Science.gov

Sample records for aggregate retail forex

  1. 17 CFR 5.8 - Aggregate retail forex assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aggregate retail forex assets... FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.8 Aggregate retail forex assets. (a) Each retail foreign exchange dealer and futures commission merchant offering or engaging in retail forex transactions shall calculate...

  2. 17 CFR 5.3 - Registration of persons engaged in retail forex transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... engaged in retail forex transactions. 5.3 Section 5.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... retail forex transactions. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, each of the following is subject... any retail forex transaction; or (B) Accepts money, securities, or property (or extends credit in...

  3. 17 CFR 5.3 - Registration of persons engaged in retail forex transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... engaged in retail forex transactions. 5.3 Section 5.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... retail forex transactions. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, each of the following is subject... any retail forex transaction; or (B) Accepts money, securities, or property (or extends credit in...

  4. 17 CFR 5.3 - Registration of persons engaged in retail forex transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... engaged in retail forex transactions. 5.3 Section 5.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... retail forex transactions. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, each of the following is subject... any retail forex transaction; or (B) Accepts money, securities, or property (or extends credit in...

  5. 17 CFR 5.3 - Registration of persons engaged in retail forex transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... engaged in retail forex transactions. 5.3 Section 5.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... retail forex transactions. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, each of the following is subject... any retail forex transaction; or (B) Accepts money, securities, or property (or extends credit in...

  6. 17 CFR 240.15b12-1T - Brokers or dealers engaged in a retail forex business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a retail forex business. 240.15b12-1T Section 240.15b12-1T Commodity and Securities Exchanges... § 240.15b12-1T Brokers or dealers engaged in a retail forex business. (a) Definitions. In addition to... et seq.). (2) Retail forex business means engaging in one or more retail forex transactions with...

  7. 17 CFR 240.15b12-1T - Brokers or dealers engaged in a retail forex business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a retail forex business. 240.15b12-1T Section 240.15b12-1T Commodity and Securities Exchanges... § 240.15b12-1T Brokers or dealers engaged in a retail forex business. (a) Definitions. In addition to... et seq.). (2) Retail forex business means engaging in one or more retail forex transactions with...

  8. 17 CFR 5.9 - Security deposits for retail forex transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... forex transactions. 5.9 Section 5.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFF-EXCHANGE FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.9 Security deposits for retail forex transactions. (a) Each futures commission merchant engaging, or offering to engage, in retail forex...

  9. 17 CFR 5.9 - Security deposits for retail forex transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... forex transactions. 5.9 Section 5.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFF-EXCHANGE FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.9 Security deposits for retail forex transactions. (a) Each futures commission merchant engaging, or offering to engage, in retail forex...

  10. 17 CFR 5.9 - Security deposits for retail forex transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... forex transactions. 5.9 Section 5.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFF-EXCHANGE FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.9 Security deposits for retail forex transactions. (a) Each futures commission merchant engaging, or offering to engage, in retail forex...

  11. 17 CFR 5.9 - Security deposits for retail forex transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... forex transactions. 5.9 Section 5.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFF-EXCHANGE FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.9 Security deposits for retail forex transactions. (a) Each futures commission merchant engaging, or offering to engage, in retail forex...

  12. 17 CFR 5.8 - Aggregate retail forex assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... qualifying institutions in the United States or money center countries as defined in § 1.49 of this chapter. (b) For assets held in the United States, a qualifying institution is: (1) A bank or trust company regulated by a United States banking regulator; (2) A broker-dealer registered with the Securities...

  13. 17 CFR 5.8 - Aggregate retail forex assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... qualifying institutions in the United States or money center countries as defined in § 1.49 of this chapter. (b) For assets held in the United States, a qualifying institution is: (1) A bank or trust company regulated by a United States banking regulator; (2) A broker-dealer registered with the Securities...

  14. 17 CFR 5.8 - Aggregate retail forex assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... qualifying institutions in the United States or money center countries as defined in § 1.49 of this chapter. (b) For assets held in the United States, a qualifying institution is: (1) A bank or trust company regulated by a United States banking regulator; (2) A broker-dealer registered with the Securities...

  15. 76 FR 41375 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... income for the bank. The OCC understands that the economic model of a retail forex business may be to... CFTC's retail forex rule.\\13\\ The OCC decided to model its retail forex rule on the CFTC's rule to... documentation. \\12\\ Regulation of Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75...

  16. 17 CFR 5.6 - Maintenance of minimum financial requirements by retail foreign exchange dealers and futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... engaging in retail forex transactions. 5.6 Section 5.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... forex transactions. (a) Each futures commission merchant offering or engaging in retail forex... engage in retail forex transactions and each person registered as a retail foreign exchange dealer or...

  17. 17 CFR 5.6 - Maintenance of minimum financial requirements by retail foreign exchange dealers and futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... engaging in retail forex transactions. 5.6 Section 5.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... forex transactions. (a) Each futures commission merchant offering or engaging in retail forex... engage in retail forex transactions and each person registered as a retail foreign exchange dealer or...

  18. 17 CFR 5.6 - Maintenance of minimum financial requirements by retail foreign exchange dealers and futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... engaging in retail forex transactions. 5.6 Section 5.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... forex transactions. (a) Each futures commission merchant offering or engaging in retail forex... engage in retail forex transactions and each person registered as a retail foreign exchange dealer or...

  19. 17 CFR 5.5 - Distribution of “Risk Disclosure Statement” by retail foreign exchange dealers, futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... brokers regarding retail forex transactions. 5.5 Section 5.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY... brokers regarding retail forex transactions. (a) Except as provided in § 5.23 of this part, no retail... introducing broker, may open an account that will engage in retail forex transactions for a retail...

  20. 17 CFR 5.5 - Distribution of “Risk Disclosure Statement” by retail foreign exchange dealers, futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... brokers regarding retail forex transactions. 5.5 Section 5.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY... brokers regarding retail forex transactions. (a) Except as provided in § 5.23 of this part, no retail... introducing broker, may open an account that will engage in retail forex transactions for a retail...

  1. 17 CFR 5.5 - Distribution of “Risk Disclosure Statement” by retail foreign exchange dealers, futures...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... brokers regarding retail forex transactions. 5.5 Section 5.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY... brokers regarding retail forex transactions. (a) Except as provided in § 5.23 of this part, no retail... introducing broker, may open an account that will engage in retail forex transactions for a retail...

  2. 17 CFR 5.13 - Reporting to customers of retail foreign exchange dealers and futures commission merchants...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... exchange dealer or futures commission merchant must promptly furnish in writing to each retail forex... once every three months, a statement which clearly shows: (1) For each retail forex customer: (i) The open retail forex transactions with prices at which acquired; (ii) The net unrealized profits or...

  3. 17 CFR 5.13 - Reporting to customers of retail foreign exchange dealers and futures commission merchants...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... exchange dealer or futures commission merchant must promptly furnish in writing to each retail forex... once every three months, a statement which clearly shows: (1) For each retail forex customer: (i) The open retail forex transactions with prices at which acquired; (ii) The net unrealized profits or...

  4. 17 CFR 5.13 - Reporting to customers of retail foreign exchange dealers and futures commission merchants...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... exchange dealer or futures commission merchant must promptly furnish in writing to each retail forex... once every three months, a statement which clearly shows: (1) For each retail forex customer: (i) The open retail forex transactions with prices at which acquired; (ii) The net unrealized profits or...

  5. 17 CFR 5.13 - Reporting to customers of retail foreign exchange dealers and futures commission merchants...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... exchange dealer or futures commission merchant must promptly furnish in writing to each retail forex... once every three months, a statement which clearly shows: (1) For each retail forex customer: (i) The open retail forex transactions with prices at which acquired; (ii) The net unrealized profits or...

  6. 17 CFR 5.7 - Minimum financial requirements for retail foreign exchange dealers and futures commission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... forex transactions. 5.7 Section 5.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... exchange dealers and futures commission merchants offering or engaging in retail forex transactions. (a)(1)(i) Each futures commission merchant offering or engaging in retail forex transactions and...

  7. 76 FR 46652 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions (Regulation NN)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... (76 FR 40779). The retail forex rule proposed today provides for banking institutions to notify the... (other than the banking institution itself). \\26\\ Proposed CFTC Retail Forex Rule, 75 FR at 3287 n.54... Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 55409 (Sept. 10,...

  8. 78 FR 21019 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions (Regulation NN)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 55409 (Sept. 10, 2010) (Final CFTC Retail Forex Rule). The... Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 3281 (Jan. 20, 2010) (Proposed CFTC Retail Forex Rule). \\12\\ 76 FR 46652 (August 3, 2011). II. Section-by-Section Analysis Section...

  9. 76 FR 28358 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 55409 (Sept. 10, 2010... Act. Regulation of Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 3281 (Jan. 20, 2010) (Proposed CFTC Retail Forex Rule). \\13\\ See Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions, 76...

  10. 76 FR 40779 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... individuals. \\11\\ Regulation of Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR... Intermediaries, 75 FR 3281 (Jan. 20, 2010) (Proposed CFTC Retail Forex Rule). \\12\\ Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions, 76 FR 22633 (Apr. 22, 2011). The FDIC is now adopting the proposed rule text as a final rule...

  11. 76 FR 22633 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... of Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 55409 (Sept. 10, 2010... Act. Regulation of Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 3281...\\ Proposed CFTC Retail Forex Rule, 75 FR at 3287 n.54. Section 48.6--Disclosure This section requires...

  12. 76 FR 41676 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE.... See Exchange Act Release No. 63452 (Dec. 7, 2010), 75 FR 80174 (Dec. 21, 2010). Because transactions... Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 55410 (Sept. 10, 2010) (``Final CFTC Retail Forex Rule''). The CFTC...

  13. 78 FR 42439 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... customer's purchase or sale of a security. We also described potentially abusive practices, such as lack of... maintained that it is in the best interest of retail customers to have the opportunity to conduct forex... broker-dealers have risk management and customer suitability practices in place to monitor...

  14. 75 FR 3281 - Regulation of Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... regulatory scheme (``Proposal'') to implement the CFTC Reauthorization Act of 2008 (``CRA'') \\1\\ with respect... entered into with retail customers. The Commission is proposing a scheme that would put in place... application to, and inclusion in, the new regulatory scheme for retail forex. \\1\\ Food, Conservation,...

  15. 17 CFR 4.13 - Exemption from registration as a commodity pool operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) The aggregate initial margin, premiums, and required minimum security deposit for retail forex... specified in the contract), by the strike price per unit, and for each such retail forex transaction,...

  16. 17 CFR 5.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(II)(cc)(BB) of the Act; (b) Aggregate retail forex assets means an amount of... acceptance of retail forex customers' orders (other than in a clerical capacity); or (2) The supervision of... retail forex transactions; (2) Associated person of a commodity pool operator, for purposes of this...

  17. 17 CFR 5.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... in section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(II)(cc)(BB) of the Act; (b) Aggregate retail forex assets means an amount of... acceptance of retail forex customers' orders (other than in a clerical capacity); or (2) The supervision of... retail forex transactions; (2) Associated person of a commodity pool operator, for purposes of this...

  18. 17 CFR 5.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(II)(cc)(BB) of the Act; (b) Aggregate retail forex assets means an amount of... acceptance of retail forex customers' orders (other than in a clerical capacity); or (2) The supervision of... retail forex transactions; (2) Associated person of a commodity pool operator, for purposes of this...

  19. 17 CFR 5.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(II)(cc)(BB) of the Act; (b) Aggregate retail forex assets means an amount of... acceptance of retail forex customers' orders (other than in a clerical capacity); or (2) The supervision of... retail forex transactions; (2) Associated person of a commodity pool operator, for purposes of this...

  20. 17 CFR 4.13 - Exemption from registration as a commodity pool operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... swap by the value as determined consistent with the terms of 17 CFR part 45; and (2) The person may net...) The aggregate initial margin, premiums, and required minimum security deposit for retail forex... contract), by the strike price per unit, for each such retail forex transaction, by calculating the...

  1. Application of Support Vector Machine to Forex Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamruzzaman, Joarder; Sarker, Ruhul A.

    Previous studies have demonstrated superior performance of artificial neural network (ANN) based forex forecasting models over traditional regression models. This paper applies support vector machines to build a forecasting model from the historical data using six simple technical indicators and presents a comparison with an ANN based model trained by scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) learning algorithm. The models are evaluated and compared on the basis of five commonly used performance metrics that measure closeness of prediction as well as correctness in directional change. Forecasting results of six different currencies against Australian dollar reveal superior performance of SVM model using simple linear kernel over ANN-SCG model in terms of all the evaluation metrics. The effect of SVM parameter selection on prediction performance is also investigated and analyzed.

  2. FOREX Trades: Can the Takens Algorithm Help to Obtain Steady Profit at Investment Reallocations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, V. Yu.; Tribelsky, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    We report our preliminary results of application of the Takens algorithm to build a FOREX trade strategy, resulting in a steady long-time gain for a trader. The actual historical rates for pair EUR vs. USD are used. The values of various parameters of the problem including the "stop loss" and "take profit" thresholds are optimized to provide the maximal gain during the training period. Then, these values are employed for trades. We have succeeded to get the steady gain, if the spread is neglected. It proves that the FOREX market is predictable.

  3. 12 CFR 48.5 - Application and closing out of offsetting long and short positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in a retail forex transaction involving the purchase of any currency for the account of any retail forex customer when the account of such retail forex customer at the time of such purchase has an open retail forex transaction for the sale of the same currency; (2) Engages in a retail forex...

  4. 12 CFR 48.12 - Authorization to trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or indirectly effect a retail forex transaction for the account of any retail forex customer unless, before the retail forex transaction occurs, the retail forex customer specifically authorized the national bank to effect the retail forex transaction. (b) Requirements for specific authorization. A...

  5. 12 CFR 48.12 - Authorization to trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or indirectly effect a retail forex transaction for the account of any retail forex customer unless, before the retail forex transaction occurs, the retail forex customer specifically authorized the national bank to effect the retail forex transaction. (b) Requirements for specific authorization. A...

  6. 12 CFR 48.5 - Application and closing out of offsetting long and short positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in a retail forex transaction involving the purchase of any currency for the account of any retail forex customer when the account of such retail forex customer at the time of such purchase has an open retail forex transaction for the sale of the same currency; (2) Engages in a retail forex...

  7. 12 CFR 48.5 - Application and closing out of offsetting long and short positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in a retail forex transaction involving the purchase of any currency for the account of any retail forex customer when the account of such retail forex customer at the time of such purchase has an open retail forex transaction for the sale of the same currency; (2) Engages in a retail forex...

  8. 12 CFR 48.12 - Authorization to trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or indirectly effect a retail forex transaction for the account of any retail forex customer unless, before the retail forex transaction occurs, the retail forex customer specifically authorized the national bank to effect the retail forex transaction. (b) Requirements for specific authorization. A...

  9. Ethics in Retailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Retailers must decide whether to make the most money or help the most people. This conflict between democratic ideals and the free enterprise system must be made within the corporate structure and thus puts a great deal of pressure on the businessman. Suggests questions that the retailer can ask himself regarding his professional ethics. (JMD)

  10. 12 CFR 349.1 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-supervised insured depository institution that engages in retail forex transactions shall comply with the requirements of this part. (b) Purpose. This part establishes rules applicable to retail forex...

  11. 12 CFR 349.1 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-supervised insured depository institution that engages in retail forex transactions shall comply with the requirements of this part. (b) Purpose. This part establishes rules applicable to retail forex...

  12. 12 CFR 349.1 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-supervised insured depository institution that engages in retail forex transactions shall comply with the requirements of this part. (b) Purpose. This part establishes rules applicable to retail forex...

  13. 17 CFR 240.15b12-1 - Brokers or dealers engaged in a retail forex business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... longer be effective on July 31, 2016. Effective Date Note: At 78 FR 42450, July 16, 2013, § 240.15b12-1 was added, effective July 16, 2013 through July 31, 2016. Rules Relating to Over-the-Counter Markets...

  14. Responding to Rapid and Unexpected Retail Innovations: Planning Retail Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Fujie

    Retail areas within cities have traditionally not only satisfied the demands for various goods and services, but also promoted community sustainability and healthy lifestyles. Since the end of World War II (WWII), retail innovations have occurred rapidly and unexpectedly. In retail development, economic efficiency is highly prioritized over other functions, in opposition to sustainable development. In retail planning, a communicative approach frequently results in the public responses by "Not In My Back Yard" sentiments, contradicting the projected cooperation between different stakeholders. This research implements the resilience theory to tackle the shocks created by these rapid and unexpected retail changes, based on a comparative case of Edmonton (Alberta, Canada) and Portland (Oregon, USA). Primarily through interviews with senior planners in both cities, it is found that adaptive retail management, polycentric retail planning, a well-informed public, and the use of consensus building could better stimulates resilient retail outcomes.

  15. 17 CFR 1.46 - Application and closing out of offsetting long and short positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Any futures commission merchant or retail foreign exchange dealer who: (i) Engages in a retail forex transaction involving the purchase of any currency for the account of any retail forex customer when the account of such retail forex customer at the time of such purchase has an open retail forex...

  16. The State of Online Retailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamimi, Nabil; Rajan, Murli; Sebastianelli, Rose

    2003-01-01

    Benchmarks online retailing transactions against critical factors that impact online retailing. Findings suggest several areas that e-retailers should target for improvement, including the speed of home page loading, ability to translate into multiple languages, capabilities of search engines, security policies display, payment options, minimum…

  17. Extreme Events in China under Climate Change: Uncertainty and related impacts (CSSP-FOREX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Befort, Daniel J.; Hodges, Kevin I.

    2016-04-01

    Suitable adaptation strategies or the timely initiation of related mitigation efforts in East Asia will strongly depend on robust and comprehensive information about future near-term as well as long-term potential changes in the climate system. Therefore, understanding the driving mechanisms associated with the East Asian climate is of major importance. The FOREX project (Fostering Regional Decision Making by the Assessment of Uncertainties of Future Regional Extremes and their Linkage to Global Climate System Variability for China and East Asia) focuses on the investigation of extreme wind and rainfall related events over Eastern Asia and their possible future changes. Here, analyses focus on the link between local extreme events and their driving weather systems. This includes the coupling between local rainfall extremes and tropical cyclones, the Meiyu frontal system, extra-tropical teleconnections and monsoonal activity. Furthermore, the relation between these driving weather systems and large-scale variability modes, e.g. NAO, PDO, ENSO is analysed. Thus, beside analysing future changes of local extreme events, the temporal variability of their driving weather systems and related large-scale variability modes will be assessed in current CMIP5 global model simulations to obtain more robust results. Beyond an overview of FOREX itself, first results regarding the link between local extremes and their steering weather systems based on observational and reanalysis data are shown. Special focus is laid on the contribution of monsoonal activity, tropical cyclones and the Meiyu frontal system on the inter-annual variability of the East Asian summer rainfall.

  18. Exploration of Retailing Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Barbara J.

    Designed as a semester unit of instruction at the middle or junior high school level in the exploration of retailing careers, this distributive education curriculum guide is divided into two sections: The Teacher's Guide and Student Materials. One of the elective courses intended as a followup to "Orientation to Marketing Careers," it provides the…

  19. Management Training in Retailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veness, C. Rosina

    Intended for prospective members of the new Distributive Industrial Training Board in Great Britain, this training guide concentrates on managerial functions in retailing; the selection of trainees; the planning of in-company and external training programs; scheduling and continuity of training; roles of training personnel; and the use of various…

  20. Retail Training and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloodworth, Margaret

    The book provides insight into training aims, principles, techniques, aids , and courses designed to meet the training needs of specific groups of staff, such as management staff, training staff, new staff, and established staff. It also covers the training and educational elements of the Certificate of Retail Management Principles. Training…

  1. 12 CFR 349.5 - Application and closing out of offsetting long and short positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-supervised insured depository institution that— (1) Engages in a retail forex transaction involving the purchase of any currency for the account of any retail forex customer when the account of such retail forex customer at the time of such purchase has an open retail forex transaction for the sale of the...

  2. 12 CFR 48.6 - Disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... will engage in retail forex transactions for a retail forex customer unless the national bank has furnished the retail forex customer with a separate written disclosure statement containing only the... receive from the retail forex customer a written acknowledgment signed and dated by the customer that...

  3. 12 CFR 48.6 - Disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... will engage in retail forex transactions for a retail forex customer unless the national bank has furnished the retail forex customer with a separate written disclosure statement containing only the... receive from the retail forex customer a written acknowledgment signed and dated by the customer that...

  4. 12 CFR 48.13 - Trading and operational standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... controls required. A national bank engaging in retail forex transactions must establish and implement... reasonable, that each retail forex transaction that is executable at or near the price that the national bank has quoted to the retail forex customer is entered for execution before any retail forex...

  5. 12 CFR 349.3 - Prohibited transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... connection with any retail forex transaction: (1) Cheat or defraud or attempt to cheat or defraud any person... insured depository institution can cause retail forex transactions to be effected for a retail forex customer without the retail forex customer's specific authorization, then neither the...

  6. 12 CFR 240.12 - Authorization to trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Specific authorization required. No banking institution may directly or indirectly effect a retail forex transaction for the account of any retail forex customer unless, before the transaction occurs, the retail forex customer specifically authorized the banking institution to effect the retail forex...

  7. 12 CFR 48.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for all other currency...

  8. 12 CFR 48.10 - Required reporting to customers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... must promptly furnish to each retail forex customer, as of the close of the last business day of each... clearly shows: (1) For each retail forex customer: (i) The open retail forex transactions with prices at which acquired; (ii) The net unrealized profits or losses in all open retail forex transactions...

  9. 12 CFR 349.3 - Prohibited transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... connection with any retail forex transaction: (1) Cheat or defraud or attempt to cheat or defraud any person... insured depository institution can cause retail forex transactions to be effected for a retail forex customer without the retail forex customer's specific authorization, then neither the...

  10. 12 CFR 48.10 - Required reporting to customers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... must promptly furnish to each retail forex customer, as of the close of the last business day of each... clearly shows: (1) For each retail forex customer: (i) The open retail forex transactions with prices at which acquired; (ii) The net unrealized profits or losses in all open retail forex transactions...

  11. 12 CFR 48.13 - Trading and operational standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... controls required. A national bank engaging in retail forex transactions must establish and implement... reasonable, that each retail forex transaction that is executable at or near the price that the national bank has quoted to the retail forex customer is entered for execution before any retail forex...

  12. 12 CFR 349.3 - Prohibited transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... connection with any retail forex transaction: (1) Cheat or defraud or attempt to cheat or defraud any person... insured depository institution can cause retail forex transactions to be effected for a retail forex customer without the retail forex customer's specific authorization, then neither the...

  13. 12 CFR 349.5 - Application and closing out of offsetting long and short positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-supervised insured depository institution that— (1) Engages in a retail forex transaction involving the purchase of any currency for the account of any retail forex customer when the account of such retail forex customer at the time of such purchase has an open retail forex transaction for the sale of the...

  14. 12 CFR 48.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for all other currency...

  15. 12 CFR 240.4 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Before commencing a retail forex business, a banking institution shall provide the Board with prior... retail forex transactions in a safe and sound manner and in compliance with this part. (c) Treatment of existing retail forex businesses. A banking institution that is engaged in a retail forex business on...

  16. 12 CFR 48.10 - Required reporting to customers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... must promptly furnish to each retail forex customer, as of the close of the last business day of each... clearly shows: (1) For each retail forex customer: (i) The open retail forex transactions with prices at which acquired; (ii) The net unrealized profits or losses in all open retail forex transactions...

  17. 12 CFR 240.5 - Application and closing out of offsetting long and short positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and sales. Any banking institution that— (1) Engages in a retail forex transaction involving the purchase of any currency for the account of any retail forex customer when the account of such retail forex customer at the time of such purchase has an open retail forex transaction for the sale of the...

  18. 12 CFR 349.5 - Application and closing out of offsetting long and short positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-supervised insured depository institution that— (1) Engages in a retail forex transaction involving the purchase of any currency for the account of any retail forex customer when the account of such retail forex customer at the time of such purchase has an open retail forex transaction for the sale of the...

  19. 12 CFR 48.6 - Disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... will engage in retail forex transactions for a retail forex customer unless the national bank has furnished the retail forex customer with a separate written disclosure statement containing only the... receive from the retail forex customer a written acknowledgment signed and dated by the customer that...

  20. 12 CFR 48.13 - Trading and operational standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... controls required. A national bank engaging in retail forex transactions must establish and implement... reasonable, that each retail forex transaction that is executable at or near the price that the national bank has quoted to the retail forex customer is entered for execution before any retail forex...

  1. 12 CFR 48.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for all other currency...

  2. 12 CFR 240.3 - Prohibited transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or in connection with any retail forex transaction: (1) Cheat or defraud or attempt to cheat or... banking institution that has authority to cause retail forex transactions to be effected for a retail forex customer without the retail forex customer's specific authorization may not (and an affiliate...

