Science.gov

Sample records for aggregate production quotas

  1. 21 CFR 1303.11 - Aggregate production quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aggregate production quotas. 1303.11 Section 1303.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Aggregate Production and Procurement Quotas § 1303.11 Aggregate production quotas. (a) The Administrator shall...

  2. 21 CFR 1303.13 - Adjustments of aggregate production quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal Register his final order determining the aggregate production for the basic class of controlled... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments of aggregate production quotas. 1303... Aggregate Production and Procurement Quotas § 1303.13 Adjustments of aggregate production quotas. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 1303.11 - Aggregate production quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aggregate production quotas. 1303.11 Section 1303.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Aggregate Production... manufacturing and for inventory purposes, yield and stability problems, potential disruptions to...

  4. 76 FR 65537 - Controlled Substances: Proposed Aggregate Production Quotas for 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... Enforcement Administration Controlled Substances: Proposed Aggregate Production Quotas for 2012 AGENCY: Drug...: This notice proposes initial year 2012 aggregate production quotas for controlled substances in....S.C. 826) requires that the Attorney General establish aggregate production quotas for each...

  5. 75 FR 56137 - Controlled Substances: Proposed Aggregate Production Quotas for 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Enforcement Administration Controlled Substances: Proposed Aggregate Production Quotas for 2011 AGENCY: Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Justice. ACTION: Notice of proposed year 2011 aggregate production quotas. SUMMARY: This notice proposes initial year 2011 aggregate production quotas for controlled substances...

  6. 21 CFR 1303.13 - Adjustments of aggregate production quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustments of aggregate production quotas. 1303.13 Section 1303.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS... availability of raw materials for use in manufacturing and for inventory purposes, yield and stability...

  7. 76 FR 77016 - Controlled Substances: Final Adjusted Aggregate Production Quotas for 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... aggregate production quotas for controlled substances in Schedules I and II (75 FR 79404). That notice... 1303 of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations.'' 76 FR 11077. Aggregate production quotas for... adjusted 2011 aggregate production quotas for these substances as published on September 14, 2011, at 76...

  8. 78 FR 48193 - Final Adjusted Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled Substances and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ...This notice establishes final adjusted 2013 aggregate production quotas for controlled substances in Schedules I and II of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) and assessment of annual needs for the List I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine, as well as the 2013 aggregate production quotas for three recently temporarily controlled...

  9. 75 FR 79404 - Controlled Substances: Established Initial Aggregate Production Quotas for 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... schedules I and II was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 56137). All interested persons were invited... Enforcement Administration Controlled Substances: Established Initial Aggregate Production Quotas for 2011 AGENCY: Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Justice. ACTION: Notice of aggregate production quotas...

  10. 78 FR 40186 - Proposed Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled Substances and Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... described in the 2010 and 2011 assessment of annual needs (74 FR 60294 and 75 FR 79407, respectively). DEA... phenylpropanolamine, expressed in grams of anhydrous acid or base, be established as follows: Proposed 2014 Basic... aggregate production quotas, and certain Schedule I aggregate production quotas (gamma-hydroxybutyric...

  11. 75 FR 35838 - Controlled Substances: Proposed Revised Aggregate Production Quotas for 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... FR 54080) on October 21, 2010. The proposed revised 2010 aggregate production quotas represent those... for certain controlled substances in schedules I and II was published in the Federal Register (74 FR... Enforcement Administration Controlled Substances: Proposed Revised Aggregate Production Quotas for 2010...

  12. 76 FR 78044 - Controlled Substances: Established Aggregate Production Quotas for 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... Federal Register (76 FR 65537). That notice proposed the 2012 aggregate production quotas for each basic... pursuant to the final order also published on October 21, 2011, at 76 FR 65371. No comments were received... Enforcement Administration Controlled Substances: Established Aggregate Production Quotas for 2012...

  13. 77 FR 39737 - Controlled Substances: Proposed Adjustment to the Aggregate Production Quotas for 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... published in the Federal Register (76 FR 78044) on December 15, 2011. That notice stipulated that, as... Enforcement Administration Controlled Substances: Proposed Adjustment to the Aggregate Production Quotas for... for comments. SUMMARY: This notice proposes to adjust the 2012 aggregate production quotas for...

  14. 77 FR 46519 - Proposed Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled Substances and Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... assessment of annual needs (74 FR 60294 and 75 FR 79407, respectively). DEA also specifically considered that... grams of anhydrous acid or base, be established as follows: ] Proposed 2013 quotas g Basic Class... I aggregate production quotas (gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and tetrahydrocannabinols), an...

  15. 77 FR 55500 - Controlled Substances: Final Adjusted Aggregate Production Quotas for 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... aggregate production quotas for these substances as published on July 5, 2012, at 77 FR 39737 are sufficient... substances in Schedules I and II (76 FR 78044). That notice stated that the Administrator would adjust, as..., 2012 (77 FR 39737) in consideration of the outlined criteria. All interested persons were invited...

  16. 78 FR 37237 - Proposed Adjustments to the Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... (77 FR 59980) on October 1, 2012. That notice stipulated that, as provided for in 21 CFR 1303.13 and...-carboxamide (AKB48). See 78 FR 28735. DEA has received applications for registration and quota for these... in the 2010 and 2011 assessment of annual needs (74 FR 60294 and 75 FR 79407, respectively)....

  17. 77 FR 59980 - Established Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled Substances and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... g Hydroxypethidine 2 g Ibogaine 5 g Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) 30 g Marihuana 21,000 g... 2013,'' was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 46519). That notice proposed the 2013 aggregate... sale), codeine (for conversion), codeine (for sale), gamma hydroxybutyric acid, hydrocodone (for...

  18. United Arab Emirates expansion curtailed but production still exceeds quota

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1987-08-24

    This article reports that oil and gas activity in the United Arab Emirates has been hit be declining exploration, curtailed development schedules, and the shutdown of production facilities. But despite a mothballing program, production is still running way ahead of the quota set by OPEC for the UAE. According to OPEC's schedule, first half 1987 production should not have exceeded 902,000 b/d. And the increased quotas for the second half of the year would permit output to average 948,000 b/d. But production averaged 1.2 million b/d during the first half of the year, and there is no sign of a significant reduction. Rising output when most other OPEC members are attempting to discipline themselves stems from the failure of Abu Dhabi and Dubai to agree on how the quota should be split. Details are provided on the regions of production activity.

  19. 76 FR 56810 - Controlled Substances: 2011 Proposed Aggregate Production Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... certain controlled substances in schedules I and II was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 56137... the Federal Register (75 FR 79404) on December 20, 2010. Additionally, on March 1, 2011, the DEA...- hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (cannabicyclohexanol; CP-47,497 C8 homologue) (76 FR 11075). That Final Order stated...

  20. 21 CFR 1315.30 - Procurement and import quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas... adequate and uninterrupted supply of, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine the...

  1. 21 CFR 1315.30 - Procurement and import quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas... adequate and uninterrupted supply of, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine the...

  2. 21 CFR 1315.30 - Procurement and import quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas... adequate and uninterrupted supply of, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine the...

  3. 21 CFR 1315.30 - Procurement and import quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas... adequate and uninterrupted supply of, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine the...

  4. 21 CFR 1315.30 - Procurement and import quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas... adequate and uninterrupted supply of, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine the...

  5. A look at construction aggregates production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willett, Jason Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Construction aggregates are defined as the combination of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. Aggregates are one of the most accessible natural resources on Earth and one of the fundamental building blocks of our society. They have been used from the earliest times of our civilization for a variety of applications that have increased in number and complexity with time and technological progress. Despite the relatively low but increasing unit value of its basic products, the construction aggregates industry is a major contributor to and an indicator of the economic well-being of the nation.

  6. Production of prone-to-aggregate proteins.

    PubMed

    Lebendiker, Mario; Danieli, Tsafi

    2014-01-21

    Expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli (E. coli) remains the most popular and cost-effective method for producing proteins in basic research and for pharmaceutical applications. Despite accumulating experience and methodologies developed over the years, production of recombinant proteins prone to aggregate in E. coli-based systems poses a major challenge in most research applications. The challenge of manufacturing these proteins for pharmaceutical applications is even greater. This review will discuss effective methods to reduce and even prevent the formation of aggregates in the course of recombinant protein production. We will focus on important steps along the production path, which include cloning, expression, purification, concentration, and storage. PMID:24211444

  7. 21 CFR 1315.26 - Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. 1315... AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.26 Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator may at any time...

  8. 21 CFR 1315.21 - Individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Individual manufacturing quotas. 1315.21 Section... PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.21 Individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator shall, on or before July 1 of each year,...

  9. 21 CFR 1315.21 - Individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individual manufacturing quotas. 1315.21 Section... PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.21 Individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator shall, on or before July 1 of each year,...

  10. 21 CFR 1315.21 - Individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual manufacturing quotas. 1315.21 Section... PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.21 Individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator shall, on or before July 1 of each year,...

  11. 21 CFR 1315.25 - Increase in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. 1315... AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.25 Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. (a) Any registrant who holds an...

  12. 21 CFR 1315.26 - Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. 1315... AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.26 Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator may at any time...

  13. 21 CFR 1315.26 - Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. 1315... AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.26 Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator may at any time...

  14. 21 CFR 1315.25 - Increase in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. 1315... AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.25 Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. (a) Any registrant who holds an...

  15. 21 CFR 1315.25 - Increase in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. 1315... AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.25 Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. (a) Any registrant who holds an...

  16. 21 CFR 1315.21 - Individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Individual manufacturing quotas. 1315.21 Section... PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.21 Individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator shall, on or before July 1 of each year,...

  17. 21 CFR 1315.21 - Individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Individual manufacturing quotas. 1315.21 Section... PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.21 Individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator shall, on or before July 1 of each year,...

  18. 21 CFR 1315.25 - Increase in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. 1315... AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.25 Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. (a) Any registrant who holds an...

  19. 21 CFR 1315.25 - Increase in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. 1315... AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.25 Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. (a) Any registrant who holds an...

  20. 21 CFR 1315.26 - Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. 1315... AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.26 Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator may at any time...

  1. 21 CFR 1315.26 - Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. 1315... AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.26 Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator may at any time...

  2. 27 CFR 6.71 - Quota sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Quota sales. 6.71 Section 6.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.71 Quota sales. The act by an industry member of requiring a retailer to...

  3. 27 CFR 6.71 - Quota sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Quota sales. 6.71 Section 6.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.71 Quota sales. The act by an industry member of requiring a retailer to...

  4. 27 CFR 6.71 - Quota sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Quota sales. 6.71 Section 6.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.71 Quota sales. The act by an industry member of requiring a retailer to...

  5. 27 CFR 6.71 - Quota sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quota sales. 6.71 Section 6.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.71 Quota sales. The act by an industry member of requiring a retailer to...

  6. 27 CFR 6.71 - Quota sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Quota sales. 6.71 Section 6.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.71 Quota sales. The act by an industry member of requiring a retailer to...

  7. 78 FR 55099 - Established Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled Substances and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ..., ecgonine, hydromorphone, levomethorphan, lysergic acid diethylamide, metazocine, methamphetamine, d... 2 Ibogaine 5 Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) 35 Marihuana 21,000 Mescaline 25 Methaqualone 10... Phenylpropanolamine for 2014,'' was published in the Federal Register (78 FR 40186). That notice proposed the...

  8. 75 FR 55828 - Controlled Substances: Final Revised Aggregate Production Quotas for 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... published June 23, 2010 (75 FR 35838). DATES: Effective Date: September 14, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... published in the Federal Register (75 FR 35838). All interested persons were invited to comment on or object... June 29, 2010 (75 FR 37295) will be controlled as a schedule II controlled substance on August 30,...

  9. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  10. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  11. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  12. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  13. 21 CFR 1315.27 - Abandonment of quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment of quota. 1315.27 Section 1315.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.27 Abandonment...

  14. Protein Aggregation and Its Impact on Product Quality

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Protein pharmaceutical products are typically active as folded monomers that are composed of one or more protein chains, such as the heavy and light chains in monoclonal antibodies that are a mainstay of current drug pipelines. There are numerous possible aggregated states for a given protein, some of which are potentially useful, while most of which are considered deleterious from the perspective of pharmaceutical product quality and performance. This review provides an overview of how and why different aggregated states of proteins occur, how this potentially impacts product quality and performance, fundamental approaches to control aggregate formation, and the practical approaches that are currently used in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25173826

  15. A deterministic aggregate production planning model considering quality of products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madadi, Najmeh; Yew Wong, Kuan

    2013-06-01

    Aggregate Production Planning (APP) is a medium-term planning which is concerned with the lowest-cost method of production planning to meet customers' requirements and to satisfy fluctuating demand over a planning time horizon. APP problem has been studied widely since it was introduced and formulated in 1950s. However, in several conducted studies in the APP area, most of the researchers have concentrated on some common objectives such as minimization of cost, fluctuation in the number of workers, and inventory level. Specifically, maintaining quality at the desirable level as an objective while minimizing cost has not been considered in previous studies. In this study, an attempt has been made to develop a multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model that serves those companies aiming to incur the minimum level of operational cost while maintaining quality at an acceptable level. In order to obtain the solution to the multi-objective model, the Fuzzy Goal Programming approach and max-min operator of Bellman-Zadeh were applied to the model. At the final step, IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimization Studio software was used to obtain the experimental results based on the data collected from an automotive parts manufacturing company. The results show that incorporating quality in the model imposes some costs, however a trade-off should be done between the cost resulting from producing products with higher quality and the cost that the firm may incur due to customer dissatisfaction and sale losses.

  16. Ceramic ware waste as coarse aggregate for structural concrete production.

    PubMed

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia M; Guerra-Romero, M Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture of any kind of product inevitably entails the production of waste. The quantity of waste generated by the ceramic industry, a very important sector in Spain, is between 5% and 8% of the final output and it is therefore necessary to find an effective waste recovery method. The aim of the study reported in the present article was to seek a sustainable means of managing waste from the ceramic industry through the incorporation of this type of waste in the total replacement of conventional aggregate (gravel) used in structural concrete. Having verified that the recycled ceramic aggregates met all the technical requirements imposed by current Spanish legislation, established in the Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08), then it is prepared a control concrete mix and the recycled concrete mix using 100% recycled ceramic aggregate instead of coarse natural aggregate. The concretes obtained were subjected to the appropriate tests in order to conduct a comparison of their mechanical properties. The results show that the concretes made using ceramic sanitary ware aggregate possessed the same mechanical properties as those made with conventional aggregate. It is therefore possible to conclude that the reuse of recycled ceramic aggregate to produce recycled concrete is a feasible alternative for the sustainable management of this waste. PMID:25188783

  17. Production of manufactured aggregates from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.M.; McCoy, D.C.; Fenger, M.L.; Scandrol, R.O.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Statnick, R.M.

    1999-07-01

    CONSOL R and D has developed a disk pelletization process to produce manufactured aggregates from the by-products of various technologies designed to reduce sulfur emissions produced from coal utilization. Aggregates have been produced from the by-products of the Coolside and LIMB sorbent injection, the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), spray dryer absorption (SDA), and lime and limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. The aggregates produced meet the general specifications for use as road aggregate in road construction and for use as lightweight aggregate in concrete masonry units. Small field demonstrations with 1200 lb to 5000 lb of manufactured aggregates were conducted using aggregates produced from FBC ash and lime wet FGD sludge in road construction and using aggregates made from SDA ash and lime wet FGD sludge to manufacture concrete blocks. The aggregates for this work were produced with a bench-scale (200--400 lb batch) unit. In 1999, CONSOL R and D constructed and operated a 500 lb/hr integrated, continuous pilot plant. A variety of aggregate products were produced from lime wet FGD sludge. The pilot plant test successfully demonstrated the continuous, integrated operation of the process. The pilot plant demonstration was a major step toward commercialization of manufactured aggregate production from FGD by-products. In this paper, progress made in the production of aggregates from dry FGD (Coolside, LIMB, SDA) and FBC by-products, and lime wet FGD sludge is discussed. The discussion covers bench-scale and pilot plant aggregate production and aggregate field demonstrations.

  18. 21 CFR 1315.34 - Obtaining an import quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obtaining an import quota. 1315.34 Section 1315.34 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS... Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of each form to be imported. (6) The amount requested expressed...

  19. 21 CFR 1315.34 - Obtaining an import quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obtaining an import quota. 1315.34 Section 1315.34 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS... Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of each form to be imported. (6) The amount requested expressed...

  20. 21 CFR 1315.32 - Obtaining a procurement quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas..., pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine, or whose requirement of registration is waived pursuant to § 1309.24 of this chapter, and who desires to use during the next calendar year any ephedrine, pseudoephedrine,...

  1. 21 CFR 1315.32 - Obtaining a procurement quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas..., pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine, or whose requirement of registration is waived pursuant to § 1309.24 of this chapter, and who desires to use during the next calendar year any ephedrine, pseudoephedrine,...

  2. 21 CFR 1315.32 - Obtaining a procurement quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas..., pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine, or whose requirement of registration is waived pursuant to § 1309.24 of this chapter, and who desires to use during the next calendar year any ephedrine, pseudoephedrine,...

  3. 21 CFR 1315.23 - Procedure for fixing individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Procedure for fixing individual manufacturing quotas. 1315.23 Section 1315.23 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.23 Procedure for...

  4. Across species-pool aggregation alters grassland productivity and diversity.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Thomas P; Yurkonis, Kathryn A

    2016-08-01

    Plant performance is determined by the balance of intra- and interspecific neighbors within an individual's zone of influence. If individuals interact over smaller scales than the scales at which communities are measured, then altering neighborhood interactions may fundamentally affect community responses. These interactions can be altered by changing the number (species richness), abundances (species evenness), and positions (species pattern) of the resident plant species, and we aimed to test whether aggregating species at planting would alter effects of species richness and evenness on biomass production at a common scale of observation in grasslands. We varied plant species richness (2, 4, or 8 species and monocultures), evenness (0.64, 0.8, or 1.0), and pattern (planted randomly or aggregated in groups of four individuals) within 1 × 1 m plots established with transplants from a pool of 16 tallgrass prairie species and assessed plot-scale biomass production and diversity over the first three growing seasons. As expected, more species-rich plots produced more biomass by the end of the third growing season, an effect associated with a shift from selection to complementarity effects over time. Aggregating conspecifics at a 0.25-m scale marginally reduced biomass production across all treatments and increased diversity in the most even plots, but did not alter biodiversity effects or richness-productivity relationships. Results support the hypothesis that fine-scale species aggregation affects diversity by promoting species coexistence in this system. However, results indicate that inherent changes in species neighborhood relationships along grassland diversity gradients may only minimally affect community (meter) - scale responses among similarly designed biodiversity-ecosystem function studies. Given that species varied in their responses to local aggregation, it may be possible to use such species-specific results to spatially design larger-scale grassland

  5. Production of lightweight aggregates from washing aggregate sludge and fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Corrochano, Beatriz; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto; Rodas, Magdalena

    2010-05-01

    Increasing generation of wastes is one of the main environmental problems in industrialised countries. Heat treatment at high temperatures can convert some types of wastes into ceramic products with a wide range of microstructural features and properties (Bethanis et al., 2004). A lightweight aggregate (LWA) is a granular material with a bulk density (bd) not exceeding 1.20 g/cm3 or with a particle density not exceeding 2.00 g/cm3 (UNE-EN-13055-1, 2003). They have become a focus of interest because the low particle density and the low bulk density entail a decrease in the load transmitted to the ground, and less work and effort are required to transport them (De' Gennaro et al., 2004). The benefits associated with these low densities, which are due to the formation of voids and pores, are very good thermal and acoustic insulation and materials with a good resistance to fire (Benbow, 1987; Fakhfakh et al., 2007). The objective was to recycle fly ash, used motor oil from cars and mineral wastes from washing aggregate sludge, in order to obtain a usable material such as lightweight aggregates, and also to ensure that they are of good quality for different applications. Raw materials have been physically, chemically and mineralogically characterized. On the basis of the results obtained, they were mixed, milled to a grain size of less than 200 μm (Yasuda, 1991), formed into pellets, pre-heated for 5 min and sintered in a rotary kiln at 1150°C, 1175°C, 1200°C and 1225°C for 10 and 15 min at each temperature (Theating). Effects of raw material characteristics, heating temperature and dwell time on the following LWAs properties were determined: loss on ignition (LOI), bloating index (BI), loose bulk density (bd), apparent and dry particle density (ad, dd), voids (H), water absorption (WA24h) and compressive strength (S). The products obtained were lightweight aggregates in accordance with norm UNE-EN-13055-1 (bd ≤1.20 g/cm3 or particle density ≤2.00 g/cm3). LWAs

  6. PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    M.M. Wu; D.C. McCoy; R.O. Scandrol; M.L. Fenger; J.A. Withum; R.M. Statnick

    2000-05-01

    The three main conclusions of this report are: (1) The pilot plant successfully demonstrated the continuous, fully-integrated, long-term process operation, including the mixing, pelletizing, and curing steps for aggregate production. The curing vessel, which was designed for the pilot plant test, was operated in a mass flow mode and performed well during pilot plant operation. (2) The pilot plant test demonstrated process flexibility. The same equipment was used to produce lightweight, medium-weight, and road aggregates. The only change was the mix formulation. Aggregates were produced from a variety of mix designs and from FGD sludge with solids concentrations between 45.0% and 56.7% and moisture contents between 55.0% and 43.3%. (3) The pilot plant provided operating data and experience to design and cost a commercial plant, which was not part of the cooperative agreement.

  7. Lightweight aggregate production from claystone and shale in Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Norbert A.; Khan, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    Muffle furnace tests were made on samples of clay, claystone, and shale collected in the Chittagong and Dacca areas of East Pakistan to determine their amenability to bloating for the commercial production of light-weight aggregate. Several areas, sampled in some detail, were selected for investigation because of their proximity to market, and accessibility to fuel and electricity. Muffle furnace tests show that the clay, claystone, and shale are natural bloaters at temperatures in the 1700? to 2200? F range, and do not require additives. The most desirable deposit, insofar as producing a strong aggregate is concerned, can be determined only by pilot-kiln testing and by crushing-strength tests made on concrete test cylinders. Reserves of suitable raw material are large in both the Chittagong and Dacca areas.

  8. Production of aggregate from non-metallic automotive shredder residues.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Vito Alunno; Di Palma, Luca; Medici, Franco

    2006-09-21

    In this paper, the results of an experimentation on the production of granules suitable to be used as aggregates in cementitious or asphalt mixes are presented and discussed. The granules were obtained by granulating the non-metallic fraction of automotive shredder residues. In a preliminary separation step the fluff fraction containing mainly inert and non-metallic materials was sieved and analyzed for the metal content. In the following granulation step, the sieved fraction was mixed with binding materials, fly ash and a densifier agent, to produce granules of 5-30 mm of diameter and up to 1400 kg/m3 of specific weight. The granulation was carried out at room temperature in a rotating tank. Concrete samples prepared using as aggregates the produced granules showed a specific weight up to 1800 kg/m3 and a compressive strength up to about 55% of reference samples prepared using a calcareous aggregate, depending on the fluff content of the mixes, and on the nature of the binder and of the other components used. PMID:16647811

  9. DURABILITY EVALUATION AND PRODUCTION OF MANUFACTURED AGGREGATES FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    M. M. Wu

    2005-02-01

    Under the cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Energy (CONSOL R&D), teamed with Universal Aggregates, LLC, to conduct a systematic study of the durability of aggregates manufactured using a variety of flue gas desulfurization (FGD), fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) and fly ash specimens with different chemical and physical properties and under different freeze/thaw, wet/dry and long-term natural weathering conditions. The objectives of the study are to establish the relationships among the durability and characteristics of FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash, and to identify the causes of durability problems, and, ultimately, to increase the utilization of FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash as a construction material. Manufactured aggregates made from FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash, and products made from those manufactured aggregates were used in the study. The project is divided into the following activities: sample collection and characterization; characterization and preparation of manufactured aggregates; determination of durability characteristics of manufactured aggregates; preparation and determination of durability characteristics of manufactured aggregate products; and data evaluation and reporting.

  10. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES... States (HTS), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar...

  11. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products. DATES... tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar. Pursuant to Additional...

  12. 50 CFR 648.71 - Catch quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... propose surfclam and or ocean quahog quotas that differ from the annual quotas specified for the current 3... Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.71 Catch quotas. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60622, Sept. 29, 2011. (a) Establishing quotas. Beginning in 2005, the amount of surfclams or ocean...

  13. 50 CFR 622.42 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... citations affecting § 622.42, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids.... Except for the quotas for Gulf and South Atlantic coral, the quotas include species harvested from state... person subject to the bag limits.) (a) Gulf reef fish—(1) Commercial quotas. The following quotas...

  14. 50 CFR 622.42 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 622.42, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the.... Except for the quotas for Gulf and South Atlantic coral, the quotas include species harvested from state... person subject to the bag limits.) (a) Gulf reef fish—(1) Commercial quotas. The following quotas...

  15. 50 CFR 622.42 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 622.42, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... South Atlantic coral, the quotas include species harvested from state waters adjoining the EEZ. Quotas... limits.) (a) Gulf reef fish—(1) Commercial quotas. The following quotas apply to persons who fish...

  16. Mine-to-Mill Optimization of Aggregate Production

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Adel; Toni Kojovic; Darren Thornton

    2006-09-30

    Mine-to-Mill optimization is a total systems approach to the reduction of energy and cost in mining and processing. Developed at the Julius Krutschnitt Mineral Research Center in Queensland, Australia, the Mine-to-Mill approach attempts to minimize energy consumption through optimization of all steps in the size reduction process. The approach involves sampling and modeling of blasting and processing, followed by computer simulation to optimize the operation and develop alternatives. The most promising alternatives are implemented, and sampling is conducted to quantify benefits. In the current project, the primary objective was to adapt Mine-to-Mill technology to the aggregates industry. The first phase of this work was carried out at the Bealeton Quarry near Fredericksburg, Virginia. The second phase was carried out at the Pittsboro Quarry south of Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Both quarries are operated by Luck Stone Corporation of Richmond, Virginia. As a result of the work, several conclusions can be drawn from the project which should assist DOE in assessing the applicability of the Mine-to-Mill approach to the aggregates industry. 1. Implementation of MTM guidelines at Pittsboro has resulted in tangible improvements in productivity. It is clear that MTM guidelines represent an energy savings of around 5% (primary and secondary) and an overall energy savings of 1%. This 1-5% energy savings is also consistent with simulated results for Bealeton had side-by-side shots used to evaluate the technology been carried out in the same rockmass. 2. Luck Stone clearly runs their operations at a high standard. Hence the percentage improvement realized in this project may represent the lower end of what might be expected overall in the aggregates industry. 3. Variability in ore types across both Bealeton and Pittsboro suggests a 2:1 difference in hardness which contradicts the misconception that quarry rock is homogenous. Therefore, the idea of comparing side-by-side blasts

  17. 19 CFR 132.17 - Export certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....78, or 2106.90.95, and that are products of a participating country, as defined in 15 CFR 2015.2(e... requirements of 15 CFR 2015.3(b), and with respect to the requirement of 15 CFR 2015.3(b)(3) that the... export certificate is subject to the recordkeeping requirements of part 163 of this chapter (19 CFR...

  18. 19 CFR 132.17 - Export certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....78, or 2106.90.95, and that are products of a participating country, as defined in 15 CFR 2015.2(e... requirements of 15 CFR 2015.3(b), and with respect to the requirement of 15 CFR 2015.3(b)(3) that the... export certificate is subject to the recordkeeping requirements of part 163 of this chapter (19 CFR...

  19. 19 CFR 132.17 - Export certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....78, or 2106.90.95, and that are products of a participating country, as defined in 15 CFR 2015.2(e... requirements of 15 CFR 2015.3(b), and with respect to the requirement of 15 CFR 2015.3(b)(3) that the... export certificate is subject to the recordkeeping requirements of part 163 of this chapter (19 CFR...

  20. 19 CFR 132.17 - Export certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....78, or 2106.90.95, and that are products of a participating country, as defined in 15 CFR 2015.2(e... requirements of 15 CFR 2015.3(b), and with respect to the requirement of 15 CFR 2015.3(b)(3) that the... export certificate is subject to the recordkeeping requirements of part 163 of this chapter (19 CFR...

  1. 19 CFR 132.17 - Export certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....78, or 2106.90.95, and that are products of a participating country, as defined in 15 CFR 2015.2(e... requirements of 15 CFR 2015.3(b), and with respect to the requirement of 15 CFR 2015.3(b)(3) that the... export certificate is subject to the recordkeeping requirements of part 163 of this chapter (19 CFR...

  2. Production of mineral aggregates in quartz tumbling experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nørnberg, Per; Finster, Kai; Pall Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur; Knak Jensen, Svend; Merrison, Jonathan Peter

    2013-04-01

    Introduction Tumbling experiments with quartz sand with the purpose of tracing the effect of broken bonds in mineral surfaces resulted in an unexpected production of aggregates. These aggregates are a few microns in diameter, spherical and resembling tiny white "snowballs." Particle comminution by aeolian and other natural weathering processes are known in soil science and is often seen as an increase of fine particles towards the top of soil profiles (Nørnberg, P. 1987, 1988, 2002, J.S. Wright 2007). When mineral grains collide in aeolian processes they break up along weakness zones in the crystal lattice. This mechanism causes broken bonds between atoms in the crystal lattice and results in reactive groups in the mineral surface. This mechanism provides the background for experiments to investigate the oxidation processes of magnetite on the planet Mars. The primary magnetic iron oxide phase on Mars is to day known to be magnetite and the colour of the dust on Mars is most likely due to hematite. To investigate if the oxidation process could take place without going over dissolution and precipitation in water, experiments with tumbling of quartz grains in sealed glass containers along with magnetite were started. The idea was that activated bonds at the surface of quartz could oxidize magnetite and convert it to hematite over time. This proved to be the case (Merrison, J.P. et al. 2010). However, in these experiments we observed the formation of the white aggregates which has been the subject of the study that we present here. Results of tumbling experiments Commercially available quarts (Merck) was sieved to obtain the fraction between 125 and 1000 µm. This fraction was tumbled in glass containers for months and resulted in production of a significant amount of fine grained material (Merrison, J.P et al. 2010). A part of this fine fraction consists of the "snowball"-like aggregates which is a fragile element with relatively high specific surface. The physical

  3. VIIRS Product Aggregation and Packaging. [Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Areas where the end-users can help define the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) products distributed by NOAA include: temporal aggregation, band packaging, and gelolocation packaging. Proposals in these areas are presented along with background information, advantages and disadvantates of each proposal. The proposals are based on experience with NASA EOS missions and programs (MODIS and SeaWIFS).

  4. Diatom aggregation and dimethylsulfide production in phytoplankton blooms

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are crucial links in many of the earth's biogeochemical cycles. Blooms take up atmospheric carbon through photosynthesis, and sequester it on the ocean floor by sinking. Aggregation of single cells into [open quote]marine snow[close quote] particles speeds up the sinking of algal cells. Laboratory studies investigating the process of aggregation show that some species have a higher probability of aggregating than others, and that there exist several mechanisms for causing aggregation. Field studies confirm that some species are more likely to be found in aggregates than in the surrounding seawater. High latitude Premnesiophyte blooms are found to produce large amounts of dimethylsulflde (DMS), believed to be an important chemical in global thermoregulation. DMS is found to vary diurnally, possibly due to photooxidation by ultraviolet light. This possibility links the effects of DMS on cloud formation with the effects of increased ultraviolet light penetrating the earths ozone layer.

  5. Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Peter J; Hills, Colin D; Carey, Paula J

    2009-10-01

    The concomitant recycling of waste and carbon dioxide emissions is the subject of developing technology designed to close the industrial process loop and facilitate the bulk-re-use of waste in, for example, construction. The present work discusses a treatment step that employs accelerated carbonation to convert gaseous carbon dioxide into solid calcium carbonate through a reaction with industrial thermal residues. Treatment by accelerated carbonation enabled a synthetic aggregate to be made from thermal residues and waste quarry fines. The aggregates produced had a bulk density below 1000 kg/m(3) and a high water absorption capacity. Aggregate crushing strengths were between 30% and 90% stronger than the proprietary lightweight expanded clay aggregate available in the UK. Cast concrete blocks containing the carbonated aggregate achieve compressive strengths of 24 MPa, making them suitable for use with concrete exposed to non-aggressive service environments. The energy intensive firing and sintering processes traditionally required to produce lightweight aggregates can now be augmented by a cold-bonding, low energy method that contributes to the reduction of green house gases to the atmosphere. PMID:19577916

  6. 7 CFR 996.17 - Quota year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quota year. 996.17 Section 996.17 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.17 Quota year. Quota year means the 12-month period beginning January 1 and ending December 31 of the same year...

  7. 7 CFR 996.17 - Quota year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quota year. 996.17 Section 996.17 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.17 Quota year. Quota year means the 12-month period beginning January 1 and ending December 31 of the same year...

  8. 50 CFR 648.71 - Catch quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.71 Catch quotas. (a) Establishing quotas. Beginning in 2005, the amount of surfclams or ocean quahogs that may be caught annually by fishing vessels subject to these... ocean quahogs. Subsequent 3-year specifications of the annual quotas will be accomplished in the...

