reward when they saw a partner monkey receive a preferred reward for the same task. However, this does not show that monkeys are averse to inequity, only that they reject a lesser reward when better rewards are available. There are risks inherent in seeking anthropomorphic explanations for non-human behaviour.

  3. Cryptanalysis of fair quantum blind signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Li-Bao; Huang, Liu-Sheng; Yang, Wei; Xu, Rui

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the fair quantum blind signature scheme proposed by Wang and Wen [Wang T Y and Wen Q Y 2010 Chin. Phys. B 19 060307], which uses the fundamental properties of quantum mechanics and the availability of a trusted arbitrator. However, in this paper, we find that the protocol cannot satisfy the property of non-forgeability even under the condition that the trusted arbitrator is totally credible. Moreover, a simple feasible suggestion for improving the protocol is proposed.

  4. Cryogenics for Super-FRS at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yu; Kauschke, Marion; Schroeder, Claus H.; Kollmus, Holger

    The challenge of cooling down the huge cold mass up to 1100 tons (dominated by iron) to 4.5 K is addressed as one of the most important features for Super-FRS cryogenics at FAIR. For such large cold mass precooling with LN2 is necessary due to the reason that approximately 80% of the cool down load is from 300K to 80K. The capacity of the LN2 precooler at 80 K as well as the 4.5 K cooling power have been specified in order to reach a reasonable cooldown time of three to four weeks. In the paper we will also discuss the technical issues for Super-FRS magnet testing at CERN in terms of the limitations of the cooldown / warmup rates on magnets, interface definition, and the magnet cryostat protection against over-pressure under worst-case scenarios, i.e., quench and insulation vacuum sudden loss to air, which are the key issues for the cryogenic test facility planning and machine protection at FAIR. Meanwhile the important features of the refrigerator and the cryogenic distribution system for the Super-FRS at FAIR will be discussed.

  5. Interactivity vs. fairness in networked linux systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wenji; Crawford, Matt; /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    In general, the Linux 2.6 scheduler can ensure fairness and provide excellent interactive performance at the same time. However, our experiments and mathematical analysis have shown that the current Linux interactivity mechanism tends to incorrectly categorize non-interactive network applications as interactive, which can lead to serious fairness or starvation issues. In the extreme, a single process can unjustifiably obtain up to 95% of the CPU! The root cause is due to the facts that: (1) network packets arrive at the receiver independently and discretely, and the 'relatively fast' non-interactive network process might frequently sleep to wait for packet arrival. Though each sleep lasts for a very short period of time, the wait-for-packet sleeps occur so frequently that they lead to interactive status for the process. (2) The current Linux interactivity mechanism provides the possibility that a non-interactive network process could receive a high CPU share, and at the same time be incorrectly categorized as 'interactive.' In this paper, we propose and test a possible solution to address the interactivity vs. fairness problems. Experiment results have proved the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  6. 25 CFR 900.129 - How do the Secretary and Indian tribe or tribal organization arrive at an overall fair and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Prior costs to the government for similar projects adjusted for comparison to the target location...) Changes in inflation rates and market conditions, including local market conditions; (3) Cost and price... contract. The objective of the negotiations is to arrive at an amount that is fair under current...

  7. Regional Demand Models for Water-Based Recreation: Combining Aggregate and Individual-Level Choice Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimating the effect of changes in water quality on non-market values for recreation involves estimating a change in aggregate consumer surplus. This aggregate value typically involves estimating both a per-person, per-trip change in willingness to pay, as well as defining the m...

  8. Do Earthquakes Shake Stock Markets?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Susana; Karali, Berna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how major earthquakes affected the returns and volatility of aggregate stock market indices in thirty-five financial markets over the last twenty years. Results show that global financial markets are resilient to shocks caused by earthquakes even if these are domestic. Our analysis reveals that, in a few instances, some macroeconomic variables and earthquake characteristics (gross domestic product per capita, trade openness, bilateral trade flows, earthquake magnitude, a tsunami indicator, distance to the epicenter, and number of fatalities) mediate the impact of earthquakes on stock market returns, resulting in a zero net effect. However, the influence of these variables is market-specific, indicating no systematic pattern across global capital markets. Results also demonstrate that stock market volatility is unaffected by earthquakes, except for Japan.

  9. Do Earthquakes Shake Stock Markets?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how major earthquakes affected the returns and volatility of aggregate stock market indices in thirty-five financial markets over the last twenty years. Results show that global financial markets are resilient to shocks caused by earthquakes even if these are domestic. Our analysis reveals that, in a few instances, some macroeconomic variables and earthquake characteristics (gross domestic product per capita, trade openness, bilateral trade flows, earthquake magnitude, a tsunami indicator, distance to the epicenter, and number of fatalities) mediate the impact of earthquakes on stock market returns, resulting in a zero net effect. However, the influence of these variables is market-specific, indicating no systematic pattern across global capital markets. Results also demonstrate that stock market volatility is unaffected by earthquakes, except for Japan. PMID:26197482

  10. Kinetics of protein aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, Tuomas

    2015-03-01

    Aggregation into linear nanostructures, notably amyloid and amyloid-like fibrils, is a common form of behaviour exhibited by a range of peptides and proteins. This process was initially discovered in the context of the aetiology of a range of neurodegenerative diseases, but has recently been recognised to of general significance and has been found at the origin of a number of beneficial functional roles in nature, including as catalytic scaffolds and functional components in biofilms. This talk discusses our ongoing efforts to study the kinetics of linear protein self-assembly by using master equation approaches combined with global analysis of experimental data.