  3. Geisinger's Retail Innovation Journey.

    PubMed

    Prince, Denise B; Graf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, Geisinger Health System formed a new group, Geisinger Ventures (GV), to accelerate the growth of new lines of business that were extensions of the core mission of the organization. Careworks, the convenient care clinic line of business, began in early 2006 as one of the early components of the GV portfolio. Over the past nine years, Geisinger has tested several retail and walk-in models, including in-store clinics, separate retail sites, and models colocated with primary care practices and emergency departments. Each site and model presents different benefits and challenges with respect to patient care, marketing, staffing, and clinical integration. With the implementation of healthcare reform and a decision to participate in Medicaid'managed care, Geisinger's strategic need for convenient care options has intensified, and new models, including e-visits and telemedicine specialty consultations, are being actively explored. Geisinger's view is that healthcare is rapidly changing, being affected by demographic shifts, diagnostic and treatment options, payment changes, and communication technologies. Healthcare delivery must flex to adjust to these and other trends, and retail clinics are part of that response. Careful examination of the critical elements necessary for optimal care (including wellness, prevention, and management of chronic disease and severe multimorbid disease) and then matching those elements to the optimal mode and site of care will lead to a streamlined healthcare system. The historical--and still most prevalent--methodology of traditional office, emergency department, and inpatient care options are not ideal for all patients' care needs in the twenty-first century. A thoughtful, deliberate extension of those options will be necessary. Rather than simply adding a static retail or virtual offering, medical professionals should develop a process to continually assess patients, technology, payment, and disease changes so that they are

  4. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Part of the 1994 Industrial Minerals Review. The production, consumption, and applications of construction aggregates are reviewed. In 1994, the production of construction aggregates, which includes crushed stone and construction sand and gravel combined, increased 7.7 percent to 2.14 Gt compared with the previous year. These record production levels are mostly a result of funding for highway construction work provided by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Demand is expected to increase for construction aggregates in 1995.

  5. The retailing of health care.

    PubMed

    Paul, T; Wong, J

    1984-01-01

    A number of striking parallels between recent developments in health care marketing and changes in the retailing industry exist. The authors have compared retailing paradigms to the area on health care marketing so strategists in hospitals and other health care institutions can gain insight from these parallels. Many of the same economic, demographic, technological and lifestyle forces may be at work in both the health care and retail markets. While the services or products offered in health care are radically different from those of conventional retail markets, the manner in which the products and services are positioned, priced or distributed is surprisingly similar. PMID:10270341

  6. Retailers in social program strategy: the case of family planning.

    PubMed

    Black, T R; Farley, J U

    1977-01-01

    The provision of contraceptive agents and devices through hospitals and clinics is not a cost-efficient procedure, therefore the distribution through retailers in a preexisting network is an attractive prospect. To really distribute contraceptives, e.g., birth control pills, the retailer would have to be trained in a format of questions. Two studies of retail marketing were conducted, one in Jamaica for condoms and one in Kenya where a subsidized marketing program for condoms was started in rural areas. More urban shops, which were larger in size, carried condoms than rural shops. Retailers in both areas were completely oriented to their immediate vicinity. Their concerns were with volume and with aggregate demand both before and after subsidized programs. The distribution system requires the additional support of advertising and marketing, but since the structure is in place it can be used with relatively little capital outlay. Research of retailers' attitudes and perceptions is inexpensive and often indicates customer preference and local market conditions.

  7. Geisinger's Retail Innovation Journey.

    PubMed

    Prince, Denise B; Graf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, Geisinger Health System formed a new group, Geisinger Ventures (GV), to accelerate the growth of new lines of business that were extensions of the core mission of the organization. Careworks, the convenient care clinic line of business, began in early 2006 as one of the early components of the GV portfolio. Over the past nine years, Geisinger has tested several retail and walk-in models, including in-store clinics, separate retail sites, and models colocated with primary care practices and emergency departments. Each site and model presents different benefits and challenges with respect to patient care, marketing, staffing, and clinical integration. With the implementation of healthcare reform and a decision to participate in Medicaid'managed care, Geisinger's strategic need for convenient care options has intensified, and new models, including e-visits and telemedicine specialty consultations, are being actively explored. Geisinger's view is that healthcare is rapidly changing, being affected by demographic shifts, diagnostic and treatment options, payment changes, and communication technologies. Healthcare delivery must flex to adjust to these and other trends, and retail clinics are part of that response. Careful examination of the critical elements necessary for optimal care (including wellness, prevention, and management of chronic disease and severe multimorbid disease) and then matching those elements to the optimal mode and site of care will lead to a streamlined healthcare system. The historical--and still most prevalent--methodology of traditional office, emergency department, and inpatient care options are not ideal for all patients' care needs in the twenty-first century. A thoughtful, deliberate extension of those options will be necessary. Rather than simply adding a static retail or virtual offering, medical professionals should develop a process to continually assess patients, technology, payment, and disease changes so that they are

  8. Causes for Retail Industry Globalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadeesha, M.

    2012-12-01

    The heading of this article itself pushing me to think why retail industry is globalizing! Because to increase their presence worldwide and profit on the onside and for the sake of ìname and fameî in industry is other side, but todayís trend and compitetitation force industrial giants to forget the word ìname and fameî globalization is the only strategy to compensate their market share or profit from one country to another country or domestic market. The presence of retail industry in the global level from centuries, but the global recognaization of retail industry came to limelight only two decades ago. As soon as restrictions are removed in this sector, all the retail industry big giants spread across the world to extend their operations especially in emerging markets. Is this a good sign for retailers? Off course it is good sign for some countries and some countries are stick to their own perceptions. Some of the countries welcome this move because the FDI will improve their economic structure. On the other side employment opportunity is also one of the issues in globalization of retail sector. Because retail industry needs huge workforce, so significance of retail has been undoubted.

  9. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.; Tepordei, V.V.; Bolen, W.P.

    2000-01-01

    Construction aggregates consist primarily of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. Total estimated production of construction aggregates increased in 1999 by about 2% to 2.39 Gt (2.64 billion st) compared with 1998. This record production level continued an expansion that began in 1992. By commodities, crushed stone production increased 3.3%, while sand and gravel production increased by about 0.5%.

  10. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on industrial minerals in 1993. The 1993 production of construction aggregates increased 6.3 percent over the 1992 figure, to reach 2.01 Gt. This represents the highest estimated annual production of combined crushed stone and construction sand and gravel ever recorded in the U.S. The outlook for construction aggregates and the issues facing the industry are discussed.

  11. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45... Administrative Requirements § 400.45 Retail trade. (a) In general. Retail trade is prohibited in zones, except... retail trade, subject to review by the Board when the zone grantee requests such a review with a...

  12. The Small Retailer and His Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstinger, Irving

    1975-01-01

    This study, through personal interviews, collected data on small retailers for three purposes: (1) to provide informative insights into small-scale retailing in New York City, (2) to explore retailers' opinions as to why customers shop at their stroes, and (3) to ascertain the more common problems experienced by retailers. (Author/BP)

  13. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retailer management. 274.3 Section 274.3 Agriculture... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF PROGRAM BENEFITS § 274.3 Retailer management. (a) Retailer participation. (1) All authorized retailers must be afforded the opportunity...

  14. 76 FR 56094 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    .... Regulation of Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 3281 (Jan. 20, 2010). \\13\\ Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions, 76 FR 22633 (Apr. 22, 2011). \\14\\ Id. \\15\\ Retail Foreign... proposed and final rules. \\16\\ Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions, 76 FR 22633 (Apr. 22, 2011)....

  15. 12 CFR 48.4 - Supervisory non-objection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... retail forex business, a national bank must provide the OCC with prior notice and obtain from the OCC a... retail forex transactions in a safe and sound manner and in compliance with this part; and (ii) Provide... forex businesses. A national bank that is engaged in a retail forex business on July 15, 2011...

  16. 12 CFR 48.4 - Supervisory non-objection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... retail forex business, a national bank must provide the OCC with prior notice and obtain from the OCC a... retail forex transactions in a safe and sound manner and in compliance with this part; and (ii) Provide... forex businesses. A national bank that is engaged in a retail forex business on July 15, 2011...

  17. 12 CFR 240.11 - Unlawful representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... forex account, for or on behalf of any person: (1) Guarantee such person or account against loss; (2... established for retail forex customers. (b) No implication of representation of engaging in prohibited acts... that any retail forex transaction or retail forex product has been sponsored, recommended, or...

  18. 12 CFR 48.4 - Supervisory non-objection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... retail forex business, a national bank must provide the OCC with prior notice and obtain from the OCC a... retail forex transactions in a safe and sound manner and in compliance with this part; and (ii) Provide... forex businesses. A national bank that is engaged in a retail forex business on July 15, 2011...

  19. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role.

  20. The string prediction models as invariants of time series in the forex market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincak, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we apply a new approach of string theory to the real financial market. The models are constructed with an idea of prediction models based on the string invariants (PMBSI). The performance of PMBSI is compared to support vector machines (SVM) and artificial neural networks (ANN) on an artificial and a financial time series. A brief overview of the results and analysis is given. The first model is based on the correlation function as invariant and the second one is an application based on the deviations from the closed string/pattern form (PMBCS). We found the difference between these two approaches. The first model cannot predict the behavior of the forex market with good efficiency in comparison with the second one which is, in addition, able to make relevant profit per year. The presented string models could be useful for portfolio creation and financial risk management in the banking sector as well as for a nonlinear statistical approach to data optimization.

  1. An investigation of Forex market efficiency based on detrended fluctuation analysis: A case study for Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abounoori, Esmaiel; Shahrazi, Mahdi; Rasekhi, Saeed

    2012-06-01

    The efficient market hypothesis (EMH) states that asset prices fully reflect all available information. As a result, speculators cannot predict the future behavior of asset prices and earn excess profits at least after adjusting for risk. Although initial tests of the EMH were performed on stock market data, the EMH was soon applied to other markets including foreign exchange (FX). This study uses the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) technique to test 01:12:2005-18:04:2010 Iranian Rial/US Dollar exchange rate time series data to see if it can be explained by the weak form of the EMH. Moreover, to determine changes in the degree of inefficiency over time, the whole period has been divided into four subperiods. The study shows that the Iranian Forex market (the Rial/Dollar case) is weak-form inefficient over the whole period and in each of the subperiods. However, the degree of inefficiency is not constant over time. The findings suggest that profitable risk-adjusted trades could be made using past data.

  2. FOREX-A Fiber Optics Diagnostic System For Study Of Materials At High Temperatures And Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. E.; Roeske, F.

    1983-03-01

    We have successfully fielded a Fiber Optics Radiation EXperiment system (FOREX) designed for measuring material properties at high temperatures and pressures on an underground nuclear test. The system collects light from radiating materials and transmits it through several hundred meters of optical fibers to a recording station consisting of a streak camera with film readout. The use of fiber optics provides a faster time response than can presently be obtained with equalized coaxial cables over comparable distances. Fibers also have significant cost and physical size advantages over coax cables. The streak camera achieves a much higher information density than an equivalent oscilloscope system, and it also serves as the light detector. The result is a wide bandwidth high capacity system that can be fielded at a relatively low cost in manpower, space, and materials. For this experiment, the streak camera had a 120 ns time window with a 1.2 ns time resolution. Dynamic range for the system was about 1000. Beam current statistical limitations were approximately 8% for a 0.3 ns wide data point at one decade above the threshold recording intensity.

  3. FOREX: a fiber-optics diagnostic system for study of materials at high temperatures and pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.E.; Roeske, F.

    1982-07-01

    We have successfully fielded a Fiber Optics Radiation Experiment system (FOREX) designed for measuring material properties at high temperatures and pressures in an underground nuclear test. The system collects light from radiating materials and transmits it through several hundred meters of optical fibers to a recording station consisting of a streak camera with film readout. The use of fiber optics provides a faster time response than can presently be obtained with equalized coaxial cables over comparable distances. Fibers also have significant cost and physical size advantages over coax cables. The streak camera achieves a much higher information density than an equivalent oscilloscope system, and it also serves as the light detector. The result is a wide bandwidth high capacity system that can be fielded at a relatively low cost in manpower, space, and materials. For this experiment, the streak camera had a 120 ns time window with a 1.2 ns time resolution. Dynamic range for the system was about 1000. Beam current statistical limitations were approximately 8% for a 0.3 ns wide data point at one decade above the threshold recording intensity.

  4. 17 CFR 1.4 - Electronic signatures, acknowledgments and verifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... commission merchant or introducing broker, a retail forex customer of a retail foreign exchange dealer or..., retail forex customer, participant, client, counterparty, swap dealer, or major swap participant will...

  5. 17 CFR 1.4 - Electronic signatures, acknowledgments and verifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... commission merchant or introducing broker, a retail forex customer of a retail foreign exchange dealer or..., retail forex customer, participant, client, counterparty, swap dealer, or major swap participant will...

  6. 17 CFR 5.23 - Notice of bulk transfers and bulk liquidations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Notice and disclosure to retail forex customers of a bulk transfer. (1) A retail foreign exchange... consent of its retail forex customer to the assignment of any position or transfer of any account of the retail forex customer to another retail foreign exchange dealer, futures commission merchant...

  7. 17 CFR 5.23 - Notice of bulk transfers and bulk liquidations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (a) Notice and disclosure to retail forex customers of a bulk transfer. (1) A retail foreign exchange... consent of its retail forex customer to the assignment of any position or transfer of any account of the retail forex customer to another retail foreign exchange dealer, futures commission merchant...

  8. 17 CFR 5.23 - Notice of bulk transfers and bulk liquidations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (a) Notice and disclosure to retail forex customers of a bulk transfer. (1) A retail foreign exchange... consent of its retail forex customer to the assignment of any position or transfer of any account of the retail forex customer to another retail foreign exchange dealer, futures commission merchant...

  9. 17 CFR 5.23 - Notice of bulk transfers and bulk liquidations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (a) Notice and disclosure to retail forex customers of a bulk transfer. (1) A retail foreign exchange... consent of its retail forex customer to the assignment of any position or transfer of any account of the retail forex customer to another retail foreign exchange dealer, futures commission merchant...

  10. Food retailing and food service.

    PubMed

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail). PMID:12951742

  11. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role. PMID:26627090

  12. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  13. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Part of the Annual Commodities Review 1995. Production of construction aggregates such as crushed stone and construction sand and gravel showed a marginal increase in 1995. Most of the 1995 increases were due to funding for highway construction work. The major areas of concern to the industry included issues relating to wetlands classification and the classification of crystalline silica as a probable human carcinogen. Despite this, an increase in demand is anticipated for 1996.

  14. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Part of a special section on the market performance of industrial minerals in 1992. Production of construction aggregates increased by 4.6 percent in 1992. This increase was due, in part, to the increased funding for transportation and infrastructure projects. The U.S. produced about 1.05 Gt of crushed stone and an estimated 734 Mt of construction sand and gravel in 1992. Demand is expected to increase by about 5 percent in 1993.

  15. College-Level Education in Retailing: A Comparison of Perceptions of Retail Employment Executives and Retail Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Sue Stringer

    The tremendous changes in methods of operation experienced in the retailing field in recent years, have brought about changes in the nature and extent of formal education required of potential retail executives. The primary purpose of this study was to ascertain the relative value of various elements of college retailing programs in the…

  16. Retailing: Careers in the Department Store Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gail M.

    1982-01-01

    The retailing industry is overviewed and executive training programs are detailed. Jobs in retailing are described: merchandising, department manager, assistant buyer, buyer, merchandise manager, and store manager. Also discussed are operations, financial control, and personnel management. (CT)

  17. 7 CFR 1206.19 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.19 Retailer. Retailer means a person engaged in the business of selling mangos only to consumers....

  18. 7 CFR 1206.19 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.19 Retailer. Retailer means a person engaged in the business of selling mangos only to consumers....

  19. Retail applications of signature verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Thomas G.; Russell, Gregory F.; Heilper, Andre; Smith, Barton A.; Hu, Jianying; Markman, Dmitry; Graham, Jon E.; Drews, Clemens

    2004-08-01

    The dramatic rise in identity theft, the ever pressing need to provide convenience in checkout services to attract and retain loyal customers, and the growing use of multi-function signature captures devices in the retail sector provides favorable conditions for the deployment of dynamic signature verification (DSV) in retail settings. We report on the development of a DSV system to meet the needs of the retail sector. We currently have a database of approximately 10,000 signatures collected from 600 subjects and forgers. Previous work at IBM on DSV has been merged and extended to achieve robust performance on pen position data available from commercial point of sale hardware, achieving equal error rates on skilled forgeries and authentic signatures of 1.5% to 4%.

  20. 47 CFR 301.6 - Retailer participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... independent auditor at no expense to the retailer; (E) Will provide NTIA electronically with redemption...-compliance or error. (5) Retailers may contact NTIA for late application or dispute resolution for problems... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retailer participation. 301.6 Section...

  1. Standardized Curriculum for Service Station Retailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for service station retailing was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all service station retailing programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for service station retailing I and II courses.…

  2. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolen, W.P.; Tepordei, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The estimated production during 2000 of construction aggregates, crushed stone, and construction sand and gravel increased by about 2.6% to 2.7 Gt (3 billion st), compared with 1999. The expansion that started in 1992 continued with record production levels for the ninth consecutive year. By commodity, construction sand and gravel production increased by 4.5% to 1.16 Gt (1.28 billion st), while crushed stone production increased by 1.3% to 1.56 Gt (1.72 billion st).

  3. 12 CFR 349.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... depository institution engaging, or offering to engage, in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail...

  4. 17 CFR 5.18 - Trading and operational standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... section: (1) The term retail forex counterparty includes, as appropriate: (i) A retail foreign exchange... this part. (2) The term related person when used in reference to a retail forex counterparty means any... person or employee of the retail forex counterparty, and any relative or spouse of any of the...

  5. 12 CFR 349.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... depository institution engaging, or offering to engage, in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail...

  6. 12 CFR 349.9 - Margin requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... depository institution engaging, or offering to engage, in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value of the retail...

  7. 17 CFR 5.18 - Trading and operational standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... management of the partnership business or any part thereof, (B) The handling of retail forex transactions of... section: (1) The term retail forex counterparty includes, as appropriate: (i) A retail foreign exchange... this part. (2) The term related person when used in reference to a retail forex counterparty means...

  8. Role of Standard Demand Response Signals for Advanced Automated Aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Kiliccote, Sila

    2011-11-18

    Emerging standards such as OpenADR enable Demand Response (DR) Resources to interact directly with Utilities and Independent System Operators to allow their facility automation equipment to respond to a variety of DR signals ranging from day ahead to real time ancillary services. In addition, there are Aggregators in today’s markets who are capable of bringing together collections of aggregated DR assets and selling them to the grid as a single resource. However, in most cases these aggregated resources are not automated and when they are, they typically use proprietary technologies. There is a need for a framework for dealing with aggregated resources that supports the following requirements: • Allows demand-side resources to participate in multiple DR markets ranging from wholesale ancillary services to retail tariffs without being completely committed to a single entity like an Aggregator; • Allow aggregated groups of demand-side resources to be formed in an ad hoc fashion to address specific grid-side issues and support the optimization of the collective response of an aggregated group along a number of different dimensions. This is important in order to taylor the aggregated performance envelope to the needs to of the grid; • Allow aggregated groups to be formed in a hierarchical fashion so that each group can participate in variety of markets from wholesale ancillary services to distribution level retail tariffs. This paper explores the issues of aggregated groups of DR resources as described above especially within the context of emerging smart grid standards and the role they will play in both the management and interaction of various grid-side entities with those resources.

  9. 17 CFR 5.19 - Pending legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., CPO, CTA or IB is a party or to which its property or assets is subject with respect to retail forex... merchant, CPO, CTA or IB and alleging violations, with regard to retail forex transactions, of: (1) The...

  10. 17 CFR 5.19 - Pending legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., CPO, CTA or IB is a party or to which its property or assets is subject with respect to retail forex... merchant, CPO, CTA or IB and alleging violations, with regard to retail forex transactions, of: (1) The...

  11. 17 CFR 4.23 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... interest was purchased, sold (including, in the case of a retail forex transaction, offset), exercised, expired (including, in the case of a retail forex transaction, whether it was rolled forward), and...

  12. 17 CFR 5.19 - Pending legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., CPO, CTA or IB is a party or to which its property or assets is subject with respect to retail forex... merchant, CPO, CTA or IB and alleging violations, with regard to retail forex transactions, of: (1) The...

  13. 17 CFR 4.23 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the commodity interest was purchased, sold (including, in the case of a retail forex transaction, offset), exercised, expired (including, in the case of a retail forex transaction, whether it was...

  14. 17 CFR 5.19 - Pending legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., CPO, CTA or IB is a party or to which its property or assets is subject with respect to retail forex... merchant, CPO, CTA or IB and alleging violations, with regard to retail forex transactions, of: (1) The...

  15. 17 CFR 4.33 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (including, in the case of a retail forex transaction, offset), exercised, expired (including, in the case of a retail forex transaction, whether it was rolled forward), and the gain or loss realized. (2)...

  16. Retail video analytics: an overview and survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, Jonathan; Fan, Quanfu; Gabbur, Prasad; Haas, Norman; Pankanti, Sharath; Trinh, Hoang

    2013-03-01

    Today retail video analytics has gone beyond the traditional domain of security and loss prevention by providing retailers insightful business intelligence such as store traffic statistics and queue data. Such information allows for enhanced customer experience, optimized store performance, reduced operational costs, and ultimately higher profitability. This paper gives an overview of various camera-based applications in retail as well as the state-ofthe- art computer vision techniques behind them. It also presents some of the promising technical directions for exploration in retail video analytics.

  17. Mapping the Tobacco Retailers in Edirne, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karlıkaya, Celal; İnce, Hüseyin; Özkan, Nurcan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The youth smoking rate is on the rise in Turkey. Although many marketing bans have been effectively implemented, regulations related to retail tobacco outlets have gone unnoticed and have not been effectively supervised. In this study, we aimed to show the lack of legal regulation related to the high retail tobacco outlet density with displays. Material and Methods: In the center of Edirne, the marketing environment, numbers and geographical distribution of retail tobacco outlets were documented and mapped with geographical positions. Results: There were 569 retail tobacco points of sale in 520 stores. We calculated one tobacco retail outlet per 270 people. This retail outlet density rate is above the national average and about four times higher than the density in Istanbul. Products especially attracting children, such as chocolate, sweet candy and chewing gum, were set up near the tobacco stands and were easy for children to recognize and reach. It can be seen on the city map that 47% of retail tobacco outlets are within 100 m of education, health or sport facilities. Conclusion: We concluded that one of the reasons for the increasing prevalence of cigarette use, especially among adolescents in Turkey, is deregulation of the retail tobacco marketing industry as a result of the privatization process of the national tobacco monopoly. Using mapping techniques can be useful in terms of controlling the retail marketing environment. PMID:25207039

  18. Training in the Retail Trade in Portugal. Report for the FORCE Programme. Retail Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerdeira, Maria Conceicao; And Others

    A study examined training in the retail trade in Portugal. Employment, work, and training patterns in Portugal's retail sector were researched, and case studies of two firms in the supermarket/hypermarket group, one firm in the stationary/cigarette shop sector, and one clothing manufacturer/retailer were conducted. Teams of researchers interviewed…

  19. Retail redlining in New York City: racialized access to day-to-day retail resources.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Loh, Ji Meng; White, Kellee; Saldana, Nelson

    2013-08-01

    Racial residential segregation is associated with health inequalities in the USA, and one of the primary mechanisms is through influencing features of the neighborhood physical environment. To better understand how Black residential segregation might contribute to health risk, we examined retail redlining; the inequitable distribution of retail resources across racially distinct areas. A combination of visual and analytic methods was used to investigate whether predominantly Black census block groups in New York City had poor access to retail stores important for health. After controlling for retail demand, median household income, population density, and subway ridership, percent Black was associated with longer travel distances to various retail industries. Our findings suggest that Black neighborhoods in New York City face retail redlining. Future research is needed to determine how retail redlining may perpetuate health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantage.

  20. 77 FR 62177 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... security reasons, the OCC requires that visitors make an appointment to inspect comments. You may do so by...\\ Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions, 76 FR 41375 (July 14, 2011). \\10\\ Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions, 76 FR 56094 (Sept. 12, 2011). B. Definition of Eligible Contract Participant The...

  1. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  2. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  3. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  4. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  5. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  6. Developing Strategic Planning for the Retail Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenawalt, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Retailers need a strategic plan that will enable them to adapt to changing trends and work with new ideas. Questions retailers should ask to shape the strategic plan and generic strategies--overall cost leadership, differentiation, and marketing to a particular group or offering a special service--are discussed. (SR)

  7. 76 FR 62327 - Retail Inventory Method

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ...-3(e) (75 FR 78944), the amount of an allowance, discount, or price rebate a taxpayer earns by... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ64 Retail Inventory Method AGENCY: Internal Revenue... regulations relating to the retail inventory method of accounting. The regulations restate and clarify...

  8. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  9. 12 CFR 48.15 - Notice of transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (b) of this section, a national bank must provide a retail forex customer with 30 days' prior notice of any assignment of any position or transfer of any account of the retail forex customer. The notice must include a statement that the retail forex customer is not required to accept the...

  10. 12 CFR 349.10 - Required reporting to customers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... statements. Each FDIC-supervised insured depository institution must promptly furnish to each retail forex... once every three months, a statement that clearly shows: (1) For each retail forex customer: (i) The open retail forex transactions with prices at which acquired; (ii) The net unrealized profits or...

  11. 12 CFR 240.15 - Notice of transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... must provide a retail forex customer with 30 days' prior notice of any assignment of any position or transfer of any account of the retail forex customer. The notice must include a statement that the retail forex customer is not required to accept the proposed assignment or transfer and may direct the...

  12. 12 CFR 349.16 - Customer dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... may enter into any agreement or understanding with a retail forex customer in which the customer... retail forex customer that the customer intends to submit a claim to arbitration, the FDIC-supervised... or counterclaims. (e) Counterclaims. A procedure for the settlement of a retail forex...

  13. 12 CFR 48.15 - Notice of transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (b) of this section, a national bank must provide a retail forex customer with 30 days' prior notice of any assignment of any position or transfer of any account of the retail forex customer. The notice must include a statement that the retail forex customer is not required to accept the...

  14. 17 CFR 5.22 - Registered futures association membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., because the person solicits or accepts orders for retail forex transactions; (2) A commodity pool operator... that engages in retail forex transactions; or (3) A commodity trading advisor because the person... trading authority over, an account in connection with retail forex transactions, must become and remain...