  9. 50 CFR 665.269 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) General. The quotas limiting the amount of precious coral that may be taken in any precious coral permit area during the fishing year are listed in § 665.269(d). Only live coral is counted toward the quota... bed will be closed to all nonselective coral harvesting after the quota for one species of coral...

  10. 50 CFR 665.667 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 665.667 Quotas. (a) General. The quotas limiting the amount of precious coral that may be taken in any precious coral permit area during the fishing year are listed in § 665.667(d). Only live coral is counted.... A conditional bed will be closed to all nonselective coral harvesting after the quota for...

  11. 50 CFR 665.667 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 665.667 Quotas. (a) General. The quotas limiting the amount of precious coral that may be taken in any precious coral permit area during the fishing year are listed in § 665.667(d). Only live coral is counted.... A conditional bed will be closed to all nonselective coral harvesting after the quota for...

  12. 50 CFR 665.667 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 665.667 Quotas. (a) General. The quotas limiting the amount of precious coral that may be taken in any precious coral permit area during the fishing year are listed in § 665.667(d). Only live coral is counted.... A conditional bed will be closed to all nonselective coral harvesting after the quota for...

  13. 50 CFR 665.467 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Quotas. (a) General. The quotas limiting the amount of precious coral that may be taken in any precious coral permit area during the fishing year are listed in § 665.467(d). Only live coral is counted toward... conditional bed will be closed to all nonselective coral harvesting after the quota for one species of...

  14. 50 CFR 665.667 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 665.667 Quotas. (a) General. The quotas limiting the amount of precious coral that may be taken in any precious coral permit area during the fishing year are listed in § 665.667(d). Only live coral is counted.... A conditional bed will be closed to all nonselective coral harvesting after the quota for...

  15. 50 CFR 665.667 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 665.667 Quotas. (a) General. The quotas limiting the amount of precious coral that may be taken in any precious coral permit area during the fishing year are listed in § 665.667(d). Only live coral is counted.... A conditional bed will be closed to all nonselective coral harvesting after the quota for...

  16. 50 CFR 665.467 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Quotas. (a) General. The quotas limiting the amount of precious coral that may be taken in any precious coral permit area during the fishing year are listed in § 665.467(d). Only live coral is counted toward... conditional bed will be closed to all nonselective coral harvesting after the quota for one species of...

  17. 50 CFR 665.269 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) General. The quotas limiting the amount of precious coral that may be taken in any precious coral permit area during the fishing year are listed in § 665.269(d). Only live coral is counted toward the quota... bed will be closed to all nonselective coral harvesting after the quota for one species of coral...

  18. 50 CFR 665.467 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Quotas. (a) General. The quotas limiting the amount of precious coral that may be taken in any precious coral permit area during the fishing year are listed in § 665.467(d). Only live coral is counted toward... conditional bed will be closed to all nonselective coral harvesting after the quota for one species of...

  19. 50 CFR 665.467 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Quotas. (a) General. The quotas limiting the amount of precious coral that may be taken in any precious coral permit area during the fishing year are listed in § 665.467(d). Only live coral is counted toward... conditional bed will be closed to all nonselective coral harvesting after the quota for one species of...

  20. 50 CFR 665.467 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Quotas. (a) General. The quotas limiting the amount of precious coral that may be taken in any precious coral permit area during the fishing year are listed in § 665.467(d). Only live coral is counted toward... conditional bed will be closed to all nonselective coral harvesting after the quota for one species of...

  1. 50 CFR 665.269 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) General. The quotas limiting the amount of precious coral that may be taken in any precious coral permit area during the fishing year are listed in § 665.269(d). Only live coral is counted toward the quota... bed will be closed to all nonselective coral harvesting after the quota for one species of coral...

  2. 7 CFR 996.17 - Quota year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quota year. 996.17 Section 996.17 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.17 Quota year. Quota year means the 12-month period beginning January 1 and ending December 31 of the same year...

  3. Soil Aggregate Stability and Grassland Productivity Associations in a Northern Mixed-Grass Prairie.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Kurt O; Vermeire, Lance T

    2016-01-01

    Soil aggregate stability data are often predicted to be positively associated with measures of plant productivity, rangeland health, and ecosystem functioning. Here we revisit the hypothesis that soil aggregate stability is positively associated with plant productivity. We measured local (plot-to-plot) variation in grassland community composition, plant (aboveground) biomass, root biomass, % water-stable soil aggregates, and topography. After accounting for spatial autocorrelation, we observed a negative association between % water-stable soil aggregates (0.25-1 and 1-2 mm size classes of macroaggregates) and dominant graminoid biomass, and negative associations between the % water-stable aggregates and the root biomass of a dominant sedge (Carex filifolia). However, variation in total root biomass (0-10 or 0-30 cm depths) was either negatively or not appreciably associated with soil aggregate stabilities. Overall, regression slope coefficients were consistently negative thereby indicating the general absence of a positive association between measures of plant productivity and soil aggregate stability for the study area. The predicted positive association between factors was likely confounded by variation in plant species composition. Specifically, sampling spanned a local gradient in plant community composition which was likely driven by niche partitioning along a subtle gradient in elevation. Our results suggest an apparent trade-off between some measures of plant biomass production and soil aggregate stability, both known to affect the land's capacity to resist erosion. These findings further highlight the uncertainty of plant biomass-soil stability associations. PMID:27467598

  4. Soil Aggregate Stability and Grassland Productivity Associations in a Northern Mixed-Grass Prairie

    PubMed Central

    Reinhart, Kurt O.; Vermeire, Lance T.

    2016-01-01

    Soil aggregate stability data are often predicted to be positively associated with measures of plant productivity, rangeland health, and ecosystem functioning. Here we revisit the hypothesis that soil aggregate stability is positively associated with plant productivity. We measured local (plot-to-plot) variation in grassland community composition, plant (aboveground) biomass, root biomass, % water-stable soil aggregates, and topography. After accounting for spatial autocorrelation, we observed a negative association between % water-stable soil aggregates (0.25–1 and 1–2 mm size classes of macroaggregates) and dominant graminoid biomass, and negative associations between the % water-stable aggregates and the root biomass of a dominant sedge (Carex filifolia). However, variation in total root biomass (0–10 or 0–30 cm depths) was either negatively or not appreciably associated with soil aggregate stabilities. Overall, regression slope coefficients were consistently negative thereby indicating the general absence of a positive association between measures of plant productivity and soil aggregate stability for the study area. The predicted positive association between factors was likely confounded by variation in plant species composition. Specifically, sampling spanned a local gradient in plant community composition which was likely driven by niche partitioning along a subtle gradient in elevation. Our results suggest an apparent trade-off between some measures of plant biomass production and soil aggregate stability, both known to affect the land’s capacity to resist erosion. These findings further highlight the uncertainty of plant biomass-soil stability associations. PMID:27467598

  5. Quotas Are Not Reverse Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Gabrielle K.

    1975-01-01

    The findings of the Morrow v. Crisler and NAACP v. Allen civil rights cases are discussed. It is concluded from these employment discrimination cases that quotas are not reverse discrimination because no one has the right to continue to receive the benefits of racial discrimination at the expense of others. (LBH)

  6. 78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the... announces the establishment of the FY 2014 in-quota aggregate quantity of certain sugars, syrups, and... sugars, syrups, and molasses that may be entered under the subheadings of the HTS subject to the...

  7. New Mexico aggregate production sites, 1997-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents data, including latitude and longitude, for aggregate sites in New Mexico that were believed to be active in the period 1997-1999. The data are presented in paper form in Part A of this report and as Microsoft Excel 97 and Data Interchange Format (DIF) files in Part B. The work was undertaken as part of the effort to update information for the National Atlas. This compilation includes data from: the files of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); company contacts; the New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, New Mexico Bureau of Mine Inspection, and the Mining and Minerals Division of the New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department (Hatton and others, 1998); the Bureau of Land Management Information; and direct communications with some of the aggregate operators. Additional information on most of the sites is available in Hatton and others (1998).

  8. PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Through a cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. (CONSOL R and D) is teaming with SynAggs, Inc. and Duquesne Light to design, construct, and operate a 500 lb/h continuous pilot plant to produce road construction aggregate from a mixture of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, fly ash, and other components. The proposed project is divided into six tasks: (1) Project Management; (2) Mix Design Evaluation; (3) Process Design; (4) Construction; (5) Start-Up and Operation; and (6) Reporting. In this quarter, Tasks 1 and 2 were completed. A project management plan (Task 1) was issued to DOE on October 22, 1998 . The mix design evaluation (Task 2) with Duquesne Light Elrama Station FGD sludge and Allegheny Power Hatfields Ferry Station fly ash was completed. Eight semi-continuous bench-scale tests were conducted to examine the effects of mix formulation on aggregate properties. A suitable mix formulation was identified to produce aggregates that meet specifications of the American Association of State High Transport Officials (AASHTO) as Class A aggregate for use in highway construction. The mix formulation was used in designing the flow sheet of the pilot plant. The process design (Task 3) is approximately 80% completed. Equipment was evaluated to comply with design requirements. The design for the curing vessel was completed by an outside engineering firm. All major equipment items for the pilot plant, except the curing vessel, were ordered. Pilot plant construction (Task 4) was begun in October. The Hazardous Substance Plan was issued to DOE. The Allegheny County (PA) Heat Department determined that an air emission permit is not required for operation of the pilot plant.

  9. USING A MINERAL AGGREGATE TO SUPPLY PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM FOR CONTAINERIZED CROP PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a rising need for increased water and nutrient use efficiency in ornamental container production to maximize profits while minimizing environmental impact. Substrates containing industrial mineral aggregates (clay) can increase water use efficiency and reduce phosphate leaching while retain...

  10. Valorization of lignite combustion residues and ferroalumina in the production of aggregates.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, I M; Stivanakis, V E; Angelopoulos, G N; Papamantellos, D C

    2010-02-15

    The present research study investigates the synergy of industrial solid by-products from lignite combustion (fly ash and bottom ash) and aluminum production (ferroalumina) in the production of lightweight aggregates (LWA). The process consists of two stages, pelletization and sintering. Bottom ash (BA) is used as the principal raw material in mixtures while ferroalumina (FAL) is added in lower percentages (5-30 wt%). BA carbon content is used as the fuel of sintering process in high temperatures, around 1250 degrees C, and gas generation is responsible for porous structure formation. Physical properties such as porosity, water absorption and bulk density, of sintering products are measured. Increase of FAL percentage in sintering mixtures results in decrease of porosity from 61% to 35% and of water absorption from 61% to 21% and in increase of bulk density from 1.02 g/cm(3) to 1.80 g/cm(3) of the produced aggregates. Aggregates produced by FAL addition up to 20 wt% are characterized as LWA. Aggregates formed are used in the production of concrete specimens. Compressive strength of concrete increases by increasing FAL addition in aggregates from 5 wt% to 15 wt% (highest strength value), while decrease by increasing FAL addition from 20 wt% to 30 wt%. FAL addition in lignite ashes sintering mixtures (up to 15 wt%) is considered as an important parameter for enhancing aggregates strength. PMID:19850411

  11. Comparison of antibody molecules produced from two cell lines with contrasting productivities and aggregate contents.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yoichi; Imamoto, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Rie; Tsukahara, Masayoshi; Wakamatsu, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture processes that produce therapeutic antibodies with high productivity (titer) and low aggregate content reduce the risk of adverse effects and expense to patients. To elucidate the mechanism of aggregate formation, we compared trastuzumab samples produced from two contrasting cell lines: cell line A, which exhibits high titer and low aggregate content, and cell line B, which exhibits low titer and high aggregate content. Cell line B produced significantly fewer (approximately 1/3) antibodies compared with cell line A and contained higher (approximately 3-fold) percentages of aggregates. The aggregates of antibodies found in the protein A-purified samples of cell line B were associated mostly with noncovalent interactions. Cell line B exhibited a low content of monomers/dimers of light chains in the medium and within cells. Because light chains are essential for the correct folding of heavy chains and secretion of mature antibodies, the characteristics of cell line B may be attributed to low levels of light chain production. In addition, protein A-purified antibodies from cell line B (but not those from cell line A) contained fragments that are expected to expose the hydrophobic CH3 domain, which may serve as nuclei for aggregation. PMID:25501618

  12. Method for the production of cementitious compositions and aggregate derivatives from said compositions

    DOEpatents

    Minnick, L. John

    1981-01-01

    Method for the production of cementitious compositions and aggregate derivatives of said compositions, and cementitious compositions and aggregates produced by said method, wherein fluidized bed combustion residue and pozzolanic material, such as pulverized coal combustion system fly ash, are incorporated in a cementitious mix. The mix is cast into desired shape and cured. If desired, the shape may then be crushed so as to result in a fluidized bed combustion residue-fly ash aggregate material or the shape may be used by itself.

  13. 50 CFR 680.40 - Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS (PQS), Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ), and Individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS (PQS), Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ), and Individual Processor Quota (IPQ) Issuance. 680.40 Section 680.40 Wildlife... Management Measures § 680.40 Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS (PQS), Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ),...

  14. A new multi-period linguistic aggregation operator and its application to financial product selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Yang, Wei

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new aggregation operator, dynamic 2-tuple linguistic weighted averaging (DTWA) operator, to aggregate linguistic information given in multiple periods. The properties of the new operator are studied and a new multiple attribute decision making method based on the new operator is proposed. Finally, financial product selection problem is provided to illustrate the the proposed method in financial decision making problem.

  15. The Role of Aggregates of Therapeutic Protein Products in Immunogenicity: An Evaluation by Mathematical Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Liusong; Chen, Xiaoying; Tiwari, Abhinav; Vicini, Paolo; Hickling, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic protein products (TPP) have been widely used to treat a variety of human diseases, including cancer, hemophilia, and autoimmune diseases. However, TPP can induce unwanted immune responses that can impact both drug efficacy and patient safety. The presence of aggregates is of particular concern as they have been implicated in inducing both T cell-independent and T cell-dependent immune responses. We used mathematical modeling to evaluate several mechanisms through which aggregates of TPP could contribute to the development of immunogenicity. Modeling interactions between aggregates and B cell receptors demonstrated that aggregates are unlikely to induce T cell-independent immune responses by cross-linking B cell receptors because the amount of signal transducing complex that can form under physiologically relevant conditions is limited. We systematically evaluate the role of aggregates in inducing T cell-dependent immune responses using a recently developed multiscale mechanistic mathematical model. Our analysis indicates that aggregates could contribute to T cell-dependent immune response by inducing high affinity epitopes which may not be present in the nonaggregated TPP and/or by enhancing danger signals to break tolerance. In summary, our computational analysis is suggestive of novel insights into the mechanisms underlying aggregate-induced immunogenicity, which could be used to develop mitigation strategies. PMID:26682236

  16. Mine-to-Mill Optimization of Aggregate Production

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Adel; Toni Kojovic; Darren Thornton

    2006-06-01

    Mine-to-Mill optimization is a total systems approach to the reduction of energy and cost in mining and mineral processing operations. Developed at the Julius Krutschnitt Mineral Research Centre (JKMRC) in Queensland, Australia, the Mine-to-Mill approach attempts to minimize energy consumption through the optimization of all steps in the size reduction process. The approach involves sampling and modeling of blasting and processing, followed by computer simulation to optimize the operation and develop alternatives. The most promising alternatives are implemented, and sampling is conducted to quantify energy savings. In the current project, the primary objective is to adapt the JKMRC Mine-to-Mill technology to the aggregates industry. The second phase of this project is being carried out at the Pittsboro Quarry located south of Chapel Hill, North Carolina. This quarry is owned by 3M Corporation and operated by Luck Stone. Based on lessons learned from the first phase work, long-term monitoring ({approx} three months) of all quarry operations is being carried out to minimize the impact of geological changes during the mining process. To date, the blasting and processing operations have been audited and modeled, the long-term monitoring of current Luck Stone practice has been completed, and a modified blasting approach has been implemented based on the results of simulations using JKSimBlast and JKSimPlant. The modified blasting approach is expected to increase the primary throughput by 15% and the secondary throughput by approximately 6%, with an overall specific energy reduction of around 1%. Long-term monitoring is currently underway to evaluate the impact the modified blasting approach. This report summarizes the current status of work at the Pittsboro Quarry.

  17. The effect of price and production risks on optimal farm plans in Swiss dairy production considering 2 different milk quota systems.

    PubMed

    Briner, S; Finger, R

    2013-04-01

    The amount of milk produced on Swiss dairy farms is restricted by contracts between the farmers and their marketing agent. In the past, these contracts have been calculated on a yearly base. Due to a switch in agricultural policy, these yearly contracts are currently more and more replaced by contracts calculated on a monthly base. These new contracts are assumed to restrict the flexibility of farmers to react on changes in milk price as well as on changes in fodder availability. Thus, the contract design is expected to influence farmers' ability to cope with risks and, thus, to influence the farm's gross margin variability. Applying a bioeconomic whole-farm model, the effects of price and weather risk as well as different risk-management strategies on the gross margin and the variability of the gross margin in Swiss dairy production are assessed under the 2 contract designs. We consider both risk-neutral and risk-averse behavior of farmers in our study. Results show that gross margin is slightly higher under the yearly than under the monthly contract. Variability of gross margin is also higher under the yearly than under the monthly contract. If the farmer is assumed to be risk averse, under both contracts he can reduce the coefficient of variation of the gross margin by almost 20% at opportunity costs below 1% of the gross margin. To reduce variability of gross margin under both contracts the size of the feedstock needs to be increased. This increase, however, must be considerably higher under the monthly contract than under the yearly contract. An additional risk-management strategy under a monthly contract is an increase in the area used as intensive pasture to ensure fodder availability in years with unfavorable weather. Under the yearly contract, an increase in the area used as extensive pasture is shown to be more favorable because it increases the amount of direct payments the farmer will receive. Additional restrictions in farm management due to a monthly

  18. A novel heuristic for optimization aggregate production problem: Evidence from flat panel display in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kuhali, K.; Hussain M., I.; Zain Z., M.; Mullenix, P.

    2015-05-01

    Aim: This paper contribute to the flat panel display industry it terms of aggregate production planning. Methodology: For the minimization cost of total production of LCD manufacturing, a linear programming was applied. The decision variables are general production costs, additional cost incurred for overtime production, additional cost incurred for subcontracting, inventory carrying cost, backorder costs and adjustments for changes incurred within labour levels. Model has been developed considering a manufacturer having several product types, which the maximum types are N, along a total time period of T. Results: Industrial case study based on Malaysia is presented to test and to validate the developed linear programming model for aggregate production planning. Conclusion: The model development is fit under stable environment conditions. Overall it can be recommended to adapt the proven linear programming model to production planning of Malaysian flat panel display industry.

  19. 77 FR 51681 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2012...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for...: This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing... for certain dairy product import licenses permanently surrendered by licensees or revoked by...

  20. 78 FR 46491 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2013...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for...: This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing... for certain dairy product import licenses permanently surrendered by licensees or revoked by...

  1. 75 FR 53565 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation...: This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing... for certain dairy product import licenses permanently surrendered by licensees or revoked by...

  2. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective Date...), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined...

  3. 50 CFR 622.303 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pelagic Sargassum... restrictions for South Atlantic pelagic sargassum. (a) Quota. The quota for all persons who harvest pelagic sargassum in the South Atlantic EEZ is 5,000 lb (2,268 kg), wet, landed weight. See § 622.301(a) for...

  4. 50 CFR 622.303 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pelagic Sargassum... restrictions for South Atlantic pelagic sargassum. (a) Quota. The quota for all persons who harvest pelagic sargassum in the South Atlantic EEZ is 5,000 lb (2,268 kg), wet, landed weight. See § 622.301(a) for...

  5. 50 CFR 622.39 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.39 Quotas. See § 622.8 for general provisions regarding quota applicability... specified in § 622.38(b) and (c) apply to all harvest or possession in or from the Gulf EEZ of the......

  6. 50 CFR 622.384 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources (Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic) § 622.384 Quotas. See § 622.8 for general provisions...) Quotas for migratory groups of king mackerel—(1) Gulf migratory group. For the 2012 to 2013 fishing...

  7. 50 CFR 622.39 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.39 Quotas. See § 622.8 for general provisions regarding quota applicability... specified in § 622.38(b) and (c) apply to all harvest or possession in or from the Gulf EEZ of the......

  8. 50 CFR 622.57 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.57 Quotas. (a) Royal red shrimp in the Gulf. The quota for all persons who harvest... Gulf EEZ may not be retained, and the sale or purchase of royal red shrimp taken from the......

  9. 50 CFR 622.384 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources (Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic) § 622.384 Quotas. See § 622.8 for general provisions...) Quotas for migratory groups of king mackerel—(1) Gulf migratory group. For the 2012 to 2013 fishing...

  10. 50 CFR 622.57 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.57 Quotas. (a) Royal red shrimp in the Gulf. The quota for all persons who harvest... Gulf EEZ may not be retained, and the sale or purchase of royal red shrimp taken from the......

  11. 50 CFR 665.167 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (a) General. The quotas limiting the amount of precious coral that may be taken in any precious coral permit area during the fishing year are listed in § 665.167(d). Only live coral is counted toward the... conditional bed will be closed to all nonselective coral harvesting after the quota for one species of...

  12. 50 CFR 665.167 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (a) General. The quotas limiting the amount of precious coral that may be taken in any precious coral permit area during the fishing year are listed in § 665.167(d). Only live coral is counted toward the... conditional bed will be closed to all nonselective coral harvesting after the quota for one species of...

  13. 50 CFR 665.167 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (a) General. The quotas limiting the amount of precious coral that may be taken in any precious coral permit area during the fishing year are listed in § 665.167(d). Only live coral is counted toward the... conditional bed will be closed to all nonselective coral harvesting after the quota for one species of...

  14. 50 CFR 665.167 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (a) General. The quotas limiting the amount of precious coral that may be taken in any precious coral permit area during the fishing year are listed in § 665.167(d). Only live coral is counted toward the... conditional bed will be closed to all nonselective coral harvesting after the quota for one species of...

  15. 50 CFR 665.167 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) General. The quotas limiting the amount of precious coral that may be taken in any precious coral permit area during the fishing year are listed in § 665.167(d). Only live coral is counted toward the... conditional bed will be closed to all nonselective coral harvesting after the quota for one species of...

  16. 50 CFR 635.27 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... possessed. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 635.27, see the List of CFR Sections... exceeded. (v) Effects of the adjustment on BFT rebuilding and overfishing. (vi) Effects of the adjustment... without Federal shark permits, must be counted against the fishery quota. Commercial quotas are...

  17. 50 CFR 635.27 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 635.27, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... exceeded. (v) Effects of the adjustment on BFT rebuilding and overfishing. (vi) Effects of the adjustment... without Federal shark permits, must be counted against the fishery quota. Commercial quotas are...

  18. COIN Project: Towards a zero-waste technology for concrete aggregate production in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepuritis, Rolands; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2014-05-01

    COIN Project: Towards a zero-waste technology for concrete aggregate production in Norway Rolands Cepuritis, Norcem/NTNU and Svein Willy Danielsen, SINTEF Aggregate production is a mining operation where no purification of the "ore" is necessary. Still it is extremely rare that an aggregate production plant is operating on the basis of zero-waste concept. This is since historically the fine crushed aggregate (particles with a size of less than 2, 4 or sometimes 8 mm) has been regarded as a by-product or waste of the more valuable coarse aggregate production. The reason is that the crushed coarse aggregates can easily replace coarse rounded natural stones in almost any concrete composition; while, the situation with the sand is different. The production of coarse aggregate normally yields fine fractions with rough surface texture, flaky or elongated particles an inadequate gradation. When such a material replaces smooth and rounded natural sand grains in a concrete mix, the result is usually poor and much more water and cement has to be used to achieve adequate concrete flow. The consequences are huge stockpiles of the crushed fine fractions that can't be sold (mass balance problems) for the aggregate producers, sustainability problems for the whole industry and environmental issues for society due to dumping and storing of the fine co-generated material. There have been attempts of utilising the material in concrete before; however, they have mostly ended up in failure. There have been attempts to adjust the crushed sand to the properties of the natural sand, which would still give a lot of waste, especially if the grading would have to be adjusted and the high amounts of fines abundantly present in the crushed sand would have to be removed. Another fundamental reason for failure has been that historically such attempts have mainly ended up in a research carried out by people (both industrial and academic) with aggregate background (= parties willing to find market

  19. Soil aggregation response to harvesting corn stover for bioenergy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been identified as a primary feedstock for cellulosic bioenergy production in the U.S. Corn/Soybean Belt because of the vast area upon which the crop is grown. Developing sustainable cellulosic ethanol from corn stover residue has also been identified as a high priority...

  20. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Part of the 1994 Industrial Minerals Review. The production, consumption, and applications of construction aggregates are reviewed. In 1994, the production of construction aggregates, which includes crushed stone and construction sand and gravel combined, increased 7.7 percent to 2.14 Gt compared with the previous year. These record production levels are mostly a result of funding for highway construction work provided by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Demand is expected to increase for construction aggregates in 1995.

  1. Inhibition of IAPP Aggregation and Toxicity by Natural Products and Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Pithadia, Amit; Brender, Jeffrey R.; Fierke, Carol A.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2016-01-01

    Fibrillar aggregates of human islet amyloid polypeptide, hIAPP, a pathological feature seen in some diabetes patients, are a likely causative agent for pancreatic beta-cell toxicity, leading to a transition from a state of insulin resistance to type II diabetes through the loss of insulin producing beta-cells by hIAPP induced toxicity. Because of the probable link between hIAPP and the development of type II diabetes, there has been strong interest in developing reagents to study the aggregation of hIAPP and possible therapeutics to block its toxic effects. Natural products are a class of compounds with interesting pharmacological properties against amyloids which have made them interesting targets to study hIAPP. Specifically, the ability of polyphenolic natural products, EGCG, curcumin, and resveratrol, to modulate the aggregation of hIAPP is discussed. Furthermore, we have outlined possible mechanistic discoveries of the interaction of these small molecules with the peptide and how they may mitigate toxicity associated with peptide aggregation. These abundantly found agents have been long used to combat diseases for many years and may serve as useful templates toward developing therapeutics against hIAPP aggregation and toxicity. PMID:26649317

  2. 19 CFR 132.2 - Enactment and administration of quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enactment and administration of quotas. 132.2 Section 132.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY QUOTAS General Provisions § 132.2 Enactment and administration of quotas. (a) Enactment. Tariff-rate quotas and absolute...

  3. 77 FR 21540 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; notification of quota for bowhead whales. SUMMARY: NMFS notifies the public of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to the... quota is 75 bowhead whales struck. This quota and other applicable limitations govern the harvest...

  4. 21 CFR 1303.25 - Increase in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.25 Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. (a) Any registrant who holds an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance listed in Schedule...

  5. 21 CFR 1303.25 - Increase in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.25 Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. (a) Any registrant who holds an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance listed in Schedule...

  6. 21 CFR 1303.21 - Individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual manufacturing quotas. 1303.21 Section... Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.21 Individual manufacturing quotas. (a) The Administrator shall, on or before July 1... controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II, and who applies for a manufacturing quota, an...

  7. 21 CFR 1303.26 - Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.26 Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator may at any time reduce an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance...

  8. 21 CFR 1303.21 - Individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Individual manufacturing quotas. 1303.21 Section... Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.21 Individual manufacturing quotas. (a) The Administrator shall, on or before July 1... controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II, and who applies for a manufacturing quota, an...

  9. 21 CFR 1303.26 - Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.26 Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator may at any time reduce an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance...

  10. 21 CFR 1303.26 - Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.26 Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator may at any time reduce an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance...

  11. 21 CFR 1303.25 - Increase in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.25 Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. (a) Any registrant who holds an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance listed in Schedule...

  12. 21 CFR 1303.26 - Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.26 Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator may at any time reduce an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance...

  13. 21 CFR 1303.25 - Increase in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.25 Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. (a) Any registrant who holds an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance listed in Schedule...

  14. 21 CFR 1303.21 - Individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Individual manufacturing quotas. 1303.21 Section... Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.21 Individual manufacturing quotas. (a) The Administrator shall, on or before July 1... controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II, and who applies for a manufacturing quota, an...

  15. 21 CFR 1303.25 - Increase in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.25 Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. (a) Any registrant who holds an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance listed in Schedule...

  16. 21 CFR 1303.21 - Individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Individual manufacturing quotas. 1303.21 Section... Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.21 Individual manufacturing quotas. (a) The Administrator shall, on or before July 1... controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II, and who applies for a manufacturing quota, an...

  17. 21 CFR 1303.26 - Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.26 Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator may at any time reduce an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance...

  18. 21 CFR 1303.21 - Individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individual manufacturing quotas. 1303.21 Section... Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.21 Individual manufacturing quotas. (a) The Administrator shall, on or before July 1... controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II, and who applies for a manufacturing quota, an...

  19. Silicification-induced cell aggregation for the sustainable production of H2 under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Zhao, Xiaohong; Zhu, Genxing; Shao, Changyu; Li, Yaling; Ma, Weimin; Xu, Xurong; Tang, Ruikang

    2015-10-01

    Photobiological hydrogen production is of great importance because of its promise for generating clean renewable energy. In nature, green algae cannot produce hydrogen as a result of the extreme sensitivity of hydrogenase to oxygen. However, we find that silicification-induced green algae aggregates can achieve sustainable photobiological hydrogen production even under natural aerobic conditions. The core-shell structure of the green algae aggregates creates a balance between photosynthetic electron generation and hydrogenase activity, thus allowing the production of hydrogen. This finding provides a viable pathway for the solar-driven splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen to develop green energy alternatives by using rationally designed cell-material complexes. PMID:26302695

  20. Engineered aggregation inhibitor fusion for production of highly amyloidogenic human islet amyloid polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Mirecka, Ewa Agnieszka; Gremer, Lothar; Schiefer, Stephanie; Oesterhelt, Filipp; Stoldt, Matthias; Willbold, Dieter; Hoyer, Wolfgang

    2014-12-10

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is the major component of pancreatic amyloid deposits in type 2 diabetes. The structural conversion of IAPP from a monomeric state into amyloid assemblies is the subject of intense research. Recombinant production of IAPP is, however, difficult due to its extreme aggregation propensity. Here we describe a novel strategy for expression of IAPP in Escherichia coli, based on an engineered protein tag, which sequesters IAPP monomers and prevents IAPP aggregation. The IAPP-binding protein HI18 was selected by phage display from a β-wrapin library. Fusion of HI18 to IAPP enabled the soluble expression of the construct. IAPP was cleaved from the fusion construct and purified to homogeneity with a yield of 3mg of isotopically labeled peptide per liter of culture. In the monomeric state, IAPP was largely disordered as evidenced by far-UV CD and liquid-state NMR spectroscopy but competent to form amyloid fibrils according to atomic force microscopy. These results demonstrate the ability of the engineered β-wrapin HI18 for shielding the hydrophobic sequence of IAPP during expression and purification. Fusion of aggregation-inhibiting β-wrapins is a suitable approach for the recombinant production of aggregation-prone proteins. PMID:24928165

  1. 7 CFR 996.17 - Quota year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.17 Quota year... peanuts produced in Mexico and the 12-month period beginning April 1 and ending March 31 of the...

  2. 7 CFR 996.17 - Quota year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.17 Quota year... peanuts produced in Mexico and the 12-month period beginning April 1 and ending March 31 of the...

  3. Process for producing an aggregate suitable for inclusion into a radiation shielding product

    DOEpatents

    Lessing, Paul A.; Kong, Peter C.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed to methods for converting depleted uranium hexafluoride to a stable depleted uranium silicide in a one-step reaction. Uranium silicide provides a stable aggregate material that can be added to concrete to increase the density of the concrete and, consequently, shield gamma radiation. As used herein, the term "uranium silicide" is defined as a compound generically having the formula U.sub.x Si.sub.y, wherein the x represents the molecules of uranium and the y represent the molecules of silicon. In accordance with the present invention, uranium hexafluoride is converted to a uranium silicide by contacting the uranium hexafluoride with a silicon-containing material at a temperature in a range between about 1450.degree. C. and about 1750.degree. C. The stable depleted uranium silicide is included as an aggregate in a radiation shielding product, such as a concrete product.

  4. Recycling of quarry waste as part of sustainable aggregate production: Norwegian and Italian point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Willy Danielsen, Svein; Chiappino, Claudia; Primavori, Piero; Engelsen, Christian John

    2016-04-01

    Resource preservation is one of the main challenges in Europe, together with waste management and recycling; recently several researchers are interested in the recovering of critical raw materials and secondary raw materials from landfill. Aggregate supply, even if it is not "critical" sensus stricto (s.s.), is one of the European priorities (low value but high volume needs). On the other side, the management of quarry waste , mainly from dimension stones, but also as fines from aggregate crushing, is still a matter of concern. Such materials are managed in different ways both locally and nationwide, and often they are landfilled, because of an unclear legislation and a general lack of data. Most of time the local authorities adopt the maximum precaution principle or the enterprises find it little profitable to recover them, so that the sustainable recycling of such material is not valued. Several studies have shown, depending on the material specific characteristics, the viability of recycling quarry waste into new raw materials used in glass and ceramic industries, precast concrete production, infrastructures etc. (Loudes et al. 2012, Dino&Marian 2015, Bozzola et al 2012, Dino et al. 2012, etc.). Thus, aggregate production may be one of the profitable ways to use quarry waste and is falling under the priority of EU (aggregate supply). Positive economic and environmental effects are likely to be achieved by systematic recycling of quarry waste planned by industries (industrial planning) and public authorities (national and local planning of aggregate exploitation). Today, the recycling level varies to a great extent and systematic recovery is not common among European Countries. In Italy and Norway no significant incentives on recycling or systematic approaches for local aggregate exploitation exist. The environmental consequences can be overexploitation of the natural resources, land take for the landfills, environmental contamination and landscape alteration by

  5. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.; Tepordei, V.V.; Bolen, W.P.

