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Sample records for aggregate size fractions

  1. Bacterial density and community structure associated with aggregate size fractions of soil-feeding termite mounds.

    PubMed

    Fall, S; Nazaret, S; Chotte, J L; Brauman, A

    2004-08-01

    The building and foraging activities of termites are known to modify soil characteristics such as the heterogeneity. In tropical savannas the impact of the activity of soil-feeding termites ( Cubitermes niokoloensis) has been shown to affect the properties of the soil at the aggregate level by creating new soil microenvironments (aggregate size fractions) [13]. These changes were investigated in greater depth by looking at the microbial density (AODC) and the genetic structure (automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis: ARISA) of the communities in the different aggregate size fractions (i.e., coarse sand, fine sand, coarse silt, fine silt, and dispersible clays) separated from compartments (internal and external wall) of three Cubitermes niokoloensis mounds. The bacterial density of the mounds was significantly higher (1.5 to 3 times) than that of the surrounding soil. Within the aggregate size fractions, the termite building activity resulted in a significant increase in bacterial density within the coarser fractions (>20 mum). Multivariate analysis of the ARISA profiles revealed that the bacterial genetic structures of unfractionated soil and soil aggregate size fractions of the three mounds was noticeably different from the savanna soil used as a reference. Moreover, the microbial community associated with the different microenvironments in the three termite mounds revealed three distinct clusters formed by the aggregate size fractions of each mound. Except for the 2-20 mum fraction, these results suggest that the mound microbial genetic structure is more dependent upon microbial pool affiliation (the termite mound) than on the soil location (aggregate size fraction). The causes of the specificity of the microbial community structure of termite mound aggregate size fractions are discussed.

  2. Adsorption behaviors of fungicide-derived copper onto various size fractions of aggregates from orchard soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quan-Ying; Hu, Bo; Yu, Hong-Wen

    2016-12-01

    Although the gradual accumulations of Cu in orchard soils due to the application of Cu-based fungicides have been widely reported, limited information is available about the retention characteristics of fungicide-derived Cu in soil, especially in various size soil aggregates. This study described the adsorption characteristics of Cu from commonly used fungicide, Bordeaux mixture (CuSO4 + Ca(OH)2), onto various aggregate fractions (2000-1000, 1000-500, 500-250, 250-106, and <106 μm) of orchard soil. The Cu(NO3)2 was selected as a comparison. Two different types of adsorption experiments were conducted as follows: variable pH and variable Cu concentration experiments. The adsorption processes of Bordeaux mixture and Cu(NO3)2 onto the studied soil samples followed well with the Freundlich isotherm, and the adsorption isotherms were the S shaped. The adsorption amounts of Cu from different Cu compounds differed, and Bordeaux mixture can result in more Cu retention in soil than Cu(NO3)2. The adsorption ability of different size soil aggregates varied, and it was mainly governed by soil properties. The findings of this study suggested that both the chemical compositions of Cu compounds and the soil physical structure should be taken into account when performing soil Cu retention experiments with fungicide-derived Cu.

  3. Speciation and distribution of P associated with Fe and Al oxides in aggregate-sized fraction of an arable soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Bol, R.; Willbold, S.; Vereecken, H.; Klumpp, E.

    2015-11-01

    To maximize crop productivity fertilizer P is generally applied to arable soils, a significant proportion of which becomes stabilized by mineral components and in part subsequently becomes unavailable to plants. However, little is known about the relative contributions of the different organic and inorganic P bound to Fe/Al oxides in the smaller soil particles. Alkaline (NaOH-Na2EDTA) extraction with solution 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy is considered a reliable method for extracting and quantifying organic P and (some) inorganic P. However, any so-called residual P after the alkaline extraction has remained unidentified. Therefore, in the present study, the amorphous (a) and crystalline (c) Fe/Al oxide minerals and related P in soil aggregate-sized fractions (> 20, 2-20, 0.45-2 and < 0.45 μm) were specifically extracted by oxalate (a-Fe/Al oxides) and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB, both a- and c-Fe/Al oxides). These soil aggregate-sized fractions with and without the oxalate and DCB pre-treatments were then sequentially extracted by alkaline extraction prior to solution 31P-NMR spectroscopy. This was done to quantify the P associated with a- and c-Fe/Al oxides in both alkaline extraction and the residual P of different soil aggregate-sized fractions. The results showed that overall P contents increased with decreasing size of the soil aggregate-sized fractions. However, the relative distribution and speciation of varying P forms were found to be independent of soil aggregate-size. The majority of alkaline-extractable P was in the a-Fe/Al oxide fraction (42-47 % of total P), most of which was ortho-phosphate (36-41 % of total P). Furthermore, still significant amounts of particularly monoester P were bound to these oxides. Intriguingly, however, Fe/Al oxides were not the main bonding sites for pyrophosphate. Residual P contained similar amounts of total P associated with both a- (11-15 % of total P) and c-Fe oxides (7-13 % of total P

  4. Speciation and distribution of P associated with Fe and Al oxides in aggregate-sized fraction of an arable soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Bol, R.; Willbold, S.; Vereecken, H.; Klumpp, E.

    2015-07-01

    To maximize crop productivity fertilizer P is generally applied to arable soils, a significant proportion of which becomes stabilized by mineral components and in part subsequently becomes unavailable to plants. However, little is known about the relative contributions of the different organic and inorganic P bound to Fe/Al oxides in the smaller soil particles. The alkaline (NaOH-Na2EDTA) extraction with solution 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy is considered as a reliable method for extracting and quantifying organic P and (some) inorganic P. However, any so-called residual P after the alkaline extraction has remained unidentified. Therefore, in the present study, the amorphous (a) and crystalline (c) Fe/Al oxide minerals and related P in soil aggregate-sized fractions (> 20, 2-20, 0.45-2 and < 0.45 μm) were specifically extracted by oxalate (a-Fe/Al oxides) and dithionite (DCB, both a- and c-Fe/Al oxides). These soil aggregate-sized fractions with and without the oxalate and DCB pre-treatments were then sequentially extracted by alkaline extraction prior to solution 31P-NMR spectroscopy. This was done to quantify the various chemical P forms which were associated with a- and c-Fe/Al oxides both in alkaline extraction and in the residual P of different soil aggregate-sized fractions. The results showed that overall P contents increased with decreasing size of the soil aggregate-sized fractions. However, the relative distribution and speciation of varying P forms were found to be independent of soil aggregate-size. The majority of alkaline extractable P was in the a-Fe/Al oxide fraction (42-47 % of total P), most of which was orthophosphate (36-41 % of total P). Furthermore, still significant amounts of particularly monoester P were bound to the oxides. Intriguingly, however, Fe/Al oxides were not the main bonding sites for pyrophosphate. Residual P contained similar amounts of total P associated with both a- (10-13 % of total P) and c

  5. Neutral hydrolysable sugars, OC and N content across soil aggregate size fractions, as an effect of two different crop rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeletti, Carlo; Giannetta, Beatrice; Kölbl, Angelika; Monaci, Elga; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Vischetti, Costantino

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the results regarding the effects of two 13 years long crop rotations, on the composition of mineral associated neutral sugars, organic carbon (OC) and N concentration, across different aggregate size fractions. The two cropping sequences were characterized by different levels of N input from plant residues and tillage frequency. We also analysed the changes that occurred in soil organic matter (SOM) chemical composition following the cultivation in the two soils of winter wheat and chickpea on the same soils. The analysis of OC and N content across soil aggregate fractions allowed getting an insight into the role played by SOM chemical composition in the formation of organo-mineral associations, while neutral sugars composition provided information on mineral associated SOM origin and decomposition processes, as pentoses derive mostly from plant tissues and hexoses are prevalently of microbial origin. Soil samples were collected from two adjacent fields, from the 0-10 cm layer, in November 2011 (T0). For 13 years before the beginning of the experiment, one soil was cultivated mostly with alfalfa (ALF), while a conventional cereal-sunflower-legume rotation (CON) was carried out on the other. Winter wheat and chickpea were sown on the two soils during the following 2 growing seasons and the sampling was repeated after 18 months (T1). A combination of aggregates size and density fractionation was used to isolate OM associated with mineral particles in: macro-aggregates (>212 μm), micro-aggregates (<200 μm, > 63 μm) and silt and clay size particles (<63 μm). For every fraction, OC and N contents were measured by means of elemental analysis, while the content of the following neutral hydrolysable sugar monomers was measured via GC-FID: rhamnose, fucose, ribose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose, glucose. OC and N contents were higher in ALF as compared to CON for every aggregate fraction, both at T0 and T1. During the 18-months cultivation

  6. Chemical Composition of Soil Horizons and Aggregate Size Fractions Under the Hawaiian Fern Dicranopteris and Angiosperm Cheirodendrom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, C. E.; Amatangelo, K.; Neff, J.

    2007-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) inherits much of its chemical nature from the dominant vegetation, including phenolic (lignin-derived), aromatic, and aliphatic (cutin and wax-derived) compounds. However, relatively stable recalcitrant compounds may also be formed as a result of condensation and complexation reactions through decomposition and protected with association with mineral particles. The Hawaiian fern species Dicranopteris decomposes more slowly than the angiosperm, Cheirodendrom due to high concentrations of recalcitrant C compounds. These aliphatic fern leaf waxes are well-preserved and may comprise a large portion of the recalcitrant organic matter in these soils. Our objective was to determine the chemical composition of the SOM under the O- (litter-dominated) and the A- (mineral) horizons formed under fern and angiosperm vegetation. To determine the effect of mineral-association, we fractioned the soil into four size classes; 850-590 μm, 590-180 μm, 180-53 μm and <53 μm and characterized the SOM via pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS). As the soils developed from the O- to the A-horizon, there was a decrease of lignin-derived phenolic compounds and an increase in more recalcitrant, aromatic and aliphatic C. Soils under ferns had greater relative concentrations of phenolic compounds, while the angiosperms had greater concentrations of fatty-acid methyl esters and furans (some polysaccharide-derived). Differences between size fractions were most evident in the O-horizon of both species. Recalcitrant fern-derived cutin and leaf waxes (alkene and alkanes structures) occurred in the 180-53 μm fraction, which has been shown to be the most stable of the aggregate-size fractions. Soils developed under fern versus angiosperm vegetation have distinct chemical signatures, which likely determine the recalcitrance of the SOM.

  7. Changes in carbon stability and microbial activity in size fractions of micro-aggregates in a rice soil chronosequence under long term rice cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Genxing; Liu, Yalong; Wang, Ping; Li, Lianqinfg; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Bian, Rongjun; Ding, Yuanjun; Ma, Chong

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown soil carbon sequestration through physical protection of relative labile carbon intra micro-aggregates with formation of large sized macro-aggregates under good management of soil and agricultural systems. While carbon stabilization had been increasingly concerned as ecosystem properties, the mechanisms underspin bioactivity of soil carbon with increased carbon stability has been still poorly understood. In this study, topsoil samples were collected from rice soils derived from salt marsh under different length of rice cultivation up to 700 years from eastern China. Particle size fractions (PSF) of soil aggregates were separated using a low energy dispersion protocol. Carbon fractions in the PSFs were analyzed either with FTIR spectroscopy. Soil microbial community of bacterial, fungal and archaeal were analyzed with molecular fingerprinting using specific gene primers. Soil respiration and carbon gain from amended maize as well as enzyme activities were measured using lab incubation protocols. While the PSFs were dominated by the fine sand (200-20μm) and silt fraction (20-2μm), the mass proportion both of sand (2000-200μm) and clay (<2μm) fraction increased with prolonged rice cultivation, giving rise to an increasing trend of mean weight diameter of soil aggregates (also referred to aggregate stability). Soil organic carbon was found most enriched in coarse sand fraction (40-60g/kg), followed by the clay fraction (20-24.5g/kg), but depleted in the silt fraction (~10g/kg). Phenolic and aromatic carbon as recalcitrant pool were high (33-40% of total SOC) in both coarse sand and clay fractions than in both fine sand and silt fractions (20-29% of total SOC). However, the ratio of LOC/total SOC showed a weak decreasing trend with decreasing size of the aggregate fractions. Total gene content in the size fractions followed a similar trend to that of SOC. Bacterial and archaeal gene abundance was concentrated in both sand and clay fractions

  8. Extraction of TNT from aggregate soil fractions.

    PubMed

    Williford, C W; Mark Bricka, R

    1999-04-23

    Past explosives manufacture, disposal, and training activities have contaminated soil at many military facilities, posing health and environmental risks through contact, potential detonation, and leaching into ground water. While methods have been confirmed for extraction and measuring explosives concentration in soil, no work has addressed aggregate size material (the >2 mm gravel and cobbles) that often occurs with the smaller soil fractions. This paper describes methods and results for extraction and measurement of TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) in aggregate material from 1/2 to 2-1/1 from a WWII era ammunition plant. TNT was extracted into acetonitrile by both Soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction methods. High pressure liquid chromatography analyses of extracts showed expected variation among samples. Also effective extraction and determination of TNT concentration for each aggregate size fraction was achieved.

  9. Leaching characteristics of EDTA-enhanced phytoextraction of Cd and Pb by Zea mays L. in different particle-size fractions of soil aggregates exposed to artificial rain.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yayin; Luo, Dinggui; Lai, An; Liu, Guowei; Liu, Lirong; Long, Jianyou; Zhang, Hongguo; Chen, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    Chelator-assisted phytoextraction is an alternative and effective technique for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils, but the potential for heavy metal leaching needs to be assessed. In the present study, a soil column cultivation-leaching experiment was conducted to investigate the Cd and Pb leaching characteristics during assisted phytoextraction of metal-contaminated soils containing different particle-size soil aggregates. The columns were planted with Zea mays "Zhengdan 958" seedlings and treated with combined applications of EDTA and simulated rainfall (pH 4.5 or 6.5). The results were as follows: (1) The greatest uptake of Cd and Pb by Z. mays was observed after treatment with EDTA (2.5 mmol kg(-1) soil) and soil aggregates of <1 mm; uptake decreased as the soil aggregate size increased. (2) Simulated rainfall, especially acid rain (pH 4.5), after EDTA applications led to the increasing metal concentrations in the leachate, and EDTA significantly increased the concentrations of both Cd and Pb in the leachate, especially with soil aggregates of <1 mm; metal leachate concentrations decreased as soil particle sizes increased. (3) Concentrations of Cd and Pb decreased with each continuing leachate collection, and data were fit to linear regression models with coefficients of determination (R (2)) above 0.90 and 0.87 for Cd and Pb, respectively. The highest total amounts of Cd (22.12%) and Pb (19.29%) were observed in the leachate of soils treated with EDTA and artificial acid rain (pH 4.5) with soil aggregates of <1 mm. The application of EDTA during phytoextraction method increased the leaching risk in the following order: EDTA2.5-1 (pH 4.5) > EDTA2.5-1 (pH 6.5) > EDTA2.5-2 (pH 4.5) > EDTA2.5-4 (pH 4.5) > EDTA2.5-2 (pH 6.5) > EDTA2.5-4 (pH 6.5).

  10. Aggregate size distribution of the soil loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, Judit Alexandra; Jakab, Gergely; Szabó, Boglárka; Józsa, Sándor; Szalai, Zoltán; Centeri, Csaba

    2016-04-01

    In agricultural areas the soil erosion and soil loss estimation is vital information in long-term planning. During the initial period of the erosion a part of the soil particles and aggregates get transportable and nutrients and organic matter could be transported due to the effect of water or wind. This preliminary phase was studied with laboratory-scale rainfall simulator. Developed surface crust and aggregate size composition of the runoff was examined in six different slope-roughness-moisture content combination of a Cambisol and a Regosol. The ratio of micro- and macro aggregates in the runoff indicate the stability of the aggregates and determine the transport capacity of the runoff. Both soil samples were taken from field where the water erosion is a potential hazard. During the experiment the whole amount of runoff and sediment was collected through sieve series to a bucket to separate the micro- and macro aggregates. In case of both samples the micro aggregates dominate in the runoff and the runoff rates are similar. Although the runoff of the Regosol - with dominant >1000μm macro aggregate content - contained almost nothing but <50μm sized micro aggregates. Meanwhile the runoff of the Cambisol - with more balanced micro and macro aggregate content - contained dominantly 50-250μm sized micro aggregates and in some case remarkable ratio 250-1000μm sized macro aggregates. This difference occurred because the samples are resistant against drop erosion differently. In case of both sample the selectivity of the erosion and substance matrix redistribution manifested in mineral crusts in the surface where the quartz deposited in place while the lighter organic matter transported with the sediment. The detachment of the aggregates and the redistribution of the particles highly effect on the aggregate composition of the runoff which is connected with the quality of the soil loss. So while the estimation of soil loss quantity is more or less is easy, measuring

  11. Stability of Soil Carbon Fractions - from molecules to aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, C. W.; Mueller, K. E.; Freeman, K. H.; Eissenstat, D.; Kögel-Knabner, I.

    2009-12-01

    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) is controlled both by its chemical composition, its spatial bioavailability and the association with the mineral phase. Separation by physical fractionation of bulk soils and subsequent chemical analysis of these fractions should give insights to how compositional differences in SOM drive turnover rates of different size-defined carbon pools. The main objective of the study was to elucidate the relative abundance and recalcitrance of lignin and plant lipids (e.g. cutin and suberin) in the course of SOM decomposition within aggregated bulk soils and SOM fractions. By the parallel incubation of physically-separated size fractions and bulk soils of the Ah horizon from a forested soil (Picea abies L.Karst) over a period of 400 days, a unique set of samples was created to study SOM dynamics. We used solid-state 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS (after copper oxide oxidation and solvent extraction) to analyze the composition of the incubated samples. The abundance and isotopic composition (including 13C and 14C) of respired CO2 further enabled us to monitor the dynamics of SOM mineralization. This approach allowed for differentiating between C stabilization of soil fractions due to accessibility/aggregation and to recalcitrance at different scales of resolution (GC-MS, NMR). A relative enrichment of alkyl C and decreasing lignin contents in the order of sand < silt < clay were observed by 13C-NMR and GC-MS within soils and fractions before the incubation, resulting in increased lipid to lignin ratios with decreasing particle size. A relative enrichment of lignin in the incubated fractions compared to the incubated bulk soils clearly indicated the preferential mineralization of less recalcitrant C compounds that were spatially inaccessible in aggregates of the bulk soil. Differences in the abundance of various lignin, cutin, and suberin monomers measured by GC-MS before and after the incubation indicate selective degradation

  12. Asymmetric Flow-Field Flow Fractionation (AF4) of Aqueous C60 Aggregates with Dynamic Light Scattering Size and LC-MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current methods for the size determination of nanomaterials in aqueous suspension include dynamic or static light scattering and electron or atomic force microscopy techniques. Light scattering techniques are limited by poor resolution and the scattering intensity dependence on p...

  13. Phosphorus content as a function of soil aggregate size and paddy cultivation in highly weathered soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Baozhen; Ge, Tida; Xiao, Heai; Zhu, Zhenke; Li, Yong; Shibistova, Olga; Liu, Shoulong; Wu, Jinshui; Inubushi, Kazuyuki; Guggenberger, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Red soils are the major land resource in subtropical and tropical areas and are characterized by low phosphorus (P) availability. To assess the availability of P for plants and the potential stability of P in soil, two pairs of subtropical red soil samples from a paddy field and an adjacent uncultivated upland were collected from Hunan Province, China. Analysis of total P and Olsen P and sequential extraction was used to determine the inorganic and organic P fractions in different aggregate size classes. Our results showed that the soil under paddy cultivation had lower proportions of small aggregates and higher proportions of large aggregates than those from the uncultivated upland soil. The portion of >2-mm-sized aggregates increased by 31 and 20 % at Taoyuan and Guiyang, respectively. The total P and Olsen P contents were 50-150 and 50-300 % higher, respectively, in the paddy soil than those in the upland soil. Higher inorganic and organic P fractions tended to be enriched in both the smallest and largest aggregate size classes compared to the middle size class (0.02-0.2 mm). Furthermore, the proportion of P fractions was higher in smaller aggregate sizes (<2 mm) than in the higher aggregate sizes (>2 mm). In conclusion, soils under paddy cultivation displayed improved soil aggregate structure, altered distribution patterns of P fractions in different aggregate size classes, and to some extent had enhanced labile P pools.

  14. Hydrolysis of whey protein isolate with Bacillus licheniformis protease: aggregating capacities of peptide fractions.

    PubMed

    Creusot, Nathalie; Gruppen, Harry

    2008-11-12

    In a previous study, peptides aggregating at pH 7.0 derived from a whey protein hydrolysate made with Bacillus licheniformis protease were fractionated and identified. The objective of the present work was to investigate the solubility of the fractionated aggregating peptides, as a function of concentration, and their aggregating capacities toward added intact proteins. The amount of aggregated material and the composition of the aggregates obtained were measured by nitrogen concentration and size exclusion chromatography, respectively. The results showed that of the four fractions obtained from the aggregating peptides, two were insoluble, while the other two consisted of 1:1 mixture of low and high solubility peptides. Therefore, insoluble peptides coaggregated, assumedly via hydrophobic interactions, other relatively more soluble peptides. It was also shown that aggregating peptides could aggregate intact protein nonspecifically since the same peptides were involved in the aggregation of whey proteins, beta-casein, and bovine serum albumin. Both insoluble and partly insoluble peptides were required for the aggregation of intact protein. These results are of interest for the applications of protein hydrolysates, as mixtures of intact protein and peptides are often present in these applications.

  15. Characterization of Aggregate Size in Taxus Suspension Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kolewe, Martin E.; Henson, Michael A.; Roberts, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells grow as aggregates in suspension culture, but little is known about the dynamics of aggregation, and no routine methodology exists to measure aggregate size. In this study, we evaluate several different methods to characterize aggregate size in Taxus suspension cultures, in which aggregate diameters range from 50 μm to 2000 μm, including filtration and image analysis, and develop a novel method using a specially equipped Coulter counter system. We demonstrate the suitability of this technology to measure plant cell culture aggregates, and show that it can be reliably used to measure total biomass accumulation compared to standard methods such as dry weight. Furthermore, we demonstrate that all three methods can be used to measure an aggregate size distribution, but that the Coulter counter is more reliable and much faster, and also provides far better resolution. While absolute measurements of aggregate size differ based on the three evaluation techniques, we show that linear correlations are sufficient to account for these differences (R2 > 0.99). We then demonstrate the utility of the novel Coulter counter methodology by monitoring the dynamics of a batch process and find that the mean aggregate size increases by 55% during the exponential growth phase, but decreases during stationary phase. The results indicate that the Coulter counter method can be routinely used for advanced process characterization, particularly to study the relationship between aggregate size and secondary metabolite production, as well as a source of reliable experimental data for modeling aggregation dynamics in plant cell culture. PMID:20217417

  16. Hydrodynamic size-based separation and characterization of protein aggregates from total cell lysates

    PubMed Central

    Tanase, Maya; Zolla, Valerio; Clement, Cristina C; Borghi, Francesco; Urbanska, Aleksandra M; Rodriguez-Navarro, Jose Antonio; Roda, Barbara; Zattoni, Andrea; Reschiglian, Pierluigi; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Santambrogio, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Herein we describe a protocol that uses hollow-fiber flow field-flow fractionation (FFF) coupled with multiangle light scattering (MALS) for hydrodynamic size-based separation and characterization of complex protein aggregates. The fractionation method, which requires 1.5 h to run, was successfully modified from the analysis of protein aggregates, as found in simple protein mixtures, to complex aggregates, as found in total cell lysates. In contrast to other related methods (filter assay, analytical ultracentrifugation, gel electrophoresis and size-exclusion chromatography), hollow-fiber flow FFF coupled with MALS allows a flow-based fractionation of highly purified protein aggregates and simultaneous measurement of their molecular weight, r.m.s. radius and molecular conformation (e.g., round, rod-shaped, compact or relaxed). The polyethersulfone hollow fibers used, which have a 0.8-mm inner diameter, allow separation of as little as 20 μg of total cell lysates. In addition, the ability to run the samples in different denaturing and nondenaturing buffer allows defining true aggregates from artifacts, which can form during sample preparation. The protocol was set up using Paraquat-induced carbonylation, a model that induces protein aggregation in cultured cells. This technique will advance the biochemical, proteomic and biophysical characterization of molecular-weight aggregates associated with protein mutations, as found in many CNS degenerative diseases, or chronic oxidative stress, as found in aging, and chronic metabolic and inflammatory conditions. PMID:25521790

  17. Primary and Aggregate Size Distributions of PM in Tail Pipe Emissions form Diesel Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Masataka; Amagai, Kenji; Nakaji, Takayuki; Hayashi, Shinji

    Particulate matter (PM) emission exhausted from diesel engine should be reduced to keep the clean air environment. PM emission was considered that it consisted of coarse and aggregate particles, and nuclei-mode particles of which diameter was less than 50nm. However the detail characteristics about these particles of the PM were still unknown and they were needed for more physically accurate measurement and more effective reduction of exhaust PM emission. In this study, the size distributions of solid particles in PM emission were reported. PMs in the tail-pipe emission were sampled from three type diesel engines. Sampled PM was chemically treated to separate the solid carbon fraction from other fractions such as soluble organic fraction (SOF). The electron microscopic and optical-manual size measurement procedures were used to determine the size distribution of primary particles those were formed through coagulation process from nuclei-mode particles and consisted in aggregate particles. The centrifugal sedimentation method was applied to measure the Stokes diameter of dry-soot. Aerodynamic diameters of nano and aggregate particles were measured with scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The peak aggregate diameters detected by SMPS were fallen in the same size regime as the Stokes diameter of dry-soot. Both of primary and Stokes diameters of dry-soot decreased with increases of engine speed and excess air ratio. Also, the effects of fuel properties and engine types on primary and aggregate particle diameters were discussed.

  18. Modeling the impact of soil aggregate size on selenium immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kausch, M. F.; Pallud, C. E.

    2013-03-01

    Soil aggregates are mm- to cm-sized microporous structures separated by macropores. Whereas fast advective transport prevails in macropores, advection is inhibited by the low permeability of intra-aggregate micropores. This can lead to mass transfer limitations and the formation of aggregate scale concentration gradients affecting the distribution and transport of redox sensitive elements. Selenium (Se) mobilized through irrigation of seleniferous soils has emerged as a major aquatic contaminant. In the absence of oxygen, the bioavailable oxyanions selenate, Se(VI), and selenite, Se(IV), can be microbially reduced to solid, elemental Se, Se(0), and anoxic microzones within soil aggregates are thought to promote this process in otherwise well-aerated soils. To evaluate the impact of soil aggregate size on selenium retention, we developed a dynamic 2-D reactive transport model of selenium cycling in a single idealized aggregate surrounded by a macropore. The model was developed based on flow-through-reactor experiments involving artificial soil aggregates (diameter: 2.5 cm) made of sand and containing Enterobacter cloacae SLD1a-1 that reduces Se(VI) via Se(IV) to Se(0). Aggregates were surrounded by a constant flow providing Se(VI) and pyruvate under oxic or anoxic conditions. In the model, reactions were implemented with double-Monod rate equations coupled to the transport of pyruvate, O2, and Se species. The spatial and temporal dynamics of the model were validated with data from experiments, and predictive simulations were performed covering aggregate sizes 1-2.5 cm in diameter. Simulations predict that selenium retention scales with aggregate size. Depending on O2, Se(VI), and pyruvate concentrations, selenium retention was 4-23 times higher in 2.5 cm aggregates compared to 1 cm aggregates. Under oxic conditions, aggregate size and pyruvate concentrations were found to have a positive synergistic effect on selenium retention. Promoting soil aggregation on

  19. Effect of water on deposition, aggregate size, and viscosity of asphaltenes.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Seyma; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2014-04-08

    The aggregation and structure of polar molecules in nonpolar media may have a profound effect on bulk phase properties and transport. In this study, we investigate the aggregation and deposition of water and asphaltenes, the most polar fraction in petroleum fluids. In flow-line experiments, we vary the concentration of water from 500 up to 175,000 ppm and provide the evidence for clear changes in asphaltene deposition. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) are used to measure the size of the aggregates. Rheological measurements are performed to get fixed ideas on the structural changes that water induces at different concentrations. This study demonstrates the significant effect of water on asphaltene aggregation and deposition and explores the molecular basis of water-asphaltene interaction. Our aggregate size measurements show that while asphaltene molecules increase the solubilization of water, there is no increase in the aggregate size. Our aggregation size measurements are different from the reports in the literature.

  20. Application of asymmetric flow-field flow fractionation to the characterization of colloidal dispersions undergoing aggregation.

    PubMed

    Lattuada, Marco; Olivo, Carlos; Gauer, Cornelius; Storti, Giuseppe; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2010-05-18

    The characterization of complex colloidal dispersions is a relevant and challenging problem in colloidal science. In this work, we show how asymmetric flow-field flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to static light scattering can be used for this purpose. As an example of complex colloidal dispersions, we have chosen two systems undergoing aggregation. The first one is a conventional polystyrene latex undergoing reaction-limited aggregation, which leads to the formation of fractal clusters with well-known structure. The second one is a dispersion of elastomeric colloidal particles made of a polymer with a low glass transition temperature, which undergoes coalescence upon aggregation. Samples are withdrawn during aggregation at fixed times, fractionated with AF4 using a two-angle static light scattering unit as a detector. We have shown that from the analysis of the ratio between the intensities of the scattered light at the two angles the cluster size distribution can be recovered, without any need for calibration based on standard elution times, provided that the geometry and scattering properties of particles and clusters are known. The nonfractionated samples have been characterized also by conventional static and dynamic light scattering to determine their average radius of gyration and hydrodynamic radius. The size distribution of coalescing particles has been investigated also through image analysis of cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures. The average radius of gyration and the average hydrodynamic radius of the nonfractionated samples have been calculated and successfully compared to the values obtained from the size distributions measured by AF4. In addition, the data obtained are also in good agreement with calculations made with population balance equations.

  1. Reducing Router Forwarding Table Size Using Aggregation and Caching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yaoqing

    2013-01-01

    The fast growth of global routing table size has been causing concerns that the Forwarding Information Base (FIB) will not be able to fit in existing routers' expensive line-card memory, and upgrades will lead to a higher cost for network operators and customers. FIB Aggregation, a technique that merges multiple FIB entries into one, is probably…

  2. Effects of maximum aggregate size on UPV of brick aggregate concrete.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Tarek Uddin; Mahmood, Aziz Hasan

    2016-07-01

    Investigation was carried out to study the effects of maximum aggregate size (MAS) (12.5mm, 19.0mm, 25.0mm, 37.5mm, and 50.0mm) on ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) of concrete. For investigation, first class bricks were collected and broken to make coarse aggregate. The aggregates were tested for specific gravity, absorption capacity, unit weight, and abrasion resistance. Cylindrical concrete specimens were made with different sand to aggregate volume ratio (s/a) (0.40 and 0.45), W/C ratio (0.45, 0.50, and 0.55), and cement content (375kg/m(3) and 400kg/m(3)). The specimens were tested for compressive strength and Young's modulus. UPV through wet specimen was measured using Portable Ultrasonic Non-destructive Digital Indicating Tester (PUNDIT). Results indicate that the pulse velocity through concrete increases with an increase in MAS. Relationships between UPV and compressive strength; and UPV and Young's modulus of concrete are proposed for different maximum sizes of brick aggregate.

  3. Effects of Soy Protein Nanoparticle Aggregate Size on the Viscoelastic Properties of Styrene-Butadiene Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy protein nanoparticle aggregates were prepared by alkaline hydrolysis of soy protein isolate (SPI). Light scattering measurements indicated a narrow size distribution of SPI aggregates. Nanocomposites were formed by mixing hydrolyzed SPI (HSPI) nanoparticle aggregates with styrene-butadiene (SB...

  4. Spall Strength Measurements of Concrete for Varying Aggregate Sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, Lalit C.; Kipp, Marlin E.; Reinhart, William D.; Wilson, Leonard T.

    1999-05-05

    Controlled impact experiments have been performed to determine the spall strength of four different concrete compositions. The four concrete compositions are identified as, `SAC-5, CSPC', ("3/4") large, and ("3/8") small, Aggregate. They differ primarily in aggregate size but with average densities varying by less than five percent. Wave profiles from sixteen experiments, with shock amplitudes of 0.07 to 0.55 GPa, concentrate primarily within the elastic regime. Free-surface particle velocity measurements indicate consistent pullback signals in the release profiles, denoting average span strength of approximately 40 MPa. It is the purpose of this paper to present spall measurements under uniaxial strain loading. Notwithstanding considerable wave structure that is a unique characteristic to the heterogeneous nature of the scaled concrete, the spall amplitudes appear reproducible and consistent over the pressure range reported in this study.

  5. Kinetics, aggregation behavior and optimization of the fractionation of whey protein isolate with hydrochloric acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated WPI solutions (10% (w/w)) containing approximately 30% alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) and 60% beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) were fractionated with HCl at acidic pH and moderate temperatures to denature alpha-LA and recover the alpha-LA aggregates via centrifugation. Aggregation behavior an...

  6. Influence of aggregate sizes and microstructures on bioremediation assessment of field-contaminated soils in pilot-scale biopiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W.; Akbari, A.; Frigon, D.; Ghoshal, S.

    2011-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soils and groundwater is an environmental concern. Bioremediation has been frequently considered a cost-effective, less disruptive remedial technology. Formation of soil aggregate fractions in unsaturated soils is generally believed to hinder aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation due to the slow intra-pore diffusion of nutrients and oxygen within the aggregate matrix and to the reduced bioavailability of hydrocarbons. On the other hand, soil aggregates may harbour favourable niches for indigenous bacteria, providing protective microsites against various in situ environmental stresses. The size of the soil aggregates is likely to be a critical factor for these processes and could be interpreted as a relevant marker for biodegradation assessment. There have been only limited attempts in the past to assess petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in unsaturated soils as a function of aggregate size. This study is aimed at investigating the roles of aggregate sizes and aggregate microstructures on biodegradation activity. Field-aged, contaminated, clayey soils were shipped from Norman Wells, Canada. Attempts were made to stimulate indigenous microbial activity by soil aeration and nutrient amendments in a pilot-scale biopile tank (1m L×0.65m W×0.3 m H). A control biopile was maintained without the nutrient amendment but was aerated. The initial concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the field-contaminated soils increased with increasing aggregate sizes, which were classified in three fractions: micro- (<250 μm), meso- (>250-2000 μm) and macro-aggregates (>2000 μm). Compared to the TPH analyses at whole-soil level, the petroleum hydrocarbon analyses based on the aggregate-size levels demonstrated more clearly the extent of biodegradation of non-volatile, heavier hydrocarbons (C16-C34) in the soil. The removal of the C16-C34 hydrocarbons was 44% in macro-aggregates, but only 13% in meso-aggregates. The increased protein

  7. Differences in SOM decomposition and temperature sensitivity among soil aggregate size classes in a temperate grasslands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Dan; Wen, Xuefa; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Rongfu

    2015-01-01

    The principle of enzyme kinetics suggests that the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is inversely related to organic carbon (C) quality, i.e., the C quality-temperature (CQT) hypothesis. We tested this hypothesis by performing laboratory incubation experiments with bulk soil, macroaggregates (MA, 250-2000 μm), microaggregates (MI, 53-250 μm), and mineral fractions (MF, <53 μm) collected from an Inner Mongolian temperate grassland. The results showed that temperature and aggregate size significantly affected on SOM decomposition, with notable interactive effects (P<0.0001). For 2 weeks, the decomposition rates of bulk soil and soil aggregates increased with increasing incubation temperature in the following order: MA>MF>bulk soil >MI(P <0.05). The Q10 values were highest for MA, followed (in decreasing order) by bulk soil, MF, and MI. Similarly, the activation energies (Ea) for MA, bulk soil, MF, and MI were 48.47, 33.26, 27.01, and 23.18 KJ mol-1, respectively. The observed significant negative correlations between Q10 and C quality index in bulk soil and soil aggregates (P<0.05) suggested that the CQT hypothesis is applicable to soil aggregates. Cumulative C emission differed significantly among aggregate size classes (P <0.0001), with the largest values occurring in MA (1101 μg g-1), followed by MF (976 μg g-1) and MI (879 μg g-1). These findings suggest that feedback from SOM decomposition in response to changing temperature is closely associated withsoil aggregation and highlights the complex responses of ecosystem C budgets to future warming scenarios.

  8. Aggregate size distribution in a biochar-amended tropical Ultisol under conventional hand-hoe tillage.

    PubMed

    Fungo, Bernard; Lehmann, Johannes; Kalbitz, Karsten; Thionģo, Margaret; Okeyo, Irene; Tenywa, Moses; Neufeldt, Henry

    2017-01-01

    Biochar (or pyrogenic organic matter) is increasingly proposed as a soil amendment for improving fertility, carbon sequestration and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, little is known about its effects on aggregation, an important indicator of soil quality and functioning. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Eucalyptus wood biochar (B, pyrolyzed at 550 °C, at 0 or 2.5 t ha(-1)), green manure (T, from Tithonia diversifolia at 0, 2.5 or 5.0 t ha(-1)) and mineral nitrogen (U, urea, at 0, or 120 kg N ha(-1)) on soil respiration, aggregate size distribution and SOC in these aggregate size fractions in a 2-year field experiment on a low-fertility Ultisol in western Kenya under conventional hand-hoe tillage. Air-dry 2-mm sieved soils were divided into four fractions by wet sieving: Large Macro-aggregates (LM; >1000 μm); Small Macro-aggregates (SM, 250-1000 μm); Micro-aggregates (M, 250-53 μm) and Silt + Clay (S + C, < 53 μm). We found that biochar alone did not affect a mean weight diameter (MWD) but combined application with either T. diversifolia (BT) or urea (BU) increased MWD by 34 ± 5.2 μm (8%) and 55 ± 5.4 μm (13%), respectively, compared to the control (P = 0.023; n = 36). The B + T + U combination increased the proportion of the LM and SM by 7.0 ± 0.8%, but reduced the S + C fraction by 5.2 ± 0.23%. SOC was 30%, 25% and 23% in S + C, M and LM/SM fractions, and increased by 9.6 ± 1.0, 5.7 ± 0.8, 6.3 ± 1.1 and 4.2 ± 0.9 g kg(-1) for LM, SM, M and S + C, respectively. MWD was not related to either soil respiration or soil moisture but decreased with higher SOC (R(2)  = 0.37, P = 0.014, n = 26) and increased with greater biomass production (R(2)  = 0.11, P = 0.045, n = 33). Our data suggest that within the timeframe of the study, biochar is stored predominantly as free particulate OC in the silt and clay fraction and promoted a movement of native SOC from larger-size

  9. Quasiparticle Aggregation in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Laughlin, R. B.

    1984-10-10

    Quasiparticles in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect behave qualitatively like electrons confined to the lowest landau level, and can do everything electrons can do, including condense into second generation Fractional Quantum Hall ground states. I review in this paper the reasoning leading to variational wavefunctions for ground state and quasiparticles in the 1/3 effect. I then show how two-quasiparticle eigenstates are uniquely determined from symmetry, and how this leads in a natural way to variational wavefunctions for composite states which have the correct densities (2/5, 2/7, ...). I show in the process that the boson, anyon and fermion representations for the quasiparticles used by Haldane, Halperin, and me are all equivalent. I demonstrate a simple way to derive Halperin`s multiple-valued quasiparticle wavefunction from the correct single-valued electron wavefunction. (auth)

  10. DDA Computations of Porous Aggregates with Forsterite Crystals: Effects of Crystal Shape and Crystal Mass Fraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Lindsay, Sean S.; Harker, David; Woodward, Charles; Kelley, Michael S.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla

    2015-01-01

    Porous aggregate grains are commonly found in cometary dust samples and are needed to model cometary IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Models for thermal emissions from comets require two forms of silicates: amorphous and crystalline. The dominant crystal resonances observed in comet SEDs are from Forsterite (Mg2SiO4). The mass fractions that are crystalline span a large range from 0.0 < or = fcrystal < or = 0.74. Radial transport models that predict the enrichment of the outer disk (>25 AU at 1E6 yr) by inner disk materials (crystals) are challenged to yield the highend-range of cometary crystal mass fractions. However, in current thermal models, Forsterite crystals are not incorporated into larger aggregate grains but instead only are considered as discrete crystals. A complicating factor is that Forsterite crystals with rectangular shapes better fit the observed spectral resonances in wavelength (11.0-11.15 microns, 16, 19, 23.5, 27, and 33 microns), feature asymmetry and relative height (Lindley et al. 2013) than spherically or elliptically shaped crystals. We present DDA-DDSCAT computations of IR absorptivities (Qabs) of 3 micron-radii porous aggregates with 0.13 < or = fcrystal < or = 0.35 and with polyhedral-shaped Forsterite crystals. We can produce crystal resonances with similar appearance to the observed resonances of comet Hale- Bopp. Also, a lower mass fraction of crystals in aggregates can produce the same spectral contrast as a higher mass fraction of discrete crystals; the 11micron and 23 micron crystalline resonances appear amplified when crystals are incorporated into aggregates composed otherwise of spherically shaped amorphous Fe-Mg olivines and pyroxenes. We show that the optical properties of a porous aggregate is not linear combination of its monomers, so aggregates need to be computed. We discuss the consequence of lowering comet crystal mass fractions by modeling IR SEDs with aggregates with crystals, and the implications for radial

  11. Transitional grain-size-sensitive flow of milky quartz aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, J. I.; Holyoke, C. W., III; Kronenberg, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Fine-grained (~15 μm) milky quartz aggregates exhibit reversible flow strengths in triaxial compression experiments conducted at T = 800-900oC, Pc = 1.5 GPa when strain rates are sequentially decreased (typically from 10-3.5 to 10-4.5 and 10-5.5 s-1), and then returned to the original rate (10-3.5 s-1), while samples that experience grain growth at 1000oC (to 35 μm) over the same sequence of strain rates exhibit an irreversible increase in strength. Polycrystalline quartz aggregates have been synthesized from natural milky quartz powders (ground to 5 μm) by HIP methods at T = 1000oC, Pc = 1.5 GPa and t = 24 hours, resulting in dense, fine-grained aggregates of uniform water content of ~4000 ppm (H/106Si), as indicated by a broad OH absorption band at 3400 cm-1. In experiments performed at 800o and 900oC, grain sizes of the samples are essentially constant over the duration of each experiment, though grain shapes change significantly, and undulatory extinction and deformation lamellae indicate that much of the sample shortening (to 50%) is accomplished, over the four strain-rate steps, by dislocation creep. Differential stresses measured at T = 800oC decrease from 160 to 30 MPa as strain rate is reduced from 10-4.6 to 10-5.5 s-1, and a stress of 140 MPa is measured when strain rate is returned to 10-4.5 s-1. Samples deformed at 1000o and 1100oC experience normal grain growth, with grain boundary energy-driven grain-coarsening textures superposed by undulatory extinction and deformation lamellae. Differential stresses measured at 1000oC and strain rates of 10-3.6, 10-4.6, and 10-5.5 s-1 are 185, 80, and 80 MPa, respectively, while an increased flow stress of 260 MPa is measured (following ~28 hours of prior high temperature deformation and grain growth) when strain rate is returned to 10-3.6 s-1. While all samples exhibit lattice preferred orientations, the stress exponent n inferred for the fine-grained 800oC sample is 1.5 and the stress exponent of the coarse

  12. Carbon storage in soil size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F; Ramachandran Nair, P K; Nair, Vimala D; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C; Baligar, Virupax C; Machado, Regina C R

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 microm, 250-53 microm, and <53 microm)-corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions-and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  13. Sedimentation field flow fractionation and optical absorption spectroscopy for a quantitative size characterization of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Contado, Catia; Argazzi, Roberto; Amendola, Vincenzo

    2016-11-04

    Many advanced industrial and biomedical applications that use silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), require that particles are not only nano-sized, but also well dispersed, not aggregated and not agglomerated. This study presents two methods able to give rapidly sizes of monodispersed AgNPs suspensions in the dimensional range of 20-100nm. The first method, based on the application of Mie's theory, determines the particle sizes from the values of the surface plasmon resonance wavelength (SPRMAX), read from the optical absorption spectra, recorded between 190nm and 800nm. The computed sizes were compared with those determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) and resulted in agreement with the nominal values in a range between 13% (for 20nm NPs) and 1% (for 100nm NPs), The second method is based on the masterly combination of the Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF - now sold as Centrifugal FFF-CFFF) and the Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (OAS) techniques to accomplish sizes and quantitative particle size distributions for monodispersed, non-aggregated AgNPs suspensions. The SdFFF separation abilities, well exploited to size NPs, greatly benefits from the application of Mie's theory to the UV-vis signal elaboration, producing quantitative mass-based particle size distributions, from which trusted number-sized particle size distributions can be derived. The silver mass distributions were verified and supported by detecting off-line the Ag concentration with the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS).

  14. Quantitative analysis of virus-like particle size and distribution by field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Chuan, Yap P; Fan, Yuan Y; Lua, Linda; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2008-04-15

    Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AFFFF) coupled with multiple-angle light scattering (MALS) is a powerful technique showing potential for the analysis of pharmaceutically-relevant virus-like particles (VLPs). A lack of published methods, and concerns that membrane adsorption during sample fractionation may cause sample aggregation, have limited widespread acceptance. Here we report a reliable optimized method for VLP analysis using AFFFF-MALS, and benchmark it against dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By comparing chemically identical VLPs having very different quaternary structure, sourced from both bacteria and insect cells, we show that optimized AFFFF analysis does not cause significant aggregation, and that accurate size and distribution information can be obtained for heterogeneous samples in a way not possible with TEM and DLS. Optimized AFFFF thus provides a quantitative way to monitor batch consistency for new vaccine products, and rapidly provides unique information on the whole population of particles within a sample.

  15. Grain size evolution and fractionation trends in an experimental regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, F.; Cintala, M. J.; See, T. H.; Cardenas, F.; Thompson, T. D.

    1984-01-01

    The communication of blocky planetary surfaces into fine-grained regoliths was simulated by impacting a fragmental gabbro target 200 times with stainless steel projectiles. It is found that the comminution efficiency of the surfaces changes with time, being highest in the early stages of regolith formation and decreasing gradually. The relationship between mean grain size and cumulative energy is not linear. Individual, fine-grained regolith components can be generated very early from relatively large progenitor fragments without going through intermediate-size fractions. Impact comminution is capable of producing fractionated fines as postulated by Papike et al. (1982). The role of grain-size selective, lateral transport to explain the fractionated nature of lunar regolith fines may have been overestimated in the past.

  16. Packing fraction of particles with lognormal size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwers, H. J. H.

    2014-05-01

    This paper addresses the packing and void fraction of polydisperse particles with a lognormal size distribution. It is demonstrated that a binomial particle size distribution can be transformed into a continuous particle-size distribution of the lognormal type. Furthermore, an original and exact expression is derived that predicts the packing fraction of mixtures of particles with a lognormal distribution, which is governed by the standard deviation, mode of packing, and particle shape only. For a number of particle shapes and their packing modes (close, loose) the applicable values are given. This closed-form analytical expression governing the packing fraction is thoroughly compared with empirical and computational data reported in the literature, and good agreement is found.