  15. 17 CFR 5.20 - Special calls for account and transaction information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...'s account in retail forex transactions. (c) Special calls for information on open transactions in... introducing brokers. Upon special call by the Commission for information relating to retail forex transactions... concerning accounts of traders owning or controlling such retail forex transaction positions, as may...

  16. 12 CFR 349.16 - Customer dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... may enter into any agreement or understanding with a retail forex customer in which the customer... retail forex customer that the customer intends to submit a claim to arbitration, the FDIC-supervised... or counterclaims. (e) Counterclaims. A procedure for the settlement of a retail forex...

  17. 12 CFR 240.14 - Supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... institution. A banking institution engaging in retail forex transactions shall diligently supervise the... similar function) of all retail forex accounts carried, operated, or advised by the banking institution... performing a similar function) relating to its retail forex business. (b) Supervision by officers,...

  18. 12 CFR 349.13 - Trading and operational standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... engaging in retail forex transactions shall establish and implement internal policies, procedures, and... retail forex transaction that is executable at or near the price that the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution has quoted to the retail forex customer is entered for execution before any order...

  19. 12 CFR 349.6 - Disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... insured depository institution may open or maintain open an account that will engage in retail forex transactions for a retail forex customer unless the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution has furnished the retail forex customer with a separate written disclosure statement containing only...

  20. 12 CFR 349.12 - Authorization to trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... No FDIC-supervised insured depository institution may directly or indirectly effect a retail forex transaction for the account of any retail forex customer unless, before the transaction occurs, the retail forex customer specifically authorized the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution to effect...

  1. 12 CFR 349.15 - Notice of transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... must provide a retail forex customer with 30 days' prior notice of any assignment of any position or transfer of any account of the retail forex customer. The notice must include a statement that the retail forex customer is not required to accept the proposed assignment or transfer and may direct the...

  2. 12 CFR 349.4 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FOREIGN EXCHANGE TRANSACTIONS § 349.4 Filing procedures. (a) General. Before commencing a retail forex... institution's proposed retail forex business and the manner in which it will be conducted; (ii) The amount of the institution's existing or proposed direct or indirect investment in the retail forex business...

  3. 12 CFR 48.14 - Supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....14 Supervision. (a) Supervision by the national bank. A national bank engaging in retail forex... occupying a similar status or performing a similar function) of all retail forex accounts carried, operated... persons occupying a similar status or performing a similar function) relating to its retail forex...

  4. 17 CFR 5.20 - Special calls for account and transaction information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...'s account in retail forex transactions. (c) Special calls for information on open transactions in... introducing brokers. Upon special call by the Commission for information relating to retail forex transactions... concerning accounts of traders owning or controlling such retail forex transaction positions, as may...

  5. 12 CFR 349.13 - Trading and operational standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... engaging in retail forex transactions shall establish and implement internal policies, procedures, and... retail forex transaction that is executable at or near the price that the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution has quoted to the retail forex customer is entered for execution before any order...

  6. 17 CFR 1.36 - Record of securities and property received from customers and option customers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of all securities and property received from customers, retail forex customers or option customers in lieu of money to margin, purchase, guarantee, or secure the commodity, retail forex or commodity option transactions of such customers, retail forex customers or option customers. Such record shall show...

  7. 12 CFR 349.15 - Notice of transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... must provide a retail forex customer with 30 days' prior notice of any assignment of any position or transfer of any account of the retail forex customer. The notice must include a statement that the retail forex customer is not required to accept the proposed assignment or transfer and may direct the...

  8. 12 CFR 349.4 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOREIGN EXCHANGE TRANSACTIONS § 349.4 Filing procedures. (a) General. Before commencing a retail forex... institution's proposed retail forex business and the manner in which it will be conducted; (ii) The amount of the institution's existing or proposed direct or indirect investment in the retail forex business...

  9. 17 CFR 5.22 - Registered futures association membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., because the person solicits or accepts orders for retail forex transactions; (2) A commodity pool operator... that engages in retail forex transactions; or (3) A commodity trading advisor because the person... trading authority over, an account in connection with retail forex transactions, must become and remain...

  10. 17 CFR 4.34 - General disclosures required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the commodity trading advisor may engage in retail forex transactions pursuant to the offered trading... pursuant to such program (including retail forex and swap transactions, if any). (h) Trading program. A... difference between bid and asked prices on retail forex or swap transactions, the trading advisor...

  11. 12 CFR 349.16 - Customer dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... may enter into any agreement or understanding with a retail forex customer in which the customer... retail forex customer that the customer intends to submit a claim to arbitration, the FDIC-supervised... or counterclaims. (e) Counterclaims. A procedure for the settlement of a retail forex...

  12. 17 CFR 5.2 - Prohibited transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... applicable to any retail forex transaction. (b) Fraudulent conduct prohibited. It shall be unlawful for any... indirectly, in or in connection with any retail forex transaction: (1) To cheat or defraud or attempt to... prohibited. (1) No person who acts as the counterparty for any retail forex transaction may do so for...

  13. 17 CFR 1.36 - Record of securities and property received from customers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... from customers or retail forex customers in lieu of money to margin, purchase, guarantee, or secure the commodity interests of such customers or retail forex customers. Such record shall show separately for each customer or retail forex customer: A description of the securities or property received; the name...

  14. 12 CFR 48.14 - Supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....14 Supervision. (a) Supervision by the national bank. A national bank engaging in retail forex... occupying a similar status or performing a similar function) of all retail forex accounts carried, operated... persons occupying a similar status or performing a similar function) relating to its retail forex...

  15. 17 CFR 1.36 - Record of securities and property received from customers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... from customers or retail forex customers in lieu of money to margin, purchase, guarantee, or secure the commodity interests of such customers or retail forex customers. Such record shall show separately for each customer or retail forex customer: A description of the securities or property received; the name...

  16. 12 CFR 349.13 - Trading and operational standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... engaging in retail forex transactions shall establish and implement internal policies, procedures, and... retail forex transaction that is executable at or near the price that the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution has quoted to the retail forex customer is entered for execution before any order...

  17. 12 CFR 349.4 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOREIGN EXCHANGE TRANSACTIONS § 349.4 Filing procedures. (a) General. Before commencing a retail forex... institution's proposed retail forex business and the manner in which it will be conducted; (ii) The amount of the institution's existing or proposed direct or indirect investment in the retail forex business...

  18. 12 CFR 48.14 - Supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....14 Supervision. (a) Supervision by the national bank. A national bank engaging in retail forex... occupying a similar status or performing a similar function) of all retail forex accounts carried, operated... persons occupying a similar status or performing a similar function) relating to its retail forex...

  19. 12 CFR 349.15 - Notice of transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... must provide a retail forex customer with 30 days' prior notice of any assignment of any position or transfer of any account of the retail forex customer. The notice must include a statement that the retail forex customer is not required to accept the proposed assignment or transfer and may direct the...

  20. 12 CFR 240.6 - Disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... required. No banking institution may open or maintain an account for a retail forex customer for the purpose of engaging in retail forex transactions unless the banking institution has furnished the retail forex customer with a separate written disclosure statement containing only the language set forth...

  1. 12 CFR 349.10 - Required reporting to customers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... statements. Each FDIC-supervised insured depository institution must promptly furnish to each retail forex... once every three months, a statement that clearly shows: (1) For each retail forex customer: (i) The open retail forex transactions with prices at which acquired; (ii) The net unrealized profits or...

  2. 12 CFR 349.6 - Disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... insured depository institution may open or maintain open an account that will engage in retail forex transactions for a retail forex customer unless the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution has furnished the retail forex customer with a separate written disclosure statement containing only...

  3. 12 CFR 349.6 - Disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... insured depository institution may open or maintain open an account that will engage in retail forex transactions for a retail forex customer unless the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution has furnished the retail forex customer with a separate written disclosure statement containing only...

  4. 17 CFR 5.20 - Special calls for account and transaction information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...'s account in retail forex transactions. (c) Special calls for information on open transactions in... introducing brokers. Upon special call by the Commission for information relating to retail forex transactions... concerning accounts of traders owning or controlling such retail forex transaction positions, as may...

  5. 17 CFR 1.46 - Application and closing out of offsetting long and short positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 1.46, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... dealer who: (i) Engages in a retail forex transaction involving the purchase of any currency for the account of any retail forex customer when the account of such retail forex customer at the time of...

  6. 12 CFR 48.15 - Notice of transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (b) of this section, a national bank must provide a retail forex customer with 30 days' prior notice of any assignment of any position or transfer of any account of the retail forex customer. The notice must include a statement that the retail forex customer is not required to accept the...

  7. 12 CFR 349.10 - Required reporting to customers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... statements. Each FDIC-supervised insured depository institution must promptly furnish to each retail forex... once every three months, a statement that clearly shows: (1) For each retail forex customer: (i) The open retail forex transactions with prices at which acquired; (ii) The net unrealized profits or...

  8. 17 CFR 5.20 - Special calls for account and transaction information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...'s account in retail forex transactions. (c) Special calls for information on open transactions in... introducing brokers. Upon special call by the Commission for information relating to retail forex transactions... concerning accounts of traders owning or controlling such retail forex transaction positions, as may...

  9. 12 CFR 240.16 - Customer dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... resolution. (a) No banking institution shall enter into any agreement or understanding with a retail forex... or grievance regarding any retail forex transaction or disclosure to any settlement procedure. (b) Election of forum. (1) Within 10 business days after the receipt of notice from the retail forex...

  10. 17 CFR 5.2 - Prohibited transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... applicable to any retail forex transaction. (b) Fraudulent conduct prohibited. It shall be unlawful for any... indirectly, in or in connection with any retail forex transaction: (1) To cheat or defraud or attempt to... prohibited. (1) No person who acts as the counterparty for any retail forex transaction may do so for...

  11. 17 CFR 1.46 - Application and closing out of offsetting long and short positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 1.46, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... dealer who: (i) Engages in a retail forex transaction involving the purchase of any currency for the account of any retail forex customer when the account of such retail forex customer at the time of...

  12. 12 CFR 349.12 - Authorization to trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... No FDIC-supervised insured depository institution may directly or indirectly effect a retail forex transaction for the account of any retail forex customer unless, before the transaction occurs, the retail forex customer specifically authorized the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution to effect...

  13. 12 CFR 240.10 - Required reporting to customers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... customers. (a) Monthly statements. Each banking institution must promptly furnish to each retail forex... once every three months, a statement that clearly shows: (1) For each retail forex customer: (i) The open retail forex transactions with prices at which acquired; (ii) The net unrealized profits or...

  14. 12 CFR 349.12 - Authorization to trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... No FDIC-supervised insured depository institution may directly or indirectly effect a retail forex transaction for the account of any retail forex customer unless, before the transaction occurs, the retail forex customer specifically authorized the FDIC-supervised insured depository institution to effect...

  15. 17 CFR 4.34 - General disclosures required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the commodity trading advisor may engage in retail forex transactions pursuant to the offered trading... pursuant to such program (including retail forex and swap transactions, if any). (h) Trading program. A... difference between bid and asked prices on retail forex or swap transactions, the trading advisor...

  16. 17 CFR 5.2 - Prohibited transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... applicable to any retail forex transaction. (b) Fraudulent conduct prohibited. It shall be unlawful for any... indirectly, in or in connection with any retail forex transaction: (1) To cheat or defraud or attempt to... prohibited. (1) No person who acts as the counterparty for any retail forex transaction may do so for...

  17. 17 CFR 5.2 - Prohibited transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... applicable to any retail forex transaction. (b) Fraudulent conduct prohibited. It shall be unlawful for any... indirectly, in or in connection with any retail forex transaction: (1) To cheat or defraud or attempt to... prohibited. (1) No person who acts as the counterparty for any retail forex transaction may do so for...

  18. 17 CFR 5.22 - Registered futures association membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., because the person solicits or accepts orders for retail forex transactions; (2) A commodity pool operator... that engages in retail forex transactions; or (3) A commodity trading advisor because the person... trading authority over, an account in connection with retail forex transactions, must become and remain...

  19. 12 CFR 240.9 - Margin requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... required. A banking institution engaging, or offering to engage, in retail forex transactions must collect from each retail forex customer an amount of margin not less than: (1) Two percent of the notional value of the retail forex transaction for major currency pairs and 5 percent of the notional value...

  20. 12 CFR 240.17 - Reservation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., documentation, or other standards or requirements under this part for a specific retail forex transaction or a class of retail forex transactions if the Board determines that the modification is consistent with safety and soundness and the protection of retail forex customers....

  1. Competition in the retail gasoline industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Jedidiah

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation examines competition in the retail gasoline industry. The first chapter highlights the importance of gasoline in modern society, introduces my work, and places it in the context of the existing academic literature. The second chapter details the institutional structure and profitability of the industry. The vast majority of retail gasoline stations are not directly owned and operated by major oil companies. Instead, most stations are set up under other contractual relationships: lessee-dealer, open-dealer, jobber-owned-and-operated, and independent. Gasoline retailers make relatively low profits, as is the case in many other retail industries, and are substantially less profitable than major oil companies. Gas stations also make less money when retail prices are climbing than when they are falling. As prices rise, total station profits are near zero or negative. When retail prices are constant or falling, retailers can make positive profits. The third chapter describes the entry of big-box stores into the retail gasoline industry over the last decade. The growth of such large retailers, in all markets, has led to a great deal of controversy as smaller competitors with long-term ties to the local community have become less common. I estimate the price impact that big-box stores have on traditional gasoline retailers using cross-sectional data in two geographically diverse cities. I also examine changes in pricing following the entry of The Home Depot into a local retail gasoline market. The results show that big-box stores place statistically and economically significant downward pressure on the prices of nearby gas stations, offering a measure of the impact of the entry of a big-box store. Chapter 4 examines the nature of price competition in markets where some competing retailers sell the same brand. The price effect of having more retailers selling the same brand is theoretically unclear. High brand diversity could give individual retailers

  2. Powerful Retailer`s Ordering Policy Under Two-Level Delay Permitted in Supply Chain Derived Without Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang Yang, Wen; Huang, Hung-Fu; Tu, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Yung-Fu

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the retailer`s inventory policy under two-level delay permitted to reflect the supply chain management situation. In this study, we assume that the retailer maintains a powerful position. So, it is assumed that the retailer can obtain the full trade credit offered by the supplier yet the retailer just offers the partial trade credit to his customers. Under these conditions, the retailer can obtain the most benefits. Then, an algebraic approach is provided to investigate the retailer=s inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer=s optimal inventory policy under the supply chain management. One ease-to-use theorem is developed to efficiently determine the optimal inventory policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the theorem.

  3. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer...

  4. 27 CFR 31.55 - Limited retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limited retail dealers. 31... Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.55 Limited retail dealers. (a) Sales by limited retail dealers. Limited retail dealers, as described in § 31.35, are not required to register or keep records under this part....

  5. 24 CFR 3288.5 - Retailer notification at sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROGRAM General § 3288.5 Retailer notification at sale. Retailer notice at the time of signing. At the time of signing a contract for sale or lease for a manufactured home, the retailer must provide the purchaser with a retailer notice. This notice may be in...

  6. 24 CFR 3288.5 - Retailer notification at sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROGRAM General § 3288.5 Retailer notification at sale. Retailer notice at the time of signing. At the time of signing a contract for sale or lease for a manufactured home, the retailer must provide the purchaser with a retailer notice. This notice may be in...

  7. 27 CFR 31.181 - Requirements for retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for retail... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retail Dealer's Records § 31.181 Requirements for retail dealers. (a) Records of receipt. All retail dealers must keep...

  8. 27 CFR 31.181 - Requirements for retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for retail... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retail Dealer's Records § 31.181 Requirements for retail dealers. (a) Records of receipt. All retail dealers must keep...

  9. 29 CFR 779.24 - Retail or service establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recognized as retail sales or services in the particular industry”. The application of this definition, which... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retail or service establishment. 779.24 Section 779.24... AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES General Some Basic Definitions § 779.24 Retail...

  10. Retailing policies for generic medicines.

    PubMed

    Narciso, Susana

    2005-06-01

    As there is general disagreement about the way generic medicines should be commercialized, two retailing policies are analyzed, taking into account their effects on the welfare of patients, government, pharmacies and physicians. In the first policy scenario, pharmacies are allowed to substitute generic medicines for branded ones, while in the second, substitution is forbidden. In both cases a pharmacies association is allowed to have a share in the production of generic medicines. The model predicts that under some conditions patients may prefer substitution by pharmacies but when doctors' decisions are binding, they are never "excessively bad". However, the policy choice belongs to the government, which prefers to allow for substitution more often than patients would like. PMID:15912315

  11. Retailing policies for generic medicines.

    PubMed

    Narciso, Susana

    2005-06-01

    As there is general disagreement about the way generic medicines should be commercialized, two retailing policies are analyzed, taking into account their effects on the welfare of patients, government, pharmacies and physicians. In the first policy scenario, pharmacies are allowed to substitute generic medicines for branded ones, while in the second, substitution is forbidden. In both cases a pharmacies association is allowed to have a share in the production of generic medicines. The model predicts that under some conditions patients may prefer substitution by pharmacies but when doctors' decisions are binding, they are never "excessively bad". However, the policy choice belongs to the government, which prefers to allow for substitution more often than patients would like.

  12. Thermodynamics of Protein Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Kenneth L.; Barz, Bogdan; Bachmann, Michael; Strodel, Birgit

    Amyloid protein aggregation characterizes many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Creutz- feldt-Jakob disease. Evidence suggests that amyloid aggregates may share similar aggregation pathways, implying simulation of full-length amyloid proteins is not necessary for understanding amyloid formation. In this study we simulate GNNQQNY, the N-terminal prion-determining domain of the yeast protein Sup35 to investigate the thermodynamics of structural transitions during aggregation. We use a coarse-grained model with replica-exchange molecular dynamics to investigate the association of 3-, 6-, and 12-chain GNNQQNY systems and we determine the aggregation pathway by studying aggregation states of GN- NQQNY. We find that the aggregation of the hydrophilic GNNQQNY sequence is mainly driven by H-bond formation, leading to the formation of /3-sheets from the very beginning of the assembly process. Condensation (aggregation) and ordering take place simultaneously, which is underpinned by the occurrence of a single heat capacity peak only.

  13. Retailing and Shopping on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    Internet advertising and commercial activity are increasing. This article examines challenges facing the retail industry on the Internet: location; comparison shopping; security, especially financial transactions; customer base and profile; nature of the shopping experience; and legal and marketplace controls. (PEN)

  14. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This is a special CALiPER report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. It follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012 (products purchased in 2010 and 2011), and is intended as a continuation that identifies long-term trends. For this report, products were selected to investigate specific hypotheses, rather than represent a sample of the increasingly large retail LED market.

  15. HIV / AIDS and the retail sector.

    PubMed

    Michael, K

    1999-01-01

    Employing approximately 1.5 million employees and comprised of 80,000 employers, the retail and wholesale sector accounted for 16.1% of South Africa's gross domestic product in 1996. HIV/AIDS threatens the retail sector, but it is unclear whether the pandemic threatens equally every sub-sector of the industry. The 4 main sub-sectors are fast-moving consumer goods; clothing, footwear, and textiles; vehicles; and furniture and major appliances. The nature of retail infrastructure and competitive and economic trends are described. Over the next decade, AIDS may reduce the size of consumer markets through increased mortality, and will certainly slow growth in spending. The pandemic may also divert spending away from retail merchandise to health care, and threaten businesses which extend credit and offer death benefits and funeral policies to clients. AIDS morbidity and mortality could also disrupt supply chains, especially for retailers who buy their products locally. The vulnerability of retail activities is discussed, with reference to the Living Standards Measure (LSM) developed by the South African Advertising Research Foundation.

  16. 78 FR 54657 - Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer Training Programs; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... regulation restricting the sale and distribution of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (75 FR 13225... Register of July 16, 2010 (75 FR 41498), FDA announced the availability of a draft guidance entitled... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer...

  17. Retail gas prices and its effect on actual automobile purchases: An econometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Brian F., Sr.

    Weekly aggregate vehicle purchase and retail gasoline price data, over the time span of 2001.01 to 2005.52, were used to determine in the Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area if the price of gasoline helped to predict vehicle purchases. This time period and data set included the effects of rapidly changing technology and rapidly increasing retail gasoline prices. This time series econometric analysis took advantage of the Phillips-Perron and Augmented Dickey Fuller tests for stationarity, as well as the concept of Granger causality to answer this question. Short-run relationships were present and were not contingent on the gender of the purchaser. The long-run results were affirmative for female purchasers and there was not enough evidence to conclude the same for male purchasers.

  18. 12 CFR 349.14 - Supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... institution. An FDIC-supervised insured depository institution engaging in retail forex transactions shall... status or performing a similar function) of all retail forex accounts carried, operated, or advised by at... forex business. (b) Supervision by officers, employees, or agents. An officer, employee, or agent of...

  19. 12 CFR 240.13 - Trading and operational standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in retail forex transactions shall establish and implement internal rules, procedures, and controls... forex customer that is executable at or near the price that the banking institution has quoted to the customer is entered for execution before any order in any retail forex transaction for: (i) A...

  20. 12 CFR 349.14 - Supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... institution. An FDIC-supervised insured depository institution engaging in retail forex transactions shall... status or performing a similar function) of all retail forex accounts carried, operated, or advised by at... forex business. (b) Supervision by officers, employees, or agents. An officer, employee, or agent of...

  1. 17 CFR 4.34 - General disclosures required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the commodity trading advisor may engage in retail forex transactions pursuant to the offered trading... retail forex transactions, if any). (h) Trading program. A description of the trading program, which must... forex transactions (as defined in § 5.1(m) of this chapter), the trading advisor must explain how...

  2. 12 CFR 349.14 - Supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... institution. An FDIC-supervised insured depository institution engaging in retail forex transactions shall... status or performing a similar function) of all retail forex accounts carried, operated, or advised by at... forex business. (b) Supervision by officers, employees, or agents. An officer, employee, or agent of...

  3. 26 CFR 1.471-8 - Inventories of retail merchants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... based on actual reduction of retail sale prices, such as mark-downs based on depreciation and obsolescence, be recognized in determining the retail selling prices of the goods on hand at the end of...

  4. Retail wheeling: Is this revolution necessary?

    SciTech Connect

    Cudahy, R.D.

    1994-12-31

    As of a former state regulator and a once enthusiastic practitioner of public utility law, I find it fascinating to see the latest nostrum to burst on the electric utility scene: retail wheeling. Wheeling became a personal interest in the Texas interconnection fight of the late seventies and may have led to the interconnection and wheeling provision of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). Retail wheeling contemplates that every electric power customer should be given an opportunity to seek out the lowest cost source of power wherever it can be found. As a practical matter, the drums for retail wheeling are presently being beaten by large industrial users, who believe that they have the capability to find low cost sources and to make advantageous commercial arrangements to acquire electricity. Large industrials have long been fighting the utilities for cheaper electricity, frequently using the threat of self-generation and cogeneration.

  5. Aggregations in Flatworms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Hunter, M.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a school project to investigate aggregations in flatworms which may be influenced by light intensity, temperature, and some form of chemical stimulus released by already aggregating flatworms. Such investigations could be adopted to suit many educational levels of science laboratory activities. (DS)

  6. Net Metering and Market Feedback Loops: Exploring the Impact of Retail Rate Design on Distributed PV Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Darghouth, Naïm R.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Mills, Andrew

    2015-01-13

    The substantial increase in deployment of customer-sited solar photovoltaics (PV) in the United States has been driven by a combination of steeply declining costs, financing innovations, and supportive policies. Among those supportive policies is net metering, which in most states effectively allows customers to receive compensation for distributed PV generation at the full retail electricity price. The current design of retail electricity rates and the presence of net metering have elicited concerns that the possible under-recovery of fixed utility costs from PV system owners may lead to a feedback loop of increasing retail prices that accelerate PV adoption and further rate increases. However, a separate and opposing feedback loop could offset this effect: increased PV deployment may lead to a shift in the timing of peak-period electricity prices that could reduce the bill savings received under net metering where time-varying retail electricity rates are used, thereby dampening further PV adoption. In this paper, we examine the impacts of these two competing feedback dynamics on U.S. distributed PV deployment through 2050 for both residential and commercial customers, across states. Our results indicate that, at the aggregate national level, the two feedback effects nearly offset one another and therefore produce a modest net effect, although their magnitude and direction vary by customer segment and by state. We also model aggregate PV deployment trends under various rate designs and net-metering rules, accounting for feedback dynamics. Our results demonstrate that future adoption of distributed PV is highly sensitive to retail rate structures. Whereas flat, time-invariant rates with net metering lead to higher aggregate national deployment levels than the current mix of rate structures (+5% in 2050), rate structures with higher monthly fixed customer charges or PV compensation at levels lower than the full retail rate can dramatically erode aggregate customer

  7. 21 CFR 1314.25 - Requirements for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for retail transactions. 1314.25 Section 1314.25 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.25 Requirements for retail...

  8. 29 CFR 779.207 - Related activities in retail operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Related activities in retail operations. 779.207 Section... Coverage Related Activities § 779.207 Related activities in retail operations. In the case of an enterprise which has one or more retail or service establishments, all of the activities which are performed...

  9. 27 CFR 31.35 - Limited retail dealer; persons eligible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limited retail dealer... Part Dealers Classified § 31.35 Limited retail dealer; persons eligible. Any person selling distilled... “limited retail dealer” if the person or organization is not otherwise engaged in business as a dealer....

  10. Development of a Cooperative Retailing Program for the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litzinger, F. Donald; And Others.

    This report presents a two-year junior college retailing curriculum for the disadvantaged, proposed on the basis of answers to questionnaires sent to retailing industries in the Metropolitan Rochester area. The questionnaires were designed to assess the need and feasibility of such a retailing program and to ascertain qualifications required to…

  11. 27 CFR 8.54 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retailer independence. 8.54 Section 8.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... determining retailer independence. The criteria specified in this section are indications that a particular practice, other than those in §§ 8.52 and 8.53, places retailer independence at risk. A practice need...