    2000-01-01

    Construction aggregates consist primarily of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. Total estimated production of construction aggregates increased in 1999 by about 2% to 2.39 Gt (2.64 billion st) compared with 1998. This record production level continued an expansion that began in 1992. By commodities, crushed stone production increased 3.3%, while sand and gravel production increased by about 0.5%.

  6. 7 CFR 1463.105 - Base quota levels for eligible quota holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Base quota levels for eligible quota holders. 1463.105 Section 1463.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS 2005-2014...

  7. 7 CFR 1463.105 - Base quota levels for eligible quota holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Base quota levels for eligible quota holders. 1463.105 Section 1463.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS 2005-2014...

  8. 7 CFR 1463.105 - Base quota levels for eligible quota holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Base quota levels for eligible quota holders. 1463.105 Section 1463.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS 2005-2014...

  9. 7 CFR 1463.105 - Base quota levels for eligible quota holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Base quota levels for eligible quota holders. 1463.105 Section 1463.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS 2005-2014 TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco Transition...

  10. Application of simulated annealing to solve multi-objectives for aggregate production planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atiya, Bayda; Bakheet, Abdul Jabbar Khudhur; Abbas, Iraq Tereq; Bakar, Mohd. Rizam Abu; Soon, Lee Lai; Monsi, Mansor Bin

    2016-06-01

    Aggregate production planning (APP) is one of the most significant and complicated problems in production planning and aim to set overall production levels for each product category to meet fluctuating or uncertain demand in future. and to set decision concerning hiring, firing, overtime, subcontract, carrying inventory level. In this paper, we present a simulated annealing (SA) for multi-objective linear programming to solve APP. SA is considered to be a good tool for imprecise optimization problems. The proposed model minimizes total production and workforce costs. In this study, the proposed SA is compared with particle swarm optimization (PSO). The results show that the proposed SA is effective in reducing total production costs and requires minimal time.

  11. Follow-up study of the regional quota system of Japanese medical schools and prefecture scholarship programmes: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Takeuchi, Keisuke; Tanaka, Junko; Tazuma, Susumu; Inoue, Kazuo; Owaki, Tetsuhiro; Iguchi, Seitaro; Maeda, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Given the shortage of physicians, particularly in rural areas, the Japanese government has rapidly expanded the number of medical school students by adding chiikiwaku (regional quotas) since 2008. Quota entrants now account for 17% of all medical school entrants. Quota entrants are usually local high school graduates who receive a scholarship from the prefecture government. In exchange, they temporarily practise in that prefecture, including its rural areas, after graduation. Many prefectures also have scholarship programmes for non-quota students in exchange for postgraduate in-prefecture practice. The objective of this cohort study, conducted by the Japanese Council for Community-based Medical Education, is to evaluate the outcomes of the quota admission system and prefecture scholarship programmes nationwide. Methods and analysis There are 3 groups of study participants: quota without scholarship, quota with scholarship and non-quota with scholarship. Under the support of government ministries and the Association of Japan Medical Colleges, and participation of all prefectures and medical schools, passing rate of the National Physician License Examination, scholarship buy-out rate, geographic distribution and specialties distribution of each group are analysed. Participants who voluntarily participated are followed by linking their baseline information to data in the government's biennial Physician Census. Results to date have shown that, despite medical schools' concerns about academic quality, the passing rate of the National Physician License Examination in each group was higher than that of all medical school graduates. Ethics and dissemination The Ethics Committee for Epidemiological Research of Hiroshima University and the Research Ethics Committee of Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences permitted this study. No individually identifiable results will be presented in conferences or published in journals. The aggregated

  12. Synthesis of the aggregation pheromone of the Colorado potato beetle from its degradation product.

    PubMed

    Wacławczyk-Biedroń, Weronika; Frąckowiak-Wojtasek, Bożena; Strub, Daniel; Rzechak, Magdalena; Wojtasek, Hubert

    2015-09-01

    Incubation of the Colorado potato beetle aggregation pheromone, (S)-1,3-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-2-one, with antennal or leg extracts from this beetle gave 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one as the major product. This ketone was used as a substrate in a stereoselective synthesis of the pheromone. It was attached to the butanediacetal of glycolic acid with good stereoselectivity and the desired isomer was further enriched by purification of the product of this reaction on silica gel. PMID:26169127

  13. Mixing state of bi-component mixtures under aggregation with a product kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Díaz, J. M.; Gómez-García, G. J.

    2010-05-01

    We analyze the aggregation of a two-component system with a product kernel, to determine its evolution in time during a progressive mixing. The evolution is governed by the Smoluchowski equation, yielding gelation from a certain time. In the past, equilibrium (or asymptotic) solutions have been used to study mixing of bi-component mixtures for non-gelling kernels. In this letter we show that asymptotic solutions are invalid to describe the mixing behavior for the product kernel case (even before gelation). Besides, an equilibrium concentration is not reached. On the contrary, particles with any composition exist all time.

  14. Aggregate consumer exposure to UV filter ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate via personal care products.

    PubMed

    Manová, Eva; von Goetz, Natalie; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) filters are substances designed to protect our skin from UV-induced damage and can be found in many categories of personal care products (PCPs). The potential endocrine-disrupting effects attributed to UV filter ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) are being debated. We evaluated the aggregate exposure of the Swiss-German population (N=1196; ages ≤1-97years) to EHMC via the use of PCPs; thus we provide the first comprehensive information about the current EHMC exposure sources and aggregate exposure levels. In our probabilistic modeling method performed at an individual level, PCP use data obtained by a postal questionnaire were linked to concentration data on EHMC gained from chemical analyses of PCPs used by the questionnaire respondents. The modeled median and 99.9th percentile of the internal aggregate exposure for the general population were 0.012 and 0.873mgday(-1)kg(-1) and 0.008 and 0.122mgday(-1)kg(-1) for the summer/autumn and winter/spring period, respectively. The major contributors to internal aggregate exposure were sunscreen products in summer/autumn (females: 64%; males: 85%; children aged ≤12years 93%). In winter/spring, lip care dominated for females (30%) and sunscreen for males (38%) and children aged ≤12years (50%). Overall, the internal aggregate exposure estimates for the studied population are shown to be below the Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) for EHMC i.e., the level of exposure above which humans should not be exposed; however, when an intense short-term exposure via sunscreen is accounted for during a sunbathing day, at the high-end percentiles (99.9th) the predicted aggregate exposure exceeds the DNEL for thyroid-disrupting effects such as for children aged ≤4years, who might be particularly susceptible to endocrine disrupting events. It is nevertheless critical to acknowledge that quantitative data on transdermal penetration of EHMC from PCPs are currently insufficient. Since long-term effects of endocrine

  15. Microscopic analysis of alkali-aggregate reaction products in a 50-year-old concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, Isabel . E-mail: ifernand@fc.up.pt; Noronha, Fernando . E-mail: fmnoronh@fc.up.pt; Teles, Madalena . E-mail: mteles@fe.up.pt

    2004-11-15

    Fifty-year-old concrete from a large dam was examined in the scope of an investigation program concerning the properties of granite as aggregate material for concrete. Site inspection, which was developed in order to detect possible signs of deterioration of the concrete, revealed the existence of efflorescence and exudations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analyses were attempted to identify the composition of these materials and their morphology. From the analyses, it was concluded that some of the exudations were composed by alkali-silica gel. In these samples, an interesting behavior was observed in different moments after a 3-month interval. It was noticed that the initially noncrystalline alkali-silica gel transformed into sodium-rich needles and tablets after a few months kept in a desiccator in the laboratory. Therefore, it was concluded that the materials identified corresponded to different stages of evolution of an alkali-aggregate reaction product.

  16. Utilization of lignite power generation residues for the production of lightweight aggregates.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, Iason M; Stivanakis, Victor E

    2009-04-15

    A novel process is proposed for the utilization of lignite combustion solid residues in the production of inflammable lightweight aggregates (LWA). The process consists of two stages, pelletization and sintering, and carbon contained in BA was used as the process fuel. The main residues bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) from Megalopolis power plant were characterized, mixed in different proportions and treated through pelletization and sintering process. Sintering benefits from combustion of BA carbon content and the product is a hardened porous cake. The energy required for achievement of high temperatures, in the range of 1250 degrees C, was offered by carbon combustion and CO(2) evolution is responsible for porous structure formation. Selected physical properties of sintered material relevant to use as lightweight aggregates were determined, including bulk density, porosity and water absorption. Bulk density varies from 0.83 to 0.91 g/cm(3), porosity varies from 60% to 64% and water absorption varies from 66% to 80%. LWA formed is used for the production of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC). Thermal conductivity coefficient varies from 0.25 to 0.37 W/mK (lower than maximum limit 0.43 W/mK) and compressive strength varies from 19 to 23 MPa (higher than minimum limit 17 MPa). The results indicate that sintering of lignite combustion residues is an efficient method of utilization of carbon containing BA and production of LWA for structural and insulating purposes. Carbon content of BA is a key factor in LWA production. Finally, this research work comprises the first proposed application for utilization of BA in Greece. PMID:18804911

  17. Effects of heparin on platelet aggregation and release and thromboxane A2 production

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammad, S.F.; Anderson, W.H.; Smith, J.B.; Chuang, H.Y.; Mason, R.G.

    1981-08-01

    Heparin, when added to citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP), caused potentiation of platelet aggregation and the release reaction induced by the aggregating agents adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid, collagen, and epinephrine. At low concentrations (4.7 x 10(-5) M) arachidonic acid failed to cause aggregation of platelets in citrated PRP. However, in the presence of heparin, the same concentration of arachidonic acid caused aggregation. Examination of PRP for the presence of thromboxane A2 (TxA2) by use of a bioassay revealed that heparin also stimulated release of TxA2. This finding indicated that platelets released more TxA2 when they were challenged by low concentrations of arachidonic acid in the presence of heparin than in its absence. Platelets were labeled with /sup 3/H-arachidonic acid and /sup 14/C-serotonin, and attempts were made to determine whether heparin stimulated the platelet release reaction first with subsequent increased production of TxA2, or alternatively, whether heparin stimulated TxA2 production first with subsequent enhancement of the release reaction. In view of the demonstrated simultaneous release of /sup 14/C-serotonin and /sup 3/H-arachidonic acid metabolites, it appeared that either release of /sup 14/C and /sup 3/H occurs concurrently or, even if one of these events is dependent on the other, both events take place in rapid succession. Timed sequential studies revealed that in the presence of arachidonic acid, the addition of heparin hastened the apparently simultaneous release of both /sup 14/C and /sup 3/H.

  18. Molten Globule of Hemoglobin Proceeds into Aggregates and Advanced Glycated End Products

    PubMed Central

    Iram, Afshin; Alam, Tauqeer; Khan, Javed M.; Khan, Taqi A.; Khan, Rizwan H.; Naeem, Aabgeena

    2013-01-01

    Conformational alterations of bovine hemoglobin (Hb) upon sequential addition of glyoxal over a range of 0–90% v/v were investigated. At 20% v/v glyoxal, molten globule (MG) state of Hb was observed by altered tryptophan fluorescence, high ANS binding, existence of intact heme, native-like secondary structure as depicted by far-UV circular dichroism (CD) and ATR-FTIR spectra as well as loss in tertiary structure as confirmed by near-UV CD spectra. In addition, size exclusion chromatography analysis depicted that MG state at 20% v/v glyoxal corresponded to expanded pre-dissociated dimers. Aggregates of Hb were detected at 70% v/v glyoxal. These aggregates of Hb had altered tryptophan environment, low ANS binding, exposed heme, increased β-sheet secondary structure, loss in tertiary structure, enhanced thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence and red shifted Congo Red (CR) absorbance. On incubating Hb with 30% v/v glyoxal for 0–20 days, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were detected on day 20. These AGEs were characterised by enhanced tryptophan fluorescence at 450 nm, exposure of heme, increase in intermolecular β-sheets, enhanced ThT fluorescence and red shift in CR absorbance. Comet assay revealed aggregates and AGEs to be genotoxic in nature. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the amorphous structure of aggregates and branched fibrils of AGEs. The transformation of α-helix to β-sheet usually alters the normal protein to amyloidogenic resulting in a variety of protein conformational disorders such as diabetes, prion and Huntington's. PMID:23991043

  19. 75 FR 10223 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; notification of quota for bowhead whales. SUMMARY: NMFS provides notification of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to the Alaska... Annual Meeting of the International Whaling Commission (IWC). For 2010, the quota is 75 bowhead...

  20. 76 FR 16388 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; notification of quota for bowhead whales. SUMMARY: NMFS provides notification of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to the Alaska... Annual Meeting of the International Whaling Commission (IWC). For 2011, the quota is 75 bowhead...

  1. 78 FR 13028 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; notification of quota for bowhead whales. SUMMARY: NMFS notifies the public of the aboriginal subsistence whaling quota for bowhead whales that it has assigned to the... regulations of the International Whaling Commission (IWC). For 2013, the quota is 75 bowhead whales...

  2. 19 CFR 10.23 - Standards, quotas, and visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards, quotas, and visas. 10.23 Section 10.23... Abroad with United States Components § 10.23 Standards, quotas, and visas. All requirements and... properties, quotas, and visas, apply to assembled articles eligible for the exemption in the same manner...

  3. 19 CFR 10.23 - Standards, quotas, and visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Standards, quotas, and visas. 10.23 Section 10.23... Abroad with United States Components § 10.23 Standards, quotas, and visas. All requirements and... properties, quotas, and visas, apply to assembled articles eligible for the exemption in the same manner...

  4. 19 CFR 10.23 - Standards, quotas, and visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Standards, quotas, and visas. 10.23 Section 10.23... Abroad with United States Components § 10.23 Standards, quotas, and visas. All requirements and... properties, quotas, and visas, apply to assembled articles eligible for the exemption in the same manner...

  5. 19 CFR 10.23 - Standards, quotas, and visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Standards, quotas, and visas. 10.23 Section 10.23... Abroad with United States Components § 10.23 Standards, quotas, and visas. All requirements and... properties, quotas, and visas, apply to assembled articles eligible for the exemption in the same manner...

  6. 19 CFR 10.23 - Standards, quotas, and visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standards, quotas, and visas. 10.23 Section 10.23... Abroad with United States Components § 10.23 Standards, quotas, and visas. All requirements and... properties, quotas, and visas, apply to assembled articles eligible for the exemption in the same manner...

  7. 50 CFR 230.6 - Quotas and other restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.6 Quotas and other restrictions. (a) Quotas for aboriginal subsistence whaling shall be set in accordance with the regulations of the Commission. Quotas shall be allocated to each whaling village or captain by the appropriate Native...

  8. 50 CFR 230.6 - Quotas and other restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.6 Quotas and other restrictions. (a) Quotas for aboriginal subsistence whaling shall be set in accordance with the regulations of the Commission. Quotas shall be allocated to each whaling village or captain by the appropriate Native...

  9. 50 CFR 230.6 - Quotas and other restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.6 Quotas and other restrictions. (a) Quotas for aboriginal subsistence whaling shall be set in accordance with the regulations of the Commission. Quotas shall be allocated to each whaling village or captain by the appropriate Native...

  10. 50 CFR 230.6 - Quotas and other restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.6 Quotas and other restrictions. (a) Quotas for aboriginal subsistence whaling shall be set in accordance with the regulations of the Commission. Quotas shall be allocated to each whaling village or captain by the appropriate Native...

  11. 50 CFR 230.6 - Quotas and other restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.6 Quotas and other restrictions. (a) Quotas for aboriginal subsistence whaling shall be set in accordance with the regulations of the Commission. Quotas shall be allocated to each whaling village or captain by the appropriate Native...

  12. 50 CFR 622.8 - Quotas-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... is unnecessary. Except for the quotas for Gulf and South Atlantic coral, the quotas include species... § 622.8 Quotas—general. (a) Quotas apply for the fishing year for each species or species group, unless... species not being exceeded in the previous fishing year. If the total allowable catch is exceeded in...

  13. 50 CFR 622.8 - Quotas-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... is unnecessary. Except for the quotas for Gulf and South Atlantic coral, the quotas include species... § 622.8 Quotas—general. (a) Quotas apply for the fishing year for each species or species group, unless... species not being exceeded in the previous fishing year. If the total allowable catch is exceeded in...

  14. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on industrial minerals in 1993. The 1993 production of construction aggregates increased 6.3 percent over the 1992 figure, to reach 2.01 Gt. This represents the highest estimated annual production of combined crushed stone and construction sand and gravel ever recorded in the U.S. The outlook for construction aggregates and the issues facing the industry are discussed.

  15. 78 FR 24430 - Tuna-Tariff Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2013 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna-Tariff Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2013 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States... of the quota quantity of tuna in airtight containers for Calendar Year 2013. SUMMARY: Each year,...

  16. 77 FR 22796 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United...: Announcement of the quota quantity of tuna in airtight containers for Calendar Year 2012. ] SUMMARY: Each...

  17. 76 FR 27658 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2011 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota; The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2011 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United...: Announcement of the quota quantity of tuna in airtight containers for Calendar Year 2011. SUMMARY: Each...

  18. 50 CFR 680.40 - Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS (PQS), Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ), and Individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS (PQS), Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ), and Individual Processor Quota (IPQ) Issuance. 680.40 Section 680.40 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  19. Utilization of Illinois slags for the production of ultra-lightweight aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhry, V. ); Zimmerle, T. ); Banerjee, D.D. )

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this program is to demonstrate that solid residues (slag) from the gasification of Illinois coals can be utilized to manufacture ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA). Conventional ULWAs are made by pyroprocessing perlite ores and have unit weights in the range of 3--15 lb/ft[sup 3]. In a previous project, Praxis Engineers demonstrated at the pilot scale that lightweight aggregates with unit weights of 40--55 lb/ ft[sup 3] can be produced from Illinois coal slags, which is suitable for making lightweight cement concrete and precast blocks. These tests also indicated that a product with a unit weight of less than 25 lb/ft[sup 3] could be produced from slag. This project is aimed at testing the potential for producing ULWA from Illinois coal slags. Target applications include loose fill insulation, insulating concrete, lightweight precast products such as concrete blocks and rooftiles, and filtration media. Laboratory- and pilot-scale testing is being conducted in Phase I to identify operating conditions for the expansion of Illinois slags to produce ULWA. Following this, a large batch of expanded slag will be produced, for evaluation in various applications in Phase II.

  20. 50 CFR 622.190 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Snapper-Grouper Fishery... section that was unused, will become void and will not be added to any subsequent quota. (5) Black sea... amberjack, snowy grouper, golden tilefish, vermilion snapper, black sea bass, red porgy, and wreckfish....

  1. 50 CFR 622.190 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Snapper-Grouper Fishery... section that was unused, will become void and will not be added to any subsequent quota. (5) Black sea... amberjack, snowy grouper, golden tilefish, vermilion snapper, black sea bass, red porgy, and wreckfish....

  2. Dietary practices of quota and non-quota students at a Brazilian public university.

    PubMed

    Perez, Patrícia Maria Périco; de Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro; Franco, Amanda da Silva; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Wolkoff, Daisy Blumenberg

    2016-02-01

    Dietary practices of college students were described and examined according to the means by which they were admitted to the university (quota and non-quota students). A cross-sectional study was conducted with undergraduates (n = 1336) at a public university using a self-administered and identified questionnaire that inquired about their habits of eating breakfast and substituting lunch and/or dinner with snacks as well as the regular consumption (≥ 5 times a week) of markers for healthy and unhealthy eating. Analysis of the association between means of admission to the university and dietary practices was done using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. It was observed that significant proportions of the students did not eat breakfast; substituted dinner with snacks; had low fruit, vegetable and bean consumption; and frequently consumed sugary beverages, sweets, cookies and packaged salty snacks. The quota students were found to more frequently consume beans, cookies and packaged salty snacks and less frequently substitute dinner with snacks and consume vegetables and fruits. Quota and non-quota students had some similarities in their dietary practices that were unhealthy. The differences observed between the two groups were largely more unfavorable for the quota students, with the exception of bean consumption. PMID:26910160

  3. Hydroxychavicol, a novel betel leaf component, inhibits platelet aggregation by suppression of cyclooxygenase, thromboxane production and calcium mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Chang, M C; Uang, B J; Tsai, C Y; Wu, H L; Lin, B R; Lee, C S; Chen, Y J; Chang, C H; Tsai, Y L; Kao, C J; Jeng, J H

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Platelet hyperactivity is important in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Betel leaf (PBL) is consumed by 200-600 million betel quid chewers in the world. Hydroxychavicol (HC), a betel leaf component, was tested for its antiplatelet effect. Experimental approach: We tested the effect of HC on platelet aggregation, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, ex vivo platelet aggregation and mouse bleeding time and platelet plug formation in vivo. The pharmacokinetics of HC in rats was also assessed. Key results: HC inhibited arachidonic acid (AA) and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and TXB2 production. HC inhibited the thrombin-induced TXB2 production, but not platelet aggregation. SQ29548, suppressed collagen- and thrombin-induced TXB2 production, but not thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. HC also suppressed COX-1/COX-2 enzyme activity and the AA-induced ROS production and Ca2+ mobilization. HC further inhibited the ex vivo platelet aggregation of platelet-rich plasma (>100 nmole/mouse) and prolonged platelet plug formation (>300 nmole/mouse) in mesenteric microvessels, but showed little effect on bleeding time in mouse tail. Moreover, pharmacokinetics analysis found that more than 99% of HC was metabolized within 3 min of administration in Sprague-Dawley rats in vivo. Conclusions and implications: HC is a potent COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor, ROS scavenger and inhibits platelet calcium signaling, TXB2 production and aggregation. HC could be a potential therapeutic agent for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases through its anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet effects, without effects on haemostatic functions. PMID:17641677

  4. The application of sewage sludge as an expanding agent in the production of lightweight expanded clay aggregate mass.

    PubMed

    Latosińska, J; Zygadło, M

    2011-10-01

    Sewage sludge can be used as an expanding agent in the production of lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA) mass. The addition of sewage sludge increases the total porosity and decreases the bulk density of a sinter. The addition of sewage sludge to a raw material used in the production of LECA enabled a decrease in the burning temperature for the maintained operational parameters of a lightweight aggregate. The optimum content of sewage sludge added to a raw material used in LECA production was 5% to 15% of dry mass. The addition of sewage sludge in an amount of 5% and 10% caused an increase in closed porosity. PMID:22329137

  5. The response of aggregate production to fertility-induced changes in population age distribution.

    PubMed

    Denton, F T; Mountain, D C; Spencer, B G

    1996-01-01

    With a particular focus upon long-term supply effects, the authors explored the implications of different population age distributions for the productive capacity of an economy. A multilevel aggregate production process was specified, plausible values assigned to its parameters, and steady-state solutions obtained under a range of alternative fertility assumptions. The theoretical model was calibrated to conform with Canadian data and published estimates of age-sex substitution elasticities. The study found productive capacity to be related to age distribution, although the output effects exceed 8%, regardless of the structure of the economy, only when total fertility rate is less than 1.6 or well above 3.0; within the range of variation, productive capacity and output per capita are lower for both younger and older populations; altering the elasticity of substitution between different tasks has negligible effects upon the sensitivity of the economy to changes in age distribution; altering the elasticity of substitution between different age-sex groups for a given task has a markedly greater effect; introducing either increasing or decreasing returns to scale has only a minor effect upon the sensitivity of the economy to changes in age distribution; and marginal products are quite sensitive to changes in age distribution for both younger and older workers, but far less sensitive for middle-aged workers. PMID:12320140

  6. Sound production by dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus at spawning aggregation sites.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, F; Lejeune, P; Payrot, J; Parmentier, E

    2015-08-01

    Sound production by the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus was monitored both in captivity and at two Mediterranean spawning sites during the summers of 2012 and 2013. The results of long-term passive acoustic recordings provide for the first time a description of the sounds produced by E. marginatus. Two types of sounds were mainly recorded and consisted of low-frequency booms that can be produced singly or in series with dominant frequencies below 100 Hz. Recordings in captivity validated these sounds as belonging to E. marginatus and suggested that they may be associated with reproductive displays usually performed during early stages of courtship behaviour. This study also allowed the identification of a third, low-frequency growl-like type of sound typically found in other grouper species. These growls were, however, not recorded in tanks and it is cautiously proposed that they are produced by E. marginatus. Acoustic signals attributed to E. marginatus were produced throughout the spawning season, with a diel pattern showing an increase before dusk, i.e., from 1900 to 2200 hours, before decreasing until the morning. The occurrence of sounds during the spawning season of this species suggests that they are probably involved in social activity occurring close to aggregation sites. Passive acoustics offer a helpful tool to monitor aggregation sites of this emblematic species in order to improve conservation efforts. PMID:26177857

  7. The Optimum Production Method for Quality Improvement of Recycled Aggregates Using Sulfuric Acid and the Abrasion Method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haseog; Park, Sangki; Kim, Hayong

    2016-01-01

    There has been increased deconstruction and demolition of reinforced concrete structures due to the aging of the structures and redevelopment of urban areas resulting in the generation of massive amounts of construction. The production volume of waste concrete is projected to increase rapidly over 100 million tons by 2020. However, due to the high cement paste content, recycled aggregates have low density and high absorption ratio. They are mostly used for land reclamation purposes with low added value instead of multiple approaches. This study was performed to determine an effective method to remove cement paste from recycled aggregates by using the abrasion and substituting the process water with acidic water. The aim of this study is to analyze the quality of the recycled fine aggregates produced by a complex method and investigate the optimum manufacturing conditions for recycled fine aggregates based on the design of experiment. The experimental parameters considered were water ratio, coarse aggregate ratio, and abrasion time and, as a result of the experiment, data concerning the properties of recycled sand were obtained. It was found that high-quality recycled fine aggregates can be obtained with 8.57 min of abrasion-crusher time and a recycled coarse aggregate ratio of over 1.5. PMID:27483298

  8. The Optimum Production Method for Quality Improvement of Recycled Aggregates Using Sulfuric Acid and the Abrasion Method

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Haseog; Park, Sangki; Kim, Hayong

    2016-01-01

    There has been increased deconstruction and demolition of reinforced concrete structures due to the aging of the structures and redevelopment of urban areas resulting in the generation of massive amounts of construction. The production volume of waste concrete is projected to increase rapidly over 100 million tons by 2020. However, due to the high cement paste content, recycled aggregates have low density and high absorption ratio. They are mostly used for land reclamation purposes with low added value instead of multiple approaches. This study was performed to determine an effective method to remove cement paste from recycled aggregates by using the abrasion and substituting the process water with acidic water. The aim of this study is to analyze the quality of the recycled fine aggregates produced by a complex method and investigate the optimum manufacturing conditions for recycled fine aggregates based on the design of experiment. The experimental parameters considered were water ratio, coarse aggregate ratio, and abrasion time and, as a result of the experiment, data concerning the properties of recycled sand were obtained. It was found that high-quality recycled fine aggregates can be obtained with 8.57 min of abrasion-crusher time and a recycled coarse aggregate ratio of over 1.5. PMID:27483298

  9. Soil aggregate stability and grassland productivity associations in a northern mixed-grass prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil (aggregate) stability is widely used as an indicator of soil and rangeland health. The empirical evidence justifying soil aggregate stability as an indicator of rangeland health, however, is thin and confusing. Here we revisit the hypothesis that soil aggregate stability is positively correla...

  10. Metal quotas of plankton in the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twining, Benjamin S.; Baines, Stephen B.; Bozard, James B.; Vogt, Stefan; Walker, Elyse A.; Nelson, David M.

    2011-03-01

    The micronutrient metals Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Zn are required for phytoplankton growth, and their availability influences ocean productivity and biogeochemistry. Here we report the first direct measurements of these metals in phytoplankton and protozoa from the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Cells representing 4 functional groups (diatoms, autotrophic flagellates, heterotrophic flagellates and autotrophic picoplankton) were collected from the surface mixed layer using trace-metal clean techniques during transects across the equator at 110°W and along the equator between 110°W and 140°W. Metal quotas were determined for individual cells with synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microscopy, and cellular stoichiometries were calculated relative to measured P and S, as well as to C calculated from biovolume. Bulk particulate (>3 μm) metal concentrations were also determined at 3 stations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for comparison to single-cell stoichiometries. Phosphorus-normalized Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn ratios were significantly higher in diatoms than other cell types, while Co stoichiometries were highest in autotrophic flagellates. The magnitude of these effects ranged from approximately 2-fold for Mn in diatoms and autotrophic flagellates to nearly an order of magnitude for Fe in diatoms and picoplankton. Variations in S-normalized metal stoichiometries were also significant but of lower magnitude (1.4 to 6-fold). Cobalt and Mn quotas were 1.6 and 3-fold higher in autotrophic than heterotrophic flagellates. Autotrophic picoplankton were relatively enriched in Ni but depleted in Zn, matching expectations based on known uses of these metals in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Significant spatial variability in metal stoichiometries was also observed. At two stations deviations in Fe stoichiometries reflected features in the dissolved Fe distribution. At these same stations, high Ni stoichiometries in autotrophic flagellates were correlated with elevated ammonium

  11. Consolidation in an Individual Transferable Quota Regime: Lessons from New Zealand, 1986-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yandle, Tracy; Dewees, Christopher M.

    2008-06-01

    Market-based approaches to environmental regulation (such as tradable permits or transferable quotas) are frequently offered as innovative solutions to many environmental problems. Globally, one of the most well-established forms of this approach is individual transferable quotas (or ITQs) in fisheries management. Within the natural resource management community, there is considerable debate over the effects ITQs have on the fishing industry and fisher behavior although this approach is not well-established in the United States. The previously imposed moratorium on ITQs in the United States has expired and the 2006 reauthorization of the Magnuson-Stevens Act explicitly provides for limited access privileges (LAPs). A variety of fishers, regulators, and conservation organizations are enthusiastically seeking to introduce ITQ management. With debate over whether and how ITQs should be used in American fisheries reinvigorated, it is timely to examine the evidence on the social and economic effects of ITQs in other nations’ fisheries. After briefly summarizing the debate on ITQs, we examine the case of New Zealand, one of the earliest and longest-lived ITQ-based fisheries regimes. We use multiple data sources and methods to analyze the extent to which industry consolidation and aggregation has occurred, including surveys of industry participants, expert interviews, reviews of academic reports and analyses, analysis of trade publications, and direct analysis of quota ownership patterns. This analysis shows a more complex outcome than recent debates in the ITQ literature would predict. These findings suggest that policy makers considering ITQs can learn from the experiences of other countries related to key issues such as quota allocation, aggregation limits, transferability, cost recovery, and resource sustainability when designing ITQ and other LAP systems. It is also important to explicitly identify economic and social objectives and then carefully design ITQ

  12. 21 CFR 1303.23 - Procedure for fixing individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Procedure for fixing individual manufacturing quotas. 1303.23 Section 1303.23 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.23 Procedure for fixing individual manufacturing quotas. (a) In fixing individual manufacturing quotas...

  13. Marine Data Management within the EMODNet Chemistry project: data aggregation, quality control and products preparation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iona, Athanasia Sissy; Karagevrekis, Pelopidas; Balopoulou, Stavroula; Giorgetti, Alessandra; Schaap, Dick

    2015-04-01

    The European Commission in response to the EU Green Paper for an integrated maritime policy has initiated the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) to improve Europe's marine data infrastructure, increase the availability of high quality data and assemble them under a common framework. In 2009, six service contracts were launched by DG-MARE for creating the pilot components of the network and setting up thematic web portals covering selected marine basins. In 2012, a second call was opened by DG-MARE to continue the further expand the pilot portals in terms of geographical coverage and range of products and concluded in seven service contracts for: bathymetry, geology, physical habitats, chemistry, biology, physics and human activities. Supporting activities are also foreseen to examine how the portals meet the needs of users from industry, public authorities and scientists, to identify data gaps and arguments why these gaps should be filled in future monitoring. The second EMODNet Chemistry proposal has been prepared and submitted by the SeaDataNet consortium which is the leading data management network in Europe, covering all sea basins in European waters with data input from almost all coastal states. It is the same consortium that had been awarded the first call for the preparatory actions and has been extended with new partners. EMODnet Chemistry (www.emodnet-chemistry.eu/) is focusing on measurement data for groups of chemical variables in water, sediments and biota with relevance to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Five regional groups corresponding to the five MSFD regions are performing quality control and aggregation on the data gathered from many distributed data providers of the SeaDataNet infrastructure in order to generate regional harmonized, aggregated and validated data sets for selected groups of chemicals variables. Then these data sets are used to prepare interpolated maps of chemical variables per region over time and

  14. 21 CFR 1315.36 - Amending an import quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas § 1315.36... quantity of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine and distribute the chemical or drug...

  15. 21 CFR 1315.36 - Amending an import quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas § 1315.36... quantity of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine and distribute the chemical or drug...

  16. 21 CFR 1315.36 - Amending an import quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas § 1315.36... quantity of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine and distribute the chemical or drug...