  17. Aggregated Particle-size distributions for tephra-deposit model forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastin, L. G.; Durant, A. J.; Van Eaton, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The accuracy of models that forecast atmospheric transport and deposition of tephra to anticipate hazards during volcanic eruptions is limited by the fact that fine ash tends to aggregate and fall out more rapidly than the individual constituent particles. Aggregation is generally accounted for by representing fine ash as aggregates with density ρagg and a log-normal size range with median μagg and standard deviation σagg. Values of these parameters likely vary with eruption type, grain size, and atmospheric conditions. To date, no studies have examined how the values vary from one eruption or deposit to another. In this study, we used the Ash3d tephra model to simulate four deposits: 18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens, 16-17 September 1992 Crater Peak (Mount Spurr), Alaska, 17 June 1996 Ruapehu, and 23 March 2009 Mount Redoubt volcano. In 158 simulations, we systematically varied μagg (1-2.3Φ) and σagg (0.1-0.3Φ), using ellipsoidal aggregates with =600 kg m-3 and a shape factor F≡((b+c)/2a)=0.44 . We evaluated the goodness of fit using three statistical comparisons: modeled versus measured (1) mass load at individual sample locations; (2) mass load versus distance along the dispersal axis; and (3) isomass area. For all deposits, the best-fit μagg ranged narrowly between ~1.6-2.0Φ (0.33-0.25mm), despite large variations in erupted mass (0.25-50 Tg), plume height (8.5-25 km), mass fraction of fine (<0.063mm) ash (3-59%), atmospheric temperature, aggregation mechanism, and water content between these eruptions. This close agreement suggests that the aggregation process may be modeled as a discrete process that is agnostic to the eruptive style or magnitude of eruption. This result paves the way to a simple, computationally-efficient parameterization of aggregation that is suitable for use in operational deposit forecasts. Further research may indicate whether this narrow range also reflects physical constraints on processes in the evolving cloud.

  18. Vegetation effects on soil organic matter chemistry of aggregate fractions in a Hawaiian forest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined chemical changes from live plant tissue to soil organic matter (SOM) to determine the persistence of individual plant compounds into soil aggregate fractions. We characterized the tissue chemistry of a slow- (Dicranopteris linearis) and fast-decomposing species (Cheirodendron trigynum) a...

  19. C and N content in density fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction under cacao agroforestry systems and natural forest in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rita, Joice Cleide O; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R; Baligar, Virupax C

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO(2). Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and <53 μm). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size

  20. C and N Content in Density Fractions of Whole Soil and Soil Size Fraction Under Cacao Agroforestry Systems and Natural Forest in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and <53 μm). C and N accumulated in to the light (free- and intra-aggregate density fractions) and heavy fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction were determined. Soil size fraction obtained in cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size aggregate class

  1. Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 μm, 250-53 μm, and <53 μm)—corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions—and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  2. DDA Computations of Porous Aggregates with Forsterite Crystals: Effects of Crystal Shape and Crystal Mass Fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Lindsay, Sean S.; Harker, David; Woodward, Charles; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla

    2015-08-01

    Porous aggregate grains are commonly found in cometary dust samples and are needed to model cometary IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Models for thermal emissions from comets require two forms of silicates: amorphous and crystalline. The dominant crystal resonances observed in comet SEDs are from Forsterite (Mg2SiO4). The mass fractions that are crystalline span a large range from 0.0 ≤ fcrystal ≤ 0.74. Radial transport models that predict the enrichment of the outer disk (>25 AU at 1E6 yr) by inner disk materials (crystals) are challenged to yield the highend-range of cometary crystal mass fractions. However, in current thermal models, Forsterite crystals are not incorporated into larger aggregate grains but instead only are considered as discrete crystals. A complicating factor is that Forsterite crystals with rectangular shapes better fit the observed spectral resonances in wavelength (11.0-11.15 μm, 16, 19, 23.5, 27, and 33 μm), feature asymmetry and relative height (Lindley et al. 2013) than spherically or elliptically shaped crystals. We present DDA-DDSCAT computations of IR absorptivities (Qabs) of 3 μm-radii porous aggregates with 0.13 ≤ fcrystal ≤ 0.35 and with polyhedral-shaped Forsterite crystals. We can produce crystal resonances with similar appearance to the observed resonances of comet Hale-Bopp. Also, a lower mass fraction of crystals in aggregates can produce the same spectral contrast as a higher mass fraction of discrete crystals; the 11µm and 23 µm crystalline resonances appear amplified when crystals are incorporated into aggregates composed otherwise of spherically shaped amorphous Fe-Mg olivines and pyroxenes. We show that the optical properties of a porous aggregate is not linear combination of its monomers, so aggregates need to be computed. We discuss the consequence of lowering comet crystal mass fractions by modeling IR SEDs with aggregates with crystals, and the implications for radial transport models of our

  3. Unraveling the Early Events of Amyloid-β Protein (Aβ) Aggregation: Techniques for the Determination of Aβ Aggregate Size

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, N. Elizabeth; Moss, Melissa A.; Hestekin, Christa N.

    2012-01-01

    The aggregation of proteins into insoluble amyloid fibrils coincides with the onset of numerous diseases. An array of techniques is available to study the different stages of the amyloid aggregation process. Recently, emphasis has been placed upon the analysis of oligomeric amyloid species, which have been hypothesized to play a key role in disease progression. This paper reviews techniques utilized to study aggregation of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ) associated with Alzheimer’s disease. In particular, the review focuses on techniques that provide information about the size or quantity of oligomeric Aβ species formed during the early stages of aggregation, including native-PAGE, SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, capillary electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, light scattering, size exclusion chromatography, centrifugation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and dot blotting. PMID:22489141

  4. Bacterial diversity of soil aggregates of different sizes in various land use conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Ekaterina; Azida, Thakahova; Olga, Kutovaya

    2014-05-01

    The patterns of soil microbiome structure may be a universal and very sensitive indicator of soil quality (soil "health") used for optimization and biologization of agricultural systems. The understanding of how microbial diversity influenses, and is influenced by, the environment can only be attained by analyses at scales relevant to those at which processes influencing microbial diversity actually operate. The basic structural and functional unit of the soil is a soil aggregate, which is actually a microcosm of the associative co-existing groups of microorganisms that form characteristic ecological food chains. It is known that many important microbial processes occur in spatially segregated microenvironments in soil leading to a microscale biogeography. The Metagenomic library of typical chernozem in conditions of different land use systems was created. Total genomic DNA was extracted from 0.5 g of the frozen soil after mechanical destruction. Sample preparation and sequencing was performed on a GS Junior ("Roche»", Switzerland) according to manufacturer's recommendations, using the universal primers to the variable regions V4 gene 16S - rRNA - F515 (GTGCCAGCMGCCGCGGTAA) and R806 (GGACT-ACVSGGGTATCTAAT). It is shown that the system of land use is a stronger determinant of the taxonomic composition of the soil microbial community, rather than the size of the structural units. In soil samples from different land use systems the presence of accessory components was revealed. They may be used as indicators of processes of soil recovery, soil degradation or soil exhaustion processes occuring in the agroecosystems. The comparative analysis of microbial communities of chernozem aggregates investigated demonstrates the statistically valuable differences in the amount of bacterial phyla and Archean domain content as well as the species richness in aggregates of various size fractions. The occurrence of specific components in the taxonomic structure of micro-and macro-aggregates

  5. Effects of grain size distribution on the packing fraction and shear strength of frictionless disk packings.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    Using discrete element methods, the effects of the grain size distribution on the density and the shear strength of frictionless disk packings are analyzed. Specifically, two recent findings on the relationship between the system's grain size distribution and its rheology are revisited, and their validity is tested across a broader range of distributions than what has been used in previous studies. First, the effects of the distribution on the solid fraction are explored. It is found that the distribution that produces the densest packing is not the uniform distribution by volume fractions as suggested in a recent publication. In fact, the maximal packing fraction is obtained when the grading curve follows a power law with an exponent close to 0.5 as suggested by Fuller and Thompson in 1907 and 1919 [Trans Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 59, 1 (1907) and A Treatise on Concrete, Plain and Reinforced (1919), respectively] while studying mixtures of cement and stone aggregates. Second, the effects of the distribution on the shear strength are analyzed. It is confirmed that these systems exhibit a small shear strength, even if composed of frictionless particles as has been shown recently in several works. It is also found that this shear strength is independent of the grain size distribution. This counterintuitive result has previously been shown for the uniform distribution by volume fractions. In this paper, it is shown that this observation keeps true for different shapes of the grain size distribution.

  6. Effects of grain size distribution on the packing fraction and shear strength of frictionless disk packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    Using discrete element methods, the effects of the grain size distribution on the density and the shear strength of frictionless disk packings are analyzed. Specifically, two recent findings on the relationship between the system's grain size distribution and its rheology are revisited, and their validity is tested across a broader range of distributions than what has been used in previous studies. First, the effects of the distribution on the solid fraction are explored. It is found that the distribution that produces the densest packing is not the uniform distribution by volume fractions as suggested in a recent publication. In fact, the maximal packing fraction is obtained when the grading curve follows a power law with an exponent close to 0.5 as suggested by Fuller and Thompson in 1907 and 1919 [Trans Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 59, 1 (1907) and A Treatise on Concrete, Plain and Reinforced (1919), respectively] while studying mixtures of cement and stone aggregates. Second, the effects of the distribution on the shear strength are analyzed. It is confirmed that these systems exhibit a small shear strength, even if composed of frictionless particles as has been shown recently in several works. It is also found that this shear strength is independent of the grain size distribution. This counterintuitive result has previously been shown for the uniform distribution by volume fractions. In this paper, it is shown that this observation keeps true for different shapes of the grain size distribution.

  7. An online detection system for aggregate sizes and shapes based on digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianhong; Chen, Sijia

    2017-02-01

    Traditional aggregate size measuring methods are time-consuming, taxing, and do not deliver online measurements. A new online detection system for determining aggregate size and shape based on a digital camera with a charge-coupled device, and subsequent digital image processing, have been developed to overcome these problems. The system captures images of aggregates while falling and flat lying. Using these data, the particle size and shape distribution can be obtained in real time. Here, we calibrate this method using standard globules. Our experiments show that the maximum particle size distribution error was only 3 wt%, while the maximum particle shape distribution error was only 2 wt% for data derived from falling aggregates, having good dispersion. In contrast, the data for flat-lying aggregates had a maximum particle size distribution error of 12 wt%, and a maximum particle shape distribution error of 10 wt%; their accuracy was clearly lower than for falling aggregates. However, they performed well for single-graded aggregates, and did not require a dispersion device. Our system is low-cost and easy to install. It can successfully achieve online detection of aggregate size and shape with good reliability, and it has great potential for aggregate quality assurance.

  8. An online detection system for aggregate sizes and shapes based on digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianhong; Chen, Sijia

    2016-07-01

    Traditional aggregate size measuring methods are time-consuming, taxing, and do not deliver online measurements. A new online detection system for determining aggregate size and shape based on a digital camera with a charge-coupled device, and subsequent digital image processing, have been developed to overcome these problems. The system captures images of aggregates while falling and flat lying. Using these data, the particle size and shape distribution can be obtained in real time. Here, we calibrate this method using standard globules. Our experiments show that the maximum particle size distribution error was only 3 wt%, while the maximum particle shape distribution error was only 2 wt% for data derived from falling aggregates, having good dispersion. In contrast, the data for flat-lying aggregates had a maximum particle size distribution error of 12 wt%, and a maximum particle shape distribution error of 10 wt%; their accuracy was clearly lower than for falling aggregates. However, they performed well for single-graded aggregates, and did not require a dispersion device. Our system is low-cost and easy to install. It can successfully achieve online detection of aggregate size and shape with good reliability, and it has great potential for aggregate quality assurance.

  9. Rates of microbial sulfate reduction control the sizes of biogenic iron sulfide aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Q.

    2005-12-01

    Sulfide minerals occur widely in freshwater and marine sediments as byproducts of microbial sulfate reduction and as end products of heavy metal bioremediation. They form when metals in the environments combine with sulfide produced from the metabolism of sulfate reducing bacteria. We used chemostat bioreactors to study sizes and crystal structures of iron sulfide (FeS) minerals produced by Desulfovibrio vulgaris, D. desulfuricans strain G20, and subspecies desulfuricans. FeS nanoparticles and their aggregates are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). FeS nanoparticles produced by sulfate reducing bacteria are extremely small, usually less than around 10 nm in diameter. Nanoparticles do not occur as individual nanoparticles, but as aggregates. The sizes of FeS aggregates are affected by sulfate reduction rates, Fe(II) concentration, pH, ionic strength, organic matter concentration, bacterial species, etc. Aggregate size ranges from about 500 nm at very large sulfate reduction rates to about 1,500 nm at very small rates. Variations in Fe(II) concentration also lead to a difference up to 500 nm in FeS aggregate size. Different bacterial species produce nanoparticle aggregates of different sizes under similar growth conditions. For example, D. vulgaris produces FeS aggregates with sizes 500 nm smaller than those by strain G20. The inverse relationship between FeS aggregate sizes and sulfate reduction rates is important in evaluating metal bioremediation strategies. Previous approaches have focused on stimulating microbial activities in natural environments. However, our experimental results suggest that increasing metabolic rates may decrease the aggregate size, increasing the mobility of colloidal aggregates. Therefore, the balance between microbial activities and sizes of biogenic aggregates may be an important consideration in the design and

  10. Size fractionated characterization of freshwater organic matter fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A.; Lead, J.; Elliott, S.; Demomi, A.; Liu, R.; Seredynska-Sobecka, B.; Hudson, N. J.

    2006-12-01

    We employ a range of optical (fluorescence, absorbance) techniques to freshwater organic matter, focusing on samples from urban catchments and using both traditional (filtration, cross flow ultrafiltration) and novel (split cell thin flow (SPLITT)) fractionation techniques to investigate the fluorescence characteristics of both dissolved and colloidal organic matter and to probe different fractions of the size range. We find: (1) As with previous studies, urban freshwaters have high tryptophan-like fluorescence in comparison to humic-like fluorescence. (2) After conventional filtration, our samples demonstrate that humic-like fluorescence is predominantly within the <25 nm fraction and pH dependent, suggesting that it is predominantly `dissolved'. Tryptophan-like fluorescence is associated with either dissolved, colloidal and particulate fractions, and is less pH dependent, depending on the sample, suggesting a variety of sources that are known to include microbial and biological cells and their exudates and the products of decomposition and feeding. (3) When the thermal quenching of fluorescence is investigated at different filter fractions, humic-like fluorescence quenching does not vary with filter fraction, whereas tryptophan-like fluorescence quenching exhibits a size dependency. This confirms at least two sources of tryptophan-like fluorescence that have different sizes and different thermal quenching properties. (4) SPLITT also shows that tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity is found mainly in the particulate material and is not pH dependent, while humic-like fluorescence intensities are dependent on pH but not on size. However, humic-like fluorescence intensity normalised to absorbance, related to fluorescence efficiency and molar mass, varies with size in the SPLITT samples. (5) Cross flow ultrafiltration confirms that, compared with tryptophan standards, freshwater tryptophan-like fluorescence is not dissolved and `free'. However, it is related to the

  11. Study on aggregation behavior of Cytochrome C-conjugated silver nanoparticles using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Tae; Lee, Yong-Ju; Hwang, Yu-Sik; Lee, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 40 nm silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using the citrate reduction method and then the surface of AgNPs was modified by conjugating Cytochrome C (Cyto C) to improve stability and to enhance bioactivity and biocompatibility of AgNPs. It is known that Cyto C may undergo conformational changes under various conditions of pH, temperature, ionic strength, etc., resulting in aggregation of the particles. These parameters also affect the size and size distribution of Cyto C-conjugated AgNPs (Cyto C-AgNP). ζ-potential measurement revealed that the adsorption of Cyto C on the surface of AgNPs is saturated at the molar ratio [Cyto C]/[AgNPs] above about 300. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) analysis showed that hydrodynamic diameter of AgNPs increases by about 4 nm when the particle is saturated by Cyto C. The aggregation behavior of Cyto C-AgNP at various conditions of pH, temperature and ionic strength were investigated using AsFlFFF and UV-vis spectroscopy. It was found that the aggregation of Cyto C-AgNP increases with decreasing pH, increasing temperature and ionic strength due to denaturation of Cyto C on AgNPs and reduction in the thickness of electrostatic double layer on the surface of Cyto C-AgNP.

  12. Frequency, size, and localization of bacterial aggregates on bean leaf surfaces.

    PubMed

    Monier, J-M; Lindow, S E

    2004-01-01

    Using epifluorescence microscopy and image analysis, we have quantitatively described the frequency, size, and spatial distribution of bacterial aggregates on leaf surfaces of greenhouse-grown bean plants inoculated with the plant-pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain B728a. Bacterial cells were not randomly distributed on the leaf surface but occurred in a wide range of cluster sizes, ranging from single cells to over 10(4) cells per aggregate. The average cluster size increased through time, and aggregates were more numerous and larger when plants were maintained under conditions of high relative humidity levels than under dry conditions. The large majority of aggregates observed were small (less than 100 cells), and aggregate sizes exhibited a strong right-hand-skewed frequency distribution. While large aggregates are not frequent on a given leaf, they often accounted for the majority of cells present. We observed that up to 50% of cells present on a leaf were located in aggregates containing 10(3) cells or more. Aggregates were associated with several different anatomical features of the leaf surface but not with stomates. Aggregates were preferentially associated with glandular trichomes and veins. The biological and ecological significance of aggregate formation by epiphytic bacteria is discussed.

  13. Size Fractionation of Mechanochemical Synthesized Alkyl-Passivated Silicon Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoni, Luigi; Mitchell, Brian

    2010-03-01

    A novel top-down procedure was employed for the synthesis of stable alkyl-passivated silicon nanoparticles using reactive high energy ball milling (HEBM) as described in Heintz et al., (Adv. Mater. 2007, 19). The method provides for the simultaneous production of photo luminescent silicon nanoparticles and the passivation of the particle surface with alkyl groups covalently linked through Si-C bonds. As fresh silicon surface is formed during HEBM by particle fracture, the surface Si atoms react in-situ with liquid alkyls, such as 1-octyne and 1-hexyne. We present a multistage size selective fractionation process to isolate and purify initial sample polydispersities ranging from microns down to single nanometers (1 um - 1 nm). This process employs centrifugation, inline nano-filtration, both normal phase gel permission (GPC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC), followed by recursive size selective precipitation (SSP). Size evolutions of fractions are monitored via UV/VIS absorbance, photoluminescence (PL), and electron microscopy (SEM/TEM). Elemental impurities are quantified through atomic absorption (AAS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Stages are performed in series to isolate and investigate the influence of initial alkyl and silicon reactants on product yields, size dispersity, and optical behavior.

  14. Aggregate size and structure determination of nanomaterials in physiological media: importance of dynamic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afrooz, A. R. M. Nabiul; Hussain, Saber M.; Saleh, Navid B.

    2014-12-01

    Most in vitro nanotoxicological assays are performed after 24 h exposure. However, in determining size and shape effect of nanoparticles in toxicity assays, initial characterization data are generally used to describe experimental outcome. The dynamic size and structure of aggregates are typically ignored in these studies. This brief communication reports dynamic evolution of aggregation characteristics of gold nanoparticles. The study finds that gradual increase in aggregate size of gold nanospheres (AuNS) occurs up to 6 h duration; beyond this time period, the aggregation process deviates from gradual to a more abrupt behavior as large networks are formed. Results of the study also show that aggregated clusters possess unique structural conformation depending on nominal diameter of the nanoparticles. The differences in fractal dimensions of the AuNS samples likely occurred due to geometric differences, causing larger packing propensities for smaller sized particles. Both such observations can have profound influence on dosimetry for in vitro nanotoxicity analyses.

  15. Adjusting particle-size distributions to account for aggregation in tephra-deposit model forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastin, Larry G.; Van Eaton, Alexa R.; Durant, Adam J.

    2016-07-01

    Volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models are used to forecast tephra deposition during volcanic eruptions. Model accuracy is limited by the fact that fine-ash aggregates (clumps into clusters), thus altering patterns of deposition. In most models this is accounted for by ad hoc changes to model input, representing fine ash as aggregates with density ρagg, and a log-normal size distribution with median μagg and standard deviation σagg. Optimal values may vary between eruptions. To test the variance, we used the Ash3d tephra model to simulate four deposits: 18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens; 16-17 September 1992 Crater Peak (Mount Spurr); 17 June 1996 Ruapehu; and 23 March 2009 Mount Redoubt. In 192 simulations, we systematically varied μagg and σagg, holding ρagg constant at 600 kg m-3. We evaluated the fit using three indices that compare modeled versus measured (1) mass load at sample locations; (2) mass load versus distance along the dispersal axis; and (3) isomass area. For all deposits, under these inputs, the best-fit value of μagg ranged narrowly between ˜ 2.3 and 2.7φ (0.20-0.15 mm), despite large variations in erupted mass (0.25-50 Tg), plume height (8.5-25 km), mass fraction of fine ( < 0.063 mm) ash (3-59 %), atmospheric temperature, and water content between these eruptions. This close agreement suggests that aggregation may be treated as a discrete process that is insensitive to eruptive style or magnitude. This result offers the potential for a simple, computationally efficient parameterization scheme for use in operational model forecasts. Further research may indicate whether this narrow range also reflects physical constraints on processes in the evolving cloud.

  16. Some considerations of the size dependence of optical properties of solids and aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard, D.; Hache, F.; Klein, M. C.

    1991-12-01

    We discuss the size dependence of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of small molecular aggregates and of Wannier excitons in small semiconductor crystallites. In the first case, we show that the predictions strongly depend on the approach one uses to describe an excited aggregate. We also show that size dependent radiative decay rates should be observed for these small entities but also for macrocrystals.

  17. Radium-226 contents and Rn emanation coefficients of particle-size fractions of alkaline, acid and mixed U mill tailings.

    PubMed

    Landa, E R

    1987-03-01

    Alkaline circuit and mixed, acid and alkaline circuit U mill tailings sampled at an inactive mill site near Monticello, UT, and tailings from an active, acid-leach U mill were separated into particle-size fractions ranging from +10 mesh to -325 mesh by dry and wet separation techniques. The 226Ra contents and 222Rn emanation coefficients of these fractions were determined. Dry tailings show a high degree of aggregation that tends to mask the relation of properties, such as Ra content and Rn emanating power, to dispersed-particle size. Coarse-tailings fractions (+325 mesh) had emanation coefficients which were from 25 to 45% lower than those of their fine-fraction counterparts. Emanation coefficients measured for tailings derived from a salt roast/carbonate-leach process suggest that such are roasting does not lead to reductions in Rn emanation in the tailings derived therefrom.

  18. Characterization of Sizes of Aggregates of Insulin Analogs and the Conformations of the Constituent Protein Molecules: A Concomitant Dynamic Light Scattering and Raman Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chen; Qi, Wei; Lewis, E Neil; Carpenter, John F

    2016-02-01

    To generate aggregates, 3 insulin analogs, lispro, aspart, and glulisine, were incubated without phenolic preservatives for 30 days at 37 °C. As a function of incubation time, aggregation was quantified with size exclusion chromatography, and the sizes of aggregates and the conformations of the constituent molecules were characterized with concomitant dynamic light scattering and Raman spectroscopy. During incubation, lispro was progressively converted into soluble aggregates with hydrodynamic diameters of circa 15 nm, and 95% of the native protein had aggregated at day 30. Raman spectroscopy documented that aggregation resulted in conversion of a large fraction of native alpha helix into nonnative beta sheet structure and a distortion of disulfide bonds. In contrast, for aspart and glulisine only 20% of the native proteins aggregated after 30 days, and minimal structural perturbations were detected. In addition, consistent with the relative aggregation rates during isothermal incubation, Raman spectroscopy showed that during heating the onset temperature for secondary structural perturbations of lispro occurred 7 °C-10 °C lower than those for aspart or glulisine. Overall the results of this study demonstrated that-as in the case during formation of amyloid fibrils from insulin-formation of soluble aggregates of lispro resulted in a high level of conversion of alpha helix into beta sheet.

  19. Sizing aerosolized fractal nanoparticle aggregates through Bayesian analysis of wide-angle light scattering (WALS) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Franz J. T.; Will, Stefan; Daun, Kyle J.

    2016-11-01

    Inferring the size distribution of aerosolized fractal aggregates from the angular distribution of elastically scattered light is a mathematically ill-posed problem. This paper presents a procedure for analyzing Wide-Angle Light Scattering (WALS) data using Bayesian inference. The outcome is probability densities for the recovered size distribution and aggregate morphology parameters. This technique is applied to both synthetic data and experimental data collected on soot-laden aerosols, using a measurement equation derived from Rayleigh-Debye-Gans fractal aggregate (RDG-FA) theory. In the case of experimental data, the recovered aggregate size distribution parameters are generally consistent with TEM-derived values, but the accuracy is impaired by the well-known limited accuracy of RDG-FA theory. Finally, we show how this bias could potentially be avoided using the approximation error technique.

  20. Geographic variation in clutch size and a realized benefit of aggregative feeding.

    PubMed

    Fordyce, James A; Nice, Chris C

    2004-02-01

    We investigated one causal explanation for geographic variation in clutch size and aggregative feeding of the pipevine swallowtail, Battus philenor. Populations in California lay larger clutches than those in Texas, and larger feeding aggregations grow at an accelerated rate on the California host plant. Using reciprocal transplant experiments with larvae from California and Texas populations, we found that the benefit of increased growth rate associated with feeding in larger groups occurred only on the California host plant and was observed for larvae from both populations. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that larger clutch size and aggregative feeding are adaptations to characteristics of the California host plant. Future studies on the evolution of clutch size and aggregative feeding of herbivorous insects should consider how these life-history traits affect host plant suitability.

  1. Experimental ultrasound characterization of red blood cell aggregation using the structure factor size estimator.

    PubMed

    Yu, François T H; Cloutier, Guy

    2007-07-01

    The frequency dependence of the ultrasonic backscattering coefficient (BSC) was studied to assess the level of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation. Three monoelement focused wideband transducers were used to insonify porcine blood sheared in a Couette flow from 9 to 30 MHz. A high shear rate was first applied to promote disaggregation. Different residual shear rates were then used to promote formation of RBC aggregates. The structure factor size estimator (SFSE), a second-order data reduction model based on the structure factor, was applied to the frequency-dependent BSC. Two parameters were extracted from the model to describe the level of aggregation at 6% and 40% hematocrits: W, the packing factor, and D the aggregate diameter, expressed in number of RBCs. Both parameters closely matched theoretical values for nonaggregated RBCs. W and D increased during aggregation with stabilized values modulated by the applied residual shear rate. Furthermore, parameter D during the kinetics of aggregation at 6% hematocrit under static conditions correlated with an optical RBC aggregate size estimation from microscopic images (r(2)=0.76). To conclude, the SFSE presents an interesting framework for tissue characterization of partially correlated dense tissues such as aggregated RBCs.

  2. Microfluidic magnetic switching valves based on aggregates of magnetic nanoparticles: Effects of aggregate length and nanoparticle sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiemsakul, Thanakorn; Manakasettharn, Supone; Kanharattanachai, Sivakorn; Wanna, Yongyuth; Wangsuya, Sujint; Pratontep, Sirapat

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate microfluidic switching valves using magnetic nanoparticles blended within the working fluid as an alternative microfluidic flow control in microchannels. Y-shaped microchannels have been fabricated by using a CO2 laser cutter to pattern microchannels on transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sheets covered with thermally bonded transparent polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets. To examine the performance of the microfluidic magnetic switching valves, an aqueous magnetic nanoparticle suspension was injected into the microchannels by a syringe pump. Neodymium magnets were then employed to attract magnetic nanoparticles and form an aggregate that blocked the microchannels at a required position. We have found that the maximum volumetric flow rate of the syringe pump that the magnetic nanoparticle aggregate can withstand scales with the square of the external magnetic flux density. The viscosity of the fluid exhibits dependent on the aggregate length and the size of the magnetic nanoparticles. This microfluidic switching valve based on aggregates of magnetic nanoparticles has strong potentials as an on-demand flow control, which may help simplifying microfluidic channel designs.

  3. Impact of dose size in single fraction spatially fractionated (grid) radiotherapy for melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hualin E-mail: hualinzhang@yahoo.com; Zhong, Hualiang; Barth, Rolf F.; Cao, Minsong; Das, Indra J.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of dose size in single fraction, spatially fractionated (grid) radiotherapy for selectively killing infiltrated melanoma cancer cells of different tumor sizes, using different radiobiological models. Methods: A Monte Carlo technique was employed to calculate the 3D dose distribution of a commercially available megavoltage grid collimator in a 6 MV beam. The linear-quadratic (LQ) and modified linear quadratic (MLQ) models were used separately to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of a series of single fraction regimens that employed grid therapy to treat both acute and late responding melanomas of varying sizes. The dose prescription point was at the center of the tumor volume. Dose sizes ranging from 1 to 30 Gy at 100% dose line were modeled. Tumors were either touching the skin surface or having their centers at a depth of 3 cm. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to the melanoma cells and the therapeutic ratio (TR) were defined by comparing grid therapy with the traditional open debulking field. The clinical outcomes from recent reports were used to verify the authors’ model. Results: Dose profiles at different depths and 3D dose distributions in a series of 3D melanomas treated with grid therapy were obtained. The EUDs and TRs for all sizes of 3D tumors involved at different doses were derived through the LQ and MLQ models, and a practical equation was derived. The EUD was only one fifth of the prescribed dose. The TR was dependent on the prescribed dose and on the LQ parameters of both the interspersed cancer and normal tissue cells. The results from the LQ model were consistent with those of the MLQ model. At 20 Gy, the EUD and TR by the LQ model were 2.8% higher and 1% lower than by the MLQ, while at 10 Gy, the EUD and TR as defined by the LQ model were only 1.4% higher and 0.8% lower, respectively. The dose volume histograms of grid therapy for a 10 cm tumor showed different dosimetric characteristics from those of conventional

  4. Size characterization by Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation of silica particles used as food additives.

    PubMed

    Contado, Catia; Ravani, Laura; Passarella, Martina

    2013-07-25

    Four types of SiO2, available on the market as additives in food and personal care products, were size characterized using Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF), SEM, TEM and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). The synergic use of the different analytical techniques made it possible, for some samples, to confirm the presence of primary nanoparticles (10 nm) organized in clusters or aggregates of different dimension and, for others, to discover that the available information is incomplete, particularly that regarding the presence of small particles. A protocol to extract the silica particles from a simple food matrix was set up, enriching (0.25%, w w(-1)) a nearly silica-free instant barley coffee powder with a known SiO2 sample. The SdFFF technique, in conjunction with SEM observations, made it possible to identify the added SiO2 particles and verify the new particle size distribution. The SiO2 content of different powdered foodstuffs was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS); the concentrations ranged between 0.006 and 0.35% (w w(-1)). The protocol to isolate the silica particles was so applied to the most SiO2-rich commercial products and the derived suspensions were separated by SdFFF; SEM and TEM observations supported the size analyses while GFAAS determinations on collected fractions permitted element identification.

  5. Two-stage kinetics of field-induced aggregation of medium-sized magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezzaier, H.; Alves Marins, J.; Razvin, I.; Abbas, M.; Ben Haj Amara, A.; Zubarev, A.; Kuzhir, P.

    2017-03-01

    The present paper is focused on the theoretical and experimental study of the kinetics of field-induced aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles of a size range of 20-100 nm. Our results demonstrate that (a) in polydisperse suspensions, the largest particles could play a role of the centers of nucleation for smaller particles during the earliest heterogeneous nucleation stage; (b) an intermediate stage of the aggregate growth (due to diffusion and migration of individual nanoparticles towards the aggregates) is weakly influenced by the magnetic field strength, at least at high supersaturation; (c) the stage of direct coalescence of drop-like aggregates (occurring under magnetic attraction between them) plays a dominant role at the intermediate and late stages of the phase separation, with the time scale decreasing as a square of the aggregate magnetization.

  6. Characterization of aggregates of surface modified fullerenes by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation with multi-angle light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Astefanei, Alina; Kok, Wim Th; Bäuerlein, Patrick; Núñez, Oscar; Galceran, Maria Teresa; de Voogt, Pim; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2015-08-21

    Fullerenes are carbon nanoparticles with widespread biomedical, commercial and industrial applications. Attributes such as their tendency to aggregate and aggregate size and shape impact their ability to be transported into and through the environment and living tissues. Knowledge of these properties is therefore valuable for their human and environmental risk assessment as well as to control their synthesis and manufacture. In this work, asymmetrical flow-field flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to multi-angle light scattering (MALS) was used for the first time to study the size distribution of surface modified fullerenes with both polyhydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups in aqueous solutions having different pH (6.5-11) and ionic strength values (0-200mM) of environmental relevance. Fractionation key parameters such as flow rates, flow programming, and membrane material were optimized for the selected fullerenes. The aggregation of the compounds studied appeared to be indifferent to changes in solution pH, but was affected by changes in the ionic strength. Polyhydroxy-fullerenes were found to be present mostly as 4nm aggregates in water without added salt, but showed more aggregation at high ionic strength, with an up to 10-fold increase in their mean hydrodynamic radii (200mM), due to a decrease in the electrostatic repulsion between the nanoparticles. Carboxy-fullerenes showed a much stronger aggregation degree in water (50-100nm). Their average size and recoveries decreased with the increase in the salt concentration. This behavior can be due to enhanced adsorption of the large particles to the membrane at high ionic strength, because of their higher hydrophobicity and much larger particle sizes compared to polyhydroxy-fullerenes. The method performance was evaluated by calculating the run-to-run precision of the retention time (hydrodynamic radii), and the obtained RSD values were lower than 1%. MALS measurements showed aggregate sizes that were in good

  7. Specimen and aggregate size effect on the fracture behavior of concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Md. Shahidul

    2000-12-01

    Fracture in concrete has been a subject of extensive research for the past thirty years. Although much has been accomplished, concrete still remains the least known of the engineering materials with respect to its fracture behavior. The objective of this research was to study the influence of micro-structural parameters, such as aggregate size, and macroscopic parameters, such as specimen size, on the fracture toughness of concrete. In addition, the effect of notch-depth ratio on the fracture behavior of concrete was studied. Over 300 concrete specimens of various sizes were prepared with various maximum aggregate sizes. There is a well pronounced trend observed in all groups of specimens tested. Critical energy release rate of concrete in the presence of compressive force increases with crack length, i.e., exhibits a typical R-curve behavior. For fixed specimen size, toughness (energy release rate or fracture energy) increases with an increase in maximum aggregate size. Fracture surface interaction, i.e., interlocking, bridging, etc. is more pronounced in the specimens with larger maximum size aggregates. For specimens with fixed maximum aggregate size, toughness increases with an increase in specimen size. For geometrically similar specimens, i.e., the shape and all dimensionless parameters are the same, the toughness evaluated for larger specimens is noticeably higher than that for smaller specimens. Energy release rates for long-notch specimens were relatively lower than those for short-notch specimens. Fracture energy for short-notch specimen is higher than that for long notch specimen. Concrete surfaces exhibit fractal characteristics over the range of scales studied. Fractal dimension increases with an increase in maximum aggregate size and specimen size as well. The fractal dimension correlates very well with surface roughness. The rougher the surface, the higher the fractal dimension. A good correlation also exits between the fractal dimension and fracture

  8. Adjusting particle-size distributions to account for aggregation in tephra-deposit model forecasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Larry G.; Van Eaton, Alexa; Durant, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models are used to forecast tephra deposition during volcanic eruptions. Model accuracy is limited by the fact that fine-ash aggregates (clumps into clusters), thus altering patterns of deposition. In most models this is accounted for by ad hoc changes to model input, representing fine ash as aggregates with density ρagg, and a log-normal size distribution with median μagg and standard deviation σagg. Optimal values may vary between eruptions. To test the variance, we used the Ash3d tephra model to simulate four deposits: 18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens; 16–17 September 1992 Crater Peak (Mount Spurr); 17 June 1996 Ruapehu; and 23 March 2009 Mount Redoubt. In 192 simulations, we systematically varied μagg and σagg, holding ρagg constant at 600 kg m−3. We evaluated the fit using three indices that compare modeled versus measured (1) mass load at sample locations; (2) mass load versus distance along the dispersal axis; and (3) isomass area. For all deposits, under these inputs, the best-fit value of μagg ranged narrowly between  ∼  2.3 and 2.7φ (0.20–0.15 mm), despite large variations in erupted mass (0.25–50 Tg), plume height (8.5–25 km), mass fraction of fine ( <  0.063 mm) ash (3–59 %), atmospheric temperature, and water content between these eruptions. This close agreement suggests that aggregation may be treated as a discrete process that is insensitive to eruptive style or magnitude. This result offers the potential for a simple, computationally efficient parameterization scheme for use in operational model forecasts. Further research may indicate whether this narrow range also reflects physical constraints on processes in the evolving cloud.

  9. Useful multivariate kinetic analysis: Size determination based on cystein-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbani, Faride; Hormozi Nezhad, Mohammad Reza; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2013-11-01

    This study describes spectrometric monitored kinetic processes to determine the size of citrate-capped Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) based on aggregation induced by L-cysteine (L-Cys) as a molecular linker. The Au NPs association process is thoroughly dependent on pH, concentration and size of nanoparticles. Size dependency of aggregation inspirits to determine the average diameters of Au NPs. For this aim the procedure is achieved in aqueous medium at pH 7 (phosphate buffer), and multivariate data including kinetic spectra of Au NPs are collected during aggregation process. Subsequently partial least squares (PLS) modeling is carried out analyzing the obtained data. The model is built on the basis of relation between the kinetics behavior of aggregation and different Au NPs sizes. Training the model was performed using latent variables (LVs) of the original data. The analytical performance of the model was characterized by relative standard error. The proposed method was applied to determination of size in unknown samples. The predicted sizes of unknown samples that obtained by the introduced method are interestingly in agreement with the sizes measured by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurement.

  10. Useful multivariate kinetic analysis: Size determination based on cystein-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Faride; Hormozi Nezhad, Mohammad Reza; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2013-11-01

    This study describes spectrometric monitored kinetic processes to determine the size of citrate-capped Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) based on aggregation induced by l-cysteine (l-Cys) as a molecular linker. The Au NPs association process is thoroughly dependent on pH, concentration and size of nanoparticles. Size dependency of aggregation inspirits to determine the average diameters of Au NPs. For this aim the procedure is achieved in aqueous medium at pH 7 (phosphate buffer), and multivariate data including kinetic spectra of Au NPs are collected during aggregation process. Subsequently partial least squares (PLS) modeling is carried out analyzing the obtained data. The model is built on the basis of relation between the kinetics behavior of aggregation and different Au NPs sizes. Training the model was performed using latent variables (LVs) of the original data. The analytical performance of the model was characterized by relative standard error. The proposed method was applied to determination of size in unknown samples. The predicted sizes of unknown samples that obtained by the introduced method are interestingly in agreement with the sizes measured by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurement.

  11. Restructuring of plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates with arbitrary particle size distribution in pulsed laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershov, A. E.; Gavrilyuk, A. P.; Karpov, S. V.; Polyutov, S. P.

    2016-11-01

    We have studied processes of interaction of pulsed laser radiation with resonant groups of plasmonic nanoparticles (resonant domains) in large colloidal nanoparticle aggregates having different interparticle gaps and particle size distributions. These processes are responsible for the origin of nonlinear optical effects and photochromic reactions in multiparticle aggregates. To describe photo-induced transformations in resonant domains and alterations in their absorption spectra remaining after the pulse action, we introduce the factor of spectral photomodification. Based on calculation of changes in thermodynamic, mechanical, and optical characteristics of the domains, the histograms of the spectrum photomodification factor have been obtained for various interparticle gaps, an average particle size, and the degree of polydispersity. Variations in spectra have been analyzed depending on the intensity of laser radiation and various combinations of size characteristics of domains. The obtained results can be used to predict manifestation of photochromic effects in composite materials containing different plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates in pulsed laser fields.

  12. Size sorting of citrate reduced gold nanoparticles by sedimentation field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Contado, Catia; Argazzi, Roberto

    2009-12-25

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been synthesized through the citrate reduction method; the citrate/gold(III) ratio was changed from 1:1 up to 10:1 and the size of the resulting nanoparticles was measured by sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF). Experimental data showed that the GNPs size decreases in the ratio range 1:1-3:1 and then increases from 5:1 to 10:1 passing through a plateau region in between, and is almost independent of the precursor solution concentrations. In the zone of minimum diameters the synthetic process does not produce monodispersed GNPs but often multiple distributions, very close in size, are observed as evidenced by the particle size distributions (PSDs) derived from the SdFFF fractograms. UV-vis spectrophotometry, being the most common technique employed in the optical characterization of nanoparticles suspensions, was used throughout this work. A confirmation of the nucleation-aggregation-fragmentation mechanism was inferred from the cross-correlation between UV-vis and SdFFF results.

  13. The influence of different soil management practices on auxin herbicide interactions with organic carbon in soil aggregate fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnitzler, Frauke; Haupt, Nadine; Burauel, Peter; Berns, Anne E.

    2010-05-01

    The influence of changing organic carbon contents in soils on the sorption and/or sequestration mechanisms of xenobiotics and their bioavailability are still not understood precisely. The present work discusses the turnover of a crop residue interacting with processes like mobilisation, binding and metabolism of an auxin herbicide in soil. The soil type was a haplic chernozem, available in three crop production regimes (low, normal and high) due to three types of fertilisation (none, mineral and mineral & organic) [1]. Two sets of experiments were conducted with undisturbed soil columns under field-like conditions. In the first set 14C-labelled maize straw was incorporated into the top soil and after three months incubation the herbicide benazolin was applied. In the second set the unlabelled maize straw was incorporated first, then 14C-labelled benazolin was added. Soil layers of 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm were fractionated in according to a soil aggregate fractionation procedure [2]. The content of organic carbon and the distribution of benazolin and its metabolites were detected in the gained soil fractions. In general, the specific organic carbon content and the specific 14C-activity of benazolin and its metabolites increased in the order from sand-sized though silt-sized to clay fraction due to increasing specific surface areas and sorption sites of the mineral particles. The highest sorption capacity of benazolin and its metabolites was detected in the soil layers of 0-5 cm with mineral fertilisation. In the 5-10 cm soil layers the binding capacity increased with increasing crop production. It was shown that more than half of the residual 14C-activity was not extractable. LC-MS/MS analysis of the extracts showed that the major components were benazolin and the relatively non-mobile thiazolin. The amount of benazolin in the extracts increased with increasing crop production, but decreased with increasing soil depth. These results indicate that maize straw amendment

  14. Effect of Different Coarse Aggregate Sizes on the Strength Characteristics of Laterized Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salau, M. A.; Busari, A. O.

    2015-11-01

    The high cost of conventional concrete materials is a major factor affecting housing delivery in developing countries such as Nigeria. Since Nigeria is blessed with abundant locally available materials like laterite, researchers have conducted comprehensive studies on the use of laterite to replace river sand partially or fully in the concrete. However, the works did not consider the optimum use of coarse aggregate to possibly improve the strength of the laterized concrete, since it is normally lower than that of normal concrete. The results of the tests showed that workability, density and compressive strength at constant water-cement ratio increase with the increase in the coarse aggregate particle size and also with curing age. As the percentage of laterite increases, there was a reduction in all these characteristics even with the particle size of coarse aggregate reduction due to loss from the aggregate-paste interface zone. Also, when sand was replaced by 25% of laterite, the 19.5mm and 12.5mm coarse aggregate particle sizes gave satisfactory results in terms of workability and compressive strength respectively at 28 days of curing age, compared to normal concrete. However, in case of 50% up to 100% laterite contents, the workability and compressive strength values were very low.

  15. Size-dependent enrichment of waste slag aggregate fragments abraded from asphalt concrete.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumitake; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Gardner, Kevin; Kida, Akiko

    2011-10-30

    Authors consider the environmental prospects of using melted waste slag as the aggregate for asphalt pavement. In particular, the enrichment of slag-derived fragments in fine abrasion dust particles originated from slag asphalt concrete and its size dependency were concerned. A series of surface abrasion tests for asphalt concrete specimens, containing only natural aggregates as reference or 30 wt% of substituted slag aggregates, were performed. Although two of three slag-asphalt concretes generated 1.5-3.0 times larger amount of abrasion dust than the reference asphalt concrete did, it could not be explained only by abrasion resistance of slag. The enrichment of slag-derived fragments in abrasion dust, estimated on the basis of the peak intensity of quartz and heavy metal concentrations, had size dependency for all slag-asphalt concretes. Slag-derived fragments were enriched in abrasion dust particles with diameters of 150-1000 μm. Enrichment factors were 1.4-2.1. In contrast, there was no enrichment in abrasion dust particles with diameter less than 75 μm. This suggests that prior airborne-size fragmentation of substituted slag aggregates does not need to be considered for tested slag aggregates when environmental risks of abrasion dust of slag-asphalt pavement are assessed.

  16. Ionic Liquid-Induced Unprecedented Size Enhancement of Aggregates within Aqueous Sodium Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Rewa; Baker, Gary A; Behera, Kamalakanta; Mohanty, Pravakar; Kurur, Narayanan; Pandey, Siddharth

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of aqueous micellar solutions may change in the presence of ionic liquids (ILs). Micelles help to increase the aqueous solubility of ILs. The average size of the micellar aggregates within aqueous sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) is observed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to increase in a sudden and drastic fashion as the IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) is added. Similar addition of [bmim][PF6] to aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) results in only a slow gradual increase in average aggregate size. While addition of the IL [bmim][BF4] also gives rise to sudden aggregate size enhancement within aqueous SDBS, the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim][BF4]), and inorganic salts NaPF6 and NaBF4, only gradually increase the assembly size upon their addition. Bulk dynamic viscosity, microviscosity, dipolarity (indicated by the fluorescent reporter pyrene), zeta potential, and electrical conductance measurements were taken to gain insight into this unusual size enhancement. It is proposed that bmim cations of the IL undergo Coulombic attractive interactions with anionic headgroups at the micellar surface at all [bmim][PF6] concentrations in aqueous SDS; in aqueous SDBS, beyond a critical IL concentration, bmim becomes involved in cation- interaction with the phenyl moiety of SDBS within micellar aggregates with the butyl group aligned along the alkyl chain of the surfactant. This relocation of bmim results in an unprecedented size increase in micellar aggregates. Aromaticity of the IL cation alongside the presence of sufficiently aliphatic (butyl or longer) alkyl chains on the IL appear to be essential for this dramatic critical expansion in self-assembly dimensions within aqueous SDBS.

  17. Comparison of the photosensitivity and bacterial toxicity of spherical and tubular fullerenes of variable aggregate size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, So-Ryong; Therezien, Mathieu; Budarz, Jeffrey Farner; Wessel, Lauren; Lin, Shihong; Xiao, Yao; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2011-10-01

    Nanomaterials such as fullerene C60, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and other fullerenes show unique electrical, chemical, mechanical, and thermal properties that are not well understood in the context of the environmental behavior of this class of carbon-based materials. In this study, aqueous suspensions of three fullerenes nanoparticles, C60, single-wall (SW) and multi-wall (MW) CNTs were prepared by sonication and tested for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inactivation of Vibrio fischeri, a gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium, under ultraviolet (UV)-A irradiation. We show that ROS production and microbial inactivation increases as colloidal aggregates of C60, SWCNT, and MWCNT are fractionated to enrich with smaller aggregates by progressive membrane filtration. As the quantity and influence of these more reactive fractions of the suspension may increase with time and/or as the result of fractionation processes in the laboratory or the environment, experiments evaluating photo-reactivity and toxicity endpoints must take into account the evolution and heterogeneity of nanoparticle aggregates in water.