  12. 27 CFR 6.153 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retailer independence. 6.153 Section 6.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... determining retailer independence. The criteria specified in this section are indications that a particular practice, other than those in § 6.152, places retailer independence at risk. A practice need not meet...

  13. 24 CFR 3286.113 - Information provided by retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... change. (e) Record retention requirements. The retailer or distributor must maintain a copy of the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information provided by retailer...-Administered States § 3286.113 Information provided by retailer. (a) Tracking information. Within 30 days...

  14. 47 CFR 51.609 - Determination of avoided retail costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of avoided retail costs. 51.609... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Resale § 51.609 Determination of avoided retail costs. (a) Except as provided in § 51.611, the amount of avoided retail costs shall be determined on the basis of a cost study...

  15. 47 CFR 51.609 - Determination of avoided retail costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of avoided retail costs. 51.609... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Resale § 51.609 Determination of avoided retail costs. (a) Except as provided in § 51.611, the amount of avoided retail costs shall be determined on the basis of a cost study...

  16. RETAIL ORGANIZATION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAURO, RALPH N.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A COURSE ON RETAIL ORGANIZATION IS PLANNED FOR FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) EVOLUTION OF RETAIL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE, (2) ORGANIZATION, INCLUDING CONCEPTS, PRINCIPLES, AND PRACTICES, (3) TYPICAL RETAIL ORGANIZATION PATTERNS, (4) ORGANIZATIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL ANAYSIS, INCLUDING MERCHANDISING, SALES PROMOTION, AND…

  17. 29 CFR 779.328 - Retail and wholesale distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... which is recognized in an industry as the subject of a retail sale. Quantities which are materially in... industry is such that a discount from the normal retail price is not regarded in the industry as... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retail and wholesale distinguished. 779.328 Section...

  18. Training in the Retail Trade of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Report for the FORCE Programme. Retail Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoden, Nadine

    A study examined training in the retail trade in Luxembourg. During the study, information was gathered on employment, work, and training patterns in Luxembourg's retail sector, and case studies of a retail clothing firm and a large supermarket with permanent continuing vocational training for all employees were conducted. The general/personnel…

  19. 17 CFR 5.17 - Authorization to trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... forex transaction for the account of any customer unless before the transaction the customer, or person... to control the account specifies: (a) The precise retail forex transaction to be effected; (b)...

  20. 17 CFR 5.17 - Authorization to trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... forex transaction for the account of any customer unless before the transaction the customer, or person... to control the account specifies: (a) The precise retail forex transaction to be effected; (b)...

  1. 17 CFR 5.17 - Authorization to trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... forex transaction for the account of any customer unless before the transaction the customer, or person... to control the account specifies: (a) The precise retail forex transaction to be effected; (b)...

  2. Business's Best Seller--It's Called Retailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Louise

    This address, given at a workshop on distributive education, dealt primarily with the coordination of classroom theories of retail selling with their application in the store. The teacher-coordinator, who is responsible for this step, often has such a full program that he tends to overlook it. The teacher must work with the merchant for an…

  3. Using Interactive Whiteboards in Teaching Retail Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Marla; Kirpalani, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate marketing students have sometimes been found to lack mathematical skills. It can therefore be challenging for instructors to effectively teach courses that depend on mathematical problem-solving skills. This paper discusses the use of interactive whiteboards as an innovative way to teach retail mathematics effectively. The authors…

  4. FORCE Sectoral Survey on European Retail Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertzeletou, Tina

    1993-01-01

    A sectoral survey focused on ways in which vocational training plans are formulated and analysis of the cost effectiveness of continuing vocational training at the company level. It examined techniques applied to developing continuing vocational training and improving access. National surveys carried out for the retail trade sector revealed…

  5. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... verification) for redeeming Program benefits from eligible SNAP customers. These retailers include stationary food stores which opt to make home deliveries to SNAP households, house-to-house trade routes which... utilized solely for SNAP. In addition, if Program equipment is deployed under contract to the State...

  6. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... verification) for redeeming Program benefits from eligible SNAP customers. These retailers include stationary food stores which opt to make home deliveries to SNAP households, house-to-house trade routes which... utilized solely for SNAP. In addition, if Program equipment is deployed under contract to the State...

  7. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... verification) for redeeming Program benefits from eligible SNAP customers. These retailers include stationary food stores which opt to make home deliveries to SNAP households, house-to-house trade routes which... utilized solely for SNAP. In addition, if Program equipment is deployed under contract to the State...

  8. The World of Retailing. Publication No. 0011.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondras, Robert

    Designed to introduce the world of retailing to junior high school students, the course encompasses three different activities: consumer knowledge, selling, and establishing a school store. Many of the ideas have been used with students in grades 7 and 8. The section on consumer education includes consumer influence and problems, consumer law, and…

  9. Virtual Retail Simulations in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake-Bridges, Erin; Strelzoff, Andrew; Sulbaran, Tulio

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of simulations in virtual reality to teach students the fundamental processes behind retailing and product development. The project described involved one class of students who developed their own clothing lines of "virtual merchandise." A second class of students then "purchased" the wholesale virtual goods and…

  10. The old pillars of new retailing.

    PubMed

    Berry, L L

    2001-04-01

    Despite the harsh realities of retailing, the illusion persists that magical tools can help companies overcome the problems of fickle consumers, price-slashing competitors, and mood swings in the economy. Such wishful thinking holds that retailers will thrive if only they communicate better with customers through e-mail, employ hidden cameras to learn how customers make purchase decisions, and analyze scanner data to tailor special offers and manage inventory. But the truth is, there are no quick fixes. In the course of his extensive research on dozens of retailers, Leonard Berry found that the best companies create value for their customers in five interlocking ways. Whether you're running a physical store, a catalog business, an e-commerce site, or a combination of the three, you have to offer your customers superior solutions to their needs, treat them with respect, and connect with them on an emotional level. You also have to set prices fairly and make it easy for people to find what they need, pay for it quickly, and then move on. None of these pillars is new, and each sounds exceedingly simple, but don't be fooled--implementing these axioms in the real world is surprisingly difficult. The author illustrates how some retailers have built successful operations by attending to these commonsense ways of dealing with their customers and how others have failed to do so. PMID:11299689

  11. An Exciting Future in Retail Training Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploetz, Richard

    1976-01-01

    Color video can be utilized by department stores involved in fashion retailing, such as Dayton's, to train employees while maintaining the store's reputation for quality. Its uses include product knowledge, store policies and procedures, management communication market, trip reports, trend shows, role-playing, modular courses, and executive…

  12. Retail Trade. International Trends and National Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Olivier

    1991-01-01

    This brief examines trends in the retail trade, especially in grocery stores, from an international perspective. A comparison of recent national studies finds the following: (1) significant differences in structure and organization exist, especially in the role of traditional small shops versus large chain grocery stores; (2) increasing store size…

  13. Retail Trade. Industry Training Monograph No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's retailing sector is the largest single industry of employment, with more than 1.2 million workers. It is characterized by high levels of part-time and casual employment; a young work force, including many young people still in full-time education; and employment widely distributed geographically. Over the past 10 years, employment has…

  14. 7 CFR 65.240 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retailer. 65.240 Section 65.240 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  15. 7 CFR 65.240 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retailer. 65.240 Section 65.240 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  16. 7 CFR 65.240 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retailer. 65.240 Section 65.240 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  17. 7 CFR 65.240 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retailer. 65.240 Section 65.240 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  18. 7 CFR 65.240 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retailer. 65.240 Section 65.240 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  19. Ethical Dilemmas in Retail Merchandising: Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulins, V. Ann; Lombardy, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas observed by students in retailing internships were the basis for a survey in which students indicated their perceptions as to whether case situations involved unethical behavior. Expanded case situations were offered to students for further exploration. The specific questions posed in this study included the following: (1) In what…

  20. Aggregate and the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sachs, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to help you understand our aggregate resources-their importance, where they come from, how they are processed for our use, the environmental concerns related to their mining and processing, how those concerns are addressed, and the policies and regulations designed to safeguard workers, neighbors, and the environment from the negative impacts of aggregate mining. We hope this understanding will help prepare you to be involved in decisions that need to be made-individually and as a society-to be good stewards of our aggregate resources and our living planet.

  1. Tracking microbial contamination in retail environments using fluorescent powder--a retail delicatessen environment example.

    PubMed

    Sirsat, Sujata A; Kim, Kawon; Gibson, Kristen E; Crandall, Phillip G; Ricke, Steven C; Neal, Jack A

    2014-01-01

    Cross contamination of foodborne pathogens in the retail environment is a significant public health issue contributing to an increased risk for foodborne illness. Ready-to-eat (RTE) processed foods such as deli meats, cheese, and in some cases fresh produce, have been involved in foodborne disease outbreaks due to contamination with pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. With respect to L. monocytogenes, deli slicers are often the main source of cross contamination. The goal of this study was to use a fluorescent compound to simulate bacterial contamination and track this contamination in a retail setting. A mock deli kitchen was designed to simulate the retail environment. Deli meat was inoculated with the fluorescent compound and volunteers were recruited to complete a set of tasks similar to those expected of a food retail employee. The volunteers were instructed to slice, package, and store the meat in a deli refrigerator. The potential cross contamination was tracked in the mock retail environment by swabbing specific areas and measuring the optical density of the swabbed area with a spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the refrigerator (i.e. deli case) grip and various areas on the slicer had the highest risk for cross contamination. The results of this study may be used to develop more focused training material for retail employees. In addition, similar methodologies could also be used to track microbial contamination in food production environments (e.g. small farms), hospitals, nursing homes, cruise ships, and hotels. PMID:24637553

  2. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M; D'Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E; Rose, Shyanika W

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living. PMID:26963859

  3. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M; D'Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E; Rose, Shyanika W

    2016-03-10

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living.

  4. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  5. Cell aggregation and sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Davis, R H

    1995-01-01

    The aggregation of cells into clumps or flocs has been exploited for decades in such applications as biological wastewater treatment, beer brewing, antibiotic fermentation, and enhanced sedimentation to aid in cell recovery or retention. More recent research has included the use of cell aggregation and sedimentation to selectively separate subpopulations of cells. Potential biotechnological applications include overcoming contamination, maintaining plasmid-bearing cells in continuous fermentors, and selectively removing nonviable hybridoma cells from perfusion cultures.

  6. Fibronectin Aggregation and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Tomoo; Erickson, Harold P.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of fibronectin (FN) assembly and the self-association sites are still unclear and contradictory, although the N-terminal 70-kDa region (I1–9) is commonly accepted as one of the assembly sites. We previously found that I1–9 binds to superfibronectin, which is an artificial FN aggregate induced by anastellin. In the present study, we found that I1–9 bound to the aggregate formed by anastellin and a small FN fragment, III1–2. An engineered disulfide bond in III2, which stabilizes folding, inhibited aggregation, but a disulfide bond in III1 did not. A gelatin precipitation assay showed that I1–9 did not interact with anastellin, III1, III2, III1–2, or several III1–2 mutants including III1–2KADA. (In contrast to previous studies, we found that the III1–2KADA mutant was identical in conformation to wild-type III1–2.) Because I1–9 only bound to the aggregate and the unfolding of III2 played a role in aggregation, we generated a III2 domain that was destabilized by deletion of the G strand. This mutant bound I1–9 as shown by the gelatin precipitation assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis, and it inhibited FN matrix assembly when added to cell culture. Next, we introduced disulfide mutations into full-length FN. Three disulfide locks in III2, III3, and III11 were required to dramatically reduce anastellin-induced aggregation. When we tested the disulfide mutants in cell culture, only the disulfide bond in III2 reduced the FN matrix. These results suggest that the unfolding of III2 is one of the key factors for FN aggregation and assembly. PMID:21949131

  7. In sight, in mind: retailer compliance with legislation on limiting retail tobacco displays.

    PubMed

    Quedley, Megan; Ng, Brendan; Sapre, Nikhil; Blakiston, Matthew; Crawford, Alexandra; Devadas, Rosanne; McLaren, Hamish; Anand, Shruti; Tipu, Mahu; Dayal, Viswas; Chandrasiri, Singithi; Thomson, George; Edwards, Richard

    2008-08-01

    We investigated retailer compliance with point-of-sale display legislation, using a New Zealand region as a case study. An observational survey was conducted of nonspecialist tobacco retailers in the lower North Island of New Zealand during 2006. Compliance was assessed in relation to store type (dairies, convenience stores, supermarkets, and service stations) and by characteristics of the population of the census area unit in which the store was situated. These characteristics include the level of socioeconomic deprivation and proportions of Maori (indigenous New Zealanders), Pacific Islanders, and children aged less than 19 years. Out of the 288 stores surveyed, 185 (64%) had at least one breach of the point-of-sale regulations. The most common breaches were a failure to display a "Smoking Kills" sign, visibility of tobacco from outside the premises, and displaying tobacco less than 1 m from children's products. Compliance was significantly worse in dairies (small local general stores) and convenience stores. Stores situated in areas in the top quartile for the proportion of children were much more likely to have high levels of noncompliance (> or =3 breaches) and to display tobacco products close to children's products. This study is one of very few to systematically investigate retailer compliance with point-of-sale display regulations for tobacco products. The results suggest that the implementation of legislation to partly limit retail displays of tobacco products can be difficult. A ban on retail displays of tobacco products is likely to be a more effective and enforceable policy.

  8. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Michael P.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2014-02-01

    The CALiPER program first began investigating LED lamps sold at retail stores in 2010, purchasing 33 products from eight retailers and covering six product categories. The findings revealed a fragmented marketplace, with large disparities in performance of different products, accuracy of manufacturer claims, and offerings from different retail outlets. Although there were some good products, looking back many would not be considered viable competitors to other available options, with too little lumen output, not high enough efficacy, or poor color quality. CALiPER took another look in late 2011purchasing 38 products of five different types from nine retailers and the improvement was marked. Performance was up; retailer claims were more accurate; and the price per lumen and price per unit efficacy were down, although the price per product had not changed much. Nonetheless, there was still plenty of room for improvement, with the performance of LED lamps not yet reaching that of well-established classes of conventional lamps (e.g., 75 W incandescent A19 lamps). Since the second retail lamp study was published in early 2012, there has been substantial progress in all aspects of LED lamps available from retailers. To document this progress, CALiPER again purchased a sample of lamps from retail stores 46 products in total, focusing on A19, PAR30, and MR16 lamps but instead of a random sample, sought to select products to answer specific hypotheses about performance. These hypotheses focused on expanding ranges of LED equivalency, the accuracy of lifetime claims, efficacy and price trends, as well as changes to product designs. Among other results, key findings include: There are now very good LED options to compete with 60 W, 75 W, and 100 W incandescent A19 lamps, and 75 W halogen PAR30 lamps. MR16 lamps have shown less progress, but there are now acceptable alternatives to 35 W, 12 V halogen MR16 lamps and 50 W, 120 V halogen MR16 lamps for some applications. Other

  9. Fingertip dermatitis in a retail florist.

    PubMed

    Guin, J D; Franks, H

    2001-04-01

    Prevalence of plant contact dermatitis in retail florists varies with exposure, and the number of reports of contact allergy to cut tulips is rather small. Alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone is better known as the cause of both Alstroemeria dermatitis in retail florists and tulip finger in wholesale floral workers who handle the bulbs. Our patient presented with prominent erythema, scaling, and peeling of the skin of the thumb, index, and middle fingers of his right hand. Results of a patch test to alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone were strongly positive, and the patient determined that the exposure had occurred when he stripped leaves from the tulip stems to arrange cut flowers. Other natural sources of the antigen include Alstroemeria; Bomarea; Dioscorea hispida; Erythronium; Gagea; Fritillaria; and at least one species of onion, Allium triquetrum.

  10. Electric retail market options: The customer perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, S.W.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes various options that are now available for retail electric customers, or that may become available during the next few years as the electric utility industry restructures. These options include different ways of meeting demand for energy services, different providers of service or points of contact with providers, and different pricing structures for purchased services. Purpose of this document is to examine these options from the customer`s perspective: how might being a retail electric customer in 5--10 years differ from now? Seizing opportunities to reduce cost of electric service is likely to entail working with different service providers; thus, transaction costs are involved. Some of the options considered are speculative. Some transitional options include relocation, customer-built/operated transmission lines, municipalization, self-generation, and long-term contracts with suppliers. All these may change or diminish in a restructured industry. Brokers seem likely to become more common unless restructuring takes the form of mandatory poolcos (wholesale). Some options appear robust, ie, they are likely to become more common regardless of how restructuring is accomplished: increased competition among energy carriers (gas vs electric), real-time pricing, etc. This report identified some of the qualitative differences among the various options. For customers using large amounts of electricity, different alternatives are likely to affect greatly service price, transaction costs, tailoring service to customer preferences, and risks for customer. For retail customers using small amounts of electricity, there may be little difference among the options except service price.

  11. Price Strategies between a Dominant Retailer and Manufacturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hsun Jung; Mak, Hou Kit

    2009-08-01

    Supply chain-related game theoretical applications have been discussed for decades. This research accounts for the emergence of a dominant retailer, and the retailer Stackelberg pricing models of distribution channels. Research in the channel pricing game may use different definitions of pricing decision variables. In this research, we pay attentions to the retailer Stackelberg pricing game, and discuss the effects when choosing different decision variables. According the literature it was shown that the strategies between channel members depend critically on the form of the demand function. Two different demand forms—linear and non-linear—will be considered in our numerical example respectively. Our major finding is the outcomes are not relative to manufacturers' pricing decisions but to the retailer's pricing decision and choosing percentage margin as retailer's decision variable is the best strategy for the retailer but worst for manufacturers. The numerical results show that it is consistence between linear and non-linear demand form.

  12. Retail and Real Estate: The Changing Landscape of Care Delivery.

    PubMed

    Mason, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    By its nature, retail medicine is founded in real estate. That retail medicine has expanded so dramatically in a relatively short period of time has taken people by surprise. This rapid growth of integrating healthcare services into retail real estate begs the question of whether real estate will eventually take on the importance in healthcare delivery that it has in retail. This article advances the view that it will. In the end, what retail and healthcare have in common is that they both reflect the attributes of demanding consumers as part of an experience-based economy, where products and services are sought based on how they fit with their lifestyles and how they make them feel (Pine and Gilmore 1998). Changing the selection process for healthcare services to be more like retail is already expanding how and where healthcare services are delivered. PMID:26495550

  13. Retail and Real Estate: The Changing Landscape of Care Delivery.

    PubMed

    Mason, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    By its nature, retail medicine is founded in real estate. That retail medicine has expanded so dramatically in a relatively short period of time has taken people by surprise. This rapid growth of integrating healthcare services into retail real estate begs the question of whether real estate will eventually take on the importance in healthcare delivery that it has in retail. This article advances the view that it will. In the end, what retail and healthcare have in common is that they both reflect the attributes of demanding consumers as part of an experience-based economy, where products and services are sought based on how they fit with their lifestyles and how they make them feel (Pine and Gilmore 1998). Changing the selection process for healthcare services to be more like retail is already expanding how and where healthcare services are delivered.

  14. Technology meets aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Swan, C.

    2007-07-01

    New technology carried out at Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts on synthetic lightweight aggregate has created material from various qualities of fly ash from coal-fired power plants for use in different engineered applications. In pilot scale manufacturing tests an 'SLA' containing 80% fly ash and 20% mixed plastic waste from packaging was produced by 'dry blending' mixed plastic with high carbon fly ash. A trial run was completed to produce concrete masonry unit (CMU) blocks at a full-scale facility. It has been shown that SLA can be used as a partial substitution of a traditional stone aggregate in hot asphalt mix. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  15. Macrodynamic trends in health care: a distribution and retailing perspective.

    PubMed

    Gould, S J

    1988-01-01

    Recent macrodynamic developments have created a turbulent health care environment. A distribution and retailing perspective can provide related knowledge and experience for health care providers PMID:3384652

  16. Retail Building Guide for Entrance Energy Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.; Kung, F.

    2012-03-01

    This booklet is based on the findings of an infiltration analysis for supermarkets and large retail buildings without refrigerated cases. It enables retail building managers and engineers to calculate the energy savings potential for vestibule additions for supermarkets; and bay door operation changes in large retail stores without refrigerated cases. Retail managers can use initial estimates to decide whether to engage vendors or contractors of vestibules for pricing or site-specific analyses, or to decide whether to test bay door operation changes in pilot stores, respectively.

  17. Jumping into the healthcare retail market: our experience.

    PubMed

    Pollert, Pat; Dobberstein, Darla; Wiisanen, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Who among us has not heard of the retail-based clinic concept? Retail-based clinics have been springing up across the country in Target, Walmart, grocery stores, drugstores, and shopping malls. Due to multiple marketplace issues, others who have not traditionally been providers of healthcare saw an opportunity to meet the consumer's demand. Do retail and healthcare mix, and can this model be successful? MeritCare Health System in Fargo, ND made the decision to embrace and experiment with this new emerging consumerism model. This article reviews our experience in developing the first retail-based clinic in our service area and the state of North Dakota.

  18. Aggregates, broccoli and cauliflower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.

    1989-09-01

    Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type aggregates. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.

  19. The Education of Retail Managers through Management Training Programs in Apparel Retail Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Irene M.

    A study was conducted to determine the nature and extent of continuing education and management training programs used by apparel retail companies and to document program content, objectives, methods, assessment techniques, and evaluation procedures. Information was gathered through qualitative research, using the multiple-case study method, with…

  20. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Retail Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-19

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Retail Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  1. 21 CFR 1140.14 - Additional responsibilities of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO Prohibition of Sale and Distribution to Persons... requirements under this part, each retailer is responsible for ensuring that all sales of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to any person comply with the following requirements: (a) No retailer may sell...

  2. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  3. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  4. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  5. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  6. 19 CFR 10.539 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.539...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.539 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging... requirement, the value of such packaging materials and containers will be taken into account as originating...

  7. 19 CFR 10.461 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.461... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.461 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging... requirement, the value of such packaging materials and containers will be taken into account as originating...

  8. 27 CFR 6.100 - Participation in retailer association activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Participation in retailer association activities. 6.100 Section 6.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.100 Participation in retailer association activities....

  9. 27 CFR 6.100 - Participation in retailer association activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Participation in retailer association activities. 6.100 Section 6.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.100 Participation in retailer association activities....

  10. 27 CFR 6.153 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Criteria for determining retailer independence. 6.153 Section 6.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.153 Criteria for determining retailer independence. The...

  11. 27 CFR 6.153 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Criteria for determining retailer independence. 6.153 Section 6.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.153 Criteria for determining retailer independence. The...

  12. 27 CFR 6.153 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Criteria for determining retailer independence. 6.153 Section 6.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.153 Criteria for determining retailer independence. The...

  13. 27 CFR 6.100 - Participation in retailer association activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Participation in retailer association activities. 6.100 Section 6.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.100 Participation in retailer association activities....

  14. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  15. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wholesale dealers making retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales....

  16. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wholesale dealers making retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales....

  17. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wholesale dealers making retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales....

  18. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealers making retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales....

  19. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wholesale dealers making retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales....

  20. 76 FR 49511 - Postal Service Initiative on Retail Postal Locations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... the Federal Register of August 4, 2011, FR Doc. 2011-19725, on page 47276, in the Procedural Schedule... Postal Service Initiative on Retail Postal Locations AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice... of the continuation of service at postal retail locations. The procedural schedule included...

  1. 21 CFR 801.110 - Retail exemption for prescription devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail exemption for prescription devices. 801.110 Section 801.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.110 Retail...

  2. 19 CFR 146.14 - Retail trade within a zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Board as contained in 15 CFR part 400. ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail trade within a zone. 146.14 Section 146.14... TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES General Provisions § 146.14 Retail trade within a zone....

  3. Better-bred berries for the retail market

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While there are many exciting new choices for berry cultivars for the Northwest commercial industry, very few of them are available in the retail nursery market. It’s an odd thing where the top-selling cultivars in the region haven’t seen the light of day in the retail nursery market. For many other...

  4. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising in retailer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.54 Advertising in retailer publications. The purchase, by an industry member,...

  5. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

  6. Teenagers and the Minimum Wage in Retail Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotterill, Philip G.; Wadycki, Walter J.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of minimum wage policy on the hiring of teenagers in relation to adult laborers in retail trade has been assessed through analysis of a study sample of 353 male and 391 female retail trade employees who were part of the 1967 Survey of Economic Opportunity. (LH)

  7. 24 CFR 3288.5 - Retailer notification at sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retailer notification at sale. 3288... sale. Retailer notice at the time of signing. At the time of signing a contract for sale or lease for a... separate document from the sales contract or may be incorporated clearly in a separate section on...

  8. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising in retailer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.54 Advertising in retailer publications. The purchase, by an industry member,...

  9. Retailers' Views of Tobacco Policy and Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinert, Bonita; Carver, Vivien; Range, Lillian M.; Pike, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Tobacco retailers are in a unique position to implement policies that can influence sales and ultimately tobacco use, so the present survey explored retailers' tobacco policies, involvement and problems with law enforcement, and pessimism about whether youth will obtain tobacco products. Methods: 144 randomly selected tobacco retailers…

  10. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation of retail food stores. 278.2 Section 278.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD...

  11. CALiPER Special Summary Report: Retail Replacement Lamp Testing

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-01

    CALiPER testing has evaluated many products for commercial lighting markets and found some excellent performers. However, many of these are not available on the retail market. This special testing was undertaken to identify and test solid-state lighting (SSL) replacement lamp products that are available to the general public through retail stores and websites.