  11. Structure of Viral Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Stephen; Luijten, Erik

    2010-03-01

    The aggregation of virus particles is a particular form of colloidal self-assembly, since viruses of a give type are monodisperse and have identical, anisotropic surface charge distributions. In small-angle X-ray scattering experiments, the Qbeta virus was found to organize in different crystal structures in the presence of divalent salt and non-adsorbing polymer. Since a simple isotropic potential cannot explain the occurrence of all observed phases, we employ computer simulations to investigate how the surface charge distribution affects the virus interactions. Using a detailed model of the virus particle, we find an asymmetric ion distribution around the virus which gives rise to the different phases observed.

  12. Lightweight alumina refractory aggregate. Phase 2, Pilot scale development

    SciTech Connect

    Swansiger, T.G.; Pearson, A.

    1994-11-01

    Kilogram quantities of refractory aggregate were prepared from both a paste and a pelletized form of extruder feed material in both bench and pilot-scale equipment. The 99{sup +} % alumina aggregate exhibited a bulk density approaching 2.5 g/cm{sup 3} and a fired strength slightly lower than fused alumina. Based on initial evaluation by two refractory manufacturers in brick or castable applications, the new aggregate offered adequate strength with thermal conductivity reductions up to 34%, depending on the temperature and application of the new aggregate in these initial trials. The new aggregate was simply substituted for Tabular{trademark} in the refractory formulation. Thus, there is room for improvement through formulation optimization with the lightweight aggregate. The new aggregate offers a unique combination of density, strength, and thermal properties not available in current aggregate. To this point in time, technical development has led to a pelletized formulation with borderline physical form leaving the Eirich mixer. The formulation requires further development to provide more latitude for the production of pelletized material without forming paste, while still reducing the bulk density slightly to reach the 2.5 g/cm{sup 3} target. The preferred, pelletized process flowsheet was outlined and a preliminary economic feasibility study performed based on a process retrofit into Alcoa`s Arkansas tabular production facilities. Based on an assumed market demand of 20,000 mt/year and an assumed selling price of $0.65/lb (25% more than the current selling price of Tabular{trademark}, on a volume basis), economics were favorable. Decision on whether to proceed into Phase 3 (full- scale demonstration) will be based on a formal market survey in 1994 October.

  13. 26 CFR 1.1296-2 - Definition of marketable stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... mechanism of a free and open, fair and orderly, market, and to protect investors; and the laws of the... shares, such as a newspaper of general circulation or a trade publication; (iv) No less frequently...

  14. 7 CFR 51.315 - Fairly well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.315 Fairly well formed. “Fairly well formed” means that the apple may be slightly abnormal in shape but not to an...

  15. 7 CFR 51.315 - Fairly well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.315 Fairly well formed. “Fairly well formed” means that the apple may be slightly abnormal in shape but not to an extent which detracts materially from...

  16. 7 CFR 51.315 - Fairly well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.315 Fairly well formed. “Fairly well formed” means that the apple may be slightly abnormal in shape but not to an...

  17. 7 CFR 51.315 - Fairly well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.315 Fairly well formed. “Fairly well formed” means that the apple may be slightly abnormal in shape but not to an extent which detracts materially from...

  18. 7 CFR 51.315 - Fairly well formed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.315 Fairly well formed. “Fairly well formed” means that the apple may be slightly abnormal in shape but not to an extent which detracts materially from...

  19. 7 CFR 51.580 - Fairly well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.580 Fairly well developed. Fairly well... midribs and type of celery and that there is not excessive open space in the center of the stalk....

  20. 7 CFR 51.580 - Fairly well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.580 Fairly well developed. Fairly well... midribs and type of celery and that there is not excessive open space in the center of the stalk....

  1. 7 CFR 51.580 - Fairly well developed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.580 Fairly well developed. Fairly well... midribs and type of celery and that there is not excessive open space in the center of the stalk....

  2. Taurine and platelet aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Nauss-Karol, C.; VanderWende, C.; Gaut, Z.N.

    1986-03-01

    Taurine is a putative neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. The endogenous taurine concentration in human platelets, determined by amino acid analysis, is 15 ..mu..M/g. In spite of this high level, taurine is actively accumulated. Uptake is saturable, Na/sup +/ and temperature dependent, and suppressed by metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and several classes of centrally active substances. High, medium and low affinity transport processes have been characterized, and the platelet may represent a model system for taurine transport in the CNS. When platelets were incubated with /sup 14/C-taurine for 30 minutes, then resuspended in fresh medium and reincubated for one hour, essentially all of the taurine was retained within the cells. Taurine, at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 ..mu..M, had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP or epinephrine. However, taurine may have a role in platelet aggregation since 35-39% of the taurine taken up by human platelets appears to be secreted during the release reaction induced by low concentrations of either epinephrine or ADP, respectively. This release phenomenon would imply that part of the taurine taken up is stored directly in the dense bodies of the platelet.