  17. 21 CFR 1315.36 - Amending an import quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas § 1315.36... quantity of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine and distribute the chemical or drug...

  18. 21 CFR 1315.36 - Amending an import quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas § 1315.36... quantity of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine and distribute the chemical or drug...

  19. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  20. Use of an aggregate exposure model to estimate consumer exposure to fragrance ingredients in personal care and cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Safford, B; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Comiskey, D; Daly, E J; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S; Smith, B; Thomas, R; Tozer, S

    2015-08-01

    Ensuring the toxicological safety of fragrance ingredients used in personal care and cosmetic products is essential in product development and design, as well as in the regulatory compliance of the products. This requires an accurate estimation of consumer exposure which, in turn, requires an understanding of consumer habits and use of products. Where ingredients are used in multiple product types, it is important to take account of aggregate exposure in consumers using these products. This publication investigates the use of a newly developed probabilistic model, the Creme RIFM model, to estimate aggregate exposure to fragrance ingredients using the example of 2-phenylethanol (PEA). The output shown demonstrates the utility of the model in determining systemic and dermal exposure to fragrances from individual products, and aggregate exposure. The model provides valuable information not only for risk assessment, but also for risk management. It should be noted that data on the concentrations of PEA in products used in this article were obtained from limited sources and not the standard, industry wide surveys typically employed by the fragrance industry and are thus presented here to illustrate the output and utility of the newly developed model. They should not be considered an accurate representation of actual exposure to PEA. PMID:26071898

  1. Large area aggregation and mean-squared prediction error estimation for LACIE yield and production forecasts. [wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chhikara, R. S.; Feiveson, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Aggregation formulas are given for production estimation of a crop type for a zone, a region, and a country, and methods for estimating yield prediction errors for the three areas are described. A procedure is included for obtaining a combined yield prediction and its mean-squared error estimate for a mixed wheat pseudozone.

  2. 78 FR 29331 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Western Alaska Community Development Quota Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Service monitors the reported catch to assure that quotas are not being exceeded. Information is collected... Alaska Community Development Quota Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... current information collection. The Western Alaska Community Development Quota (CDQ) Program is...

  3. Uncovering methods for the prevention of protein aggregation and improvement of product quality in a transient expression system.

    PubMed

    Estes, Bram; Hsu, Yueh-Rong; Tam, Lei-Ting; Sheng, Jackie; Stevens, Jennitte; Haldankar, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian expression systems are used routinely for the production of recombinant proteins as therapeutic molecules as well as research tools. Transient expression has become increasingly popular in recent years due to its rapid timeline and improvements in expression level. While improvements to transient expression systems have focused mainly on the level of protein expression, the aspect of protein quality has received little attention. The removal of undesirable products, such as aggregation, depends primarily on purification, requiring additional cumbersome steps, which can lead to a lower product yield and longer timelines. In this study, we show that reducing the level of transcription by transfecting at a lower gene dose improves the quality of secreted molecules prone to aggregation. For gene dosing to have this effect, it is critical for the carrier DNA to be an empty vector containing the same elements as the gene containing plasmid. This approach can be used in combination with a temperature shift to hypothermic conditions during production to enhance the effect. The observed improvements not only minimized aggregation levels, but also generated products with overall superior quality, including more homogeneous signal peptide cleavage and N-linked glycosylation profiles. These techniques have produced a similar improvement in product quality with a variety of other molecules, suggesting that this may be a general approach to enhance product quality from transient expression systems. PMID:25395220

  4. Evaluation of clay aggregate biotrickling filters for treatment of gaseous emissions from intensive pig production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dezhao; Løkke, Mette Marie; Riis, Anders Leegaard; Mortensen, Knud; Feilberg, Anders

    2014-04-01

    Treatment of ventilation air from livestock production by biological airfiltration has emerged as a cost-effective technology for reduction of emissions of odorants and ammonia. Volatile sulfur compounds from livestock production include H2S and methanethiol, which have been identified as potentially important odorants that are not removed sufficiently by biological air filters. Light-expanded clay aggregates (Leca(®)) is a biotrickling filter material that contains iron oxides, which can oxidize H2S and methanethiol, and thus potentially may help to remove these two compounds in biological air filters. This study used on-line PTR-MS measurements to investigate the performances of two Leca(®) biotrickling filters (abraded Leca(®) filter and untreated Leca(®) filter) for removal of odorants and ammonia emitted from an experimental pig house. The results indicated that the abraded Leca(®) filter had a similar or slightly better capability for removing odorants than the untreated Leca(®) filter. This may be due to the enlargement of the surface area by the friction process. The volatile sulfur compounds, however, were not removed efficiently by either of the two Leca(®) filters. Kinetic analysis of a ventilation controlled experiment during the first period indicated that Grau second-order kinetics could be applied to analyze the removal of sulfur compounds and other odorants, whereas the Stover-Kincannon model could only be applied to analyze the removal of odorants other than sulfur compounds, partly due to the limitation of mass transfer of these compounds in the biotrickling filters. In the last measurement period, a production of dimethyl disulfide and dimethyltrisulfide coinciding with strongly enhanced removal of methanethiol was observed for the untreated filter. This was assumed to be enhanced by an incidence of low local air velocity in the filter and indicated involvement of iron-catalyzed reactions in the removal of sulfur compounds. PMID:24534901

  5. Large Scale Management of Physicists Personal Analysis Data Without Employing User and Group Quotas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, A.; Diesbug, M.; Gheith, M.; Illingworth, R.; Lyon, A.; Mengel, M.

    2015-12-01

    The ability of modern HEP experiments to acquire and process unprecedented amounts of data and simulation have lead to an explosion in the volume of information that individual scientists deal with on a daily basis. Explosion has resulted in a need for individuals to generate and keep large personal analysis data sets which represent the skimmed portions of official data collections, pertaining to their specific analysis. While a significant reduction in size compared to the original data, these personal analysis and simulation sets can be many terabytes or 10s of TB in size and consist of 10s of thousands of files. When this personal data is aggregated across the many physicists in a single analysis group or experiment it can represent data volumes on par or exceeding the official production samples which require special data handling techniques to deal with effectively. In this paper we explore the changes to the Fermilab computing infrastructure and computing models which have been developed to allow experimenters to effectively manage their personal analysis data and other data that falls outside of the typically centrally managed production chains. In particular we describe the models and tools that are being used to provide the modern neutrino experiments like NOvA with storage resources that are sufficient to meet their analysis needs, without imposing specific quotas on users or groups of users. We discuss the storage mechanisms and the caching algorithms that are being used as well as the toolkits are have been developed to allow the users to easily operate with terascale+ datasets.

  6. Resource control in ATLAS distributed data management: Rucio Accounting and Quotas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barisits, M.; Serfon, C.; Garonne, V.; Lassnig, M.; Beermann, T.; Vigne, R.

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Data Management system manages more than 160PB of physics data across more than 130 sites globally. Rucio, the next generation Distributed Data Management system of the ATLAS experiment, replaced DQ2 in December 2014 and will manage the experiment's data throughout Run 2 of the LHC and beyond. The previous data management system pursued a rather simplistic approach for resource management, but with the increased data volume and more dynamic handling of data workflows required by the experiment, a more elaborate approach is needed. Rucio was delivered with an initial quota system, but during the first months of operation it turned out to not fully satisfy the collaboration's resource management needs. We consequently introduce a new concept of declaring quota policies (limits) for accounts in Rucio. This new quota concept is based on accounts and RSE (Rucio storage element) expressions, which allows the definition of hierarchical quotas in a dynamic way. This concept enables the operators of the data management system to implement very specific policies for users, physics groups and production systems while, at the same time, lowering the operational burden. This contribution describes the concept, architecture and workflow of the system and includes an evaluation measuring the performance of the system.

  7. Inhibition of platelet aggregation and reduced formation of thromboxane and lipoxygenase products in platelets by oil of cloves.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, K C; Justesen, U

    1987-09-01

    Oil of cloves (OC) was found to be a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid (AA), collagen and epinephrine; in this respect it was most effective against AA-induced aggregation. Inhibition of aggregation by OC seems to be mediated through a reduced formation of thromboxane as indicated by the following experimental evidence. (i) OC inhibited TxB2 formation in intact as well as lysed platelet preparations from added arachidonate, and (ii) it inhibited the formation of TxB2 from AA-labelled platelets after activation with Ca2+-ionophore A23187. The formation of lipoxygenase derived products was dependent on the concentration of OC used; at its lower concentration their amounts increased but this was found to be reversed at higher concentrations. At all concentrations thromboxane was decreased with a concomitant increase in unused AA. PMID:3118394

  8. Platelet aggregation test

    MedlinePlus

    The platelet aggregation blood test checks how well platelets , a part of blood, clump together and cause blood to clot. ... Decreased platelet aggregation may be due to: Autoimmune ... Fibrin degradation products Inherited platelet function defects ...

  9. 77 FR 16210 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Tilefish Individual Fishing Quota Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... Individual Fishing Quota Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... tilefish individual fishing quota (IFQ) permit holders in order to process applications to ensure that...

  10. 77 FR 16209 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Tilefish Individual Fishing Quota Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... Individual Fishing Quota Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... tilefish individual fishing quota (IFQ) permit holders in order to process applications to ensure that...

  11. 78 FR 30865 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Tilefish Individual Fishing Quota Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... Individual Fishing Quota Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... tilefish individual fishing quota (IFQ) permit holders in order to process applications to ensure that...

  12. Validation of an aggregate exposure model for substances in consumer products: a case study of diethyl phthalate in personal care products

    PubMed Central

    Delmaar, Christiaan; Bokkers, Bas; ter Burg, Wouter; Schuur, Gerlienke

    2015-01-01

    As personal care products (PCPs) are used in close contact with a person, they are a major source of consumer exposure to chemical substances contained in these products. The estimation of realistic consumer exposure to substances in PCPs is currently hampered by the lack of appropriate data and methods. To estimate aggregate exposure of consumers to substances contained in PCPs, a person-oriented consumer exposure model has been developed (the Probabilistic Aggregate Consumer Exposure Model, PACEM). The model simulates daily exposure in a population based on product use data collected from a survey among the Dutch population. The model is validated by comparing diethyl phthalate (DEP) dose estimates to dose estimates based on biomonitoring data. It was found that the model's estimates compared well with the estimates based on biomonitoring data. This suggests that the person-oriented PACEM model is a practical tool for assessing realistic aggregate exposures to substances in PCPs. In the future, PACEM will be extended with use pattern data on other product groups. This will allow for assessing aggregate exposure to substances in consumer products across different product groups. PMID:25352161

  13. 21 CFR 1315.34 - Obtaining an import quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas § 1315.34 Obtaining an import quota. (a) Any person who is registered to import ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or... desires to import during the next calendar year any ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine...

  14. 21 CFR 1315.34 - Obtaining an import quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas § 1315.34 Obtaining an import quota. (a) Any person who is registered to import ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or... desires to import during the next calendar year any ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine...

  15. 21 CFR 1315.34 - Obtaining an import quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Procurement and Import Quotas § 1315.34 Obtaining an import quota. (a) Any person who is registered to import ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or... desires to import during the next calendar year any ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine...

  16. Glycation by Ascorbic Acid Oxidation Products Leads to the Aggregation of Lens Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Linetsky, Mikhail; Shipova, Ekaterina; Cheng, Rongzhu; Ortwerth, Beryl J.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that there are striking similarities between the yellow chromophores, fluorophores and modified amino acids released by proteolytic digestion from calf lens proteins ascorbylated in vitro and their counterparts isolated from aged and cataractous lens proteins. The studies reported in this communication were conducted to further investigate whether ascorbic acid-mediated modification of lens proteins could lead to the formation of lens protein aggregates capable of scattering visible light, similar to the high molecular aggregates found in aged human lenses. Ascorbic acid, but not glucose, fructose, ribose or erythrulose, caused the aggregation of calf lens proteins to proteins ranging from 2.2 × 106 up to 3.0 × 108 Da. This compared to proteins ranging from 1.8 × 106 up to 3.6 × 108 Da for the water-soluble (WS) proteins isolated from aged human lenses. This aggregation was likely due to the glycation of lens crystallins because [U-14C] ascorbate was incorporated into the aggregate fraction and because CNBH3, which reduces the initial Schiff base, prevented any protein aggregation. Reactions of ascorbate with purified crystallin fractions showed little or no aggregation of α-crystallin, significant aggregation of βH-crystallin, but rapid precipitation of purified βL- and γ-crystallin. The aggregation of lens proteins can be prevented by the binding of damaged crystallins to alpha-crystallin due to its chaperone activity. Depending upon the ratios between the components of the incubation mixtures, α-crystallin prevented the precipitation of the purified βL- and γ-crystallin fractions during ascorbylation. The addition of at least 20% of alpha-crystallin by weight into glycation mixtures with βL-, or γ-crystallins completely inhibited protein precipitation, and increased the amount of the high molecular weight aggregates in solution. Static and dynamic light scattering measurements of the supernatants from

  17. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising...

  18. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolen, W.P.; Tepordei, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The estimated production during 2000 of construction aggregates, crushed stone, and construction sand and gravel increased by about 2.6% to 2.7 Gt (3 billion st), compared with 1999. The expansion that started in 1992 continued with record production levels for the ninth consecutive year. By commodity, construction sand and gravel production increased by 4.5% to 1.16 Gt (1.28 billion st), while crushed stone production increased by 1.3% to 1.56 Gt (1.72 billion st).

  19. 77 FR 25732 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... International Trade, (202) 325-0009. Correction In notice document, FR Doc. 2012-9131, beginning on page 22796... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...

  20. FITPULS: a code for obtaining analytic fits to aggregate fission-product decay-energy spectra. [In FORTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    LaBauve, R.J.; George, D.C.; England, T.R.

    1980-03-01

    The operation and input to the FITPULS code, recently updated to utilize interactive graphics, are described. The code is designed to retrieve data from a library containing aggregate fine-group spectra (150 energy groups) from fission products, collapse the data to few groups (up to 25), and fit the resulting spectra along the cooling time axis with a linear combination of exponential functions. Also given in this report are useful results for aggregate gamma and beta spectra from the decay of fission products released from /sup 235/U irradiated with a pulse (10/sup -4/ s irradiation time) of thermal neutrons. These fits are given in 22 energy groups that are the first 22 groups of the LASL 25-group decay-energy group structure, and the data are expressed both as MeV per fission second and particles per fission second; these pulse functions are readily folded into finite fission histories. 65 figures, 11 tables.

  1. Production of lightweight aggregates from mining residues, heavy metal sludge, and incinerator fly ash.

    PubMed

    Huang, Su-Chen; Chang, Fang-Chih; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lee, Ming-Yu; Wang, Chu-Fang; Lin, Jyh-Dong

    2007-06-01

    In this study, artificial lightweight aggregate (LWA) manufactured from recycled resources was investigated. Residues from mining, fly ash from an incinerator and heavy metal sludge from an electronic waste water plant were mixed into raw aggregate pellets and fed into a tunnel kiln to be sintered and finally cooled rapidly. Various feeding and sintering temperatures were employed to examine their impact on the extent of vitrification on the aggregate surface. Microstructural analysis and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) were also performed. The results show that the optimum condition of LWA fabrication is sintering at 1150 degrees C for 15 min with raw aggregate pellets fed at 750 degrees C. The rapidly vitrified surface envelops the gas produced with the increase in internal temperature and cooling by spraying water prevents the aggregates from binding together, thus forming LWA with specific gravity of 0.6. LWA produced by sintering in tunnel kiln shows good vitrified surface, low water absorption rate below 5%, and low cylindrical compressive strength of 4.3 MPa. In addition, only trace amounts of heavy metals were detected, making the LWA non-hazardous for construction use. PMID:17118542

  2. Transparent exopolymer particle production and aggregation by a marine planktonic diatom (Thalassiosira weissflogii) at different growth rates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Thornton, Daniel C O

    2015-04-01

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) play an important role in the ocean carbon cycle as they are sticky and affect particle aggregation and the biological carbon pump. We investigated the effect of growth rate on TEP production in nitrogen limited semi-continuous cultures of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii (Grunow) G. Fryxell & Hasle. Steady-state diatom concentrations and other indicators of biomass (chl a, and total carbohydrate) were inversely related to growth rate, while individual cell volume increased with growth rate. There was no change in total TEP area with growth rate; however, individual TEP were larger at high growth rates and the number of individual TEP particles was lower. TEP concentration per cell was higher at higher growth rates. SYTOX Green staining showed that <5% of the diatom population had permeable cell membranes, with the proportion increasing at low growth rates. However, TEP production rates were greater at high growth rates, refuting our hypothesis that TEP formation is dependent on dying cells with compromised cell membranes in a diatom population. Measurements of particle size distribution in the cultures using laser scattering showed that they were most aggregated at high growth rates. These results indicate a coupling between TEP production and growth rate in diatoms under N limitation, with fast growing T. weissflogii producing more TEP and aggregates. PMID:26986532

  3. 75 FR 2820 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota to be transferred from one state to... necessitate a state quota transfer (70 FR 53969). This rule specified that such late- season quota transfers... United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  4. 76 FR 81851 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota to be transferred from one... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... summer flounder quota to the State of Rhode Island. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas and...

  5. 76 FR 81851 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota to be transferred from one... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas...

  6. 21 CFR 1315.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1315.22 Section 1315.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any... desires to manufacture a quantity of the chemical must apply on DEA Form 189 for a manufacturing quota...

  7. 21 CFR 1303.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1303.22 Section 1303.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any person who is registered to manufacture any basic class of controlled substance...

  8. 21 CFR 1315.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1315.22 Section 1315.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any... desires to manufacture a quantity of the chemical must apply on DEA Form 189 for a manufacturing quota...

  9. 21 CFR 1315.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1315.22 Section 1315.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any... desires to manufacture a quantity of the chemical must apply on DEA Form 189 for a manufacturing quota...

  10. 21 CFR 1303.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1303.22 Section 1303.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any person who is registered to manufacture any basic class of controlled substance...

  11. 21 CFR 1315.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1315.22 Section 1315.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any... desires to manufacture a quantity of the chemical must apply on DEA Form 189 for a manufacturing quota...

  12. 21 CFR 1303.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1303.22 Section 1303.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any person who is registered to manufacture any basic class of controlled substance...

  13. 21 CFR 1303.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1303.22 Section 1303.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any person who is registered to manufacture any basic class of controlled substance...

  14. 21 CFR 1303.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1303.22 Section 1303.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any person who is registered to manufacture any basic class of controlled substance...

  15. 21 CFR 1315.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1315.22 Section 1315.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any... desires to manufacture a quantity of the chemical must apply on DEA Form 189 for a manufacturing quota...

  16. A comparative study on carbon footprint of rice production between household and aggregated farms from Jiangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming; Luo, Ting; Bian, Rongjun; Cheng, Kun; Pan, Genxing; Rees, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Quantifying the carbon footprint (CF) for crop production can help identify key options to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture. In the present study, both household and aggregated farm scales were surveyed to obtain the data of rice production and farming management practices in a typical rice cultivation area of Northern Jiangxi, China. The CFs of the different rice systems including early rice, late rice, and single rice under household and aggregated farm scale were calculated. In general, early rice had the lower CF in terms of land use and grain production being 4.54 ± 0.44 t CO2-eq./ha and 0.62 ± 0.1 t CO2-eq./t grain than single rice (6.84 ± 0.79 t CO2-eq./ha and 0.80 ± 0.13 t CO2-eq./t grain) and late rice (8.72 ± 0.54 t CO2-eq./ha and 1.1 ± 0.17 t CO2-eq./t grain). The emissions from nitrogen fertilizer use accounted for 33 % of the total CF on average and the direct CH4 emissions for 57 %. The results indicated that the CF of double rice cropping under aggregated farm being 0.86 ± 0.11 t CO2-eq./t grain was lower by 25 % than that being 1.14 ± 0.25 t CO2-eq./t grain under household farm, mainly due to high nitrogen use efficiency and low methane emissions. Therefore, developing the aggregated farm scale with efficient use of agro-chemicals and farming operation for greater profitability could offer a strategy for reducing GHG emissions in China's agriculture. PMID:25947895

  17. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Part of a special section on the market performance of industrial minerals in 1992. Production of construction aggregates increased by 4.6 percent in 1992. This increase was due, in part, to the increased funding for transportation and infrastructure projects. The U.S. produced about 1.05 Gt of crushed stone and an estimated 734 Mt of construction sand and gravel in 1992. Demand is expected to increase by about 5 percent in 1993.

  18. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Part of the Annual Commodities Review 1995. Production of construction aggregates such as crushed stone and construction sand and gravel showed a marginal increase in 1995. Most of the 1995 increases were due to funding for highway construction work. The major areas of concern to the industry included issues relating to wetlands classification and the classification of crystalline silica as a probable human carcinogen. Despite this, an increase in demand is anticipated for 1996.

  19. 76 FR 63538 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import... Appendix 1 to Appendix 2 for certain dairy product import licenses permanently surrendered by licensees...

  20. 50 CFR 648.100 - Catch quotas and other restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mesh selectivity analyses; impact of gear other than otter trawls on the mortality of summer flounder... reductions for research quota. (9) Restrictions on gear other than otter trawls. (10) Adjustments to...

  1. Production efficiencies of U.S. electric generation plants: Effects of data aggregation and greenhouse gas and renewable energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynes, Melissa Kate

    Over the last few decades there has been a shift in electricity production in the U.S. Renewable energy sources are becoming more widely used. In addition, electric generation plants that use coal inputs are more heavily regulated than a couple decades ago. This shift in electricity production was brought on by changes in federal policy -- a desire for electricity produced in the U.S. which led to policies being adopted that encourage the use of renewable energy. The change in production practices due to policies may have led to changes in the productivity of electric generation plants. Multiple studies have examined the most efficient electric generation plants using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. This study builds on past research to answer three questions: 1) Does the level of aggregation of fuel input variables affect the plant efficiency scores and how does the efficiency of renewable energy input compare to nonrenewable energy inputs; 2) Are policies geared toward directly or indirectly reducing greenhouse gas emissions affecting the production efficiencies of greenhouse gas emitting electric generation plants; and 3) Do renewable energy policies and the use of intermittent energy sources (i.e. wind and solar) affect the productivity growth of electric generation plants. All three analysis, presented in three essays, use U.S. plant level data obtained from the Energy Information Administration to answer these questions. The first two essays use DEA to determine the pure technical, overall technical, and scale efficiencies of electric generation plants. The third essay uses DEA within the Malmquist index to assess the change in productivity over time. Results indicate that the level of aggregation does matter particularly for scale efficiency. This implies that valuable information is likely lost when fuel inputs are aggregated together. Policies directly focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions may improve the production efficiencies of

  2. Effect of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Calcium-Enriched Mixture Cement and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate with Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate on BMP-2 Production

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Negin; Rahimi, Saeed; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Solaimanirad, Jafar; Shahi, Shahriar; Shafaie, Hajar; Salem Milani, Amin; Shakuie, Sahar; Zand, Vahid; Abdolrahimi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the hypotheses regarding the calcification induction by mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is the involvement of transforming growth factor-Beta (TGF-β) super family. Calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement is one of the endodontic biomaterials with clinical applications similar to MTA. The aim of the present in vitro study was to compare the induction of bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) by a combination of disodium hydrogen phosphate (DSHP) and tooth colored ProRoot MTA (WMTA), to that of CEM cement and WMTA. Methods and Materials: Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were obtained from the attached gingiva of human premolars. HGFs were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s medium, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin, and streptomycin. Cells in groups 1, 2 and 3 were exposed to WMTA, CEM and WMTA+DSHP discs, respectively. The fourth group served as the control. After 72 h of exposure, HGF viability was determined by Mosmann’s tetrazolium toxicity (MTT) assay. BMP-2 levels in cell-free culture media were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way ANOVA, followed by the post hoc Games-Howell test for BMP-2 and post hoc Tukey’s test for the results of MTT assay. Results: Cellular viability was significantly higher in group 3 compared to the other groups (P<0.05); however, CEM and WMTA did not exhibit significant differences (P=0.08). The control group exhibited significantly higher cellular viability in comparison to the other groups of the study (P<0.05). The highest and lowest protein production rates were observed in the WMTA (3167±274.46 pg/mL) and WMTA+DSHP (1796±839.49 pg/mL) groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the control, WMTA and CEM groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: WMTA and CEM did not exhibit any significant differences in terms of inducing BMP-2 production; however, incorporation of DSHP into WMTA resulted in a

  3. Valorisation of different types of boron-containing wastes for the production of lightweight aggregates.

    PubMed

    Kavas, T; Christogerou, A; Pontikes, Y; Angelopoulos, G N

    2011-01-30

    Four boron-containing wastes (BW), named as Sieve (SBW), Dewatering (DBW), Thickener (TBW) and Mixture (MBW) waste, from Kirka Boron plant in west Turkey were investigated for the formation of artificial lightweight aggregates (LWA). The characterisation involved chemical, mineralogical and thermal analyses as well as testing of their bloating behaviour by means of heating microscopy. It was found that SBW and DBW present bloating behaviour whereas TBW and MBW do not. Following the above results two mixtures M1 and M2 were prepared with (in wt.%): 20 clay mixture, 40 SBW, 40 DBW and 20 clay mixture, 35 SBW, 35 DBW, 10 quartz sand, respectively. Two different firing modes were applied: (a) from room temperature till 760 °C and (b) abrupt heating at 760 °C. The obtained bulk density for M1 and M2 pellets is 1.2g/cm(3) and 0.9 g/cm(3), respectively. The analysis of microstructure with electron microscopy revealed a glassy phase matrix and an extended formation of both interconnected and isolated, closed pores. The results indicate that SBW and DBW boron-containing wastes combined with a clay mixture and quartz sand can be valorised for the manufacturing of lightweight aggregates. PMID:21075514

  4. Dissociation and Re-Aggregation of Multicell-Ensheathed Fragments Responsible for Rapid Production of Massive Clumps of Leptothrix Sheaths.

    PubMed

    Kunoh, Tatsuki; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; McFarlane, Ian R; Tamura, Katsunori; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Species of the Fe/Mn-oxidizing bacteria Leptothrix produce tremendous amounts of microtubular, Fe/Mn-encrusted sheaths within a few days in outwells of groundwater that can rapidly clog water systems. To understand this mode of rapid sheath production and define the timescales involved, behaviors of sheath-forming Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1 were examined using time-lapse video at the initial stage of sheath formation. OUMS1 formed clumps of tangled sheaths. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of a thin layer of bacterial exopolymer fibrils around catenulate cells (corresponding to the immature sheath). In time-lapse videos, numerous sheath filaments that extended from the periphery of sheath clumps repeatedly fragmented at the apex of the same fragment, the fragments then aggregated and again elongated, eventually forming a large sheath clump comprising tangled sheaths within two days. In this study, we found that fast microscopic fragmentation, dissociation, re-aggregation and re-elongation events are the basis of the rapid, massive production of Leptothrix sheaths typically observed at macroscopic scales. PMID:27490579

  5. Utilization of Illinois slags for the production of ultra-lightweight aggregates. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhry, V.; Zimmerle, T.; Banerjee, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    The objective of this program is to demonstrate that solid residues (slag) from the gasification of Illinois coals can be utilized to manufacture ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA). Conventional ULWAs are made by pyroprocessing perlite ores and have unit weights in the range of 3--15 lb/ft{sup 3}. In a previous project, Praxis Engineers demonstrated at the pilot scale that lightweight aggregates with unit weights of 40--55 lb/ ft{sup 3} can be produced from Illinois coal slags, which is suitable for making lightweight cement concrete and precast blocks. These tests also indicated that a product with a unit weight of less than 25 lb/ft{sup 3} could be produced from slag. This project is aimed at testing the potential for producing ULWA from Illinois coal slags. Target applications include loose fill insulation, insulating concrete, lightweight precast products such as concrete blocks and rooftiles, and filtration media. Laboratory- and pilot-scale testing is being conducted in Phase I to identify operating conditions for the expansion of Illinois slags to produce ULWA. Following this, a large batch of expanded slag will be produced, for evaluation in various applications in Phase II.

  6. An aggregate analysis of personal care products in the environment: Identifying the distribution of environmentally-relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Zachary R; Blaney, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 3-4 decades, per capita consumption of personal care products (PCPs) has steadily risen, resulting in increased discharge of the active and inactive ingredients present in these products into wastewater collection systems. PCPs comprise a long list of compounds employed in toothpaste, sunscreen, lotions, soaps, body washes, and insect repellants, among others. While comprehensive toxicological studies are not yet available, an increasing body of literature has shown that PCPs of all classes can impact aquatic wildlife, bacteria, and/or mammalian cells at low concentrations. Ongoing research efforts have identified PCPs in a variety of environmental compartments, including raw wastewater, wastewater effluent, surface water, wastewater solids, sediment, groundwater, and drinking water. Here, an aggregate analysis of over 5000 reported detections was conducted to better understand the distribution of environmentally-relevant PCP concentrations in, and between, these compartments. The distributions were used to identify whether aggregated environmentally-relevant concentration ranges intersected with available toxicity data. For raw wastewater, wastewater effluent, and surface water, a clear overlap was present between the 25th-75th percentiles and identified toxicity levels. This analysis suggests that improved wastewater treatment of antimicrobials, UV filters, and polycyclic musks is required to prevent negative impacts on aquatic species. PMID:27128715

  7. Abiotic factors in colony formation: effects of nutrition and light on extracellular polysaccharide production and cell aggregates of Microcystis aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhen; Kong, Fanxiang

    2013-07-01

    Colony morphology is important for Microcystis to sustain a competitive advantage in eutrophic lakes. The mechanism of colony formation in Microcystis is currently unclear. Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) has been reported to play an important role in cell aggregate formation of some phytoplankton. Microcystis aeruginosa was cultivated under varied abiotic conditions, including different nutrient, light, and temperature conditions, to investigate their effects on EPS production and morphological change. The results show that nutrient concentration and light intensity have great effects on EPS productionin M. aeruginosa. There was a considerable increase in EPS production after M. aeruginosa was cultivated in adjusted culture conditions similar to those present in the field (28.9 mg C/L, 1.98 mg N/L, 0.65 mg P/L, light intensity: 100 μmol/(m2 · s)). These results indicate that abiotic factors might be one of the triggers for colony formation in Microcystis.

  8. Aggregate exposure approaches for parabens in personal care products: a case assessment for children between 0 and 3 years old.

    PubMed

    Gosens, Ilse; Delmaar, Christiaan J E; Ter Burg, Wouter; de Heer, Cees; Schuur, A Gerlienke

    2014-01-01

    In the risk assessment of chemical substances, aggregation of exposure to a substance from different sources via different pathways is not common practice. Focusing the exposure assessment on a substance from a single source can lead to a significant underestimation of the risk. To gain more insight on how to perform an aggregate exposure assessment, we applied a deterministic (tier 1) and a person-oriented probabilistic approach (tier 2) for exposure to the four most common parabens through personal care products in children between 0 and 3 years old. Following a deterministic approach, a worst-case exposure estimate is calculated for methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben. As an illustration for risk assessment, Margins of Exposure (MoE) are calculated. These are 991 and 4966 for methyl- and ethylparaben, and 8 and 10 for propyl- and butylparaben, respectively. In tier 2, more detailed information on product use has been obtained from a small survey on product use of consumers. A probabilistic exposure assessment is performed to estimate the variability and uncertainty of exposure in a population. Results show that the internal exposure for each paraben is below the level determined in tier 1. However, for propyl- and butylparaben, the percentile of the population with an exposure probability above the assumed "safe" MoE of 100, is 13% and 7%, respectively. In conclusion, a tier 1 approach can be performed using simple equations and default point estimates, and serves as a starting point for exposure and risk assessment. If refinement is warranted, the more data demanding person-oriented probabilistic approach should be used. This probabilistic approach results in a more realistic exposure estimate, including the uncertainty, and allows determining the main drivers of exposure. Furthermore, it allows to estimate the percentage of the population for which the exposure is likely to be above a specific value. PMID:23801276

  9. 7 CFR Appendices 1-3 to Subpart - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing 1 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy...-3 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart—Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Articles Subject To: Appendix...

  10. 7 CFR Appendices 1-3 to Subpart - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing 1 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy...-3 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart—Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Articles Subject to: Appendix...

  11. 7 CFR Appendices 1-3 to Subpart - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing 1 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy...-3 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart—Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Articles Subject to: Appendix...

  12. 7 CFR Appendices 1-3 to Subpart - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing 1 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy...-3 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart—Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Articles Subject to: Appendix...

  13. 77 FR 62495 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Tilefish Fishery; 2013 Tilefish Fishing Quota...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ...NMFS announces that the overall annual tilefish quota for the 2013 fishing year (November 1, 2012-October 31, 2013) will remain the same as it was in fishing year 2012. NMFS is required to notify the public of the overall annual quota levels for tilefish if the previous year's quota specifications remain unchanged. This document also provides notice of tilefish specifications recently adopted......

  14. 75 FR 4490 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR... United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas...

  15. 76 FR 19276 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ..., which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of ] Virginia. Vessels were authorized by Virginia...

  16. 78 FR 77005 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ..., which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... both transferring a portion of their 2013 commercial summer flounder quotas to the Commonwealth...

  17. 75 FR 22025 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR... United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas...

  18. 77 FR 14481 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas...

  19. 78 FR 20037 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota to be transferred from one... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia and to the State of New Jersey. NMFS...