  12. An Approach to Teaching the Retail Advertising Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Thomas A.

    One approach to teaching a college-level retail advertising course emphasizes the use of newspapers and shopping guides. The course objectives are (1) to acquaint students with practices and problems of retailing, with particular emphasis on promotion and advertising; (2) to acquaint them with ways local advertising media meet promotional and…

  13. 29 CFR 779.328 - Retail and wholesale distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retail and wholesale distinguished. 779.328 Section 779.328 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR...

  14. 27 CFR 6.100 - Participation in retailer association activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... association activities. 6.100 Section 6.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... retailer association activities. The following acts by an industry member participating in retailer association activities do not constitute a means to induce within the meaning of section 105(b)(3) of the...

  15. 27 CFR 6.100 - Participation in retailer association activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... association activities. 6.100 Section 6.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... retailer association activities. The following acts by an industry member participating in retailer association activities do not constitute a means to induce within the meaning of section 105(b)(3) of the...

  16. Directory of Post-Secondary Retailing and Marketing Vocational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This directory lists 357 general and 135 special retailing and marketing vocational programs at the post secondary level. Institutions vary somewhat in the identification of general programs; for example, they may be called retailing, merchandising, marketing, mid-management, or distributive education programs. Specialized programs offered by…

  17. Weaving New Retail and Consumer Landscapes in the Scottish Borders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Anne; Sparks, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    New retail locations and formats and changing consumer capabilities and behaviours (including "switching") have encouraged "outshopping" from rural to urban areas. Rural areas have been suffering from a decline in the provision of services, including retailing. One "solution" has been the strengthening of market towns in rural areas by the…

  18. 19 CFR 10.461 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.461... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.461 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging... requirement, the value of such packaging materials and containers will be taken into account as originating...

  19. 19 CFR 10.539 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.539...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.539 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging... requirement, the value of such packaging materials and containers will be taken into account as originating...

  20. The Junior College Approach to Retail Marketing and Sales Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voris, Clyde A.

    The primary objective of this study was to ascertain from retail merchants the amount and type of formal college education desirable for optimum performance of typical mid-management retail positions, such as store manager, department manager, and buyer-merchandiser. The investigation also was concerned with any job stability differences between…

  1. National Apprenticeship Standards for the Retail Meatcutting Industry. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training.

    These national standards are intended to serve as a guide for the establishment of thorough and complete apprenticeship programs to produce trained retail meatcutters to carry on the tradition of quality in the retail meatcutting industry. Covered in the individual sections are the following topics: definitions, the National Joint Apprenticeship…

  2. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  3. 17 CFR 1.46 - Application and closing out of offsetting long and short positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 1.46, see the List of CFR Sections Affected...) Any futures commission merchant or retail foreign exchange dealer who: (i) Engages in a retail forex transaction involving the purchase of any currency for the account of any retail forex customer when...

  4. 12 CFR 48.16 - Customer dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... procedures. No national bank may enter into any agreement or understanding with a retail forex customer in... clause or clauses. (3) The agreement advises the retail forex customer that, at such time as the customer... connection with the dispute resolution, unless it is determined in the proceeding that the retail...

  5. 12 CFR 48.16 - Customer dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... procedures. No national bank may enter into any agreement or understanding with a retail forex customer in... clause or clauses. (3) The agreement advises the retail forex customer that, at such time as the customer... connection with the dispute resolution, unless it is determined in the proceeding that the retail...

  6. 12 CFR 48.16 - Customer dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... procedures. No national bank may enter into any agreement or understanding with a retail forex customer in... clause or clauses. (3) The agreement advises the retail forex customer that, at such time as the customer... connection with the dispute resolution, unless it is determined in the proceeding that the retail...

  7. 17 CFR 1.36 - Record of securities and property received from customers and option customers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... commission merchant and each retail foreign exchange dealer shall maintain, as provided in § 1.31, a record of all securities and property received from customers, retail forex customers or option customers in lieu of money to margin, purchase, guarantee, or secure the commodity, retail forex or commodity...

  8. Attitudes of meat retailers to animal welfare in Spain.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Villarroel, Morris; María, Gustavo A

    2013-11-01

    This study analyzes retailer attitude towards animal welfare in Spain, and how this attitude has changed over recent years (2006-2011). Retailers were concerned about animal welfare issues but a declining trend is observed recently, probably due to the financial crisis. The concern about animal welfare was affected by sex, with women retailers expressing a more positive attitude towards animal welfare issues than men. Retailers, based on their experience, perceive a low level of willingness to pay more for welfare friendly products (WFP) on behalf of their customers. This fact is reflected in the sales of the WFP, which declined from 2006 to 2011. The main reason for consumers to buy WFP, according to retailer perception, is organoleptic quality, with improved welfare being second. The results obtained provide a pessimistic picture in relation to the current market positioning of WFP, which is probably a consequence of market contraction.

  9. Attitudes of meat retailers to animal welfare in Spain.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Villarroel, Morris; María, Gustavo A

    2013-11-01

    This study analyzes retailer attitude towards animal welfare in Spain, and how this attitude has changed over recent years (2006-2011). Retailers were concerned about animal welfare issues but a declining trend is observed recently, probably due to the financial crisis. The concern about animal welfare was affected by sex, with women retailers expressing a more positive attitude towards animal welfare issues than men. Retailers, based on their experience, perceive a low level of willingness to pay more for welfare friendly products (WFP) on behalf of their customers. This fact is reflected in the sales of the WFP, which declined from 2006 to 2011. The main reason for consumers to buy WFP, according to retailer perception, is organoleptic quality, with improved welfare being second. The results obtained provide a pessimistic picture in relation to the current market positioning of WFP, which is probably a consequence of market contraction. PMID:23797014

  10. A Services Marketing Perspective on E-Retailing: Implications for E-Retailers and Directions for Further Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolesar, Mark B.; Galbraith, R. Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Applying a body of theory and empirical research in the study of customer loyalty drivers in the services sector, this paper sets out a number of marketing and Web site design implications for e-retailers. It then suggests several means by which e-retailers can manage customer perceptions to increase sales and develop greater customer loyalty.…

  11. Dynamics of fire ant aggregations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennenbaum, Michael; Hu, David; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    Fire ant aggregations are an inherently active system. Each ant harvests its own energy and can convert it into motion. The motion of individual ants contributes non-trivially to the bulk material properties of the aggregation. We have measured some of these properties using plate-plate rheology, where the response to an applied external force or deformation is measured. In this talk, we will present data pertaining to the aggregation behavior in the absence of any external force. We quantify the aggregation dynamics by monitoring the rotation of the top plate and by measuring the normal force. We then compare the results with visualizations of 2D aggregations.

  12. Kinetics of protein aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, Tuomas

    2015-03-01

    Aggregation into linear nanostructures, notably amyloid and amyloid-like fibrils, is a common form of behaviour exhibited by a range of peptides and proteins. This process was initially discovered in the context of the aetiology of a range of neurodegenerative diseases, but has recently been recognised to of general significance and has been found at the origin of a number of beneficial functional roles in nature, including as catalytic scaffolds and functional components in biofilms. This talk discusses our ongoing efforts to study the kinetics of linear protein self-assembly by using master equation approaches combined with global analysis of experimental data.

  13. Structure of Viral Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Stephen; Luijten, Erik

    2010-03-01

    The aggregation of virus particles is a particular form of colloidal self-assembly, since viruses of a give type are monodisperse and have identical, anisotropic surface charge distributions. In small-angle X-ray scattering experiments, the Qbeta virus was found to organize in different crystal structures in the presence of divalent salt and non-adsorbing polymer. Since a simple isotropic potential cannot explain the occurrence of all observed phases, we employ computer simulations to investigate how the surface charge distribution affects the virus interactions. Using a detailed model of the virus particle, we find an asymmetric ion distribution around the virus which gives rise to the different phases observed.

  14. Stakeholder attitudes towards cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Loo, Ellen J; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Delcour, Ilse; Spanoghe, Pieter; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the attitudes and perspectives of different stakeholder groups (agricultural producers, pesticide manufacturers, trading companies, retailers, regulators, food safety authorities, scientists and NGOs) towards the concepts of cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides by means of qualitative in-depth interviews (n = 15) and a quantitative stakeholder survey (n = 65). The stakeholders involved generally agreed that the use of chemical pesticides is needed, primarily for meeting the need of feeding the growing world population, while clearly acknowledging the problematic nature of human exposure to pesticide residues. Current monitoring was generally perceived to be adequate, but the timeliness and consistency of monitoring practices across countries were questioned. The concept of cumulative exposure assessment was better understood by stakeholders than the concept of aggregate exposure assessment. Identified pitfalls were data availability, data limitations, sources and ways of dealing with uncertainties, as well as information and training needs. Regulators and food safety authorities were perceived as the stakeholder groups for whom cumulative and aggregate pesticide exposure assessment methods and tools would be most useful and acceptable. Insights obtained from this exploratory study have been integrated in the development of targeted and stakeholder-tailored dissemination and training programmes that were implemented within the EU-FP7 project ACROPOLIS. PMID:25455887

  15. Regulating the tobacco retail environment: beyond reducing sales to minors.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S; Freeman, B

    2009-12-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has little to say about the regulation of tobacco retailing, with most research and policy debate having been restricted to confining sales to adults and removing advertising displays, including packs. Tobacco retailing is largely unregulated, reflecting the historical regulatory trivialisation of tobacco products, now demonstrably anachronistic with the advent of near global support for the FCTC. This situation contrasts markedly with the regulation of pharmaceuticals, and many other goods and services subject to a wide variety of restrictions. This review proposes that the international tobacco control community should open up debate on retail regulation to examine the suitability of principles long accepted in pharmaceutical regulation. These include: restrictions on the number and location of tobacco retail outlets, the banning of tobacco retail displays, floor (minimum) price controls, restricting the amount of tobacco smokers could purchase over a given time and loss of retail licensure following breaches of any of the conditions of license. It proposes that retail licenses should be heavily restricted and tradable, becoming valuable commercial assets, where the threat of loss or revocation would act as an incentive for strict adherence to the measures proposed.

  16. Regulating the tobacco retail environment: beyond reducing sales to minors.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S; Freeman, B

    2009-12-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has little to say about the regulation of tobacco retailing, with most research and policy debate having been restricted to confining sales to adults and removing advertising displays, including packs. Tobacco retailing is largely unregulated, reflecting the historical regulatory trivialisation of tobacco products, now demonstrably anachronistic with the advent of near global support for the FCTC. This situation contrasts markedly with the regulation of pharmaceuticals, and many other goods and services subject to a wide variety of restrictions. This review proposes that the international tobacco control community should open up debate on retail regulation to examine the suitability of principles long accepted in pharmaceutical regulation. These include: restrictions on the number and location of tobacco retail outlets, the banning of tobacco retail displays, floor (minimum) price controls, restricting the amount of tobacco smokers could purchase over a given time and loss of retail licensure following breaches of any of the conditions of license. It proposes that retail licenses should be heavily restricted and tradable, becoming valuable commercial assets, where the threat of loss or revocation would act as an incentive for strict adherence to the measures proposed. PMID:19748884

  17. 29 CFR 779.368 - Printing and engraving establishments not recognized as retail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... retail. 779.368 Section 779.368 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or... recognized as retail. (a) An establishment which is engaged in printing and engraving is not recognized as...

  18. 27 CFR 31.66 - Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer selling... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.66 Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation. No retail dealer in liquors or retail dealer in beer shall be deemed to be a wholesale dealer...

  19. Bigger Stores, More Stores, or No Stores: Paths of Retail Restructuring in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vias, Alexander C.

    2004-01-01

    Changes such as the development of large international retail chains, retail concentration, locational changes, technological innovation, new labor practices, and the increasing scale of individual stores, have revolutionized the retail sector. This broad restructuring will have profound impacts in rural America because employment in retail is a…

  20. 29 CFR 779.413 - Methods of compensation of retail store employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methods of compensation of retail store employees. 779.413... Retail or Service Establishments Employees Compensated Principally by Commissions § 779.413 Methods of compensation of retail store employees. (a) Retail or service establishment employees are generally...

  1. Small Business Apparel Retailing in Jamaica: An Exploratory Investigation into Product Development Processes and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Leslie, Natalie; Gaskill, LuAnn R.

    2006-01-01

    While the process and practices of retail product development in developed countries have been documented, a void exists in descriptive analysis regarding retail product development in an international setting. The primary purpose of this study was to explore small business apparel retailing, and specifically the retail product development process…

  2. 27 CFR 6.152 - Practices which put retailer independence at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retailer independence at risk. 6.152 Section 6.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... which put retailer independence at risk. The practices specified in this section put retailer... practices that put retailer independence at risk. (a) The act by an industry member of resetting stock on...

  3. 29 CFR 779.411 - Employee of a “retail or service establishment”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Retail or Service Establishments Employees Compensated Principally by Commissions § 779.411 Employee of a “retail or service establishment”. In order for an employee to come within the exemption from the overtime... must be employed by a retail or service establishment. The term “retail or service establishment”...

  4. Taurine and platelet aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Nauss-Karol, C.; VanderWende, C.; Gaut, Z.N.

    1986-03-01

    Taurine is a putative neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. The endogenous taurine concentration in human platelets, determined by amino acid analysis, is 15 ..mu..M/g. In spite of this high level, taurine is actively accumulated. Uptake is saturable, Na/sup +/ and temperature dependent, and suppressed by metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and several classes of centrally active substances. High, medium and low affinity transport processes have been characterized, and the platelet may represent a model system for taurine transport in the CNS. When platelets were incubated with /sup 14/C-taurine for 30 minutes, then resuspended in fresh medium and reincubated for one hour, essentially all of the taurine was retained within the cells. Taurine, at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 ..mu..M, had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP or epinephrine. However, taurine may have a role in platelet aggregation since 35-39% of the taurine taken up by human platelets appears to be secreted during the release reaction induced by low concentrations of either epinephrine or ADP, respectively. This release phenomenon would imply that part of the taurine taken up is stored directly in the dense bodies of the platelet.

  5. An analysis of strategic price setting in retail gasoline markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaureguiberry, Florencia

    This dissertation studies price-setting behavior in the retail gasoline industry. The main questions addressed are: How important is a retail station's brand and proximity to competitors when retail stations set price? How do retailers adjust their pricing when they cater to consumers who are less aware of competing options or have less discretion over where they purchase gasoline? These questions are explored in two separate analyses using a unique datasets containing retail pricing behavior of stations in California and in 24 different metropolitan areas. The evidence suggests that brand and location generate local market power for gasoline stations. After controlling for market and station characteristics, the analysis finds a spread of 11 cents per gallon between the highest and the lowest priced retail gasoline brands. The analysis also indicates that when the nearest competitor is located over 2 miles away as opposed to next door, consumers will pay an additional 1 cent per gallon of gasoline. In order to quantify the significance of local market power, data for stations located near major airport rental car locations are utilized. The presumption here is that rental car users are less aware or less sensitive to fueling options near the rental car return location and are to some extent "captured consumers". Retailers located near rental car locations have incentives to adjust their pricing strategies to exploit this. The analysis of pricing near rental car locations indicates that retailers charge prices that are 4 cent per gallon higher than other stations in the same metropolitan area. This analysis is of interest to regulators who are concerned with issues of consolidation, market power, and pricing in the retail gasoline industry. This dissertation concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the empirical analysis.

  6. Escherichia coli in retail processed food.

    PubMed

    Pinegar, J A; Cooke, E M

    1985-08-01

    Four thousand two hundred and forty six samples of retail processed food were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli. Overall 12% of samples contained this organism, cakes and confectionery being more frequently contaminated (28%) than meat and meat based products (9%). Contamination was more frequent in the summer months than in the colder weather and 27% of the contaminated foods contained greater than 10(3) E. coli/g. E. coli from meat and meat based products were more commonly resistant to one or more antibiotics (14%) than were confectionery strains (1%). The significance of these findings in relation to the E. coli population of the human bowel is discussed. PMID:3894508

  7. Sorbate and benzoate in Turkish retail foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Ulca, Pelin; Atamer, Beril; Keskin, Mehtap; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2013-01-01

    From 2008 to 2011, surveys were conducted to determine the levels of benzoic and sorbic acids and their respective salts in 983 retail food samples which included sauces, vegetable and fruit preparations, flavoured syrups, food supplements, cereals, bakery products, jelly, synthetic cream, sprays, mustards, jam and preserves, molasses, chewing gum, confectionery, non-alcoholic beverages, tea, wine, vinegar, brine and beers. The analysis involved methanol extraction of the foodstuff and direct determination by HPLC with UV detection. Quality assurance was employed with each batch of samples. Accuracy was ensured through regular participation in proficiency tests. Over this four-year period, a total of 23 samples (2.3%), some syrups, tomato sauces and fruit contained individual or combined levels of sorbic and benzoic acids above regulatory limits. Unauthorised use of benzoic acid was also detected in a syrup sample, bakery products and fruit preserves. PMID:24779907

  8. Sorbate and benzoate in Turkish retail foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Ulca, Pelin; Atamer, Beril; Keskin, Mehtap; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2013-01-01

    From 2008 to 2011, surveys were conducted to determine the levels of benzoic and sorbic acids and their respective salts in 983 retail food samples which included sauces, vegetable and fruit preparations, flavoured syrups, food supplements, cereals, bakery products, jelly, synthetic cream, sprays, mustards, jam and preserves, molasses, chewing gum, confectionery, non-alcoholic beverages, tea, wine, vinegar, brine and beers. The analysis involved methanol extraction of the foodstuff and direct determination by HPLC with UV detection. Quality assurance was employed with each batch of samples. Accuracy was ensured through regular participation in proficiency tests. Over this four-year period, a total of 23 samples (2.3%), some syrups, tomato sauces and fruit contained individual or combined levels of sorbic and benzoic acids above regulatory limits. Unauthorised use of benzoic acid was also detected in a syrup sample, bakery products and fruit preserves.

  9. Retail Choice Experiments: Comparing Early-AdopterExperience

    SciTech Connect

    Golove, William

    2003-03-01

    This paper reviews the experience with retail choice of non-residential electricity customers during the period from early 1998 through the first few months of 2000. Key findings include: (1) customers in California received a significantly smaller discount from utility tariffs than customers in other competitive markets; (2) this sample of large commercial/industrial customers believed they were benefiting significantly more from commodity savings from contracts with retail electricity service providers (RESP) than from value-added services; and,(3) market rules appear to be critical to customer experiences with retail competition, yet the relationship between market rules and market development is inadequately understood.

  10. Holographic characterization of protein aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Zhong, Xiao; Ruffner, David; Stutt, Alexandra; Philips, Laura; Ward, Michael; Grier, David

    Holographic characterization directly measures the size distribution of subvisible protein aggregates in suspension and offers insights into their morphology. Based on holographic video microscopy, this analytical technique records and interprets holograms of individual aggregates in protein solutions as they flow down a microfluidic channel, without requiring labeling or other exceptional sample preparation. The hologram of an individual protein aggregate is analyzed in real time with the Lorenz-Mie theory of light scattering to measure that aggregate's size and optical properties. Detecting, counting and characterizing subvisible aggregates proceeds fast enough for time-resolved studies, and lends itself to tracking trends in protein aggregation arising from changing environmental factors. No other analytical technique provides such a wealth of particle-resolved characterization data in situ. Holographic characterization promises accelerated development of therapeutic protein formulations, improved process control during manufacturing, and streamlined quality assurance during storage and at the point of use. Mrsec and MRI program of the NSF, Spheryx Inc.

  11. Combining microsimulation and spatial interaction models for retail location analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaya, Tomoki; Fotheringham, A. Stewart; Hanaoka, Kazumasa; Clarke, Graham; Ballas, Dimitris; Yano, Keiji

    2007-12-01

    Although the disaggregation of consumers is crucial in understanding the fragmented markets that are dominant in many developed countries, it is not always straightforward to carry out such disaggregation within conventional retail modelling frameworks due to the limitations of data. In particular, consumer grouping based on sampled data is not assured to link with the other statistics that are vital in estimating sampling biases and missing variables in the sampling survey. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a useful combination of spatial interaction modelling and microsimulation approaches for the reliable estimation of retail interactions based on a sample survey of consumer behaviour being linked with other areal statistics. We demonstrate this approach by building an operational retail interaction model to estimate expenditure flows from households to retail stores in a local city in Japan, Kusatsu City.

  12. Ready for the empowered consumer? Providers need retailer's attitude.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The aging of baby boomers and the rise in popularity of the internet are creating a new kind of consumer who demands quality, service, and convenience from health care. To find out how to meet those demands, providers are beginning to benchmark with retail companies experienced in catering to consumers. Retailers can offer help for such processes as inpatient admitting, marketing, billing, sales, product development, and recruiting and retaining employees. PMID:10345803

  13. Ready for the empowered consumer? Providers need retailer's attitude.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The aging of baby boomers and the rise in popularity of the internet are creating a new kind of consumer who demands quality, service, and convenience from health care. To find out how to meet those demands, providers are beginning to benchmark with retail companies experienced in catering to consumers. Retailers can offer help for such processes as inpatient admitting, marketing, billing, sales, product development, and recruiting and retaining employees.

  14. A Comparison of Three Policy Approaches for Tobacco Retailer Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Allison E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Isgett, Lisa F.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine recommends that public health agencies restrict the number and regulate the location of tobacco retailers as a means of reducing tobacco use. However, the best policy strategy for tobacco retailer reduction is unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study is to test the percent reduction in the number and density of tobacco retailers in North Carolina resulting from three policies: (1) prohibiting sales of tobacco products in pharmacies or stores with a pharmacy counter, (2) restricting sales of tobacco products within 1,000 feet of schools, and (3) regulating to 500 feet the minimum allowable distance between tobacco outlets. Methods This study uses data from two lists of tobacco retailers gathered in 2012, one at the statewide level, and another “gold standard” three-county list. Retailers near schools were identified using point and parcel boundaries in ArcMap. Python programming language generated a random lottery system to remove retailers within 500 feet of each other. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Results A minimum allowable distance policy had the single greatest impact and would reduce density by 22.1% at the state level, or 20.8% at the county level (range 16.6% to 27.9%). Both a pharmacy and near-schools ban together would reduce density by 29.3% at the state level, or 29.7% at the county level (range 26.3 to 35.6%). Conclusions The implementation of policies restricting tobacco sales in pharmacies, near schools, and/or in close proximity to another tobacco retailer would substantially reduce the number and density of tobacco retail outlets. PMID:25689540

  15. Awareness promotion about excessive gambling among video lottery retailers.

    PubMed

    Ladouceur, Robert; Boutin, Claude; Doucet, Céline; Dumont, Michel; Provencher, Martin; Giroux, Isabelle; Boucher, Christiane

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates "As luck would have it," an awareness program completed by retailers in Quebec Province. This program, which is presented as a two-hour awareness promotion workshop, aimed to inform retailers about excessive gambling. More specifically, it provided answers to the following questions: (1) What is chance and randomness? (2) Is there a link between misunderstanding the concept of chance and excessive gambling? (3) How does one recognise the symptoms of this disorder? (4) How should retailers intervene if they decide to do so? Results showed that retailers developed a better understanding of problem gambling, could recognise its main symptoms, felt more capable of coping with excessive gamblers, and of choosing the most appropriate moment to do so. In the follow-up phase, retailers who had attended the workshop reported that they approached a problem gambler significantly more often than the retailers who had not attended the workshop, and had discussed how to help problem gamblers significantly more often. The practical implications of these results are briefly discussed. PMID:15060333

  16. Three studies of retail gasoline pricing dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Benjamin James

    In many Canadian cities, retail gasoline prices appear to cycle, rising by large amounts in one or two days followed by several days of small consecutive price decreases. While many empirical studies examine such markets, certain questions cannot b e properly answered without high frequency, station-specific price data for an entire market. Thus, the first paper in this thesis uses bi-hourly price data collected for 27 stations in Guelph, Ontario, eight tunes per day for 103 days to examine several basic predictions of the Edgeworth cycle theory. The results are largely consistent with this theory. However, most independent firms do not tend to undercut their rivals' prices, contrary to previous findings. Furthermore, the tuning, sizes and leaders of price increases appear to be very predictable, and a specific pattern of price movements has been detected on days when prices increase. These findings suggest that leading a price increase might not be as risky as one may expect. The second paper uses these same data to examine the implications o f an informal theory of competitive gasoline pricing, as advanced by industry and government. Consistent with this theory, stations do tend to set prices to match (or set a small positive or negative differential with) a small number of other stations, which are not necessarily the closest stations. Also, while retailers frequently respond to price changes within two hours, many take considerably longer to respond than is predicted by the theory. Finally, while price decreases do ripple across the market like falling dominos, increases appear to propagate based more on geographic location and source of price control than proximity to the leaders. The third paper uses both these data and Guelph price data collected every 12 hours during the same 103 days from OntarioGasPrices.com to examine the sample selection biases that might exist in such Internet price data, as well as their implications for empirical research. It is

  17. Peptide aggregation in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Regina M

    2002-01-01

    In the not-so-distant past, insoluble aggregated protein was considered as uninteresting and bothersome as yesterday's trash. More recently, protein aggregates have enjoyed considerable scientific interest, as it has become clear that these aggregates play key roles in many diseases. In this review, we focus attention on three polypeptides: beta-amyloid, prion, and huntingtin, which are linked to three feared neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer's, "mad cow," and Huntington's disease, respectively. These proteins lack any significant primary sequence homology, yet their aggregates possess very similar features, specifically, high beta-sheet content, fibrillar morphology, relative insolubility, and protease resistance. Because the aggregates are noncrystalline, secrets of their structure at nanometer resolution are only slowly yielding to X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR, and other techniques. Besides structure, the aggregates may possess similar pathways of assembly. Two alternative assembly pathways have been proposed: the nucleation-elongation and the template-assisted mode. These two modes may be complementary, not mutually exclusive. Strategies for interfering with aggregation, which may provide novel therapeutic approaches, are under development. The structural similarities between protein aggregates of dissimilar origin suggest that therapeutic strategies successful against one disease may have broad utility in others. PMID:12117755

  18. Topics in Probabilistic Judgment Aggregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Guanchun

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a compilation of several studies that are united by their relevance to probabilistic judgment aggregation. In the face of complex and uncertain events, panels of judges are frequently consulted to provide probabilistic forecasts, and aggregation of such estimates in groups often yield better results than could have been made…

  19. Mineral of the month: aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, Valentin V.

    2005-01-01

    Natural aggregates, consisting of crushed stone, and sand and gravel, are a major contributor to economic health, and have an amazing variety of uses. Aggregates are among the most abundant mineral resources and are major basic raw materials used by construction, agriculture and other industries that employ complex chemical and metallurgical processes.