  3. To Market, to Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    The institution is part of a national market and its presidential options are dictated by that market, the reputation, the challenges of the position, and the relative compensation for the opportunity to lead the organization. Many in academe are uncomfortable with the idea that hiring in higher education should be governed by the laws of supply…

  4. "Fair" outcomes without morality in cleaner wrasse mutualism.

    PubMed

    Bshary, Redouan; Raihani, Nichola

    2013-02-01

    Baumard et al. propose a functional explanation for the evolution of a sense of fairness in humans: Fairness preferences are advantageous in an environment where individuals are in strong competition to be chosen for social interactions. Such conditions also exist in nonhuman animals. Therefore, it remains unclear why fairness (equated with morality) appears to be properly present only in humans.

  5. 16. DETAIL OF TOOL FOR COMPRESSING SPRING IN FAIRING SEPARATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF TOOL FOR COMPRESSING SPRING IN FAIRING SEPARATION ACTUATOR AND PLASTIC-WRAPPED ACTUATOR FOR FAIRING THAT WILL ENCLOSE A DMSP SATELLITE. (FAIRING SEPARATION ACTUATOR COMPRESSES TO ONE-THIRD OF ITS SIZE.) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 46 CFR 381.4 - Fair and reasonable participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair and reasonable participation. 381.4 Section 381.4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS CARGO PREFERENCE-U.S.-FLAG VESSELS § 381.4 Fair and reasonable participation. In order to insure a fair and reasonable...

  7. 46 CFR 381.4 - Fair and reasonable participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fair and reasonable participation. 381.4 Section 381.4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS CARGO PREFERENCE-U.S.-FLAG VESSELS § 381.4 Fair and reasonable participation. In order to insure a fair and reasonable...

  8. 32 CFR 151.7 - Fair trial guarantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fair trial guarantees. 151.7 Section 151.7... MILITARY JUSTICE STATUS OF FORCES POLICIES AND INFORMATION § 151.7 Fair trial guarantees. The following is a listing of “fair trial” safeguards or guarantees that are considered to be applicable to...

  9. 7 CFR 246.9 - Fair hearing procedures for participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fair hearing procedures for participants. 246.9... WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN Participant Eligibility § 246.9 Fair hearing procedures for participants. (a... individual in writing of the right to a fair hearing, of the method by which a hearing may be requested,...

  10. 17 CFR 201.1100 - Creation of Fair Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Creation of Fair Fund. 201.1100 Section 201.1100 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Fair Fund and Disgorgement Plans § 201.1100 Creation of Fair Fund. In any agency process...

  11. 17 CFR 201.1100 - Creation of Fair Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Creation of Fair Fund. 201.1100 Section 201.1100 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Fair Fund and Disgorgement Plans § 201.1100 Creation of Fair Fund. In any agency process...

  12. 41 CFR 102-33.395 - What is FAIRS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Reporting Information on Government Aircraft Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (fairs) § 102-33.395 What is FAIRS? FAIRS is a management information system operated by GSA (MTA) to...

  13. 41 CFR 102-33.395 - What is FAIRS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Reporting Information on Government Aircraft Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (fairs) § 102-33.395 What is FAIRS? FAIRS is a management information system operated by GSA (MTA) to...

  14. Travelling the Road beyond the Curriculum through a Science Fair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Lucy; Evagorou, Maria

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe a model for a science fair, within the context of an elementary science methods course. We first describe the theoretical perspectives from which the idea of science fairs derives and we provide definitions as we sketch the characteristics of commonly used science fairs. We then describe the context and processes of a…

  15. Science Fairs: Promoting Positive Attitudes Towards Science from Student Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Janell D.; Cordry, Sheila; Unline, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to describe step by step procedures teachers can use to successfully engage their students in the development of science fair projects. The article further explains how the student should prepare their science fair project for science fair competition. It is expected that increasing student participation in science…

  16. The Complete Handbook of Science Fair Projects, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bochinski, Julianne Blair

    Science fairs have become an important key to gathering valuable science experience while pursuing independent projects. This book serves as a guide to every aspect of science fairs and science fair projects. It provides information on finding suitable topics, researching them properly, developing experiments, and giving meaning to data results.…

  17. 7 CFR 51.1008 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1008 Section 51.1008... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1008 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the fruit is comparatively free from lumpiness and that pebbling is...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1008 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1008 Section 51.1008... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1008 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the fruit is comparatively free from lumpiness and that pebbling is...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1008 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly smooth texture. 51.1008 Section 51.1008... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1008 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the fruit is comparatively free from lumpiness and that pebbling is...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1557 - Fairly well shaped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly well shaped. 51.1557 Section 51.1557... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1557 Fairly well shaped. Fairly well shaped means that the potato is not materially pointed, dumbbell-shaped or otherwise...