  20. 78 FR 66857 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... summer flounder quota to the State of Connecticut. NMFS is adjusting the quotas and announcing...

  1. 77 FR 73556 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... summer flounder quota to the State of Connecticut. NMFS is adjusting the quotas and announcing...

  2. 77 FR 69567 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the State of Rhode Island. NMFS is adjusting the quotas and...

  3. 78 FR 13812 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota to be transferred from one... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia and to the State of Rhode Island. NMFS...

  4. 75 FR 30739 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR... United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas...

  5. 75 FR 76925 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas...

  6. 78 FR 76765 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the State of Connecticut. NMFS is adjusting the quotas and announcing...

  7. 77 FR 5414 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ..., which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... of its 2011 commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action,...

  8. 77 FR 25103 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. NMFS is adjusting the quotas and...

  9. 77 FR 19951 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota to be... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. The State of North Carolina is...

  10. 75 FR 82295 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ..., which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. In addition, the State of Maine...

  11. 76 FR 36892 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2011 North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... 2003 swordfish quotas for the North and South Atlantic fisheries (68 FR 36967; June 20, 2003), NMFS... inadvertently removed in the final rule (69 FR 68090; November 23, 2004) that finalized the swordfish quotas for... Final Rule published on October 5, 2007 (72 FR 56929). While the 2011 baseline quota for South...

  12. 76 FR 18504 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quotas and Atlantic Tuna Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    .... See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION for further details. ADDRESSES: As published on March 14, 2011 (76 FR... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quotas and Atlantic Tuna Fisheries Management Measures AGENCY: National... bluefin tuna (BFT) base quotas for all domestic fishing categories; establish BFT quota specifications...

  13. 76 FR 61472 - Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On August 5, 2010, the Secretary of Agriculture established the FY 2011... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar AGENCY... the fiscal year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported refined...

  14. Aggregate Fission-Product Decay Data Based on ENDF/B-IV and -V.

    1982-10-12

    Version 02 The ENDF/B-IV fission-product files contain neutron cross sections, decay constants, decay energies, and other decay data for 824 important fission products. They also contain fission yields for these fission products produced by one or more fission-neutron energies (14 MeV, fast, and thermal fission). Also, spectral data exist for the most important decay-heat contributors among the 824 nuclides. Because the spectra are based on fission pulses, the libraries have a general utility. The exponentialmore » fits, for example, can be folded into any power (fission) history that can be described analytically or by a histogram representation. The effects of neutron absorption are also treated and approximately accounted for in the methodology.« less

  15. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part 2: Modeling Demand Response in a Production Cost Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, Marissa; Palchak, David; Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Olsen, Daniel J.; Kiliccote, Sila; Matson, Nance; Sohn, Michael; Rose, Cody; Dudley, Junqiao; Goli, Sasank; Ma, Ookie

    2013-12-01

    This report is one of a series stemming from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study. This study is a multi-national-laboratory effort to assess the potential value of demand response (DR) and energy storage to electricity systems with different penetration levels of variable renewable resources and to improve our understanding of associatedmarkets and institutions. This report implements DR resources in the commercial production cost model PLEXOS.

  16. 50 CFR 648.120 - Catch quotas and other restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Catch quotas and other restrictions. 648.120 Section 648.120 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES...

  17. 50 CFR 648.140 - Catch quotas and other restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Catch quotas and other restrictions. 648.140 Section 648.140 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES...

  18. 50 CFR 648.100 - Catch quotas and other restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Catch quotas and other restrictions. 648.100 Section 648.100 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES...

  19. 21 CFR 1315.32 - Obtaining a procurement quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obtaining a procurement quota. 1315.32 Section 1315.32 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND... the Office of Diversion Control Web site, and must be filed with the Drug & Chemical...

  20. 21 CFR 1315.32 - Obtaining a procurement quota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obtaining a procurement quota. 1315.32 Section 1315.32 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND... the Office of Diversion Control Web site, and must be filed with the Drug & Chemical...

  1. 7 CFR 1463.107 - Payment to eligible quota holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment to eligible quota holders. 1463.107 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS 2005-2014 TOBACCO TRANSITION... tobacco (b) During each of the fiscal years 2005 through 2014, CCC will make a payment to each...

  2. 7 CFR 1463.103 - Eligible quota holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible quota holder. 1463.103 Section 1463.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS 2005-2014 TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM...

  3. 50 CFR 648.230 - Catch quotas and other restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Measures for the Spiny Dogfish Fishery § 648.230 Catch quotas and other restrictions. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60642, Sept. 29, 2011. (a) Process for setting specifications. The Spiny Dogfish... target fishing mortality rate specified in the Spiny Dogfish Fishery Management Plan will not be...

  4. 50 CFR 648.294 - Individual fishing quota (IFQ) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... relinquished. (2) Issuance. Except as provided in subpart D of 15 CFR part 904, and provided an application for..., modified, or revoked pursuant to 15 CFR part 904; revised due to a transfer of all or part of the IFQ quota... CFR part 904; the transfer would result in the transferee having a tilefish IFQ allocation or...

  5. 50 CFR 648.294 - Individual fishing quota (IFQ) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... relinquished. (2) Issuance. Except as provided in subpart D of 15 CFR part 904, and provided an application for..., modified, or revoked pursuant to 15 CFR part 904; revised due to a transfer of all or part of the IFQ quota... CFR part 904; the transfer would result in the transferee having a tilefish IFQ allocation or...

  6. 7 CFR 1463.103 - Eligible quota holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible quota holder. 1463.103 Section 1463.103... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS 2005-2014 TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco... wetlands and highly erodible land provisions of part 12 of this title, the controlled substance...

  7. 7 CFR 1463.103 - Eligible quota holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible quota holder. 1463.103 Section 1463.103... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS 2005-2014 TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco... wetlands and highly erodible land provisions of part 12 of this title, the controlled substance...

  8. 7 CFR 1463.103 - Eligible quota holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible quota holder. 1463.103 Section 1463.103... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS 2005-2014 TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco... wetlands and highly erodible land provisions of part 12 of this title, the controlled substance...

  9. 7 CFR 1463.103 - Eligible quota holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible quota holder. 1463.103 Section 1463.103... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS 2005-2014 TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco... wetlands and highly erodible land provisions of part 12 of this title, the controlled substance...

  10. 50 CFR 680.40 - Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS (PQS), Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ), and Individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... stationary floating crab processor. (3) PQS issued to Blue Dutch, LLC. (i) Pursuant to Public Law 109-241... crab QS fishery. (ii) PQS units issued to Blue Dutch, LLC, under paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS...

  11. 50 CFR 680.40 - Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS (PQS), Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ), and Individual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... stationary floating crab processor. (3) PQS issued to Blue Dutch, LLC. (i) Pursuant to Public Law 109-241... crab QS fishery. (ii) PQS units issued to Blue Dutch, LLC, under paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crab Quota Share (QS), Processor QS...

  12. Aggregate dermal exposure to cyclic siloxanes in personal care products: implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Biesterbos, Jacqueline W H; Beckmann, Gwendolyn; van Wel, Luuk; Anzion, Rob B M; von Goetz, Natalie; Dudzina, Tatsiana; Roeleveld, Nel; Ragas, Ad M J; Russel, Frans G M; Scheepers, Paul T J

    2015-01-01

    Consumers who use personal care products (PCPs) are internally exposed to some of the organic components present of which some may be detected in exhaled air when eliminated. The aim of this study was the quantitative determination of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) in end-exhaled air to study dermal absorption of substances in PCPs. We exposed the forearm of fifteen healthy volunteers for 60min to pure D4 or D5 and to commercial products containing D4 and D5. Inhalation uptake was kept to a minimum by keeping the forearm in a flow cabinet during dermal exposure and supplying filtered air to the breathing zone of the volunteer during the post-exposure period. End-exhaled air was collected using a breath sampler (Bio-VOC), transferred to carbograph multi-bed adsorbent tubes and analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). In the end-exhaled air of non-exposed volunteers background concentrations of D4 (0.8-3.5ng/L) and D5 (0.8-4.0ng/L) were observed. After exposing the volunteers, the level of D4 and D5 in end-exhaled air did not or barely exceed background concentrations. At t=90min, a sharp increase of the D4/D5 concentration in end-exhaled air was observed, which we attributed to the inhalation of the substances during a toilet visit without using inhalation protection devices. When this visit was taken out of the protocol, the sharp increase disappeared. Overall, the results of our study indicate that dermal absorption of D4 and D5 contributes only marginally to internal exposure following dermal applications. As in our study inhalation is the primary route of entry for these compounds, we conclude that its risk assessment should focus on this particular exposure route. PMID:25454240

  13. Quantitative risk assessment of the aggregate dermal exposure to the sensitizing fragrance geraniol in personal care products and household cleaning agents.

    PubMed

    Nijkamp, M M; Bokkers, B G H; Bakker, M I; Ezendam, J; Delmaar, J E

    2015-10-01

    A quantitative risk assessment was performed to establish if consumers are at risk for being dermally sensitized by the fragrance geraniol. Aggregate dermal exposure to geraniol was estimated using the Probabilistic Aggregate Consumer Exposure Model, containing data on the use of personal care products and household cleaning agents. Consumer exposure to geraniol via personal care products appeared to be higher than via household cleaning agents. The hands were the body parts receiving the highest exposure to geraniol. Dermal sensitization studies were assessed to derive the point of departure needed for the estimation of the Acceptable Exposure Level (AEL). Two concentrations were derived, one based on human studies and the other from dose-response analysis of the available murine local lymph node assay data. The aggregate dermal exposure assessment resulted in body part specific median exposures up to 0.041 μg/cm(2) (highest exposure 102 μg/cm(2)) for hands. Comparing the exposure to the lowest AEL (55 μg/cm(2)), shows that a range of 0.02-0.86% of the population may have an aggregated exposure which exceeds the AEL. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that personal care products contribute more to the consumer's geraniol exposure compared to household cleaning agents. PMID:26107291

  14. Characterization and removal of aggregates formed by nonspecific interaction of IgM monoclonal antibodies with chromatin catabolites during cell culture production.

    PubMed

    Gan, Hui Theng; Lee, Jeremy; Latiff, Sarah Maria Abdul; Chuah, Cindy; Toh, Phyllicia; Lee, Wan Yee; Gagnon, Pete

    2013-05-24

    We observed that IgM monoclonal antibodies and aggregates in mammalian cell culture supernatants were associated nonspecifically with nucleosomes, DNA, and histone proteins derived from nuclei of host cells that died during antibody production. A series of multimodal sample treatments were evaluated for their ability to selectively remove these contaminants without significant antibody loss. The first consisted of adding 2,5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl urea (allantoin) and the DNA intercalating agent 7-ethoxyacridine-3,9-diamine (ethacridine), then flowing the supernatant through a column of mixed porous particles bearing metal affinity, anion exchange, and cation exchange functionalities. A one-step variant of the method was to mix chromatography particles with the allantoin-ethacridine-treated supernatant. An alternative one-step treatment consisted of passing untreated cell supernatant through a chelating monolith in tandem with an anion exchange monolith. All methods eliminated high molecular weight aggregates, and reduced smaller aggregates to 2-4%. They also achieved 98% DNA reduction, 99% reduction of nucleosomes and histones, 30-70% reduction of general host proteins, and 98% IgM recovery. Size exclusion chromatography analysis indicated that IgG monoclonal antibodies benefit similarly from treatment. Subsequent IgM purification reduced DNA levels beneath the level of detectability by fluorescent dye intercalation, histones to less than 10 parts per million by ELISA, and aggregates to less than 0.05% by size exclusion chromatography. The results point to chromatin catabolites as promoters of antibody aggregate formation. PMID:23598159

  15. Weighted aggregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The use of a weighted aggregation technique to improve the precision of the overall LACIE estimate is considered. The manner in which a weighted aggregation technique is implemented given a set of weights is described. The problem of variance estimation is discussed and the question of how to obtain the weights in an operational environment is addressed.

  16. Scalable Production of a Multifunctional Protein (TSG-6) That Aggregates with Itself and the CHO Cells That Synthesize It.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Ki; Choi, Hosoon; Nishida, Hidetaka; Oh, Joo Youn; Gregory, Carl; Lee, Ryang Hwa; Yu, Ji Min; Watanabe, Jun; An, Su Yeon; Bartosh, Thomas J; Prockop, Darwin J

    2016-01-01

    TNF-α stimulated gene/protein 6 (TNFAIP6/TSG-6) is a multifunctional protein that has a number of potential therapeutic applications. Experiments and clinical trials with TSG-6, however, have been limited by the technical difficulties of producing the recombinant protein. We prepared stable clones of CHO cells that expressed recombinant human TSG-6 (rhTSG-6) as a secreted glycoprotein. Paradoxically, both cell number and protein production decreased dramatically when the clones were expanded. The decreases occurred because the protein aggregated the synthesizing CHO cells by binding to the brush border of hyaluronan that is found around many cultured cells. In addition, the rhTSG-6 readily self-aggregated. To address these problems, we added to the medium an inhibitor of hyaluronan synthesis and heparin to compete with the binding of TSG-6 to hyaluronan. Also, we optimized the composition of the culture medium, and transferred the CHO cells from a spinner culture system to a bioreactor that controlled pH and thereby decreased pH-dependent binding properties of the protein. With these and other improvements in the culture conditions, we obtained 57.0 mg ± 9.16 S.D. of rhTSG-6 in 5 or 6 liter of medium. The rhTSG-6 accounted for 18.0% ± 3.76 S.D. of the total protein in the medium. We then purified the protein with a Ni-chelate column that bound the His tag engineered into the C-terminus of the protein followed by an anion exchange column. The yield of the purified monomeric rhTSG-6 was 4.1 mg to 5.6 mg per liter of culture medium. After intravenous injection into mice, the protein had a longer plasma half-life than commercially available rhTSG-6 isolated from a mammalian cell lysate, apparently because it was recovered as a secreted glycoprotein. The bioactivity of the rhTSG-6 in suppressing inflammation was demonstrated in a murine model. PMID:26793973

  17. Scalable Production of a Multifunctional Protein (TSG-6) That Aggregates with Itself and the CHO Cells That Synthesize It

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Ki; Choi, Hosoon; Nishida, Hidetaka; Oh, Joo Youn; Gregory, Carl; Lee, Ryang Hwa; Yu, Ji Min; Watanabe, Jun; An, Su Yeon; Bartosh, Thomas J.; Prockop, Darwin J.

    2016-01-01

    TNF-α stimulated gene/protein 6 (TNFAIP6/TSG-6) is a multifunctional protein that has a number of potential therapeutic applications. Experiments and clinical trials with TSG-6, however, have been limited by the technical difficulties of producing the recombinant protein. We prepared stable clones of CHO cells that expressed recombinant human TSG-6 (rhTSG-6) as a secreted glycoprotein. Paradoxically, both cell number and protein production decreased dramatically when the clones were expanded. The decreases occurred because the protein aggregated the synthesizing CHO cells by binding to the brush border of hyaluronan that is found around many cultured cells. In addition, the rhTSG-6 readily self-aggregated. To address these problems, we added to the medium an inhibitor of hyaluronan synthesis and heparin to compete with the binding of TSG-6 to hyaluronan. Also, we optimized the composition of the culture medium, and transferred the CHO cells from a spinner culture system to a bioreactor that controlled pH and thereby decreased pH-dependent binding properties of the protein. With these and other improvements in the culture conditions, we obtained 57.0 mg ± 9.16 S.D. of rhTSG-6 in 5 or 6 liter of medium. The rhTSG-6 accounted for 18.0% ± 3.76 S.D. of the total protein in the medium. We then purified the protein with a Ni-chelate column that bound the His tag engineered into the C-terminus of the protein followed by an anion exchange column. The yield of the purified monomeric rhTSG-6 was 4.1 mg to 5.6 mg per liter of culture medium. After intravenous injection into mice, the protein had a longer plasma half-life than commercially available rhTSG-6 isolated from a mammalian cell lysate, apparently because it was recovered as a secreted glycoprotein. The bioactivity of the rhTSG-6 in suppressing inflammation was demonstrated in a murine model. PMID:26793973

  18. Diel Rhythms in Monochamus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): Production of and Response to a Male-Produced Aggregation Pheromone.

    PubMed

    Skabeikis, D D; Teale, S A; Fierke, M K

    2016-08-01

    Recent research has shown that several species in the genus Monochamus, including Monochamus scutellatus scutellatus (Say) and Monochamus notatus (Drury), a close congener, are attracted to an aggregation pheromone, monochamol, but only M. s. scutellatus produces it. Investigations were conducted to determine if there is a diel rhythm in production of monochamol or response to monochamol + host attractants in field trials by M. s. scutellatus and M. notatus to prevent cross attraction with each other. Volatiles were collected from males and females of M. s. scutellatus and M. notatus every 8 h and analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Traps baited with monochamol and the host volatiles α-pinene and ethanol were checked every 8 h in field tests. Only male M. s. scutellatus produced the pheromone, and did so in similar quantities during each 8-h time interval assessed, suggesting there is no diel rhythm in pheromone production. In field tests conducted in early to mid-July, significantly more M. s. scutellatus were captured during morning hours, and significantly more M. notatus were caught during afternoon or early evening hours, suggesting temporal partitioning of flight or in their response to the pheromone lures when both species are present. A temporal switch occurred later in the seasonal flight period (mid-August) when densities of M. s. scutellatus were low; all M. notatus and only one M. s. scutellatus were caught during morning hours. This suggests a temporal separation in mate location behavior when both species are abundant and using the same host to avoid interspecific mating. PMID:27252408

  19. Inhibition of whole blood platelet-aggregation by compounds in garlic clove extracts and commercial garlic products.

    PubMed

    Lawson, L D; Ransom, D K; Hughes, B G

    1992-01-15

    The inhibitory effects of adenosine and 16 quantitatively determined organosulfur compounds derived from garlic cloves or commercial garlic preparations on collagen stimulated in vitro platelet aggregation in whole blood were determined. An estimation of the anti-aggregatory activity of several brands of the major types of commercial garlic preparations was determined from the activities of the individual compounds present in each sample. In platelet rich plasma (PRP) most of the anti-aggregatory activity of garlic clove homogenates was due to adenosine; however, in whole blood neither adenosine nor the polar fraction had any effect and all of the anti-aggregatory activity was due to allicin and other thiosulfinates. Allicin was equally active in whole blood and PRP. Among brands there was a several-fold variation in content of the organosulfur compounds and activity for all types of garlic products tested. The best garlic powder tablets were equally as active as clove homogenates whereas steam-distilled oils were 35% as active and oil-macerates (due to low content) only 12% as active. A garlic product aged many months in aqueous alcohol had no activity. For steam-distilled oils, most of the activity was due to diallyl trisulfide. For the oil-macerates, most of the activity was due largely to the vinyl dithiins. Ajoene, an exclusive component of the oil-macerates, had highest specific activity of all the compounds tested but, because of its low concentration, had only 13% of the activity of diallyl trisulfide and 3% of the activity of allicin. Compounds which may be active in vivo are discussed. PMID:1579891

  20. Establishing backcountry use quotas: an example from Mineral King, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, David J.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Fodor, Paul A.

    1981-01-01

    Increasing levels of visitor use and consequent resource damage have necessitated that backcountry use restrictions be established in the Mineral King area of Sequoia National Park, California. In this paper we review the steps taken in developing a trailhead quota system. The availability of acceptable campsites, based on a detailed inventory of site distribution and impact, was used to quantitatively derive use capacities for each camp area. Wilderness permit data on visitor dispersal patterns from the major trailheads, including length of stay at each camp area, were then used to translate the area capacities into daily trailhead quotas that would assure that these capacities were not surpassed. The general approach is applicable to any backcountry area, although large complex areas may require the use of available computer simulation models.

  1. New CFC import quotas irk producers

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, M.

    1994-03-02

    European chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) producers have slammed a decision by the European Commission to allow increased imports of CFCs, saying it contradicts efforts to cut CFC production and use in the European Union (EU). Eif Atochem (Paris) says that by allowing higher CFC imports the commission is undermining all the efforts to meet the requirements of the Copenhagen protocol on CFC emissions.

  2. Production of viable cloned miniature pigs by aggregation of handmade cloned embryos at the 4-cell stage.

    PubMed

    Siriboon, Chawalit; Tu, Ching-Fu; Kere, Michel; Liu, Ming-Sing; Chang, Hui-Jung; Ho, Lin-Lin; Tai, Miao-En; Fang, Wen-Der; Lo, Neng-Wen; Tseng, Jung-Kai; Ju, Jyh-Cherng

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to improve the quality of handmade cloned porcine embryos by multiple embryo aggregations. Embryos derived from aggregation of three cloned embryos (3×) had a better blastocyst rate than cloned control (1×) embryos (73.6% vs 35.1%, respectively; P<0.05), but did not differ from those produced by aggregation of two cloned embryos (2×; 63.0%). Total cell numbers differed among treatments (P<0.05), with the greatest cell numbers (126) in the 3× group and the lowest (55) in the control group. The ratio of inner cell mass:total cell number was comparable in the 2× and 3× groups (25.1% vs 26.1%, respectively) and was significantly better than that in the control group (15.3%). The proportion of apoptotic cells in 2× and 3× groups was lower than that in the control group (2.7% and 2.2% vs 4.7%, respectively; P<0.05). Expression of Oct4 and Cdx2 was higher, whereas that of Bax was lower (P<0.05), in the 3× compared with non-aggregate group. Seven piglets were born to two surrogate mothers after embryo transfer of 3× aggregated blastocysts. In conclusion, aggregated embryos had greater total cell numbers and better pluripotency gene expression, with reduced expression of the pro-apoptosis gene Bax. Collectively, these improvement may be associated with the development of cloned embryos to term. PMID:23544704

  3. Use of a Generalized Additive Model to Investigate Key Abiotic Factors Affecting Microcystin Cellular Quotas in Heavy Bloom Areas of Lake Taihu

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Min; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Qin, Boqiang; Zhang, Dawen; Niu, Yuan; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Qing; Wu, Laiyan

    2012-01-01

    Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake in China and is suffering from serious cyanobacterial blooms with the associated drinking water contamination by microcystin (MC) for millions of citizens. So far, most studies on MCs have been limited to two small bays, while systematic research on the whole lake is lacking. To explain the variations in MC concentrations during cyanobacterial bloom, a large-scale survey at 30 sites across the lake was conducted monthly in 2008. The health risks of MC exposure were high, especially in the northern area. Both Microcystis abundance and MC cellular quotas presented positive correlations with MC concentration in the bloom seasons, suggesting that the toxic risks during Microcystis proliferations were affected by variations in both Microcystis density and MC production per Microcystis cell. Use of a powerful predictive modeling tool named generalized additive model (GAM) helped visualize significant effects of abiotic factors related to carbon fixation and proliferation of Microcystis (conductivity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), water temperature and pH) on MC cellular quotas from recruitment period of Microcystis to the bloom seasons, suggesting the possible use of these factors, in addition to Microcystis abundance, as warning signs to predict toxic events in the future. The interesting relationship between macrophytes and MC cellular quotas of Microcystis (i.e., high MC cellular quotas in the presence of macrophytes) needs further investigation. PMID:22384128

  4. Use of a generalized additive model to investigate key abiotic factors affecting microcystin cellular quotas in heavy bloom areas of Lake Taihu.

    PubMed

    Tao, Min; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Qin, Boqiang; Zhang, Dawen; Niu, Yuan; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Qing; Wu, Laiyan

    2012-01-01

    Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake in China and is suffering from serious cyanobacterial blooms with the associated drinking water contamination by microcystin (MC) for millions of citizens. So far, most studies on MCs have been limited to two small bays, while systematic research on the whole lake is lacking. To explain the variations in MC concentrations during cyanobacterial bloom, a large-scale survey at 30 sites across the lake was conducted monthly in 2008. The health risks of MC exposure were high, especially in the northern area. Both Microcystis abundance and MC cellular quotas presented positive correlations with MC concentration in the bloom seasons, suggesting that the toxic risks during Microcystis proliferations were affected by variations in both Microcystis density and MC production per Microcystis cell. Use of a powerful predictive modeling tool named generalized additive model (GAM) helped visualize significant effects of abiotic factors related to carbon fixation and proliferation of Microcystis (conductivity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), water temperature and pH) on MC cellular quotas from recruitment period of Microcystis to the bloom seasons, suggesting the possible use of these factors, in addition to Microcystis abundance, as warning signs to predict toxic events in the future. The interesting relationship between macrophytes and MC cellular quotas of Microcystis (i.e., high MC cellular quotas in the presence of macrophytes) needs further investigation. PMID:22384128

  5. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) cell quota of key Southern North Sea spring diatoms and Phaeocystis globosa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speeckaert, Gaëlle; Gypens, Nathalie; Lancelot, Christiane; Borges, Alberto V.

    2015-04-01

    Dimethylsulfide (DMS) in the ocean results of complex transformations of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) produced by phytoplankton under different controls, including microbial transformation pathways. The phytoplankton composition is an important factor of variability due to the species dependence of the DMSP production and conversion to DMS. To better appraise the link between phytoplankton diversity and the DMS(P) cycling in the Southern North Sea we present measurements of the DMSP cell quota of key spring phytoplankton species (Skeletonema costatum, Thalassiosira rotula, Rhizosolenia delicatula, Asterionella glacialis, Nitzschia closterium, Chaetoceros debilis, Chaetoceros socialis and Phaeocystis globosa) isolated from the North Sea and maintained in non-limiting and axenic laboratory culture conditions. Results are discussed with regards to literature data and hypothesis currently used in DMS(P) biogeochemical models.

  6. 75 FR 26316 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ...The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) is providing notice of country-by-country allocations of additional fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane...

  7. Production of aggregation prone human interferon gamma and its mutant in highly soluble and biologically active form by SUMO fusion technology.

    PubMed

    Tileva, M; Krachmarova, E; Ivanov, I; Maskos, K; Nacheva, G

    2016-01-01

    The Escherichia coli expression system is a preferable choice for production of recombinant proteins. A disadvantage of this system is the target protein aggregation in "inclusion bodies" (IBs) that further requires solubilisation and refolding, which is crucial for the properties and the yield of the final product. In order to prevent aggregation, SUMO fusion tag technology has been successfully applied for expression of eukaryotic proteins, including human interferon gamma (hIFNγ) that was reported, however, with no satisfactory biological activity. We modified this methodology for expression and purification of both the wild type hIFNγ and an extremely prone to aggregation mutant hIFNγ-K88Q, whose recovery from IBs showed to be ineffective upon numerous conditions. By expression of the N-terminal His-SUMO fusion proteins in the E. coli strain BL21(DE3)pG-KJE8, co-expressing two chaperone systems, at 24 °C a significant increase in solubility of both target proteins (1.5-fold for hIFNγ and 8-fold for K88Q) was achieved. Two-step chromatography (affinity and ion-exchange) with on-dialysis His-SUMO-tag cleavage was applied for protein purification that yielded 6.0-7.0mg/g wet biomass for both proteins with >95% purity and native N-termini. The optimised protocol led to increased yields from 5.5 times for hIFNγ up to 100 times for K88Q in comparison to their isolation from IBs. Purified hIFNγ showed preserved thermal stability and antiproliferative activity corresponding to that of the native reference sample (3 × 10(7)IU/mg). The developed methodology represents an optimised procedure that can be successfully applied for large scale expression and purification of aggregation-prone proteins in soluble native form. PMID:26407523

  8. 7 CFR 718.207 - Determining allotments, quotas, and bases when reconstitution is made by combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reconstitution is made by combination. 718.207 Section 718.207 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of..., Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.207 Determining allotments, quotas, and bases when reconstitution is made... tracts comprising the combination, subject to the provisions of § 718.204....

  9. 7 CFR 718.207 - Determining allotments, quotas, and bases when reconstitution is made by combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... reconstitution is made by combination. 718.207 Section 718.207 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of..., Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.207 Determining allotments, quotas, and bases when reconstitution is made... tracts comprising the combination, subject to the provisions of § 718.204....

  10. 7 CFR 718.204 - Reconstitution of allotments, quotas, and bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reconstitution of allotments, quotas, and bases. 718.204 Section 718.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE... PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO MULTIPLE PROGRAMS Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases §...

  11. 7 CFR 718.204 - Reconstitution of allotments, quotas, and bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reconstitution of allotments, quotas, and bases. 718.204 Section 718.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE... PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO MULTIPLE PROGRAMS Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases §...

  12. 7 CFR 718.207 - Determining allotments, quotas, and bases when reconstitution is made by combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reconstitution is made by combination. 718.207 Section 718.207 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of..., Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.207 Determining allotments, quotas, and bases when reconstitution is made... tracts comprising the combination, subject to the provisions of § 718.204....

  13. 7 CFR 718.204 - Reconstitution of allotments, quotas, and bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reconstitution of allotments, quotas, and bases. 718.204 Section 718.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE... PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO MULTIPLE PROGRAMS Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases §...

  14. 75 FR 5760 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Western Alaska Community Development Quota Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Alaska Community Development Quota Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... Commerce, Room 6625, 14th and Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230 (or via the Internet at dHynek... patsy.bearden@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Community Development Quota...

  15. 78 FR 78786 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; 2014 Commercial Summer Flounder Quota Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...NMFS is announcing the commercial summer flounder state quotas for fishing year 2014. The 2014 summer flounder specifications were established in December 2012. This notice incorporates any previously unaccounted for overages from fishing year 2012 and any known overages to date from fishing year 2013. These commercial state quotas may change as a result of a recent stock assessment and a......

  16. 76 FR 23206 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a... included in the quota transfer effective April 4, 2011 (76 FR 19277). This correction accounts for 2,805 lb... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  17. 76 FR 17032 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... and 2011 commercial summer flounder quotas to the Commonwealth of Virginia. Vessels were authorized...

  18. 78 FR 25003 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia and to the State of Rhode Island; and...

  19. 77 FR 52262 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... quota for summer flounder for the 2012 fishing year is 13,136,001 lb (5,958,490 kg) (76 FR 82189... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the Commonwealth of... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 summer...

  20. 78 FR 9849 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... of its 2012 commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. NMFS is adjusting...

  1. 78 FR 33 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia, the State of North Carolina is...

  2. 75 FR 4004 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Spiny Dogfish Fishery; Commercial Period 2 Quota...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... (5,443.11 mt) (74 FR 20230, May 1, 2009). The commercial quota is allocated into two periods (May 1... United States; Spiny Dogfish Fishery; Commercial Period 2 Quota Harvested AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; Closure of spiny dogfish fishery. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the spiny dogfish...

  3. 75 FR 52650 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Spiny Dogfish Fishery; Commercial Period 1 Quota...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... quota for spiny dogfish for the 2010 fishing year is 15 million lb (6,803.89 mt) (74 FR 36012, June 24... United States; Spiny Dogfish Fishery; Commercial Period 1 Quota Harvested AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure of spiny dogfish fishery. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the spiny dogfish...

  4. 76 FR 17788 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Spiny Dogfish Fishery; Annual Quota Harvested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ...) (75 FR 36012, June 24, 2010). The commercial quota is allocated into two periods (May 1 through... Northeastern United States; Spiny Dogfish Fishery; Annual Quota Harvested AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure of spiny dogfish fishery. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the spiny dogfish commercial...

  5. 7 CFR 1463.106 - Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers... TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco Transition Payment Program § 1463.106 Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers. (a) BQL is determined separately, for each of the years 2002, 2003 and 2004, for...

  6. 7 CFR 1463.106 - Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers... TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco Transition Payment Program § 1463.106 Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers. (a) BQL is determined separately, for each of the years 2002, 2003 and 2004, for...

  7. 50 CFR 648.290 - Individual fishing quota program and other restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual fishing quota program and... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Tilefish Fishery § 648.290 Individual fishing quota program and other restrictions. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60644, Sept. 29, 2011. The fishing year...

  8. 50 CFR 648.290 - Individual fishing quota program and other restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the TAL may be set aside for the purpose of funding research. Once a research amount, if any, is set... percentage of TAL allocated to research quota, and any management measures to assure that the TAL will not be... specification process and/or the research quota process described in paragraph (e) of this section. NMFS...

  9. 76 FR 74009 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... published on July 26, 2000 (65 FR 45844), provided a mechanism for bluefish quota to be transferred from one... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XA825 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  10. 77 FR 76424 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ..., which was published on July 26, 2000 (65 FR 45844), ] provided a mechanism for bluefish quota to be... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XC394 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  11. 78 FR 64182 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ..., which was published on July 26, 2000 (65 FR 45844), provided a mechanism for bluefish quota to be... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XC921 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  12. 75 FR 43917 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Implementation of Tariff Rate Quota Established...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... procedures for allocation of the tariff rate quotas (66 FR 6459, 15 CFR 335). Section 501(e) of the Act... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Implementation of Tariff Rate Quota Established Under Title V of the Trade and Development Act of 2000 as Amended, for...

  13. 78 FR 12705 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic 2013 Commercial Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. This action implements ICCAT... prepared for the 2012 Swordfish Quota Specifications Final Rule (July 31, 2012; 77 FR 45273). The impacts... were prepared for the 2007 Swordfish Quota Specification Final Rule (October 5, 2007; 72 FR 56929)....