  20. Molecular aggregation of humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) form molecular aggregates in solution and on mineral surfaces. Elucidation of the mechanism of formation of these aggregates is important for an understanding of the interactions of HS in soils arid natural waters. The HS are formed mainly by enzymatic depolymerization and oxidation of plant biopolymers. These reactions transform the aromatic and lipid plant components into amphiphilic molecules, that is, molecules that consist of separate hydrophobic (nonpolar) and hydrophilic (polar) parts. The nonpolar parts of the molecules are composed of relatively unaltered segments of plant polymers and the polar parts of carboxylic acid groups. These amphiphiles form membrane-like aggregates on mineral surfaces and micelle-like aggregates in solution. The exterior surfaces of these aggregates are hydrophilic, and the interiors constitute separate hydrophobic liquid-like phases.

  1. Nanoparticle aggregation: principles and modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    The high surface area to volume ratio of nanoparticles usually results in highly reactive and colloidal instability compared to their bulk counterparts. Aggregation as well as many other transformations (e.g., dissolution) in the environment may alter the physiochemical properties, reactivity, fate, transport, and biological interactions (e.g., bioavailability and uptake) of nanoparticles. The unique properties pertinent to nanoparticles, such as shape, size, surface characteristics, composition, and electronic structures, greatly challenge the ability of colloid science to understand nanoparticle aggregation and its environmental impacts. This review briefly introduces fundamentals about aggregation, fractal dimensions, classic and extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeak (DLVO) theories, aggregation kinetic modeling, experimental measurements, followed by detailed discussions on the major factors on aggregation and subsequent effects on nanomaterial transport and reactivity.

  2. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Protein Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Ehab M; Panchal, Jainik P; Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Blum, Janice S; Joubert, Marisa K; Narhi, Linda O; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic proteins have a propensity for aggregation during manufacturing, shipping, and storage. The presence of aggregates in protein drug products can induce adverse immune responses in patients that may affect safety and efficacy, and so it is of concern to both manufacturers and regulatory agencies. In this vein, there is a lack of understanding of the physicochemical determinants of immunological responses and a lack of standardized analytical methods to survey the molecular properties of aggregates associated with immune activation. In this review, we provide an overview of the basic immune mechanisms in the context of interactions with protein aggregates. We then critically examine the literature with emphasis on the underlying immune mechanisms as they relate to aggregate properties. Finally, we highlight the gaps in our current understanding of this issue and offer recommendations for future research. PMID:26869409

  3. Mechanics of fire ant aggregations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennenbaum, Michael; Liu, Zhongyang; Hu, David; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Fire ants link their bodies to form aggregations; these can adopt a variety of structures, they can drip and spread, or withstand applied loads. Here, by using oscillatory rheology, we show that fire ant aggregations are viscoelastic. We find that, at the lowest ant densities probed and in the linear regime, the elastic and viscous moduli are essentially identical over the spanned frequency range, which highlights the absence of a dominant mode of structural relaxation. As ant density increases, the elastic modulus rises, which we interpret by alluding to ant crowding and subsequent jamming. When deformed beyond the linear regime, the aggregation flows, exhibiting shear-thinning behaviour with a stress load that is comparable to the maximum load the aggregation can withstand before individual ants are torn apart. Our findings illustrate the rich, collective mechanical behaviour that can arise in aggregations of active, interacting building blocks.

  4. Mechanics of fire ant aggregations.

    PubMed

    Tennenbaum, Michael; Liu, Zhongyang; Hu, David; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Fire ants link their bodies to form aggregations; these can adopt a variety of structures, they can drip and spread, or withstand applied loads. Here, by using oscillatory rheology, we show that fire ant aggregations are viscoelastic. We find that, at the lowest ant densities probed and in the linear regime, the elastic and viscous moduli are essentially identical over the spanned frequency range, which highlights the absence of a dominant mode of structural relaxation. As ant density increases, the elastic modulus rises, which we interpret by alluding to ant crowding and subsequent jamming. When deformed beyond the linear regime, the aggregation flows, exhibiting shear-thinning behaviour with a stress load that is comparable to the maximum load the aggregation can withstand before individual ants are torn apart. Our findings illustrate the rich, collective mechanical behaviour that can arise in aggregations of active, interacting building blocks. PMID:26501413

  5. Adsorption-induced colloidal aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, B. M.; Petit, J.-M.; Beysens, D.

    1998-03-01

    Reversible colloidal aggregation in binary liquid mixtures has been studied for a number of years. As the phase separation temperature of the liquid mixture is approached the thickness of an adsorption layer around the colloidal particles increases. Beysens and coworkers have demonstrated experimentally that this adsorption layer is intimately connected with the aggregation of the colloidal particles, however, no definitive theory has been available which can explain all of the experimental observations. In this contribution we describe an extension of the Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek theory of colloidal aggregation which takes into account the presence of the adsorption layer and which more realistically models the attractive dispersion interactions. This modified theory can quantitatively account for many of the observed experimental features such as the characteristics of the aggregated state, the general shape of the aggregation line, and the temperature dependence of the second virial coefficient for a lutidine-water mixture containing a small volume fraction of silica colloidal particles.

  6. Retail Buildings: Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Retail Buildings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-04-01

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in retail spaces are poorly understood.

  7. New frontier, new power: the retail environment in Australia's dark market

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of the retail environment in cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. Design: Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents; and articles and advertisements found by hand searching Australia's three leading retail trade journals. Results: As Australian cigarette marketing was increasingly restricted, the retail environment became the primary communication vehicle for building cigarette brands. When retail marketing was restricted, the industry conceded only incrementally and under duress, and at times continues to break the law. The tobacco industry targets retailers via trade promotional expenditure, financial and practical assistance with point of sale marketing, alliance building, brand advertising, and distribution. Cigarette brand advertising in retail magazines are designed to build brand identities. Philip Morris and British American Tobacco are now competing to control distribution of all products to retailers, placing themselves at the heart of retail business. Conclusions: Cigarette companies prize retail marketing in Australia's dark market. Stringent point of sale marketing restrictions should be included in any comprehensive tobacco control measures. Relationships between retailers and the industry will be more difficult to regulate. Retail press advertising and trade promotional expenditure could be banned. In-store marketing assistance, retail–tobacco industry alliance building, and new electronic retail distribution systems may be less amenable to regulation. Alliances between the health and retail sectors and financial support for a move away from retail dependence on tobacco may be necessary to effect cultural change. PMID:14645954

  8. Toward retail product recognition on grocery shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varol, Gül; Kuzu, Rıdvan S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of retail product recognition on grocery shelf images. We present a technique for accomplishing this task with a low time complexity. We decompose the problem into detection and recognition. The former is achieved by a generic product detection module which is trained on a specific class of products (e.g. tobacco packages). Cascade object detection framework of Viola and Jones [1] is used for this purpose. We further make use of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to recognize the brand inside each detected region. We extract both shape and color information; and apply feature-level fusion from two separate descriptors computed with the bag of words approach. Furthermore, we introduce a dataset (available on request) that we have collected for similar research purposes. Results are presented on this dataset of more than 5,000 images consisting of 10 tobacco brands. We show that satisfactory detection and classification can be achieved on devices with cheap computational power. Potential applications of the proposed approach include planogram compliance control, inventory management and assisting visually impaired people during shopping.

  9. Fractal aggregates in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabane, M.; Rannou, P.; Chassefiere, E.; Israel, G.

    1993-04-01

    The cluster structure of Titan's atmosphere was modeled by using an Eulerian microphysical model with the specific formulation of microphysical laws applying to fractal particles. The growth of aggregates in the settling phase was treated by introducing the fractal dimension as a parameter of the model. The model was used to obtain a vertical distribution of size and number density of the aggregates for different production altitudes. Results confirm previous estimates of the formation altitude of photochemical aerosols. The vertical profile of the effective radius of aggregates was calculated as a function of the visible optical depth.

  10. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    SciTech Connect

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles

    2009-01-30

    In 2007, the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) formed the Customer Response Task Force (CRTF) to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in wholesale markets and develop policies to overcome these barriers. One of the initiatives of this Task Force was to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This report describes the results of a comprehensive survey conducted by LBNL in support of the Customer Response Task Force and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into wholesale markets in the SPP region. LBNL conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs administered by SPP's member utilities. Survey respondents were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g. seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. Nearly all of the 30 load-serving entities in SPP responded to the survey. Of this group, fourteen SPP member utilities administer 36 DR programs, five dynamic pricing tariffs, and six voluntary customer response initiatives. These existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs have a peak demand reduction potential of 1,552 MW. Other major findings of this study are: o About 81percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;14percent. o Arkansas accounts for ~;;50percent of the DR resources in the SPP footprint; these DR resources are primarily managed by cooperatives. o Publicly-owned cooperatives accounted for 54percent of the existing DR resources

  11. Phthalates and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in retail stores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Liang, Yirui; Urquidi, Jorge R.; Siegel, Jeffrey A.

    2014-04-01

    Retail stores contain a wide range of products that can emit a variety of indoor pollutants. Among these chemicals, phthalate esters and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two important categories, because they are extensively used as additives in consumer products and associated with serious health concerns. This study measured six phthalate and 14 PBDE compounds inside of 12 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania, U.S. Phthalates and PBDEs were widely found in the retail environment, indicating that they are ubiquitous indoor air pollutants. DEP, DnBP, and DEHP were the most abundant phthalates, with DnBP showing the highest concentration (0.23 ± 0.36 μg m-3). PBDEs were dominated by BDE-28, -99, and -209, having concentrations as high as 0.85 ± 1.99 ng m-3 (BDE-99). The levels of phthalates and PBDEs measured in this study are comparable to concentrations found in previous investigations of residential buildings, with phthalates showing lower concentrations and PBDEs exhibiting higher concentrations in retail stores. The potential co-occurrence of phthalates was not as strong as that of PBDEs, suggesting that phthalates might have more diverse sources. Whole building emission rates were calculated and showed similar patterns of variations as indoor air concentrations, suggestion the diversity of indoor sources of phthalates and PBDEs in retail environments.

  12. Surface fractals in liposome aggregation.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Vargas, Sándalo; Barnadas-Rodríguez, Ramon; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Estelrich, Joan; Callejas-Fernández, José

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the aggregation of charged liposomes induced by magnesium is investigated. Static and dynamic light scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and cryotransmission electron microscopy are used as experimental techniques. In particular, multiple intracluster scattering is reduced to a negligible amount using a cross-correlation light scattering scheme. The analysis of the cluster structure, probed by means of static light scattering, reveals an evolution from surface fractals to mass fractals with increasing magnesium concentration. Cryotransmission electron microscopy micrographs of the aggregates are consistent with this interpretation. In addition, a comparative analysis of these results with those previously reported in the presence of calcium suggests that the different hydration energy between lipid vesicles when these divalent cations are present plays a fundamental role in the cluster morphology. This suggestion is also supported by infrared spectroscopy data. The kinetics of the aggregation processes is also analyzed through the time evolution of the mean diffusion coefficient of the aggregates. PMID:19257067

  13. Surface fractals in liposome aggregation.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Vargas, Sándalo; Barnadas-Rodríguez, Ramon; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Estelrich, Joan; Callejas-Fernández, José

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the aggregation of charged liposomes induced by magnesium is investigated. Static and dynamic light scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and cryotransmission electron microscopy are used as experimental techniques. In particular, multiple intracluster scattering is reduced to a negligible amount using a cross-correlation light scattering scheme. The analysis of the cluster structure, probed by means of static light scattering, reveals an evolution from surface fractals to mass fractals with increasing magnesium concentration. Cryotransmission electron microscopy micrographs of the aggregates are consistent with this interpretation. In addition, a comparative analysis of these results with those previously reported in the presence of calcium suggests that the different hydration energy between lipid vesicles when these divalent cations are present plays a fundamental role in the cluster morphology. This suggestion is also supported by infrared spectroscopy data. The kinetics of the aggregation processes is also analyzed through the time evolution of the mean diffusion coefficient of the aggregates.

  14. Electromagnetic charges in aggregation phenomena.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Claude; Slobodrian, R. J.

    Introduction The mechanism of fine particles aggregation is of great importance in many areas of research, in particular environment sciences where the state of aggregation defines the removal speed of dust from the atmosphere. The study of this mechanism is also important to understand the first stage of planet formation from the solar nebula. The aggregates formed are generally fractals and, as mentioned in the literature [1], the fractal dimensions and the site growth probability measures of the resulting fractal structures strongly depend on the properties of the forces that cause the aggregation. Theory and experimental apparatus We began this study by the aggregation between two charged particles and we are now consid-ering the aggregation between two magnetized particles. The aggregations are produced in a gas at a pressure between 10 and 1000 mbar and by using the applicable simplifications; we find that the distance (r) between the particles as a function of time (t) is given by the following equations: r=Ce(tf -t)1/3 for the electrical attraction r=Cm(tf -t)1/5 for the magnetic dipoles aligned in an external magnetic field. The apparatus built for these measurements consists of an experimental cell from which two perpendicular views are combined via an optical system in one image recorded by a video camera. From the video, we can then measure the distance between the particles as a function of time and reconstruct the trajectories in 3-D. The horizontal and vertical resolutions are respectively 0.86 and 0.92 microns per pixel. With a depth of field of 250 microns, the usable volume for 3-D observation in then 250 microns x 250 microns x 443 microns. Results and discussion A first version of the apparatus was tested on an electrical force aggregation and the results [2] show that the corresponding equation is a good representation of the phenomenon. Preliminary results, from an experiment using iron particles, show that the magnetic force can be seen in

  15. Aggregate breakdown of nanoparticulate titania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, Navin

    Six nanosized titanium dioxide powders synthesized from a sulfate process were investigated. The targeted end-use of this powder was for a de-NOx catalyst honeycomb monolith. Alteration of synthesis parameters had resulted principally in differences in soluble ion level and specific surface area of the powders. The goal of this investigation was to understand the role of synthesis parameters in the aggregation behavior of these powders. Investigation via scanning electron microscopy of the powders revealed three different aggregation iterations at specific length scales. Secondary and higher order aggregate strength was investigated via oscillatory stress rheometry as a means of simulating shear conditions encountered during extrusion. G' and G'' were measured as a function of the applied oscillatory stress. Oscillatory rheometry indicated a strong variation as a function of the sulfate level of the particles in the viscoelastic yield strengths. Powder yield stresses ranged from 3.0 Pa to 24.0 Pa of oscillatory stress. Compaction curves to 750 MPa found strong similarities in extrapolated yield point of stage I and II compaction for each of the powders (at approximately 500 MPa) suggesting that the variation in sulfate was greatest above the primary aggregate level. Scanning electron microscopy of samples at different states of shear in oscillatory rheometry confirmed the variation in the linear elastic region and the viscous flow regime. A technique of this investigation was to approach aggregation via a novel perspective: aggregates are distinguished as being loose open structures that are highly disordered and stochastic in nature. The methodology used was to investigate the shear stresses required to rupture the various aggregation stages encountered and investigate the attempt to realign the now free-flowing constituents comprising the aggregate into a denser configuration. Mercury porosimetry was utilized to measure the pore size of the compact resulting from

  16. Glycation precedes lens crystallin aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, M.S.; Perry, R.E.; Abraham, E.C.

    1987-05-01

    Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) seems to have the potential to alter the structure of crystallins and make them susceptible to thiol oxidation leading to disulfide-linked high molecular weight (HMW) aggregate formation. They used streptozotocin diabetic rats during precataract and cataract stages and long-term cell-free glycation of bovine lens crystallins to study the relationship between glycation and lens crystallin aggregation. HMW aggregates and other protein components of the water-soluble (WS) and urea-soluble (US) fractions were separated by molecular sieve high performance liquid chromatography. Glycation was estimated by both (/sup 3/H)NaBH/sub 4/ reduction and phenylboronate agarose affinity chromatography. Levels of total glycated protein (GP) in the US fractions were about 2-fold higher than in the WS fractions and there was a linear increase in GP in both WS and US fractions. This increase was parallelled by a corresponding increase in HMW aggregates. Total GP extracted by the affinity method from the US fraction showed a predominance of HMW aggregates and vice versa. Cell-free glycation studies with bovine crystallins confirmed the results of the animals studies. Increasing glycation caused a corresponding increase in protein insolubilization and the insoluble fraction thus formed also contained more glycated protein. It appears that lens protein glycation, HMW aggregate formation, and protein insolubilization are interrelated.

  17. 29 CFR 779.321 - Inapplicability of “retail concept” to some types of sales or services of an eligible establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Retailâ § 779.321 Inapplicability of “retail concept” to some types of sales or services of an eligible establishment. (a) Only those sales or services to which the retail concept applies may be recognized as retail... have a concept of retailability, in that it makes sales of types which may be recognized as retail,...

  18. 75 FR 16428 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... merchandise. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; Determinations, 74 FR... Alignment of Final Countervailing Duty Determination with ] Final Antidumping Duty Determination, 74 FR... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of...

  19. 29 CFR 779.347 - Exemption limited to “recognized retail establishment”; factories not exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... under the exemption are custom tailor shops, candy shops, ice cream parlors, bakeries, drug stores, optometrist establishments, retail ice plants and other local retail establishments which make or process...

  20. 29 CFR 779.347 - Exemption limited to “recognized retail establishment”; factories not exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... under the exemption are custom tailor shops, candy shops, ice cream parlors, bakeries, drug stores, optometrist establishments, retail ice plants and other local retail establishments which make or process...

  1. 29 CFR 779.347 - Exemption limited to “recognized retail establishment”; factories not exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under the exemption are custom tailor shops, candy shops, ice cream parlors, bakeries, drug stores, optometrist establishments, retail ice plants and other local retail establishments which make or process...

  2. 29 CFR 779.347 - Exemption limited to “recognized retail establishment”; factories not exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under the exemption are custom tailor shops, candy shops, ice cream parlors, bakeries, drug stores, optometrist establishments, retail ice plants and other local retail establishments which make or process...

  3. 29 CFR 779.347 - Exemption limited to “recognized retail establishment”; factories not exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... under the exemption are custom tailor shops, candy shops, ice cream parlors, bakeries, drug stores, optometrist establishments, retail ice plants and other local retail establishments which make or process...

  4. Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

    2012-12-01

    Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within <1 km of the vent. The deposits within the A418 pipe, Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (<62 μm). Secondly, the ash aggregates indicate the involvement of moisture coupled with the presence of dilute expanded eruption clouds. The structure and distribution of these deposits throughout the kimberlite conduit demand that aggregation and deposition operate entirely within the confines of the vent; this indicates that aggregation is a rapid process. Ash aggregates within glaciovolcanic sequences are also rarely documented. The

  5. Effects of Website Interactivity on Online Retail Shopping Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Hafizul

    Motivations to engage in retail online shopping can include both utilitarian and hedonic shopping dimensions. To cater to these consumers, online retailers can create a cognitively and esthetically rich shopping environment, through sophisticated levels of interactive web utilities and features, offering not only utilitarian benefits and attributes but also providing hedonic benefits of enjoyment. Since the effect of interactive websites has proven to stimulate online consumer’s perceptions, this study presumes that websites with multimedia rich interactive utilities and features can influence online consumers’ shopping motivations and entice them to modify or even transform their original shopping predispositions by providing them with attractive and enhanced interactive features and controls, thus generating a positive attitude towards products and services offered by the retailer. This study seeks to explore the effects of Web interactivity on online consumer behavior through an attitudinal model of technology acceptance.

  6. Survey of Mexican retail stores for US beef product.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Leidenz, Nelson; Ruíz-Flores, Agustín; Maldonado-Siman, Ema; Valdéz, Alejandra; Belk, Keith E

    2014-02-01

    Retail packages (N=1004) containing fresh US beef in display cases in five cities across three regions of Mexico were surveyed for cut types, cutting styles, fat thickness measurements, marbling scores, and USDA Quality Grades to gain an overview of fresh US beef in Mexican retail markets. Data were analyzed to generate frequency distributions and examine the effect of city, geographical region, store chain, and socio-economic status of the targeted clientele on type, cutting style, fat measures and quality of beef cuts of US origin. Top round, bottom round and knuckle were the most common cut types. Milanesa-type slice and "bistec" (steak for grilling) were the predominant cutting styles. Over 95% of the retail cuts were trimmed to 3.2mm or less of external fat. Most cuts were USDA Select (74.5%) and USDA Choice (24.5%). External fat thickness and marbling score differed among cities and store chains (P<0.01).

  7. 17 CFR 5.25 - Applicability of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...)-(e), 6b, 6c, 8(a)-(e), 8a and 12(f) of the Act shall apply to retail forex transactions that are... specific references to retail forex transactions and the persons defined in § 5.1 of this part....

  8. 17 CFR 3.33 - Withdrawal from registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 3.33, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... all customer, retail forex customer or option customer agreements, if any, have been terminated; (ii) That all customer, retail forex customer or option customer positions, if any, have been transferred...

  9. 17 CFR 5.25 - Applicability of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...)-(e), 6b, 6c, 8(a)-(e), 8a and 12(f) of the Act shall apply to retail forex transactions that are... specific references to retail forex transactions and the persons defined in § 5.1 of this part....

  10. 17 CFR 5.25 - Applicability of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...)-(e), 6b, 6c, 8(a)-(e), 8a and 12(f) of the Act shall apply to retail forex transactions that are... specific references to retail forex transactions and the persons defined in § 5.1 of this part....

  11. 17 CFR 5.25 - Applicability of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...)-(e), 6b, 6c, 8(a)-(e), 8a and 12(f) of the Act shall apply to retail forex transactions that are... specific references to retail forex transactions and the persons defined in § 5.1 of this part....

  12. 17 CFR 3.33 - Withdrawal from registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 3.33, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... all customer, retail forex customer or option customer agreements, if any, have been terminated; (ii) That all customer, retail forex customer or option customer positions, if any, have been transferred...

  13. 17 CFR 3.33 - Withdrawal from registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... customer, retail forex customer or option customer agreements, if any, have been terminated; (ii) That all customer, retail forex customer or option customer positions, if any, have been transferred on behalf...

  14. 27 CFR 31.94 - Retail dealers “At Large.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealers âAt Large.â 31.94 Section 31.94 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Locations § 31.94 Retail dealers “At Large.” A retail dealer in liquors or a retail dealer in beer...

  15. Crystal aggregation in kidney stones; a polymer aggregation problem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, J.; Beshensky, A.; Viswanathan, P.; Zachowicz, W.; Kleinman, J.

    2008-03-01

    Kidney stones most frequently form as aggregates of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals with organic layers between them, and the organic layers contain principally proteins. The pathway leading to the formation of these crystal aggregates in affected people has not been identified, but stone forming patients are thought to have a defect in the structure or distribution of urinary proteins, which normally protect against stone formation. We have developed two polyelectrolyte models that will induce COM crystal aggregation in vitro, and both are consistent with possible urinary protein compositions. The first model was based on mixing polyanionic and polycationic proteins, in portions such that the combined protein charge is near zero. The second model was based on reducing the charge density on partially charged polyanionic proteins, specifically Tamm-Horsfall protein, the second most abundant protein in urine. Both models demonstrated polymer phase separation at solution conditions where COM crystal aggregation was observed. Correlation with data from other bulk crystallization measurements suggest that the anionic side chains form critical binding interactions with COM surfaces that are necessary along with the phase separation process to induce COM crystal aggregation.

  16. National Retail Data Monitor for public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael M; Tsui, F C; Espino, J; Hogan, W; Hutman, J; Hersh, J; Neill, D; Moore, A; Parks, G; Lewis, C; Aller, R

    2004-09-24

    The National Retail Data Monitor (NRDM) is a public health surveillance tool that collects and analyzes daily sales data for over-the-counter (OTC) health-care products. NRDM collects sales data for selected OTC health-care products in near real time from >15,000 retail stores and makes them available to public health officials. NRDM is one of the first examples of a national data utility for public health surveillance that collects, redistributes, and analyzes daily sales-volume data of selected health-care products, thereby reducing the effort for both data providers and health departments.

  17. Retail Environments as a Venue for Obesity Prevention.

    PubMed

    Odoms-Young, Angela; Singleton, Chelsea R; Springfield, Sparkle; McNabb, Leilah; Thompson, Terry

    2016-06-01

    Increasing attention has been given to the role of retail food environments in shaping dietary behavior and obesity risk. Studies have generally shown an association between living in a neighborhood with or in close proximity to certain types of food outlets and/or the availability of healthy food options and better dietary quality, higher fruit/vegetable intakes, and a lower risk of overweight, even after controlling for individual/family level characteristics. However, research in this area has yielded mixed results, overall. Future research needs to identify consistent approaches for defining and measuring food retail environments. PMID:27099166

  18. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of...

  19. 78 FR 50376 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... at Less Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 34122- 34124 (June 18... Review, 72 FR 1982, 1983 (January 17, 2007), Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Final... Administrative Review, 72 FR 64580 (November 16, 2007), Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand:...

  20. 77 FR 42016 - Product Change-Every Door Direct Mail-Retail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Change--Every Door Direct Mail--Retail AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal... Door Direct Mail--Retail to the market-dominant product list within the Mail Classification Schedule... Direct Mail--Retail to the Mail Classification Schedule, pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642. Documents...