  18. Impact of soil primary size fractions on sorption and desorption of atrazine on organo-mineral fractions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yufen; Liu, Zhongzhen; He, Yan; Li, Yanliang

    2015-03-01

    In the current study, a mechanical dispersion method was employed to separate clay (<2 μm), silt (2-20 μm), and sand (20-50 μm) fraction in six bulk soils. Batch equilibrium method was used to conduct atrazine sorption and desorption experiments on soil organo-mineral fractions with bulk soils and their contrasting size fractions separately. The potential contribution of total organic carbon (TOC) for atrazine retention in different fractions was further investigated. It was found that clay fraction had the highest adsorption but the least desorption capacities for atrazine, while sand fraction had the lowest adsorption but the highest desorption capacities for atrazine. The adsorption percentage of atrazine, as compared with adsorption by the corresponding bulk soils, ranged from 53.6 to 80.5%, 35.7 to 56.4%, and 0.2 to 4.5% on the clay, silt, and sand fractions, respectively. TOC was one of the key factors affecting atrazine retention in soils, with the exact contribution dependent on varying degree of coating with mineral component in different soil size fractions. The current study may be useful to predict the bioavailability of atrazine in different soil size fractions.

  19. CaSPA - an algorithm for calculation of the size of percolating aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, James E.; Dutton, Helen; Siperstein, Flor R.

    2009-09-01

    We present an algorithm (CaSPA) which accounts for the effects of periodic boundary conditions in the calculation of size of percolating aggregated clusters. The algorithm calculates the gyration tensor, allowing for a mixture of infinite (macroscale) and finite (microscale) principle moments. Equilibration of a triblock copolymer system from a disordered initial configuration to a hexagonal phase is examined using the algorithm.

  20. Highly magnetizable superparamagnetic colloidal aggregates with narrowed size distribution from ferrofluid emulsion.

    PubMed

    Lobaz, Volodymyr; Klupp Taylor, Robin N; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2012-05-15

    The formation of spherical superparamagnetic colloidal aggregates of magnetite nanoparticles by emulsification of a ferrofluid and subsequent solvent evaporation has been systematically studied. The colloidal aggregates occur as a dense sphere with magnetite nanoparticles randomly packed and preserved particle-particle separation due to chemisorbed oleic acid. The voids between nanoparticles are filled with solvent and free oleic acid. The latter was found to influence the formation of colloidal aggregates and their surface properties. The choice of surfactant, whether low molecular weight or polymeric, was shown to lead to the colloidal aggregates having tailored interfacial behavior. Magnetization measurements at ambient temperature revealed that the magnetite colloidal aggregates preserve the superparamagnetic properties of the starting nanoparticle units and show high saturation magnetization values up to 57 emu/g. The size distribution of magnetite nanoparticle colloidal aggregates produced by such an approach was found to be a function of emulsion droplet breakup-coalescence and stabilization kinetics and therefore is influenced by the emulsification process conditions and concentrations of the emulsion compounds.

  1. Effect of population structure and size on aggregation behavior of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Pfiester, Margie; Koehler, Philip G; Pereira, Roberto M

    2009-09-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), occurs in aggregations until the conditions are no longer beneficial, leading to dispersal. Active and passive bed bug dispersal causes migrations from main aggregations either within a room, from room to room within a building, or from building to building. Because bed bug movement is an important factor in the spread of infestations, we wanted to determine how population structure and size affect bed bug aggregations. Engorged bed bugs were placed in glass petri dish arenas at varying densities, sex ratios, and population compositions. Nymphs had a high tendency to aggregate, varying between 94 and 98%, and therefore were not the likely dispersal stage of the bed bug. At densities of 10 and 40 adults at a 1:1 sex ratio, there were significantly more lone females than lone males. When the population composition was varied, the percentage of lone females was significantly higher than that of males and nymphs at population compositions of 40 and 80% adults. When the sex ratio of adults was varied, there were significantly more lone females than males in arenas with 20, 50, and 80% males. Females, being found away from aggregations significantly more often than any other life stage, are potentially the dispersal stage of the bed bug. Active female dispersal away from main aggregations can potentially lead to treatment failures and should be taken into account when using control methods.

  2. Simulation of soil organic carbon in different soil size fractions using 13Carbon measurement data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschalk, P.; Bellarby, J.; Chenu, C.; Foereid, B.; Wattenbach, M.; Zingore, S.; Smith, J.

    2009-04-01

    We simulate the soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics at a chronoseqeunce site in France, using the Rothamsted Carbon model. The site exhibits a transition from C3 plants, dominated by pine forest, to a conventional C4 maize rotation. The different 13C signatures of the forest plants and maize are used to distinguish between the woodland derived carbon (C) and the maize derived C. The model is evaluated against total SOC and C derived from forest and maize, respectively. The SOC dynamics of the five SOC pools of the model, decomposable plant material (DPM), resistant plant material (RPM), biomass, humus and inert C, are also compared to the SOC dynamics measured in different soil size fractions. These fractions are > 50 μm (particulate organic matter), 2-50 μm (silt associated SOC) and <2 μm (clay associated SOC). Other authors had shown that the RPM pool of the model corresponds well to SOC measured in the soil size fraction > 50 μm and the sum of the other pools corresponds well to the SOC measured in the soil size fraction < 50 μm. Default model applications show that the model underestimates the fast drop in forest C stocks in the first 20 years after land-use change and overestimates the C accumulation of maize C. Several hypotheses were tested to evaluate the simulations. Input data and internal model parameter uncertainties had minor effects on the simulations results. Accounting for erosion and implementing a simple tillage routine did not improve the simulation fit to the data. We therefore hypothesize that a generic process that is not yet explicitly accounted for in the ROTHC model could explain the loss in soil C after land use change. Such a process could be the loss of the physical protection of soil organic matter as would be observed following cultivation of a previously uncultivated soil. Under native conditions a fraction of organic matter is protected in stable soil aggregates. These aggregates are physically disrupted by continuous and

  3. Prediction of successive steps of SOM formation in aggregates and density fractions based on the 13C natural abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunina, Anna; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Aggregate formation is a key process of soil development, which promotes carbon (C) stabilization by hindering decomposition of particulate organic matter (POM) and its interactions with mineral particles. C stabilization processes lead to 13C fractionation and consequently to various δ13C values of soil organic matter (SOM) fractions. Differences in δ13C within the aggregates and fractions may have two reasons: 1) preferential stabilization of organic compounds with light or heavy δ13C and/or 2) stabilization of organic materials after passing one or more microbial utilization cycles, leading to heavier δ13C in remaining C. We hypothesized that: 1) 13C enrichment between the SOM fractions corresponds to successive steps of SOM formation; 2) 13C fractionation (but not the δ13C signature) depends mainly on the transformation steps and not on the C precursors. Consequently, minimal differences between Δ13C of SOM fractions between various ecosystems correspond to maximal probability of the SOM formation pathways. We tested these hypotheses on three soils formed from cover loam during 45 years of growth of coniferous or deciduous forests or arable crops. Organic C pools in large macroaggregates, small macroaggregates, and microaggregates were fractionated sequentially for four density fractions to obtain free POM with ρ

  4. Size fractionation of waste-to-energy boiler ash enables separation of a coarse fraction with low dioxin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Weidemann, E; Allegrini, E; Fruergaard Astrup, T; Hulgaard, T; Riber, C; Jansson, S

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) formed in modern Waste-to-Energy plants are primarily found in the generated ashes and air pollution control residues, which are usually disposed of as hazardous waste. The objective of this study was to explore the occurrence of PCDD/F in different grain size fractions in the boiler ash, i.e. ash originating from the convection pass of the boiler. If a correlation between particle size and dioxin concentrations could be found, size fractionation of the ashes could reduce the total amount of hazardous waste. Boiler ash samples from ten sections of a boiler's convective part were collected over three sampling days, sieved into three different size fractions - <0.09 mm, 0.09-0.355 mm, and >0.355 mm - and analysed for PCDD/F. The coarse fraction (>0.355 mm) in the first sections of the horizontal convection pass appeared to be of low toxicity with respect to dioxin content. While the total mass of the coarse fraction in this boiler was relatively small, sieving could reduce the amount of ash containing toxic PCDD/F by around 0.5 kg per tonne input waste or around 15% of the collected boiler ash from the convection pass. The mid-size fraction in this study covered a wide size range (0.09-0.355 mm) and possibly a low toxicity fraction could be identified by splitting this fraction into more narrow size ranges. The ashes exhibited uniform PCDD/F homologue patterns which suggests a stable and continuous generation of PCDD/F.

  5. Particle coating-dependent interaction of molecular weight fractionated natural organic matter: impacts on the aggregation of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yongguang; Shen, Mohai; Tan, Zhiqiang; Yu, Sujuan; Liu, Jingfu; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-06-02

    Ubiquitous natural organic matter (NOM) plays an important role in the aggregation state of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in aquatic environment, which determines the transport, transformation, and toxicity of AgNPs. As various capping agents are used as coatings for nanoparticles and NOM are natural polymer mixture with wide molecular weight (MW) distribution, probing the particle coating-dependent interaction of MW fractionated natural organic matter (Mf-NOM) with various coatings is helpful for understanding the differential aggregation and transport behavior of engineered AgNPs as well as other metal nanoparticles. In this study, we investigated the role of pristine and Mf-NOM on the aggregation of AgNPs with Bare, citrate, and PVP coating (Bare-, Cit-, and PVP-AgNP) in mono- and divalent electrolyte solutions. We observed that the enhanced aggregation or dispersion of AgNPs in NOM solution highly depends on the coating of AgNPs. Pristine NOM inhibited the aggregation of Bare-AgNPs but enhanced the aggregation of PVP-AgNPs. In addition, Mf-NOM fractions have distinguishing roles on the aggregation and dispersion of AgNPs, which also highly depend on the AgNPs coating as well as the MW of Mf-NOM. Higher MW Mf-NOM (>100 kDa and 30-100 kDa) enhanced the aggregation of PVP-AgNPs in mono- and divalent electrolyte solutions, whereas lower MW Mf-NOM (10-30 kDa, 3-10 kDa and <3 kDa) inhibited the aggregation of PVP-AgNPs. However, all the Mf-NOM fractions inhibited the aggregation of Bare-AgNPs. For PVP- and Bare-AgNPs, the stability of AgNPs in electrolyte solution was significantly correlated to the MW of Mf-NOM. But for Cit-AgNPs, pristine NOM and Mf-NOM has minor influence on the stability of AgNPs. These findings about significantly different roles of Mf-NOM on aggregation of engineered AgNPs with various coating are important for better understanding of the transport and subsequent transformation of AgNPs in aquatic environment.

  6. Modeling capsid kinetics assembly from the steady state distribution of multi-sizes aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hozé, Nathanaël; Holcman, David

    2014-01-01

    The kinetics of aggregation for particles of various sizes depends on their diffusive arrival and fusion at a specific nucleation site. We present here a mean-field approximation and a stochastic jump model for aggregates at equilibrium. This approach is an alternative to the classical Smoluchowski equations that do not have a close form and are not solvable in general. We analyze these mean-field equations and obtain the kinetics of a cluster formation. Our approach provides a simplified theoretical framework to study the kinetics of viral capsid formation, such as HIV from the self-assembly of the structural proteins Gag.

  7. Effect of aggregate size in cell cultures of Saussurea medusa on cell growth and jaceosidin production.

    PubMed

    Zhao, D; Huang, Y; Jin, Z; Qu, W; Lu, D

    2003-07-01

    Cell suspension cultures of Saussurea medusa were grown in shake flasks and a 5-l stirred tank bioreactor. Biomass and jaceosidin distribution in cell aggregates of different sizes were investigated during the cultivation period. The results showed that on day 10, jaceosidin accumulation showed an increase with increasing size of the cell aggregate to 4 mm in diameter, with the highest jaceosidin accumulation being 12.2 mg/g. An inverse tendency was observed with cell aggregates larger than 4 mm in diameter, with the lowest accumulation being 3.1 mg/g. However, all of the cell aggregates, despite their size, synthesized almost the same amount of jaceosidin at day 12. Oxygen diffusion limitation and cell-cell contact may explain this behavior. In comparison with cells cultivated in shake flasks, decreased biomass and decreased jaceosidin concentration were observed when the cells were cultivated in a stirred tank bioreactor. The sublytic effects caused by the hydrodynamic stress in combination with insufficient nutrients in the bioreactor may cause cell damage.

  8. Measurement of particle size distribution of soil and selected aggregate sizes using the hydrometer method and laser diffractometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, G.; Gómez, J. A.; Giráldez, J. V.

    2010-05-01

    Soil particle size distribution has been traditionally determined by the hydrometer or the sieve-pipette methods, both of them time consuming and requiring a relatively large soil sample. This might be a limitation in situations, such as for instance analysis of suspended sediment, when the sample is small. A possible alternative to these methods are the optical techniques such as laser diffractometry. However the literature indicates that the use of this technique as an alternative to traditional methods is still limited, because the difficulty in replicating the results obtained with the standard methods. In this study we present the percentages of soil grain size determined using laser diffractometry within ranges set between 0.04 - 2000 μm. A Beckman-Coulter ® LS-230 with a 750 nm laser beam and software version 3.2 in five soils, representative of southern Spain: Alameda, Benacazón, Conchuela, Lanjarón and Pedrera. In three of the studied soils (Alameda, Benacazón and Conchuela) the particle size distribution of each aggregate size class was also determined. Aggregate size classes were obtained by dry sieve analysis using a Retsch AS 200 basic ®. Two hundred grams of air dried soil were sieved during 150 s, at amplitude 2 mm, getting nine different sizes between 2000 μm and 10 μm. Analyses were performed by triplicate. The soil sample preparation was also adapted to our conditions. A small amount each soil sample (less than 1 g) was transferred to the fluid module full of running water and disaggregated by ultrasonication at energy level 4 and 80 ml of sodium hexametaphosphate solution during 580 seconds. Two replicates of each sample were performed. Each measurement was made for a 90 second reading at a pump speed of 62. After the laser diffractometry analysis, each soil and its aggregate classes were processed calibrating its own optical model fitting the optical parameters that mainly depends on the color and the shape of the analyzed particle. As a

  9. Effects of grid size and aggregation on regional scale landuse scenario calculations using SVAT schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, H.

    2006-09-01

    This paper analyses the effect of spatial input data resolution on the simulated effects of regional scale landuse scenarios using the TOPLATS model. A data set of 25 m resolution of the central German Dill catchment (693 km2) and three different landuse scenarios are used for the investigation. Landuse scenarios in this study are field size scenarios, and depending on a specific target field size (0.5 ha, 1.5 ha and 5.0 ha) landuse is determined by optimising economic outcome of agricultural used areas and forest. After an aggregation of digital elevation model, soil map, current landuse and landuse scenarios to 50 m, 75 m, 100 m, 150 m, 200 m, 300 m, 500 m, 1 km and 2 km, water balances and water flow components for a 20 years time period are calculated for the entire Dill catchment as well as for 3 subcatchments without any recalibration. Additionally water balances based on the three landuse scenarios as well as changes between current conditions and scenarios are calculated. The study reveals that both model performance measures (for current landuse) as well as water balances (for current landuse and landuse scenarios) almost remain constant for most of the aggregation steps for all investigated catchments. Small deviations are detected at the resolution of 50 m to 500 m, while significant differences occur at the resolution of 1 km and 2 km which can be explained by changes in the statistics of the input data. Calculating the scenario effects based on increasing grid sizes yields similar results. However, the change effects react more sensitive to data aggregation than simple water balance calculations. Increasing deviations between simulations based on small grid sizes and simulations using grid sizes of 300 m and more are observed. Summarizing, this study indicates that an aggregation of input data for the calculation of regional water balances using TOPLATS type models does not lead to significant errors up to a resolution of 500 m. Focusing on scenario

  10. Levitation, aggregation and separation of micro-sized particles in a Hydrodynamic Acoustic Sorter, HAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, Mauricio; Castro, Angelica; Bazou, Despina; Separation Collaboration

    2011-11-01

    Levitation, aggregation and separation of micron-sized particulate materials can be generated in a fluidic resonator by an ultrasonic standing wave field force. A piezoelectric transducer generates standing waves between the two walls of a parallel plate channel composing the resonator. The number of pressure nodes n is given by the relationship: w = nλ / 2 with λ the wavelength. The primary radiation force generated by the standing wave generates levitation of micron-sized particles driving them toward the nodal planes. An equilibrium position is reached in the channel thickness where the acoustic force balances the gravity force. The equilibrium position is independent on particle size but it depends on the acoustic properties. Once particles reach the equilibrium position, transversal secondary forces generate aggregation. We shall present the levitation and aggregation process of latex particles and cancer cells in a 2MHz resonator. We demonstrate the possibility of separating particles under flow in a Hydrodynamic Acoustic Sorter HAS, in function of their acoustic impedance and in function of their size using a programming field force.

  11. Assessment of accuracy of the structure-factor-size-estimator method in determining red blood cell aggregate size from ultrasound spectral backscatter coefficient.

    PubMed

    Saha, Ratan K; Franceschini, Emilie; Cloutier, Guy

    2011-04-01

    A computer simulation study to produce ultrasonic backscatter coefficients (BSCs) from red blood cell (RBC) clusters is discussed. The simulation algorithm is suitable for generating non-overlapping, isotropic, and fairly identical RBC clusters. RBCs were stacked following the hexagonal close packing (HCP) structure to form a compact spherical aggregate. Such an aggregate was repeated and placed randomly under non-overlapping condition in the three-dimensional space to mimic an aggregated blood sample. BSCs were computed between 750 KHz and 200 MHz for samples of various cluster sizes at different hematocrits. Magnitudes of BSCs increased with mean aggregate sizes at low frequencies (<20 MHz). The accuracy of the structure-factor-size-estimator (SFSE) method in determining mean aggregate size and packing factor was also examined. A good correlation (R(2) ≥ 0.94) between the mean size of aggregates predicted by the SFSE and true size was found for each hematocrit. This study shows that for spherical aggregates there exists a region for each hematocrit where SFSE works most accurately. Typically, error of SFSE in estimating mean cluster size was <20% for dimensions between 14 and 17 μm at 40% hematocrit. This study suggests that the theoretical framework of SFSE is valid under the assumption of isotropic aggregates.

  12. Impact of traffic intensity and pavement aggregate size on road dust particles loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, F.; Pandolfi, M.; Alastuey, A.; Lozano, A.; Contreras González, J.; Querol, X.

    2013-10-01

    Road dust emissions severely hamper PM10 urban air quality and their burden is expected to increase relatively to primary motor exhaust emissions. Beside the large influence of climate and meteorology, the emission potential varies widely also from one road to another due to numerous factors such as traffic conditions, pavement type and external sources. Nevertheless none of these factors is sufficiently known for a reliable description in emission modelling and for decision making in air quality management. In this study we carried out intensive road dust measurement campaigns in South Spain, with the aim of investigating the relationship between emission potential (i.e. road dust load) and traffic intensity, pavement aggregate size and distance from braking zones. Results indicate that, while no impact from braking activity can be drawn on the bulk road dust mass, an increase in traffic intensity or mean pavement aggregate size clearly reduce the single vehicle emission potential.

  13. Single-shot measurement of soot aggregate sizes by wide-angle light scattering (WALS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltmann, H.; Reimann, J.; Will, S.

    2012-01-01

    The wide-angle light scattering (WALS) approach has been utilized for the measurement of soot aggregate sizes (radii of gyration) in flames on a single-shot basis. Key elements are a pulsed laser and an ellipsoidal mirror, which images the light scattered within a plane onto an intensified CCD camera, thus allowing for an instantaneous acquisition of a full scattering diagram with high resolution. Results for a laminar premixed flame exhibit good agreement with averaged data and demonstrate the feasibility of the method. The applicability of the technique to unsteady combustion processes is demonstrated by measuring aggregate sizes in a weakly turbulent jet-diffusion flame. In both cases light scattering results are verified by data obtained from electron microscopy analysis of sampled soot.

  14. Heterogeneous hosts: how variation in host size, behaviour and immunity affects parasite aggregation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pieter T J; Hoverman, Jason T

    2014-09-01

    Infection heterogeneity is one of the most fundamental patterns in disease ecology, yet surprisingly few studies have experimentally explored its underlying drivers. Here, we used large-scale field assessments to evaluate the degree of parasite aggregation within amphibian host populations followed by a novel experimental approach to assess the potential influence of host size, behaviour and immunity in reproducing such heterogeneity. Among 227 wetlands, 2468 hosts and seven parasite species, infections were consistently aggregated among host individuals within populations of the Pacific chorus frog (Pseudacris regilla). For each parasite species, the relationship between the log-mean and log-variance of infection load was strongly linear (R(2): 0·91-0·98) with a slope between 1·37 and 1·67, indicative of aggregation relative to the expected Poisson slope of unity. In laboratory trials with P. regilla and the most virulent trematode (Ribeiroia ondatrae), experimental reductions in either host immunity (through corticosterone exposure) or antiparasite behaviours (through anaesthesia exposure) increased parasite infection loads in isolated hosts by 62-102% relative to unmanipulated individuals. In a second experiment designed to test how variation in host immunity, behaviour and body size affected variation in infection load within small groups (dyads), a reduction in immune function or behaviour of one host significantly amplified infection heterogeneity within the group, effectively doubling the variance-to-mean ratio. However, immunity affected aggregation only in the absence of behavioural manipulation, and changing the size distribution of hosts did not appreciably affect aggregation. Using Taylor's Power Law to integrate field and laboratory data, we found that only treatments involving behavioural reductions achieved aggregation levels comparable to natural host populations. Thus, despite their short duration, our treatments generated heterogeneity in

  15. Size distribution of particles in Saturn’s rings from aggregation and fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Brilliantov, Nikolai; Krapivsky, P. L.; Bodrova, Anna; Spahn, Frank; Hayakawa, Hisao; Stadnichuk, Vladimir; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Saturn’s rings consist of a huge number of water ice particles, with a tiny addition of rocky material. They form a flat disk, as the result of an interplay of angular momentum conservation and the steady loss of energy in dissipative interparticle collisions. For particles in the size range from a few centimeters to a few meters, a power-law distribution of radii, ∼r−q with q≈3, has been inferred; for larger sizes, the distribution has a steep cutoff. It has been suggested that this size distribution may arise from a balance between aggregation and fragmentation of ring particles, yet neither the power-law dependence nor the upper size cutoff have been established on theoretical grounds. Here we propose a model for the particle size distribution that quantitatively explains the observations. In accordance with data, our model predicts the exponent q to be constrained to the interval 2.75≤q≤3.5. Also an exponential cutoff for larger particle sizes establishes naturally with the cutoff radius being set by the relative frequency of aggregating and disruptive collisions. This cutoff is much smaller than the typical scale of microstructures seen in Saturn’s rings. PMID:26183228

  16. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size Distribution and Growth Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Woehl, Taylor J.; Park, Chiwoo; Evans, James E.; Arslan, Ilke; Ristenpart, William D.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2014-01-08

    Direct observations of solution-phase nanoparticle growth using in situ liquid transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have demonstrated the importance of “non-classical” growth mechanisms, such as aggregation and coalescence, on the growth and final morphology of nanocrystals at the atomic and single nanoparticle scales. To date, groups have quantitatively interpreted the mean growth rate of nanoparticles in terms of the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) model for Ostwald ripening, but less attention has been paid to modeling the corresponding particle size distribution. Here we use in situ fluid stage scanning TEM to demonstrate that silver nanoparticles grow by a length-scale dependent mechanism, where individual nanoparticles grow by monomer attachment but ensemble-scale growth is dominated by aggregation. Although our observed mean nanoparticle growth rate is consistent with the LSW model, we show that the corresponding particle size distribution is broader and more symmetric than predicted by LSW. Following direct observations of aggregation, we interpret the ensemble-scale growth using Smoluchowski kinetics and demonstrate that the Smoluchowski model quantitatively captures the mean growth rate and particle size distribution.

  17. Cellular aggregate size as the critical factor for flavonoid production by suspension cultures of Saussurea medusa.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chun-xiang; Zhao, De-xiu; Huang, Yan; Ma, Feng-shan

    2005-01-01

    Three previously established cell lines (yellow, red and white) of Saussurea medusa were investigated for jaceosidin and hispidulin production. Maximum yields of the jaceosidin and hispidulin were obtained in the red cell line at 75+/-0.41 and 6.4+/-0.31 mg l-1. Production of jaceosidin and hispidulin correlated with the sizes of compact callus aggregates (CCA) and cellular viability. In the red cell line, the sizes of CCA were predominantly of 2-4 mm diameter and accounted for 64% biomass. This line had a sustained cell viability over 10 successive sub-cultures.

  18. Assessment of Zooplankton Size Fractionation for Monitoring Fry and Fingerling Culture Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methodology was formulated for use in the rapid assessment of zooplankton in channel catfish ponds. Understanding zooplankton prey size is useful for effective pond management. Size fractionation using differential sieve sizes was an effective means of separating size classes in live material, whe...

  19. Gas-phase laser synthesis of aggregation-free, size-controlled hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bapat, Parimal V.; Kraft, Rebecca; Camata, Renato P.

    2012-10-01

    Nanophase hydroxyapatite (HA) is finding applications in many areas of biomedical research, including bone tissue engineering, drug delivery, and intracellular imaging. Details in chemical composition, crystal phase makeup, size, and shape of HA nanoparticles play important roles in achieving the favorable biological responses required in these applications. Most of the nanophase HA synthesis techniques involve solution-based methods that exhibit substantial aggregation of particles upon precipitation. Typically these methods also have limited control over the particle size and crystal phase composition. In this study, we describe the gas-phase synthesis of aggregation-free, size-controlled HA nanoparticles with mean size in the 20-70 nm range using laser ablation followed by aerosol electrical mobility classification. Nanoparticle deposits with adjustable number concentration were obtained on solid substrates. Particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Samples are well represented by log-normal size distributions with geometric standard deviation σ g ≈ 1.2. The most suitable conditions for HA nanoparticle formation at a laser fluence of 5 J/cm2 were found to be a temperature of 800 °C and a partial pressure of water of 160 mbar.

  20. Microscal Thermal Flow Field Fractionation of DNA by Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Jennifer; Alfahani, Faihan

    2015-11-01

    We present results from a lattice-Boltzmann-base Brownian Dynamics simulation on the separation of DNA by length using thermal flow field fractionation in a microfluidic device. A temperature gradient in combination with fluid flow allows us to separate long and short strands of DNA. Shorter DNA fragments have higher Soret coefficients and therefore migrate more strongly in the temperature gradient than long strands. They are therefore closer to the channel walls and have a lower mean velocity than longer strands. The retention time in the channel for longer DNA chains is significantly shorter than for small chains. This technique has the advantage that long strands can be processed quickly, unlike traditional agarose gel techniques which require longer times for longer fragments.

  1. Aggregation in environmental systems: seasonal tracer cycles quantify young water fractions, but not mean transit times, in spatially heterogeneous catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, J. W.

    2015-03-01

    Environmental heterogeneity is ubiquitous, but environmental systems are often analyzed as if they were homogeneous instead, resulting in aggregation errors that are rarely explored and almost never quantified. Here I use simple benchmark tests to explore this general problem in one specific context: the use of seasonal cycles in chemical or isotopic tracers (such as Cl-, δ18O, or δ2H) to estimate timescales of storage in catchments. Timescales of catchment storage are typically quantified by the mean transit time, meaning the average time that elapses between parcels of water entering as precipitation and leaving again as streamflow. Longer mean transit times imply greater damping of seasonal tracer cycles. Thus, the amplitudes of tracer cycles in precipitation and streamflow are commonly used to calculate catchment mean transit times. Here I show that these calculations will typically be wrong by several hundred percent, when applied to catchments with realistic degrees of spatial heterogeneity. This aggregation bias arises from the strong nonlinearity in the relationship between tracer cycle amplitude and mean travel time. I propose an alternative storage metric, the young water fraction in streamflow, defined as the fraction of runoff with transit times of less than roughly 0.2 years. I show that this young water fraction (not to be confused with event-based "new water" in hydrograph separations) is accurately predicted by seasonal tracer cycles within a precision of a few percent, across the entire range of mean transit times from almost zero to almost infinity. Importantly, this relationship is also virtually free from aggregation error. That is, seasonal tracer cycles also accurately predict the young water fraction in runoff from highly heterogeneous mixtures of subcatchments with strongly contrasting transit time distributions. Thus, although tracer cycle amplitudes yield biased and unreliable estimates of catchment mean travel times in heterogeneous

  2. The Suborbital Particle Aggregation and Collision Experiment (SPACE): studying the collision behavior of submillimeter-sized dust aggregates on the suborbital rocket flight REXUS 12.

    PubMed

    Brisset, Julie; Heißelmann, Daniel; Kothe, Stefan; Weidling, René; Blum, Jürgen

    2013-09-01

    The Suborbital Particle Aggregation and Collision Experiment (SPACE) is a novel approach to study the collision properties of submillimeter-sized, highly porous dust aggregates. The experiment was designed, built, and carried out to increase our knowledge about the processes dominating the first phase of planet formation. During this phase, the growth of planetary precursors occurs by agglomeration of micrometer-sized dust grains into aggregates of at least millimeters to centimeters in size. However, the formation of larger bodies from the so-formed building blocks is not yet fully understood. Recent numerical models on dust growth lack a particular support by experimental studies in the size range of submillimeters, because these particles are predicted to collide at very gentle relative velocities of below 1 cm/s that can only be achieved in a reduced-gravity environment. The SPACE experiment investigates the collision behavior of an ensemble of silicate-dust aggregates inside several evacuated glass containers which are being agitated by a shaker to induce the desired collisions at chosen velocities. The dust aggregates are being observed by a high-speed camera, allowing for the determination of the collision properties of the protoplanetary dust analog material. The data obtained from the suborbital flight with the REXUS (Rocket Experiments for University Students) 12 rocket will be directly implemented into a state-of-the-art dust growth and collision model.

  3. The suborbital particle aggregation and collision experiment (SPACE): Studying the collision behavior of submillimeter-sized dust aggregates on the suborbital rocket flight REXUS 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisset, Julie; Heißelmann, Daniel; Kothe, Stefan; Weidling, René; Blum, Jürgen

    2013-09-01

    The Suborbital Particle Aggregation and Collision Experiment (SPACE) is a novel approach to study the collision properties of submillimeter-sized, highly porous dust aggregates. The experiment was designed, built, and carried out to increase our knowledge about the processes dominating the first phase of planet formation. During this phase, the growth of planetary precursors occurs by agglomeration of micrometer-sized dust grains into aggregates of at least millimeters to centimeters in size. However, the formation of larger bodies from the so-formed building blocks is not yet fully understood. Recent numerical models on dust growth lack a particular support by experimental studies in the size range of submillimeters, because these particles are predicted to collide at very gentle relative velocities of below 1 cm/s that can only be achieved in a reduced-gravity environment. The SPACE experiment investigates the collision behavior of an ensemble of silicate-dust aggregates inside several evacuated glass containers which are being agitated by a shaker to induce the desired collisions at chosen velocities. The dust aggregates are being observed by a high-speed camera, allowing for the determination of the collision properties of the protoplanetary dust analog material. The data obtained from the suborbital flight with the REXUS (Rocket Experiments for University Students) 12 rocket will be directly implemented into a state-of-the-art dust growth and collision model.

  4. Variation of Soil Aggregation along the Weathering Gradient: Comparison of Grain Size Distribution under Different Disruptive Forces.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yujie; Wu, Xinliang; Xia, Jinwen; Shen, Xue; Cai, Chongfa

    2016-01-01

    The formation and stabilization of soil aggregates play a key role in soil functions. To date, few studies have been performed on the variation of soil aggregation with increasing soil weathering degree. Here, soil aggregation and its influencing factors along the weathering gradient were investigated. Six typical zonal soils (derived from similar parent materials) were sampled from temperate to tropical regions. Grain size distribution (GSD) in aggregate fragmentation with increasing disruptive forces (air-dried, water dispersion and chemical dispersion) was determined by laser diffraction particle size analyzer. Different forms of sesquioxides were determined by selective chemical extraction and their contributions to soil aggregation were identified by multiple stepwise regression analysis. The high variability of sesquioxides in different forms appeared with increasing free oxide content (Fed and Ald) from the temperate to tropical soils. The transformation of GSD peak to small size varied with increasing disruptive forces (p<0.05). Although in different weathering degrees, zonal soils showed a similar fragmentation process. Aggregate water stability generally increased with increasing soil weathering (p<0.01), with higher stability in eluvium (A) horizon than in illuvium (B) horizon (p<0.01). Crystalline oxides and amorphous iron oxides (Feo), especially (Fed-Feo) contributed to the formation of air-dried macroaggregates and their stability against slaking (R2 = 55%, p<0.01), while fine particles (<50μm) and Feo (excluding the complex form Fep) played a positive role in the formation of water stable aggregates (R2 = 93%, p<0.01). Additionally, water stable aggregates (including stability, size distribution and specific surface area) were closely related with pH, organic matter, cation exchange capacity (CEC), bulk density (BD), and free oxides (including various forms) (p<0.05). The overall results indicate that soil aggregation conforms to aggregate

  5. Variation of Soil Aggregation along the Weathering Gradient: Comparison of Grain Size Distribution under Different Disruptive Forces

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xinliang; Xia, Jinwen; Shen, Xue; Cai, Chongfa

    2016-01-01

    The formation and stabilization of soil aggregates play a key role in soil functions. To date, few studies have been performed on the variation of soil aggregation with increasing soil weathering degree. Here, soil aggregation and its influencing factors along the weathering gradient were investigated. Six typical zonal soils (derived from similar parent materials) were sampled from temperate to tropical regions. Grain size distribution (GSD) in aggregate fragmentation with increasing disruptive forces (air-dried, water dispersion and chemical dispersion) was determined by laser diffraction particle size analyzer. Different forms of sesquioxides were determined by selective chemical extraction and their contributions to soil aggregation were identified by multiple stepwise regression analysis. The high variability of sesquioxides in different forms appeared with increasing free oxide content (Fed and Ald) from the temperate to tropical soils. The transformation of GSD peak to small size varied with increasing disruptive forces (p<0.05). Although in different weathering degrees, zonal soils showed a similar fragmentation process. Aggregate water stability generally increased with increasing soil weathering (p<0.01), with higher stability in eluvium (A) horizon than in illuvium (B) horizon (p<0.01). Crystalline oxides and amorphous iron oxides (Feo), especially (Fed-Feo) contributed to the formation of air-dried macroaggregates and their stability against slaking (R2 = 55%, p<0.01), while fine particles (<50μm) and Feo (excluding the complex form Fep) played a positive role in the formation of water stable aggregates (R2 = 93%, p<0.01). Additionally, water stable aggregates (including stability, size distribution and specific surface area) were closely related with pH, organic matter, cation exchange capacity (CEC), bulk density (BD), and free oxides (including various forms) (p<0.05). The overall results indicate that soil aggregation conforms to aggregate

  6. Dynamics of aggregate size and shape properties under sequenced flocculation in a turbulent Taylor-Couette reactor.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Léa; Coufort-Saudejaud, Carole; Liné, Alain; Frances, Christine

    2017-04-01

    This paper concerns experimental investigation of the sequenced flocculation of latex particles in a Taylor-Couette reactor. The aim of this work was to investigate the evolution of both the size and the shape of aggregates under sequenced hydrodynamics. A number of studies have focused on the evolution of the aggregate size or size distribution during steps of growth-breakage-regrowth, but aggregates generally experience steps of breakage-regrowth on repeated occasions in real operating conditions (passages near the impeller or during the transfer processes, for example). The experiments conducted in this work consisted thus of an alternation of six steps with alternately low and high shear rates under turbulent conditions. The particle size distributions were monitored throughout the sequencing, and the circularity and convexity (shape parameters) distributions were measured, enabling a more precise description of the entire floc population, rather than a fractal dimension. While the aggregate size distribution was clearly controlled by hydrodynamics, the shape distributions continuously evolved during the sequencing. The main new finding of our work notes the independence between the aggregate shape and hydrodynamics. Indeed, after multiples steps of breakage-regrowth, regardless of the aggregate size distribution and hydrodynamics, the aggregate shape seemed to reach a unique steady-state morphological distribution.

  7. Stable nanoparticle aggregates/agglomerates of different sizes and the effect of their size on hemolytic cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zook, Justin M; Maccuspie, Robert I; Locascio, Laurie E; Halter, Melissa D; Elliott, John T

    2011-12-01

    To study the toxicity of nanoparticles under relevant conditions, it is critical to disperse nanoparticles reproducibly in different agglomeration states in aqueous solutions compatible with cell-based assays. Here, we disperse gold, silver, cerium oxide, and positively-charged polystyrene nanoparticles in cell culture media, using the timing between mixing steps to control agglomerate size in otherwise identical media. These protein-stabilized dispersions are generally stable for at least two days, with mean agglomerate sizes of ∼23 nm silver nanoparticles ranging from 43-1400 nm and average relative standard deviations of less than 10%. Mixing rate, timing between mixing steps and nanoparticle concentration are shown to be critical for achieving reproducible dispersions. We characterize the size distributions of agglomerated nanoparticles by further developing dynamic light scattering theory and diffusion limited colloidal aggregation theory. These theories frequently affect the estimated size by a factor of two or more. Finally, we demonstrate the importance of controlling agglomeration by showing that large agglomerates of silver nanoparticles cause significantly less hemolytic toxicity than small agglomerates.

  8. Distribution of 28 elements in size fractions of lunar mare and highlands soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W. V.; Wasson, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    Four volatile, six siderophile and 18 generally lithophile elements were determined in six sieve fractions of mare soil 15100 (moderately mature) and seven sieve fractions of highlands soil 66080 (highly mature). Previous work (Boynton et al., 1976) showed that the volatile elements in lunar soils were enriched in the finest size fraction relative to the coarsest factors by up to about 20. The present investigation tests Boynton's interpretation that the distribution pattern of the volatiles indicates the presence of two components: a volume-correlated component having volatile concentrations independent of grain size and a surface-correlated component with concentration increasing with decreasing grain size.

  9. A New Mass Mortality of Juvenile Protoceratops and Size-Segregated Aggregation Behaviour in Juvenile Non-Avian Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Hone, David W. E.; Farke, Andrew A.; Watabe, Mahito; Shigeru, Suzuki; Tsogtbaatar, Khishigjav

    2014-01-01

    Background Monodominant bonebeds are a relatively common occurrence for non-avian dinosaurs, and have been used to infer associative, and potentially genuinely social, behavior. Previously known assemblages are characterized as either mixed size-classes (juvenile and adult-sized specimens together) or single size-classes of individuals (only juveniles or only adult-sized individuals within the assemblage). In the latter case, it is generally unknown if these kinds of size-segregated aggregations characterize only a particular size stage or represent aggregations that happened at all size stages. Ceratopsians (“horned dinosaurs”) are known from both types of assemblages. Methods/Principal Findings Here we describe a new specimen of the ceratopsian dinosaur Protoceratops andrewsi, Granger and Gregory 1923 from Mongolia representing an aggregation of four mid-sized juvenile animals. In conjunction with existing specimens of groups of P. andrewsi that includes size-clustered aggregations of young juveniles and adult-sized specimens, this new material provides evidence for some degree of size-clustered aggregation behaviour in Protoceratops throughout ontogeny. This continuity of size-segregated (and presumably age-clustered) aggregation is previously undocumented in non-avian dinosaurs. Conclusions The juvenile group fills a key gap in the available information on aggregations in younger ceratopsians. Although we support the general hypothesis that many non-avian dinosaurs were gregarious and even social animals, we caution that evidence for sociality has been overstated and advocate a more conservative interpretation of some data of ‘sociality’ in dinosaurs. PMID:25426957

  10. Topsoil and Deep Soil Organic Carbon Concentration and Stability Vary with Aggregate Size and Vegetation Type in Subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiang-Min; Chen, Fu-Sheng; Wan, Song-Ze; Yang, Qing-Pei; Shi, Jian-Min

    2015-01-01

    The impact of reforestation on soil organic carbon (OC), especially in deep layer, is poorly understood and deep soil OC stabilization in relation with aggregation and vegetation type in afforested area is unknown. Here, we collected topsoil (0-15 cm) and deep soil (30-45 cm) from six paired coniferous forests (CF) and broad-leaved forests (BF) reforested in the early 1990s in subtropical China. Soil aggregates were separated by size by dry sieving and OC stability was measured by closed-jar alkali-absorption in 71 incubation days. Soil OC concentration and mean weight diameter were higher in BF than CF. The cumulative carbon mineralization (Cmin, mg CO2-C kg-1 soil) varied with aggregate size in BF and CF topsoils, and in deep soil, it was higher in larger aggregates than in smaller aggregates in BF, but not CF. The percentage of soil OC mineralized (SOCmin, % SOC) was in general higher in larger aggregates than in smaller aggregates. Meanwhile, SOCmin was greater in CF than in BF at topsoil and deep soil aggregates. In comparison to topsoil, deep soil aggregates generally exhibited a lower Cmin, and higher SOCmin. Total nitrogen (N) and the ratio of carbon to phosphorus (C/P) were generally higher in BF than in CF in topsoil and deep soil aggregates, while the same trend of N/P was only found in deep soil aggregates. Moreover, the SOCmin negatively correlated with OC, total N, C/P and N/P. This work suggests that reforested vegetation type might play an important role in soil OC storage through internal nutrient cycling. Soil depth and aggregate size influenced OC stability, and deep soil OC stability could be altered by vegetation reforested about 20 years.

  11. [Studies on formation of aggregates from denatured lysozymes upon renaturing with size exclusion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Bian, Liujiao; Yang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Li

    2005-03-01

    In order to study the renaturation mechanism of denatured protein in denaturant solution, the renaturation and separation process for three kinds of lysozyme molecules, which were separately denatured by urea and guanidine hydrochloride in the presence of reducing agents, was studied by size exclusion chromatography. When initial lysozyme concentration in denaturant solution was more than 10 g/L, the denatured lysozyme molecules were renatured and isolated in a size exclusion chromatographic column. A refolded lysozyme intermediate, a bi-molecular aggregate, was found. This result was confirmed by non-reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrohoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of renatured lysozyme molecules with the dilution method. Compared with the dilution method, the amount of the bi-molecular aggregate found by size exclusion chromatography was far less than that found in the dilution method. This result shows that the process for the renaturing of denatured lysozyme molecules in solution can be well described with three-state model in the presence of reducing agents.

  12. Geochemistry of grain-size fractions of soils from the Taurus-Littrow valley floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for a study in which high-precision instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to determine the abundances of seven rare-earth and nine other elements in two grain-size fractions (90 to 150 microns and less than 20 microns) of eight soils from the Taurus-Littrow Valley floor and one Apollo 11 bulk-soil fraction with grain sizes of less than 1 mm. Compositional differences between the two size fractions of two valley-floor soils are examined, and mixing of soil components is investigated. It is found that a five-component mixing model describes very adequately the chemical composition of bulk soils with grain sizes of less than 1 mm as mixtures of local Apollo 17 rock types (basalt, anorthositic gabbro, noritic breccia), orange glass, and meteorites, but does not describe well the chemical compositions of the other two size fractions. A ten-component model is used to show that the compositions of those two size fractions can be well represented as mixtures of the five components if the mineralogy and chemical composition of the basalt component are allowed to vary in the size fractions.

  13. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF SIZE FRACTIONATED AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER OBTAINED FROM DIFFERENT CITIES IN THE USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper is the result of a collaboration to assess effects of size fractionated PM from different locations on murine pulmonary inflammatory responses. In the course of this, they also determined the chemical makeup of each of the samples.

  14. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DESPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS. Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *S...

  15. In situ investigation of aggregate sizes formed using thermo-responsive polymers: Effect of temperature and shear.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wei Sung; Connal, Luke A; Forbes, Elizaveta; Mohanarangam, Krishna; Franks, George V

    2017-05-15

    Temperature-responsive flocculants, such as poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), induce reversible particle aggregation upon heating above a lower critical solution temperature (LCST). The aim of this work is to investigate the aggregation of ground iron ore using PNIPAM and conventional polyacrylamide (PAM) flocculants in a continuously-sheared suspension, through in situ chord length measurements using Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement techniques and real-time imaging of the particle aggregates. In the presence of uncharged PNIPAM, particle aggregation occurs only upon heating to the LCST, and the aggregates continue to grow with further heating. Subsequent cooling re-disperses the aggregates, and repeated heating causes reformation. Unlike uncharged PNIPAM, anionic PNIPAM produces aggregates at temperatures below the LCST due to the polymer chains binding to two different particles via attractive interactions between the acrylic acid groups and the hematite surfaces, and can be added at temperatures above the LCST due to the formation of charge-stabilised micelles. Under continuous shear, the flocculant most able to resist aggregate size reduction was anionic PAM, followed by PAM, anionic PNIPAM, PNIPAM (6MDa), and PNIPAM (122kDa). Reversible aggregate breakage was found with all samples, except with PNIPAM (6MDa) after being subjected to shear rates above 550s(-1). Furthermore, heating of the PNIPAM-dosed suspensions at shear rates below 200s(-1) produced larger and more breakage-resistant aggregates.

  16. Size of spawning population, residence time, and territory shifts of individuals in the spawning aggregation of a riverine catostomid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grabowski, T.B.; Isely, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the behavior of individual fish in a spawning aggregation, specifically how long an individual remains in an aggregation. We monitored Moxostoma robustum (Cope) (Robust Redhorse) in a Savannah River spawning aggregation during spring 2004 and 2005 to provide an estimate of the total number of adults and the number of males comprising the aggregation and to determine male residence time and movements within a spawning aggregation. Robust Redhorse were captured using prepostioned grid electrofishers, identified to sex, weighed, measured, and implanted with a passive integrated transponder. Spawning aggregation size was estimated using a multiple census mark-and-recapture procedure. The spawning aggregation seemed to consist of approximately the same number of individuals (82-85) and males (50-56) during both years of this study. Individual males were present for a mean of 3.6 ?? 0.24 days (?? SE) during the 12-day spawning period. The mean distance between successive recaptures of individual males was 15.9 ?? 1.29 m (?? SE). We conclude that males establish spawning territories on a daily basis and are present within the spawning aggregation for at least 3-4 days. The relatively short duration of the aggregation may be the result of an extremely small population of adults. However, the behavior of individuals has the potential to influence population estimates made while fish are aggregated for spawning.

  17. How to form planetesimals from mm-sized chondrules and chondrule aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, Daniel; Johansen, Anders; Davies, Melvyn B.

    2015-07-01

    The size distribution of asteroids and Kuiper belt objects in the solar system is difficult to reconcile with a bottom-up formation scenario due to the observed scarcity of objects smaller than ~100 km in size. Instead, planetesimals appear to form top-down, with large 100-1000 km bodies forming from the rapid gravitational collapse of dense clumps of small solid particles. In this paper we investigate the conditions under which solid particles can form dense clumps in a protoplanetary disk. We used a hydrodynamic code to model the interaction between solid particles and the gas inside a shearing box inside the disk, considering particle sizes from submillimeter-sized chondrules to meter-sized rocks. We found that particles down to millimeter sizes can form dense particle clouds through the run-away convergence of radial drift known as the streaming instability. We made a map of the range of conditions (strength of turbulence, particle mass-loading, disk mass, and distance to the star) that are prone to producing dense particle clumps. Finally, we estimate the distribution of collision speeds between mm-sized particles. We calculated the rate of sticking collisions and obtain a robust upper limit on the particle growth timescale of ~105 years. This means that mm-sized chondrule aggregates can grow on a timescale much smaller than the disk accretion timescale (~106-107 years). Our results suggest a pathway from the mm-sized grains found in primitive meteorites to fully formed asteroids. We speculate that asteroids may form from a positive feedback loop in which coagualation leads to particle clumping driven by the streaming instability. This clumping, in turn, reduces collision speeds and enhances coagulation. Future simulations should model coagulation and the streaming instability together to explore this feedback loop further. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Using Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) to Determine C60 Colloidal Size Distributions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation of aqueous fullerene suspensions by solvent exchange, sonication, or extended mixing in water is widely reported. Commonly used methods for determining the size of these aggregates rely on static and dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy (EM), or atomic forc...