  14. 78 FR 28758 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic 2013 Commercial Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ..., including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. This action implements ICCAT recommendations, consistent... Specifications Final Rule (July 31, 2012; 77 FR 45273). The impacts resulting from the 2013 South Atlantic... Quota Specification Final Rule (October 5, 2007; 72 FR 56929). The quota adjustments in this final...

  15. 7 CFR 718.206 - Determining farms, tracts, allotments, quotas, and bases when reconstitution is made by division.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determining farms, tracts, allotments, quotas, and bases when reconstitution is made by division. 718.206 Section 718.206 Agriculture Regulations of the... Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.206 Determining farms, tracts, allotments, quotas, and...

  16. 7 CFR 718.206 - Determining farms, tracts, allotments, quotas, and bases when reconstitution is made by division.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining farms, tracts, allotments, quotas, and bases when reconstitution is made by division. 718.206 Section 718.206 Agriculture Regulations of the... Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.206 Determining farms, tracts, allotments, quotas, and...

  17. 75 FR 22418 - The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2010 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection; Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2010 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United...: Announcement of the quota quantity of tuna in airtight containers for Calendar Year 2010. SUMMARY: Each...

  18. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 26, 2012. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or...

  19. 77 FR 24759 - Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Quota for Imports of Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: USTR is providing notice that the tariff-rate quota for sugar established by the United States... quota for imports of sugar from Colombia. USTR is providing notice that the United States,...

  20. 49 CFR 23.61 - Can recipients use quotas or set-asides as part of their ACDBE programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can recipients use quotas or set-asides as part of... Counting § 23.61 Can recipients use quotas or set-asides as part of their ACDBE programs? You must not use quotas or set-asides for ACDBE participation in your program....

  1. Hepatic production of transthyretin L12P leads to intracellular lysosomal aggregates in a new somatic transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Batista, Ana Rita; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Saraiva, Maria João

    2013-08-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is a plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-circulating homotetrameric protein. More than 100 point mutations have been identified in the TTR gene and several are related with amyloid diseases. Here we focused our attention in the TTR L12P variant associated with severe peripheral neuropathy and leptomeningeal amyloidosis. By using different cell lines derived from tissues specialized on TTR synthesis, such as the hepatocyte and the choroid plexus expressing WT, V30M, or L12P TTR variants we analyzed secretion, intracellular aggregation and degradation patterns. Also, we used liver-specific AAV gene transfer to assess expression of the L12P variant in vivo. We found the following: (i) decreased secretion with intracellular aggregation of TTR L12P in hepatoma cells relative to WT and V30M variant; this differential property of TTR L12P variant was also observed in mice injected with L12P AAV vector; (ii) differential N-glycosylation pattern of L12P variant in hepatoma cell lysates, conditioned media and mouse sera, which might represent an escape mechanism from ERAD degradation; (iii) intracellular L12P TTR aggregates mainly localized to lysosomes in cultured cells and liver; and (iv) none of the above findings were present in choroid plexus derived cells, suggesting particular secretion/quality control mechanisms that might contribute to leptomeningeal amyloidosis associated with the L12P variant. These observations open new avenues for the treatment of TTR associated leptomeningeal amyloidosis. PMID:23579071

  2. Utilization of Illinois coal gasification slags for production of ultra-lightweight aggregates. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhry, V.; Zimmerle, T.

    1993-09-01

    This research is aimed at testing and developing the expansion potential of gasification solid residues (slag) to manufacture ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA). Conventional ULWAs are manufactured by pyroprocessing of perlite or vermiculite ores and have unit weights in the range of 5--15 lb/ ft3. These materials are sold for approximately $200/ton (or $1.00/ft3) and have numerous applications including loose fill insulation, insulating concrete, precast products, filtration media, and agricultural applications. In a previous project, Praxis Engineers demonstrated that lightweight aggregates (LWA) with unit weights of 25--55 lb/ ft3 can be produced from Illinois coal slags and used as substitutes for conventional LWAs. In this program, tests are being undertaken in a pilot-scale vertical shaft furnace to identify operating conditions for the expansion of Illinois slags such that the product can be substituted for ULWA. Upon completion of testing, a large batch of expanded slag will be produced for evaluation in various applications, both in this phase and in subsequent Phase II testing. During the initial pilot plant runs using two Illinois slags, expanded products with unit weights of 12.5--26.5 and 20--52 lb/ ft3, respectively, were produced. Efforts are under way to generate products with lower unit weights.

  3. Aggregate exposure modelling of zinc pyrithione in rinse-off personal cleansing products using a person-orientated approach with market share refinement.

    PubMed

    Tozer, Sarah A; Kelly, Seamus; O'Mahony, Cian; Daly, E J; Nash, J F

    2015-09-01

    Realistic estimates of chemical aggregate exposure are needed to ensure consumer safety. As exposure estimates are a critical part of the equation used to calculate acceptable "safe levels" and conduct quantitative risk assessments, methods are needed to produce realistic exposure estimations. To this end, a probabilistic aggregate exposure model was developed to estimate consumer exposure from several rinse off personal cleansing products containing the anti-dandruff preservative zinc pyrithione. The model incorporates large habits and practices surveys, containing data on frequency of use, amount applied, co-use along with market share, and combines these data at the level of the individual based on subject demographics to better estimate exposure. The daily-applied exposure (i.e., amount applied to the skin) was 3.79 mg/kg/day for the 95th percentile consumer. The estimated internal dose for the 95th percentile exposure ranged from 0.01-1.29 μg/kg/day after accounting for retention following rinsing and dermal penetration of ZnPt. This probabilistic aggregate exposure model can be used in the human safety assessment of ingredients in multiple rinse-off technologies (e.g., shampoo, bar soap, body wash, and liquid hand soap). In addition, this model may be used in other situations where refined exposure assessment is required to support a chemical risk assessment. PMID:26092325

  4. Evaluation of Incremental Siliconization Levels on Soluble Aggregates, Submicron and Subvisible Particles in a Prefilled Syringe Product.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shujun; Landsman, Pavel; Spencer, Andrea; DeCollibus, Daniel; Vega, Fabian; Temel, Deniz B; Houde, Damian; Henderson, Olivia; Brader, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of stability with respect to particles in prefilled syringes is complicated by the presence of silicone oil. The mobility, colloidal characteristics, and kinetic instability of silicone oil in contact with a protein formulation may be influenced in unpredictable ways by pharmaceutical variables, storage, and handling conditions. To provide insight into the impact of these variables on silicone oil originating specifically from the siliconized prefillable syringe (PFS), a series of studies were conducted at incremental syringe barrel siliconization levels. Size-exclusion chromatography and particle counting methods were used to quantitate soluble aggregates and submicron and subvisible particles in peginterferon beta-1a in a PFS siliconized with a fixed nozzle spray-on siliconization process. The effect of silicone oil on the peginterferon beta-1a molecule was examined under pharmaceutically relevant conditions, accelerated degradation, and under denaturing conditions. Resonant mass measurement was used to discriminate silicone oil from protein particles establishing that silicone oil does not mask adverse trends in non-silicone oil particles. The peginterferon beta-1a molecule was shown to be stable in the presence of silicone oil and robust with respect to the formation of soluble aggregates and submicron and subvisible particles in its PFS siliconized over the range of 0-1.2 mg silicone oil per syringe barrel. PMID:26852839

  5. Metabolomic investigation of the anti-platelet aggregation activity of ginsenoside Rk₁ reveals attenuated 12-HETE production.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Lee, Jin Gyun; Park, Mi Kyung; Park, So-Jung; Lee, Chang Hoon; Park, Jeong Hill; Kwon, Sung Won

    2012-10-01

    Comprehensive metabolomics analysis is an effective method of measuring metabolite levels in the body following administration of a pharmaceutical compound and can allow for monitoring of the effects of the compound or assessment of appropriate treatment options for individual patients. In the present metabolomics study, samples pretreated with antiplatelet compounds were extracted and subjected to ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The acquired data were processed using peak clustering and evaluated by partial least-squares (PLS) and orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analyses (OPLS-DA). As a result, meaningful endogenous metabolites, namely eicosanoids and thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)), were identified. TXB(2), a key element in platelet aggregation, was decreased upon ginsenoside Rk(1) treatment via inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity. One of the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites, 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE), was decreased significantly in the ginsenoside Rk(1)-treated platelets compared to the AA-induced group. In the mechanism study of ginsenoside Rk(1), a strong linkage to intracellular calcium levels, which induce platelet activation, was found. Additionally, the translocation of 12-LOX from cytosol to membrane, which is related with the intracellular calcium levels, was determined. Therefore, a decreased 12-HETE level induced by ginsenoside Rk(1) on antiplatelet aggregation is related to 12-LOX translocation resulting from decreased Ca(2+) levels. This study shows that global metabolomic analysis has potential for use in understanding the biological behavior of antiplatelet drugs. PMID:22873173

  6. Losses from effluent taxes and quotas under uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, W.D.; Ridker, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Recent theoretical papers by Adar and Griffin (J. Environ. Econ. Manag.3, 178-188 (1976)), Fishelson (J. Environ. Econ. Manag.3, 189-197 (1976)), and Weitzman (Rev. Econ. Studies41, 477-491 (1974)) show that,different expected social losses arise from using effluent taxes and quotas as alternative control instruments when marginal control costs are uncertain. Key assumptions in these analyses are linear marginal cost and benefit functions and an additive error for the marginal cost function (to reflect uncertainty). In this paper, empirically derived nonlinear functions and more realistic multiplicative error terms are used to estimate expected control and damage costs and to identify (empirically) the mix of control instruments that minimizes expected losses. ?? 1984.

  7. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Protein Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Ehab M; Panchal, Jainik P; Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Blum, Janice S; Joubert, Marisa K; Narhi, Linda O; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic proteins have a propensity for aggregation during manufacturing, shipping, and storage. The presence of aggregates in protein drug products can induce adverse immune responses in patients that may affect safety and efficacy, and so it is of concern to both manufacturers and regulatory agencies. In this vein, there is a lack of understanding of the physicochemical determinants of immunological responses and a lack of standardized analytical methods to survey the molecular properties of aggregates associated with immune activation. In this review, we provide an overview of the basic immune mechanisms in the context of interactions with protein aggregates. We then critically examine the literature with emphasis on the underlying immune mechanisms as they relate to aggregate properties. Finally, we highlight the gaps in our current understanding of this issue and offer recommendations for future research. PMID:26869409

  8. 75 FR 23189 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Individual Fishing Quota Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Individual Fishing Quota Program for the sablefish and halibut fisheries off Alaska (75 FR 20526), make the... enforce the requirement that owners be onboard vessels unless otherwise required by statute or...

  9. 76 FR 77806 - International Affairs; U.S. Fish Quotas in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ...NMFS announces that fish quotas are available for harvest in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) Regulatory Area. This action is necessary to make fishing privileges available on an equitable...

  10. 76 FR 56120 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ..., including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by establishing annual quotas. The effects on commercial and... are discussed in the relevant sections below. Information on the proposed rule can be found in 75...

  11. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) prevents β-amyloid aggregation, generation of advanced glycation-end products (AGEs), and acrolein-induced cytotoxicity on human neuronal-like cells.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Leonardo da Silva; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Yatsu, Francini Kiyono Jorge; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Kolling, Eduardo Antônio; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Bassani, Valquiria Linck; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2014-11-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are considered potent molecules capable of promoting neuronal cell death and participating in the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that AGEs exacerbate β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and AGE-related cross-links are also detected in senile plaques. Acrolein (ACR) is an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde found in the environment and thermally processed foods, which can additionally be generated through endogenous metabolism. The role of ACR in AD is widely accepted in the literature. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) is popularly consumed by the population in Brazil, mainly for its stimulant activity. In the present study, we showed that guarana (10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL) is able to prevent protein glycation, β-amyloid aggregation, in vitro methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and ACR (20 μM)-induced toxicity on neuronal-like cells (SH-SY5Y). Since these are considered typical AD pathological hallmarks, we propose that guarana may deserve further research as a potential therapeutic agent in such a neurodegenerative disease. PMID:24840232

  12. Butanol extract of Ecklonia cava prevents production and aggregation of beta-amyloid, and reduces beta-amyloid mediated neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Kang, Il-Jun; Jeon, Young Eun; Yin, Xing Fu; Nam, Jin-Sik; You, Sang Guan; Hong, Myo Soon; Jang, Bong Geom; Kim, Min-Ju

    2011-09-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) is a major pathogenic peptide for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is generated by the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP). The Aβ monomers aggregate into oligomeric and fibrillar forms which have been implicated as the toxic species inducing the neuronal dysfunction. Brown algae Ecklonia cava is known for its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. Therefore, we tested the effect of E. cava extract on the production and aggregation of Aβ peptides. The butanol extract of E. cava reduced Aβ secretion from HEK293 cells expressing APP with Swedish mutation and increased soluble APPα and C-terminal fragment-α (CTFα), of which activity was similar to BACE (β-site of APP cleaving enzyme) inhibitors. Furthermore, the extract inhibited Aβ oligomerization, particularly mid-size oligomer formation, confirmed by the ultrastructural morphology. Congo red, thioflavin T assays, and electron microscopy showed that the extract inhibited Aβ fibril formation effectively. Finally, the extract protected primary cortical neurons from various Aβ-induced cell deaths, especially oligomer-induced death. Although further study is needed to test the effectiveness of the extract in vivo, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that the butanol extract of E. cava could be used as an anti-Aβ agent for AD therapeutics. PMID:21693162

  13. A comparison of biogenic iron quotas during a diatom spring bloom using multiple approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, A. L.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.; Boyd, P. W.; Twining, B. S.; Wilhelm, S. W.; Breene, C.; Ellwood, M. J.; Hutchins, D. A.

    2012-02-01

    Biogenic Fe quotas were determined using three distinct techniques on samples collected concurrently in the subtropical Pacific Ocean east of New Zealand. Fe quotas were measured using radioisotope uptake experiments (24 h incubation), bulk filtration and analysis by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS), and single-cell synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF) analysis over a sixteen-day period (year days 263 to 278 of 2008) during a quasi-Lagrangian drifter experiment that tracked the evolution of the annual spring diatom bloom within a counter-clockwise open-ocean eddy. Overall, radioisotope uptake-determined Fe quotas (washed with oxalate reagent to remove extracellular Fe) were the lowest (0.5-1.0 mmol Fe:mol P; 4-8 μmol Fe:mol C), followed by single-cell Fe quotas (2.3-7.5 mmol Fe:mol P; 17-57 μmol Fe:mol C), and the highest and most variable quotas were from the bulk filtration ICPMS approach that used the oxalate reagent wash, corrected for lithogenic Fe using Al (0.8-21 mmol Fe:mol P; 4-136 μmol Fe:mol C). During the evolution of the spring bloom within the eddy (year days 263 to 272), the surface mixed layer inventories of particulate biogenic elements (C, N, P, Si) and chlorophyll increased while Fe quotas estimated from all three approaches exhibited a general decline. After the onset of the bloom decline, the drogued buoys exited the eddy center (days 273 to 277). Fe quotas returned to pre-bloom values during this part of the study. Our standardized and coordinated sampling protocols reveal the general observed trend in Fe quotas: ICPMS > SXRF > radioisotope uptake. We discuss the inherent differences between the techniques and argue that each technique has its individual merits and uniquely contributes to the characterization of the oceanic particulate Fe pool.

  14. A comparison of biogenic iron quotas during a diatom spring bloom using multiple approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, A. L.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.; Boyd, P. W.; Twining, B. S.; Wilhelm, S. W.; Breene, C.; Ellwood, M. J.; Hutchins, D. A.

    2011-09-01

    Biogenic Fe quotas were determined using three distinct techniques on samples collected concurrently in the subtropical Pacific Ocean east of New Zealand. Fe quotas were measured using radioisotope uptake experiments (24 h incubation), bulk filtration and analysis by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS), and single-cell synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF) analysis over a sixteen-day period (year days 263 to 278 of 2008) during a quasi-Lagrangian drifter experiment that tracked the evolution of the annual spring diatom bloom within a counter-clockwise open-ocean eddy. Overall, radioisotope uptake-determined Fe quotas (washed with oxalate reagent to remove extracellular Fe) were the lowest (0.5-1.0 mmol Fe:mol P; 4-8 μmol Fe:mol C), followed by single-cell Fe quotas (2.3-7.5 mmol Fe:mol P; 17-57 μmol Fe:mol C), and the highest and most variable quotas were from the bulk filtration ICPMS approach that used the oxalate reagent wash, corrected for lithogenic Fe using Al (0.8-21 mmol Fe:mol P; 4-136 μmol Fe:mol C). During the evolution of the spring bloom within the eddy (year days 263 to 272), the surface mixed layer inventories of particulate organic elements (C, N, P, Si) and chlorophyll increased while Fe quotas estimated from all three approaches exhibited a general decline. After the onset of the bloom decline, the drogued buoys exited the eddy center (days 273 to 277). Fe quotas returned to pre-bloom values during this part of the study. Our standardized and coordinated sampling protocols reveal the general observed trend in Fe quotas: ICPMS > SXRF > radioisotope uptake. We discuss the inherent differences between the techniques and argue that each technique has its individual merits and uniquely contributes to the characterization of the oceanic particulate Fe pool.

  15. Study by XPS of the chlorination of proteins aggregated onto tin dioxide during electrochemical production of hypochlorous acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debiemme-Chouvy, Catherine; Haskouri, Sanae; Cachet, Hubert

    2007-04-01

    In solution, hypochlorous acid (HOCl) reacts with organic matter and notably with protein side-chains. In this study, HOCl was produced by an electrochemical way, by oxidation of chloride ions at a transparent tin dioxide electrode in the presence of a protein, the bovine serum albumin (BSA). A thick irregular layer is formed at the electrode when HOCl is produced at the SnO 2 surface. Indeed, SEM analyses show that an important deposit is formed during the anodic polarization of SnO 2 in the presence of chloride ions and proteins. Actually, two phenomena take place on the one hand the chlorination of the proteins due to the reaction of HOCl with some protein side-chains and on the other hand the aggregation of proteins onto the SnO 2 surface. The present X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study points out the cross-linking of BSA molecules via formation of inter molecular sulfonamide groups. It also shows that the BSA chlorination is due on the one hand to the formation of sulfonyl chloride groups (-SO 2Cl) and on the other hand to formation of chloramine groups ( lbond2 N-Cl). The Cl2p and S2p photo-peak intensities allowed us to quantify the chloramines. It is found that, one BSA entity immobilized onto the SnO 2 surface contains about 50 chloramine groups.

  16. Utilization of Illinois coal gasification slags for production of ultra-lightweight aggregates. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhry, V.; Zimmerle, T.

    1993-12-31

    This research was aimed at testing and developing the expansion potential of solid residues (slag) from gasification of Illinois coals to manufacture ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA). Conventional ULWAs are manufactured by pyroprocessing perlite or vermiculite ores and have unit weights in the 5--12 lb/ ft{sup 3} range. These materials sell for approximately $200/ton ($1.00/ft{sup 3}) and have numerous applications. The incentive for this effort was based on previous experimental results in which lightweight aggregates (LWA) with unit weights of 25--55 lb/ft{sup 3} were produced from Illinois slag using a direct-fired furnace. In this program, bench-scale expansion tests conducted with two Illinois coal slags resulted in product unit weights of 12 and 18.5 lb/ ft{sup 3}, thus confirming the feasibility of producing ULWA from Illinois slags. During initial pilot vertical shaft furnace test runs, two Illinois slags were expanded to generate products with unit weights of 12.5--26.5 and 20--52 lb/ ft{sup 3}. Further attempts to lower the product unit weights resulted in fusion of the slag. This problem could be overcome by methods including surface treatment of the slag, blending the slag with other materials, or utilization of indirect firing methods. To lower the product unit weights, an indirect-fired horizontal shaft furnace was used and products with unit weights of 12.4--52.0 lb/ft{sup 3} were generated, thus indicating that this method can be used to produce a wide range of expanded products. A large batch of expanded slag was produced using an 18-in. diameter x 12-ft long indirect-fired pilot furnace. A sample from this batch was characterized. Specimens of insulating concrete made from expanded slag had a unit weight 43.3 lb/ft{sup 3} and thermal conductivity of 1.34 Btu-in./h/ft{sup 2}/{degrees}F. This compares well with a value of 1. 2 Btu-in./h/ft{sup 2}/{degrees}F for insulating concrete of a similar weight made from perlite, as per ASTM C 332-82.

  17. Small angle x-ray scattering: Instrument development and studies of protein aggregation, cellulose hydrolysis, and the production of nanoporous metals using surfactact templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banuelos, Jose Leobardo

    Small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to obtain structural insights into protein aggregation, the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, and the structural evolution of surfactant-templated nanoporous palladium and platinum systems during their synthesis. SAXS is bulk technique that allows probing the nanometer-scale morphology, interactions, density, and distribution of a variety of nonperiodic systems in the solid, liquid, or gaseous state. A 10-meter Small Angle Scattering camera, originally at ORNL, was assembled. During its re-commissioning, several upgrades were made including new data acquisition software built using National Instrument's Labview development environment, as well as portability to use analysis tools in wide use in scattering community. The Multiple Energy Diffractometer Using Small, medium and wide Angles (MEDUSA) was designed and built, its development will be discussed. The ability of proteins to change their conformation in response to changes in pressure, temperature, the presence of other molecular species, and ionic concentration in the solvents they are found, is a remarkable phenomenon that allows living cells to function properly. When proteins irreversibly unfold or mis-fold and aggregate this gives rise to severely debilitating diseases such as Alzheimer's and prion diseases. Protein aggregation was measured using SAXS on aqueous solutions of bovine serum albumin, myoglobin, and cellulase enzymes. Understanding how cellulose can be broken down into fermentable sugars is an important step in the development of strategies for producing alternative energy from biomass. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was studied using both small angle neutron scattering and SAXS. One result from these investigations was finding supporting evidence that nanopores within the cellulose fibril matrix allow biologically active enzymes access to digest parts of the fibers. The production of mesoporous materials for hydrogen storage applications was

  18. Plasticity of Total and Intracellular Phosphorus Quotas in Microcystis aeruginosa Cultures and Lake Erie Algal Assemblages.

    PubMed

    Saxton, Matthew A; Arnold, Robert J; Bourbonniere, Richard A; McKay, Robert Michael L; Wilhelm, Steven W

    2012-01-01

    Blooms of the potentially toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis are common events globally, and as a result significant resources continue to be dedicated to monitoring and controlling these events. Recent studies have shown that a significant proportion of total cell-associated phosphorus (P) in marine phytoplankton can be surface adsorbed; as a result studies completed to date do not accurately report the P demands of these organisms. In this study we measure the total cell-associated and intracellular P as well as growth rates of two toxic strains of Microcystis aeruginosa Kütz grown under a range of P concentrations. The results show that the intracellular P pool in Microcystis represents a percentage of total cell-associated P (50-90%) similar to what has been reported for actively growing algae in marine systems. Intracellular P concentrations (39-147 fg cell(-1)) generally increased with increasing P concentrations in the growth medium, but growth rate and the ratio of total cell-associated to intracellular P remained generally stable. Intracellular P quotas and growth rates in cells grown under the different P treatments illustrate the ability of this organism to successfully respond to changes in ambient P loads, and thus have implications for ecosystem scale productivity models employing P concentrations to predict algal bloom events. PMID:22279445

  19. Identification of a response regulator involved in surface attachment, cell-cell aggregation, exopolysaccharide production and virulence in the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Voegel, Tanja M; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Cheng, Davis W; Lin, Hong; Stenger, Drake C; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C; Roper, M Caroline

    2013-04-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapevine, possesses several two-component signal transduction systems that allow the bacterium to sense and respond to changes in its environment. Signals are perceived by sensor kinases that autophosphorylate and transfer the phosphate to response regulators (RRs), which direct an output response, usually by acting as transcriptional regulators. In the X. fastidiosa genome, 19 RRs were found. A site-directed knockout mutant in one unusual RR, designated XhpT, composed of a receiver domain and a histidine phosphotransferase output domain, was constructed. The resulting mutant strain was analysed for changes in phenotypic traits related to biofilm formation and gene expression using microarray analysis. We found that the xhpT mutant was altered in surface attachment, cell-cell aggregation, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and virulence in grapevine. In addition, this mutant had an altered transcriptional profile when compared with wild-type X. fastidiosa in genes for several biofilm-related traits, such as EPS production and haemagglutinin adhesins. PMID:23186359

  20. Employing bacterial microcompartment technology to engineer a shell-free enzyme-aggregate for enhanced 1,2-propanediol production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew J; Brown, Ian R; Juodeikis, Rokas; Frank, Stefanie; Warren, Martin J

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) enhance the breakdown of metabolites such as 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) to propionic acid. The encapsulation of proteins within the BMC is mediated by the presence of targeting sequences. In an attempt to redesign the Pdu BMC into a 1,2-PD synthesising factory using glycerol as the starting material we added N-terminal targeting peptides to glycerol dehydrogenase, dihydroxyacetone kinase, methylglyoxal synthase and 1,2-propanediol oxidoreductase to allow their inclusion into an empty BMC. 1,2-PD producing strains containing the fused enzymes exhibit a 245% increase in product formation in comparison to un-tagged enzymes, irrespective of the presence of BMCs. Tagging of enzymes with targeting peptides results in the formation of dense protein aggregates within the cell that are shown by immuno-labelling to contain the vast majority of tagged proteins. It can therefore be concluded that these protein inclusions are metabolically active and facilitate the significant increase in product formation. PMID:26969252

  1. Thermostable keratinase from Bacillus pumilus KS12: production, chitin crosslinking and degradation of Sup35NM aggregates.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Rinky; Gupta, Rani

    2013-04-01

    Production of thermostable keratinase from Bacillus pumilus KS12 was enhanced up to seven fold by statistical methods. The enzyme was partially purified by ultrafiltration followed by thermal precipitation with purity of 3.2-fold and recovery of 89%. Keratinase was immobilized using covalent method by crosslinking 2 mg protein (688 U/mg) onto 1g chitin activated with 2.5% (v/v) glutaraldehyde for 60 min. Its comparative biochemical studies with that of free keratinase revealed the shift in optimum pH with increased stability towards pH from 9.0 to 10.0 and temperature. Also, it showed statistically significant improved hydrolysis of a number of soluble and insoluble substrates in comparison to free keratinase. Owing to improved catalytic efficiency of immobilized keratinase, its potential for degradation of Sup35NM was evaluated, where 100 μg of enzyme could degrade 60 μg Sup35NM after 60 min at pH 7.0 and 37°C. PMID:23425582

  2. 50 CFR Table 7 to Part 679 - Community Development Quota Groups and Communities Eligible To Participate in the CDQ Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Community Development Quota Groups and... Development Quota Groups and Communities Eligible To Participate in the CDQ Program Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association: Akutan Atka False Pass Nelson Lagoon Nikolski Saint George Bristol...

  3. 50 CFR Table 7 to Part 679 - Community Development Quota Groups and Communities Eligible To Participate in the CDQ Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Community Development Quota Groups and... Development Quota Groups and Communities Eligible To Participate in the CDQ Program Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association: Akutan Atka False Pass Nelson Lagoon Nikolski Saint George Bristol...

  4. 50 CFR Table 7 to Part 679 - Community Development Quota Groups and Communities Eligible To Participate in the CDQ Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Community Development Quota Groups and... Development Quota Groups and Communities Eligible To Participate in the CDQ Program Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association: Akutan Atka False Pass Nelson Lagoon Nikolski Saint George Bristol...

  5. 7 CFR 718.206 - Determining farms, tracts, allotments, quotas, and bases when reconstitution is made by division.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (b)(1) The estate method is the pro-rata distribution of allotments, quotas, and bases for a parent...) of this section, the county committee will divide the allotments, quotas, and bases in a pro-rata.... (d)(1) The contribution method is the pro-rata distribution of a parent farm's allotments and...

  6. 78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... United States Trade Representative in Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On September 13, 2013...) in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imported raw cane sugar, refined sugar (syrups... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar (syrups and molasses). Pursuant to...

  7. 75 FR 60067 - Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary Sub...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ...; Presidential Proclamation 7350 of October 2, 2000 (65 FR 59321); Presidential Proclamation 7626 of November 13, 2002 (67 FR 69459). Background Title I of TDA 2000 provides for duty- and quota-free treatment for... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled...

  8. 76 FR 59663 - Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary Sub...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ...; Presidential Proclamation 7350 of October 2, 2000 (65 FR 59321); Presidential Proclamation 7626 of November 13, 2002 (67 FR 69459). Title I of TDA 2000 provides for duty- and quota-free treatment for certain textile... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled...

  9. 78 FR 59917 - Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary Sub...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Proclamation 7350 of October 2, 2000 (65 FR 59321); and Presidential Proclamation 7626 of November 13, 2002 (67 FR 69459). Title I of TDA 2000 provides for duty- and quota-free treatment for certain textile and... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled...

  10. Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

    2012-12-01

    early pyroclastic phase of the formation of Kima'Kho, a tuya in northern B.C., Canada produced a subaqueous pyroclastic cone which became emergent during the latter stages of formation. Armoured lapilli are pervasive within the emergent upper third of the sequence. No other types of ash aggregates have been observed. Petrographic and textural analysis of the armoured lapilli shows them to comprise a central 2-30 mm-sized, juvenile, vesiculated pyroclast, concentrically coated by mm-scale layers of 10-250 μm sized ash particles. At Kima'Kho, the armoured lapilli are shown to be a direct indicator of fallout from a sustained plume attended by concomitant production of pyroclastic density currents. The size and internal structure of the armoured lapilli provide constraints on the nature of the initial explosive phase of eruption at Kima'Kho. Their proximity to the vent also indicates rapid aggregation within the eruption plume. Within both sequences rapid aggregation of ash particles occurred in proximity to the vent. However, the conditions were substantially different leading to the production of armoured lapilli (no accretionary lapilli) at Kima'Kho and diverse ash aggregates but no armoured lapilli at A418. Here we investigate vent-proximal ash aggregation and the specific conditions which lead to the formation of coated ash pellets and armoured lapilli.

  11. Gut bacteria mediate aggregation in the German cockroach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggregation of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is regulated by fecal aggregation agents (pheromones), including volatile carboxylic acids (VCAs). We hypothesized that the gut microbial community contributes to production of these semiochemicals. Chemical analysis of the fecal extract of B...

  12. Investigating the mechanisms leading to protein aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Ruth; McManus, Jennifer J.

    2014-03-01

    The formation of protein aggregates is a feature of several diseases and is a problem during the manufacture of biopharmaceutical and protein based food products. During processing, stability may become compromised leading to the condensation of proteins to form non-native aggregates. The aim of this work is to induce aggregation on model proteins by the imposition of a particular stress to evaluate the extent of aggregation and to assess the degree of structural change to the protein. Aggregation of two proteins, lysozyme and bovine serum albumin has been induced by several mechanisms. Using various techniques (electrophoresis, HPLC, spectroscopic analysis, and microscopic techniques) both the level of aggregation extent of protein unfolding has been investigated for a range of solution conditions. Our results show that the amount of aggregation depends strongly on the mechanism by which non-native aggregation proceeds, and within each mechanism, solution conditions are an important factor. With the exception of aggregation by self-association (which is concentration dependent), the appearance of aggregation is driven by structural changes induced by the applied stress (heat, chemical denaturant, oxidation or contact with a surface). Author would like to acknowledge support from Science Foundation Ireland (SFI), National University of Maynooth John and Pat Hume Scholarship.

  13. Platelet aggregation test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003669.htm Platelet aggregation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The platelet aggregation blood test checks how well platelets , a ...

  14. Thermodynamics of Protein Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Kenneth L.; Barz, Bogdan; Bachmann, Michael; Strodel, Birgit

    Amyloid protein aggregation characterizes many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Creutz- feldt-Jakob disease. Evidence suggests that amyloid aggregates may share similar aggregation pathways, implying simulation of full-length amyloid proteins is not necessary for understanding amyloid formation. In this study we simulate GNNQQNY, the N-terminal prion-determining domain of the yeast protein Sup35 to investigate the thermodynamics of structural transitions during aggregation. We use a coarse-grained model with replica-exchange molecular dynamics to investigate the association of 3-, 6-, and 12-chain GNNQQNY systems and we determine the aggregation pathway by studying aggregation states of GN- NQQNY. We find that the aggregation of the hydrophilic GNNQQNY sequence is mainly driven by H-bond formation, leading to the formation of /3-sheets from the very beginning of the assembly process. Condensation (aggregation) and ordering take place simultaneously, which is underpinned by the occurrence of a single heat capacity peak only.

  15. 78 FR 8434 - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service 7 CFR Part 6 RIN 0551-AA82 Dairy Tariff-Rate Import... rulemaking. SUMMARY: Request for public comment on the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program..., Agricultural Marketing Specialist, Sugar and Dairy Branch, Import Programs and Export Reporting...

  16. 77 FR 65136 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; Recreational Quota Harvested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... the 2012 fishing year is 1.86 million lb (844 mt) (76 FR 82189, December 30, 2011). The 2012 RHL was... Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; Recreational Quota Harvested AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 black sea bass recreational harvest limit...

  17. 78 FR 72585 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... for the 2013 fishing year is 11,793,596 lb (5,349,575 kg) (77 FR 76942, December 31, 2012). The... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the Commonwealth of... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer...

  18. 78 FR 59626 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...,793,596 lb (5,349,575 kg) (77 FR 76942, December 31, 2012). The percent allocated to vessels landing... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the State of New York...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer flounder...