  1. 29 CFR 779.263 - Excise taxes not at the retail level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excise taxes not at the retail level. 779.263 Section 779... Coverage Excise Taxes § 779.263 Excise taxes not at the retail level. There are also a wide variety of taxes levied at the manufacturer's or distributor's level and not at the retail level. It should...

  2. 29 CFR 779.262 - Excise taxes at the retail level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excise taxes at the retail level. 779.262 Section 779.262... Coverage Excise Taxes § 779.262 Excise taxes at the retail level. (a) Federal excise taxes are imposed at the retail level on highway vehicle fuels other than gasoline under the provisions of 26 U.S.C....

  3. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume...

  4. Information Systems and Technology Sourcing Strategies and Performance of E-Retailers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Juliana Yuh-Shun

    2012-01-01

    The e-Retail industry has grown rapidly over the last few years and is projected to continue its upward trend as consumers shift from traditional channels to online channels. In March 2010, Forrester Research forecasted that online retail sales will grow by 10% a year for the next 5 years and e-Retail sales will amount to $249 billion by 2014.…

  5. Retailing. Instructor's Guide Sheets and Instructor's Package, Modules R 1-45. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    This package contains instructor's guide sheets and student task assignment sheets for Modules R 1-45 of the competency-based curriculum in retailing developed for use in secondary and postsecondary schools in Kentucky. Some of the topics covered in the modules include the following: retailing--past, present, and future; retailing occupations;…

  6. 78 FR 57227 - Animal Welfare; Retail Pet Stores and Licensing Exemptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 1 and 2 RIN 0579-AD57 Animal Welfare; Retail Pet Stores and...: We are revising the definition of retail pet store and related regulations in order to ensure that the definition of retail pet store in the regulations is consistent with the Animal Welfare Act...

  7. Influence of Image Interactivity on Approach Responses towards an Online Retailer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Ann Marie; Jin, Hyun-Jeong

    2003-01-01

    Measured the effect of exposure to an image interactivity function from an apparel retailer's Web site on approach responses towards the retailer. Dependent variables included attitude towards the online store, willingness to purchase, probability of spending more time than planned shopping, and likelihood of patronizing the online retailer's…

  8. 26 CFR 48.4041-17 - Tax-free retail sales to certain nonprofit educational organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES... organization; general rule. To establish the right to exemption, the retailer must obtain from the purchaser... exemption from retailers excise taxes for use by a nonprofit educational organization, other than a...

  9. 75 FR 43182 - Voluntary Registration by Authorized Officials of Non-Covered Retail Food Establishments and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... (hereinafter ``chain retail food establishments''), and for certain foods sold in vending machines operated by... (hereinafter ``chain vending machine operators''). For chain retail food establishments, as that term is used... regulations. B. What is the effect of voluntary registration under section 4205? Unlike chain retail...

  10. 77 FR 41716 - Animal Welfare; Retail Pet Stores and Licensing Exemptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 1 and 2 RIN 0579-AC36 Animal Welfare; Retail Pet... animals sold at retail under the protection of the Animal Welfare Act (AWA). We are also announcing the... regulations to bring more pet animals sold at retail under the protection of the Animal Welfare Act...

  11. 17 CFR 5.10 - Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for retail foreign exchange dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requirements for retail foreign exchange dealers. 5.10 Section 5.10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... recordkeeping requirements for retail foreign exchange dealers. (a) Requirement to maintain and preserve information. (1) Each retail foreign exchange dealer registered with the Commission pursuant to section...

  12. 17 CFR 5.12 - Financial reports of retail foreign exchange dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Financial reports of retail... COMMISSION OFF-EXCHANGE FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.12 Financial reports of retail foreign exchange dealers. (a)(1) Each person who files an application for registration as a retail foreign exchange...

  13. 39 CFR 602.2 - Office of Licensing, Philatelic and Retail Services Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Licensing, Philatelic and Retail... OTHER THAN PATENTS § 602.2 Office of Licensing, Philatelic and Retail Services Department. In accordance with the foregoing policy, the Postal Service Office of Licensing, Philatelic and Retail...

  14. 39 CFR 602.2 - Office of Licensing, Philatelic and Retail Services Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Office of Licensing, Philatelic and Retail... OTHER THAN PATENTS § 602.2 Office of Licensing, Philatelic and Retail Services Department. In accordance with the foregoing policy, the Postal Service Office of Licensing, Philatelic and Retail...

  15. Training in the Retail Sector. A Survey for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Wilfried; And Others

    Training in the retail sector throughout the 12 European Community (EC) member countries was examined through in-depth case studies of 55 retail firms that were selected as representing a wide range of firm types (19 multinational, 36 national, 4 cooperative, 7 family-owned firms), forms of retailing (department stores, supermarkets, and chain and…

  16. Fractal Aggregates in Tennis Ball Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabin, J.; Bandin, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the…

  17. Aggregated Recommendation through Random Forests

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aggregated recommendation refers to the process of suggesting one kind of items to a group of users. Compared to user-oriented or item-oriented approaches, it is more general and, therefore, more appropriate for cold-start recommendation. In this paper, we propose a random forest approach to create aggregated recommender systems. The approach is used to predict the rating of a group of users to a kind of items. In the preprocessing stage, we merge user, item, and rating information to construct an aggregated decision table, where rating information serves as the decision attribute. We also model the data conversion process corresponding to the new user, new item, and both new problems. In the training stage, a forest is built for the aggregated training set, where each leaf is assigned a distribution of discrete rating. In the testing stage, we present four predicting approaches to compute evaluation values based on the distribution of each tree. Experiments results on the well-known MovieLens dataset show that the aggregated approach maintains an acceptable level of accuracy. PMID:25180204

  18. Novel insights into amylin aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Karen; Govender, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Amylin is a peptide that aggregates into species that are toxic to pancreatic beta cells, leading to type II diabetes. This study has for the first time quantified amylin association and dissociation kinetics (association constant (ka) = 28.7 ± 5.1 L mol−1 s−1 and dissociation constant (kd) = 2.8 ± 0.6 ×10−4 s−1) using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Thus far, techniques used for the sizing of amylin aggregates do not cater for the real-time monitoring of unconstrained amylin in solution. In this regard we evaluated recently innovated nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). In addition, both SPR and NTA were used to study the effect of previously synthesized amylin derivatives on amylin aggregation and to evaluate their potential as a cell-free system for screening potential inhibitors of amylin-mediated cytotoxicity. Results obtained from NTA highlighted a predominance of 100–300 nm amylin aggregates and correlation to previously published cytotoxicity results suggests the toxic species of amylin to be 200–300 nm in size. The results seem to indicate that NTA has potential as a new technique to monitor the aggregation potential of amyloid peptides in solution and also to screen potential inhibitors of amylin-mediated cytotoxicity. PMID:26019498

  19. Equilibrium structure of ferrofluid aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Mina; Tomanek, David

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium structure of large but finite aggregates of magnetic dipoles, representing a colloidal suspension of magnetite particles in a ferrofluid. With increasing system size, the structural motif evolves from chains and rings to multi-chain and multi-ring assemblies. Very large systems form single- and multi-wall coils, tubes and scrolls. These structural changes result from a competition between various energy terms, which can be approximated analytically within a continuum model. We also study the effect of external parameters such as magnetic field on the relative stability of these structures. Our results may give insight into experimental data obtained during solidification of ferrofluid aggregates at temperatures where thermal fluctuations become negligible in comparison to inter-particle interactions. These data may also help to experimentally control the aggregation of magnetic particles.

  20. Customer Aggregation: An Opportunity for Green Power?

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, E.; Bird, L.

    2001-02-26

    We undertook research into the experience of aggregation groups to determine whether customer aggregation offers an opportunity to bring green power choices to more customers. The objectives of this report, therefore, are to (1) identify the different types of aggregation that are occurring today, (2) learn whether aggregation offers an opportunity to advance sales of green power, and (3) share these concepts and approaches with potential aggregators and green power advocates.

  1. Fractal aggregates in tennis ball systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabin, J.; Bandín, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.

    2009-09-01

    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the images of the cluster of balls, following Forrest and Witten's pioneering studies on the aggregation of smoke particles, to estimate their fractal dimension.

  2. A Longitudinal Analysis of Cigarette Prices in Military Retail Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Christopher Keith; Hyder, Melissa L.; Poston, Walker S. C.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Williams, Larry N.; Lando, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a longitudinal assessment of tobacco pricing in military retail outlets, including trends within each service branch. Methods. We determined the price of a single pack of Marlboro Red cigarettes at military retail stores located in the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii and at their nearest Walmarts in spring 2011 and 2013 (n = 128 for pairs available at both assessments). Results. The average difference between cigarettes sold in military retail outlets and Walmarts decreased from 24.5% in 2011 to 12.5% in 2013. The decrease was partially attributable to significant price decreases at Walmarts. The largest increases in cigarette prices occurred on naval installations. Potential savings at stores on several installations remained substantial in 2013; the largest approached $6 per pack. Stores on 17 military installations decreased cigarette prices during the study period. Conclusions. Tobacco can be purchased in military retail stores at substantial savings over civilian stores. If tobacco pricing is to cease to be an incentive for use among personnel, a revised military tobacco pricing policy is needed. PMID:24524503

  3. Gendering Occupational Identities and IT in the Retail Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Janice

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the influence of gendered occupational identities in the social construction of skill and technology in a retail company introducing an information-technology system. Focuses on female shop floor supervisors and considers the impact that femininity had on definitions and role during a period of change. (JOW)

  4. Real-time video analysis for retail stores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ehtesham; Maurya, Avinash K.

    2015-03-01

    With the advancement in video processing technologies, we can capture subtle human responses in a retail store environment which play decisive role in the store management. In this paper, we present a novel surveillance video based analytic system for retail stores targeting localized and global traffic estimate. Development of an intelligent system for human traffic estimation in real-life poses a challenging problem because of the variation and noise involved. In this direction, we begin with a novel human tracking system by an intelligent combination of motion based and image level object detection. We demonstrate the initial evaluation of this approach on available standard dataset yielding promising result. Exact traffic estimate in a retail store require correct separation of customers from service providers. We present a role based human classification framework using Gaussian mixture model for this task. A novel feature descriptor named graded colour histogram is defined for object representation. Using, our role based human classification and tracking system, we have defined a novel computationally efficient framework for two types of analytics generation i.e., region specific people count and dwell-time estimation. This system has been extensively evaluated and tested on four hours of real-life video captured from a retail store.

  5. Tobacco retail regulation: the next frontier in tobacco control?

    PubMed

    Smyth, Colleen; Freeman, Becky; Maag, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Australia has experienced significant reductions in smoking rates in recent decades, and public health scrutiny is turning to how further gains will be made. Regulatory controls, such as licensing to reduce retailer density or limit tobacco proximity to schools or licensed premises, have been suggested by some public health advocates as appropriate next steps. This paper summarises best-practice evidence in relation to tobacco retailer regulation, noting measures undertaken in New South Wales (NSW). Research on controlling the display of tobacco products and supply of tobacco to minors is well established. The evidence shows that a combination of licensing, enforcement, education, promotion restrictions at the point of sale and a well-funded compliance program to prevent sales to minors is a best-practice approach to tobacco retail regulation. The evidence for other measures - such as restricting the number of retail outlets, and restricting how and where tobacco is sold - is far less developed. There is insufficient evidence to determine if a positive licensing system and controls on the density and location of tobacco outlets would be effective in the Australian context. More evidence is required from jurisdictions that have implemented a positive licensing scheme to evaluate the effect of such schemes on smoking rates, the potential cost benefits and any unintended consequences. PMID:26243488

  6. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... financial institution in areas where an Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) system has been implemented. (h... to use the coupons, the food retailer should request the person to show the ID card of the household to establish the right of that person to use the coupons. Where photo ID cards are in use, the...

  7. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... financial institution in areas where an Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) system has been implemented. (h... to use the coupons, the food retailer should request the person to show the ID card of the household to establish the right of that person to use the coupons. Where photo ID cards are in use, the...

  8. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... financial institution in areas where an Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) system has been implemented. (h... to use the coupons, the food retailer should request the person to show the ID card of the household to establish the right of that person to use the coupons. Where photo ID cards are in use, the...

  9. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... financial institution in areas where an Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) system has been implemented. (h... to use the coupons, the food retailer should request the person to show the ID card of the household to establish the right of that person to use the coupons. Where photo ID cards are in use, the...

  10. 19 CFR 10.601 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.601 Section 10.601 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  11. 19 CFR 10.601 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.601 Section 10.601 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  12. 19 CFR 10.601 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.601 Section 10.601 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  13. 19 CFR 10.601 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.601 Section 10.601 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  14. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: In-Store Retailing Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the in-store retailing cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards…

  15. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advertising in retailer publications. 6.54 Section 6.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service §...

  16. 21 CFR 1140.14 - Additional responsibilities of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO; Eff. 6-22-10 Prohibition of Sale and... sales of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to any person comply with the following requirements: (a) No retailer may sell cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to any person younger than 18 years of age; (b)(1)...

  17. 27 CFR 6.153 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.153 Criteria for... or the quantity in which to purchase them for sale to consumers. (b) The industry member obligates the retailer to participate in the promotion to obtain the industry member's product. (c) The...

  18. 27 CFR 8.54 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Exclusion § 8.54 Criteria for... purchase or the quantity in which to purchase them for sale to consumers. (b) The industry member obligates the retailer to participate in the promotion to obtain the industry member's product. (c) The...

  19. Retail Flower Shop Operation and Management. A Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Richard F.; And Others

    Field tested by teachers attending an institute in landscape horticulture July 5-22, 1966, this teacher's manual is one of a series of instructional aids developed by the Department of Agricultural Education at the Pennsylvania State University. The content includes problem areas of: (1) Exploring Occupational Opportunities in the Retail Flower…

  20. 75 FR 37378 - Exemption for Retail Store Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ..., poultry and poultry products that a retail store can sell to hotels, restaurants, and similar institutions... but for poultry products is being increased from $49,400 to $50,200. FSIS is retaining or changing the... Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et...

  1. 78 FR 23902 - Retail Exemptions Adjusted Dollar Limitations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ...) is announcing the dollar limitations on the amount of meat and meat food products, poultry, and poultry products that a retail store can sell to hotels, restaurants, and similar institutions without... $67,300 to $69,600 and for poultry products from $51,700 to $54,500. FSIS is changing the...

  2. 76 FR 19741 - Exemption for Retail Store Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ..., poultry and poultry products that a retail store can sell to hotels, restaurants, and similar institutions... from $60,200 to $61,900 but for poultry products will remain at $50,200. FSIS is retaining or changing... Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et...

  3. 24 CFR 3286.113 - Information provided by retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the time a purchaser or lessee enters into a contract to purchase or lease a manufactured home, the retailer or distributor of the home must provide HUD with the following information: (1) The home's serial... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION PROGRAM Certification of Installation in...

  4. Retail E-Commerce Security Status among Fortune 500 Corporations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jensen J.; Zhao, Sherry Y.

    2012-01-01

    The authors assessed the "Fortune 500" corporations' retail e-commerce security to identify their strengths and weaknesses for improvement. They used online content analysis, information security auditing, and network security mapping for data collection and analysis. The findings indicate that most sites posted security policies; however, only…

  5. Best Practices in School-to-Careers: The Retail Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Retail Federation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is part of a series demonstrating the scope of employer involvement in school-to-careers, highlights the efforts of three retail employers and two "intermediary" organizations connecting workplace experiences to classroom learning for secondary education students. The introduction presents a series overview and lists the names,…

  6. Short-Term Temporal Stability in Observed Retail Food Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Curry, Susan J.; Berbaum, Michael; Schneider, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Use of direct observation to characterize neighborhood retail food environments is increasing, but to date most studies have relied on a single observation. If food availability, prices, and quality vary over short time periods, repeated measures may be needed to portray these food characteristics. This study evaluated short-term…

  7. Retail Florist: Selling the Floral Product, Maintenance and Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach units on sales of floral products and maintenance and delivery in a floral shop. Topics covered in the selling unit are basic mathematics; taxable items; sales etiquette; types of floral products; telephone etiquette; order form information; wire service regulations; care of floral…

  8. A Writing-Intensive Program for Teaching Retail Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darian, Jean C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents the writing-intensive design for a retailing management course developed by its instructor in accordance with writing-across-the-curriculum principles. Provides an overview of the semester-long project. Details project procedures for preparatory activities, field research, and writing the marketing plan. (SR)

  9. Retail Merchandising. An Advanced Level Option for Marketing and Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Ross; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed to prepare secondary school students for entry-level and career-level positions in the largest area of employment in distribution and marketing--retail merchandising. Developed for use in the twelfth grade competency cluster phase of New York State secondary marketing and distributive education program, this…

  10. Clostridium difficile in retail meat and processing plants in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile (Cd) have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains of Cd. Toxigenic Cd has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer ...

  11. 77 FR 24456 - Retail Exemptions Adjusted Dollar Limitations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... poultry products that a retail store can sell to hotels, restaurants, and similar institutions without... and restaurants (21 U.S.C. 661(c)(2) and 454(c)(2)). FSIS's regulations (9 CFR 303.1(d) and 381.10(d... processing of meat, meat food, poultry, and poultry products. Sales to Hotels, Restaurants, and...

  12. Muscle profiling to improve the value of retail meat cuts.

    PubMed

    Jung, E Y; Hwang, Y H; Joo, S T

    2016-10-01

    Nutrition and meat quality are always important to consumers, but vary by individual muscle or muscle groups in retail meat cuts. Muscle profiling of nutrient content and palatability for all retail beef cuts is necessary to suggest healthy and tasty beef cuts and to inform consumers of the benefits of beef consumption. The current paper reviews numerous studies that provide muscle profiles for nutrients and palatability attributes of muscles or muscle groups in retail beef cuts. The composition of nutrients including protein, fat, moisture, vitamins, and minerals in beef cuts is documented as well as the nutritive role as a part of a healthy diet. In addition, this review presents knowledge in relation to innovative carcass fabrication and value-added cuts to improve the value of beef carcass. Finally, the current work emphasize the palatability assessment of individual beef muscles, and concludes that all retail beef cuts should be merchandised for proper cooking according to the palatability profiles of beef muscles. PMID:27134030

  13. CALiPER Exploratory Study Retail Replacement Lamps – 2011

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-02

    In 2010, CALiPER conducted a study on LED replacement lamps found in retail stores. The results were less than satisfactory, and many products were classified as being unlikely to meet consumer expectations. In November 2011, CALiPER purchased a new sample of products for a follow-up study, with the intent of characterizing the progress of this essential market segment.

  14. Perspective view of IOOF Building (5 North F Street), retail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of IOOF Building (5 North F Street), retail store (11 North F Street), and general merchandise (15 North F Street), all historic-contributing features of the district - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  15. 19 CFR 10.922 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.922 Section 10.922 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  16. 19 CFR 10.922 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.922 Section 10.922 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  17. 19 CFR 10.922 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.922 Section 10.922 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  18. Social Learning and Innovation at Retail Farmers' Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, C. Claire; Gillespie, Gilbert W.; Feenstra, Gail W.

    2004-01-01

    Retail farmers' markets are seen as key institutions in a more "civic agriculture," but little is known about how they promote small business entrepreneurship. Drawing on research in economic sociology and economic geography, this paper examines the role of social learning in vendor innovation. Data from a 1999 mail survey of farmers' market…

  19. 19 CFR 10.601 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... containers. (a) Effect on tariff shift rule. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale, if classified with the good for which preferential tariff treatment under the CAFTA-DR is claimed, will be disregarded in determining whether all non-originating materials used in...

  20. 77 FR 62446 - Every Door Direct Mail-Retail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... product offering within Mailing Services, and ends the market test period for this initiative. DATES...-Retail a Permanent Product In December 2010, the Postal Service announced a new market test to begin in... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR...

  1. The Skills Implications of Electronic Retailing. IES Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tackey, Nii Djan; Hillage, Jim; Jagger, Nick; Bates, Peter

    The skills and education/training implications of the development of electronic commerce in the United Kingdom's retail industry and its associated supply chain were examined. The major data collection activities were as follows: a literature review; consultation with leading academics and advisers; an e-mail-based call for information from…

  2. A Relevant New Undergraduate Track in Retail Pharmacy Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Philip W., Jr.; Fitzpatrick, Peter G.

    1995-01-01

    An undergraduate track in retail pharmacy management was designed to prepare students better for everyday needs in community pharmacy. Multiple teaching approaches were used. Student response has been positive and enrollment has increased substantially. Graduate recommendations for course improvement are minimal. Course descriptions are appended.…

  3. Weekly Feedback vs. Daily Feedback: An Application in Retail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Jennifer E.; Mullin, Jill; Wilder, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in a retail setting to (a) assess the effectiveness of a multi-component performance management intervention and (b) compare the effectiveness of weekly and daily feedback. During the first experiment, a multiple baseline design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of task clarification, goal setting, access to…

  4. Prerequisites for Setting Up Management System in Municipal Retail Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suraeva, Maria O.; Grigoryants, Igor A.; Karpova, Galina A.; Khoreva, Lyubov V.; Schreyer, Alexander V.; Sirotkin, Victor A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem Urban district, management, trade, sales network is determined by the number of complex problems that exist in present Samara municipal retail trade system, which is manifested in the lack of regulation, a glut of sales area, and poorly developed infrastructure. The purpose of this article is to form a…

  5. Retail Flower Shop Salesperson and Floral Designer. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This document consists of the student manual for a course in retail flower shop sales and floral design for use in vocational education courses in high schools in South Carolina. The guide consists of 22 learning modules that incorporate the subject matter needed by workers in these jobs. Each learning module consists of an introduction,…

  6. Retail Food Availability, Obesity, and Cigarette Smoking in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosler, Akiko S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Disparities in the availability of nutritionally important foods and their influence on health have been studied in US urban communities. Purpose: To assess the availability of selected retail foods and cigarettes, and explore ecologic relationships of the availability with obesity and smoking in rural communities. Methods: Inventories of…

  7. NVQs and the Retail Industry--The Experience of Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messenger, Sally J.

    1997-01-01

    Case studies of five British retail companies with National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) identified factors affecting implementation: (1) their motivation to offer NVQs; (2) their initial reactions; (3) extent of implementation; (4) resource requirements; and (5) benefits/disadvantages of competency-based qualifications. It is recommended that…

  8. Density and type of food retailers surrounding Canadian schools: variations across socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Seliske, Laura M; Pickett, William; Boyce, William F; Janssen, Ian

    2009-09-01

    Lower socioeconomic status (SES) neighbourhoods may have differential access to food retailers, potentially explaining the varying area-level obesity rates. The food retail environment around 188 schools across Canada was examined, including full-service restaurants, fast food restaurants, sub/sandwich retailers, donut/coffee shops, convenience stores, and grocery stores. School addresses were linked to census data to obtain area-level SES measures. Access to food retailers was generally not associated with the neighbourhood SES in the immediate proximity. Within the broader neighbourhood, lower SES neighbourhoods had access to fewer food retailers of all types. This effect was diminished after taking population density into account. PMID:19121973

  9. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for

  10. 29 CFR 779.244 - “Covered enterprises” of interest to retailers of goods or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Covered Retail Enterprise § 779.244 “Covered enterprises” of interest to retailers of goods or services. Retailers of goods or services are primarily concerned with the enterprises... retail and service industry, section 3(s)(1) of the Act as amended in 1966 may apply to any...

  11. 29 CFR 779.244 - “Covered enterprises” of interest to retailers of goods or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Covered Retail Enterprise § 779.244 “Covered enterprises” of interest to retailers of goods or services. Retailers of goods or services are primarily concerned with the enterprises... retail and service industry, section 3(s)(1) of the Act as amended in 1966 may apply to any...

  12. 29 CFR 779.244 - “Covered enterprises” of interest to retailers of goods or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Covered Retail Enterprise § 779.244 “Covered enterprises” of interest to retailers of goods or services. Retailers of goods or services are primarily concerned with the enterprises... retail and service industry, section 3(s)(1) of the Act as amended in 1966 may apply to any...

  13. 29 CFR 779.244 - “Covered enterprises” of interest to retailers of goods or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Covered Retail Enterprise § 779.244 “Covered enterprises” of interest to retailers of goods or services. Retailers of goods or services are primarily concerned with the enterprises... retail and service industry, section 3(s)(1) of the Act as amended in 1966 may apply to any...

  14. 29 CFR 779.312 - “Retail or service establishment”, defined in section 13(a)(2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recognized as retail sales or services in the particular industry. It is clear from the legislative history... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âRetail or service establishmentâ, defined in section 13(a... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail...