  19. Separation and size distribution of red blood cells of diverse size, shape, and origin by flow/hyperlayer field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Barman, B N; Ashwood, E R; Giddings, J C

    1993-07-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from human, equine, canine, feline, and bovine whole blood samples have been separated and characterized by high-speed flow/hyperlayer field-flow fractionation (Fl/HyFFF). The elution-based separation of RBCs by this method is based mainly on the size and shape of the cell particles. The typical separation time for RBCs is less than 3 min. Size distributions can be derived from the fractograms of cell samples using a calibration plot based on retention data for uniform polystyrene beads. The method is shown to be effective both to separate and to characterize cell populations, including those with cells of abnormal shape and size. In order to investigate differences in cell morphology, shape and size changes induced by 500,000 Da Dextran were monitored. The changes in the Fl/HyFFF elution profiles indicate that the RBCs decrease in size but become partially aggregated in the presence of the dextran. These changes were found to depend on polymer concentration and specific blood samples. Some of the results from Fl/HyFFF were compared with those from the Coulter counter and from microscopy.

  20. Relative importance of the humic and fulvic fractions of natural organic matter in the aggregation and deposition of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Furman, Olha; Usenko, Sascha; Lau, Boris L T

    2013-02-05

    As engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used, their entry into the environment has become an important topic for water sustainability. Recent investigations point to the critical role of natural organic matter (NOM) in altering the persistence of NPs by complexing with their surfaces. The NP-NOM complex, in turn, is the new entity that may potentially influence subsequent fate of NPs. To understand the relative impact of humic (HA) and fulvic fraction of NOM on the stability and mobility of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), a combination of dynamic light scattering and quartz crystal microgravimetry with dissipation monitoring was used. In the absence of unbound NOM, (1) surface modification on either AgNP or silica substrate by different NOM fractions could lead to substantial changes in the extent and kinetics of AgNP aggregation and deposition, and (2) HA has a greater capability to enhance the transport of AgNPs by reducing their aggregation and deposition. With unbound NOM, HA seems to compete more successfully for binding sites on the substrate under electrostatically favorable conditions and formed a steric layer to prevent subsequent deposition of AgNPs. These findings highlighted the importance of NOM fraction in the overall environmental partitioning of AgNPs.

  1. Lifespan and Aggregate Size Variables in Specifications of Mortality or Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Epelbaum, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A specification of mortality or survivorship provides respective explicit details about mortality's or survivorship's relationships with one or more other variables (e.g., age, sex, etc.). Previous studies have discovered and analyzed diverse specifications of mortality or survivorship; these discoveries and analyses suggest that additional specifications of mortality or survivorship have yet to be discovered and analyzed. In consistency with previous research, multivariable limited powered polynomials regression analyses of mortality and survivorship of selected humans (Swedes, 1760–2008) and selected insects (caged medflies) show age-specific, historical-time-specific, environmental-context-specific, and sex-specific mortality and survivorship. These analyses also present discoveries of hitherto unknown lifespan-specific, contemporary-aggregate-size-specific, and lifespan-aggregate-size-specific mortality and survivorship. The results of this investigation and results of previous research help identify variables for inclusion in regression models of mortality or survivorship. Moreover, these results and results of previous research strengthen the suggestion that additional specifications of mortality or survivorship have yet to be discovered and analyzed, and they also suggest that specifications of mortality and survivorship indicate corresponding specifications of frailty and vitality. Furthermore, the present analyses reveal the usefulness of a multivariable limited powered polynomials regression model-building approach. This article shows that much has yet to be learned about specifications of mortality or survivorship of diverse kinds of individuals in diverse times and places. PMID:24454719

  2. Metagenomic analysis of size-fractionated picoplankton in a marine oxygen minimum zone

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Sangita; Parris, Darren J; DeLong, Edward F; Stewart, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) support diverse microbial communities with roles in major elemental cycles. It is unclear how the taxonomic composition and metabolism of OMZ microorganisms vary between particle-associated and free-living size fractions. We used amplicon (16S rRNA gene) and shotgun metagenome sequencing to compare microbial communities from large (>1.6 μm) and small (0.2–1.6 μm) filter size fractions along a depth gradient in the OMZ off Chile. Despite steep vertical redox gradients, size fraction was a significantly stronger predictor of community composition compared to depth. Phylogenetic diversity showed contrasting patterns, decreasing towards the anoxic OMZ core in the small size fraction, but exhibiting maximal values at these depths within the larger size fraction. Fraction-specific distributions were evident for key OMZ taxa, including anammox planctomycetes, whose coding sequences were enriched up to threefold in the 0.2–1.6 μm community. Functional gene composition also differed between fractions, with the >1.6 μm community significantly enriched in genes mediating social interactions, including motility, adhesion, cell-to-cell transfer, antibiotic resistance and mobile element activity. Prokaryotic transposase genes were three to six fold more abundant in this fraction, comprising up to 2% of protein-coding sequences, suggesting that particle surfaces may act as hotbeds for transposition-based genome changes in marine microbes. Genes for nitric and nitrous oxide reduction were also more abundant (three to seven fold) in the larger size fraction, suggesting microniche partitioning of key denitrification steps. These results highlight an important role for surface attachment in shaping community metabolic potential and genome content in OMZ microorganisms. PMID:24030599

  3. Cluster mass fraction and size distribution determined by fs-time-resolved measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaoming; Shim, Bonggu; Arefiev, Alexey; Tushentsov, Mikhail; Breizman, Boris; Downer, Mike

    2009-11-01

    Characterization of supersonic gas jets is important for accurate interpretation and control of laser-cluster experiments. While average size and total atomic density can be found by standard Rayleigh scatter and interferometry, cluster mass fraction and size distribution are usually difficult to measure. Here we determine the cluster fraction and the size distribution with fs-time-resolved refractive index and absorption measurements in cluster gas jets after ionization and heating by an intense pump pulse. The fs-time-resolved refractive index measured with frequency domain interferometer (FDI) shows different contributions from monomer plasma and cluster plasma in the time domain, enabling us to determine the cluster fraction. The fs-time-resolved absorption measured by a delayed probe shows the contribution from clusters of various sizes, allowing us to find the size distribution.

  4. Quality assessment for recycling aggregates from construction and demolition waste: An image-based approach for particle size estimation.

    PubMed

    Di Maria, Francesco; Bianconi, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Baglioni, Stefano; Marionni, Moreno

    2016-02-01

    The size distribution of aggregates has direct and important effects on fundamental properties of construction materials such as workability, strength and durability. The size distribution of aggregates from construction and demolition waste (C&D) is one of the parameters which determine the degree of recyclability and therefore the quality of such materials. Unfortunately, standard methods like sieving or laser diffraction can be either very time consuming (sieving) or possible only in laboratory conditions (laser diffraction). As an alternative we propose and evaluate the use of image analysis to estimate the size distribution of aggregates from C&D in a fast yet accurate manner. The effectiveness of the procedure was tested on aggregates generated by an existing C&D mechanical treatment plant. Experimental comparison with manual sieving showed agreement in the range 81-85%. The proposed technique demonstrated potential for being used on on-line systems within mechanical treatment plants of C&D.

  5. The effect of gravel size fraction on the distribution coefficients of selected radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R Jeffrey; Last, George V; Clayton, Ray E; Glossbrenner, Ellwood T

    2009-06-26

    This manuscript addresses the consequences of the common practice of assuming that the gravel fraction of sediments does not participate in sorption reactions and thus sorption quantified by the distribution coefficient (K(d)) construct can be estimated from laboratory tests on sediments less than 2 mm size fraction. However, this common assumption can lead to inaccurate estimates of the mobility and sorption affinity of many radionuclides (e.g., Tc, U, and Np) on gravel dominated sediments at the Hanford Site and other locations. Laboratory batch sorption experiments showed that the distribution coefficients measured using only sediment less than 2 mm size fraction and correcting for inert gravel fraction were not in agreement with those obtained from the bulk sediments including gravel (larger than 2 mm size fraction), depending on the radionuclide. The least reactive radionuclide, Tc had K(d) values for bulk sediment with negligible deviations from the inert gravel corrected K(d) values measured on less than 2 mm size fraction. However, differences between measured K(d) values using sediment less than 2 mm size fraction and the K(d) values on the bulk sediment were significant for intermediately and strongly reactive radionuclides such as U and Np, especially on the sediment with gravel fractions that contained highly reactive sites. Highly reactive sites in the gravel fraction were attributed to the presence of Fe oxide coatings and/or reactive fracture faces on the gravel surfaces. Gravel correction factors that use the sum of the K(d)(,<2 mm) and K(d)(,>2 mm) values to estimate the K(d) for the bulk sediment were found to best describe K(d) values for radionuclides on the bulk sediment. Gravel correction factors should not be neglected to predict precisely the sorption capacity of the bulk sediments that contain more than 30% gravel. In addition, more detailed characterization of gravel surfaces should be conducted to identify whether higher reactive sorbents

  6. The effect of gravel size fraction on the distribution coefficients of selected radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Clayton, Ray E.; Glossbrenner, Ellwood T.

    2009-06-26

    This manuscript addresses the consequences of the common practice of assuming that the gravel fraction of sediments does not participate in sorption reactions and thus sorption quantified by the distribution coefficient (Kd) construct can be estimated from laboratory tests on sediments less than 2 mm size fraction. However, this common assumption can lead to inaccurate estimates of the mobility and sorption affinity of many radionuclides (e.g., Tc, U, and Np) on gravel dominated sediments at the Hanford Site and other locations. Laboratory batch sorption experiments showed that the distribution coefficients measured using only sediment less than 2 mm size fraction and correcting for inert gravel fraction were not in agreement with those obtained from the bulk sediments including gravel (larger than 2 mm size fraction), depending on the radionuclide. The least reactive radionuclide, Tc had Kd values for bulk sediment with negligible deviations from the inert gravel corrected Kd values measured on less than 2 mm size fraction. However, differences between measured Kd values using sediment less than 2 mm size fraction and the Kd values on the bulk sediment were significant for intermediately and strongly reactive radionuclides such as U and Np, especially on the sediment with gravel fractions that contained highly reactive sites. Highly reactive sites in the gravel fraction were attributed to the presence of Fe oxide coatings and/or reactive fracture faces on the gravel surfaces. Gravel correction factors that use the sum of the Kd,<2 mm and Kd,>2 mm values to estimate the Kd for the bulk sediment were found to best describe Kd values for radionuclides on the bulk sediment. Gravel correction factors should not be neglected to predict precisely the sorption capacity of the bulk sediments that contain more than 30% gravel. In addition, more detailed characterization of gravel surfaces should be conducted to identify whether higher reactive sorbents are present in the

  7. Effects of dissolved organic matter size fractions on trihalomethanes formation in MBR effluents during chlorine disinfection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Defang; Gao, Baoyu; Sun, Shenglei; Wang, Yan; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Qian

    2013-05-01

    In this study, effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) size fractions on trihalomethanes (THMs) formation in MBR effluents during chlorination were investigated by fractionating DOM into >100, 30-100, 10-30, 5-10 and <5 kDa fractions using ultrafiltration (UF) membranes based on molecular weight (MW). Fractions of MW>30 kDa constituted 87% of DOM and were the main THMs precursors, which exhibited higher specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) and THMs formation potential (THMFP) and should be reduced to control THMs formation. For these fractions, THMs formation was mostly attributed to slow chlorine decay, and THMs yield coefficients were low because halogenated intermediates derived from the macromolecular DOM were difficult to decompose to produce THMs. Moreover, there was a strong linear correlation between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and THMFP (R(2)=0.981), as well as between the SUVA and specific THMFP (R(2)=0.993) in all fractions.

  8. Breakup of Finite-Size Colloidal Aggregates in Turbulent Flow Investigated by Three-Dimensional (3D) Particle Tracking Velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Saha, Debashish; Babler, Matthaus U; Holzner, Markus; Soos, Miroslav; Lüthi, Beat; Liberzon, Alex; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2016-01-12

    Aggregates grown in mild shear flow are released, one at a time, into homogeneous isotropic turbulence, where their motion and intermittent breakup is recorded by three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV). The aggregates have an open structure with a fractal dimension of ∼2.2, and their size is 1.4 ± 0.4 mm, which is large, compared to the Kolmogorov length scale (η = 0.15 mm). 3D-PTV of flow tracers allows for the simultaneous measurement of aggregate trajectories and the full velocity gradient tensor along their pathlines, which enables us to access the Lagrangian stress history of individual breakup events. From this data, we found no consistent pattern that relates breakup to the local flow properties at the point of breakup. Also, the correlation between the aggregate size and both shear stress and normal stress at the location of breakage is found to be weaker, when compared with the correlation between size and drag stress. The analysis suggests that the aggregates are mostly broken due to the accumulation of the drag stress over a time lag on the order of the Kolmogorov time scale. This finding is explained by the fact that the aggregates are large, which gives their motion inertia and increases the time for stress propagation inside the aggregate. Furthermore, it is found that the scaling of the largest fragment and the accumulated stress at breakup follows an earlier established power law, i.e., dfrag ∼ σ(-0.6) obtained from laminar nozzle experiments. This indicates that, despite the large size and the different type of hydrodynamic stress, the microscopic mechanism causing breakup is consistent over a wide range of aggregate size and stress magnitude.

  9. Effects of heterogeneous competitor distribution and ramet aggregation on the growth and size structure of a clonal plant.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bi-Cheng; Wang, Jiu-Zhong; Liu, Rui-Hua; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Spatially heterogeneous distribution of interspecific competitors and intraspecific aggregation of offspring ramets may affect the growth and size structure of clonal plant populations, but these have been rarely studied. We conducted a greenhouse experiment in which we grew a population of eight offspring ramets (plants) of the stoloniferous clonal plant Hydrocotyle vulgaris aggregately or segregately in two homogeneous treatments with or without a competing grass Festuca elata and a heterogeneous treatment with a patchy distribution of the grass. In patchy grass treatments, H. vulgaris produced markedly more biomass, ramets and stolons in open patches (without grasses) than in grass patches, but displayed lower size variations as measured by coefficient of variation of biomass, ramets and stolons among the eight plants. In open areas, H. vulgaris produced statistically the same amounts of biomass and even more stolons and showed higher size variations in patchy grass treatments than in open (no grass) treatments. In grass areas, H. vulgaris grew much worse and displayed higher size variations in patchy grass treatments than in full grass treatments. Ramet aggregation decreased the growth of H. vulgaris in open treatments and in both open and grass patches in patchy grass treatments, but had little effect in full grass treatments. Ramet aggregation had little effect on size variations. Therefore, heterogeneous distribution of competitors can affect the growth and size structure of clonal plant populations, and ramet aggregation may decrease population growth when they grow in open environments or heterogeneous environments with a patchy distribution of interspecific competitors.

  10. Robust quantitation of basic-protein higher-order aggregates using size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gervais, David; Downer, Andrew; King, Darryl; Kanda, Patrick; Foote, Nicholas; Smith, Stuart

    2017-05-30

    Detection of higher-order aggregates (HOA) using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) was found to be variable for a basic protein, using exposed-silanol or diol-silica-based SEC columns. Preparations of the tetrameric biopharmaceutical enzyme Erwinia chrysanthemil-asparaginase (ErA), which has an isoelectric point of 8.6, were analysed using a diol-silica SEC column. Although the proportions of ErA main peak and octamer species were unaffected, HOA recovery and detection were extremely variable and had poor agreement with an orthogonal measurement technique, analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC). The observation that only HOA was selectively affected by non-specific silanol interactions was unexpected, so alternatives were sought. Coated-silica SEC columns improved the resolution and reproducibility of HOA detection for this alkaline-pI protein, and improved the agreement of HOA with the AUC method. Basic proteins, such as ErA, should be thoroughly evaluated in SEC method development, to ensure that resolution of larger aggregate species is not compromised.

  11. Effect of size-fractionation dissolved organic matter on the mobility of prometryne in soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang; Lin, Chao; Chen, Liang; Yang, Hong

    2010-05-01

    Import of organic materials in the form of compost, sludge or plant residues introduces large amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into soils. DOM as a dynamic soil component affects the behaviors of organic pollutants. Different DOM constituents may affect herbicide action in a different way. However, the process of interaction between the distinct DOM-fractions and herbicides is largely unknown. In this study, DOM was separated by size-fractionation into three molecular size groups: MW<3500 Da, 3500 Da14000 Da. Effects of DOM-fractions on prometryne sorption/desorption and mobility were analyzed using approaches of batch experiments, soil column and soil thin-layer chromatography. Application of varied DOM-fractions at 50mg DOCL(-1) to the soil reduced the sorption and increased desorption of prometryne. DOM-fraction with MW>14000 Da appeared most effective in prometryne mobilization in the soil than any other fractions. Finally, DOM-fractions were characterized by chemical analyses, fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) fluorescence spectroscopy. Our studies revealed that the high-molecular weight fraction contained more aromatic framework and unsaturated structure that was most likely the dominant factor modulating the behavior of prometryne in soils.

  12. Comminution and sizing processes of concrete block waste as recycled aggregates.

    PubMed

    Gomes, P C C; Ulsen, C; Pereira, F A; Quattrone, M; Angulo, S C

    2015-11-01

    Due to the environmental impact of construction and demolition waste (CDW), recycling is mandatory. It is also important that recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) are used in concrete to meet market demands. In the literature, the influence of RCAs on concrete has been investigated, but very limited studies have been conducted on how the origin of concrete waste and comminution processes influence RCA characteristics. This paper aims to investigate the influence of three different comminution and sizing processes (simple screening, crushing and grinding) on the composition, shape and porosity characteristics of RCA obtained from concrete block waste. Crushing and grinding implies a reduction of RCA porosity. However, due to the presence of coarse quartz rounded river pebbles in the original concrete block mixtures, the shape characteristics deteriorated. A large amount of powder (<0.15 mm) without detectable anhydrous cement was also generated.

  13. Size and number density of precrystalline aggregates in lysozyme crystallization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shinpei; Ito, Kohzo; Hayakawa, Reinosuke; Ataka, Mitsuo

    1999-12-01

    Using dynamic light scattering, we investigated supersaturated aqueous solutions of hen egg white lysozyme. We could observe the formation of aggregates only in solutions, from which crystals grew within a few days. The aggregates were grouped into smaller "units" and larger "clusters." The units consisted of a few molecules, whereas the clusters grew from about 100 nm to 1 μm. At the beginning of aggregation, the number density of the units decreased, while that of the clusters increased. At this stage, unit-cluster aggregation proceeded. At the next stage, the number density of the units became constant, while that of the clusters began to decrease, which means that the units stopped aggregating and cluster-cluster aggregation started. The aggregation mechanism for the clusters fit well with the diffusion limited cluster aggregation model, but this model alone could not explain that the aggregates separated into two groups, corresponding to units and clusters, and that the units stopped aggregating during the aggregation process. We find that the observed aggregation process has several similarities to the liquid-liquid phase separation process, which occurs metastably in protein solution. Furthermore, using both models for diffusion limited aggregation and the liquid-liquid phase separation together, we could naturally explain the process of the cluster formation.

  14. How Do the Size, Charge and Shape of Nanoparticles Affect Amyloid β Aggregation on Brain Lipid Bilayer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yuna; Park, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyojin; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2016-01-01

    Here, we studied the effect of the size, shape, and surface charge of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation on a total brain lipid-based supported lipid bilayer (brain SLB), a fluid platform that facilitates Aβ-AuNP aggregation process. We found that larger AuNPs induce large and amorphous aggregates on the brain SLB, whereas smaller AuNPs induce protofibrillar Aβ structures. Positively charged AuNPs were more strongly attracted to Aβ than negatively charged AuNPs, and the stronger interactions between AuNPs and Aβ resulted in fewer β-sheets and more random coil structures. We also compared spherical AuNPs, gold nanorods (AuNRs), and gold nanocubes (AuNCs) to study the effect of nanoparticle shape on Aβ aggregation on the brain SLB. Aβ was preferentially bound to the long axis of AuNRs and fewer fibrils were formed whereas all the facets of AuNCs interacted with Aβ to produce the fibril networks. Finally, it was revealed that different nanostructures induce different cytotoxicity on neuroblastoma cells, and, overall, smaller Aβ aggregates induce higher cytotoxicity. The results offer insight into the roles of NPs and brain SLB in Aβ aggregation on the cell membrane and can facilitate the understanding of Aβ-nanostructure co-aggregation mechanism and tuning Aβ aggregate structures.

  15. How Do the Size, Charge and Shape of Nanoparticles Affect Amyloid β Aggregation on Brain Lipid Bilayer?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yuna; Park, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyojin; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2016-01-01

    Here, we studied the effect of the size, shape, and surface charge of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation on a total brain lipid-based supported lipid bilayer (brain SLB), a fluid platform that facilitates Aβ-AuNP aggregation process. We found that larger AuNPs induce large and amorphous aggregates on the brain SLB, whereas smaller AuNPs induce protofibrillar Aβ structures. Positively charged AuNPs were more strongly attracted to Aβ than negatively charged AuNPs, and the stronger interactions between AuNPs and Aβ resulted in fewer β-sheets and more random coil structures. We also compared spherical AuNPs, gold nanorods (AuNRs), and gold nanocubes (AuNCs) to study the effect of nanoparticle shape on Aβ aggregation on the brain SLB. Aβ was preferentially bound to the long axis of AuNRs and fewer fibrils were formed whereas all the facets of AuNCs interacted with Aβ to produce the fibril networks. Finally, it was revealed that different nanostructures induce different cytotoxicity on neuroblastoma cells, and, overall, smaller Aβ aggregates induce higher cytotoxicity. The results offer insight into the roles of NPs and brain SLB in Aβ aggregation on the cell membrane and can facilitate the understanding of Aβ-nanostructure co-aggregation mechanism and tuning Aβ aggregate structures. PMID:26782664

  16. A survey of size-fractionated dust levels in the U.S. wood processing industry.

    PubMed

    Kalliny, Medhat I; Brisolara, Joseph A; Glindmeyer, Henry; Rando, Roy

    2008-08-01

    A survey of size-fractionated dust exposure was carried out in 10 wood processing plants across the United States as part of a 5-year longitudinal respiratory health study. The facilities included a sawmill, plywood assembly plants, secondary wood milling operations, and factories producing finished wood products such as wood furniture and cabinets. Size-fractionated dust exposures were determined using the RespiCon Personal Particle Sampler. There were 2430 valid sets of respirable, thoracic, and inhalable dust samples collected. Overall, geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) exposure levels were found to be 1.44 (2.67), 0.35 (2.65), and 0.18 (2.54) mg/m, for the inhalable, thoracic, and respirable fractions, respectively. Averaged across all samples, the respirable fraction accounted for 16.7% of the inhalable dust mass, whereas the corresponding figure for thoracic fraction as a percentage of the inhalable fraction was 28.7%. Exposures in the furniture manufacturing plants were significantly higher than those in sawmill and plywood assembly plants, wood milling plants, and cabinet manufacturing plants, whereas the sawmill and plywood assembly plants exhibited significantly lower dust levels than the other industry segments. Among work activities, cleaning with compressed air and sanding processes produced the highest size-fractionated dust exposures, whereas forklift drivers demonstrated the lowest respirable and inhalable dust fractions and shipping processes produced the lowest thoracic dust fraction. Other common work activities such as sawing, milling, and clamping exhibited intermediate exposure levels, but there were significant differences in relative ranking of these across the various industry segments. Processing of hardwood and mixed woods generally were associated with higher exposures than were softwood and plywood, although these results were confounded with industry segment also.

  17. Ash reduction strategies in corn stover facilitated by anatomical and size fractionation

    DOE PAGES

    Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Emerson, Rachel M.; Thompson, David N.; ...

    2016-04-22

    There is growing interest internationally to produce fuels from renewable biomass resources. Inorganic components of biomass feedstocks, referred to collectively as ash, damage equipment and decrease yields in thermal conversion processes, and decrease feedstock value for biochemical conversion processes. Decreasing the ash content of feedstocks improves conversion efficiency and lowers process costs. Because physiological ash is unevenly distributed in the plant, mechanical processes can be used to separate fractions of the plant based on ash content. This study focuses on the ash separation that can be achieved by separating corn stover by particle size and anatomical fraction. Baled corn stovermore » was hand-separated into anatomical fractions, ground to <19.1 mm, and size separated using six sieves ranging from 9.5 to 0.150 mm. Size fractions were analyzed for total ash content and ash composition. Particle size distributions observed for the anatomical fractions varied considerably. Cob particles were primarily 2.0 mm or greater, while most of the sheath and husk particles were 2.0 mm and smaller. Particles of leaves greater than 0.6 mm contained the greatest amount of total ash, ranging from approximately 8 to 13% dry weight of the total original material, while the fractions with particles smaller than 0.6 mm contained less than 2% of the total ash of the original material. As a result, based on the overall ash content and the elemental ash, specific anatomical and size fractions can be separated to optimize the feedstocks being delivered to biofuels conversion processes and minimize the need for more expensive ash reduction treatments.« less

  18. Ash reduction strategies in corn stover facilitated by anatomical and size fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Emerson, Rachel M.; Thompson, David N.; Westover, Tyler L.

    2016-04-22

    There is growing interest internationally to produce fuels from renewable biomass resources. Inorganic components of biomass feedstocks, referred to collectively as ash, damage equipment and decrease yields in thermal conversion processes, and decrease feedstock value for biochemical conversion processes. Decreasing the ash content of feedstocks improves conversion efficiency and lowers process costs. Because physiological ash is unevenly distributed in the plant, mechanical processes can be used to separate fractions of the plant based on ash content. This study focuses on the ash separation that can be achieved by separating corn stover by particle size and anatomical fraction. Baled corn stover was hand-separated into anatomical fractions, ground to <19.1 mm, and size separated using six sieves ranging from 9.5 to 0.150 mm. Size fractions were analyzed for total ash content and ash composition. Particle size distributions observed for the anatomical fractions varied considerably. Cob particles were primarily 2.0 mm or greater, while most of the sheath and husk particles were 2.0 mm and smaller. Particles of leaves greater than 0.6 mm contained the greatest amount of total ash, ranging from approximately 8 to 13% dry weight of the total original material, while the fractions with particles smaller than 0.6 mm contained less than 2% of the total ash of the original material. As a result, based on the overall ash content and the elemental ash, specific anatomical and size fractions can be separated to optimize the feedstocks being delivered to biofuels conversion processes and minimize the need for more expensive ash reduction treatments.

  19. Estimating Size-Resolved Surface Particulate Matter Concentrations Using MISR High-Resolution Size-Fractionated Aerosol Optical Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, M.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Garay, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    There is significant public health interest in gaining a better understanding of the health effects associated with particulate matter (PM) of different composition and size, yet ground-based monitoring data for such PM species is extremely limited. Due to their spatial and temporal coverage, satellite observations of total column aerosol optical depth (AOD) have increasingly been used to estimate surface concentrations of PM. While techniques for using satellite observations of AOD to predict surface concentrations of PM2.5 have been established, predicting surface concentrations of different particle sizes and species is more challenging. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument has the unique capability of estimating both total column AOD as well as total column size fractionated (small, medium and large) AOD. Using MISR AOD and AOD size fractionated products derived from high-resolution (275 m) observations reported at a spatial scale of 4.4 km in combination with national Air Quality System (AQS) monitoring data over the 2008-2009 period, we examine the association between size-fractionated MISR AOD and surface measurements of PM at different sizes (PM2.5 and PM10) and PM2.5 species (EC, OC, SO42-, NH4+) over the greater Los Angeles area. While there was a limited sample size of speciated PM data, the strongest univariate association found was between AOD and PM2.5 SO42- (R2=0.76). Incorporating meteorological data from weather stations in the area resulted in improvements to the models associating AOD with PM2.5 and PM10 mass. We found that PM2.5 was best predicted by a spatio-temporal model of AOD that also included dew point temperature and wind speed (R2=0.61), and that PM10 was best predicted by a spatio-temporal model of large fraction AOD that also included atmospheric pressure and wind speed (R2=0.65). These flexibly specified spatio-temporal models enabled reliable predictions of surface PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations at a 4.4km

  20. Biodegradability enhancement and detoxification of cork processing wastewater molecular size fractions by ozone.

    PubMed

    Santos, Diana C; Silva, Lúcia; Albuquerque, António; Simões, Rogério; Gomes, Arlindo C

    2013-11-01

    Cork boiling wastewater pollutants were fractionated by sequential use of four ultrafiltration membranes and five fractions were obtained: four retentates (>100, 50-100, 20-50 and 10-20 kDa) and one permeate (<10 kDa); which were used to study the correlation of molecular size with biodegradability and toxicity before and after ozonation. The results show that molecular size is correlated with organic load and restrains biodegradability. The fraction with >100 kDa corresponds to 56% of the organic load and the one with <10 kDa only 8%. The biodegradability of fractions increased 182% with fractions molecular size reduction from >100 to <10 kDa and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was from 3436 to 386 mg L(-1). For biodegradability enhancement the best outcome of ozonation was obtained with compounds having molecular size >20 kDa and range from 5% up to 175% for applied ozone doses to COD ratios between 0.15 and 0.38.

  1. The Effects of Aggregation and Disaggregation on Particle Size Distributions and Water Clarity in the Coastal Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    The effects of aggregation and disaggregation on particle size distributions and water clarity in the coastal ocean Paul S. Hill Department of...of fine siliciclastics on water clarity in the coastal ocean. Scattering of light by suspended particles depends on sediment concentration...composition, and size distribution. Particle size distribu- tions in coastal waters are dynamic because high concentrations of suspended sediment in coastal

  2. Acceleration of individual, decimetre-sized aggregates in the lower coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Jessica; A'Hearn, M. F.; Vincent, J.-B.; Güttler, C.; Höfner, S.; Sierks, H.; Tubiana, C.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Boudreault, S.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Deller, J.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Gicquel, A.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Hofmann, M.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H. U.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Shi, X.; Thomas, N.

    2016-11-01

    We present observations of decimetre-sized, likely ice-containing aggregates ejected from a confined region on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The images were obtained with the narrow angle camera of the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System on board the Rosetta spacecraft in 2016 January when the comet was at 2 au from the Sun outbound from perihelion. We measure the acceleration of individual aggregates through a 2 h image series. Approximately 50 per cent of the aggregates are accelerated away from the nucleus, and 50 per cent towards it, and likewise towards either horizontal direction. The accelerations are up to one order of magnitude stronger than local gravity, and are most simply explained by the combined effect of gas drag accelerating all aggregates upwards, and the recoil force from asymmetric outgassing, either from rotating aggregates with randomly oriented spin axes and sufficient thermal inertia to shift the temperature maximum away from an aggregate's subsolar region, or from aggregates with variable ice content. At least 10 per cent of the aggregates will escape the gravity field of the nucleus and feed the comet's debris trail, while others may fall back to the surface and contribute to the deposits covering parts of the Northern hemisphere. The rocket force plays a crucial role in pushing these aggregates back towards the surface. Our observations show the future back fall material in the process of ejection, and provide the first direct measurement of the acceleration of aggregates in the innermost coma (<2 km) of a comet, where gas drag is still significant.

  3. Theory and practice of size exclusion chromatography for the analysis of protein aggregates.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Szabolcs; Beck, Alain; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2014-12-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) is a historical technique widely employed for the detailed characterization of therapeutic proteins and can be considered as a reference and powerful technique for the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of aggregates. The main advantage of this approach is the mild mobile phase conditions that permit the characterization of proteins with minimal impact on the conformational structure and local environment. Despite the fact that the chromatographic behavior and peak shape are hardly predictable in SEC, some generic rules can be applied for SEC method development, which are described in this review. During recent years, some improvements were introduced to conventional SEC that will also be discussed. Of these new SEC characteristics, we discuss (i) the commercialization of shorter and narrower columns packed with reduced particle sizes allowing an improvement in the resolution and throughput; (ii) the possibility of combining SEC with various detectors, including refractive index (RI), ultraviolet (UV), multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and viscometer (IV), for extensive characterization of protein samples and (iii) the possibility of hyphenating SEC with mass spectrometry (MS) detectors using an adapted mobile phase containing a small proportion of organic modifiers and ion-pairing reagents.

  4. Molecular diversity patterns among various phytoplankton size-fractions in West Greenland in late summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elferink, Stephanie; Neuhaus, Stefan; Wohlrab, Sylke; Toebe, Kerstin; Voß, Daniela; Gottschling, Marc; Lundholm, Nina; Krock, Bernd; Koch, Boris P.; Zielinski, Oliver; Cembella, Allan; John, Uwe

    2017-03-01

    Arctic regions have experienced pronounced biological and biophysical transformations as a result of global change processes over the last several decades. Current hypotheses propose an elevated impact of those environmental changes on the biodiversity, community composition and metabolic processes of species. The effects on ecosystem function and services, particularly when invasive or toxigenic harmful species become dominant, can be expressed over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales in plankton communities. Our study focused on the comparison of molecular biodiversity of three size-fractions (micro-, nano-, picoplankton) in the coastal pelagic zone of West Greenland and their association with environmental parameters. Molecular diversity was assessed via parallel amplicon sequencing the 28S rRNA hypervariable D1/D2 region. We showed that biodiversity distribution within the area of Uummannaq Fjord, Vaigat Strait and Disko Bay differed markedly within and among size-fractions. In general, we observed a higher diversity within the picoplankton size fraction compared to the nano- and microplankton. In multidimensional scaling analysis, community composition of all three size fractions correlated with cell size, silicate and phosphate, chlorophyll a (chl a) and dinophysistoxin (DTX). Individually, each size fraction community composition also correlated with other different environmental parameters, i.e. temperature and nitrate. We observed a more homogeneous community of the picoplankton across all stations compared to the larger size classes, despite different prevailing environmental conditions of the sampling areas. This suggests that habitat niche occupation for larger-celled species may lead to higher functional trait plasticity expressed as an enhanced range of phenotypes, whereas smaller organisms may compensate for lower potential plasticity with higher diversity. The presence of recently identified toxigenic harmful algal bloom (HAB) species (such

  5. Triboelectric separation technology for removing inorganics from non-metallic fraction of waste printed circuit boards: Influence of size fraction and process optimization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangwen; Wang, Haifeng; He, Yaqun; Yang, Xing; Peng, Zhen; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Shuai

    2017-02-01

    Removing inorganics from non-metallic fraction (NMF) of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) is an effective mean to improve its usability. The effect of size fraction on the triboelectric separation of NMF of WPCBs was investigated in a lab triboelectric separation system and the separation process was optimized in this paper. The elements distribution in raw NMF collected from typical WPCBs recycling plant and each size fraction obtained by sieving were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results show that the main inorganic elements in NMF are P, Ba, Mn, Sb, Ti, Pb, Zn, Sn, Mg, Fe, Ca, Cu, Al and Si. The inorganic content of each size fraction increased with the size decreasing. The metal elements are mainly distributed in -0.2mm size fraction, and concentrated in middle product of triboelectric separation. The loss on ignition (LOI) of positive product and negative product is higher than that of the middle product for the -0.355mm size fraction, while the LOI presents gradually increasing trend from negative to positive plate for the +0.355mm size fraction. Based on the separation results and mineralogical characterizations of each size fraction of NMF, the pretreatment process including several mineral processing operations was added before triboelectric separation and better separation result was obtained.

  6. Stable Carbon Fractionation In Size Segregated Aerosol Particles Produced By Controlled Biomass Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masalaite, Agne; Garbaras, Andrius; Garbariene, Inga; Ceburnis, Darius; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Puida, Egidijus; Kvietkus, Kestutis; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2014-05-01

    Biomass burning is the largest source of primary fine fraction carbonaceous particles and the second largest source of trace gases in the global atmosphere with a strong effect not only on the regional scale but also in areas distant from the source . Many studies have often assumed no significant carbon isotope fractionation occurring between black carbon and the original vegetation during combustion. However, other studies suggested that stable carbon isotope ratios of char or BC may not reliably reflect carbon isotopic signatures of the source vegetation. Overall, the apparently conflicting results throughout the literature regarding the observed fractionation suggest that combustion conditions may be responsible for the observed effects. The purpose of the present study was to gather more quantitative information on carbonaceous aerosols produced in controlled biomass burning, thereby having a potential impact on interpreting ambient atmospheric observations. Seven different biomass fuel types were burned under controlled conditions to determine the effect of the biomass type on the emitted particulate matter mass and stable carbon isotope composition of bulk and size segregated particles. Size segregated aerosol particles were collected using the total suspended particle (TSP) sampler and a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). The results demonstrated that particle emissions were dominated by the submicron particles in all biomass types. However, significant differences in emissions of submicron particles and their dominant sizes were found between different biomass fuels. The largest negative fractionation was obtained for the wood pellet fuel type while the largest positive isotopic fractionation was observed during the buckwheat shells combustion. The carbon isotope composition of MOUDI samples compared very well with isotope composition of TSP samples indicating consistency of the results. The measurements of the stable carbon isotope ratio in

  7. Chemical composition and bioactivity properties of size-fractions separated from a vermicompost humic acid.

    PubMed

    Canellas, Luciano P; Piccolo, Alessandro; Dobbss, Leonardo B; Spaccini, Riccardo; Olivares, Fábio L; Zandonadi, Daniel B; Façanha, Arnoldo R

    2010-01-01

    Preparative high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) was applied to humic acids (HA) extracted from vermicompost in order to separate humic matter of different molecular dimension and evaluate the relationship between chemical properties of size-fractions (SF) and their effects on plant root growth. Molecular dimensions of components in humic SF was further achieved by diffusion-ordered nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DOSY-NMR) based on diffusion coefficients (D), while carbon distribution was evaluated by solid state (CP/MAS) (13)C NMR. Seedlings of maize and Arabidopsis were treated with different concentrations of SF to evaluate root growth. Six different SF were obtained and their carbohydrate-like content and alkyl chain length decreased with decreasing molecular size. Progressive reduction of aromatic carbon was also observed with decreasing molecular size of separated fractions. Diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) spectra showed that SF were composed of complex mixtures of aliphatic, aromatic and carbohydrates constituents that could be separated on the basis of their diffusion. All SF promoted root growth in Arabidopsis and maize seedlings but the effects differed according to molecular size and plant species. In Arabidopsis seedlings, the bulk HA and its SF revealed a classical large auxin-like exogenous response, i.e.: shortened the principal root axis and induced lateral roots, while the effects in maize corresponded to low auxin-like levels, as suggested by enhanced principal axis length and induction of lateral roots. The reduction of humic heterogeneity obtained in HPSEC separated size-fractions suggested that their physiological influence on root growth and architecture was less an effect of their size than their content of specific bioactive molecules. However, these molecules may be dynamically released from humic superstructures and exert their bioactivity when weaker is the humic conformational stability as that obtained

  8. Effect of composting and vermicomposting on properties of particle size fractions.

    PubMed

    Hanc, Ales; Dreslova, Marketa

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of the composting and the vermicomposting processes on the distribution of particles into three size fractions, and to assess the agrochemical properties of the size fractions of the composts and the vermicomposts. Three different mixtures of biowaste were subjected to two thermophilic pre-composting, and then the mixtures were subsequently subjected to 5months composting and vermicomposting under laboratory conditions. Vermicomposting was able to achieve the finer and more homogeneous final product compared to composting. For compost, the highest portion of the finest fraction was achieved from products which originated from kitchen waste containing used paper, followed by digestate with straw, and finally sewage sludge with garden biowaste. In most cases, compost particles which were less than 5mm exhibited the better agricultural potential than coarser compost. However, agrochemical properties of the finest vermicompost exceeded classical compost.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF HUMIC ACID SIZE FRACTIONS BY SEC AND MALS (R822832)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Latahco silt-loam humic acid was separated on a preparatory scale by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) on a gravity-fed Sepharose column. Four fractions from this separation were collected and further analyzed, along with whole humic acid, by high-performance SEC coupled with a...

  10. THE EFFECT OF SIZE FRACTIONED PARTICULATE MATTER ON HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE EFFECT OF SIZE FRACTIONATED PARTICULATE MATTER ON HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS IN VITRO. LA Dailey1, C Sioutas2, JM Soukup1, S Becker1, RB Devlin1. 1National Health & Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, USEPA, RTP, NC,USA; 2USC, Civil & Environmental Engineering, LA, ...

  11. Cardiopulmonary Toxicity of Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter Obtained at Different Distances from a Highway

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was initiated to determine the effect of size fractionated particulate matter (PM) obtained at different distances from a highway on acute cardiopulmonary toxicity in mice. PM was collected for 2 weeks using a three-stage (ultrafine: <0.1µm; fine: 0.1-2.5µm; and coarse...

  12. EFFECT OF THREE DIFFERENT SIZED FRACTIONS OF OUTDOOR PM ON INFLAMMATORY AND OXIDATIVE MARKERS IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECT OF THREE DIFFERENT SIZED FRACTIONS OF OUTDOOR PM ON INFLAMMATORY MARKERS IN VIVO
    C A J Dick', P Singh2, P. Evansky3, S Becker3 and M I Gilmour3.
    'Center For Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 2NCSU, Raleigh, NC 'Experimental Toxicolog...

  13. Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation of Aqueous C60 Nanoparticles with Size Determination by Dynamic Light Scattering and Quantification by Liquid Chromatography Atmospheric Pressure Photo-Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    A size separation method was developed for aqueous C60 fullerene aggregates (aqu/C60) using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to a dynamic light scattering detector in flow through mode. Surfactants, which are commonly used in AF4, were avoided as they may al...

  14. Microbial activity balance in size fractionated suspended growth biomass from full-scale sidestream combined nitritation-anammox reactors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yijing; Wells, George; Morgenroth, Eberhard

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the abundance, distribution and activity of aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anammox in size fractionated aggregates from full-scale suspended growth combined nitritation-anammox sidestream reactors. Plants with or without a cyclone device were also studied to assess a purported enrichment of anammox granules. Specific aerobic ammonium oxidation rates (p=0.01) and specific oxygen uptake rates (p=0.02) were significantly greater in flocs than in granules. AOB abundance measured using quantitative FISH was significantly higher in flocs than in granules (p=0.01). Conversely, anammox abundance was significantly greater in granules (p=0.03). The average ratio of anammox/AOB in systems employing hydrocyclone separation devices was 2.4, significantly higher (p=0.02) than the average ratio (0.5) in a system without a hydrocyclone. Our results demonstrate substantial functional and population-level segregation between floccular and granular fractions, and provide a key corroboration that cyclone separation devices can increase anammox levels in such systems.

  15. Biogeography of soil organic matter molecular structure across multiple soil size fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, C. L.; Neff, J.

    2009-12-01

    Recent work suggests that there is a common soil decomposition sequence whereby plant inputs are metabolized into a physiologically constrained set of compounds originating from microbes that may persist in soil over relatively long time-scales. Plant inputs tend to be found in coarse particulate fractions (>180 μm) with relatively fast turnover times, while microbially derived compounds tend to accrue in the finer silt + clay fractions (<53 μm) with relatively long turnover times. To investigate whether a common decomposition sequence exists, we used pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS) to characterize the molecular structure of soil organic matter (SOM) in three size fractions (590-180 μm, 180-53 μm, and <53 μm), using soils sampled from multiple biomes (alpine tundra, sub-alpine forest, boreal forest, temperate coniferous, temperate deciduous, dry desert/savannah, and tropical forest). We hypothesized that: 1) regardless of biome, fractions >180 μm would be chemically similar, and would be characterized by lignin and other plant-derived compounds; and 2) fractions <53 μm would also be similar across biomes but would be dominated by microbially-derived compounds like polysaccharides. Across all biomes, we found that there was significantly less lignin in <53 μm fractions compared to >180 μm fractions (p<0.0001), providing some support for the idea that plant material is not incorporated into soil C pools with relatively long turnover times. However, a principal components analysis (PCA) showed that the >180 μm coarse particulate fractions also contained compounds associated with microbial origins, indicating that microbial C is not limited to <53 μm size fractions. The PCA also revealed that samples within each of the three size fractions did not cluster together (i.e. they did not share a common molecular structure), but we did note that: 1) cold alpine and sub-alpine sites were unique and chemically similar; and 2) tropical

  16. Formation of clumps and patches in self-aggregation of finite-size particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Darryl D.; Putkaradze, Vakhtang

    2006-08-01

    New model equations are derived for the dynamics of self-aggregation of finite-size particles. Differences from standard Debye-Hückel [P. Debye, E. Hückel, Zur Theorie der Elektrolyte: (2): Das Grenzgesetz für die Elektrische Leiftfahrigkeit (On the theory of electrolytes 2: limiting law of electrical conductivity), Phys. Z. 24 (1923) 305-325] and Keller-Segel [E.F. Keller, L.A. Segel, J. Theoret. Biol. 26 (1970) 399-415; E.F. Keller, L.A. Segel, J. Theoret. Biol. 30 (1971) 225-234] models are: (a) the mobility μ of particles depends on the locally averaged particle density and (b) linear diffusion acts on that locally averaged particle density. The cases both with and without diffusion are considered here. Surprisingly, these simple modifications of standard models allow progress in the analytical description of evolution as well as the complete analysis of stationary states. When μ remains positive, the evolution of collapsed states in our model reduces exactly to finite-dimensional dynamics of interacting particle clumps. Simulations show these collapsed (clumped) states emerging from smooth initial conditions, even in one spatial dimension. If μ vanishes for some averaged density, the evolution leads to the spontaneous formation of jammed patches (a weak solution with the density having compact support). Simulations confirm that a combination of these patches forms the final state for the system.

  17. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of terrestrial humic substances and their size fractions.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, A; Spiteller, M

    2003-11-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used to evaluate the average molecular mass of terrestrial humic substances, such as humic (HA) and fulvic (FA) acids from a soil, and humic acid from a lignite (NDL). Their ESI mass spectra, by direct infusion, gave average molecular masses comparable to those previously obtained for aquatic humic materials. The soil HA and FA were further separated in size-fractions by preparative high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and analyzed with ESI-MS by both direct infusion and a further on-line analytical HPSEC. Unexpectedly, their average molecular mass was only slightly less than for the bulk sample and, despite different nominal molecular size, did not substantially vary among size-fractions. The values increased significantly (up to around 1200 Da) after on-line analytical HPSEC for the HA bulk sample, at both pH 8 and 4, and for the HA size-fractions when pH was reduced from 8 to 4. It was noticed that HA size-fractions at pH 8 were separated by on-line HPSEC in further peaks showing average masses which progressively increased with elution volume. Furthermore, when the HA and NDL bulk samples were sequentially ultracentrifuged at increasing rotational speed, their supernatants showed mass values which were larger than bulk samples and increased with rotational speed. These variations in mass values indicate that the electrospray ionization is dependent on the composition of the humic molecular mixtures and increases when their heterogeneity is progressively reduced. It is suggested that the dominance of hydrophobic compounds in humic supramolecular associations may inhibit the electrospray ionization of hydrophilic components. Our results show that ESI-MS is reasonably applicable to humic substances only after an extensive reduction of their chemical complexity.