  19. 78 FR 75267 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Available...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... fishing year is 11,793,596 lb (5,349,575 kg) (77 FR 76942, December 31, 2012). The percent allocated to... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Available for the State of New Jersey...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer flounder commercial...

  20. 78 FR 51096 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... fishing year is 11,793,596 lb (5,349,575 kg) (77 FR 76942, December 31, 2012). The percent allocated to... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the Commonwealth of... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer...

  1. 77 FR 75569 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... summer flounder for the 2012 fishing year is 13,136,001 lb (5,958,490 kg) (76 FR 82189, December 30, 2011... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the State of New Jersey...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 summer flounder...

  2. 75 FR 52890 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... for the 2010 calendar ] year was set equal to 13,278,001 lb (6,023 mt) (74 FR 67978, December 22, 2009... United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2010 summer flounder...

  3. 77 FR 64239 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... for the 2012 fishing year is 13,136,001 lb (5,958,490 kg) (76 FR 82189, December 30, 2011). The... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the State of New York...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 summer flounder...

  4. 78 FR 76766 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... is 11,793,596 lb (5,349,575 kg) (77 FR 76942, December 31, 2012). The percent allocated to vessels... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the State of New Jersey...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer flounder...

  5. 78 FR 70890 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... is 11,793,596 lb (5,349,575 kg) (77 FR 76942, December 31, 2012). The percent allocated to vessels... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the State of New Jersey...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer flounder...

  6. 77 FR 2022 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Spiny Dogfish Fishery; Commercial Period 2 Quota...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... dogfish for the 2011 fishing year is 20 million lb (9,071.85 mt) (76 FR 32874, June 7, 2011). The... Northeastern United States; Spiny Dogfish Fishery; Commercial Period 2 Quota Harvested AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure of spiny dogfish fishery. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the spiny dogfish...

  7. 76 FR 52286 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Spiny Dogfish Fishery; Commercial Period 1 Quota...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... dogfish for the 2011 fishing year is 20 million lb (9,071.85 mt) (76 FR 32874, June 7, 2011). The... Northeastern United States; Spiny Dogfish Fishery; Commercial Period 1 Quota Harvested AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure of spiny dogfish fishery. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the spiny dogfish...

  8. 77 FR 19175 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... INFORMATION for further details. ADDRESSES: As published on March 16, 2012 (77 FR 15712), you may submit... Species; 2012 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Atlantic bluefin tuna, bigeye tuna, albacore tuna, yellowfin tuna, and skipjack...

  9. 77 FR 15712 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... implementing the BFT quotas and Atlantic tuna fisheries management measures (76 FR 39019, July 5, 2011), NMFS... Federal Register (64 FR 29090) final regulations, effective July 1, 1999, implementing the Fishery... in the Federal Register (71 FR 58058) a final rule, effective November 1, 2006, implementing the...

  10. 78 FR 36685 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... measures (76 FR 39019, July 5, 2011). In that final rule, NMFS implemented the 923.7-mt baseline quota... allocation percentages established in the 2006 Consolidated HMS FMP and implementing regulations (71 FR 58058... preamble to the proposed rule (78 FR 21584, April 11, 2013) and is not repeated here. Changes From...

  11. 75 FR 33731 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2010 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-AY77 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2010 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications Correction In rule document 2010-13207...

  12. 78 FR 43141 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Implementation of Tariff Rate Quota Established...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... procedures for allocation of the tariff rate quotas (66 FR 6459, 15 CFR 335). The interim regulations were adopted, without change, as a final rule published on October 24, 2005 (70 FR 61363). The TRQ was... Worsted Wool Fabric AGENCY: International Trade Administration (ITA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  13. 77 FR 58969 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... Fishery Management Plan, which was published on July 26, 2000 (65 FR 45844), provided a mechanism for... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XC235 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  14. 78 FR 54399 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Fishery Management Plan, which was published on July 26, 2000 (65 FR 45844), provided a mechanism for... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XC815 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  15. 50 CFR 679.41 - Transfer of quota shares and IFQ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 1996 TAC share for fixed gear sablefish in a specific IFQ regulatory area and the QS pool for that IFQ... regulatory areas in which a portion of the TAC is allocated to the CDQ Program will be compensated for... = quota share pool in non-CDQ area (as existing on January 31, 1995) RATE = SUMCDQ/average of the...

  16. 7 CFR 1463.106 - Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers. 1463.106 Section 1463.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS 2005-2014 TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco Transition...

  17. 76 FR 7788 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Western Alaska Community Development Quota...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... implemented with a final rule published March 2, 2005 (70 FR 10174), for the Crab Rationalization (CR) Program... Individual Fishing ] Quota (IFQ) Program through a final rule published December 15, 2008 (73 FR 76136). The... supplemental proposed rule (75 FR 55368; September 24, 2008) regarding the time limit to submit an eLandings...

  18. 46 CFR 356.55 - Review of compliance with harvesting and processing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review of compliance with harvesting and processing quotas. 356.55 Section 356.55 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS REQUIREMENTS FOR VESSELS OF 100 FEET OR GREATER IN REGISTERED LENGTH TO OBTAIN A...

  19. 46 CFR 356.55 - Review of compliance with harvesting and processing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Review of compliance with harvesting and processing quotas. 356.55 Section 356.55 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS REQUIREMENTS FOR VESSELS OF 100 FEET OR GREATER IN REGISTERED LENGTH TO OBTAIN A...

  20. 46 CFR 356.55 - Review of compliance with harvesting and processing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of compliance with harvesting and processing quotas. 356.55 Section 356.55 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS REQUIREMENTS FOR VESSELS OF 100 FEET OR GREATER IN REGISTERED LENGTH TO OBTAIN A...

  1. 46 CFR 356.55 - Review of compliance with harvesting and processing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Review of compliance with harvesting and processing quotas. 356.55 Section 356.55 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS REQUIREMENTS FOR VESSELS OF 100 FEET OR GREATER IN REGISTERED LENGTH TO OBTAIN A...

  2. 75 FR 35432 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... fishing for swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by... 5, 2007 (72 FR 56929). The proposed adjusted quota for the South Atlantic swordfish, after... certification reads: NMFS published a final rule on October 5, 2007 (72 FR 56929) that established the...

  3. Making Graphene Resist Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiayan

    Graphene-based sheets have stimulated great interest in many scientific disciplines and shown promise for wide potential applications. Among various ways of creating single atomic layer carbon sheets, a promising route for bulk production is to first chemically exfoliate graphite powders to graphene oxide (GO) sheets, followed by reduction to form chemically modified graphene (CMG). Due to the strong van der Waals attraction between graphene sheets, CMG tends to aggregate. The restacking of sheets is largely uncontrollable and irreversible, thus it reduces their processability and compromises properties such as accessible surface area. Strategies based on colloidal chemistry have been applied to keep CMG dispersed in solvents by introducing electrostatic repulsion to overcome the van der Waals attraction or adding spacers to increase the inter-sheet spacing. In this dissertation, two very different ideas that can prevent CMG aggregation without extensively modifying the material or introducing foreign spacer materials are introduced. The van der Waals potential decreases with reduced overlapping area between sheets. For CMG, reducing the lateral dimension from micrometer to nanometer scale should greatly enhance their colloidal stability with additional advantages of increased charge density and decreased probability to interact. The enhanced colloidal stability of GO and CMG nanocolloids makes them especially promising for spectroscopy based bio-sensing applications. For potential applications in a compact bulk solid form, the sheets were converted into paper-ball like structure using capillary compression in evaporating aerosol droplets. The crumpled graphene balls are stabilized by locally folded pi-pi stacked ridges, and do not unfold or collapse during common processing steps. They can tightly pack without greatly reducing the surface area. This form of graphene leads to scalable performance in energy storage. For example, planer sheets tend to aggregate and

  4. Natural aggregates of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.

    1988-01-01

    adversely when used as concrete aggregate. In areas where suitable natural aggregate is not available or accessible, it may become necessary to improve the quality of existing aggregate, to import aggregate from outside the area, or to substitute artificial aggregate for natural aggregate. In most cases, all of these alternatives add substantially to the cost of the final product. Even though an area may be blessed with an abundance of aggregate suitable for the intended purpose, existing land uses, zoning, or regulations may preclude commercial exploitation of the aggregate. This report also discusses the aggregate industry in general terms, including exploration, mining, and processing, as well as aggregate production rates. Proper long-range planning based on an understanding of the aggregate industry can help assure adequate supplies of aggregate.

  5. An anticancer drug suppresses the primary nucleation reaction that initiates the production of the toxic Aβ42 aggregates linked with Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Habchi, Johnny; Arosio, Paolo; Perni, Michele; Costa, Ana Rita; Yagi-Utsumi, Maho; Joshi, Priyanka; Chia, Sean; Cohen, Samuel I. A.; Müller, Martin B. D.; Linse, Sara; Nollen, Ellen A. A.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide into pathogenic aggregates is linked to the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Although this observation has prompted an extensive search for therapeutic agents to modulate the concentration of Aβ or inhibit its aggregation, all clinical trials with these objectives have so far failed, at least in part because of a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of aggregation and its inhibition. To address this problem, we describe a chemical kinetics approach for rational drug discovery, in which the effects of small molecules on the rates of specific microscopic steps in the self-assembly of Aβ42, the most aggregation-prone variant of Aβ, are analyzed quantitatively. By applying this approach, we report that bexarotene, an anticancer drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, selectively targets the primary nucleation step in Aβ42 aggregation, delays the formation of toxic species in neuroblastoma cells, and completely suppresses Aβ42 deposition and its consequences in a Caenorhabditis elegans model of Aβ42-mediated toxicity. These results suggest that the prevention of the primary nucleation of Aβ42 by compounds such as bexarotene could potentially reduce the risk of onset of Alzheimer’s disease and, more generally, that our strategy provides a general framework for the rational identification of a range of candidate drugs directed against neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26933687

  6. An anticancer drug suppresses the primary nucleation reaction that initiates the production of the toxic Aβ42 aggregates linked with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Habchi, Johnny; Arosio, Paolo; Perni, Michele; Costa, Ana Rita; Yagi-Utsumi, Maho; Joshi, Priyanka; Chia, Sean; Cohen, Samuel I A; Müller, Martin B D; Linse, Sara; Nollen, Ellen A A; Dobson, Christopher M; Knowles, Tuomas P J; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2016-02-01

    The conversion of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide into pathogenic aggregates is linked to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Although this observation has prompted an extensive search for therapeutic agents to modulate the concentration of Aβ or inhibit its aggregation, all clinical trials with these objectives have so far failed, at least in part because of a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of aggregation and its inhibition. To address this problem, we describe a chemical kinetics approach for rational drug discovery, in which the effects of small molecules on the rates of specific microscopic steps in the self-assembly of Aβ42, the most aggregation-prone variant of Aβ, are analyzed quantitatively. By applying this approach, we report that bexarotene, an anticancer drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, selectively targets the primary nucleation step in Aβ42 aggregation, delays the formation of toxic species in neuroblastoma cells, and completely suppresses Aβ42 deposition and its consequences in a Caenorhabditis elegans model of Aβ42-mediated toxicity. These results suggest that the prevention of the primary nucleation of Aβ42 by compounds such as bexarotene could potentially reduce the risk of onset of Alzheimer's disease and, more generally, that our strategy provides a general framework for the rational identification of a range of candidate drugs directed against neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26933687

  7. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    living space has encroached on the sites of production; in other words, the act of production has engendered condemnation. Many other environmental problems that are associated with dust and noise and blasting from quarry and pit operations have been reduced through the efficient use of technology. Recycling concrete in buildings, bridges, and roads and asphaltic pavements will ultimately reduce the demand for virgin natural aggregate. The impact created by the large holes in the ground required for the mining of natural aggregate can be greatly reduced by planning their reclamation before mining begins. ?? 2002 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  8. Immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins: Influence of aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Derrick, Jeremy P.; Dearman, Rebecca J.; Kimber, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The elicitation of anti-drug antibodies (ADA) against biotherapeutics can have detrimental effects on drug safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics. The immunogenicity of biotherapeutics is, therefore, an important issue. There is evidence that protein aggregation can result in enhanced immunogenicity; however, the precise immunological and biochemical mechanisms responsible are poorly defined. In the context of biotherapeutic drug development and safety assessment, understanding the mechanisms underlying aggregate immunogenicity is of considerable interest. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of protein aggregation, the production of unwanted aggregates during bioprocessing, and how the immune response to aggregated protein differs from that provoked by non-aggregated protein. Of particular interest is the nature of the interaction of aggregates with the immune system and how subsequent ADA responses are induced. Pathways considered here include ‘classical’ activation of the immune system involving antigen presenting cells and, alternatively, the breakdown of B-cell tolerance. Additionally, methods available to screen for aggregation and immunogenicity will be described. With an increased understanding of aggregation-enhanced immune responses, it may be possible to develop improved manufacturing and screening processes to avoid, or at least reduce, the problems associated with ADA. PMID:23919460

  9. Directional sensing and streaming in Dictyostelium aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Sofia; Dilão, Rui

    2016-05-01

    We merge the Kessler-Levine simple discrete model for Dictyostelium cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production and diffusion with the Dilão-Hauser directional sensing aggregation mechanism. The resulting compound model describes all the known transient patterns that emerge during Dictyostelium aggregation, which include the spontaneous formation of cAMP self-sustained target and spiral waves and streaming. We show that the streaming patterns depend on the speed of the amoebae, on the relaxation time for the production of cAMP, on the cAMP degradation rate, and on directional sensing. Moreover, we show that different signaling centers emerge during Dictyostelium aggregation.

  10. Method for Producing Non-Neoplastic, Three Dimensional, Mammalian Tissue and Cell Aggregates Under Microgravity Culture Conditions and the Products Produced Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Prewett, Tracey L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Normal mammalian tissue and the culturing process has been developed for the three groups of organ, structural, and blood tissue. The cells are grown in vitro under microgravity culture conditions and form three dimensional cells aggregates with normal cell function. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel.

  11. 49 CFR 26.43 - Can recipients use set-asides or quotas as part of this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can recipients use set-asides or quotas as part of... PROGRAMS Goals, Good Faith Efforts, and Counting § 26.43 Can recipients use set-asides or quotas as part of... this part. (b) You may not set-aside contracts for DBEs on DOT-assisted contracts subject to this...

  12. Quota implementation of the maximum sustainable yield for age-structured fisheries.

    PubMed

    Kanik, Zafer; Kucuksenel, Serkan

    2016-06-01

    One of the main goals stated in the proposals for the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) reform was achieving maximum sustainable yield (MSY) for all European fisheries. In this paper, we propose a fishing rights allocation mechanism or management system, which specifies catch limits for individual fishing fleets to implement MSY harvesting conditions in an age-structured bioeconomic model. An age-structured model in a single species fishery with two fleets having perfect or imperfect fishing selectivity is studied. If fishing technology or gear selectivity depends on the relative age composition of the mature fish stock, fixed harvest proportions, derived from catchability and bycatch coefficients, is not valid anymore. As a result, not only the age-structure and fishing technology but also the estimated level of MSY is steering the allocation of quota shares. The results also show that allocation of quota shares based on historical catches or auctioning may not provide viable solutions to achieve MSY. PMID:27018447

  13. Oil-Price Shocks: Beyond Standard Aggregate Demand/Aggregate Supply Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwood, S. Kirk

    2001-01-01

    Explores the problems of portraying oil-price shocks using the aggregate demand/aggregate supply model. Presents a simple modification of the model that differentiates between production and absorption of goods, which enables it to better reflect the effects of oil-price shocks on open economies. (RLH)

  14. Intraspecific variation in growth, morphology and toxin quotas for the cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii.

    PubMed

    Willis, Anusuya; Chuang, Ann W; Woodhouse, Jason N; Neilan, Brett A; Burford, Michele A

    2016-09-01

    Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a bloom forming cyanobacterium with complex population dynamics and toxicity. In January of 2013 a single sample was collected from surface waters in Lake Wivenhoe, Australia, and twenty-four individual trichomes were isolated. Each isolate exhibited differences in growth rate, toxin cell quota and morphology, in the absence of phylogenetic heterogeneity. This study demonstrates substantial intraspecific isolate variation within a small sample and this has implications for understanding the population dynamics of this species. PMID:27390039

  15. Derivation of safety factors for setting harvest quotas on adult walleyes from past estimates of abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Staggs, Michael D.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1991-01-01

    Past population estimates of adult walleyes Stizostedion vitreum can be used to set harvest quotas, provided that temporal variability in abundance of adult walleyes is accounted for. We used a long-term data set from Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin, to evaluate the accuracy of past population estimates for setting current-year quotas for adult walleyes. The results from Escanaba Lake were corroborated by comparison with other lakes where adult walleye abundance was estimated in more than 1 year. The accuracy of estimates of adult walleye abundance declined over time from the year the estimate was obtained to the year it was used to set a harvest quota. We derived safety factors for application to past estimates of population size; these factors limit the occurrence of an exploitation rate exceeding the maximum sustainable rate (35%) to approximately 1 in 40. These safety factors declined from 35% for 1-year-old estimates to less than 20% for 10-year-old estimates.

  16. Aggregations in Flatworms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Hunter, M.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a school project to investigate aggregations in flatworms which may be influenced by light intensity, temperature, and some form of chemical stimulus released by already aggregating flatworms. Such investigations could be adopted to suit many educational levels of science laboratory activities. (DS)

  17. An Intein-based Strategy for the Production of Tag-free Huntingtin Exon 1 Proteins Enables New Insights into the Polyglutamine Dependence of Httex1 Aggregation and Fibril Formation.

    PubMed

    Vieweg, Sophie; Ansaloni, Annalisa; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Warner, John B; Lashuel, Hilal A

    2016-06-01

    The first exon of the Huntingtin protein (Httex1) is one of the most actively studied Htt fragments because its overexpression in R6/2 transgenic mice has been shown to recapitulate several key features of Huntington disease. However, the majority of biophysical studies of Httex1 are based on assessing the structure and aggregation of fusion constructs where Httex1 is fused to large proteins, such as glutathione S-transferase, maltose-binding protein, or thioredoxin, or released in solution upon in situ cleavage of these proteins. Herein, we report an intein-based strategy that allows, for the first time, the rapid and efficient production of native tag-free Httex1 with polyQ repeats ranging from 7Q to 49Q. Aggregation studies on these proteins enabled us to identify interesting polyQ-length-dependent effects on Httex1 oligomer and fibril formation that were previously not observed using Httex1 fusion proteins or Httex1 proteins produced by in situ cleavage of fusion proteins. Our studies revealed the inability of Httex1-7Q/15Q to undergo amyloid fibril formation and an inverse correlation between fibril length and polyQ repeat length, suggesting possible polyQ length-dependent differences in the structural properties of the Httex1 aggregates. Altogether, our findings underscore the importance of working with tag-free Httex1 proteins and indicate that model systems based on non-native Httex1 sequences may not accurately reproduce the effect of polyQ repeat length and solution conditions on Httex1 aggregation kinetics and structural properties. PMID:27002149

  18. Charged Dust Aggregate Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle aggregates immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust aggregate as well as the manner in which the aggregate interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like aggregates levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as aggregates approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, aggregates are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the aggregate while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.

  19. Effects of tau domain-specific antibodies and intravenous immunoglobulin on tau aggregation and aggregate degradation.

    PubMed

    Esteves-Villanueva, Jose O; Trzeciakiewicz, Hanna; Loeffler, David A; Martić, Sanela

    2015-01-20

    Tau pathology, including neurofibrillary tangles, develops in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aggregation and hyperphosphorylation of tau are potential therapeutic targets for AD. Administration of anti-tau antibodies reduces tau pathology in transgenic "tauopathy" mice; however, the optimal tau epitopes and conformations to target are unclear. Also unknown is whether intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) products, currently being evaluated in AD trials, exert effects on pathological tau. This study examined the effects of anti-tau antibodies targeting different tau epitopes and the IVIG Gammagard on tau aggregation and preformed tau aggregates. Tau aggregation was assessed by transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy, and the binding affinity of the anti-tau antibodies for tau was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Antibodies used were anti-tau 1-150 ("D-8"), anti-tau 259-266 ("Paired-262"), anti-tau 341-360 ("A-10"), and anti-tau 404-441 ("Tau-46"), which bind to tau's N-terminus, microtubule binding domain (MBD) repeat sequences R1 and R4, and the C-terminus, respectively. The antibodies Paired-262 and A-10, but not D-8 and Tau-46, reduced tau fibrillization and degraded preformed tau aggregates, whereas the IVIG reduced tau aggregation but did not alter preformed aggregates. The binding affinities of the antibodies for the epitope for which they were specific did not appear to be related to their effects on tau aggregation. These results confirm that antibody binding to tau's MBD repeat sequences may inhibit tau aggregation and indicate that such antibodies may also degrade preformed tau aggregates. In the presence of anti-tau antibodies, the resulting tau morphologies were antigen-dependent. The results also suggested the possibility of different pathways regulating antibody-mediated inhibition of tau aggregation and antibody-mediated degradation of preformed tau aggregates. PMID:25545358

  20. Aggregate and the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sachs, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to help you understand our aggregate resources-their importance, where they come from, how they are processed for our use, the environmental concerns related to their mining and processing, how those concerns are addressed, and the policies and regulations designed to safeguard workers, neighbors, and the environment from the negative impacts of aggregate mining. We hope this understanding will help prepare you to be involved in decisions that need to be made-individually and as a society-to be good stewards of our aggregate resources and our living planet.

  1. The Nation's top 25 construction aggregates producers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willett, Jason Christopher

    2013-01-01

    U.S. production of construction aggregates in 2011 was 2.17 billion short tons, valued at $17.2 billion, free on board (f.o.b.) at plant. Construction aggregates production decreased by 37 percent, and the associated value decreased by 25 percent, compared with the record highs reported in 2006. In 2011, construction aggregates production increased for the first time since 2006, owing to a very slight increase in the production of both construction sand and gravel and crushed stone. The average unit value, which is the f.o.b. at plant price of a ton of material, increased slightly, but is still less than the average unit value of two years prior.

  2. 75 FR 4973 - Registration Requirements for Importers and Manufacturers of Prescription Drug Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ..., 2008 (73 FR 3432). Because of the new CMEA mandates for importation, import quotas, and production... Proposed Rulemaking On January 18, 2008, DEA published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) (73 FR...

  3. Recycling of MSWI fly ash by means of cementitious double step cold bonding pelletization: Technological assessment for the production of lightweight artificial aggregates.

    PubMed

    Colangelo, Francesco; Messina, Francesco; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2015-12-15

    In this work, an extensive study on the recycling of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash by means of cold bonding pelletization is presented. The ash comes from an incineration plant equipped with rotary and stoker furnaces, in which municipal, hospital and industrial wastes are treated. Fly ash from waste incineration is classified as hazardous and cannot be utilized or even landfilled without prior treatment. The pelletization process uses cement, lime and coal fly ash as components of the binding systems. This process has been applied to several mixes in which the ash content has been varied from 50% (wt.%) up to a maximum of 70%. An innovative additional pelletization step with only cementitious binder has been performed in order to achieve satisfactory immobilization levels. The obtained lightweight porous aggregates are mostly suitable for recovery in the field of building materials with enhanced sustainability properties. Density, water absorption and crushing strength ranged from 1000 to 1600 kg/m(3), 7 to 16% and 1.3 to 6.2 MPa, respectively, and the second pelletization step increased stabilization efficiency. The feasibility of the process has been analyzed by testing also concrete specimens containing the artificial aggregates, resulting in lightweight concrete of average performance. PMID:26124064

  4. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  5. Generation of Soluble Advanced Glycation End Products Receptor (sRAGE)-Binding Ligands during Extensive Heat Treatment of Whey Protein/Lactose Mixtures Is Dependent on Glycation and Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fahui; Teodorowicz, Małgorzata; Wichers, Harry J; van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Hettinga, Kasper A

    2016-08-24

    Heating of protein- and sugar-containing materials is considered the primary factor affecting the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). This study aimed to investigate the influence of heating conditions, digestion, and aggregation on the binding capacity of AGEs to the soluble AGE receptor (sRAGE). Samples consisting of mixtures of whey protein and lactose were heated at 130 °C. An in vitro infant digestion model was used to study the influence of heat treatment on the digestibility of whey proteins. The amount of sRAGE-binding ligands before and after digestion was measured by an ELISA-based sRAGE-binding assay. Water activity did not significantly affect the extent of digestibility of whey proteins dry heated at pH 5 (ranging from 3.3 ± 0.2 to 3.6 ± 0.1% for gastric digestion and from 53.5 ± 1.5 to 64.7 ± 1.1% for duodenal digestion), but there were differences in cleavage patterns of peptides among the samples heated at different pH values. Formation of sRAGE-binding ligands depended on the formation of aggregates and was limited in the samples heated at pH 5. Moreover, the sRAGE-binding activity of digested sample was changed by protease degradation and correlated with the digestibility of samples. In conclusion, generation of sRAGE-binding ligands during extensive heat treatment of whey protein/lactose mixtures is limited in acidic heating condition and dependent on glycation and aggregation. PMID:27460534

  6. Adopting nested case–control quota sampling designs for the evaluation of risk markers

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Tianxi; Pepe, Margaret S.

    2013-01-01

    Two-phase study methods, in which more detailed or more expensive exposure information is only collected on a sample of individuals with events and a small proportion of other individuals, are expected to play a critical role in biomarker validation research. One major limitation of standard two-phase designs is that they are most conveniently employed with study cohorts in which information on longitudinal follow-up and other potential matching variables is electronically recorded. However for many practical situations, at the sampling stage such information may not be readily available for every potential candidates. Study eligibility needs to be verified by reviewing information from medical charts one by one. In this manuscript, we study in depth a novel study design commonly undertaken in practice that involves sampling until quotas of eligible cases and controls are identified. We propose semiparametric methods to calculate risk distributions and a wide variety of prediction indices when outcomes are censored failure times and data are collected under the quota sampling design. Consistency and asymptotic normality of our estimators are established using empirical process theory. Simulation results indicate that the proposed procedures perform well in finite samples. Application is made to the evaluation of a new risk model for predicting the onset of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23807695

  7. LPS ligand and culture additives improve production of monomeric MD-1 and 2 in Pichia pastoris by decreasing aggregation and intermolecular disulfide bonding

    PubMed Central

    Mengwasser, Kristen E.; Bryant, Clare E.; Gay, Nick J.; Gangloff, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Myeloid differentiation proteins MD-1 and MD-2 have both been shown to form a heterogeneous collection of oligomers when expressed in absence of their respective receptor, RP105 and TLR4. The biological relevance of these oligomers is not clear. Only monomeric proteins have been found to be active and able to trigger an immune response to endotoxin by modulating the TLR4 pathway. In this study, we produced variants of MD-1 and MD-2 in Pichia pastoris. To minimize the time and expense of initial expression tests, small-scale cultures have been set up to allow the rapid identification of the highest expressing clone and the optimal expression conditions. The expression vectors used, the site of linearization and the locus of integration affected the yield of transformation. Next we screened culture additives and found that they significantly increased the fraction of monomeric proteins secreted in the culture medium (up to 15% of the total MD protein produced). We confirmed their presence by size-exclusion chromatography. Optimal anti-aggregation agents were protein-dependent except for LPS that presented stabilizing effects for all MD proteins. Contrary to previous reports, this study suggests that MD-1 can bind to LPS. PMID:21130168

  8. LPS ligand and culture additives improve production of monomeric MD-1 and 2 in Pichia pastoris by decreasing aggregation and intermolecular disulfide bonding.

    PubMed

    Mengwasser, Kristen E; Bryant, Clare E; Gay, Nick J; Gangloff, Monique

    2011-04-01

    Myeloid differentiation proteins MD-1 and MD-2 have both been shown to form a heterogeneous collection of oligomers when expressed in absence of their respective receptor, RP105 and TLR4. The biological relevance of these oligomers is not clear. Only monomeric proteins have been found to be active and able to trigger an immune response to endotoxin by modulating the TLR4 pathway. In this study, we produced variants of MD-1 and MD-2 in Pichia pastoris. To minimize the time and expense of initial expression tests, small-scale cultures have been set up to allow the rapid identification of the highest expressing clone and the optimal expression conditions. The expression vectors used, the site of linearization and the locus of integration affected the yield of transformation. Next we screened culture additives and found that they significantly increased the fraction of monomeric proteins secreted in the culture medium (up to 15% of the total MD protein produced). We confirmed their presence by size-exclusion chromatography. Optimal anti-aggregation agents were protein-dependent except for LPS that presented stabilizing effects for all MD proteins. Contrary to previous reports, this study suggests that MD-1 can bind to LPS. PMID:21130168

  9. Microstructural characterization of concrete prepared with recycled aggregates.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Mafalda; Evangelista, Luís; de Brito, Jorge; Ferro, Alberto C

    2013-10-01

    Several authors have reported the workability, mechanical properties, and durability of concrete produced with construction waste replacing the natural aggregate. However, a systematic microstructural characterization of recycled aggregate concrete has not been reported. This work studies the use of fine recycled aggregate to replace fine natural aggregate in the production of concrete and reports the resulting microstructures. The used raw materials were natural aggregate, recycled aggregate obtained from a standard concrete, and Portland cement. The substitution extent was 0, 10, 50, and 100 vol%; hydration was stopped at 9, 24, and 96 h and 28 days. Microscopy was focused on the cement/aggregate interfacial transition zone, enlightening the effect of incorporating recycled aggregate on the formation and morphology of the different concrete hydration products. The results show that concretes with recycled aggregates exhibit typical microstructural features of the transition zone in normal strength concrete. Although overall porosity increases with increasing replacement, the interfacial bond is apparently stronger when recycled aggregates are used. An addition of 10 vol% results in a decrease in porosity at the interface with a corresponding increase of the material hardness. This provides an opportunity for development of increased strength Portland cement concretes using controlled amounts of concrete waste. PMID:23673273

  10. Technology meets aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Swan, C.

    2007-07-01

    New technology carried out at Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts on synthetic lightweight aggregate has created material from various qualities of fly ash from coal-fired power plants for use in different engineered applications. In pilot scale manufacturing tests an 'SLA' containing 80% fly ash and 20% mixed plastic waste from packaging was produced by 'dry blending' mixed plastic with high carbon fly ash. A trial run was completed to produce concrete masonry unit (CMU) blocks at a full-scale facility. It has been shown that SLA can be used as a partial substitution of a traditional stone aggregate in hot asphalt mix. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  11. Concrete Waste Recycling Process for High Quality Aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Fujii, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-15

    Large amount of concrete waste generates during nuclear power plant (NPP) dismantling. Non-contaminated concrete waste is assumed to be disposed in a landfill site, but that will not be the solution especially in the future, because of decreasing tendency of the site availability and natural resources. Concerning concrete recycling, demand for roadbeds and backfill tends to be less than the amount of dismantled concrete generated in a single rural site, and conventional recycled aggregate is limited of its use to non-structural concrete, because of its inferior quality to ordinary natural aggregate. Therefore, it is vital to develop high quality recycled aggregate for general uses of dismantled concrete. If recycled aggregate is available for high structural concrete, the dismantling concrete is recyclable as aggregate for industry including nuclear field. Authors developed techniques on high quality aggregate reclamation for large amount of concrete generated during NPP decommissioning. Concrete of NPP buildings has good features for recycling aggregate; large quantity of high quality aggregate from same origin, record keeping of the aggregate origin, and little impurities in dismantled concrete such as wood and plastics. The target of recycled aggregate in this development is to meet the quality criteria for NPP concrete as prescribed in JASS 5N 'Specification for Nuclear Power Facility Reinforced Concrete' and JASS 5 'Specification for Reinforced Concrete Work'. The target of recycled aggregate concrete is to be comparable performance with ordinary aggregate concrete. The high quality recycled aggregate production techniques are assumed to apply for recycling for large amount of non-contaminated concrete. These techniques can also be applied for slightly contaminated concrete dismantled from radiological control area (RCA), together with free release survey. In conclusion: a technology on dismantled concrete recycling for high quality aggregate was developed

  12. Aggregates, broccoli and cauliflower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.

    1989-09-01

    Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type aggregates. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.

  13. 50 CFR Table 7 to Part 679 - Communities Determined To Be Eligible To Apply for Community Development Quotas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communities Determined To Be Eligible To Apply for Community Development Quotas 7 Table 7 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION...) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 7 Table 7 to Part...

  14. 50 CFR Table 7 to Part 679 - Communities Determined To Be Eligible To Apply for Community Development Quotas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Communities Determined To Be Eligible To Apply for Community Development Quotas 7 Table 7 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION...) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 7 Table 7 to Part...

  15. 75 FR 53271 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2011 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the... importation of certain dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate quotas set forth in the Harmonized... CONTACT: Abdelsalam El-Farra, Dairy Import Licensing Program, Import Policies and Export...

  16. 78 FR 46565 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2014 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the... dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate quotas set forth in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS..., Dairy Import Licensing Program, Import Policies and Export Reporting Division, STOP 1021,...

  17. 76 FR 47491 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Scup Fishery; Adjustment to the 2011 Winter II Quota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ..., 2003 (68 FR 62250), implementing a process, for years in which the full Winter I commercial scup quota... 2011 final scup specifications (75 FR 81498, December 28, 2010). Classification This action is required... compromised; deteriorating weather conditions during the later part of the fishery year will reduce...