  15. Demand side management in recycling and electricity retail pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazan, Osman

    This dissertation addresses several problems from the recycling industry and electricity retail market. The first paper addresses a real-life scheduling problem faced by a national industrial recycling company. Based on their practices, a scheduling problem is defined, modeled, analyzed, and a solution is approximated efficiently. The recommended application is tested on the real-life data and randomly generated data. The scheduling improvements and the financial benefits are presented. The second problem is from electricity retail market. There are well-known patterns in daily usage in hours. These patterns change in shape and magnitude by seasons and days of the week. Generation costs are multiple times higher during the peak hours of the day. Yet most consumers purchase electricity at flat rates. This work explores analytic pricing tools to reduce peak load electricity demand for retailers. For that purpose, a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices is established based on two major components: unit generation costs and consumers' utility. Both are analyzed and estimated empirically in the third paper. A pricing model is introduced to maximize the electric retailer's profit. As a result, a closed-form expression for the optimal price vector is obtained. Possible scenarios are evaluated for consumers' utility distribution. For the general case, we provide a numerical solution methodology to obtain the optimal pricing scheme. The models recommended are tested under various scenarios that consider consumer segmentation and multiple pricing policies. The recommended model reduces the peak load significantly in most cases. Several utility companies offer hourly pricing to their customers. They determine prices using historical data of unit electricity cost over time. In this dissertation we develop a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices with parameter estimation. The last paper includes a regression analysis of the unit generation cost

  16. Tobacco retail clustering around schools in New York City: examining "place" and "space".

    PubMed

    Frick, Mike; Castro, Marcia C

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates whether tobacco retailers cluster around schools in New York City. Retail clustering is assessed through two measures: (1) proximity of retailers to schools and (2) density of retailers around schools. Through exploratory spatial statistics and OLS regression, we analyze how retailer density and proximity to schools vary in relation to socio-demographic differences across NYC community districts. As a secondary objective, we test whether patterns of retail clustering differ when assessed by proximity versus density. We identify areas of positive spatial autocorrelation in lower Manhattan and the Bronx, indicating that some NYC community districts have significantly higher density of tobacco retailers around schools than others. The density and proximity of tobacco retailers to schools co-vary with population density, commercial land use and broad indicators of social disadvantage including health insurance coverage. We also find that patterns of retail clustering differ when assessed using either density or proximity, suggesting that land use interventions that restrict tobacco retail proximity to schools might not address retailer density around schools. PMID:23143135

  17. Tobacco retail clustering around schools in New York City: examining "place" and "space".

    PubMed

    Frick, Mike; Castro, Marcia C

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates whether tobacco retailers cluster around schools in New York City. Retail clustering is assessed through two measures: (1) proximity of retailers to schools and (2) density of retailers around schools. Through exploratory spatial statistics and OLS regression, we analyze how retailer density and proximity to schools vary in relation to socio-demographic differences across NYC community districts. As a secondary objective, we test whether patterns of retail clustering differ when assessed by proximity versus density. We identify areas of positive spatial autocorrelation in lower Manhattan and the Bronx, indicating that some NYC community districts have significantly higher density of tobacco retailers around schools than others. The density and proximity of tobacco retailers to schools co-vary with population density, commercial land use and broad indicators of social disadvantage including health insurance coverage. We also find that patterns of retail clustering differ when assessed using either density or proximity, suggesting that land use interventions that restrict tobacco retail proximity to schools might not address retailer density around schools.

  18. Studies on recycled aggregates-based concrete.

    PubMed

    Rakshvir, Major; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2006-06-01

    Reduced extraction of raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits, reduced environmental impact and fast-depleting reserves of conventional natural aggregates has necessitated the use of recycling, in order to be able to conserve conventional natural aggregate. In this study various physical and mechanical properties of recycled concrete aggregates were examined. Recycled concrete aggregates are different from natural aggregates and concrete made from them has specific properties. The percentages of recycled concrete aggregates were varied and it was observed that properties such as compressive strength showed a decrease of up to 10% as the percentage of recycled concrete aggregates increased. Water absorption of recycled aggregates was found to be greater than natural aggregates, and this needs to be compensated during mix design.

  19. RAGG - R EPISODIC AGGREGATION PACKAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The RAGG package is an R implementation of the CMAQ episodic model aggregation method developed by Constella Group and the Environmental Protection Agency. RAGG is a tool to provide climatological seasonal and annual deposition of sulphur and nitrogen for multimedia management. ...

  20. Cyclosporine A enhances platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Grace, A A; Barradas, M A; Mikhailidis, D P; Jeremy, J Y; Moorhead, J F; Sweny, P; Dandona, P

    1987-12-01

    In view of the reported increase in thromboembolic episodes following cyclosporine A (CyA) therapy, the effect of this drug on platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 release was investigated. The addition of CyA, at therapeutic concentrations to platelet rich plasma from normal subjects in vitro was found to increase aggregation in response to adrenaline, collagen and ADP. Ingestion of CyA by healthy volunteers was also associated with enhanced platelet aggregation. The CyA-mediated enhancement of aggregation was further enhanced by the addition in vitro of therapeutic concentrations of heparin. Platelets from renal allograft recipients treated with CyA also showed hyperaggregability and increased thromboxane A2 release, which were most marked at "peak" plasma CyA concentration and less so at "trough" concentrations. Platelet hyperaggregability in renal allograft patients on long-term CyA therapy tended to revert towards normal following the replacement of CyA with azathioprine. Hypertensive patients with renal allografts on nifedipine therapy had normal platelet function and thromboxane release in spite of CyA therapy. These observations suggest that CyA-mediated platelet activation may contribute to the pathogenesis of the thromboembolic phenomena associated with the use of this drug. The increased release of thromboxane A2 (a vasoconstrictor) may also play a role in mediating CyA-related nephrotoxicity.

  1. Sequence-dependent Internalization of Aggregating Peptides*

    PubMed Central

    Couceiro, José R.; Gallardo, Rodrigo; De Smet, Frederik; De Baets, Greet; Baatsen, Pieter; Annaert, Wim; Roose, Kenny; Saelens, Xavier; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a number of aggregation disease polypeptides have been shown to spread from cell to cell, thereby displaying prionoid behavior. Studying aggregate internalization, however, is often hampered by the complex kinetics of the aggregation process, resulting in the concomitant uptake of aggregates of different sizes by competing mechanisms, which makes it difficult to isolate pathway-specific responses to aggregates. We designed synthetic aggregating peptides bearing different aggregation propensities with the aim of producing modes of uptake that are sufficiently distinct to differentially analyze the cellular response to internalization. We found that small acidic aggregates (≤500 nm in diameter) were taken up by nonspecific endocytosis as part of the fluid phase and traveled through the endosomal compartment to lysosomes. By contrast, bigger basic aggregates (>1 μm) were taken up through a mechanism dependent on cytoskeletal reorganization and membrane remodeling with the morphological hallmarks of phagocytosis. Importantly, the properties of these aggregates determined not only the mechanism of internalization but also the involvement of the proteostatic machinery (the assembly of interconnected networks that control the biogenesis, folding, trafficking, and degradation of proteins) in the process; whereas the internalization of small acidic aggregates is HSF1-independent, the uptake of larger basic aggregates was HSF1-dependent, requiring Hsp70. Our results show that the biophysical properties of aggregates determine both their mechanism of internalization and proteostatic response. It remains to be seen whether these differences in cellular response contribute to the particular role of specific aggregated proteins in disease. PMID:25391649

  2. An Aggregation Advisor for Ligand Discovery.

    PubMed

    Irwin, John J; Duan, Da; Torosyan, Hayarpi; Doak, Allison K; Ziebart, Kristin T; Sterling, Teague; Tumanian, Gurgen; Shoichet, Brian K

    2015-09-10

    Colloidal aggregation of organic molecules is the dominant mechanism for artifactual inhibition of proteins, and controls against it are widely deployed. Notwithstanding an increasingly detailed understanding of this phenomenon, a method to reliably predict aggregation has remained elusive. Correspondingly, active molecules that act via aggregation continue to be found in early discovery campaigns and remain common in the literature. Over the past decade, over 12 thousand aggregating organic molecules have been identified, potentially enabling a precedent-based approach to match known aggregators with new molecules that may be expected to aggregate and lead to artifacts. We investigate an approach that uses lipophilicity, affinity, and similarity to known aggregators to advise on the likelihood that a candidate compound is an aggregator. In prospective experimental testing, five of seven new molecules with Tanimoto coefficients (Tc's) between 0.95 and 0.99 to known aggregators aggregated at relevant concentrations. Ten of 19 with Tc's between 0.94 and 0.90 and three of seven with Tc's between 0.89 and 0.85 also aggregated. Another three of the predicted compounds aggregated at higher concentrations. This method finds that 61 827 or 5.1% of the ligands acting in the 0.1 to 10 μM range in the medicinal chemistry literature are at least 85% similar to a known aggregator with these physical properties and may aggregate at relevant concentrations. Intriguingly, only 0.73% of all drug-like commercially available compounds resemble the known aggregators, suggesting that colloidal aggregators are enriched in the literature. As a percentage of the literature, aggregator-like compounds have increased 9-fold since 1995, partly reflecting the advent of high-throughput and virtual screens against molecular targets. Emerging from this study is an aggregator advisor database and tool ( http://advisor.bkslab.org ), free to the community, that may help distinguish between

  3. Nebular history of amoeboid olivine aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, N.; Petaev, M. I.; Kimura, M.; Miyazaki, A.; Hiyagon, H.

    2009-05-01

    Minor element (Ca, Cr, and Mn) concentrations in amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) from primitive chondrites were measured and compared with those predicted by equilibrium condensation in the solar nebula. CaO concentrations in forsterite are low, particularly in porous aggregates. A plausible explanation appears that an equilibrium Ca activity was not maintained during the olivine condensation. CaO and MnO in forsterite are negatively correlated, with CaO being higher in compact aggregates. This suggests that the compact aggregates formed either by a prolonged reheating of the porous aggregates or by condensation and aggregation of forsterite during a very slow cooling in the nebula.

  4. Role of streams in myxobacteria aggregate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiskowski, Maria A.; Jiang, Yi; Alber, Mark S.

    2004-10-01

    Cell contact, movement and directionality are important factors in biological development (morphogenesis), and myxobacteria are a model system for studying cell-cell interaction and cell organization preceding differentiation. When starved, thousands of myxobacteria cells align, stream and form aggregates which later develop into round, non-motile spores. Canonically, cell aggregation has been attributed to attractive chemotaxis, a long range interaction, but there is growing evidence that myxobacteria organization depends on contact-mediated cell-cell communication. We present a discrete stochastic model based on contact-mediated signaling that suggests an explanation for the initialization of early aggregates, aggregation dynamics and final aggregate distribution. Our model qualitatively reproduces the unique structures of myxobacteria aggregates and detailed stages which occur during myxobacteria aggregation: first, aggregates initialize in random positions and cells join aggregates by random walk; second, cells redistribute by moving within transient streams connecting aggregates. Streams play a critical role in final aggregate size distribution by redistributing cells among fewer, larger aggregates. The mechanism by which streams redistribute cells depends on aggregate sizes and is enhanced by noise. Our model predicts that with increased internal noise, more streams would form and streams would last longer. Simulation results suggest a series of new experiments.

  5. Reliability of a Retail Food Store Survey and Development of an Accompanying Retail Scoring System to Communicate Survey Findings and Identify Vendors for Healthful Food and Marketing Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Sugerman, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a retail grocery instrument with weighted scoring to be used as an indicator of the food environment. Participants/Setting: Twenty six retail food stores in low-income areas in California. Intervention: Observational. Main Outcome Measure(s): Inter-rater reliability for grocery store survey instrument. Description of store…

  6. Retailer Adherence to Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, North Carolina, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Allison E.; D’Angelo, Heather; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act regulates the sales and marketing of tobacco products in the United States; poor adherence by tobacco retailers may reduce the effectiveness of the Act’s provisions. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess whether and to which provisions retailers were adherent and 2) to examine differences in adherence by county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer characteristics. Methods We conducted multivariate analysis of tobacco retailers’ adherence to 12 point-of-sale provisions of the Tobacco Control Act in 3 North Carolina counties. We conducted observational audits of 324 retailers during 3 months in 2011 to assess adherence. We used logistic regression to assess associations between adherence to provisions and characteristics of each county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer. Results We found 15.7% of retailers did not adhere to at least 1 provision; 84.3% adhered to all provisions. The provisions most frequently violated were the ban on sales of cigarettes with modified-risk labels (eg, “light” cigarettes) (43 [13.3%] retailers nonadherent) and the ban on self-service for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (6 [1.9%] retailers nonadherent). We found significant differences in rates of nonadherence by county and type of retailer. Pharmacies and drug stores were more than 3 times as likely as grocery stores to be nonadherent. Conclusion Most tobacco retailers have implemented regulatory changes without enforcement by the US Food and Drug Administration. Monitoring rates of adherence by store type and locale (eg, county) may help retailers comply with point-of-sale provisions. PMID:23557638

  7. Protein aggregation in salt solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kastelic, Miha; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V.; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregation is broadly important in diseases and in formulations of biological drugs. Here, we develop a theoretical model for reversible protein–protein aggregation in salt solutions. We treat proteins as hard spheres having square-well-energy binding sites, using Wertheim’s thermodynamic perturbation theory. The necessary condition required for such modeling to be realistic is that proteins in solution during the experiment remain in their compact form. Within this limitation our model gives accurate liquid–liquid coexistence curves for lysozyme and γ IIIa-crystallin solutions in respective buffers. It provides good fits to the cloud-point curves of lysozyme in buffer–salt mixtures as a function of the type and concentration of salt. It than predicts full coexistence curves, osmotic compressibilities, and second virial coefficients under such conditions. This treatment may also be relevant to protein crystallization. PMID:25964322

  8. Protein aggregation in salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Kastelic, Miha; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A; Vlachy, Vojko

    2015-05-26

    Protein aggregation is broadly important in diseases and in formulations of biological drugs. Here, we develop a theoretical model for reversible protein-protein aggregation in salt solutions. We treat proteins as hard spheres having square-well-energy binding sites, using Wertheim's thermodynamic perturbation theory. The necessary condition required for such modeling to be realistic is that proteins in solution during the experiment remain in their compact form. Within this limitation our model gives accurate liquid-liquid coexistence curves for lysozyme and γ IIIa-crystallin solutions in respective buffers. It provides good fits to the cloud-point curves of lysozyme in buffer-salt mixtures as a function of the type and concentration of salt. It than predicts full coexistence curves, osmotic compressibilities, and second virial coefficients under such conditions. This treatment may also be relevant to protein crystallization.

  9. Microbiological quality of retail spices in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Koohy-Kamaly-Dehkordy, Paliz; Nikoopour, Houshang; Siavoshi, Farideh; Koushki, Mohammadreza; Abadi, Alireza

    2013-05-01

    The microbiological quality of 351 samples of nine types of spices including black pepper, caraway, cinnamon, cow parsnip, curry powder, garlic powder, red pepper, sumac, and turmeric, collected from retail shops in Tehran during 2007, was determined. The numbers of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and molds exceeded Iran's National Standard limits, at 63.2% (>5 × 10(5) CFU/g), 23.4% (>0.3 MPN/g), and 21.9% (>5 × 10(3) CFU/g) of the studied samples, respectively. Coliform contamination was more than 10(3) MPN/g in 24.8% of samples. High contamination of retail spices is considered an indication of environmental or fecal contamination due to unhygienic practices in their production. Use of spices with high microbial content could increase the chance of food spoilage and transmission of foodborne pathogens. Accordingly, application of food safety measurements to reduce microbial counts in spices is strongly recommended.

  10. Aggregation of Heterogeneously Charged Colloids.

    PubMed

    Dempster, Joshua M; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2016-06-28

    Patchy colloids are attractive as programmable building blocks for metamaterials. Inverse patchy colloids, in which a charged surface is decorated with patches of the opposite charge, are additionally noteworthy as models for heterogeneously charged biological materials such as proteins. We study the phases and aggregation behavior of a single charged patch in an oppositely charged colloid with a single-site model. This single-patch inverse patchy colloid model shows a large number of phases when varying patch size. For large patch sizes we find ferroelectric crystals, while small patch sizes produce cross-linked gels. Intermediate values produce monodisperse clusters and unusual worm structures that preserve finite ratios of area to volume. The polarization observed at large patch sizes is robust under extreme disorder in patch size and shape. We examine phase-temperature dependence and coexistence curves and find that large patch sizes produce polarized liquids, in contrast to mean-field predictions. Finally, we introduce small numbers of unpatched charged colloids. These can either suppress or encourage aggregation depending on their concentration and the size of the patches on the patched colloids. These effects can be exploited to control aggregation and to measure effective patch size.

  11. 18. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION. THE RETAIL STORE (AT RIGHT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION. THE RETAIL STORE (AT RIGHT) AND THE LARGE ADDITION (AT LEFT) WERE ADDED IN 1957-58 TO MEET THE MILL'S CHANGING MARKET. THE THREE-STORY METAL ELEVATOR SUPERSEDED THE ORIGINAL DOUBLE-CHAMBER BELT AND CUP TYPE STILL INTACT INSIDE THE MILL. Photographer: Louise Taft Cawood, July 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  12. Tau Phosphorylation, Aggregation, and Cell Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Avila, J.; Santa-María, I.; Pérez, M.; Hernández, F.; Moreno, F.

    2006-01-01

    Protein aggregation takes place in many neurodegenerative disorders. However, there is a controversy about the possible toxicity of these protein aggregates. In this review, this controversy is discussed, focussing on the tau aggregation that takes place in those disorders known as tauopathies. PMID:17047313

  13. Mineral resource of the month: aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willett, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    Crushed stone and construction sand and gravel, the two major types of natural aggregates, are among the most abundant and accessible natural resources on the planet. The earliest civilizations used aggregates for various purposes, mainly construction. Today aggregates provide the basic raw materials for the foundation of modern society.

  14. Occupant Perceptions and a Health Outcome in Retail Stores

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Mingjie; Kim, Yang-Seon; Srebric, Jelena

    2015-11-02

    Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in commercial buildings, such as retail stores, can affect employee satisfaction, productivity, and health. This study administered an IEQ survey to retail employees and found correlations between measured IEQ parameters and the survey responses. The survey included 611 employees in 14 retail stores located in Pennsylvania (climate zone 5A) and Texas (climate zone 2A). The survey questionnaire featured ratings of different aspects of IEQ, including thermal comfort, lighting and noise level, indoor smells, overall cleanness, and environmental quality. Simultaneously with the survey, on-site physical measurements were taken to collect data of relative humidity levels, air exchange rates, dry bulb temperatures, and contaminant concentrations. This data was analyzed using multinomial logit regression with independent variables being the measured IEQ parameters, employees’ gender, and age. This study found that employee perception of stuffy smells is related to formaldehyde and PM10 concentrations. Furthermore, the survey also asked the employees to report an annual frequency of common colds as a health indicator. The regression analysis showed that the cold frequency statistically correlates with the measured air exchange rates, outdoor temperatures, and indoor PM concentrations. Overall, the air exchange rate is the most influential parameter on the employee perception of the overall environmental quality and self-reported health outcome.

  15. Physical quality and composition of retail shell eggs.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Musgrove, M T; Anderson, K E; Thesmar, H S

    2010-03-01

    There are a number of specialty shell eggs available to consumers in the US retail market. A survey consisting of white and brown large shell eggs with various production and nutritional differences (traditional, cage-free, free-roaming, pasteurized, nutritionally enhanced, and fertile) was conducted to determine if physical quality and compositional differences exist. Identical brands of eggs were purchased from the same retail outlets on 3 occasions (replicates) in a single city. The average range of time from processing to purchase for all eggs was 7.67 to 25.33 d, with traditional white eggs in retail having the shortest time. Haugh unit values ranged from 66.67 (cage-free, docosahexaenoic acid, and n-3 enhanced) to 84.42 (traditional white). Albumen height followed a similar pattern. Egg weight was greater for brown eggs (61.12 vs. 58.85 g). Brown eggs also had greater static compression shell strength than white eggs (4,130.61 vs. 3,690.31 g force). Vitelline membrane strength was greatest for traditional brown eggs (2.24 g force). Percentage of total solids and crude fat was greatest in the cage-free, n-3-enhanced white eggs (25.07 and 11.71%, respectively). Although significant differences were found between white and brown shell eggs and production methods, average values for quality attributes varied without one egg type consistently maintaining the highest or lowest values.

  16. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail chicken meat in Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Alali, Walid Q; Gaydashov, Roman; Petrova, Elena; Panin, Alexander; Tugarinov, Oleg; Kulikovskii, Alexander; Mamleeva, Dzhemile; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on raw retail chicken meat in Russia. Broiler chicken carcasses (n = 698) were collected from three regions of Russia: central (i.e., Moscow area), northwest (i.e., St. Petersburg area), and southern (i.e., Krasnodar area). In each region, samples were collected to represent various cities and districts, as well as different types of retail stores and carcass storage temperatures (i.e., chilled and frozen). All chicken samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using a whole-carcass rinse method. The overall Salmonella prevalence was 31.5%. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence by (i) region-29.3% (n = 464) in Moscow, 38.5% (n = 192) in St. Petersburg, and 23.8% (n = 42) in Krasnodar; (ii) retail store type-28.8% (n = 236) in hypermarkets, 31.9% (n = 260) in supermarkets (part of chain stores), 44.3% (n = 61) in independent supermarkets, 42.9% (n = 28) in independent minimarkets, and 26.6% (n = 113) in wet markets; and (iii) poultry company-34.3% (n = 545) on chickens produced by integrated companies compared with 22.9% (n = 118) on chickens produced by nonintegrated companies. Strategies such as good agriculture and management practices should be enhanced to reduce Salmonella prevalence on raw poultry in Russia and therefore increase the safety of chicken products. PMID:22856571

  17. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail chicken meat in Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Alali, Walid Q; Gaydashov, Roman; Petrova, Elena; Panin, Alexander; Tugarinov, Oleg; Kulikovskii, Alexander; Mamleeva, Dzhemile; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on raw retail chicken meat in Russia. Broiler chicken carcasses (n = 698) were collected from three regions of Russia: central (i.e., Moscow area), northwest (i.e., St. Petersburg area), and southern (i.e., Krasnodar area). In each region, samples were collected to represent various cities and districts, as well as different types of retail stores and carcass storage temperatures (i.e., chilled and frozen). All chicken samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using a whole-carcass rinse method. The overall Salmonella prevalence was 31.5%. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence by (i) region-29.3% (n = 464) in Moscow, 38.5% (n = 192) in St. Petersburg, and 23.8% (n = 42) in Krasnodar; (ii) retail store type-28.8% (n = 236) in hypermarkets, 31.9% (n = 260) in supermarkets (part of chain stores), 44.3% (n = 61) in independent supermarkets, 42.9% (n = 28) in independent minimarkets, and 26.6% (n = 113) in wet markets; and (iii) poultry company-34.3% (n = 545) on chickens produced by integrated companies compared with 22.9% (n = 118) on chickens produced by nonintegrated companies. Strategies such as good agriculture and management practices should be enhanced to reduce Salmonella prevalence on raw poultry in Russia and therefore increase the safety of chicken products.

  18. Embedded Vision Sensor Network for Planogram Maintenance in Retail Environments

    PubMed Central

    Frontoni, Emanuele; Mancini, Adriano; Zingaretti, Primo

    2015-01-01

    A planogram is a detailed visual map that establishes the position of the products in a retail store. It is designed to supply the best location of a product for suppliers to support an innovative merchandising approach, to increase sales and profits and to better manage the shelves. Deviating from the planogram defeats the purpose of any of these goals, and maintaining the integrity of the planogram becomes a fundamental aspect in retail operations. We propose an embedded system, mainly based on a smart camera, able to detect and to investigate the most important parameters in a retail store by identifying the differences with respect to an “approved” planogram. We propose a new solution that allows concentrating all the surveys and the useful measures on a limited number of devices in communication among them. These devices are simple, low cost and ready for immediate installation, providing an affordable and scalable solution to the problem of planogram maintenance. Moreover, over an Internet of Things (IoT) cloud-based architecture, the system supplies many additional data that are not concerning the planogram, e.g., out-of-shelf events, promptly notified through SMS and/or mail. The application of this project allows the realization of highly integrated systems, which are economical, complete and easy to use for a large number of users. Experimental results have proven that the system can efficiently calculate the deviation from a normal situation by comparing the base planogram image with the images grabbed. PMID:26343659

  19. Embedded Vision Sensor Network for Planogram Maintenance in Retail Environments.

    PubMed

    Frontoni, Emanuele; Mancini, Adriano; Zingaretti, Primo

    2015-08-27

    A planogram is a detailed visual map that establishes the position of the products in a retail store. It is designed to supply the best location of a product for suppliers to support an innovative merchandising approach, to increase sales and profits and to better manage the shelves. Deviating from the planogram defeats the purpose of any of these goals, and maintaining the integrity of the planogram becomes a fundamental aspect in retail operations. We propose an embedded system, mainly based on a smart camera, able to detect and to investigate the most important parameters in a retail store by identifying the differences with respect to an "approved" planogram. We propose a new solution that allows concentrating all the surveys and the useful measures on a limited number of devices in communication among them. These devices are simple, low cost and ready for immediate installation, providing an affordable and scalable solution to the problem of planogram maintenance. Moreover, over an Internet of Things (IoT) cloud-based architecture, the system supplies many additional data that are not concerning the planogram, e.g., out-of-shelf events, promptly notified through SMS and/or mail. The application of this project allows the realization of highly integrated systems, which are economical, complete and easy to use for a large number of users. Experimental results have proven that the system can efficiently calculate the deviation from a normal situation by comparing the base planogram image with the images grabbed.

  20. Embedded Vision Sensor Network for Planogram Maintenance in Retail Environments.

    PubMed

    Frontoni, Emanuele; Mancini, Adriano; Zingaretti, Primo

    2015-01-01

    A planogram is a detailed visual map that establishes the position of the products in a retail store. It is designed to supply the best location of a product for suppliers to support an innovative merchandising approach, to increase sales and profits and to better manage the shelves. Deviating from the planogram defeats the purpose of any of these goals, and maintaining the integrity of the planogram becomes a fundamental aspect in retail operations. We propose an embedded system, mainly based on a smart camera, able to detect and to investigate the most important parameters in a retail store by identifying the differences with respect to an "approved" planogram. We propose a new solution that allows concentrating all the surveys and the useful measures on a limited number of devices in communication among them. These devices are simple, low cost and ready for immediate installation, providing an affordable and scalable solution to the problem of planogram maintenance. Moreover, over an Internet of Things (IoT) cloud-based architecture, the system supplies many additional data that are not concerning the planogram, e.g., out-of-shelf events, promptly notified through SMS and/or mail. The application of this project allows the realization of highly integrated systems, which are economical, complete and easy to use for a large number of users. Experimental results have proven that the system can efficiently calculate the deviation from a normal situation by comparing the base planogram image with the images grabbed. PMID:26343659