  18. Size distribution of wastewater COD fractions as an index for biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Dulekgurgen, Ebru; Doğruel, Serdar; Karahan, Ozlem; Orhon, Derin

    2006-01-01

    The study proposes direct particle size measurement by sequential filtration and ultrafiltration as a convenient method for wastewater characterization for appropriate treatment technology. It also explores the correlation between particle size distribution (PSD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractionation, as an index for biological treatability. Profiles obtained through PSD-based COD fractionation serve as the fingerprints for wastewaters, and as demonstrated in this study, reflect different pictures for textile wastewater and domestic sewage. PSD-based COD fractionation profiles identify the soluble range below 2 nm as the size interval housing both the soluble inert COD initially present in the wastewater and soluble inert microbial products generated during biological treatment, as also supported by the metabolic fractionation attained through respirometric analyses. Moreover, PSD-based color profiling offers a good index for the fate of biologically resistant chemicals passing through biological treatment. Compatible results obtained from comparative evaluation of PSD-based COD and color profiles provide useful information on the biodegradability of the textile wastewater studied.

  19. Results of an indoor size fractionated PM school sampling program in Libby, Montana.

    PubMed

    Ward, Tony J; Noonan, Curtis W; Hooper, Kathi

    2007-07-01

    Libby, Montana is the only PM(2.5) non-attainment area in the western United States with the exceptions of parts of southern California. During January through March 2005, a particulate matter (PM) sampling program was conducted within Libby's elementary and middle schools to establish baseline indoor PM concentrations before a wood stove change-out program is implemented over the next several years. As part of this program, indoor concentrations of PM mass, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) in five different size fractions (>2.5, 1.0-2.5, 0.5-1.0, 0.25-0.5, and <0.25 microm) were measured. Total measured PM mass concentrations were much higher inside the elementary school, with particle size fraction (>2.5, 0.5-1.0, 0.25-0.5, and <0.25 microm) concentrations between 2 and 5 times higher when compared to the middle school. The 1.0-2.5 microm fraction had the largest difference between the two sites, with elementary school concentrations nearly 10 times higher than the middle school values. The carbon component for the schools' indoor PM was found to be predominantly composed of OC. Measured total OC and EC concentrations, as well as concentrations within individual size fractions, were an average of two to five times higher at the elementary school when compared to the middle school. For the ultrafine fraction (<0.25), EC concentrations were similar between each of the schools. Despite the differences in concentrations between the schools at the various fraction levels, the OC/EC ratio was determined to be similar.

  20. Sustainable management and supply of natural and recycled aggregates in a medium-size integrated plant.

    PubMed

    Faleschini, Flora; Zanini, Mariano Angelo; Pellegrino, Carlo; Pasinato, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The consumption of natural aggregates in civil engineering applications can cause severe environmental impacts on a regional scale, depleting the stock of bulk resources within a territory. Several methods can improve the environmental sustainability of the whole aggregates' supply process, including natural and recycled aggregates' productive chains, for instance promoting the use of recycled aggregates (RA). However, when quarrying and recycling activities are considered as stand-alone processes, also the RA supply chain may not be as sustainable as expected, due to the high environmental loads associated to transportation, if high distances from the production to the use sites are involved. This work gives some insights on the environmental impact assessment of the aggregates' industry in the Italian context, through a comparative assessment of the environmental loads of natural and recycled aggregates' productive chains. An integrated plant for the extraction of virgin aggregates and recycling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) was analyzed as significant case study, with the aim to identify the influence of sustainable solutions on the overall emissions of the facility. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach was used, using site-specific data and paying particular attention on transportation-related impacts, land use, avoided landfill and non-renewable resources preservation. From this work it was possible to evaluate the influence of transportation and PV energy use on the overall environmental emissions of natural and recycled aggregates' productive chains.

  1. Modulus enhancement of natural rubber through the dispersion size reduction of protein/fiber aggregates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved mechanical properties of natural rubber are required for various rubber applications. Aggregates of protein and fiber that constitute soy protein concentrate were shear-reduced and used to enhance the tensile modulus of natural rubber. The aqueous dispersion of the shear-reduced aggregates ...

  2. Aggregate Size and Architecture Determine Microbial Activity Balance for One-Stage Partial Nitritation and Anammox ▿

    PubMed Central

    Vlaeminck, Siegfried E.; Terada, Akihiko; Smets, Barth F.; De Clippeleir, Haydée; Schaubroeck, Thomas; Bolca, Selin; Demeestere, Lien; Mast, Jan; Boon, Nico; Carballa, Marta; Verstraete, Willy

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB) and anoxic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) cooperate in partial nitritation/anammox systems to remove ammonium from wastewater. In this process, large granular microbial aggregates enhance the performance, but little is known about granulation so far. In this study, three suspended-growth oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification-denitrification (OLAND) reactors with different inoculation and operation (mixing and aeration) conditions, designated reactors A, B, and C, were used. The test objectives were (i) to quantify the AerAOB and AnAOB abundance and the activity balance for the different aggregate sizes and (ii) to relate aggregate morphology, size distribution, and architecture putatively to the inoculation and operation of the three reactors. A nitrite accumulation rate ratio (NARR) was defined as the net aerobic nitrite production rate divided by the anoxic nitrite consumption rate. The smallest reactor A, B, and C aggregates were nitrite sources (NARR, >1.7). Large reactor A and C aggregates were granules capable of autonomous nitrogen removal (NARR, 0.6 to 1.1) with internal AnAOB zones surrounded by an AerAOB rim. Around 50% of the autotrophic space in these granules consisted of AerAOB- and AnAOB-specific extracellular polymeric substances. Large reactor B aggregates were thin film-like nitrite sinks (NARR, <0.5) in which AnAOB were not shielded by an AerAOB layer. Voids and channels occupied 13 to 17% of the anoxic zone of AnAOB-rich aggregates (reactors B and C). The hypothesized granulation pathways include granule replication by division and budding and are driven by growth and/or decay based on species-specific physiology and by hydrodynamic shear and mixing. PMID:19948857

  3. Adsorption of organic acids on TiO2 nanoparticles: effects of pH, nanoparticle size, and nanoparticle aggregation.

    PubMed

    Pettibone, John M; Cwiertny, David M; Scherer, Michelle; Grassian, Vicki H

    2008-06-01

    In this study, the adsorption of two organic acids, oxalic acid and adipic acid, on TiO2 nanoparticles was investigated at room temperature, 298 K. Solution-phase measurements were used to quantify the extent and reversibility of oxalic acid and adipic acid adsorption on anatase nanoparticles with primary particle sizes of 5 and 32 nm. At all pH values considered, there were minimal differences in measured Langmuir adsorption constants, K ads, or surface-area-normalized maximum adsorbate-surface coverages, Gamma max, between 5 and 32 nm particles. Although macroscopic differences in the reactivity of these organic acids as a function of nanoparticle size were not observed, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy showed some distinct differences in the absorption bands present for oxalic acid adsorbed on 5 nm particles compared to 32 nm particles, suggesting different adsorption sites or a different distribution of adsorption sites for oxalic acid on the 5 nm particles. These results illustrate that molecular-level differences in nanoparticle reactivity can still exist even when macroscopic differences are not observed from solution phase measurements. Our results also allowed the impact of nanoparticle aggregation on acid uptake to be assessed. It is clear that particle aggregation occurs at all pH values and that organic acids can destabilize nanoparticle suspensions. Furthermore, 5 nm particles can form larger aggregates compared to 32 nm particles under the same conditions of pH and solid concentrations. The relative reactivity of 5 and 32 nm particles as determined from Langmuir adsorption parameters did not appear to vary greatly despite differences that occur in nanoparticle aggregation for these two different size nanoparticles. Although this potentially suggests that aggregation does not impact organic acid uptake on anatase particles, these data clearly show that challenges remain in assessing the available surface area for adsorption in nanoparticle aqueous suspensions

  4. Kinetics of chemical leaching of chalcopyrite from low grade copper ore: behavior of different size fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderi, H.; Abdollahy, M.; Mostoufi, N.; Koleini, M. J.; Shojaosadati, S. A.; Manafi, Z.

    2011-12-01

    The kinetics of the chemical leaching of copper from low grade ore in ferric sulfate media was investigated using the constrained least square optimization technique. The experiments were carried out for different particle sizes in both the reactor and column at constant oxidation-reduction potential ( E h), pH values, and temperature. The main copper mineral was chalcopyrite. About 40% of Cu recovery is obtained after 7 d of reactor leaching at 85°C using -0.5 mm size fraction, while the same recovery is obtained at 75°C after 24 d. Also, about 23% of Cu recovery is obtained after 60 d of column leaching for +4--8 mm size fraction whereas the Cu recovery is as low as about 15% for +8--12.7 and +12.7--25 mm size fractions. A 4-stage model for chalcopyrite dissolution was used to explain the observed dissolution behaviors. The results show that thick over-layers of sulphur components cause the parabolic behavior of chalcopyrite dissolution and the precipitation of Fe3+ plays the main role in chalcopyrite passivation. In the case of coarse particles, transformation from one stage to another takes a longer time, thus only two stages including the initial reaction on fresh surfaces and S0 deposition are observed.

  5. Ti distribution in grain-size fractions of Apollo soils 10084 and 71501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, W. G.; Jolliff, B. L.; Wang, Alian

    2013-09-01

    Much work has been devoted to the correlation between the remotely sensed UV-VIS slope and the TiO2 concentration of the lunar surface, and this correlation has been used to map the lunar surface TiO2 distributions using data obtained from various missions. However, additional work is needed to fully evaluate the UV-VIS-TiO2 correlation. Such work would help ongoing efforts to improve TiO2 mapping (e.g., as currently underway with LROC Wide Angle Camera (WAC) data). To evaluate the UV-VIS-TiO2 correlation, we are investigating soil petrographic factors (e.g., modal abundances of Ti bearing minerals, lithic, and glass hosts, ilmenite morphology, grain size, and maturity) that may influence the spectra. This “ground truth” approach will be useful in comparing between sample information and laboratory spectra to investigate the influence of petrographic factors on the spectra. In this work, we report the quantitative results of a systematic laboratory investigation of three size fractions (210-100 μm, 100-48 μm, 48-20 μm) of two high Ti lunar soils 10084 and 71501 using a combined digital imaging (backscattered electron image and X-ray maps) method. For each size fraction, the results include: (1) the modal abundances for single phase minerals and lithologic components; (2) the Ti distributions among Ti host components; and (3) the shape of ilmenite grains. We compile and compare the data together for the three size fractions of the two high Ti soils with different maturities as well as data from previous studies. Future work will include the investigation of finer size fractions (<20 μm) and more samples (Apollo 12, Apollo 15) covering a larger range of Ti concentration and maturity, and comparison with their spectra.

  6. Influence of aggregate size, water cement ratio and age on the microstructure of the interfacial transition zone

    SciTech Connect

    Elsharief, Amir; Cohen, Menashi D.; Olek, Jan

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the effect of water-cement ratio (w/c), aggregate size, and age on the microstructure of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between normal weight aggregate and the bulk cement paste. Backscattered electron images (BSE) obtained by scanning electron microscope were used to characterize the ITZ microstructure. The results suggest that the w/c plays an important role in controlling the microstructure of the ITZ and its thickness. Reducing w/c from 0.55 to 0.40 resulted in an ITZ with characteristics that are not distinguishable from those of the bulk paste as demonstrated by BSE images. Aggregate size appears to have an important influence on the ITZ characteristics. Reducing the aggregate size tends to reduce the ITZ porosity. The evolution of the ITZ microstructure relative to that of the bulk paste appears to depend on the initial content of the unhydrated cement grains (UH). The results suggest that the presence of a relatively low amount of UH in the ITZ at early age may cause the porosity of the ITZ, relative to that of the bulk paste, to increase with time. The presence of relatively large amount of UH in the ITZ at early ages may cause its porosity, relative to that of the bulk paste, to decrease with time.

  7. Determination of particle sedimentation rate by ultrasonic interferometry: role of particle size, density and volume fraction.

    PubMed

    Razavian, S M; Wenby, R B; Fisher, T C; Meiselman, J H

    1997-01-01

    The sedimentation rate (SR) of non-aggregated spherical particles in suspension was determined using an ultrasonic interferometry technique (Echo-Cell); this method is based on A-mode echography and measures the rate of formation of a sediment on a solid plate during settling. The particle accumulation rate, which is related to SR, is obtained from the interference of two waves reflected by two interfaces: one between the plate and the sediment and the other between the sediment and the suspension. Studies were carried out at 25 degrees C using latex spheres of different diameters (7 to 20 micron) and densities (1.062 to 1.190 g/cm3) suspended in distilled water at various volume fractions (1% to 5%). As anticipated by the Stokes model, linear relations were found between SR and both particle density and the square of particle radius. Experimental SR values decreased with increasing suspension particle concentration; these concentration effects were in good agreement with those predicted by the Steinour model. Our results thus serve to validate the theoretical aspects of the Echo-Cell method and suggest its usefulness as a tool for studies of RBC interaction and RBC aggregation.

  8. Size and maceral association of pyrite in Illinois coals and their float-sink fractions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, R.D.; DeMaris, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The amount of pyrite (FeS2) removed by physical cleaning varies with differences in the amount of pyrite enclosed within minerals and of free pyrite in feed coals. A microscopic procedure for characterizing the size and maceral association of pyrite grains was developed and evaluate by testing three coals and their washed products. The results yield an index to the cleanability of pyrite. The index is dependent upon particle size and has intermediate values for feed coals, lower values for cleaned fractions, and higher values for refuse fractions; furthermore, it correlates with pyritic sulfur content. In the coals examined, the summed percentage of grain diameters of pyrite enclosed in vitrinite, liptinite, and bi- and trimacerite provides a quantitative measure of the proportion of early diagenetic deposition of pyrite. ?? 1987.

  9. Separation and identification of the silt-sized heavy-mineral fraction in sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Commeau, Judith A.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Commeau, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    The separation of silt-sized minerals by specific gravity is made possible by using a nontoxic, heavy liquid medium of sodium polytungstate and water. Once separated, the silt-sized heavy-mineral fraction is prepared for analysis with a scanning electron microscope equipped with an automatic image analyzer and energy-dispersive spectrometer. Particles within each sample are sized and sorted according to their chemistry, and the data are tabulated in histograms and tables. Where possible, the user can define the chemical categories to simulate distinct mineral groups. Polymorphs and minerals that have overlapping compositions are combined into a group and differentiated by X-ray diffraction. Hundreds of particles can be rapidly sized and classified by chemistry. The technique can be employed on sediments from any environment.

  10. Terminal Liquid Mass Fractions and Terminal Mean Droplet Sizes in He Free-Jet Expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, E. L.; Kornilov, O.; Toennies, J. P.

    2011-05-01

    The terminal liquid mass fraction in He free-jet expansions is deduced from time-of-flight measurements using conservation of energy. Both the present results and results from prior measurements are correlated using a scaling parameter which was used previously for correlating droplet size as a function of source conditions. Deduced values of the mass fraction range from 0.047 to 0.42. The terminal mean droplet size is determined using a novel technique based on a size-dependent attenuation of the beam droplets when impacted by electrons. The determined sizes are in agreement with sizes obtained previously by crossing the droplet beam with an atomic beam, confirming the suitability of the present technique, which is relatively simple in comparison with crossing the droplet beam with an atomic beam. Measured values of the terminal velocity of the droplets are compared with values calculated for a model in which real-fluid properties are used for the enthalpy in the source but conversion of heat of condensation into energy of directed motion is neglected. The deviations from perfect-gas behavior in free-jet expansions are shown to be due to real-fluid properties and condensation.

  11. Molecular Composition and Photochemical Reactivity of Size-Fractionated Dissolved Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Maizel, Andrew C; Remucal, Christina K

    2017-02-21

    The photochemical production of reactive species, such as triplet dissolved organic matter ((3)DOM) and singlet oxygen ((1)O2), contributes to the degradation of aquatic contaminants and is related to an array of DOM structural characteristics, notably molecular weight. In order to relate DOM molecular weight, optical properties, and reactive species production, Suwannee River (SRFA) and Pony Lake fulvic acid (PLFA) isolates are fractionated by sequential ultrafiltration, and the resultant fractions are evaluated in terms of molecular composition and photochemical reactivity. UV-visible measurements of aromaticity increase with molecular weight in both fulvic acids, while PLFA molecular weight fractions are shown to be structurally similar by Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. In addition, Bray-Curtis dissimilarity analysis of formulas identified in the isolates and their size fractions reveal that SRFA and PLFA have distinct molecular compositions. Quantum yields of (3)DOM, measured by electron and energy transfer probes, and (1)O2 decreased with molecular weight. Decreasing [(3)DOM]ss with molecular weight is shown to derive from elevated quenching in high molecular weight fractions, rather than increased (3)DOM formation. This work has implications for the photochemistry of waters undergoing natural or engineered treatment processes that alter DOM molecular weight, such as photooxidation and biological degradation.

  12. Size and Chemical Affinity Fractionated Dissolved Cadmium, Copper and Nickel in Gulf of Mexico Surface Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, L.; Warnken, K. W.; Santschi, P. H.

    2008-12-01

    Dissolved trace metals Cd, Cu, and Ni in the surface waters of Gulf of Mexico exhibit distinct chemical reactivity and physical size distributions when using cross-flow ultrafiltration and ion exchange methods during a field survey conducted in May 2006. Variations of total dissolved metal concentrations in surface waters were found across the salinity gradient, which ranged as follows; Cd: 87-187 pM; Cu: 1.4-18.3nM; and Ni: 2.6-18.8nM. Dissolved Cd was predominantly present as a truly dissolved (97%) and cationic-labile fraction (94%) in the surface waters. The anionic-organic metal fractions accounted for just 3±1 % on average for Cd, 24% for Cu, and 9% for Ni. The dissolved inert metal fractions, on average, were 31% of total dissolved Cu and 29% of total dissolved Ni concentrations. Small but noticeable amounts (6%) of dissolved inert Cd fractions were also present. Some fractions of the total dissolved Cu (17%) and Ni (8%) could be adsorbed by both cation and anion exchange resins, suggesting binding to zwitterionic molecules. Despite evidence that partitioning among chemically and physically defined species is dynamic, mixing between freshwater and seawater end-members across the Mississippi River plume produced linear mixing curves, while trace metal concentrations determined within warm core and cold core rings in the Gulf of Mexico maintained significantly different concentrations and species distributions.

  13. Online Coupling of Flow-Field Flow Fractionation and Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry: Characterization of Nanoparticle Surface Coating Thickness and Aggregation State

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface coating thickness and aggregation state have strong influence on the environmental fate, transport, and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. In this study, flow-field flow fractionation coupled on-line with single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry i...

  14. Polonium in size fractionated mainstream cigarette smoke, predicted deposition and associated internal radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, M; Sahu, S K; Bhangare, R C; Pandit, G G

    2016-10-01

    In this study, size fractionated mass and (210)Po activity concentrations in mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) were monitored for three popular cigarette brands. Size segregated collection of MCS was carried out using a cascade type impactor, while mass and (210)Po activity concentration were analyzed gravimetrically and alpha spectrometry (following the radiochemical separation) respectively. Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry (MPPD V2.11) model is used for prediction of deposition fraction calculations for the MCS deposition in different compartment of human respiratory tract. The activity concentration of (210)Po is founds 10.56 ± 2.46 mBq per cigarette for the tested cigarette brands. (210)Po size distribution indicates most of this associates with fine fraction (Dp < 2.23 μm) of cigarette smoke. The committed annual effective dose to smokers (smoking on an average 20 cigarette a day), considering the (210)Po and (210)Pb concentrations (assuming it is in secular equilibrium with (210)Po) in MCS, was estimated between 0.22 and 0.40 mSv, with mean value of 0.30 mSv for tested cigarette brands. Considering the risk factor of fatal cancer due to radiation exposure of lung (exposure time of 30 years); the average collective estimated fatal cancer risk is estimated as 1.5 × 10(-4) due to (210)Po and (210)Pb exposure to smokers.

  15. A method for detecting the presence of organic fraction in nucleation mode sized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaattovaara, P.; Räsänen, M.; Kühn, T.; Joutsensaari, J.; Laaksonen, A.

    2005-06-01

    New particle formation and growth has a very important role in many climate processes. However, the overall knowlegde of the chemical composition of atmospheric nucleation mode (particle diameter, d<20 nm) and the lower end of Aitken mode particles (d≤50 nm) is still insufficient. In this work, we have applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer) method to shed light on the presence of organic fraction in the nucleation mode size class in different atmospheric environments. The basic principle of the organic fraction detection is based on our laboratory UFO-TDMA measurements with organic and inorganic compounds. Our laboratory measurements indicate that the usefulness of the UFO-TDMA in the field experiments would arise especially from the fact that atmospherically the most relevant inorganic compounds do not grow in subsaturated ethanol vapor, when particle size is 10nm in diameter and saturation ratio is about 86% or below it. Furthermore, internally mixed particles composed of ammonium bisulfate and sulfuric acid with sulfuric acid mass fraction ≤33% show no growth at 85% saturation ratio. In contrast, 10 nm particles composed of various organic compounds of atmospheric relevance are able to grow in those conditions. These discoveries indicate that it is possible to detect the presence of organics in atmospheric nucleation mode sized particles using the UFO-TDMA method. In the future, the UFO-TDMA is expected to be an important aid to describe the composition of atmospheric newly-formed particles.

  16. A method for detecting the presence of organic fraction in nucleation mode sized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaattovaara, P.; Räsänen, M.; Kühn, T.; Joutsensaari, J.; Laaksonen, A.

    2005-12-01

    New particle formation and growth has a very important role in many climate processes. However, the overall knowlegde of the chemical composition of atmospheric nucleation mode (particle diameter, d<20 nm) and the lower end of Aitken mode particles (d≤50 nm) is still insufficient. In this work, we have applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer) method to shed light on the presence of an organic fraction in the nucleation mode size class in different atmospheric environments. The basic principle of the organic fraction detection is based on our laboratory UFO-TDMA measurements with organic and inorganic compounds. Our laboratory measurements indicate that the usefulness of the UFO-TDMA in the field experiments would arise especially from the fact that atmospherically the most relevant inorganic compounds do not grow in subsaturated ethanol vapor, when particle size is 10 nm in diameter and saturation ratio is about 86% or below it. Furthermore, internally mixed particles composed of ammonium bisulfate and sulfuric acid with sulfuric acid mass fraction ≤33% show no growth at 85% saturation ratio. In contrast, 10 nm particles composed of various oxidized organic compounds of atmospheric relevance are able to grow in those conditions. These discoveries indicate that it is possible to detect the presence of organics in atmospheric nucleation mode sized particles using the UFO-TDMA method. In the future, the UFO-TDMA is expected to be an important aid to describe the composition of atmospheric newly-formed particles.

  17. Measuring Sub-micron Size Fractionated Particulate Matter on Aluminum Impactor Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A; Zermeno, P; Hwang, H; Young, T M

    2009-07-28

    Sub-micron sized airborne particulate matter is not collected well on regular quartz or glass fiber filter papers. We used a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) to size fractionate particulate matter (PM) into six size fractions and deposit it on specially designed high purity thin aluminum disks. The MOUDI separated PM into fractions 56-100 nm, 100-180 nm, 180-320 nm, 320-560 nm, 560-1000 nm, and 1000-1800 nm. Since MOUDI have low flow rates, it takes several days to collect sufficient carbon on 47 mm foil disks. The small carbon mass (20-200 microgram C) and large aluminum substrate ({approx}25 mg Al) presents several challenges to production of graphite targets for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis. The Al foil consumes large amounts of oxygen as it is heated and tends to melt into quartz combustion tubes, causing gas leaks. We describe sample processing techniques to reliably produce graphitic targets for {sup 14}C-AMS analysis of PM deposited on Al impact foils.

  18. Distribution, bioavailability, and leachability of heavy metals in soil particle size fractions of urban soils (northeastern China).

    PubMed

    Yutong, Zong; Qing, Xiao; Shenggao, Lu

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the distribution, mobility, and potential environmental risks of heavy metals in various particle size fractions of urban soils. Representative urban topsoils (ten) collected from Anshan, Liaoning (northeastern China), were separated into six particle size fractions and their heavy metal contents (Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn) were determined. The bioaccessibility and leachability of heavy metals in particle size fractions were evaluated using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) extraction, respectively. The results indicated that the contents of five heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the size fractions increased with the decrease of particle size. The clay fraction of <2 μm had the highest content of heavy metals, indicating that the clay fraction was polluted by heavy metals more seriously than the other size fractions in urban topsoils. Cr also concentrated in the coarse fraction of 2000-1000 μm, indicating a lithogenic contribution. However, the dominant size fraction responsible for heavy metal accumulation appeared to belong to particle fraction of 50-2 μm. The lowest distribution factors (DFs) of heavy metals were recorded in the 2000- to 1000-μm size fraction, while the highest in the clay fraction. The DFs of heavy metals in the clay fraction followed Zn (3.22) > Cu (2.84) > Pb (2.61) > Cr (2.19) > Cd (2.05). The enrichment factor suggested that the enrichment degree of heavy metal increased with the decrease of the particle size, especially for Cd and Zn. The TCLP- and EDTA-extractable concentrations of heavy metals in the clay fraction were relatively higher than those in coarse particles. Cd bioavailability was higher in the clay fraction than in other fractions or whole soils. In contrast, Cr exhibits similar bioaccessibilities in the six size fractions of soils. The results suggested that fine particles were the main sources of potentially toxic

  19. Size controlled deposition of Cu and Si nano-clusters by an ultra-high vacuum sputtering gas aggregation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, A. N.; Krishna, R.; Das, B.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we have reported the syntheses of copper and silicon nano-clusters by a sputtering-gas-aggregation type growth technique. The process involves typical magnetron sputtering vaporization of target materials followed by an inert gas condensation to form clusters of varying sizes. The size-distributions of the clusters typically follow a normal-distribution and the peak cluster sizes of the distributions depends on several factors, which include gas-flow rate, length of the growth region, deposition pressure etc. We have observed a variation in the peak cluster size with the variation of the gas (argon) flow rates. The experimental values are compared with the existing models and the results are found to be in good agreement. The results are significant since it demonstrates that proper optimization of operation conditions can lead to desired cluster sizes as well as desired cluster-size distributions.

  20. Simulation of infrared scattering from ice aggregates by use of a size-shape distribution of circular ice cylinders.

    PubMed

    Baran, Anthony J

    2003-05-20

    The scalar optical properties (extinction coefficient, mass extinction coefficient, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter) of a distribution of randomly oriented ice aggregates are simulated generally to well within 4% accuracy by use of a size-shape distribution of randomly oriented circular ice cylinders at wavelengths in the terrestrial window region. The single-scattering properties of the ice aggregates are calculated over the whole size distribution function by the finite-difference time-domain and improved geometric optics methods. The single-scattering properties of the size-shape distribution of circular ice cylinders are calculated by the T-matrix method supplemented by scattering solutions obtained from complex-angular-momentum theory. Moreover, radiative-transfer studies demonstrate that the maximum error in brightness temperature space when the size-shape distribution of circular ice cylinders is used to represent scattering from ice aggregates is only approximately 0.4 K The methodology presented should find wide applicability in remote sensing of ice cloud and parameterization of cirrus cloud scalar optical properties in climate models.

  1. Size Determination of Aqueous C60 by Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) and in-Line Dynamic Light Scattering

    EPA Science Inventory

    To date, studies on the environmental behaviour of aggregated aqueous fullerene nanomaterials have used the entire size distribution of fullerene aggregates and do not distinguish between different aggregate size classes. This is a direct result of the lack of analytical methods ...

  2. Size fractionated speciation of nitrate and sulfate aerosols in a sub-tropical industrial environment.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Tripathi, B D; Mishra, V K; Prajapati, S K

    2006-03-01

    Size fractionated chemical speciation of acidic aerosols were performed for ammonium sulfate, other sulfates, ammonium nitrate and other nitrates in a sub-tropical industrial area, Bina, India during December 2003 to November 2004. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed highly significant temporal variations (p > .001) in the concentrations of nitrate and sulfate aerosols in all the three size fractions (fine, mid-size and coarse). Winter demonstrated utmost concentrations of ammonium sulfate, which ranged from 3.2 to 26.4 microg m(-3) in fine particles and 0.20-0.34 microg m(-3) in coarse particles. Ammonium sulfate was chiefly in fine mode (43.77% of total particulate sulfate) as compared to coarse particles (28.60% of total particulate sulfate). The major fraction Ammonium sulfate existed in different forms in atmospheric aerosols, for example NH4Fe(SO4)2, (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)3H(SO4)2 in fine particles, and (NH4)4(NO3)SO4+ in coarse particles. Other sulfate concentrations were also higher during winter ranging from 1.89 to 14.3 microg m(-3) in fine particles and 0.12-0.65microg m(-3) in coarse particles. Ammonium nitrate constituted the major fraction of total particulate nitrate all through the year and was principally in fine particles (the highest concentration in January i.e. 14.2 microg m(-3)). Other nitrates were mainly distributed in the fine particles (highest concentration in January i.e. 11.2 microg m(-3)) All the sulfate and nitrate species were mainly distributed in fine mode and have significant impact on human health.

  3. Band 3 and glycophorin are progressively aggregated in density-fractionated sickle and normal red blood cells. Evidence from rotational and lateral mobility studies.

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, J D; Golan, D E

    1993-01-01

    Band 3 aggregation in the plane of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane is postulated to be important in the pathophysiology of hemolysis of dense sickle and normal RBCs. We used the fluorescence photobleaching recovery and polarized fluorescence depletion techniques to measure the lateral and rotational mobility of band 3, glycophorins, and phospholipid analogues in membranes of density-separated intact RBCs from seven patients with sickle cell disease and eight normal controls. The fractions of laterally mobile band 3 and glycophorin decreased progressively as sickle RBC density increased. Normal RBCs also showed a progressive decrease in band 3 fractional mobility with increasing buoyant density. Rapidly rotating, slowly rotating, and rotationally immobile forms of band 3 were observed in both sickle and normal RBC membranes. The fraction of rapidly rotating band 3 progressively decreased and the fraction of rotationally immobile band 3 progressively increased with increasing sickle RBC density. Changes in the fraction of rotationally immobile band 3 were not reversible upon hypotonic swelling of dense sickle RBCs, and normal RBCs osmotically shrunken in sucrose buffers failed to manifest band 3 immobilization at median cell hemoglobin concentration values characteristic of dense sickle RBCs. We conclude that dense sickle and normal RBCs acquire irreversible membrane abnormalities that cause transmembrane protein immobilization and band 3 aggregation. Band 3 aggregates could serve as cell surface sites of autologous antibody binding and thereby lead to removal of dense sickle and normal (senescent) RBCs from the circulation. PMID:8423219

  4. Molecular Size and Weight of Asphaltene and Asphaltene Solubility Fractions from Coals, Crude Oils and Bitumen

    SciTech Connect

    Badre,S.; Goncalves, C.; Norinaga, K.; Gustavson, G.; Mullins, O.

    2005-01-01

    The molecular weight of asphaltenes has been a controversy for several decades. In recent years, several techniques have converged on the size of the fused ring system; indicating that chromophores in virgin crude oil asphaltenes typically have 4-10 fused rings. Consequently, the molecular weight debate is equivalent to determining whether asphaltenes are monomeric (one fused-ring system per molecule) or whether they are polymeric. Time-resolved fluorescence depolarization (FD) is employed here to interrogate the absolute size of asphaltene molecules and to determine the relation of the size of the fused ring system to that of the corresponding molecule. Coal, petroleum and bitumen asphaltenes are compared. Molecular size of coal asphaltenes obtained here by FD-determined rotational diffusion match closely with Taylor-dispersion-derived translational diffusion measurements with UV absorption. Coal asphaltenes are smaller than petroleum asphaltenes. N-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP) soluble and insoluble fractions are examined. NMP soluble and insoluble fractions of asphaltenes are monomeric. It is suggested that the 'giant' asphaltene molecules reported from SEC studies using NMP as the eluting solvent may actually be the expected flocs of asphaltene which are not soluble in NMP. Data is presented that intramolecular electronic relaxation in asphaltenes does not perturb FD results.

  5. Size charge fractionation of metals in municipal solid waste landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Oygard, Joar Karsten; Gjengedal, Elin; Røyset, Oddvar

    2007-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfill leachates from 9 Norwegian sites were size charge fractionated in the field, to obtain three fractions: particulate and colloidal matter >0.45microm, free anions/non-labile complexes <0.45microm and free cations/labile complexes <0.45microm. The fractionation showed that Cd and Zn, and especially Cu and Pb, were present to a large degree (63-98%) as particulate and colloidal matter >0.45microm. Cr, Co and Ni were on the contrary present mostly as non-labile complexes (69-79%) <0.45microm. The major cations Ca, Mg, K, and Mn were present mainly as free cations/labile complexes <0.45microm, while As and Mo were present to a large degree (70-90%) as free anions/non-labile complexes <0.45microm. Aluminium was present mainly as particulate and colloidal matter >0.45microm. The particulate and colloidal matter >0.45microm was mainly inorganic; indicating that the metals present in this fraction were bound as inorganic compounds. The fractionation gives important information on the mobility and potential bioavailability of the metals investigated, in contrast to the total metal concentrations usually reported. To study possible changes in respective metal species in leachate in aerated sedimentation tanks, freshly sampled leachate was stored for 48h, and subsequently fractionated. This showed that the free heavy metals are partly immobilized during storage of leachate with oxygen available. The largest effects were found for Cd and Zn. The proportion of As and Cr present as particulate matter or colloids >0.45microm also increased.

  6. Relationship between processing score and kernel-fraction particle size in whole-plant corn silage.

    PubMed

    Dias Junior, G S; Ferraretto, L F; Salvati, G G S; de Resende, L C; Hoffman, P C; Pereira, M N; Shaver, R D

    2016-04-01

    Kernel processing increases starch digestibility in whole-plant corn silage (WPCS). Corn silage processing score (CSPS), the percentage of starch passing through a 4.75-mm sieve, is widely used to assess degree of kernel breakage in WPCS. However, the geometric mean particle size (GMPS) of the kernel-fraction that passes through the 4.75-mm sieve has not been well described. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate particle size distribution and digestibility of kernels cut in varied particle sizes; (2) to propose a method to measure GMPS in WPCS kernels; and (3) to evaluate the relationship between CSPS and GMPS of the kernel fraction in WPCS. Composite samples of unfermented, dried kernels from 110 corn hybrids commonly used for silage production were kept whole (WH) or manually cut in 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 pieces (2P, 4P, 8P, 16P, 32P, and 64P, respectively). Dry sieving to determine GMPS, surface area, and particle size distribution using 9 sieves with nominal square apertures of 9.50, 6.70, 4.75, 3.35, 2.36, 1.70, 1.18, and 0.59 mm and pan, as well as ruminal in situ dry matter (DM) digestibilities were performed for each kernel particle number treatment. Incubation times were 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. The ruminal in situ DM disappearance of unfermented kernels increased with the reduction in particle size of corn kernels. Kernels kept whole had the lowest ruminal DM disappearance for all time points with maximum DM disappearance of 6.9% at 24 h and the greatest disappearance was observed for 64P, followed by 32P and 16P. Samples of WPCS (n=80) from 3 studies representing varied theoretical length of cut settings and processor types and settings were also evaluated. Each WPCS sample was divided in 2 and then dried at 60 °C for 48 h. The CSPS was determined in duplicate on 1 of the split samples, whereas on the other split sample the kernel and stover fractions were separated using a hydrodynamic separation procedure. After separation, the

  7. Measuring Submicron-Sized Fractionated Particulate Matter on Aluminum Impactor Disks

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Bruce A.; Zermeño, Paula; Hwang, Hyun-Min; Young, Thomas M.; Guilderson, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    Sub-micron sized airborne particulate matter (PM) is not collected well on regular quartz or glass fiber filter papers. We used a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) to fractionate PM into six size fractions and deposit it on specially designed high purity thin aluminum disks. The MOUDI separated PM into fractions 56–100 nm, 100–180 nm, 180–320 nm, 320–560 nm, 560–1000 nm, and 1000–1800 nm. Since the MOUDI has a low flow rate (30 L/min), it takes several days to collect sufficient carbon on 47 mm foil disks. The small carbon mass (20–200 microgram C) and large aluminum substrate (~25 mg Al) present several challenges to production of graphite targets for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis. The Al foil consumes large amounts of oxygen as it is heated and tends to melt into quartz combustion tubes, causing gas leaks. We describe sample processing techniques to reliably produce graphitic targets for 14C-AMS analysis of PM deposited on Al impact foils. PMID:22228915

  8. Enrichment of trace elements in the clay size fraction of mining soils.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Patrícia; Valente, Teresa; Braga, M Amália Sequeira; Grande, J A; de la Torre, M L

    2016-04-01

    Reactive waste dumps with sulfide minerals promote acid mine drainage (AMD), which results in water and soil contamination by metals and metalloids. In these systems, contamination is regulated by many factors, such as mineralogical composition of soil and the presence of sorption sites on specific mineral phases. So, the present study dedicates itself to understanding the distribution of trace elements in different size fractions (<2-mm and <2-μm fractions) of mining soils and to evaluate the relationship between chemical and mineralogical composition. Cerdeirinha and Penedono, located in Portugal, were the waste dumps under study. The results revealed that the two waste dumps have high degree of contamination by metals and arsenic and that these elements are concentrated in the clay size fraction. Hence, the higher degree of contamination by toxic elements, especially arsenic in Penedono as well as the role of clay minerals, jarosite, and goethite in retaining trace elements has management implications. Such information must be carefully thought in the rehabilitation projects to be planned for both waste dumps.

  9. Wheat bran abolishes the inverse relationship between calcium load size and absorption fraction in women.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M; Heaney, R P; Teegarden, D; Hinders, S M

    1996-01-01

    Fractional calcium absorption from varying intakes of calcium carbonate co-ingested with wheat bran, as well as alone, was measured in a randomized crossover study in healthy adult women. The calcium carbonate was intrinsically labeled with 45Ca. Absorption from the carbonate, ingested without bran, showed the expected inverse relationship to the logarithm of ingested load size (slope = -0.1199; not substantially different from the value previously reported for milk). At 0.5 mmol calcium load, fractional absorption averaged 0.769 +/- 0.134, whereas at 12.5 mmol load it averaged 0.378 +/- 0.069. In contrast, fractional absorption from calcium carbonate co-ingested with 40 g of a cereal product containing 16 g wheat bran, across a calcium load range from 0.5 to 15.5 mmol, was essentially constant (mean for all loads: 0.230 +/- 0.069). Thus, the calcium-binding capacity of the bran cereal altered the usual inverse relationship between calcium load and fractional absorption. In vitro calcium binding to the bran cereal was linear over a wide range of calcium levels. This suggests that binding of calcium to one or more components of the bran cereal is sufficient to explain the reduced absorption demonstrated in vivo.

  10. Influence of fullerene (C60) on soil bacterial communities: aqueous aggregate size and solvent co-introduction effects.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhong-Hua; Bischoff, Marianne; Nies, Loring F; Carroll, Natalie J; Applegate, Bruce; Turco, Ronald F

    2016-06-16

    Fullerene C60 nanoparticles are being used in broad range of applications. It is important to assess their potential impacts in the environment. We evaluated the effects of C60 introduced as aqueous suspensions of nC60 aggregates of different particle size or via organic solvents on soils with different organic matter contents in this study. Impacts of the application were evaluated by measuring total microbial biomass, metabolic activity and bacterial community structure. Results show that nC60 aggregates, introduced as an aqueous suspension, had size-dependent effects on soil bacterial community composition in the low organic matter system, but induced minimal change in the microbial biomass and metabolic activity in soils with both high and low organic matter contents. Fullerene C60, co-introduced via an organic solvent, did not influence the response of soil microbes to the organic solvents. Our results suggest that nC60 aggregates of smaller size may have negative impact on soil biota and soil organic matter may play a key role in modulating the environmental effect of nanomaterials.

  11. Influence of fullerene (C60) on soil bacterial communities: aqueous aggregate size and solvent co-introduction effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Zhong-Hua; Bischoff, Marianne; Nies, Loring F.; Carroll, Natalie J.; Applegate, Bruce; Turco, Ronald F.

    2016-06-01

    Fullerene C60 nanoparticles are being used in broad range of applications. It is important to assess their potential impacts in the environment. We evaluated the effects of C60 introduced as aqueous suspensions of nC60 aggregates of different particle size or via organic solvents on soils with different organic matter contents in this study. Impacts of the application were evaluated by measuring total microbial biomass, metabolic activity and bacterial community structure. Results show that nC60 aggregates, introduced as an aqueous suspension, had size-dependent effects on soil bacterial community composition in the low organic matter system, but induced minimal change in the microbial biomass and metabolic activity in soils with both high and low organic matter contents. Fullerene C60, co-introduced via an organic solvent, did not influence the response of soil microbes to the organic solvents. Our results suggest that nC60 aggregates of smaller size may have negative impact on soil biota and soil organic matter may play a key role in modulating the environmental effect of nanomaterials.

  12. The influence of coarse aggregate size and volume on the fracture behavior and brittleness of self-compacting concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Beygi, Morteza H.A.; Kazemi, Mohammad Taghi; Nikbin, Iman M.; Vaseghi Amiri, Javad; Rabbanifar, Saeed; Rahmani, Ebrahim

    2014-12-15

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on fracture characteristics and brittleness of self-compacting concrete (SCC), involving the tests of 185 three point bending beams with different coarse aggregate size and content. Generally, the parameters were analyzed by the work of fracture method (WFM) and the size effect method (SEM). The results showed that with increase of size and content of coarse aggregate, (a) the fracture energy increases which is due to the change in fractal dimensions, (b) behavior of SCC beams approaches strength criterion, (c) characteristic length, which is deemed as an index of brittleness, increases linearly. It was found with decrease of w/c ratio that fracture energy increases which may be explained by the improvement in structure of aggregate-paste transition zone. Also, the results showed that there is a correlation between the fracture energy measured by WFM (G{sub F}) and the value measured through SEM (G{sub f}) (G{sub F} = 3.11G{sub f})

  13. Influence of fullerene (C60) on soil bacterial communities: aqueous aggregate size and solvent co-introduction effects

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Zhong-Hua; Bischoff, Marianne; Nies, Loring F.; Carroll, Natalie J.; Applegate, Bruce; Turco, Ronald F.

    2016-01-01

    Fullerene C60 nanoparticles are being used in broad range of applications. It is important to assess their potential impacts in the environment. We evaluated the effects of C60 introduced as aqueous suspensions of nC60 aggregates of different particle size or via organic solvents on soils with different organic matter contents in this study. Impacts of the application were evaluated by measuring total microbial biomass, metabolic activity and bacterial community structure. Results show that nC60 aggregates, introduced as an aqueous suspension, had size-dependent effects on soil bacterial community composition in the low organic matter system, but induced minimal change in the microbial biomass and metabolic activity in soils with both high and low organic matter contents. Fullerene C60, co-introduced via an organic solvent, did not influence the response of soil microbes to the organic solvents. Our results suggest that nC60 aggregates of smaller size may have negative impact on soil biota and soil organic matter may play a key role in modulating the environmental effect of nanomaterials. PMID:27306076

  14. Photochemical production of hydrogen peroxide in size-fractionated Southern California coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Clark, Catherine D; De Bruyn, Warren J; Jones, Joshua G

    2009-06-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) photochemical production was measured in bulk and size-fractionated surf zone and source waters (Orange County, California, USA). Post-irradiation (60 min; 300 W ozone-free xenon lamp), maximum H(2)O(2) concentrations were approximately 10000 nM (source) and approximately 1500 nM (surf zone). Average initial hydrogen peroxide production rates (HPPR) were higher in bulk source waters (11+/-7.0 nM s(-1)) than the surf zone (2.5+/-1 nM s(-1)). A linear relationship was observed between non-purgeable dissolved organic carbon and absorbance coefficient (m(-1) (300 nm)). HPPR increased with increasing absorbance coefficient for bulk and size-fractionated source waters, consistent with photochemical production from CDOM. However, HPPR varied significantly (5x) for surf zone samples with the same absorbance coefficients, even though optical properties suggested CDOM from salt marsh source waters dominates the surf zone. To compare samples with varying CDOM levels, apparent quantum yields (Phi) for H(2)O(2) photochemical production were calculated. Source waters showed no significant difference in Phi between bulk, large (>1000 Da (>1 kDa)) and small (<1 kDa) size fractions, suggesting H(2)O(2) production efficiency is homogeneously distributed across CDOM size. However, surf zone waters had significantly higher Phi than source (bulk 0.086+/-0.04 vs. 0.034+/-0.013; <1 kDa 0.183+/-0.012 vs. 0.027+/-0.018; >1 kDa 0.151+/-0.090 vs. 0.016+/-0.009), suggesting additional production from non-CDOM sources. H(2)O(2) photochemical production was significant for intertidal beach sand and senescent kelp (sunlight; approximately 42 nM h(-1) vs. approximately 5 nM h(-1)), on the order of CDOM production rates previously measured in coastal and oceanic waters. This is the first study of H(2)O(2) photochemical production in size-fractionated coastal waters showing significant production from non-CDOM sources in the surf zone.

  15. Size-dependent geometrically nonlinear free vibration analysis of fractional viscoelastic nanobeams based on the nonlocal elasticity theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, R.; Faraji Oskouie, M.; Gholami, R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, mathematical modeling and engineering applications of fractional-order calculus have been extensively utilized to provide efficient simulation tools in the field of solid mechanics. In this paper, a nonlinear fractional nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam model is established using the concept of fractional derivative and nonlocal elasticity theory to investigate the size-dependent geometrically nonlinear free vibration of fractional viscoelastic nanobeams. The non-classical fractional integro-differential Euler-Bernoulli beam model contains the nonlocal parameter, viscoelasticity coefficient and order of the fractional derivative to interpret the size effect, viscoelastic material and fractional behavior in the nanoscale fractional viscoelastic structures, respectively. In the solution procedure, the Galerkin method is employed to reduce the fractional integro-partial differential governing equation to a fractional ordinary differential equation in the time domain. Afterwards, the predictor-corrector method is used to solve the nonlinear fractional time-dependent equation. Finally, the influences of nonlocal parameter, order of fractional derivative and viscoelasticity coefficient on the nonlinear time response of fractional viscoelastic nanobeams are discussed in detail. Moreover, comparisons are made between the time responses of linear and nonlinear models.

  16. Seasonal export fluxes of size-fractionated particulate derived from polonium-210: A case study in Xiamen Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weifeng; Huang, Yipu; Chen, Min; Qiu, Yusheng

    2010-03-01

    Size-fractionated 210Po and 210Pb, in the size fractions >0.4 μm, >2 μm and >10 μm, were examined to determine the seasonal variability of particulate fluxes in Xiamen Bay. Good correlations between 210Po and particulate organic carbon (POC) or non-Particulate Organic Matter (nPOM) suggested that 210Po can be used to trace the export fluxes of POC and nPOM. Both steady-state (SS) model and nSS model were used to evaluate fluxes of size-fractionated 210Po, results showed that nSS model was better than the SS model in coastal areas. Based on the nSS model, size-fractionated POC fluxes decreased with increasing particle size. For the particle size studied, maximum POC fluxes occurred in autumn, followed by spring, winter, and summer. Fluxes of nPOM were an order of magnitude higher than the corresponding size-fractionated POC fluxes. Differences between size-fractionated nPOM fluxes indicated that hydrodynamic conditions were the main factor regulating transportation of particulate out of the inner Bay. In winter most particulates, including >10 μm particles, were transported under the strongest hydrodynamic conditions. In contrast, only a fraction of the <2 μm particulates were transported from the inner Bay in spring. This study suggested that 210Po is a powerful tracer of seasonal particulate export in coastal seas.