  18. 77 FR 52624 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Scup Fishery; Adjustment to the 2012 Winter II Quota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... INFORMATION: NMFS published a final rule in the Federal Register on November 3, 2003 (68 FR 62250... possession limit increase table published in the 2012 final scup specifications Table 3, (77 FR 24151, April... fishery year will reduce fishing effort and could result in the annual quota from being fully...

  19. 75 FR 54290 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Scup Fishery; Adjustment to the 2010 Winter II Quota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: NMFS published a final rule in the Federal Register on November 3, 2003 (68 FR 62250... increase table (table 4) published in the 2010 final scup specifications (74 FR 67978, December 22, 2009... fishery year will reduce fishing effort and could result in the annual quota from being fully...

  20. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... quantity of the refined and specialty sugar TRQ is established at 99,111 MTRV for certain sugars, syrups... sugars, syrups, and molasses that may be entered under the subheadings of the HTS subject to the...

  1. 76 FR 46267 - Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and... quantity of the refined and specialty sugar TRQ is established at 112,718 MTRV for certain sugars, syrups... (expressed in terms of raw value) for imports of raw cane sugar and certain sugars, syrups, and molasses...

  2. 77 FR 55451 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and the Fiscal Year 2013... quantity of the refined and specialty sugar TRQ is established at 117,254 MTRV for certain sugars, syrups..., syrups, and molasses that may be entered under the subheadings of the HTS subject to the lower tier...

  3. 77 FR 65439 - Implementation of United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... for Imports of Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: USTR is providing notice that the tariff-rate quotas for sugar established by the United States-Panama... imports of sugar from Panama. USTR is providing notice that the United States, consistent with Note...

  4. 76 FR 66914 - Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Proclamation 7616 of October 31, 2002, 67 FR 67283 (November 5, 2002); Executive Order 13277, 67 FR 70305... Further Assignment of Functions, 67 FR 71606 (November 25, 2002). Section 3103 of the Trade Act of 2002... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel...

  5. 75 FR 60066 - Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary ATPDEA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... Proclamation 7616 of October 31, 2002 (67 FR 67283, November 5, 2002). Section 3103 of the Trade Act of 2002... Federal Register on November 5, 2002, 67 FR 67283), the President directed CITA to publish in the Federal... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled...

  6. 76 FR 1137 - Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... Proclamation 7616 of October 31, 2002, 67 FR 67283 (November 5, 2002); Executive Order 13277, 67 FR 70305... Further Assignment of Functions, 67 FR 71606 (November 25, 2002). Section 3103 of the Trade Act of 2002... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel...

  7. 75 FR 1589 - Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Proclamation 7616 of October 31, 2002, 67 FR 67283 (November 5, 2002); Executive Order 13277, 67 FR 70305... Further Assignment of Functions, 67 FR 71606 (November 25, 2002). Section 3103 of the Trade Act of 2002... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel...

  8. 77 FR 59913 - Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary Sub...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 59321); and Presidential Proclamation 7626 of November 13, 2002 (67 FR 69459). Title I of... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in... Implementation of Textile Agreements (CITA). ACTION: Publishing the new 12-month cap on duty- and...

  9. 76 FR 66915 - Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Proclamation 7616 of October 31, 2002, 67 FR 67283 (November 5, 2002); Executive Order 13277, 67 FR 70305... Further Assignment of Functions, 67 FR 71606 (November 25, 2002). Section 3103 of the Trade Act of 2002... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel...

  10. 7 CFR 718.206 - Determining farms, tracts, allotments, quotas, and bases when reconstitution is made by division.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining farms, tracts, allotments, quotas, and bases when reconstitution is made by division. 718.206 Section 718.206 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM MARKETING...

  11. 76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... 6763 (60 FR 1007). On April 11, 2011, The Secretary of Agriculture announced an additional in-quota... Philippines 60,000 South Africa 11,444 Swaziland 7,961 Thailand 6,966 Zimbabwe 5,971 These allocations...

  12. Estimating the Costs to Consumers of the U.S. Sugar Quota: An Exercise for Introductory Economics Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Andrew T.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a classroom exercise using the restrictive tariffs on sugar to examine issues of protectionism and international trade. Discusses related issues such as the North American Free Trade Agreement and the formation of large regional trading blocks. Includes a hands-on calculation of the economic impact of the quota on consumers. (MJP)

  13. Planktonic Aggregates of Staphylococcus aureus Protect against Common Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Haaber, Jakob; Cohn, Marianne Thorup; Frees, Dorte; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Ingmer, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial cells are mostly studied during planktonic growth although in their natural habitats they are often found in communities such as biofilms with dramatically different physiological properties. We have examined another type of community namely cellular aggregates observed in strains of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. By laser-diffraction particle–size analysis (LDA) we show, for strains forming visible aggregates, that the aggregation starts already in the early exponential growth phase and proceeds until post-exponential phase where more than 90% of the population is part of the aggregate community. Similar to some types of biofilm, the structural component of S. aureus aggregates is the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA). Importantly, PIA production correlates with the level of aggregation whether altered through mutations or exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of selected antibiotics. While some properties of aggregates resemble those of biofilms including increased mutation frequency and survival during antibiotic treatment, aggregated cells displayed higher metabolic activity than planktonic cells or cells in biofilm. Thus, our data indicate that the properties of cells in aggregates differ in some aspects from those in biofilms. It is generally accepted that the biofilm life style protects pathogens against antibiotics and the hostile environment of the host. We speculate that in aggregate communities S. aureus increases its tolerance to hazardous environments and that the combination of a biofilm-like environment with mobility has substantial practical and clinical importance. PMID:22815921

  14. Properties of Concrete with Tire Derived Aggregate Partially Replacing Coarse Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Siringi, Gideon; Abolmaali, Ali; Aswath, Pranesh B.

    2015-01-01

    Tire derived aggregate (TDA) has been proposed as a possible lightweight replacement for mineral aggregate in concrete. The role played by the amount of TDA replacing coarse aggregate as well as different treatment and additives in concrete on its properties is examined. Conventional concrete (without TDA) and concrete containing TDA are compared by examining their compressive strength based on ASTM C39, workability based on ASTM C143, splitting tensile strength based on ASTM C496, modulus of rupture (flexural strength) based on ASTM C78, and bond stress based on ASTM C234. Results indicate that while replacement of coarse aggregates with TDA results in reduction in strength, it may be mitigated with addition of silica fume to obtain the desired strength. The greatest benefit of using TDA is in the development of a higher ductile product while utilizing recycled TDA. PMID:26161440

  15. Properties of Concrete with Tire Derived Aggregate Partially Replacing Coarse Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Siringi, Gideon; Abolmaali, Ali; Aswath, Pranesh B

    2015-01-01

    Tire derived aggregate (TDA) has been proposed as a possible lightweight replacement for mineral aggregate in concrete. The role played by the amount of TDA replacing coarse aggregate as well as different treatment and additives in concrete on its properties is examined. Conventional concrete (without TDA) and concrete containing TDA are compared by examining their compressive strength based on ASTM C39, workability based on ASTM C143, splitting tensile strength based on ASTM C496, modulus of rupture (flexural strength) based on ASTM C78, and bond stress based on ASTM C234. Results indicate that while replacement of coarse aggregates with TDA results in reduction in strength, it may be mitigated with addition of silica fume to obtain the desired strength. The greatest benefit of using TDA is in the development of a higher ductile product while utilizing recycled TDA. PMID:26161440

  16. Photophoretic force on aggregate grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Lorin S.; Kimery, Jesse B.; Wurm, Gerhard; de Beule, Caroline; Kuepper, Markus; Hyde, Truell W.

    2016-01-01

    The photophoretic force may impact planetary formation by selectively moving solid particles based on their composition and structure. This generates collision velocities between grains of different sizes and sorts the dust in protoplanetary discs by composition. This numerical simulation studied the photophoretic force acting on fractal dust aggregates of μm-scale radii. Results show that aggregates tend to have greater photophoretic drift velocities than spheres of similar mass or radii, though with a greater spread in the velocity. While the drift velocities of compact aggregates continue to increase as the aggregates grow larger in size, fluffy aggregates have drift velocities which are relatively constant with size. Aggregates formed from an initially polydisperse size distribution of dust grains behave differently from aggregates formed from a monodisperse population, having smaller drift velocities with directions which deviate substantially from the direction of illumination. Results agree with microgravity experiments which show the difference of photophoretic forces with aggregation state.

  17. The Effect of Florida's Bright Futures Program on College Enrollment and Degree Production: An Aggregated-Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang; Hu, Shouping; Sensenig, Victor

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the impact of the Bright Futures Scholarship Program on college enrollment and degree production in Florida by using IPEDS enrollment, migration, and completion data. Results suggest large and significant enrollment effects at Florida's public 4- and 2-year institutions, for both full-time and part-time…

  18. Determination of the dynamic elastic constants of recycled aggregate concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoumani, A. A.; Barkoula, N.-M.; Matikas, T. E.

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, construction and demolition waste constitutes a major portion of the total solid waste production in the world. Due to both environmental and economical reasons, an increasing interest concerning the use of recycled aggregate to replace aggregate from natural sources is generated. This paper presents an investigation on the properties of recycled aggregate concrete. Concrete mixes are prepared using recycled aggregates at a substitution level between 0 and 100% of the total coarse aggregate. The influence of this replacement on strengthened concrete's properties is being investigated. The properties estimated are: density and dynamic modulus of elasticity at the age of both 7 and 28 days. Also, flexural strength of 28 days specimens is estimated. The determination of the dynamic elastic modulus was made using the ultrasonic pulse velocity method. The results reveal that the existence of recycled aggregates affects the properties of concrete negatively; however, in low levels of substitution the influence of using recycled aggregates is almost negligible. Concluding, the controlled use of recycled aggregates in concrete production may help solve a vital environmental issue apart from being a solution to the problem of inadequate concrete aggregates.

  19. Stoichiometric flexibility in diverse aquatic heterotrophic bacteria is coupled to differences in cellular phosphorus quotas

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Casey M.; Cotner, James B.

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently presumed that heterotrophic bacteria from aquatic environments have low carbon (C) content, high phosphorus (P) content, and maintain homeostasis at low C:P in their biomass. Dissolved and particulate organic matter from primary producers in terrestrial and aquatic environments typically has high C:P ratios, suggesting that heterotrophic bacteria consuming this resource experience stoichiometric imbalance in C and P. The strength of elemental homeostasis is important for understanding how heterotrophic bacteria couple C and P cycles in response to environmental change, yet these generalizations are based upon data from only a few species that might not represent the physiology of bacteria in freshwaters. However, recent research has indicated that some strains of bacteria isolated from freshwaters have flexible C:P stoichiometry and can acclimate to changes in resource C:P. Although it is apparent that strains differ in their biomass C:P and flexibility, the basis for these characteristics has not been explained. We evaluated biomass C:P homeostasis in 24 strains of bacteria isolated from temperate lakes using a uniform relative growth rate in chemostats. Overall, the strains exhibited a range of homeostatic regulation from strong homeostasis to highly flexible biomass stoichiometry, but strains that were isolated using P-rich media formulations were more homeostatic than strains isolated using P-poor media. Strains exhibiting homeostatic biomass C:P had high cellular C and P content and showed little morphological change between C and P limitation. In contrast, stoichiometrically flexible strains had low P quotas and increased their C quotas and cell size under P limitation. Because stoichiometric flexibility is closely coupled to absolute P content in bacteria, anthropogenic inputs of P could lead to prevalence of more homeostatic bacteria, reducing the ability of natural assemblages to buffer changes in the availability of P and organic C. PMID

  20. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Aggregation of organic matter by pelagic tunicates

    SciTech Connect

    Pomeroy, L.R.; Deibel, D.

    1980-07-01

    Three genera of pelagic tunicates were fed concentrates of natural seston and an axenic diatom culture. Fresh and up to 4-day-old feces resemble flocculent organic aggregates containing populations of microorganisms, as described from highly productive parts of the ocean, and older feces resemble the nearly sterile flocculent aggregates which are ubiquitous in surface waters. Fresh feces consist of partially digested phytoplankton and other inclusions in an amorphous gelatinous matrix. After 18 to 36 h, a population of large bacteria develops in the matrix and in some of the remains of phytoplankton contained in the feces. From 48 to 96 h, protozoan populations arise which consume the bacteria and sometimes the remains of the phytoplankton in the feces. Thereafter only a sparse population of microorganisms remains, and the particles begin to fragment. Water samples taken in or below dense populations of salps and doliolids contained greater numbers of flocculent aggregates than did samples from adjacent stations.

  2. Comparative environmental assessment of natural and recycled aggregate concrete.

    PubMed

    Marinković, S; Radonjanin, V; Malešev, M; Ignjatović, I

    2010-11-01

    Constant and rapid increase in construction and demolition (C&D) waste generation and consumption of natural aggregate for concrete production became one of the biggest environmental problems in the construction industry. Recycling of C&D waste represents one way to convert a waste product into a resource but the environment benefits through energy consumption, emissions and fallouts reductions are not certain. The main purpose of this study is to determine the potentials of recycled aggregate concrete (concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate) for structural applications and to compare the environmental impact of the production of two types of ready-mixed concrete: natural aggregate concrete (NAC) made entirely with river aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) made with natural fine and recycled coarse aggregate. Based on the analysis of up-to-date experimental evidence, including own tests results, it is concluded that utilization of RAC for low-to-middle strength structural concrete and non-aggressive exposure conditions is technically feasible. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed for raw material extraction and material production part of the concrete life cycle including transport. Assessment is based on local LCI data and on typical conditions in Serbia. Results of this specific case study show that impacts of aggregate and cement production phases are slightly larger for RAC than for NAC but the total environmental impacts depend on the natural and recycled aggregates transport distances and on transport types. Limit natural aggregate transport distances above which the environmental impacts of RAC can be equal or even lower than the impacts of NAC are calculated for the specific case study. PMID:20434898

  3. Gut bacteria mediate aggregation in the German cockroach

    PubMed Central

    Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Zurek, Ludek; Nalyanya, Godfrey; Roelofs, Wendell L.; Zhang, Aijun; Schal, Coby

    2015-01-01

    Aggregation of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is regulated by fecal aggregation agents (pheromones), including volatile carboxylic acids (VCAs). We demonstrate that the gut microbial community contributes to production of these semiochemicals. Chemical analysis of the fecal extract of B. germanica revealed 40 VCAs. Feces from axenic cockroaches (no microorganisms in the alimentary tract) lacked 12 major fecal VCAs, and 24 of the remaining compounds were represented at extremely low amounts. Olfactory and aggregation bioassays demonstrated that nymphs strongly preferred the extract of control feces over the fecal extract of axenic cockroaches. Additionally, nymphs preferred a synthetic blend of 6 fecal VCAs over a solvent control or a previously identified VCA blend. To test whether gut bacteria contribute to the production of fecal aggregation agents, fecal aerobic bacteria were cultured, isolated, and identified. Inoculation of axenic cockroaches with individual bacterial taxa significantly rescued the aggregation response to the fecal extract, and inoculation with a mix of six bacterial isolates was more effective than with single isolates. The results indicate that the commensal gut microbiota contributes to production of VCAs that act as fecal aggregation agents and that cockroaches discriminate among the complex odors that emanate from a diverse microbial community. Our results highlight the pivotal role of gut bacteria in mediating insect–insect communication. Moreover, because the gut microbial community reflects the local environment, local plasticity in fecal aggregation pheromones enables colony-specific odors and fidelity to persistent aggregation sites. PMID:26644557

  4. Gut bacteria mediate aggregation in the German cockroach.

    PubMed

    Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Zurek, Ludek; Nalyanya, Godfrey; Roelofs, Wendell L; Zhang, Aijun; Schal, Coby

    2015-12-22

    Aggregation of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is regulated by fecal aggregation agents (pheromones), including volatile carboxylic acids (VCAs). We demonstrate that the gut microbial community contributes to production of these semiochemicals. Chemical analysis of the fecal extract of B. germanica revealed 40 VCAs. Feces from axenic cockroaches (no microorganisms in the alimentary tract) lacked 12 major fecal VCAs, and 24 of the remaining compounds were represented at extremely low amounts. Olfactory and aggregation bioassays demonstrated that nymphs strongly preferred the extract of control feces over the fecal extract of axenic cockroaches. Additionally, nymphs preferred a synthetic blend of 6 fecal VCAs over a solvent control or a previously identified VCA blend. To test whether gut bacteria contribute to the production of fecal aggregation agents, fecal aerobic bacteria were cultured, isolated, and identified. Inoculation of axenic cockroaches with individual bacterial taxa significantly rescued the aggregation response to the fecal extract, and inoculation with a mix of six bacterial isolates was more effective than with single isolates. The results indicate that the commensal gut microbiota contributes to production of VCAs that act as fecal aggregation agents and that cockroaches discriminate among the complex odors that emanate from a diverse microbial community. Our results highlight the pivotal role of gut bacteria in mediating insect-insect communication. Moreover, because the gut microbial community reflects the local environment, local plasticity in fecal aggregation pheromones enables colony-specific odors and fidelity to persistent aggregation sites. PMID:26644557

  5. Dynamics of fire ant aggregations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennenbaum, Michael; Hu, David; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    Fire ant aggregations are an inherently active system. Each ant harvests its own energy and can convert it into motion. The motion of individual ants contributes non-trivially to the bulk material properties of the aggregation. We have measured some of these properties using plate-plate rheology, where the response to an applied external force or deformation is measured. In this talk, we will present data pertaining to the aggregation behavior in the absence of any external force. We quantify the aggregation dynamics by monitoring the rotation of the top plate and by measuring the normal force. We then compare the results with visualizations of 2D aggregations.

  6. Collisional Aggregation Due to Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumir, Alain; Wilkinson, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Collisions between particles suspended in a fluid play an important role in many physical processes. As an example, collisions of microscopic water droplets in clouds are a necessary step in the production of macroscopic raindrops. Collisions of dust grains are also conjectured to be important for planet formation in the gas surrounding young stars and to play a role in the dynamics of sand storms. In these processes, collisions are favored by fast turbulent motions. Here we review recent advances in the understanding of collisional aggregation due to turbulence. We discuss the role of fractal clustering of particles and caustic singularities of their velocities. We also discuss limitations of the Smoluchowski equation for modeling such processes. These advances lead to a semiquantitative understanding on the influence of turbulence on collision rates and point to deficiencies in the current understanding of rainfall and planet formation.

  7. Entrapment of Aβ1-40 peptide in unstructured aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsale, C.; Carrotta, R.; Mangione, M. R.; Vilasi, S.; Provenzano, A.; Cavallaro, G.; Bulone, D.; San Biagio, P. L.

    2012-06-01

    Recognizing the complexity of the fibrillogenesis process provides a solid ground for the development of therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing or inhibiting protein-protein aggregation. Under this perspective, it is meaningful to identify the possible aggregation pathways and their relative products. We found that Aβ-peptide dissolved in a pH 7.4 solution at small peptide concentration and low ionic strength forms globular aggregates without typical amyloid β-conformation. ThT binding kinetics was used to monitor aggregate formation. Circular dichroism spectroscopy, AFM imaging, static and dynamic light scattering were used for structural and morphological characterization of the aggregates. They appear stable or at least metastable with respect to fiber growth, therefore appearing as an incidental product in the pathway of fibrillogenesis.

  8. From Aggregate Availability to Sustainability in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, S. M.; Parrish, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    California leads the nation in the production of sand and gravel, and ranks second behind Texas in the production of portland cement. Prior to 1960, the California Geological Survey (CGS, formerly the Division of Mines and Geology) and the State Mining and Geology Board (SMGB, formerly State Mining Board) placed an emphasis "in obtaining and providing information of benefit to the State's mineral industry". By the late 1960s, the Division initiated activities in the area of geologic hazards, and also expressed concern over the loss of aggregate resources via urbanization, which were among the state's most valuable mineral resource. Under the California Surface Mining and Reclamation Act of 1975 (SMARA), the State Geologist classifies mineral resources solely on geologic factors, and without regard to existing land use and land ownership. Following classification, the SMGB may consider "designating" such lands should the classified area contain mineral resources of regional or statewide economic significance and that may be needed to meet future demands. In 1979, the classification of aggregate resources in the three-county area of Los Angeles, Orange, and Ventura, was completed, with designation of such resources in Los Angeles County in 1981. Maps and descriptions of the designated mineral lands were placed in the California Public Resources Code and officially transmitted to those county and city governments having permitting authority over the use of those lands. In 1999, the SMGB in concert with CGS implemented the SMARA Regional Synthesis Map series, with the first (and last) of the series covering the Los Angeles Basin. This map was very useful for regional planners and the general citizenry since it provided a broader perspective not readily apparent in the smaller scale Production-Consumption (P-C) regional maps. CGS's statewide Aggregate Availability Map, commonly referred to as Map Sheet 52, was developed in 2002 and updated in 2006. The purpose of Map 52

  9. Structure of Viral Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Stephen; Luijten, Erik

    2010-03-01

    The aggregation of virus particles is a particular form of colloidal self-assembly, since viruses of a give type are monodisperse and have identical, anisotropic surface charge distributions. In small-angle X-ray scattering experiments, the Qbeta virus was found to organize in different crystal structures in the presence of divalent salt and non-adsorbing polymer. Since a simple isotropic potential cannot explain the occurrence of all observed phases, we employ computer simulations to investigate how the surface charge distribution affects the virus interactions. Using a detailed model of the virus particle, we find an asymmetric ion distribution around the virus which gives rise to the different phases observed.

  10. Taurine and platelet aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Nauss-Karol, C.; VanderWende, C.; Gaut, Z.N.

    1986-03-01

    Taurine is a putative neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. The endogenous taurine concentration in human platelets, determined by amino acid analysis, is 15 ..mu..M/g. In spite of this high level, taurine is actively accumulated. Uptake is saturable, Na/sup +/ and temperature dependent, and suppressed by metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and several classes of centrally active substances. High, medium and low affinity transport processes have been characterized, and the platelet may represent a model system for taurine transport in the CNS. When platelets were incubated with /sup 14/C-taurine for 30 minutes, then resuspended in fresh medium and reincubated for one hour, essentially all of the taurine was retained within the cells. Taurine, at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 ..mu..M, had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP or epinephrine. However, taurine may have a role in platelet aggregation since 35-39% of the taurine taken up by human platelets appears to be secreted during the release reaction induced by low concentrations of either epinephrine or ADP, respectively. This release phenomenon would imply that part of the taurine taken up is stored directly in the dense bodies of the platelet.

  11. 76 FR 41300 - Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty-Free, Quota-Free Treatment for Imports From Least...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ...Following receipt of a request dated June 16, 2011 from the United States Trade Representative (USTR), the U.S. International Trade Commission (Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-527, Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty-Free, Quota-Free Treatment for Imports from Least-Developed Countries, 2012 Report, under section 332(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1332(g)), for the......

  12. Holographic characterization of protein aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Zhong, Xiao; Ruffner, David; Stutt, Alexandra; Philips, Laura; Ward, Michael; Grier, David

    Holographic characterization directly measures the size distribution of subvisible protein aggregates in suspension and offers insights into their morphology. Based on holographic video microscopy, this analytical technique records and interprets holograms of individual aggregates in protein solutions as they flow down a microfluidic channel, without requiring labeling or other exceptional sample preparation. The hologram of an individual protein aggregate is analyzed in real time with the Lorenz-Mie theory of light scattering to measure that aggregate's size and optical properties. Detecting, counting and characterizing subvisible aggregates proceeds fast enough for time-resolved studies, and lends itself to tracking trends in protein aggregation arising from changing environmental factors. No other analytical technique provides such a wealth of particle-resolved characterization data in situ. Holographic characterization promises accelerated development of therapeutic protein formulations, improved process control during manufacturing, and streamlined quality assurance during storage and at the point of use. Mrsec and MRI program of the NSF, Spheryx Inc.

  13. The Utility of Non-proportional Quota Sampling for Recruiting At-risk Women for Microbicide Research

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Sara; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Christensen, Anna L.; Salomon, Liz; Shulman, Lawrence; Barroso, Candelaria; Fava, Joseph L.

    2008-01-01

    In the context of a measurement development study designed to contextualize microbicide acceptability, a sample that represented a range of at-risk women and maintained the statistical power needed for validity analyses was required. A non-proportional quota sampling strategy focused on race/ethnicity and number of sexual partners was utilized. This strategy resulted in enrollment of approximately equal proportions of Latina (31%), Black (36%), and White (32%) women, and an approximately 1:2 ratio of single-partnered (29%) and multi-partnered (71%) women. About 17% of women screened were ineligible based on eligibility criteria; an additional 16% were ineligible based on quota closures. Most participants were recruited through word of mouth (39%), community-based organizations (19%), or media sources (19%). Women recruited through word of mouth had the highest screen-to-interview completion percentage (67%). Non-proportional quota sampling is a feasible option for ensuring adequate representation of sample characteristics in microbicide research, but this goal should be weighed against cost and staff burden. PMID:17333312

  14. Aggregates from natural and recycled sources; economic assessments for construction applications; a materials flow study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.; Goonan, Thomas G.

    1998-01-01

    Increased amounts of recycled materials are being used to supplement natural aggregates (derived from crushed stone, sand and gravel) in road construction. An understanding of the economics and factors affecting the level of aggregates recycling is useful in estimating the potential for recycling and in assessing the total supply picture of aggregates. This investigation includes a descriptive analysis of the supply sources, technology, costs, incentives, deterrents, and market relationships associated with the production of aggregates.

  15. Aggregation dynamics of rigid polyelectrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tom, Anvy Moly; Rajesh, R.; Vemparala, Satyavani

    2016-01-01

    Similarly charged polyelectrolytes are known to attract each other and aggregate into bundles when the charge density of the polymers exceeds a critical value that depends on the valency of the counterions. The dynamics of aggregation of such rigid polyelectrolytes are studied using large scale molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the morphology of the aggregates depends on the value of the charge density of the polymers. For values close to the critical value, the shape of the aggregates is cylindrical with height equal to the length of a single polyelectrolyte chain. However, for larger values of charge, the linear extent of the aggregates increases as more and more polymers aggregate. In both the cases, we show that the number of aggregates decrease with time as power laws with exponents that are not numerically distinguishable from each other and are independent of charge density of the polymers, valency of the counterions, density, and length of the polyelectrolyte chain. We model the aggregation dynamics using the Smoluchowski coagulation equation with kernels determined from the molecular dynamics simulations and justify the numerically obtained value of the exponent. Our results suggest that once counterions condense, effective interactions between polyelectrolyte chains short-ranged and the aggregation of polyelectrolytes are diffusion-limited.

  16. Implications of epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced egf receptor aggregation.

    PubMed Central

    Wofsy, C; Goldstein, B; Lund, K; Wiley, H S

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the role of receptor aggregation in EGF binding, we construct a mathematical model describing receptor dimerization (and higher levels of aggregation) that permits an analysis of the influence of receptor aggregation on ligand binding. We answer two questions: (a) Can Scatchard plots of EGF binding data be analyzed productively in terms of two noninteracting receptor populations with different affinities if EGF induced receptor aggregation occurs? No. If two affinities characterize aggregated and monomeric EGF receptors, we show that the Scatchard plot should have curvature characteristic of positively cooperative binding, the opposite of that observed. Thus, the interpretation that the high affinity population represents aggregated receptors and the low affinity population nonaggregated receptors is wrong. If the two populations are interpreted without reference to receptor aggregation, an important determinant of Scatchard plot shape is ignored. (b) Can a model for EGF receptor aggregation and EGF binding be consistent with the "negative curvature" (i.e., curvature characteristic of negatively cooperative binding) observed in most Scatchard plots of EGF binding data? Yes. In addition, the restrictions on the model parameters required to obtain negatively curved Scatchard plots provide new information about binding and aggregation. In particular, EGF binding to aggregated receptors must be negatively cooperative, i.e., binding to a receptor in a dimer (or higher oligomer) having one receptor already bound occurs with lower affinity than the initial binding event. A third question we consider is whether the model we present can be used to detect the presence of mechanisms other than receptor aggregation that are contributing to Scatchard plot curvature. For the membrane and cell binding data we analyzed, the best least squares fits of the model to each of the four data sets deviate systematically from the data, indicating that additional factors are

  17. [The Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) is universal, but quotas are the norm].

    PubMed

    Viegas, Selma Maria da Fonseca; Penna, Cláudia Maria de Mattos

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the Unified Health System (SUS), health actions and services constitute a social right to be guaranteed by the State and managed under the responsibility of three autonomous spheres of government. This is a holistic multiple case study with a qualitative approach based on the assumptions of Comprehensive Everyday Sociology, which originated from a PhD thesis. It sought to understand the construction of comprehensive health practices in the daily work of family health teams and managers of the cities in Vale do Jequitinhonha - Minas Gerais, Brazil. The individuals studied were professionals from the Family Health Teams, support staff and managers with a total of 48 participants. In order to reveal the construction of the whole, the data show that "SUS is universal, but quotas are the norm." Bearing in mind its limitations, it is difficult to ensure that SUS is a right for all. Thus, regulation is essential to order, guide, define and optimize the use of resources available for comprehensive care and also guarantee public access to actions and services in a timely and equitable manner. PMID:23338508

  18. Reduction in soil aggregation in response to dust emission processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swet, Nitzan; Katra, Itzhak

    2016-09-01

    Dust emission by aeolian (wind) soil erosion depends on the topsoil properties of the source area, especially on the nature of the aggregates where most dust particles are held. Although the key role of soil aggregates in dust emission, the response of soil aggregation to aeolian processes and its implications for dust emission remain unknown. This study focuses on aggregate size distribution (ASD) analyses before and after in-situ aeolian experiments in semiarid loess soils that are associated with dust emission. Wind tunnel simulations show that particulate matter (PM) emission and saltation rates depend on the initial ASD and shear velocity. Under all initial ASD conditions, the content of saltator-sized aggregates (63-250 μm) increased by 10-34% due to erosion of macro-aggregates (> 500 μm), resulting in a higher size ratio (SR) between the saltators and macro-aggregates following the aeolian erosion. The results revealed that the saltator production increases significantly for soils that are subjected to short-term (anthropogenic) disturbance of the topsoil. The findings highlight a decrease in soil aggregation for all initial ASD's in response to aeolian erosion, and consequently its influence on the dust emission potential. Changes in ASD should be considered as a key parameter in dust emission models of complex surfaces.

  19. Floating ice-algal aggregates below melting arctic sea ice.

    PubMed

    Assmy, Philipp; Ehn, Jens K; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Hop, Haakon; Katlein, Christian; Sundfjord, Arild; Bluhm, Katrin; Daase, Malin; Engel, Anja; Fransson, Agneta; Granskog, Mats A; Hudson, Stephen R; Kristiansen, Svein; Nicolaus, Marcel; Peeken, Ilka; Renner, Angelika H H; Spreen, Gunnar; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Wiktor, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    During two consecutive cruises to the Eastern Central Arctic in late summer 2012, we observed floating algal aggregates in the melt-water layer below and between melting ice floes of first-year pack ice. The macroscopic (1-15 cm in diameter) aggregates had a mucous consistency and were dominated by typical ice-associated pennate diatoms embedded within the mucous matrix. Aggregates maintained buoyancy and accumulated just above a strong pycnocline that separated meltwater and seawater layers. We were able, for the first time, to obtain quantitative abundance and biomass estimates of these aggregates. Although their biomass and production on a square metre basis was small compared to ice-algal blooms, the floating ice-algal aggregates supported high levels of biological activity on the scale of the individual aggregate. In addition they constituted a food source for the ice-associated fauna as revealed by pigments indicative of zooplankton grazing, high abundance of naked ciliates, and ice amphipods associated with them. During the Arctic melt season, these floating aggregates likely play an important ecological role in an otherwise impoverished near-surface sea ice environment. Our findings provide important observations and measurements of a unique aggregate-based habitat during the 2012 record sea ice minimum year. PMID:24204642

  20. Floating Ice-Algal Aggregates below Melting Arctic Sea Ice

    PubMed Central

    Assmy, Philipp; Ehn, Jens K.; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Hop, Haakon; Katlein, Christian; Sundfjord, Arild; Bluhm, Katrin; Daase, Malin; Engel, Anja; Fransson, Agneta; Granskog, Mats A.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Kristiansen, Svein; Nicolaus, Marcel; Peeken, Ilka; Renner, Angelika H. H.; Spreen, Gunnar; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Wiktor, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    During two consecutive cruises to the Eastern Central Arctic in late summer 2012, we observed floating algal aggregates in the melt-water layer below and between melting ice floes of first-year pack ice. The macroscopic (1-15 cm in diameter) aggregates had a mucous consistency and were dominated by typical ice-associated pennate diatoms embedded within the mucous matrix. Aggregates maintained buoyancy and accumulated just above a strong pycnocline that separated meltwater and seawater layers. We were able, for the first time, to obtain quantitative abundance and biomass estimates of these aggregates. Although their biomass and production on a square metre basis was small compared to ice-algal blooms, the floating ice-algal aggregates supported high levels of biological activity on the scale of the individual aggregate. In addition they constituted a food source for the ice-associated fauna as revealed by pigments indicative of zooplankton grazing, high abundance of naked ciliates, and ice amphipods associated with them. During the Arctic melt season, these floating aggregates likely play an important ecological role in an otherwise impoverished near-surface sea ice environment. Our findings provide important observations and measurements of a unique aggregate-based habitat during the 2012 record sea ice minimum year. PMID:24204642