  17. Aggregating Student Achievement Trends across States with Different Tests: Using Standardized Slopes as Effect Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Schmidt, R. James; Besag, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The study of federal education initiatives that takes place over multiple years in multiple settings often calls for aggregating and comparing data-in particular, student achievement data-across a broad set of schools, districts, and states. The need to track the trends over time is complicated by the fact that the data from the different schools,…

  18. Size Control and Fractionation of Ionic Liquid Filled Polymersomes with Glassy and Rubbery Bilayer Membranes.

    PubMed

    So, Soonyong; Lodge, Timothy P

    2016-05-17

    We demonstrate control over the size of ionic liquid (IL) filled polymeric vesicles (polymersomes) by three distinct methods: mechanical extrusion, cosolvent-based processing in an IL, and fractionation of polymersomes in a biphasic system of IL and water. For the representative ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([EMIM][TFSI])), the size and dispersity of polymersomes formed from 1,2-polybutadiene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PB-PEO) and polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) diblock copolymers were shown to be sensitive to assembly conditions. During mechanical extrusion through a polycarbonate membrane, the relatively larger polymersomes were broken up and reorganized into vesicles with mean size comparable to the membrane pore (100 nm radius); the distribution width also decreased significantly after only a few passes. Other routes were studied using the solvent-switch or cosolvent (CS) method, whereby the initial content of the cosolvent and the PEO block length of PS-PEO were systemically changed. The nonvolatility of the ionic liquid directly led to the desired concentration of polymersomes in the ionic liquid using a single step, without the dialysis conventionally used in aqueous systems, and the mean vesicle size depended on the amount of cosolvent employed. Finally, selective phase transfer of PS-PEO polymersomes based on size was used to extract larger polymersomes from the IL to the aqueous phase via interfacial tension controlled phase transfer. The interfacial tension between the PS membrane and the aqueous phase was varied with the concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl) in the aqueous phase; then the larger polymersomes were selectively separated to the aqueous phase due to differences in shielding of the hydrophobic core (PS) coverage by the hydrophilic corona brush (PEO). This novel fractionation is a simple separation process without any special apparatus and can help to prepare monodisperse polymersomes

  19. An improved snow hydrology for GCMS. Part 1: Snow cover fraction, albedo, grain size, and age

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, S.; Oglesby, R.J.

    1994-07-01

    A new, physically-based snow hydrology has been implemented into the NCAR CCM1. The snow albedo is based on snow depth, solar zenith angle, snow cover pollutants, cloudiness, and a new parameter, the snow grain size. Snow grain size in turn depends on temperature and snow age. An improved expression is used for fractional snow cover which relates it to surface roughness and to snow depth. Each component of the new snow hydrology was implemented separately and then combined to make a new control run integrated for ten seasonal cycles. With the new snow hydrology, springtime snow melt occurs more rapidly, leading to a more reasonable late spring and summer distribution of snow cover. Little impact is seen on winter snow cover, since the new hydrology affects snow melt directly, but snowfall only indirectly, if at all. The influence of the variable grain size appears more important when snow packs are relatively deep while variable fractional snow cover becomes increasingly important as the snow pack thins. Variable surface roughness affects the snow cover fraction directly, but shows little effect on the seasonal cycle of the snow line. As an application of the new snow hydrology, we have rerun simulations involving Antarctic and Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Relatively little difference is seen for Antarctica, but a profound difference occurs for the Northern Hemisphere. In particular, ice sheets computed using new snow accumulations from the GCM are more numerous and larger in extent with the new snow hydrology. The new snow hydrology leads to a better simulation of the seasonal cycle of snow cover, however, our primary goal in implementing it into the GCM is to improve the predictive capabilities of the model. Since the snow hydrology is based on fundamental physical processes, and has well-defined parameters. it should enable model simulations of climatic change in which we have increased confidence. 37 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Size-tunable copper nanocluster aggregates and their application in hydrogen sulfide sensing on paper-based devices

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-Cheng; Li, Yu-Chi; Ma, Jia-Yin; Huang, Jia-Yu; Chen, Chien-Fu; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    Polystyrene sulfonate (PSS), a strong polyelectrolyte, was used to prepare red photoluminescent PSS-penicillamine (PA) copper (Cu) nanoclusters (NC) aggregates, which displayed high selectivity and sensitivity to the detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The size of the PSS-PA-Cu NC aggregates could be readily controlled from 5.5 μm to 173 nm using different concentrations of PSS, which enabled better dispersity and higher sensitivity towards H2S. PSS-PA-Cu NC aggregates provided rapid H2S detection by using the strong Cu-S interaction to quench NC photoluminescence as a sensing mechanism. As a result, a detection limit of 650 nM, which is lower than the maximum level permitted in drinking water by the World Health Organization, was achieved for the analysis of H2S in spring-water samples. Moreover, highly dispersed PSS-PA-Cu NC aggregates could be incorporated into a plate-format paper-based analytical device which enables ultra-low sample volumes (5 μL) and feature shorter analysis times (30 min) compared to conventional solution-based methods. The advantages of low reagent consumption, rapid result readout, limited equipment, and long-term storage make this platform sensitive and simple enough to use without specialized training in resource constrained settings. PMID:27113330

  1. Simultaneous determination of protein aggregation, degradation, and absolute molecular weight by size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser light scattering.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hongping

    2006-09-01

    The feasibility of size exclusion chromotography (SEC)-multiangle laser-light scattering as a technique to investigate aggregation and degradation of glycosylated and nonglycosylated proteins, and antibodies under various conditions such as addition of detergent, changes in pH, and variation of protein concentration and heat stress temperature was examined. Separation of proteins and their aggregates was performed using SEC-high-performance liquid chromatography. Detection of analytes was carried out with on-line UV, refractive index, and multiangle laser light-scattering detectors. Quantification and molecular weight determination were performed using commercial software. Aggregation and degradation were examined under various conditions and quantitative results are presented for bovine serum albumin, choriogonadotropin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, Herceptin, and ReoPro. This method can simultaneously determine both the quantities and the molecular weights of macromolecules from a single injection. The determination of molecular weight is absolute which avoids misleading results caused by molecular shape or interactions with the column matrix. This technique is valuable not only for assessing the extent of aggregation but also for effectively monitoring molecule degradation as evidenced by molecular weight reduction and change in monomer amount.

  2. Size-tunable copper nanocluster aggregates and their application in hydrogen sulfide sensing on paper-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Cheng; Li, Yu-Chi; Ma, Jia-Yin; Huang, Jia-Yu; Chen, Chien-Fu; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2016-04-01

    Polystyrene sulfonate (PSS), a strong polyelectrolyte, was used to prepare red photoluminescent PSS-penicillamine (PA) copper (Cu) nanoclusters (NC) aggregates, which displayed high selectivity and sensitivity to the detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The size of the PSS-PA-Cu NC aggregates could be readily controlled from 5.5 μm to 173 nm using different concentrations of PSS, which enabled better dispersity and higher sensitivity towards H2S. PSS-PA-Cu NC aggregates provided rapid H2S detection by using the strong Cu-S interaction to quench NC photoluminescence as a sensing mechanism. As a result, a detection limit of 650 nM, which is lower than the maximum level permitted in drinking water by the World Health Organization, was achieved for the analysis of H2S in spring-water samples. Moreover, highly dispersed PSS-PA-Cu NC aggregates could be incorporated into a plate-format paper-based analytical device which enables ultra-low sample volumes (5 μL) and feature shorter analysis times (30 min) compared to conventional solution-based methods. The advantages of low reagent consumption, rapid result readout, limited equipment, and long-term storage make this platform sensitive and simple enough to use without specialized training in resource constrained settings.

  3. Effect of HPC and Water Concentration on the Evolution of Size, Aggregation and Crystallization of Sol-gel Nano Zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Seal, S.; Vij, R.; Bandyopadhyay, S.

    2002-12-01

    Nano-sized zirconia (ZrO2) powder is synthesized using sol-gel technique involving hydrolysis and condensation of zirconium(IV) n-propoxide in an alcohol solution, utilizing hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) polymer as a steric stabilizer. It is demonstrated that ZrO2 nanoparticle size can be reduced using high R-value (defined as the ratio of molar concentrations of water and alkoxide). It is also shown that ZrO2 nanoparticle size can be reduced further by synthesizing these particles in the presence of HPC polymer. The agglomeration tendency of ZrO2 nanoparticles is demonstrated to decrease due to the steric hindrance created by the adsorbed polymer. The nanocrystallite size and their 'hard-aggregates' formation tendency are observed to affect the high temperature metastable tetragonal phase stabilization at room temperature within ZrO2 particles.

  4. Understanding and Controlling the Aggregative Growth of Platinum Nanoparticles in Atomic Layer Deposition: An Avenue to Size Selection.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Fabio; Van Bui, Hao; Moulijn, Jacob A; Kreutzer, Michiel T; van Ommen, J Ruud

    2017-03-02

    We present an atomistic understanding of the evolution of the size distribution with temperature and number of cycles in atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Pt nanoparticles (NPs). Atomistic modeling of our experiments teaches us that the NPs grow mostly via NP diffusion and coalescence rather than through single-atom processes such as precursor chemisorption, atom attachment, and Ostwald ripening. In particular, our analysis shows that the NP aggregation takes place during the oxygen half-reaction and that the NP mobility exhibits a size- and temperature-dependent scaling. Finally, we show that contrary to what has been widely reported, in general, one cannot simply control the NP size by the number of cycles alone. Instead, while the amount of Pt deposited can be precisely controlled over a wide range of temperatures, ALD-like precision over the NP size requires low deposition temperatures (e.g., T < 100 °C) when growth is dominated by atom attachment.

  5. Understanding and Controlling the Aggregative Growth of Platinum Nanoparticles in Atomic Layer Deposition: An Avenue to Size Selection

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We present an atomistic understanding of the evolution of the size distribution with temperature and number of cycles in atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Pt nanoparticles (NPs). Atomistic modeling of our experiments teaches us that the NPs grow mostly via NP diffusion and coalescence rather than through single-atom processes such as precursor chemisorption, atom attachment, and Ostwald ripening. In particular, our analysis shows that the NP aggregation takes place during the oxygen half-reaction and that the NP mobility exhibits a size- and temperature-dependent scaling. Finally, we show that contrary to what has been widely reported, in general, one cannot simply control the NP size by the number of cycles alone. Instead, while the amount of Pt deposited can be precisely controlled over a wide range of temperatures, ALD-like precision over the NP size requires low deposition temperatures (e.g., T < 100 °C) when growth is dominated by atom attachment. PMID:28178779

  6. Size-fractionated dissolved primary production and carbohydrate composition of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchard, C.; Engel, A.

    2014-11-01

    Extracellular release (ER) by phytoplankton is the major source of fresh dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in marine ecosystems and accompanies primary production during all growth phases. Little is known, so far, on size and composition of released molecules, and to which extent ER occurs passively, by leakage, or actively, by exudation. Here, we report on ER by the widespread and bloom-forming coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi grown under steady state conditions in phosphorus controlled chemostats (N : P = 29, growth rate of μ = 0.2 d-1). 14C incubations were accomplished to determine primary production (PP), comprised by particulate (PO14C) and dissolved organic carbon (DO14C), and the concentration and composition of particulate combined carbohydrates (pCCHO), and of high molecular weight (>1 kDa, HMW) dissolved combined carbohydrates (dCCHO) as major components of ER. Information on size distribution of ER products was obtained by investigating distinct size classes (<0.40 μm, <1000 kDa, <100 kDa and <10 kDa) of DO14C and HMW-dCCHO. Our results revealed relatively low ER during steady state growth, corresponding to ∼4.5% of primary production, and similar ER rates for all size classes. Acidic sugars had a significant share on freshly produced pCCHO as well as on HMW-dCCHO. While pCCHO and the smallest size (<10 kDa) fraction of HMW-dCCHO exhibited a similar sugar composition, dominated by high percentages of glucose (74-80 Mol%), the composition of HMW-dCCHO size-classes >10 kDa was significantly different with higher Mol% of arabinose. Mol% of acidic sugars increased and Mol% glucose decreased with increasing size of HMW-dCCHO. We conclude that larger polysaccharides follow different production and release pathways than smaller molecules, potentially serving distinct ecological and biogeochemical functions.

  7. Particle size characterization of oak wood leachate: chemical oxygen demand and toxicity distribution within different fractions.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Henric; Jani, Yahya; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Oak wood leachate obtained from two storage facilities (storage pound and ditch) in a wood-based industry, and leachate generated by a laboratory leaching test, were characterized in seven categories regarding particle size distribution (PSD) (raw leachate, ≤ 20 μm, ≤ 10 μm, ≤ 1.2 μm, ≤ 13 nm, ≤ 5 nm and ≤ 2 nm). The PSD followed a normal distribution model with a correlation coefficient (r) varying from 82 to 88. Each fraction was analysed regarding chemical oxygen demand, polyphenols and acute toxicity in toxicity assays with Artemia salina, Vibrio fischeri and Lactuca sativa. Fractions with particles >1.2 μm were more toxic to A. salina and V. fisheri than fractions with particles ≤ 1.2 μm. No toxic effect was observed for L. sativa. The results suggest that polyphenols are the main toxic compounds in oak wood leachate. A conspicuous difference was found between field and laboratory samples.

  8. Particle size analysis of dispersed oil and oil-mineral aggregates with an automated ultraviolet epi-fluorescence microscopy system.

    PubMed

    Ma, X; Cogswell, A; Li, Z; Lee, K

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes recent advances in microscopic analysis for quantitative measurement of oil droplets. Integration of a microscope with bright-field and ultraviolet epi-fluorescence illumination (excitation wavelengths 340-380 nm; emission wavelengths 400-430 nm) fitted with a computer-controlled motorized stage, a high resolution digital camera, and new image-analysis software, enables automatic acquisition of multiple images and facilitates efficient counting and sizing of oil droplets. Laboratory experiments were conducted with this system to investigate the size distribution of chemically dispersed oil droplets and oil-mineral aggregates in baffled flasks that have been developed for testing chemical dispersant effectiveness. Image acquisition and data processing methods were developed to illustrate the size distribution of chemically dispersed oil droplets, as a function of energy dissipation rate in the baffled flasks, and the time-dependent change of the morphology and size distribution of oil-mineral aggregates. As a quantitative analytical tool, epifluorescence microscopy shows promise for application in research on oil spill response technologies, such as evaluating the effectiveness of chemical dispersant and characterizing the natural interaction between oil and mineral fines and other suspended particulate matters.

  9. Soil microbial parameters and stability of soil aggregate fractions under different grassland communities on the Loess Plateau, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over-grazing and large scale monocultures on the Loess plateau in China have caused serious soil erosion by water and wind. Grassland revegetation has been reported as one of the most effective counter measures. Therefore, we investigated soil aggregation, aggregate stability and soil microbial ac...

  10. Influence of soot aggregate size and internal multiple scattering on LII signal and the absorption function variation with wavelength determined by the TEW-LII method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yon, J.; Therssen, E.; Liu, F.; Bejaoui, S.; Hebert, D.

    2015-05-01

    Laser-induced incandescence (LII) is a powerful and robust optical method for in situ determination of soot volume fraction and/or soot absorption/emission properties in flames and engine exhaust. The laser-induced signal is interpreted as thermal emission based on the Planck law. Up to now, the evaluation and interpretation of LII signal have been largely based on contributions from isolated primary particles that are assumed much smaller than wavelengths. In the present paper, the morphology, wavelength, and aggregate size-dependent effects of multiple scattering within fractal soot aggregates on their absorption and emission cross sections are taken into account in the evaluation of LII signal by proposing correction terms to the traditional model. The impact of accounting for the correction to soot aggregate emission due to multiple scattering on LII signal and on the two excitation wavelength-induced incandescence method for inferring the soot absorption function, E(m), is discussed. For wavelengths shorter than 532 nm, E(m, λ)/E(m, 1064 nm) increases more significantly with decreasing wavelength. For wavelengths longer than 532 nm, the wavelength dependence of E(m, λ)/E(m, 1064 nm) becomes very small and can be neglected. The proposed corrections, along with the soot morphology, are applied to re-analyze the experimental data of Bejaoui et al. (Appl Phys B Lasers Opt, 116:313, 2014) for deriving the relative soot absorption function variation with wavelength at different locations in a rich premixed methane flat flame at atmospheric pressure. The present analysis showed that the soot absorption function varies with the height above the burner exit and can be correlated with the degree of soot maturation.

  11. Evaluation of the Strength of Railway Ballast Using Point Load Test for Various Size Fractions and Particle Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koohmishi, Mehdi; Palassi, Massoud

    2016-07-01

    The ballast layer is one of the most important components of the railway track superstructure in which angular aggregates of high strength rocks are used. Ballast degradation is one of the main sources of railway problems in which the ballast aggregates are gradually degraded due to the abrasion of the sharp corners of the angular particles and splitting each individual particle into two or several small pieces under loading. In this paper, the effects of rock type, aggregate size and particle shape on the strength of the single ballast particles are investigated. For this purpose, point load test is carried out on ballast aggregates of four rock types including basalt, marl, dolomite and trachyte. According to the obtained results, as the size of the aggregates increases, the point load strength index decreases. The influence of size on the strength is more noticeable for ballasts obtained from higher strength rocks. It is also found that the shape of ballast particles has no major effect on its strength. Furthermore, our findings show that the failure pattern for ballasts of higher strength is so that each particle commonly splits into three pieces; while the dominant failure pattern for ballast particles with less strength is breaking the particle into two pieces.

  12. Meeting in Florida: Using Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) to Determine C60 Colloidal Size Distributions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of nanomaterials in environmental systems requires robust and specific analytical methods. Analytical methods which discriminate based on particle size and molecular composition are not widely available. Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) is a separation...

  13. STOCK AND DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL AND CORN-DERIVED SOIL ORGANIC CARBON IN AGGREGATE AND PRIMARY PARTICLE FRACTIONS FOR DIFFERENT LAND USE AND SOIL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    SciTech Connect

    Puget, P; Lal, Rattan; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Post, M; Owens, Lloyd

    2005-04-01

    Land use, soil management, and cropping systems affect stock, distribution, and residence time of soil organic carbon (SOC). Therefore, SOC stock and its depth distribution and association with primary and secondary particles were assessed in long-term experiments at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds near Coshocton, Ohio, through *13C techniques. These measurements were made for five land use and soil management treatments: (1) secondary forest, (2) meadow converted from no-till (NT) corn since 1988, (3) continuous NT corn since 1970, (4) continuous NT corn-soybean in rotation with ryegrass since 1984, and (5) conventional plow till (PT) corn since 1984. Soil samples to 70-cm depth were obtained in 2002 in all treatments. Significant differences in soil properties were observed among land use treatments for 0 to 5-cm depth. The SOC concentration (g C kg*1 of soil) in the 0 to 5-cm layer was 44.0 in forest, 24.0 in meadow, 26.1 in NT corn, 19.5 in NT corn-soybean, and 11.1 i n PT corn. The fraction of total C in corn residue converted to SOC was 11.9% for NT corn, 10.6% for NT corn-soybean, and 8.3% for PT corn. The proportion of SOC derived from corn residue was 96% for NT corn in the 0 to 5-cm layer, and it decreased gradually with depth and was 50% in PT corn. The mean SOC sequestration rate on conversion from PT to NT was 280 kg C ha*1 y*1. The SOC concentration decreased with reduction in aggregate size, and macro-aggregates contained 15 to 35% more SOC concentration than microaggregates. In comparison with forest, the magnitude of SOC depletion in the 0 to 30-cm layer was 15.5 Mg C/ha (24.0%) in meadow, 12.7 Mg C/ha (19.8%) in NT corn, 17.3 Mg C/ha (26.8%) in NT corn-soybean, and 23.3 Mg C/ha (35.1%) in PT corn. The SOC had a long turnover time when located deeper in the subsoil.

  14. Characteristics of atmospheric particulate mercury in size-fractionated particles during haze days in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaojia; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; Zhu, Qiongyu; Behera, Sailesh N.; Bo, Dandan; Huang, Xian; Xie, Haiyun; Cheng, Jinping

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate mercury (PHg) is recognized as a global pollutant that requires regulation because of its significant impacts on both human health and wildlife. The haze episodes that occur frequently in China could influence the transport and fate of PHg. To examine the characteristics of PHg during haze and non-haze days, size-fractioned particles were collected using thirteen-stage Nano-MOUDI samplers (10 nm-18 μm) during a severe haze episode (from December 2013 to January 2014) in Shanghai. The PHg concentration on haze days (4.11 ± 0.53 ng m-3) was three times higher than on non-haze days (1.34 ± 0.15 ng m-3). The ratio of the PHg concentration to total gaseous mercury (TGM) ranged from 0.42 during haze days to 0.21 during non-haze days, which was possibly due to the elevated concentration of particles for gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) adsorption, elevated sulfate and nitrate contributing to GEM oxidation, and the catalytic effect of elevated water-soluble inorganic metal ions. PHg/PM10 during haze days (0.019 ± 0.004 ng/μg) was lower than during non-haze days (0.024 ± 0.002 ng/μg), and PHg/PM10 was significantly reduced with an increasing concentration of PM10, which implied a relatively lower growth velocity of mercury than other compositions on particles during haze days, especially in the diameter range of 0.018-0.032 μm. During haze days, each size-fractioned PHg concentration was higher than the corresponding fraction on non-haze days, and the dominant particle size was in the accumulation mode, with constant accumulation to a particle size of 0.56-1.0 μm. The mass size distribution of PHg was bimodal with peaks at 0.32-0.56 μm and 3.1-6.2 μm on non-haze days, and 0.56-1.0 μm and 3.1-6.2 μm on haze days. There was a clear trend that the dominant size for PHg in the fine modes shifted from 0.32-0.56 μm during non-haze days to 0.56-1.0 μm on haze days, which revealed the higher growth velocity of PHg on haze days due to the

  15. Chemical characteristics and source of size-fractionated atmospheric particle in haze episode in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jihua; Duan, Jingchun; Zhen, Naijia; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    The abundance, behavior, and source of chemical species in size-fractionated atmospheric particle were studied with a 13-stage low pressure impactor (ELPI) during high polluted winter episode in Beijing. Thirty three elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Si, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) and eight water soluble ions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42 -, NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2 +, and Mg2 +) were determined by ICP/MS and IC, respectively. The size distribution of TC (OC + EC) was reconstructed. Averagely, 51.5 ± 5.3% and 74.1 ± 3.7% of the total aerosol mass was distributed in the sub-micron (PM1) and fine particle (PM2.5), respectively. A significant shift to larger fractions during heavy pollution episode was observed for aerosol mass, NH4+, SO42 -, NO3-, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb. The mass size distributions of NH4+, SO42 -, NO3-, and K were dominated by accumulation mode. Size distributions of elements were classified into four main types: (I) elements were enriched within the accumulation mode (< 1 μm, Ge, Se, Ag, Sn, Sb, Cs, Hg, Ti, and Pb); (II) those mass (K, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, and Cd) was resided mainly within the accumulation mode, ranged from 1 to 2 μm; (III) Na, V, Co, Ni, and Ga were distributed among fine, intermediate, and coarse modes; and (IV) those which were mainly found within particles larger than 2.7 μm (Al, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Tl, Fe, Sr, Zr, and Ba). [H+]cor showed an accumulation mode at 600-700 nm and the role of Ca2 + should be fully considered in the estimation of acidity. The acidity in accumulation mode particles suggested that generally gaseous NH3 was not enough to neutralize sulfate completely. PMF method was applied for source apportionment of elements combined with water soluble ions. Dust, vehicle, aged coal combustion, and sea salt were identified, and the size resolved source apportionments were discussed. Aged coal combustion was the important source of fine particles and

  16. Aggregation in environmental systems - Part 1: Seasonal tracer cycles quantify young water fractions, but not mean transit times, in spatially heterogeneous catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental heterogeneity is ubiquitous, but environmental systems are often analyzed as if they were homogeneous instead, resulting in aggregation errors that are rarely explored and almost never quantified. Here I use simple benchmark tests to explore this general problem in one specific context: the use of seasonal cycles in chemical or isotopic tracers (such as Cl-, δ18O, or δ2H) to estimate timescales of storage in catchments. Timescales of catchment storage are typically quantified by the mean transit time, meaning the average time that elapses between parcels of water entering as precipitation and leaving again as streamflow. Longer mean transit times imply greater damping of seasonal tracer cycles. Thus, the amplitudes of tracer cycles in precipitation and streamflow are commonly used to calculate catchment mean transit times. Here I show that these calculations will typically be wrong by several hundred percent, when applied to catchments with realistic degrees of spatial heterogeneity. This aggregation bias arises from the strong nonlinearity in the relationship between tracer cycle amplitude and mean travel time. I propose an alternative storage metric, the young water fraction in streamflow, defined as the fraction of runoff with transit times of less than roughly 0.2 years. I show that this young water fraction (not to be confused with event-based "new water" in hydrograph separations) is accurately predicted by seasonal tracer cycles within a precision of a few percent, across the entire range of mean transit times from almost zero to almost infinity. Importantly, this relationship is also virtually free from aggregation error. That is, seasonal tracer cycles also accurately predict the young water fraction in runoff from highly heterogeneous mixtures of subcatchments with strongly contrasting transit-time distributions. Thus, although tracer cycle amplitudes yield biased and unreliable estimates of catchment mean travel times in heterogeneous

  17. Effect of temperature, ration, body size and age on sulphur isotope fractionation in fish.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Carolyn; Jennings, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Sulphur isotope analysis (delta(34)S) is increasingly identified as a valuable tool for source differentiation and the determination of trophic level in food webs, but there are still many uncertainties associated with the interpretation of delta(34)S data. To investigate the effects of temperature, ration, body size and age on sulphur trophic fractionation (Deltadelta(34)S) in fish, we reared European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) on identical diets at 11 and 16 degrees C at three ration levels for over 600 days. Deltadelta(34)S was between 0 and -1 per thousand. The effect of temperature on Deltadelta(34)S was small and inconsistent, varying over the course of the experiment and depending on ration. This contrasts with temperature effects on bass Deltadelta(13)C and Deltadelta(15)N, where Deltadelta(13)C increases at warm temperatures while Deltadelta(15)N falls. Body size and age had a positive relationship with Deltadelta(34)S but the relationship with size was not significant for bass that weighed >20 g. As Deltadelta(34)S is small and the range in delta(34)S of potential diet items can be much greater than the range in delta(13)C or delta(15)N, our results show that sulphur stable isotopes are particularly useful for source differentiation in fish.

  18. Mouse Liver Mitochondria Isolation, Size Fractionation, and Real-time MOMP Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Renault, Thibaud T.; Luna-Vargas, Mark P.A.; Chipuk, Jerry E.

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis involves a complex interplay between dozens of proteins and lipids, and is also dependent on the shape and size of mitochondria. The use of cellular models in past studies has not been ideal for investigating how the complex multi-factor interplay regulates the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Isolated systems have proven to be a paradigm to deconstruct MOMP into individual steps and to study the behavior of each subset of MOMP regulators. In particular, isolated mitochondria are key to in vitro studies of the BCL-2 family proteins, a complex family of pro-survival and pro-apoptotic proteins that directly control the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis (Renault et al., 2013). In this protocol, we describe three complementary procedures for investigating in real-time the effects of MOMP regulators using isolated mitochondria. The first procedure is “Liver mitochondria isolation” in which the liver is dissected from mice to obtain mitochondria. “Mitochondria labeling with JC-1 and size fractionation” is the second procedure that describes a method to label, fractionate by size and standardize subpopulations of mitochondria. Finally, the “Real-time MOMP measurements” protocol allows to follow MOMP in real-time on isolated mitochondria. The aforementioned procedures were used to determine in vitro the role of mitochondrial membrane shape at the level of isolated cells and isolated mitochondria (Renault et al., 2015). PMID:28093578

  19. Control over the crystal phase, shape, size and aggregation of calcium carbonate via a L-aspartic acid inducing process.

    PubMed

    Tong, Hua; Ma, Wentao; Wang, Leilei; Wan, Peng; Hu, Jiming; Cao, Lianxin

    2004-08-01

    The acidic amino acid, such as aspartic acid (l-Asp), and glutamic acid are the primary active molecules of the glycoprotein on the organic/inorganic interface of biomineralized tissue. In this study, aspartic acid was used as the organic template in inducing the nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate. With the analysis of X-ray diffraction we investigated the relationship between the l-Asp concentration and the precipitation phase crystal structure of calcium carbonate. SEM and TEM were employed in the analysis of the morphological characteristic of the precipitation and the aggregation of the nanoscale porous phase. In order to get the direct evidence of the interaction between Ca2+ and l-Asp, the technique of QCM was used in the investigation of the coordinate interaction of Ca2+/l-Asp. As the results have shown, l-Asp alone is adequate to switch the transformation between calcite and vaterite, and neither soluble organic additions nor metal ions are needed. Meanwhile, the morphology, size and aggregative way of the deposition are also mediated with change of l-Asp concentration. To interpret the cause of the hierarchic structure range from nanoscale to micron-scale and the formation of the porous spheres of vaterite, an assumption of limited-fusion was proposed from the view of the small biomolecules polarity that can control over the growth of the crystals and the aggregation of the micro crystals. The conclusion also provide a new material synthesize strategy.

  20. Determination of pegfilgrastim aggregates by size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography on a methacrylate-based column.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Majid; Tamaskany Zahedy, Elnaz; Kiumarsi, Shiva; Hadi Soltanabad, Mojtaba; Shahbazi Azar, Saleh; Amini, Hossein

    2017-03-01

    A size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatographic method using a methacrylate-based column was developed, validated and implemented for the determination of pegfilgrastim aggregates. The samples were directly injected into a TSKgel G4000PWXL column (7.5 mm × 300 mm, 10 μm, <500 A°) with a mobile phase of 100 mM phosphate, pH 2.5. Detection was made at 215 nm and analyses were run at a flow-rate of 0.6 ml/min at 10 °C. Vortex-mixing of samples produced oligomers, however, very high molecular weight aggregates were formed at high temperatures. The method exhibited linearity over the concentration range of 0.1-14 mg/ml for pegfilgrastim monomer and high molecular weight aggregates with a correlation coefficient of greater than 0.99. The method was specific and sensitive, with a lower quantification limit of 0.1 mg/ml and a detection limit of 0.02 mg/ml. Over 1200 samples were analyzed by the present method without significant change in the column performance.

  1. Application of a new combined fractionation technique (CFT) to detect fluorophores in size-fractionated hydrophobic acid of DOM as indicators of urban pollution.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qunshan; Yan, Changzhou; Luo, Zhuanxi; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Qiujin; Chow, Christopher W K

    2012-08-01

    For pollution monitoring, we developed a new combined fractionation technique (CFT) to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural water by combining resin adsorption (RA) and ultrafiltration (UF) with 3D-fluorescence measurement. We tested the new technique on 4 polluted and 4 unpolluted samples. The 3D-fluorescence characteristics of size sub-components in the hydrophobic acid (HPOA) fraction could distinguish unpolluted from polluted DOM. The unpolluted HPOA fraction was composed of a single dominant size component-peak A (fulvic-like, around Ex240/Em410 nm) material with relatively large molecular weight (MW) (>10 kDa). In comparison, the HPOA in polluted DOM contained another predominant size component with lower MW (<5 kDa)-peak T material (tryptophan-like protein, around Ex230/Em340 nm). The fluorescence of peak T material with lower MW (<5 kDa) in HPOA would be a good indicator of pollution or deterioration of source water quality. The application of this new CFT could yield more detailed and scientific information on the size and chemical character of the fluorophores in DOM sub-fractions.

  2. Monte Carlo simulation for morphology of nanoparticles and particle size distributions: comparison of the cluster-cluster aggregation model with the sectional method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Kiminori; Matsukawa, Yoshiya; Saito, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Yohsuke; Aoki, Hideyuki; Era, Koki; Aoki, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Togo

    2015-06-01

    This study presents the validity and ability of an aggregate mean free path cluster-cluster aggregation (AMP-CCA) model, which is a direct Monte Carlo simulation, to predict the aggregate morphology with diameters form about 15-200 nm by comparing the particle size distributions (PSDs) with the results of the previous stochastic approach. The PSDs calculated by the AMP-CCA model with the calculated aggregate as a coalesced spherical particle are in reasonable agreement with the results of the previous stochastic model regardless of the initial number concentration of particles. The shape analysis using two methods, perimeter fractal dimension and the shape categories, has demonstrated that the aggregate structures become complex with increasing the initial number concentration of particles. The AMP-CCA model provides a useful tool to calculate the aggregate morphology and PSD with reasonable accuracy.

  3. Size-fractionated dissolved primary production and carbohydrate composition of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchard, C.; Engel, A.

    2015-02-01

    Extracellular release (ER) by phytoplankton is the major source of fresh dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in marine ecosystems and accompanies primary production during all growth phases. Little is known, so far, on size and composition of released molecules, and to which extent ER occurs passively, by leakage, or actively, by exudation. Here, we report on ER by the widespread and bloom-forming coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi grown under steady-state conditions in phosphorus-controlled chemostats (N:P = 29, growth rate of μ = 0.2 d-1) at present-day and high-CO2 concentrations. 14C incubations were performed to determine primary production (PP), comprised of particulate (PO14C) and dissolved organic carbon (DO14C). Concentration and composition of particulate combined carbohydrates (pCCHO) and high-molecular-weight (>1 kDa, HMW) dissolved combined carbohydrates (dCCHO) were determined by ion chromatography. Information on size distribution of ER products was obtained by investigating distinct size classes (<0.4 μm (DO14C), <0.45 μm (HMW-dCCHO), <1000, <100 and <10 kDa) of DO14CC and HMW-dCCHO. Our results revealed relatively low ER during steady-state growth, corresponding to ~4.5% of primary production, and similar ER rates for all size classes. Acidic sugars had a significant share on freshly produced pCCHO as well as on HMW-dCCHO. While pCCHO and the smallest size fraction (<10 kDa) of HMW-dCCHO exhibited a similar sugar composition, dominated by high percentage of glucose (74-80 mol%), the composition of HMW-dCCHO size classes >10 kDa was significantly different, with a higher mol% of arabinose. The mol% of acidic sugars increased and that of glucose decreased with increasing size of HMW-dCCHO. We conclude that larger polysaccharides follow different production and release pathways than smaller molecules, potentially serving distinct ecological and biogeochemical functions.

  4. Characterization of Native Protein Complexes and Protein Isoform Variation Using Size-fractionation-based Quantitative Proteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Kirkwood, Kathryn J.; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Larance, Mark; Lamond, Angus I.

    2013-01-01

    Proteins form a diverse array of complexes that mediate cellular function and regulation. A largely unexplored feature of such protein complexes is the selective participation of specific protein isoforms and/or post-translationally modified forms. In this study, we combined native size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with high-throughput proteomic analysis to characterize soluble protein complexes isolated from human osteosarcoma (U2OS) cells. Using this approach, we have identified over 71,500 peptides and 1,600 phosphosites, corresponding to over 8,000 proteins, distributed across 40 SEC fractions. This represents >50% of the predicted U2OS cell proteome, identified with a mean peptide sequence coverage of 27% per protein. Three biological replicates were performed, allowing statistical evaluation of the data and demonstrating a high degree of reproducibility in the SEC fractionation procedure. Specific proteins were detected interacting with multiple independent complexes, as typified by the separation of distinct complexes for the MRFAP1-MORF4L1-MRGBP interaction network. The data also revealed protein isoforms and post-translational modifications that selectively associated with distinct subsets of protein complexes. Surprisingly, there was clear enrichment for specific Gene Ontology terms associated with differential size classes of protein complexes. This study demonstrates that combined SEC/MS analysis can be used for the system-wide annotation of protein complexes and to predict potential isoform-specific interactions. All of these SEC data on the native separation of protein complexes have been integrated within the Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics, an online, multidimensional data-sharing resource available to the community. PMID:24043423

  5. Size fractionation characterisation of removed organics in reverse osmosis concentrates by ferric chloride.

    PubMed

    Bagastyo, A Y; Keller, J; Batstone, D J

    2011-01-01

    Reverse osmosis membrane separation is the leading method for manufacturing potable purified water. It also produces a concentrate stream, namely reverse osmosis concentrates (ROC), with 10-20% of the water, and almost all other compounds. One method for further treating this stream is by coagulation with ferric chloride. This study evaluates removed organics in ROC treated with ferric chloride. Fractionation with ultrafiltration membranes allows separation of organics based on a nominal molecular weight. A stirred cell system was applied for serial fractionation to classify organic compounds into six groups of < 0.5 kDa, 0.5-1 kDa, 1-3 kDa, 3-5 kDa, 5-10 kDa and > 10 kDa. The study found that raw ROC is rich in low molecular weight compounds (< 1 kDa) with almost 50% of the organics. These compounds include soluble microbial products (SMPs) and smaller humic and fulvic acids as indicated by fluorescence scanning. Conversely, colour was mostly contributed by medium to large molecules of humic and fulvic acids (> 0.5 kDa). Organics and colour were reduced in all molecular groups at an optimum treatment dose 1.48 mM FeCl3 and a pH of 5. However, ferric seemed to effectively remove colour in all size ranges while residual nitrogen was found mostly in the < 1 kDa sizes. Further, the fluorescence indicated that larger humic and fulvic acids were removed with considerable SMPs remaining in the < 0.5 kDa.

  6. Submillimetre-sized dust aggregate collision and growth properties. Experimental study of a multi-particle system on a suborbital rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisset, J.; Heißelmann, D.; Kothe, S.; Weidling, R.; Blum, J.

    2016-08-01

    Context. In the very first steps of the formation of a new planetary system, dust agglomerates grow inside the protoplanetary disk that rotates around the newly formed star. In this disk, collisions between the dust particles, induced by interactions with the surrounding gas, lead to sticking. Aggregates start growing until their sizes and relative velocities are high enough for collisions to result in bouncing or fragmentation. With the aim of investigating the transitions between sticking and bouncing regimes for colliding dust aggregates and the formation of clusters from multiple aggregates, the Suborbital Particle and Aggregation Experiment (SPACE) was flown on the REXUS 12 suborbital rocket. Aims: The collisional and sticking properties of sub-mm-sized aggregates composed of protoplanetary dust analogue material are measured, including the statistical threshold velocity between sticking and bouncing, their surface energy and tensile strength within aggregate clusters. Methods: We performed an experiment on the REXUS 12 suborbital rocket. The protoplanetary dust analogue materials were micrometre-sized monodisperse and polydisperse SiO2 particles prepared into aggregates with sizes around 120 μm and 330 μm, respectively and volume filling factors around 0.37. During the experimental run of 150 s under reduced gravity conditions, the sticking of aggregates and the formation and fragmentation of clusters of up to a few millimetres in size was observed. Results: The sticking probability of the sub-mm-sized dust aggregates could be derived for velocities decreasing from ~22 to 3 cm s-1. The transition from bouncing to sticking collisions happened at 12.7+2.1-1.4 cm s-1 for the smaller aggregates composed of monodisperse particles and at 11.5+1.9-1.3 and 11.7+1.9-1.3 cm s-1 for the larger aggregates composed of mono- and polydisperse dust particles, respectively. Using the pull-off force of sub-mm-sized dust aggregates from the clusters, the surface energy of the

  7. Luminescence dating of glacial deposits near the eastern Himalayan syntaxis using different grain-size fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Gang; Yi, Chao-Lu; Zhang, Jia-Fu; Liu, Jin-Hua; Jiang, Tao

    2015-09-01

    Numerical dating of glacial deposits is important for understanding Quaternary glacial evolution. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is one of the techniques widely used on such sediments. Owing to the short distances traveled before deposition, the incomplete bleaching of luminescence signals in glacial sediments may introduce serious dating problems vis-à-vis glacial and any associated sediments. Here, we report a comparison of OSL ages obtained from the fine (4-11 μm) and medium (38-63 μm) grain size fractions of quartz extracted from glaciofluvial sediments and from glacial tills in the Basongcuo catchment near the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Initially, four glacial stages were identified based on field observations of moraine distribution and geomorpho-stratigraphic relations. A total of 39 OSL samples were then collected from glaciofluvial sand layers or lenses and from till. Quartz grains in the fine (4-11 μm) and medium (38-63 μm) size fractions were extracted from each sample, and dated using the single-aliquot regeneration (SAR) protocol. The modern supraglacial sediment sample was dated to ˜0.2 (fine grain) to ˜0.7 (medium grain) ka, suggesting that the sediment was not completely bleached on deposition. Contrary to previous experience suggesting that coarse grains are usually better bleached than fine grains prior to deposition, our results show that estimated OSL ages for fine grains are generally younger than those for medium grains. This suggests that the two fractions may have come from different sources and thus have different bleaching histories, and that fine-grained quartz may be more suitable for OSL dating of these materials. Applying the minimum age model to data from medium-grained quartz yields ages close to those obtained from fine-grained quartz, suggesting that both can be used for dating glacial advances. The OSL dates suggest that glaciers in the studied area advanced at 0.1-1.3 ka, ˜7.5 ka and 11-13 ka, and were

  8. Supporting Students to Reason about the Relative Size of Proper and Improper Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortina, Jose Luis; Visnovska, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Fractions are a well-researched area; yet, student learning of fractions remains problematic. We outline a novel path to initial fraction learning and document its promise. Building on Freudenthal's analysis of the fraction concept, we regard "comparing," rather than "fracturing," as the primary activity from which students are…

  9. Response of microbial extracellular enzyme activities and r- vs. K- selected microorganisms to elevated atmospheric CO2 depends on soil aggregate size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorodnikov, Maxim; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatskiy, Sergey; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Increased belowground carbon (C) transfer by plant roots under elevated atmospheric CO2 and the contrasting environment in soil macro- and microaggregates could affect properties of the microbial community in the rhizosphere. We evaluated the effect of 5 years of elevated CO2 (550 ppm) on four extracellular enzymes: ß-glucosidase, chitinase, phosphatase, and sulfatase along with the contribution of fast- (r-strategists) and slow-growing microorganisms (K-strategists) in soil aggregates. We fractionated the bulk soil from the ambient and elevated CO2 treatments of FACE-Hohenheim (Stuttgart) into large macro- (>2 mm), small macro- (0.25-2.00 mm), and microaggregates (<0.25 mm) using a modified dry sieving. Microbial biomass (C-mic by SIR), the maximal specific growth rate (µ), growing microbial biomass (GMB) and lag-period (t-lag) were estimated by the kinetics of CO2 emission from bulk soil and aggregates amended with glucose and nutrients. In the bulk soil and isolated aggregates before and after activation with glucose, the actual and the potential enzyme activities were measured. Although C-org and C-mic as well as the activities of ß-glucosidase, phosphatase, and sulfatase were unaffected in bulk soil and in aggregate-size classes by elevated CO2, significant changes were observed in potential enzyme production after substrate amendment. After adding glucose, enzyme activities under elevated CO2 were 1.2-1.9-fold higher than under ambient CO2. In addition, µ values were significantly higher under elevated than ambient CO2 for bulk soil, small macroaggregates, and microaggregates. Based on changes in µ, GMB, and lag-period, we conclude that elevated atmospheric CO2 stimulated the r-selected microorganisms, especially in soil microaggregates. In contrast, significantly higher chitinase activity in bulk soil and in large macroaggregates under elevated CO2 revealed an increased contribution of fungi to turnover processes. We conclude that quantitative and

  10. The coefficient of error of optical fractionator population size estimates: a computer simulation comparing three estimators.

    PubMed

    Glaser, E M; Wilson, P D

    1998-11-01

    The optical fractionator is a design-based two-stage systematic sampling method that is used to estimate the number of cells in a specified region of an organ when the population is too large to count exhaustively. The fractionator counts the cells found in optical disectors that have been systematically sampled in serial sections. Heretofore, evaluations of optical fractionator performance have been made by performing tests on actual tissue sections, but it is difficult to evaluate the coefficient of error (CE), i.e. the precision of a population size estimate, by using biological tissue samples because they do not permit a comparison of an estimated CE with the true CE. However, computer simulation does permit making such comparisons while avoiding the observational biases inherent in working with biological tissue. This study is the first instance in which computer simulation has been applied to population size estimation by the optical fractionator. We used computer simulation to evaluate the performance of three CE estimators. The estimated CEs were evaluated in tests of three types of non-random cell population distribution and one random cell population distribution. The non-random population distributions varied by differences in 'intensity', i.e. the expected cell counts per disector, according to both section and disector location within the section. Two distributions were sinusoidal and one was linearly increasing; in all three there was a six-fold difference between the high and low intensities. The sinusoidal distributions produced either a peak or a depression of cell intensity at the centre of the simulated region. The linear cell intensity gradually increased from the beginning to the end of the region that contained the cells. The random population distribution had a constant intensity over the region. A 'test condition' was defined by its population distribution, the period between consecutive sampled sections and the spacing between consecutive

  11. The impact of long-term irrigation on the degree of aggregation and the mineralogical composition of the clay fraction in dark chestnut soils of the Transvolga region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhikova, N. P.; Baranovskaya, V. A.; Khitrov, N. B.

    2011-08-01

    Dark chestnut soils of the Ershov Experimental Station in the Transvolga region are characterized by the even distribution and aggregation of clay minerals in the profile. Hydromica, chlorite, kaolinite, and smectitic minerals predominate in the clay (<1 μm) fraction. The smectitic phase consists of randomly ordered mixed-layered minerals of the following types: mica-smectite with a low (<50%) content of smectite layers, mica-smectite with a high (>50%) content of smectite layers, and chlorite-smectite. In some horizons, the smectitic phase occurs in the superdispersed state. The long-term irrigation of these soils with fresh water of the Volga River has led to certain changes in the composition and properties of the clay particles. The weakening of bonds between them has taken place. As a result, the content of water-peptizable clay has increased by two times, and the content of aggregated clay of the first category (AC1) has increased by 1.5 times at the expense of a decrease in the contents of tightly bound clay (TBC) and aggregated clay of the second category (AC2). Also, the redistribution of organic matter bound with clay particles has taken place: its content in the AC1 fraction has decreased, whereas its content in the AC2 and TBC fractions has increased. In the topsoil horizon, the amount of the smectitic phase has lowered, whereas the contents of hydromica, kaolinite, and fine-dispersed quartz in the clay fraction have increased. In general, some amorphization of the clay material has occurred. The periodic alkalization of the soil solutions upon irrigation has led to the conversion of the smectitic phase into the superdispersed state in the entire soil profile.

  12. Aggregation of grains in a turbulent pre-solar disk. [meteoritic inclusion and chondrule subcentimeter maximum size argument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieneke, B.; Clayton, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    The growth and evolution of grains in the protostellar nebula are investigated within the context of turbulent low-mass disk models developed by previous investigators. Because of grain collisions promoted by the turbulent velocities, particles aggregate to millimeter size in times of the order of 1000 yrs. During the growth the particles acquire a large inward radial velocity due to gas drag (Weidenschilling, 1977) and spiral into the sun. The calculations indicate that the final size of the particles does not exceed a few centimeters. This result is not very sensitive to the specific nebula parameters. For all conditions investigated it seems impossible to grow meter- or kilometer-sized bodies that could decouple from the gas motion. An additional argument is given that shows that only particles smaller than centimeter size can survive drift into the growing sun by being transported radially outward by turbulent mixing. This agrees well with the maximum size of inclusions and chondrules. Since sedimentation of grains and subsequent dust disk instability is effectively inhibited by turbulent stirring, the formation of planetesimals and planets cannot be explained in the above scenario without further assumptions.

  13. Biodegradation characteristics and size fractionation of landfill leachate for integrated membrane treatment.

    PubMed

    Insel, Güçlü; Dagdar, Mina; Dogruel, Serdar; Dizge, Nadir; Ubay Cokgor, Emine; Keskinler, Bülent

    2013-09-15

    The fate of organics and nitrogen during the biological treatment with MBR and subsequent membrane filtration processes (nano filtration, NF; reverse osmosis, RO) were investigated for a landfill leachate. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal performances of membrane bioreactor (MBR) were obtained to be around 89% and 85%, respectively. The effluent COD of MBR was measured to be 1935 mg/L (30 kDa) which is much lower than experimentally determined soluble inert COD of 3200 mg/L using 0.45 μm filter. The readily and slowly biodegradable COD fractions were estimated to be 17% and 52% of raw influent COD, respectively. The respirometry based modeling test performed on raw leachate exhibited much slower degradation kinetics compared to municipal wastewater. A unique subset of model parameters was extracted from batch respirometry by using acclimated MBR sludge. The sequential ultrafiltration (UF) experiments (particle size distribution, PSD) revealed that most of the organics was below 2 nm filter mesh size. In addition, NF/RO post treatment after MBR system was required to increase COD and total nitrogen (TN) removal performances up to 99%. Relatively lower salt rejection rates around 94% was obtained for RO system as a post treatment of MBR system.

  14. Determining Aqueous Fullerene Particle Size Distributions by Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) without Surfactants

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the behavior of nanoparticles in environmental systems, methods must be developed to measure nanoparticle size. Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation (AF4) is an aqueous compatible size separation technique which is able to separate particles from 1 nm to 10 µm in...

  15. Size-fractionated Chlorophyll a biomass in the northern South China Sea in summer 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haijiao; Xue, Bing; Feng, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Mianrun; Sun, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Spatial distribution of phaeopigment and size-fractionated chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations were examined in relation to hydrographic conditions in the northern South China Sea (NSCS) during a survey from 20 August to 12 September, 2014. The total Chl a concentration varied from 0.006 to 1.488 µg/L with a mean value of 0.259±0.247 (mean±standard deviation) µg/L. Chl a concentration was generally higher in shallow water (<200 m) than in deep water (>200 m), with mean values of 0.364±0.311 µg/L and 0.206±0.192 µg/L respectively. Vertically, the maximum total Chl a concentration appeared at depths of 30-50 m and gradually decreased below 100 m. The size-fractionated Chl a concentrations of grid stations and time-series stations (SEATS and J4) were determined, with values of pico- (0.7-2 µm), nano- (2-20 µm) and micro-plankton (20-200 µm) ranging from 0.001-0.287 (0.093±0.071 µg/L), 0.004-1.149 (0.148±0.192 µg/L) and 0.001-0.208 (0.023±0.036 µg/L), respectively. Phaeopigment concentrations were determined at specific depths at ten stations, except for at station A9, and varied from 0.007 to 0.572 (0.127±0.164) µg/L. Nano-and pico-plankton were the major contributors to total phytoplankton biomass, accounting for 50.99%±15.01% and 39.30%±15.41%, respectively, whereas microplankton only accounted for 9.39%±8.66%. The results indicate that the contributions of microplankton to total Chl a biomass were less important than picoplankton or nanoplankton in the surveyed NSCS. Different sized-Chl a had similar spatial patterns, with peak values all observed in subsurface waters (30-50 m). The summer monsoon, Kuroshio waters, Zhujiang (Pearl) River plume, and hydrological conditions are speculated to be the factors controlling the abundance and spatial heterogeneity of Chl a biomass in the NSCS.

  16. Short-term bioavailability of carbon in soil organic matter fractions of different particle sizes and densities in grassland ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Breulmann, Marc; Masyutenko, Nina Petrovna; Kogut, Boris Maratovich; Schroll, Reiner; Dörfler, Ulrike; Buscot, François; Schulz, Elke

    2014-11-01

    The quality, stability and availability of organic carbon (OC) in soil organic matter (SOM) can vary widely between differently managed ecosystems. Several approaches have been developed for isolating SOM fractions to examine their ecological roles, but links between the bioavailability of the OC of size-density fractions and soil microbial communities have not been previously explored. Thus, in the presented laboratory study we investigated the potential bioavailability of OC and the structure of associated microbial communities in different particle-size and density fractions of SOM. For this we used samples from four grassland ecosystems with contrasting management intensity regimes and two soil types: a Haplic Cambisol and a typical Chernozem. A combined size-density fractionation protocol was applied to separate clay-associated SOM fractions (CF1, <1 μm; CF2, 1-2 μm) from light SOM fractions (LF1, <1.8 g cm(-3); LF2, 1.8-2.0 g cm(-3)). These fractions were used as carbon sources in a respiration experiment to determine their potential bioavailability. Measured CO2-release was used as an index of substrate accessibility and linked to the soil microbial community structure, as determined by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) analysis. Several key factors controlling decomposition processes, and thus the potential bioavailability of OC, were identified: management intensity and the plant community composition of the grasslands (both of which affect the chemical composition and turnover of OC) and specific properties of individual SOM fractions. The PLFA patterns highlighted differences in the composition of microbial communities associated with the examined grasslands, and SOM fractions, providing the first broad insights into their active microbial communities. From observed interactions between abiotic and biotic factors affecting the decomposition of SOM fractions we demonstrate that increasing management intensity could enhance the potential bioavailability of

  17. Laboratory investigation of the effects of mineral size and concentration on the formation of oil-mineral aggregates.

    PubMed

    Ajijolaiya, Lukman O; Hill, Paul S; Khelifa, Ali; Islam, Rafiqul M; Lee, Kenneth

    2006-08-01

    Controlled laboratory studies of the formation of oil-mineral aggregates (OMA) in seawater demonstrate that sediment concentration and sediment size are key variables for determining the quantity of oil droplets stabilised by OMA formation. Experiments with a single sediment size and a range of sediment concentrations show that as sediment concentration increases, the quantity of oil trapped in OMA increases abruptly. In experiments with a single sediment concentration and a range of sediment sizes, the quantity of oil trapped in OMA decreases as sediment size increases. These results provide direct support to the hypothesis that there is a critical sediment concentration for OMA formation. Below this concentration, stabilisation of oil droplets by OMA decreases rapidly, while above this concentration, stabilisation is extensive. The results also support simple geometric models of OMA formation that predict that the critical sediment mass concentration increases linearly with sediment particle diameter. These results will help to place quantitative constraint on predictions of where and when OMA formation will be a factor in the natural dispersal of oil accidentally spilled into the ocean.

  18. Characteristics of atmospheric mercury deposition and size-fractionated particulate mercury in urban Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Wang, T.; Talbot, R.; Mao, H.; Yang, X.; Fu, C.; Sun, J.; Zhuang, B.; Li, S.; Han, Y.; Xie, M.

    2014-03-01

    A comprehensive measurement study of mercury wet deposition and size-fractionated particulate mercury (HgP) concurrent with meteorological variables was conducted from June 2011 to February 2012 to evaluate the characteristics of mercury deposition and particulate mercury in urban Nanjing, China. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of mercury in rainwater was 52.9 ng L-1 with a range of 46.3-63.6 ng L-1. The wet deposition per unit area was averaged 56.5 μg m-2 over 9 months, which was lower than that in most Chinese cities, but much higher than annual deposition in urban North America and Japan. The wet deposition flux exhibited obvious seasonal variation strongly linked with the amount of precipitation. Wet deposition in summer contributed more than 80% to the total amount. A part of contribution to wet deposition of mercury from anthropogenic sources was evidenced by the association between wet deposition and sulfates, as well as nitrates in rainwater. The ions correlated most significantly with mercury were formate, calcium, and potassium, which suggested that natural sources including vegetation and resuspended soil should be considered as an important factor to affect the wet deposition of mercury in Nanjing. The average HgP concentration was 1.10 ± 0.57 ng m-3. A distinct seasonal distribution of HgP concentrations was found to be higher in winter as a result of an increase in the PM10 concentration. Overall, more than half of the HgP existed in the particle size range less than 2.1 μm. The highest concentration of HgP in coarse particles was observed in summer, while HgP in fine particles dominated in fall and winter. The size distribution of averaged mercury content in particulates was bimodal, with two peaks in the bins of < 0.7 μm and 4.7-5.8 μm. Dry deposition per unit area of HgP was estimated to be 47.2 μg m-2 using meteorological conditions and a size-resolved particle dry deposition model. This was 16.5% less than mercury wet

  19. Estimation of size of red blood cell aggregates using backscattering property of high-frequency ultrasound: In vivo evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, Yusaku; Taki, Hirofumi; Yashiro, Satoshi; Nagasawa, Kan; Ishigaki, Yasushi; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We propose a method for assessment of the degree of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation using the backscattering property of high-frequency ultrasound. In this method, the scattering property of RBCs is extracted from the power spectrum of RBC echoes normalized by that from the posterior wall of a vein. In an experimental study using a phantom, employing the proposed method, the sizes of microspheres 5 and 20 µm in diameter were estimated to have mean values of 4.7 and 17.3 µm and standard deviations of 1.9 and 1.4 µm, respectively. In an in vivo experimental study, we compared the results between three healthy subjects and four diabetic patients. The average estimated scatterer diameters in healthy subjects at rest and during avascularization were 7 and 28 µm, respectively. In contrast, those in diabetic patients receiving both antithrombotic therapy and insulin therapy were 11 and 46 µm, respectively. These results show that the proposed method has high potential for clinical application to assess RBC aggregation, which may be related to the progress of diabetes.

  20. Estimation of phytoplankton size fractions based on spectral features of remote sensing ocean color data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuchuan; Li, Lin; Song, Kaishan; Cassar, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    Through its influence on the structure of pelagic ecosystems, phytoplankton size distribution (pico-, nano-, and micro-plankton) is believed to play a key role in "the biological pump." In this paper, an algorithm is proposed to estimate phytoplankton size fractions (PSF) for micro-, nano-, and pico-plankton (fm, fn, and fp, respectively) from the spectral features of remote-sensing data. From remote-sensing reflectance spectrum (Rrs(λ)), the algorithm constructs four types of spectral features: a normalized Rrs(λ), band ratios, continuum-removed spectra, and spectral curvatures. Using support vector machine recursive feature elimination, the algorithm ranks the constructed spectral features and Rrs(λ) according to their sensitivities to PSF which is then regressed against the sensitive spectral features through support vector regression. The algorithm is validated with (1) simulated Rrs(λ) and PSF, and (2) Rrs(λ) obtained by Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and PSF determined from High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pigments. The validation results show the overall effectiveness of the algorithm in estimating PSF, with R2 of (1) 0.938 (fm) for the simulated SeaWiFS data set; and (2) 0.617 (fm), 0.475 (fn), and 0.587 (fp) for the SeaWiFS satellite data set. The validation results also indicate that continuum-removed spectra and spectral curvatures are the dominant spectral features sensitive to PSF with their wavelengths mainly centered on the pigment-absorption domain. Global spatial distributions of fm, fn, and fp were mapped with monthly SeaWiFS images. Overall, their biogeographical distributions are consistent with our current understanding that pico-plankton account for a large proportion of total phytoplankton biomass in oligotrophic regions, nano-plankton in transitional areas, and micro-plankton in high-productivity regions.

  1. Space Weathering in the Fine Size Fractions of Lunar Soils: Soil Maturity Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Taylor, L. A.; Pieters, C.; Morris, R. V.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of space weathering on the optical properties of lunar materials have been well documented. These effects include a reddened continuum slope, lowered albedo, and attenuated absorption features in reflectance spectra of lunar soils as compared to finely comminuted rocks from the same Apollo sites. However, the regolith processes that cause these effects are not well known, nor is the petrographic setting of the products of these processes fully understood. A Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium has been formed with the purpose of systematically integrating chemical and mineralogical data with the optical properties of lunar soils. Understanding space-weathering effects is critical in order to fully integrate the lunar sample collection with remotely-sensed data from recent robotic missions (e.g., Lunar Prospector, Clementine, and Galileo) We have shown that depositional processes (condensation of impact-derived vapors, sputter deposits, accreted impact material, e.g., splash glass, spherules, etc.) are a major factor in the modification of the optical surfaces of lunar regolith materials. In mature soils, it is the size and distribution of the nanophase metal in the soil grains that has the major effect on optical properties. In this report, we compare and contrast the space-weathering effects in an immature and a mature soil with similar elemental compositions. For this study, we analyzed <10 micron sieve fractions of two Apollo 17 soils, 79221 (mature, Is/FeO = 81) and 71061 (immature, Is/FeO = 14). Details of the sieving procedures and allocation scheme are given else where. The results of other detailed chemical, mineralogical, and spectroscopic analyses of these soil samples are reported elsewhere. A representative sample of each soil was embedded in low-viscosity epoxy, and thin sections (about 70nm thick) were obtained through ultra microtomy. The thin sections used for these analyses typically contained cross sections of up to 500 individual

  2. The Apollo 17 drill core - Chemistry of size fractions and the nature of the fused soil component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laul, J. C.; Papike, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the Apollo 17 drill core 70009-70001 is heterogeneous with depth, containing five stratigraphic units, and has a bulk soil chemistry governed by the coarse fractions because of their greater weight proportions. The four components (1) KREEP, (2) anorthositic gabbro, (3) mare basalt, and (4) orange glass are used to model the compositions of the coarse and fine fractions of the entire drill core. It is found that the chemistry of the fused soil component in the five stratigraphic units is more similar to the chemistry of the fine, less than 20-micron fractions than the coarse fraction, suggesting that agglutinates may prefferentially meld and replicate the chemistry of the finer size fractions. The sources of Zn are the orange/black glasses, and the Zn profile is anticorrelated with the maturity index of Morris et al (1979), indicating the liberation of Zn during soil maturation.

  3. Eutrophication effects on phytoplankton size-fractioned biomass and production at a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Mariana; Araújo, Moacyr; Flores-Montes, Manuel; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Eliane; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid

    2015-02-28

    Size-fractioned phytoplankton (pico, nano and microplankton) biomass and production were estimated throughout a year at Recife harbor (NE Brazil), a shallow well mixed tropical hypereutrophic estuary with short residence times but restricted water renewal. Intense loads of P-PO4 (maximum 14 μM) resulted in low N:P ratios (around 2:1), high phytoplankton biomass (B=7.1-72 μg chl-a L(-1)), production (PP=10-2657 μg C L(-1) h(-1)) and photosynthetic efficiency (P(B)=0.5-45 μg C μg chl-a(-1)), but no oxygen depletion (average O2 saturation: 109.6%). Nanoplankton dominated phytoplankton biomass (66%) but micro- and nanoplankton performed equivalent primary production rates (47% each). Production-biomass models indicate an export of the exceeding microplankton biomass during most of the year, possibly through grazing. The intense and constant nutrient and organic matter loading at Recife harbor is thus supporting the high microplankton productivity that is not accumulating on the system nor contributing to oxygen depletion, but supporting the whole system's trophic web.

  4. Heavy metal pollution decreases microbial abundance, diversity and activity within particle-size fractions of a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junhui; He, Feng; Zhang, Xuhui; Sun, Xuan; Zheng, Jufeng; Zheng, Jinwei

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and microbial characterisations of particle-size fractions (PSFs) from a rice paddy soil subjected to long-term heavy metal pollution (P) and nonpolluted (NP) soil were performed to investigate whether the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) regulates microbial community activity, abundance and diversity at the microenvironment scale. The soils were physically fractionated into coarse sand, fine sand, silt and clay fractions. Long-term heavy metal pollution notably decreased soil basal respiration (a measurement of the total activity of the soil microbial community) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) across the fractions by 3-45% and 21-53%, respectively. The coarse sand fraction was more affected by pollution than the clay fraction and displayed a significantly lower MBC content and respiration and dehydrogenase activity compared with the nonpolluted soils. The abundances and diversities of bacteria were less affected within the PSFs under pollution. However, significant decreases in the abundances and diversities of fungi were noted, which may have strongly contributed to the decrease in MBC. Sequencing of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands revealed that the groups Acidobacteria, Ascomycota and Chytridiomycota were clearly inhibited under pollution. Our findings suggest that long-term heavy metal pollution decreased the microbial biomass, activity and diversity in PSFs, particularly in the large-size fractions.

  5. Bioprocess development for mass production of size-controlled human pluripotent stem cell aggregates in stirred suspension bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Abbasalizadeh, Saeed; Larijani, Mehran Rezaei; Samadian, Azam; Baharvand, Hossein

    2012-11-01

    Current protocols for the scalable suspension culture of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are limited by multiple biological and technical challenges that need to be addressed before their use in clinical trials. To overcome these challenges, we have developed a novel bioprocess platform for large-scale expansion of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell lines as three-dimensional size-controlled aggregates. This novel bioprocess utilizes the stepwise optimization of both static and dynamic suspension culture conditions. After screening eight xeno-free media in static suspension culture and optimizing single-cell passaging in dynamic conditions, the scale-up from a static to a dynamic suspension culture in the stirred bioreactor resulted in a two- to threefold improvement in expansion rates, as measured by cell counts and metabolic activity. We successfully produced size-specific aggregates through optimization of bioreactor hydrodynamic conditions by using combinations of different agitation rates and shear protectant concentrations. The expansion rates were further improved by controlling oxygen concentration at normoxic conditions, and reached a maximum eightfold increase for both types of hPSCs. Subsequently, we demonstrated a simple and rapid scale-up strategy that produced clinically relevant numbers of hPSCs (∼2×10(9) cells) over a 1-month period by the direct transfer of "suspension-adapted frozen cells" to a stirred suspension bioreactor. We omitted the required preadaptation passages in the static suspension culture. The cells underwent proliferation over multiple passages in the demonstrated xeno-free dynamic suspension culture while maintaining their self-renewal capabilities, as determined by marker expressions and in vitro spontaneous differentiation. In conclusion, suspension culture protocols of hPSCs could be used to mass produce homogenous and pluripotent undifferentiated cells by identification and optimization of key bioprocess

  6. Soil aggregate stability and wind erodible fraction in a semi-arid environment of White Nile State, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhaja, Mohamed Eltom; Ibrahim, Ibrahim Saeed; Adam, Hassan Elnour; Csaplovics, Elmar

    2014-11-01

    One of the most important recent issues facing White Nile State, Sudan, as well as Sub Saharan Africa, is the threat of continued land degradation and desertification as a result of climatic factors and human activities. Remote sensing and satellites imageries with multi-temporal and spectral and GIS capability, plays a major role in developing a global and local operational capability for monitoring land degradation and desertification in dry lands, as well as in White Nile State. The process of desertification in form of sand encroachment in White Nile State has increased rapidly, and much effort has been devoted to define and study its causes and impacts. This study depicts the capability afforded by remote sensing and GIS to analyze and map the aggregate stability as indicator for the ability of soil to wind erosion process in White Nile State by using Geo-statistical techniques. Cloud-free subset Landsat; Enhance Thematic Mapper plus (ETM +) scenes covering the study area dated 2008 was selected in order to identify the different features covering the study area as well as to make the soil sampling map. Wet-sieving method was applied to determine the aggregate stability. The geo-statistical methods in EARDAS 9.1 software was used for mapping the aggregate stability. The results showed that the percentage of aggregate stability ranged from (0 to 61%) in the study area, which emphasized the phenomena of sand encroachment from the western part (North Kordofan) to the eastern part (White Nile State), following the wind direction. The study comes out with some valuable recommendations and comments, which could contribute positively in reducing sand encroachments

  7. Estimation of origins of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in size-fractionated road dust in Tokyo with multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Pengchai, P; Nakajima, F; Furumai, H

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the origins of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in size-fractionated road dust in Tokyo. First, seven categories of PAHs sources were defined: diesel vehicle exhaust, gasoline vehicle exhaust, tire, pavement, asphalt or bitumen, petroleum products excluding tire and asphalt, and combustion products except for those in vehicle engines. The 189 source data of 12-PAHs profiles were classified into 11 groups based on cluster analysis combined with principal component analysis. Next, 18 road dust samples were collected from eight streets in Tokyo and fractionated into four different particle-size-fractions: 0.1-45, 45-106, 106-250, and 250-2000 microm. In order to estimate the contributions of the classified source groups (S1-S11) to PAHs in the road dust, multiple regression analysis was performed with 12-PAH profile of the road dust as dependent variable and average 12-PAHs profiles of the 11 source groups as 11 explanatory variables. Diesel vehicle exhaust, tire and pavement were the major contributors of PAHs in the fractionated road dust. Although the estimated contributions of the 11 source groups varied among the particle-size-fractions, there was no clear and consistent relationship between particle size and the major PAH contributor.

  8. Effect of Peptide Size on Antioxidant Properties of African Yam Bean Seed (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) Protein Hydrolysate Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Ajibola, Comfort F.; Fashakin, Joseph B.; Fagbemi, Tayo N.; Aluko, Rotimi E.

    2011-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysate of African yam bean seed protein isolate was prepared by treatment with alcalase. The hydrolysate was further fractionated into peptide sizes of <1, 1–3, 3–5 and 5–10 kDa using membrane ultrafiltration. The protein hydrolysate (APH) and its membrane ultrafiltration fractions were assayed for in vitro antioxidant activities. The <1 kDa peptides exhibited significantly better (p < 0.05) ferric reducing power, diphenyl-1-picryhydradzyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities when compared to peptide fractions of higher molecular weights. The high activity of <1 kDa peptides in these antioxidant assay systems may be related to the high levels of total hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids. In comparison to glutathione (GSH), the APH and its membrane fractions had significantly higher (p < 0.05) ability to chelate metal ions. In contrast, GSH had significantly greater (p < 0.05) ferric reducing power and free radical scavenging activities than APH and its membrane fractions. The APH and its membrane fractions effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation, results that were concentration dependent. The activity of APH and its membrane fractions against linoleic acid oxidation was higher when compared to that of GSH but lower than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). The results show potential use of APH and its membrane fractions as antioxidants in the management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders and in the prevention of lipid oxidation in food products. PMID:22072912

  9. Size fractionation of wood extractives, lignin and trace elements in pulp and paper mill wastewater before and after biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Leiviskä, Tiina; Rämö, Jaakko; Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Pöykiö, Risto; Kuokkanen, Toivo

    2009-07-01

    Integrated kraft pulp and paper mill wastewater was characterized before (influent) and after (effluent) the activated sludge process by microfiltration (8, 3, 0.45 and 0.22 microm) and ultrafiltration (100, 50, 30 and 3 kDa) into different size fractions. Wood extractives, lignin, suspended solids and certain trace elements were determined in each fraction. Forty four percent of the resin and fatty acids in the influent (12.8 mg/L) occurred in particles (>0.45 microm), 20% as colloids (0.45 microm-3 kDa) and 36% in the <3 kDa fraction. The corresponding values for sterols (1.5 mg/L) were 5, 46 and 49%. In the effluent, resin and fatty acids (1.45 mg/L) and sterols (0.26 mg/L) were mainly present in the <3 kDa fraction, as well as a small proportion in particles. beta-sitosterol was present in particles in the effluent (88+/-50 microg/L). Lignin in the influent was mainly in the colloidal and <3 kDa fractions, whereas in the effluent it was mainly in the <3 kDa fraction. Thus the decrease of lignin in the biological treatment was concentrated on the colloidal fraction. In the influent, Mn, Zn and Si were mainly present in the <3 kDa fraction, whereas a significant proportion of Fe and Al were found also in the particle and colloidal fractions. In the effluent, Fe and Al were mainly present in the colloidal fraction; in contrast, Mn, Zn and Si were mainly in the <3 kDa fraction. The results indicated that the release of certain compounds and elements into the environment could be significantly decreased or even prevented simply by employing microfiltration as a final treatment step or by enhancing particle removal in the secondary clarifier.

  10. Composition analysis of fractions of extracellular polymeric substances from an activated sludge culture and identification of dominant forces affecting microbial aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xuan; Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin

    2016-06-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) appear to play a critical role in the formation of bioaggregates, such as sludge flocs, in activated sludge processes. Here, we systematically investigated the composition and chemical structure of various EPS fractions excreted from an activated sludge culture using multi-analysis techniques to examine the ability of the sludge to aggregate. Chemical analysis was used with a three-dimensional excitation emission matrix and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, applying inter-particle forces theory. The combined findings revealed that hydrophobic groups, especially protein-related N–H, were present in a greater proportion in tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS). This result, which explained the specificity of TB-EPS in the chemical structure, was consistent with data indicating that TB-EPS contained a large amount of protein-like substances (86.7 mg/g of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids, 39.7% of the total EPS). Subsequently, a novel experimental procedure was developed to pinpoint key inter-particle forces in sludge aggregation. The result revealed that hydrogen bonds are the predominant triggers that promote sludge aggregation. This comprehensive analysis indicated that hydrophobic proteins in TB-EPS are responsible for the critical role played by hydrogen bonds in sludge formation. Our findings highlight the need to elucidate the mechanisms of TB-EPS-mediated flocculation in future efforts.

  11. Composition analysis of fractions of extracellular polymeric substances from an activated sludge culture and identification of dominant forces affecting microbial aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xuan; Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) appear to play a critical role in the formation of bioaggregates, such as sludge flocs, in activated sludge processes. Here, we systematically investigated the composition and chemical structure of various EPS fractions excreted from an activated sludge culture using multi-analysis techniques to examine the ability of the sludge to aggregate. Chemical analysis was used with a three-dimensional excitation emission matrix and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, applying inter-particle forces theory. The combined findings revealed that hydrophobic groups, especially protein-related N–H, were present in a greater proportion in tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS). This result, which explained the specificity of TB-EPS in the chemical structure, was consistent with data indicating that TB-EPS contained a large amount of protein-like substances (86.7 mg/g of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids, 39.7% of the total EPS). Subsequently, a novel experimental procedure was developed to pinpoint key inter-particle forces in sludge aggregation. The result revealed that hydrogen bonds are the predominant triggers that promote sludge aggregation. This comprehensive analysis indicated that hydrophobic proteins in TB-EPS are responsible for the critical role played by hydrogen bonds in sludge formation. Our findings highlight the need to elucidate the mechanisms of TB-EPS-mediated flocculation in future efforts. PMID:27311788

  12. Mapping soil particle-size fractions: A comparison of compositional kriging and log-ratio kriging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zong; Shi, Wenjiao

    2017-03-01

    Soil particle-size fractions (psf) as basic physical variables need to be accurately predicted for regional hydrological, ecological, geological, agricultural and environmental studies frequently. Some methods had been proposed to interpolate the spatial distributions of soil psf, but the performance of compositional kriging and different log-ratio kriging methods is still unclear. Four log-ratio transformations, including additive log-ratio (alr), centered log-ratio (clr), isometric log-ratio (ilr), and symmetry log-ratio (slr), combined with ordinary kriging (log-ratio kriging: alr_OK, clr_OK, ilr_OK and slr_OK) were selected to be compared with compositional kriging (CK) for the spatial prediction of soil psf in Tianlaochi of Heihe River Basin, China. Root mean squared error (RMSE), Aitchison's distance (AD), standardized residual sum of squares (STRESS) and right ratio of the predicted soil texture types (RR) were chosen to evaluate the accuracy for different interpolators. The results showed that CK had a better accuracy than the four log-ratio kriging methods. The RMSE (sand, 9.27%; silt, 7.67%; clay, 4.17%), AD (0.45), STRESS (0.60) of CK were the lowest and the RR (58.65%) was the highest in the five interpolators. The clr_OK achieved relatively better performance than the other log-ratio kriging methods. In addition, CK presented reasonable and smooth transition on mapping soil psf according to the environmental factors. The study gives insights for mapping soil psf accurately by comparing different methods for compositional data interpolation. Further researches of methods combined with ancillary variables are needed to be implemented to improve the interpolation performance.

  13. Europium(III) complexed by HPSEC size-fractions of a vertisol humic acid: small differences evidenced by time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Reiller, Pascal E; Brevet, Julien; Nebbioso, Antonio; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2011-03-01

    The size fractionation of a humic acid (HA) by high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) was used as a proxy for the filtration effect during HA transport through a porous medium with minimum specific chemical interactions. The modification of the Eu(III)-HA complexes' formation with the different size-fractions, as compared to the bulk HA, was studied in time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy (TRLS). Clear modifications in Eu(III)-HA complexes' structures were shown and related to the molecular characteristics of the separated size-fractions. The properties of most of size-fractions did not induce a major alteration of the affinity towards Eu(III). Only the most hydrophilic fractions eluted in the tail of the chromatographic peak, representing about 11% of total fractions-weight, gave some significantly different parameters. Using a simplistic complexation model, it was found that the available complexation sites decreased with the size reduction of humic fractions.

  14. Biophysical characterization of influenza virus subpopulations using field flow fractionation and multiangle light scattering: correlation of particle counts, size distribution and infectivity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ziping; McEvoy, Matt; Razinkov, Vladimir; Polozova, Alla; Li, Elizabeth; Casas-Finet, Jose; Tous, Guillermo I; Balu, Palani; Pan, Alfred A; Mehta, Harshvardhan; Schenerman, Mark A

    2007-09-01

    Adequate biophysical characterization of influenza virions is important for vaccine development. The influenza virus vaccines are produced from the allantoic fluid of developing chicken embryos. The process of viral replication produces a heterogeneous mixture of infectious and non-infectious viral particles with varying states of aggregation. The study of the relative distribution and behavior of different subpopulations and their inter-correlation can assist in the development of a robust process for a live virus vaccine. This report describes a field flow fractionation and multiangle light scattering (FFF-MALS) method optimized for the analysis of size distribution and total particle counts. The FFF-MALS method was compared with several other methods such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), size exclusion chromatography followed by MALS (SEC-MALS), quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT Q-PCR), median tissue culture dose (TCID(50)), and the fluorescent focus assay (FFA). The correlation between the various methods for determining total particle counts, infectivity and size distribution is reported. The pros and cons of each of the analytical methods are discussed.

  15. Comparative Mineralogy, Microstructure and Compositional Trends in the Sub-Micron Size Fractions of Mare and Highland Lunar Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, M. S.; Christoffersen, R.; Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    The morphology, mineralogy, chemical composition and optical properties of lunar soils show distinct correlations as a function of grain size and origin [1,2,3]. In the <20 m size fraction, there is an increased correlation between lunar surface properties observed through remote sensing techniques and those attributed to space weathering phenomenae [1,2]. Despite the establishment of recognizable trends in lunar grains <20 in size [1,2,3], the size fraction < 10 m is characterized as a collective population of grains without subdivision. This investigation focuses specifically on grains in the <1 m diameter size fraction for both highland and mare derived soils. The properties of these materials provide the focus for many aspects of lunar research including the nature of space weathering on surface properties, electrostatic grain transport [4,5] and dusty plasmas [5]. In this study, we have used analytical transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) to characterize the mineralogy type, microstructure and major element compositions of grains in this important size range in lunar soils.

  16. Injectability of calcium phosphate pastes: Effects of particle size and state of aggregation of β-tricalcium phosphate powders.

    PubMed

    Torres, P M C; Gouveia, S; Olhero, S; Kaushal, A; Ferreira, J M F

    2015-07-01

    The present study discloses a systematic study about the influence of some relevant experimental variables on injectability of calcium phosphate cements. Non-reactive and reactive pastes were prepared, based on tricalcium phosphate doped with 5 mol% (Sr-TCP) that was synthesised by co-precipitation. The varied experimental parameters included: (i) the heat treatment temperature within the range of 800-1100°C; (ii) different milling extents of calcined powders; (iii) the liquid-to-powder ratio (LPR); (iv) the use of powder blends with different particle sizes (PS) and particle size distributions (PSD); (v) the partial replacement of fine powders by large spherical dense granules prepared via freeze granulation method to simulate coarse individual particles. The aim was contributing to better understanding of the effects of PS, PSD, morphology and state of aggregation of the starting powders on injectability of pastes produced thereof. Powders heat treated at 800 and 1000°C with different morphologies but with similar apparent PSD curves obtained by milling/blending originated completely injectable reactive cement pastes at low LPR. This contrasted with non-reactive systems prepared thereof under the same conditions. Hypotheses were put forward to explain why the injectability results collected upon extruding non-reactive pastes cannot be directly transposed to reactive systems. The results obtained underline the interdependent roles of the different powder features and ionic strength in the liquid media on determining the flow and injectability behaviours.

  17. Characterization of the Particle Size Fraction associated with Heavy Metals in Suspended Sediments of the Yellow River

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qingzhen; Wang, Xiaojing; Jian, Huimin; Chen, Hongtao; Yu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the concentrations of particulate heavy metals and fluxes into the sea in the Yellow River were examined based on observational and measured data from January 2009 to December 2010. A custom-built water elutriation apparatus was used to separate suspended sediments into five size fractions. Clay and very fine silt is the dominant fraction in most of the suspended sediments, accounting for >40% of the samples. Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Fe and Mn are slightly affected by anthropogenic activities, while Cd is moderate affected. The concentrations of heavy metals increased with decrease in particle size. For suspended sediments in the Yellow River, on average 78%–82% of the total heavy metal loading accumulated in the <16 μm fraction. About 43% and 53% of heavy metal in 2009 and 2010 respectively, were readily transported to the Bohai Sea with “truly suspended” particles, which have potentially harmful effects on marine organisms. PMID:26083999

  18. Inert gases in a terra sample - Measurements in six grain-size fractions and two single particles from Lunar 20.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.; Lakatos, S.; Walton, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of inert gas measurements performed on six grain-size fractions and two single particles from four samples of Luna 20 material. Presented and discussed data include the inert gas contents, element and isotope systematics, radiation ages, and Ar-36/Ar-40 systematics.

  19. The effect of the size of a conical hopper aperture on the parameters of the flow equation of sorbitol and its size fractions.

    PubMed

    Šklubalová, Zdenka; Hurychová, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Determination of the rate of gravitational flow through a hopper aperture is one of the most widely used methods for the evaluation of flowability properties of pharmaceutical materials. This work studies the influence of the diameter of a conical hopper aperture in the range of 0.6-1.5 cm on the mass flow rate Q (g/s) of the pharmaceutical excipient, sorbitol, for direct compression (Merisorb 200, MS 200) and its size fractions in the range of 0.080-0.400 mm in order to recommend the appropriate aperture size for testing. Non-linear dependence of the flow rate on the aperture diameter is modeled by the Jones-Pilpel power equation. Using the actual parameters of the power equation, the precision of the mass flow rate prediction was the basic criterion in optimization of the orifice diameter. It was detected experimentally that for the evaluation of the flow rate of MS 200 and its size fractions in the range used a 1.0 cm aperture is recommended, which allows the most precise prediction of the flow rate.Key words: particulate material excipient, flow equation conical hopper size fraction.

  20. Fluorescence fingerprints and Cu2+-complexing ability of individual molecular size fractions in soil- and waste-borne DOM.

    PubMed

    Knoth de Zarruk, K; Scholer, G; Dudal, Y

    2007-09-01

    Land spreading of organic materials introduces large amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into the soil. DOM has the ability to form stable complexes with heavy metals and can facilitate their transport towards the groundwater. The effects on soil processes are difficult to assess, because different DOM components might react differently towards metal ions. The objective of this study was to investigate the fluorescence signature and the Cu2+-binding capacity of individual molecular size fractions of DOM from various sources. DOM extracted from leaf compost, chicken manure, sugar cane vinasse and a fulvic hypercalcaric cambisol was fractionated by the means of dialysis into four molecular size classes: MW<500, 50012000-14000 Da. Vinasse and leaf compost contained around 80% and 70%, respectively, of the total organic carbon in the fractions with low molecular weight (MW<3500 Da); in chicken manure and soil these fractions accounted for 40% and 50% only. Fluorescence was highest in the fraction MW>12000 Da for leaf compost, chicken manure and soil. The opposite result was obtained for vinasse, where the fractions with low molecular weight showed highest fluorescence intensities, distinguishing it from all other samples. Vinasse showed the greatest ability to bind Cu2+ with a resulting complex concentration of 6.31mgl(-1) while in contact with an excess of Cu2+. Leaf compost, soil and chicken manure followed with 2.69, 1.12, and 0.85mgl(-1), respectively. Within vinasse, the fraction MW<500 Da was able to form the most DOM-Cu complexes, indicating the importance of low molecular weight fractions in metal binding.

  1. Assessment of elemental composition and properties of copper smelter-affected dust and its nano- and micron size fractions.

    PubMed

    Ermolin, Mikhail S; Fedotov, Petr S; Ivaneev, Alexandr I; Karandashev, Vasily K; Burmistrov, Andrey A; Tatsy, Yury G

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive approach has been developed to the assessment of composition and properties of atmospherically deposited dust in the area affected by a copper smelter. The approach is based on the analysis of initial dust samples, dynamic leaching of water soluble fractions in a rotating coiled column (RCC) followed by the determination of recovered elements and characterization of size, morphology and elemental composition of nano-, submicron, and micron particles of dust separated using field-flow fractionation in a RCC. Three separated size fractions of dust (<0.2, 0.2-2, and >2 μm) were characterized by static light scattering and scanning electron microscopy, whereupon the fractions were analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS (after digestion). It has been evaluated that toxic elements, which are characteristics for copper smelter emissions (As, Cu, Zn), are accumulated in fraction >2 μm. At the same time, up to 2.4, 3.1, 8.2, 6.7 g/kg of As, Cu, Zn, Pb, correspondently, were found in nanoparticles (<0.2 μm). It has been also shown that some trace elements (Sn, Sb, Ag, Bi, and Tl) are accumulated in fraction <0.2, and their content in this fraction may be one order of magnitude higher than that in the fraction >2 μm, or the bulk sample. It may be assumed that Sn, Sb, Ag, Bi, Tl compounds are adsorbed onto the finest dust particles as compared to As, Cu, Zn compounds, which are directly emitted from the copper smelter as microparticles.

  2. Size-fractionated major particle composition and concentrations from the US GEOTRACES North Atlantic Zonal Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Ohnemus, Daniel C.; Auro, Maureen E.

    2015-06-01

    The concentration and the major phase composition (particulate organic matter, CaCO3, opal, lithogenic matter, and iron and manganese oxyhydroxides) of marine particles is thought to determine the scavenging removal of particle-reactive TEIs. Particles are also the vector for transferring carbon from the atmosphere to the deep ocean via the biological carbon pump, and their composition may determine the efficiency and strength of this transfer. Here, we present the first full ocean depth section of size-fractionated (1-51 μm, >51 μm) suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration and major phase composition from the US GEOTRACES North Atlantic Zonal Transect between Woods Hole, MA and Lisbon, Portugal conducted in 2010 and 2011. Several major particle features are notable in the section: intense benthic nepheloid layers were observed in the western North American margin with concentrations of SPM of up to 1648 μg/L, two to three orders of magnitude higher than surrounding waters, that were dominated by lithogenic material. A more moderate benthic nepheloid layer was also observed in the eastern Mauritanian margin (44 μg/L) that had a lower lithogenic content and, notably, significant concentrations of iron and manganese oxyhydroxides (2.5% each). An intermediate nepheloid layer reaching 102 μg/L, an order of magnitude above surrounding waters, was observed associated with the Mediterranean Outflow. Finally, there was a factor of two enhancement in SPM at the TAG hydrothermal plume due almost entirely to the addition of iron oxyhydroxides from the hydrothermal vent. We observe correlations between POC and CaCO3 in large (>51 μm) particles in the upper 2000 m, but not deeper than 2000 m, and no correlations between POC and CaCO3 at any depth in small (<51 μm) particles. There were also no correlations between POC and lithogenic material in large particles. Overall, there were very large uncertainties associated with all regression coefficients for mineral

  3. Capillary zone electrophoresis of soil humic acid fractions obtained by coupling size-exclusion chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Cavani, Luciano; Ciavatta, Claudio; Trubetskaya, Olga E; Reznikova, Olga I; Afanas'eva, Gaida V; Trubetskoj, Oleg A

    2003-01-03

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was used for characterisation of soil humic acid (HA) fractions obtained by coupling size-exclusion chromatography with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, on the basis of their molecular size and electrophoretic mobility. CZE was conducted using several low alkaline buffers as background electrolyte (BGE): 50 mM carbonate, pH 9.0; 50 mM phosphate, pH 8.5; 50 mM borate, pH 8.3; 50 mM Tris-borate+1 mM EDTA+7 M urea+0.1% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), pH 8.3. Independently of BGE conditions, the effective electrophoretic mobility of HA fractions were in good agreement with their molecular size. The better resolution of HA were obtained in Tris-borate-EDTA buffer with urea and SDS. This results indicated that CZE, mostly with BGE-contained disaggregating agents, is useful for separating HAs in fractions with different molecular sizes.

  4. Arsenic partitioning among particle-size fractions of mine wastes and stream sediments from cinnabar mining districts.

    PubMed

    Silva, Veronica; Loredo, Jorge; Fernández-Martínez, Rodolfo; Larios, Raquel; Ordóñez, Almudena; Gómez, Belén; Rucandio, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Tailings from abandoned mercury mines represent an important pollution source by metals and metalloids. Mercury mining in Asturias (north-western Spain) has been carried out since Roman times until the 1970s. Specific and non-specific arsenic minerals are present in the paragenesis of the Hg ore deposit. As a result of intensive mining operations, waste materials contain high concentrations of As, which can be geochemically dispersed throughout surrounding areas. Arsenic accumulation, mobility and availability in soils and sediments are strongly affected by the association of As with solid phases and granular size composition. The objective of this study was to examine phase associations of As in the fine grain size subsamples of mine wastes (La Soterraña mine site) and stream sediments heavily affected by acid mine drainage (Los Rueldos mine site). An arsenic-selective sequential procedure, which categorizes As content into seven phase associations, was applied. In spite of a higher As accumulation in the finest particle-size subsamples, As fractionation did not seem to depend on grain size since similar distribution profiles were obtained for the studied granulometric fractions. The presence of As was relatively low in the most mobile forms in both sites. As was predominantly linked to short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxides, coprecipitated with Fe and partially with Al oxyhydroxides and associated with structural material in mine waste samples. As incorporated into short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxides was the predominant fraction at sediment samples, representing more than 80% of total As.

  5. Radioactivity of size fractionated fly-ash emissions from a peat- and oil-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, R; Jantunen, M

    1985-12-01

    Concentrations of gamma-emitting natural radionuclides and 137Cs were analyzed in the size fractionated fly-ash emissions from a 100-MWt peat- and oil-fired power plant. The emitted fly ash was separated into five size fractions with a high-volume impactor with cut sizes of 1.3 micron, 2.1 micron, 4.2 micron and 10 micron. The greatest activity emissions were associated with the smallest size fraction, below 1.3 micron. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the fly-ash particles after the electrostatic precipitator was 1.9 micron with a geometric standard deviation of 3.0 and the median of the 32 fly-ash emission samples was 8.73 mg MJ-1 with a geometric standard deviation of 1.3. Lead-210 gave the greatest particulate activity emission per input fuel energy, 18.7 mBq MJ-1, and showed a strong enrichment onto small fly-ash particles.

  6. Sizing nanomaterials in bio-fluids by cFRAP enables protein aggregation measurements and diagnosis of bio-barrier permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ranhua; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E.; Broos, Katleen; Brans, Toon; van Wonterghem, Elien; Libert, Claude; Demeester, Jo; de Smedt, Stefaan C.; Braeckmans, Kevin

    2016-09-01

    Sizing nanomaterials in complex biological fluids, such as blood, remains a great challenge in spite of its importance for a wide range of biomedical applications. In drug delivery, for instance, it is essential that aggregation of protein-based drugs is avoided as it may alter their efficacy or elicit immune responses. Similarly it is of interest to determine which size of molecules can pass through biological barriers in vivo to diagnose pathologies, such as sepsis. Here, we report on continuous fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (cFRAP) as a analytical method enabling size distribution measurements of nanomaterials (1-100 nm) in undiluted biological fluids. We demonstrate that cFRAP allows to measure protein aggregation in human serum and to determine the permeability of intestinal and vascular barriers in vivo. cFRAP is a new analytical technique that paves the way towards exciting new applications that benefit from nanomaterial sizing in bio-fluids.

  7. Sizing nanomaterials in bio-fluids by cFRAP enables protein aggregation measurements and diagnosis of bio-barrier permeability

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ranhua; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E.; Broos, Katleen; Brans, Toon; Van Wonterghem, Elien; Libert, Claude; Demeester, Jo; De Smedt, Stefaan C.; Braeckmans, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Sizing nanomaterials in complex biological fluids, such as blood, remains a great challenge in spite of its importance for a wide range of biomedical applications. In drug delivery, for instance, it is essential that aggregation of protein-based drugs is avoided as it may alter their efficacy or elicit immune responses. Similarly it is of interest to determine which size of molecules can pass through biological barriers in vivo to diagnose pathologies, such as sepsis. Here, we report on continuous fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (cFRAP) as a analytical method enabling size distribution measurements of nanomaterials (1–100 nm) in undiluted biological fluids. We demonstrate that cFRAP allows to measure protein aggregation in human serum and to determine the permeability of intestinal and vascular barriers in vivo. cFRAP is a new analytical technique that paves the way towards exciting new applications that benefit from nanomaterial sizing in bio-fluids. PMID:27653841

  8. Influence of secondary preparative parameters and aging effects on PLGA particle size distribution: a sedimentation field flow fractionation investigation.

    PubMed

    Contado, Catia; Vighi, Eleonora; Dalpiaz, Alessandro; Leo, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) particles in the 200-400-nm size range were formulated through nanoprecipitation and solvent evaporation methods. Different concentrations of the polymer and stabilizer (Pluronic® F 68) were tested in order to identify the best conditions for making poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) particles of suitable size, stable in time, and to be used as carriers for brain-targeting drugs. The particles with the best characteristics for delivery system design were those formulated by nanoprecipitation with an organic/water phase ratio of 2:30, a polymer concentration of 25 mg/mL, and a surfactant concentration of 0.83 mg/mL; their surface charge was reasonably negative (approximately -27 mV) and the average size of the almost monodisperse population was roughly 250 nm. Particle characterization was obtained through ζ-potential measurements, scanning electron microscope observations, and particle size distribution determinations; the latter achieved by both photon-correlation spectroscopy and sedimentation field flow fractionation. Sedimentation field flow fractionation, which is considered more reliable than photon-correlation spectroscopy in describing the possible particle size distribution modifications, was used to investigate the effects of 3 months of storage at 4 °C had on the lyophilized particles. Figure Particle size ditribution from the SdFFF and the PCS techniques.

  9. Co-Aggregation of Chondrules and Nanometer-Sized Matrix Grains in the Solar Nebula: A New Scenario for Rocky Planetesimal Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, S.; Nakamoto, T.

    2017-02-01

    We propose a scenario in which rocky planetesimals are formed via co-aggregation of chondrules and nm-sized matrix grains. The critical velocity for collisional growth exceeds the maximum collision velocity when matrix grains are smaller than 10 nm.

  10. Size of Suspended Bacterial Cells and Association of Heterotrophic Activity with Size Fractions of Particles in Estuarine and Coastal Waters †

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, Anthony V.; Ferguson, Randolph L.; Rublee, Parke A.

    1984-01-01

    The size of bacteria and the size distribution of heterotrophic activity were examined in estuarine, neritic, and coastal waters. The data indicated the small size of suspended marine bacteria and the predominance of free-living cells in numerical abundance and in the incorporation of dissolved amino acids. The average per-cell volume of suspended marine bacteria in all environments was less than 0.1 μm3. Cell volume ranged from 0.072 to 0.096 μm3 at salinities of 0 to 34.3‰ in the Newport River estuary, N.C., and from 0.078 to 0.096 μm3 in diverse areas of the Gulf of Mexico. Thus, the free-living bacteria were too small to be susceptible to predation by copepods. In the Newport River estuary, ca. 93 to 99% of the total number of cells and 75 to 97% of incorporated tritium (from 3H-labeled mixed amino acids) retained by a 0.2-μm-pore-size filter passed through a 3.0-μm-pore-size filter. Although the amino acid turnover rate per cell was higher for the bacteria in the >3.0-μm size fraction than in the <3.0-μm size fraction, the small number of bacteria associated with the >3.0-μm size particles resulted in the low relative contribution of attached bacteria to total heterotrophic activity in the estuary. For coastal and neritic samples, collected off the coast of Georgia and northeast Florida and in the plume of the Mississippi River, 56 to 98% of incorporated label passed through a 3.0-μm-pore-size filter. The greatest activity in the >3.0-μm fraction in the Georgia Bight was at nearshore stations and in the bottom samples. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that resuspension of bottom material is an important factor in influencing the proportion of heterotrophic activity attributable to particle-associated bacteria. PMID:16346582

  11. The effect of gravel size fraction on the distribution coefficients of selected radionuclides radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Glossbrenner, Ellwood T.

    2009-06-26

    This manuscript addresses the consequences of the common practice of assuming that the gravel fraction of sediments does not participate in sorption reactions and thus sorption quantified by the distribution coefficient (Kd) construct can be estimated from laboratory tests on < 2mm fraction of sediments. As shown within the use of this common assumption can lead to inaccurate estimates of the mobility and sorption capacity of key radionuclides (Tc, U, and Np) at the Hanford Site where gravel dominates the lower Hanford formation and upper Ringold Formation. Batch sorption and column experiments showed that the distribution coefficient measured using only < 2mm fraction were not in agreement with those obtained from the bulk sediments depending on the radionuclide. The least reactive radionuclide, Tc showed the lowest effects from the presence of gravel. However, differences between measured Kds using < 2mm fractions of the sediment and the Kds measured on the bulk sediment were significant for strongly reactive radionuclides such as Np, especially on the sediment with gravel fractions that contained highly reactive sites. Highly reactive sites in the gravel fraction were attributed to the presence of Fe oxides coatings and/or reactive fracture faces on the gravel surfaces. Gravel correction factors that use the sum of the Kd,<2 mm and Kd,>2 mm values to estimate the Kd for the bulk sediment were found to best describe Kds for radionuclides on the bulk sediment. However, more detailed characterization of gravel surfaces should be also conducted to identify those gravels with higher reactive sorbents, if present. Gravel correction factors should be considered to predict precisely the sorption capacity of bulk sediments that contain more than 10% gravel and to estimate the mobility of contaminants in subsurface environments.

  12. Tidal River Elbe - a sediment budget for the grain size fraction of medium sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterscheid, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Human interventions have a historic and ongoing impact on estuarine sediment budgets across many estuaries worldwide. An early inference was the construction of embankments resulting in a constant loss of intertidal flats. Additionally, settlement activities and large scale land use changes in the upstream catchment areas had also an effect on sediment inflow rates. Today, the navigation channels in estuaries have been deepened for larger and more efficient vessels to reach a well-developed infrastructure of harbors and industrial areas often located far inland. In the past few years and just within the North-East Atlantic, the total annual amount of dredged sediments dumped at sea varied from 80 to 130 million tons (OSPAR Commission). In most estuaries across Europe the resulting human impact on the sediment fluxes and morphodynamics is significant. A good understanding of estuarine processes is essential for determining useful and meaningful measures to mitigate negative effects and to improve the current situation. Maintenance dredging and its environmental effects are therefore in the focus of public attention. Against this background, it is the aim of the presentation to identify and therefore to separate the particular effect that maintenance dredging has on sediment fluxes and budgets in the estuarine environment. Case study is the Tidal River Elbe in Germany, and here we set the focus on the grain size fraction of medium sand. In the past, river engineering measures forced the natural dynamics to form a concentrated stream flow along a fixed channel, except at a number of locations where side channels still exist. In addition to that, the main channel was deepened several times. The last deepening was in 1999/2000. The most significant deepening, however, took place from 1957 to 1962. Until then, an erosion-stable layer of marine clay (in German called "Klei") formed a flat bottom along most sections of the main channel. After removal of this layer of

  13. Complex aggregation patterns in drying nanocolloidal suspensions: size matters when it comes to the thermomechanical stability of nanoparticle-based structures.

    PubMed

    Darwich, Samer; Mougin, Karine; Haidara, Hamidou

    2010-11-16

    We report the results of a model study on the interrelation among the occurrence of complex aggregation patterns in drying nanofluids, the size of the constitutive nanoparticles (NPs), and the drying temperature, which is a critical issue in the genesis of complex drying patterns that was never systematically reported before. We show that one can achieve fine control over the occurrence and topological features of these drying-mediated complex structures through the combination of the particle size, the drying temperature, and the substrate surface energy. Most importantly, we show that a transition in the occurrence of the patterns appears with the temperature and the particle size, which accounts for the size dependence of the thermomechanical stability of the aggregates in the nanoscale range. Using simple phenomenological and scaling considerations, we showed that the thermomechanical stability of the aggregates was underpinned by physical quantities that scale with the size of the NPs (R) either as R(-2) or R(-3). These insights into the size-dependent dissipation mechanisms in nanoclusters should help in designing NPs-based structures with tailored thermomechanical and environmental stability and hence with an optimized morphological stability that guarantees their long-term functional properties.

  14. Associations between size-fractionated particulate air pollution and blood pressure in a panel of type II diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ang; Chen, Renjie; Wang, Cuicui; Zhao, Zhuohui; Yang, Changyuan; Lu, Jianxiong; Chen, Xuan; Kan, Haidong

    2015-07-01

    Little is known regarding how the size distribution of particulate matter (PM) air pollution influences its effect on blood pressure (BP), especially among patients with diabetes. The objective of this study was to explore the short-term associations between size-fractionated PM and BP among diabetes patients. We scheduled 6 repeated BP examinations every 2 weeks from 13 April 2013 to 30 June 2013 in a panel of 35 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients recruited from an urban community in Shanghai, China. We measured real-time PM concentrations in the size range of 0.25 to 10 μm. We used linear mixed-effect models to examine the short-term association of size-fractionated PM and BP after controlling for individual characteristics, mean temperature, relative humidity, day of the week, years with diabetes and use of antihypertensive medication. The association with systolic BP and pulse pressure strengthened with decreasing diameter. The size fractions with the strongest associations were 0.25 to 0.40 μm for number concentrations and ≤ 2.5 μm for mass concentrations. Furthermore, these effects occurred immediately even after 0-2h and lasted for up to 48 h following exposure. An interquartile range increase in 24-h average number concentrations of PM0.25-0.40 was associated with increases of 3.61 mmHg in systolic BP and 2.96 mmHg in pulse pressure. Females, patients younger than 65 years of age and patients without antihypertensive treatment were more susceptible to these effects. Our results revealed important size and temporal patterns of PM in elevating BP among diabetes patients in China.

  15. Physicochemical characterization of titanium dioxide pigments using various techniques for size determination and asymmetric flow field flow fractionation hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Helsper, Johannes P F G; Peters, Ruud J B; van Bemmel, Margaretha E M; Rivera, Zahira E Herrera; Wagner, Stephan; von der Kammer, Frank; Tromp, Peter C; Hofmann, Thilo; Weigel, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Seven commercial titanium dioxide pigments and two other well-defined TiO2 materials (TiMs) were physicochemically characterised using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (aF4) for separation, various techniques to determine size distribution and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for chemical characterization. The aF4-ICPMS conditions were optimised and validated for linearity, limit of detection, recovery, repeatability and reproducibility, all indicating good performance. Multi-element detection with aF4-ICPMS showed that some commercial pigments contained zirconium co-eluting with titanium in aF4. The other two TiMs, NM103 and NM104, contained aluminium as integral part of the titanium peak eluting in aF4. The materials were characterised using various size determination techniques: retention time in aF4, aF4 hyphenated with multi-angle laser light spectrometry (MALS), single particle ICPMS (spICPMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle tracking analysis (PTA). PTA appeared inappropriate. For the other techniques, size distribution patterns were quite similar, i.e. high polydispersity with diameters from 20 to >700 nm, a modal peak between 200 and 500 nm and a shoulder at 600 nm. Number-based size distribution techniques as spICPMS and SEM showed smaller modal diameters than aF4-UV, from which mass-based diameters are calculated. With aF4-MALS calculated, light-scattering-based "diameters of gyration" (Øg) are similar to hydrodynamic diameters (Øh) from aF4-UV analyses and diameters observed with SEM, but much larger than with spICPMS. A Øg/Øh ratio of about 1 indicates that the TiMs are oblate spheres or fractal aggregates. SEM observations confirm the latter structure. The rationale for differences in modal peak diameter is discussed.

  16. Losses in carbon and nitrogen stocks in soil particle-size fractions along cultivation chronosequences in Inner Mongolian grasslands.

    PubMed

    He, Nianpeng; Zhang, Yunhai; Dai, Jingzhong; Han, Xingguo; Yu, Guirui

    2012-01-01

    Cultivation in semiarid grasslands induces large changes in soil organic matter (SOM) stock. To better predict the effects of cultivation on SOM pools, there is a need to identify the soil fractions that are affected and the extent to which they are affected. Using four cultivation chronosequences in Inner Mongolian grasslands of northern China, we investigated the changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (N) stocks in soil particle-size fractions to identify the effect of cultivation on SOM dynamics. The results showed that conversion of native grasslands into croplands significantly decreased the SOC stocks (4.34-31.65 Mg C ha) and N (0.19-2.54 Mg N ha) in the 0- to 100-cm layer after cultivation. Prominent changes were observed in the SOC and N stocks in the 0- to 10-cm layer and were, on average, 6.56 Mg C ha (24.85%) and 0.63 Mg N ha (23.48%), respectively. The effect of cultivation on the SOC and N stocks in soil fractions was in the order sand > silt > clay. The C and N stocks in the 0- to 10-cm soil layer in the sand fraction in croplands decreased, on average, by 4.74 Mg C ha (35.86%) and 0.48 Mg N ha (41.30%), respectively, compared with those in native grasslands. The declines in the silt and clay fractions were small. Thus, sand fraction was a more important contributor to C and N losses in soil after cultivation than silt or clay fraction. Our findings indicate that the preliminary responses of SOC and N to cultivation in a semiarid grassland area and have significant implications for assessing the loss or gain of C and N during grassland conversion.

  17. Metal uptake by corn grown on media treated with particle-size fractionated biosolids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiping; Chang, Andrew C; Wu, Laosheng; Zhang, Yongsong

    2008-03-15

    Particle-size of biosolids may affect plant uptake of heavy metals when the biosolids are land applied. In this study, corn (Zea mays L.) was grown on sand media treated with biosolids to study how particle-size of biosolids affected the plant uptake of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Two biosolids, the Nu-Earth biosolids and the Los Angeles biosolids, of dissimilar surface morphology were utilized. The former exhibited a porous and spongy structure and had considerably greater specific surface area than that of the latter, which was granular and blocky. The specific surface area of the Los Angeles biosolids was inversely proportional to its particle-size, while that of Nu-Earth biosolids did not change significantly with particle-size. For each biosolid, the metal concentrations were not affected by particle sizes. The biomass yields of plants grown on the treated media increased as the biosolid particle-size decreased, indicating that plant uptake of nutrients from biosolids was dependent on interactions at the root-biosolids interface. The effect of particle-size on a metal's availability to plants was element-specific. The uptake rate of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Ni was correlated with the surface area of the particles, i.e., smaller particles having higher specific area provided greater root-biosolids contact and resulted in enhanced uptake of Cd and Zn and slightly less increased uptake of Cu and Ni. The particle morphology of biosolids had limited influence on the plant tissue concentrations of Cr and Pb. For both types of biosolids, total metal uptake increased as biosolid particle-size decreased. Our research indicates that biosolid particle-size distribution plays a deciding role in plant uptake of heavy metals when they are land applied.

  18. Primary production and biovolume of various phototrophic plankton size fractions in three southeastern United States reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Tison, D.; Wilde, E.W.

    1981-04-01

    Plankton size classes of < 3 ..mu..m consisting largely of unicellular cyanobacteria accounted for 15 to 40% of the total primary production and generally represented < 5% of the total phototrophic plankton biovolume in three South Carolina reservoirs.

  19. Differential cardiopulmonary effects of size-fractionated ambient particulate matter in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: A growing body of evidence from epidemiological and toxicological studies provides a strong link between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) particles of varying size and increased cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. Objectives: Evaluate t...

  20. Combined Protein A and size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography for the single-step measurement of mAb, aggregates and host cell proteins.

    PubMed

    Gjoka, Xhorxhi; Schofield, Mark; Cvetkovic, Aleksandar; Gantier, Rene

    2014-12-01

    Quantification of monoclonal antibody (mAb) monomer, mAb aggregates, and host cell proteins (HCPs) is critical for the optimization of the mAb production process. The present work describes a single high throughput analytical tool capable of tracking the concentration of mAb, mAb aggregate and HCPs in a growing cell culture batch. By combining two analytical HPLC methods, Protein A affinity and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), it is possible to detect a relative increase or decrease in the concentration of all three entities simultaneously. A comparison of the combined Protein A-SEC assay to SEC alone was performed, demonstrating that it can be useful tool for the quantification of mAb monomer along with trending data for mAb aggregate and HCP. Furthermore, the study shows that the Protein A-SEC method is at least as accurate as other commonly used analytical methods such as ELISA and Bradford.

  1. Proteoglycans from bovine fetal epiphyseal cartilage. Sedimentation velocity and light scattering studies of the effect of link protein on proteoglycan aggregate size and stability.

    PubMed

    Tang, L H; Rosenberg, L C; Reihanian, H; Jamieson, A M; Blackwell, J

    1989-01-01

    Proteoglycan monomer and link proteins were isolated from bovine fetal epiphyseal cartilage and characterized. The physical characteristics of proteoglycan monomer were: s0(20) = 21.3 S, D0t,z = 4.25 x 10(-8)cm2/sec, Mw = 3 x 10(6) and Rg,z = 980A. Link protein preparations contained link proteins 1 and 2, but little or none of the fragment, link protein 3. Link protein-stabilized and link protein-free proteoglycan aggregates were reassembled from proteoglycan monomer, link protein and hyaluronate. The effect of epiphyseal cartilage link protein on aggregate size and stability was examined in sedimentation velocity studies. Compared with link protein from mature bovine nasal and articular cartilages, which contain appreciable amounts of link protein 3, epiphyseal cartilage link protein dramatically stabilized aggregates at pH 5. In the presence of link protein, 92% of the proteoglycan monomers were bound as aggregate at pH 7, and 81% were bound at pH 5. In the absence of link protein, 51% of monomers were bound at pH 7, and only 32% were bound at pH 5. The progressive dissociation of link protein-free aggregates as a function of decreasing pH, and of increasing temperature, was also examined in dynamic light scattering studies. The results of the light scattering studies were in perfect accord with the results of the sedimentation velocity studies. However, compared with the sedimentation velocity studies, the dynamic light scattering studies provided a more detailed and informative description of the dissociation of the link-free aggregate as a function of pH, as a function of temperature, and of the capacity of link protein to stabilize aggregate against dissociation at decreased pH or elevated temperature.

  2. Comparative Toxicity of Size-Fractionated Airborne Particulate Matter Collected at Different Distances from an Urban Highway

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seung-Hyun; Tong, Haiyan; McGee, John K.; Baldauf, Richard W.; Krantz, Q. Todd; Gilmour, M. Ian

    2009-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies have reported an association between proximity to highway traffic and increased cardiopulmonary illnesses. Objectives We investigated the effect of size-fractionated particulate matter (PM), obtained at different distances from a highway, on acute cardiopulmonary toxicity in mice. Methods We collected PM for 2 weeks in July–August 2006 using a three-stage (ultrafine, < 0.1 μm; fine, 0.1–2.5 μm; coarse, 2.5–10 μm) high-volume impactor at distances of 20 m [near road (NR)] and 275 m [far road (FR)] from an interstate highway in Raleigh, North Carolina. Samples were extracted in methanol, dried, diluted in saline, and then analyzed for chemical constituents. Female CD-1 mice received either 25 or 100 μg of each size fraction via oropharyngeal aspiration. At 4 and 18 hr postexposure, mice were assessed for pulmonary responsiveness to inhaled methacholine, biomarkers of lung injury and inflammation; ex vivo cardiac pathophysiology was assessed at 18 hr only. Results Overall chemical composition between NR and FR PM was similar, although NR samples comprised larger amounts of PM, endotoxin, and certain metals than did the FR samples. Each PM size fraction showed differences in ratios of major chemical classes. Both NR and FR coarse PM produced significant pulmonary inflammation irrespective of distance, whereas both NR and FR ultrafine PM induced cardiac ischemia–reperfusion injury. Conclusions On a comparative mass basis, the coarse and ultrafine PM affected the lung and heart, respectively. We observed no significant differences in the overall toxicity end points and chemical makeup between the NR and FR PM. The results suggest that PM of different size-specific chemistry might be associated with different toxicologic mechanisms in cardiac and pulmonary tissues. PMID:20049117

  3. A method for generating uniform size-segregated pyrite particle fractions

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Amy L; Liu, Ran; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Dzombak, David A

    2007-01-01

    Background Standardized sample preparation techniques allow comparison of pyrite dissolution experiments under diverse conditions. Our objective was to assess dry and wet sieving preparation methodologies, and to develop a reproducible technique that yields uniformly size-distributed material within a limited size range of interest. Results Here, we describe a wet sieving preparation method that successfully concentrates pyrite particles within a 44–75 μm diameter range. In addition, this technique does not require a post-processing cleanup step to remove adhering particles, as those particles are removed during the procedure. We show that sample preparation methods not only affect the pyrite size distribution, but also apparent dissolution rates. Conclusion The presented methodology is non-destructive to the sample, uses readily available chemical equipment within the laboratory, and could be applied to minerals other than pyrite. PMID:17927834

  4. Development of a sensitive size exclusion HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the quantitation of recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) aggregates.

    PubMed

    Gunturi, Srinivas R; Ghobrial, Ibrahim; Sharma, Basant

    2007-01-04

    Human erythropoietin produced by recombinant DNA technology, is now marketed worldwide for the treatment of anemias associated with chronic renal failure and chemotherapy. No sensitive methods, which can determine r-HuEPO dimer or oligomer aggregate content in formulated products, have been published to date. This report describes the development and validation of a sensitive size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the quantitation of r-HuEPO aggregates in formulations containing 0.03% polysorbate 80. A Waters Alliance 2690 HPLC system connected to a TosoHaas TSKgel G3000 SWxl (7.8 mm x 30 cm, 250 A pore size, 5 microm particle size) column and a Waters 474 fluorescence detector was used. The mobile phase for the SEC-HPLC method consists of isopropyl alcohol-potassium phosphate (0.1 M)/potassium chloride buffer (pH 6.8+/-0.1, 0.2 M) (25:75, v/v). The flow rate was 0.3 mL/min and the method run time was 60 min. The SEC-HPLC method presented here was shown to be specific for r-HuEPO total aggregates (dimer and oligomers) and allows for their quantitation at 80 ng/mL or 4 ngs/injection, in the presence of r-HuEPO monomer and the pharmaceutical excipients, glycine (5 mg/mL), sodium chloride (4.3 mg/mL), and 0.03% polysorbate 80. The finalized method is stability-indicating and is suitable for determining r-HuEPO aggregates between 0.2 and 0.5% levels in the formulated product of r-HuEPO. This method offers a robust way to measure total aggregates on a routine basis with a high sensitivity for use in product quality control.

  5. What is the role played by organic matter fractions from different sieve-size particles in the development of soil water repellency? A case study using analytical pyrolysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio; Jiménez-González, Marco A.

    2014-05-01

    1. INTRODUCTION It is known that soil water repellency (WR) is induced by organic substances covering the surface of minerals particles and aggregates or present as interstitial substances in the soil matrix. It has also been suggested that the persistence of WR is largely conditioned by specific chemical characteristics of soil organic matter (SOM). Most of these substances are abundant in ecosystems and are released into soils as exudates of roots, organic residues in decomposition, or secretions by fungi and other microorganisms. Soil free lipids correspond to a diverse collection of hydrophobic substances including complex substances as sterols, terpenes, polynuclear hydrocarbons, chlorophylls, fatty acids, waxes, and resins. Some of these organic substances, responsible of soil water repellency may be studied using analytical pyrolisis (de la Rosa et al., 2011; González-Pérez et al., 2011). This research aims to study the relation between soil WR and SOM quantity and quality, assessing the impact of organic fractions and its distribution in soil particles of different size on soil WR from sandy soils. 2. METHODS Soil samples were collected under selected species growing in sandy soils from the Doñana National Park (SW Spain), cork oak (Quercus suber, QS), eagle fern (Pteridium aquilinum, PA), pine (Pinus pinea, PP) and rockrose (Halimium halimifolium, HH). Soil WR and physical chemical characteristics including SOM content were assessed in fine earth soil samples (< 2mm) and in soil sieve fractions (1-2, 0.25-1, 0.05-0.25 and <0.05 mm). The composition of common hydrophobic substances present in SOM (n-alkane/alkene pairs and n-alkanoic acids) was assessed by analytical pyrolysis. Analytical pyrolysis techniques do not need a pre-treatment, is fast and easily reproducible 3. RESULTS The severity of soil WR (determined using the WDPT test) may be ordered according to the sequence QS>PA>PP>HH. A positive correlation was observed between WR from each sieve

  6. Nutrient concentrations and proportions in particle size fractions of corn steam flaked to different bulk densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The particle size distribution that results from steam flaking corn could be responsible for the difference in the chemical composition noted between steam-flaked corn and unprocessed grain. Steam-flaked corn (SFC) processed to bulk densities of 283, 335, and 386 g/L was dry sieved to determine the ...

  7. Growth rate and size effect on carbon isotopic fractionation in diatom-bound organic matter in recent Southern Ocean sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Heather M.; Mendez-Vicente, Ana; Abrevaya, Lorena; Anderson, Robert F.; Rigual-Hernández, Andrés S.; Gonzalez-Lemos, Saul

    2017-01-01

    Carbon isotopic fractionation during photosynthesis (εp) is used to reconstruct past CO2 and phytoplankton growth rates, typically by measuring the δ13C of biomarkers produced by coccolithophorids. However, organic molecules bound within diatom frustules represent another phase for measurement of δ13C and offer the opportunity to obtain εp for specific diatom sizes and geometries. Here, from core top sediments covering a strong productivity gradient in the Southern Ocean, we present determinations of δ13C and εp from frustule-bound organic matter from a fine opal fraction dominated by pennate diatoms and a coarse opal fraction dominated by larger centric diatoms. The δ13C of the pennate diatom fraction is typically 2.8‰ more positive than that of the centric fraction. Both fractions show a comparable range of 9-10‰ over the core top transect. εp is lowest (6.3‰ in pennate fraction) between the Polar Front (PF) and Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF) and increases both to the north and south, with maximum values at greatest distance from the PF (18‰ in the pennate fraction). These spatial changes in εp are too large to arise from the rather modest variation in dissolved CO2 in surface waters across the core top transect. We suggest instead that the maximum εp reflects higher diatom growth rates, and in the case of pennate diatom F. kerguelensis also an increase in the frustule width and volume to surface area ratio. Both processes may result from enhanced Fe supply due to upwelling of circumpolar deep water between the PF and SACCF. Farther south, diatom growth is strongly Fe-limited and farther north it is Fe and Si co-limited. The optima of growth rates between the PF and SACCF appears to be a general feature in all sectors of the Southern Ocean. Such growth rate-induced changes in diatom εp allow us to resolve a 5° northward displacement of the PF during glacial times compared to interglacial times. By estimating CO2 aq in

  8. Aggregation of sodium alkylbenzenesulfonates in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Magid, L.J.; Shaver, R.J.; Gulari, E.; Bedwell, B.; Alkhafaji, S.

    1981-01-01

    The surfactant 6 phenyl C/sub 12/SNa forms small spherical micelles in aqueous solution, having an aggregation number of 20 to 30 and a fractional charge of 0.45. These micelles are hydrated to the extent of approximately 18 moles H/sub 2/O per moles of surfactant. A second larger aggregate is also present in 6 phenyl C/sub 12/SNa solutions; its importance increases with solution age. Addition of NaCl causes both aggregates to apparently increase modestly in size. The surfactant 8 phenyl C/sub 16/SNa also contains both aggregates in its solutions; the larger one is relatively more important here. The larger aggregate does not correspond to dispersed bits of a liquid crystalline mesophase.

  9. Size-fractionated PM10 monitoring in relation to the contribution of endotoxins in different polluted areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traversi, D.; Alessandria, L.; Schilirò, T.; Gilli, G.

    2011-07-01

    Particulate pollution is an environmental concern that is widespread and difficult to resolve. Recently various regulatory improvements around the world have been agreed upon to tackle this problem, especially as related to the fine fraction of particulates, which more closely correlates to human health effects than other fractions. The size-fractionation of inhalable particles and their organic composition represent a new area of research that has been poorly explored thus far. Endotoxins are a type of natural organic compound that can be found in particulate matter. They are correlated with Gram-negative bacterial contamination. Health outcomes associated with exposure to these toxins are not specific and often overlap with the health effects of PM (Particulate Matter) exposure, including asthma, bronchitis, acute respiratory distress syndrome and organic dust toxic syndrome. Very little information is available on the endotoxin distribution in different PM10 size fractions. This study examined PM10 size fractions and their endotoxin content. Sampling was conducted at five different locations: one urban, two rural and two rural sites that were highly influenced by large-scale farm animal production facilities. For each location, six different PM10 fractions were evaluated. PM10 sub-fractions were categorised as follows: PM 10-7.2 (1.15-31.30 μg m -3); PM 7.2-3.0 (1.86-30.73 μg m -3); PM 3.0-1.5 (1.74-13.90 μg m -3); PM 1.5-0.95 (0.24-10.57 μg m -3); PM 0.95-0.49 (1.22-14.33 μg m -3) and PM <0.49 (13.15-85.49 μg m -3). The ranges of endotoxin levels determined were: PM 10-7.2 (0.051-5.401 endotoxin units (EU) m -3); PM 7.2-3.0 (0.123-7.801 EU m -3); PM 3.0-1.5 (0.057-1.635 EU m -3); PM 1.5-0.95 (0.040-2.477 EU m -3); PM 0.95-0.49 (0.007-3.159 EU m -3) and PM <0.49 (0.039-3.975 EU m -3). Our results indicated consistency of the PM1 fraction at all of the sites and the predominant presence of endotoxins in the coarse fraction. The observed abatement of the PM

  10. Size and molecular configuration of dye aggregates in mixed Langmuir-Blodgett films based on merocyanine dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Yoshiaki; Okada, Takuya M.; Miura, Yasuhiro F.; Sugi, Michio; Ishii, Toshio

    2000-11-01

    We have studied the blue-shifted and the red-shifted bands formed in mixed Langmuir-Blodgett films of the merocyanine dye (MS)-arachidic acid (C20)-n-octadecane (AL18) ternary system with the molar mixing ratio [MS]:[C20]:[AL18]=1:2:x(0.5≦x≦5.0). The formation of the blue-shifted and the red-shifted bands depends on the AL18 content, and shows that the aggregation state can be modulated by changing the AL18 content. The observed overlapping spectra of the blue-shifted and the red-shifted bands are deconvoluted into two original bands. The extended dipole model has been applied to examine the aggregation state of MS referring to the deconvoluted spectra. Thus the estimated minimum aggregation number Nmin and the slip angle α between the long axis of the aggregate and the transition dipole moment are Nmin=40 and α=30° and Nmin=40 and α=50° for fully-developed J- and H-aggregates, respectively, seen for x≦1.5, and Nmin tends to decrease with increasing x.

  11. Chemical profile of size-fractionated soils collected in a semiarid industrial area of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Del Mastro, Anabella; Pereyra, Marcelo; Londonio, Agustín; Pereyra, Victoria; Rebagliati, Raúl Jiménez; Dawidowski, Laura; Gómez, Darío; Smichowski, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the chemical profile of soil collected in Bahía Blanca (Argentina). In this industrial city, semiarid soils are affected by different industrial and agricultural activities, the presence of a saltpeter extraction facility, traffic and increasing urbanization. Sixteen soil samples (superficial and sub-superficial) were collected. Samples were sieved in two fractions (A < 37 μm, and 37 < B < 50 μm) before elemental analysis. Major, minor and trace elements namely, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Anions (Cl-, F-, SO42-) and cations (K+, Na+ and NH4+) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after an aqueous extraction. As expected, crustal elements namely, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg and Ti exhibited the highest concentrations. Mean elemental concentration ranged from <0.3 μg g-1 (Sb) to 14.6 ± 0.6% (Ca). Ions concentrations in the soluble fraction measured at mg g-1 levels were in the order Cl- > Na+ ≅ SO42- > K+ > NO3-. Three indicators, namely, (i) coefficient of variation, (ii) coefficient of divergence and (iii) ratio of elemental concentration with respect to Ca were used to assess chemical, spatial and inter-profile variability. Chloride > Ca > Na+ > Mo > SO42-, dominated the variability indicating that these are key chemical markers for future assessment of crustal contribution to airborne particles in the area. The ratios Xi/Ca allowed discriminating the soil of the semi-arid region surrounding Bahía Blanca. The chemical profiles obtained in this study, particularly those of topsoil, will be a key input to characterize soil resuspension and its contribution to airborne particulate matter in a forthcoming receptor model analysis.

  12. Interannual Variability in Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopic Signatures of Size-Fractionated POM from the South Florida Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, S. L.; Anderson, W. T.; Jochem, F. J.; Fourqurean, J. W.

    2004-12-01

    Environmental conditions in South Florida coastal waters have been of local and national concern over the past 15 years. Attention has focused on the ecosystem impacts of salinity increases, seagrass die-off, increased algal bloom frequency, waste water influence, groundwater discharge, and exchange between Florida Bay, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Changes in water quality and productivity levels may be reflected in the isotopic signatures of coastal zone primary producers. Recent work with seagrasses in South Florida has demonstrated high seasonal and spatial variability in C and N isotopic signatures and decoupling between the two isotopic systems as they vary. To better understand the sources of seasonal and spatial fluctuation, size fractionated POM (particulate organic matter) samples have been collected on a quarterly basis since Sept. 2002. Fractions collected include >150μ m, 50-150μ m, and 0.1-50μ m using Nitex mesh sieves and a portable pump system deployed from a small boat at 10 sites around the Florida Keys and Florida Bay. It was hypothesized that planktonic groups respond more quickly to changes in water quality then seagrasses, and thus variations may be more clearly attributed to environmental parameters. Significant spatial and temporal variability is evident both within site between size fractions and between sites. Seasonal oscillations of up to 4‰ were observed in N isotopic values and 6‰ in C isotopic values of the 50-150μ m size fraction, which is dominated by diatoms and dinoflagellates. δ 13C values are depleted in the late winter/early spring sampling period possibly reflecting decreased productivity stress on available C pools. 13C depletion is generally coincident with δ 15N enrichment in the late winter/early spring, possibly demonstrating changes in DIN pools (NO3- and NH4+ concentrations) or changes in decomposition or denitrification rates. Broad groupings appear to separate Atlantic coral reef sites

  13. Morphological properties of atmospheric aerosol aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, C.; Friedlander, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    Ultrafine particles (smaller than about 0.1 μm) are often emitted from combustion and other high-temperature processes in the form of fractal-like aggregates composed of solid nanoparticles. Results of a study of atmospheric aggregates are reported. Particles were collected on transmission electron microscope grids fitted on the last two stages of a single-jet eight-stage low-pressure impactor for periods of a few minutes. Photomicrographs of transmission electron microscope grids from the impactor stages were analyzed to obtain the fractal dimension (Df) and prefactor (A) for aggregates. Df increased from near 1 to above 2 as the number of primary particles making up the aggregates increased from 10 to 180. Total particle concentrations in size ranges roughly equivalent to the low-pressure impactor stages were measured with a mobility analyzer and condensation particle counter. In one set of measurements, the fraction of the particles present as aggregates was about 60% for particles with aerodynamic diameters between 50 and 75 nm and 34% for the range 75 to 120 nm. The total aggregate concentration in the 50- to 120-nm size range was about 400 ml−1. The primary particles that make up atmospheric aggregates are more polydisperse than soot aggregates generated from a single laboratory source, an ethane/oxygen flame. Most measurements were made in the Los Angeles area, where the aggregates may represent a signature for diesel emissions. Rural aggregate concentrations in the size range 50 to 120 nm were less than 1% of the concentrations at urban sites. The data will permit better estimates of atmospheric aggregate residence times, transport, and deposition in the lung, optical extinction, and heterogenous nucleation. PMID:11592995

  14. Morphological properties of atmospheric aerosol aggregates.

    PubMed

    Xiong, C; Friedlander, S K

    2001-10-09

    Ultrafine particles (smaller than about 0.1 microm) are often emitted from combustion and other high-temperature processes in the form of fractal-like aggregates composed of solid nanoparticles. Results of a study of atmospheric aggregates are reported. Particles were collected on transmission electron microscope grids fitted on the last two stages of a single-jet eight-stage low-pressure impactor for periods of a few minutes. Photomicrographs of transmission electron microscope grids from the impactor stages were analyzed to obtain the fractal dimension (D(f)) and prefactor (A) for aggregates. D(f) increased from near 1 to above 2 as the number of primary particles making up the aggregates increased from 10 to 180. Total particle concentrations in size ranges roughly equivalent to the low-pressure impactor stages were measured with a mobility analyzer and condensation particle counter. In one set of measurements, the fraction of the particles present as aggregates was about 60% for particles with aerodynamic diameters between 50 and 75 nm and 34% for the range 75 to 120 nm. The total aggregate concentration in the 50- to 120-nm size range was about 400 ml(-1). The primary particles that make up atmospheric aggregates are more polydisperse than soot aggregates generated from a single laboratory source, an ethane/oxygen flame. Most measurements were made in the Los Angeles area, where the aggregates may represent a signature for diesel emissions. Rural aggregate concentrations in the size range 50 to 120 nm were less than 1% of the concentrations at urban sites. The data will permit better estimates of atmospheric aggregate residence times, transport, and deposition in the lung, optical extinction, and heterogeneous nucleation.

  15. Comparative toxicity of size-fractionated airborne particulate matter obtained from different cities in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, M.I.; McGee, J.; Duvall, R.M.; Dailey, L.; Daniels, M.; Boykin, E.; Cho, S.H.; Doerfler, D.; Gordon, T.; Devlin, R.B.

    2007-07-01

    Hundreds of epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with dose-dependent increases in morbidity and mortality. While early reports focused on PM less than 10 {mu}m (PM10), numerous studies have since shown that the effects can occur with PM stratified into ultrafine (UF), fine (FI), and coarse (CO) size modes despite the fact that these materials differ significantly in both evolution and chemistry. Furthermore the chemical makeup of these different size fractions can vary tremendously depending on location, meteorology, and source profile. For this reason, high-volume three-stage particle impactors with the capacity to collect UF, FI, and CO particles were deployed to four different locations in the United States (Seattle, WA; Salt Lake City, UT; Sterling Forest and South Bronx, NY), and weekly samples were collected for 1 mo in each place. The particles were extracted, assayed for a standardized battery of chemical components, and instilled into mouse lungs (female BALB/c) at doses of 25 and 100 {mu}g. Eighteen hours later animals were euthanized and parameters of injury and inflammation were monitored in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma. Of the four locations, the South Bronx coarse fraction was the most potent sample in both pulmonary and systemic biomarkers. Receptor source modeling on the PM2.5 samples showed that the South Bronx sample was heavily influenced by emissions from coal fired power plants (31%) and mobile sources (22%). Further studies will assess how source profiles correlate with the observed effects for all locations and size fractions.

  16. Comparative toxicity of size-fractionated airborne particulate matter obtained from different cities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, M Ian; McGee, John; Duvall, Rachelle M; Dailey, Lisa; Daniels, Mary; Boykin, Elizabeth; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Doerfler, Donald; Gordon, Terry; Devlin, Robert B

    2007-01-01

    Hundreds of epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with dose-dependent increases in morbidity and mortality. While early reports focused on PM less than 10 microm (PM10), numerous studies have since shown that the effects can occur with PM stratified into ultrafine (UF), fine (FI), and coarse (CO) size modes despite the fact that these materials differ significantly in both evolution and chemistry. Furthermore the chemical makeup of these different size fractions can vary tremendously depending on location, meteorology, and source profile. For this reason, high-volume three-stage particle impactors with the capacity to collect UF, FI, and CO particles were deployed to four different locations in the United States (Seattle, WA; Salt Lake City, UT; Sterling Forest and South Bronx, NY), and weekly samples were collected for 1 mo in each place. The particles were extracted, assayed for a standardized battery of chemical components, and instilled into mouse lungs (female BALB/c) at doses of 25 and 100 microg. Eighteen hours later animals were euthanized and parameters of injury and inflammation were monitored in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma. Of the four locations, the South Bronx coarse fraction was the most potent sample in both pulmonary and systemic biomarkers, with a strong increase in lung inflammatory cells as well as elevated levels of creatine kinase in the plasma. These effects did not correlate with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or total zinc or sulfate content, but were associated with total iron. Receptor source modeling on the PM2.5 samples showed that the South Bronx sample was heavily influenced by emissions from coal fired power plants (31%) and mobile sources (22%). Further studies will assess how source profiles correlate with the observed effects for all locations and size fractions.

  17. Source identification of different size fraction of PM10 using factor analysis at residential cum commercial area of Nagpur city.

    PubMed

    Pipalatkar, P P; Gajghate, D G; Khaparde, V V

    2012-02-01

    Particulate size distribution of PM(10) and associated trace metal concentrations has been carried out in residential cum commercial area of Mahal at Nagpur city. Sampling for size fraction of particulate matter was performed during winter season using eight-stage cascade impactor with a pre-separator and toxic metals were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The average concentration of PM(10) and fine particulate matter (effective cut of aerodynamic diameter ≤2.2 μm) was found to be 300 and 136.7 μg/m(3), respectively which was exceeding limit of Central Pollution Control Board. Maximum mass concentration of 41 μg/m(3) in size range of 9.0-10.0 μm and minimum mass concentration of 19 μg/m(3) in size range 2.2-3.3 μm was observed. Metals (Sr, Ni and Zn) were found to large proportions in below 0.7 μm particle size and could therefore pass directly into the alveoli region of human respiratory system. Factor analysis results indicated combustion and vehicular emission as the dominant source in fine mode and resuspended dust was dominant in medium mode while crustal along with vehicular source was major in coarse mode of particulate matter.

  18. Characterization of mucilage aggregates in Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea: structure similarities between mucilage samples and the insoluble fractions of marine humic substance.

    PubMed

    Mecozzi, M; Acquistucci, R; Di Noto, V; Pietrantonio, E; Amici, M; Cardarilli, D

    2001-08-01

    The appearance of gelatinous aggregates called mucilages causes serious damages to tourism and fishery industries of the Adriatic Sea. So, many studies have been planned and some of them are still in progress to clarify the origin and causes of the phenomenon. The scientific research has showed that mucilages are produced by several marine organisms when peculiar climatic and trophic conditions occur. Moreover, as far as the mucilage composition is concerned, although it is well known that polysaccharides give a high contribution, knowledge of the structural characteristics of mucilages and their relationship with the natural organic matter of the marine environment has not been clarified yet. In this paper a study on the characterization of the marine mucilage samples collected in the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas is described. The study was performed by spectroscopic (infrared and colorimetric) techniques, and elemental analysis. The results showed that mucilage samples have chemical and structural similarities with the insoluble fraction of the marine humic substance (humin). According to experimental evidences it is possible to establish the relationship between mucilages and the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the marine environment in order to identify the most likely pathways of mucilage formation.

  19. Size- and density-dependent elution of normal and pathological red blood cells by gravitational field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Cardot, P J; Elgéa, C; Guernet, M; Godet, D; Andreux, J P

    1994-04-01

    Elution of normal and pathological human red blood cells (RBCs) was performed by gravitational field-flow fractionation (GFFF). The reproducibility of the retention factor was lower than 10% and elution at high and low flow-rates confirmed the existence of "lifting forces". No direct correlation between size and retention was observed for normal RBCs in the absence of density information. Elution of pathological human RBCs, known to be modified in shape, density and rigidity, was performed. The elution parameters confirmed that the retention mechanism of RBCs is at least density dependent but that other factors can be involved, such as shape or deformity. Moreover, peak profile description parameters (standard deviation and asymmetry) can be qualitatively related to some biophysical parameters. Numerous elution characteristics can be linked to cell properties described in the literature and although GFFF appeared to have limited capabilities in terms of size analysis it appeared to be a versatile tool for studying cell biophysical characteristics.

  20. Development of Criteria and Identification of Particle Cluster Size Based on Measurements of Void Fraction in Gas-Solid Systems

    SciTech Connect

    David Roelant; Seckin Gokaltun

    2009-06-30

    A circulating fluidized bed (CFB) built at FIU was used to study particle motion in the riser in order to simulate flow regimes in a cold gasifier. High speed imaging was used in order to capture the dynamics of the particles flowing in the riser. The imaging method used here is called the shadow sizing technique which allowed the determination of particle areas and trajectories at various flow rates in the riser. The solid volume fraction and particle velocities calculated using the images acquired during the experiments can be related to granular temperature in order to detect formations of clusters in the riser section of the CFB. The shadow sizing technique was observed to be an effective method in detecting dynamics of particles in motion and formation of clusters when supported with high-speed imaging.

  1. Released fraction and total size of a pool of immediately available transmitter quanta at a calyx synapse.

    PubMed

    Schneggenburger, R; Meyer, A C; Neher, E

    1999-06-01

    The size of a pool of readily releasable vesicles at a giant brainstem synapse, the calyx of Held, was probed with three independent approaches. Using simultaneous pre- and postsynaptic whole-cell recordings, two forms of presynaptic Ca2+ stimuli were applied in rapid succession: uncaging of Ca2+ by flash photolysis and the opening of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. The ensuing transmitter release showed a nearly complete cross-inhibition between the two stimuli, indicating the depletion of a limited pool of about 700 transmitter quanta. The pool size was confirmed in experiments using enhanced extracellular Ca2+ concentrations, as well as short, high-frequency stimulus trains. The results reveal a surprisingly large pool of functionally available vesicles, of which a fraction of about 0.2 is released by a single presynaptic action potential under physiological conditions.

  2. Fractionation of Exosomes and DNA using Size-Based Separation at the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunsch, Benjamin; Smith, Joshua; Wang, Chao; Gifford, Stacey; Brink, Markus; Bruce, Robert; Solovitzky, Gustavo; Austin, Robert; Astier, Yann

    Exosomes, a key target of ``liquid biopsies'', are nano-vesicles found in nearly all biological fluids. Exosomes are secreted by eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells alike, and contain information about their originating cells, including surface proteins, cytoplasmic proteins, and nucleic acids. One challenge in studying exosome morphology is the difficulty of sorting exosomes by size and surface markers. Common separation techniques for exosomes include ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration, for preparation of large volume samples, but these techniques often show contamination and significant heterogeneity between preparations. To date, deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) pillar arrays in silicon have proven an efficient technology to sort, separate, and enrich micron-scale particles including human parasites, eukaryotic cells, blood cells, and circulating tumor cells in blood; however, the DLD technology has never been translated to the true nanoscale, where it could function on bio-colloids such as exosomes. We have fabricated nanoscale DLD (nanoDLD) arrays capable of rapidly sorting colloids down to 20 nm in continuous flow, and demonstrated size sorting of individual exosome vesicles and dsDNA polymers, opening the potential for on-chip biomolecule separation and diagnosti

  3. Nano-sized clusters of a teicoplanin ψ-aglycon-fullerene conjugate. Synthesis, antibacterial activity and aggregation studies.

    PubMed

    Tollas, Szilvia; Bereczki, Ilona; Sipos, Attila; Rőth, Erzsébet; Batta, Gyula; Daróczi, Lajos; Kéki, Sándor; Ostorházi, Eszter; Rozgonyi, Ferenc; Herczegh, Pál

    2012-08-01

    Glycopeptide antibiotic derivative teicoplanin ψ-aglycone has been bound covalently to a fullerenopyrrolidine derivative using azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. The aggregation of the antibiotic-fullerene conjugate in aqueous solution has been studied. The conjugate exhibited antibacterial activity against enterococci resistant to teicoplanin.

  4. Evaluation of In Vitro Cytoxicity and Genotoxicity of Size-Fractionated Air Particles Sampled during Road Tunnel Construction

    PubMed Central

    Dominici, Luca; Guerrera, Elena; Villarini, Milena; Fatigoni, Cristina; Moretti, Massimo; Blasi, Paolo; Monarca, Silvano

    2013-01-01

    In tunnel construction, workers exposed to dust from blasting, gases, diesel exhausts, and oil mist have shown higher risk for pulmonary diseases. A clear mechanism to explain how these pollutants determine diseases is lacking, and alveolar epithelium's capacity to ingest inhaled fine particles is not well characterized. The objective of this study was to assess the genotoxic effect exerted by fine particles collected in seven tunnels using the cytokinesis-block micronuclei test in an in vitro model on type II lung epithelium A549 cells. For each tunnel, five fractions with different aerodynamic diameters of particulate matter were collected with a multistage cascade sampler. The human epithelial cell line A549 was exposed to 0.2 m3/mL equivalent of particulate for 24 h before testing. The cytotoxic effects of particulate matter on A549 cells were also evaluated in two different viability tests. In order to evaluate the cells' ability to take up fine particles, imaging with transmission electron microscopy of cells after exposure to particulate matter was performed. Particle endocytosis after 24 h exposure was observed as intracellular aggregates of membrane-bound particles. This morphologic evidence did not correspond to an increase in genotoxicity detected by the micronucleus test. PMID:24069598

  5. Molecular size fractions of bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) exhibit differentiated regulation of colorectal cancer cell growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Louise; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Burnard, Sharon; Forsyth, Santina; Head, Richard; King, Kerryn; Patten, Glen; Watkins, Peter; Williams, Roderick; Zabaras, Dimitrios; Lockett, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Numerous in vitro studies using solvent or aqueous extracts of raw dietary plant material have demonstrated modulation of colon cancer cell growth and apoptosis and effects on immune and nonimmune pathways of inflammation. We have developed a generic, 3-staged food-compatible process involving heating for conversion of dietary plants into food ingredients and report results on potential colon cancer-regulating properties of processed forms of Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis). In vitro studies demonstrated inhibition of cancer cell growth by processed Bay leaf products in HT-29, HCT-116, Caco-2, and SW-480 human cancer cell lines, which were accompanied by variable levels of elevated apoptosis. Bay leaf also exerted moderate inhibition of cycloxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase enzymatic activity. In addition, these extracts significantly downregulated interferon-γ production in T helper Type 1-stimulated whole blood from healthy donors. Furthermore, size fractionation of the extracts revealed that antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities were associated with low mass (primarily polyphenolics and essential oils) and high mass (primarily proteins including polyphenol oxidase) chemical classes, respectively. Bay leaf exerted in vitro bioactivity that might be relevant to protecting against early events in sporadic colorectal cancer, with potential for further optimization of bioactivity by size-based fractionation.

  6. Physical characterization and in vitro biological impact of highly aggregated antibodies separated into size-enriched populations by fluorescence-activated cell sorting

    PubMed Central

    Telikepalli, Srivalli; Shinogle, Heather E.; Thapa, Prem S.; Kim, Jae Hyun; Deshpande, Meghana; Jawa, Vibha; Middaugh, C. Russell; Narhi, Linda O.; Joubert, Marisa K.; Volkin, David B.

    2015-01-01

    An IgG2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) solution was subjected to stirring, generating high concentrations of nanometer and subvisible particles, which were then successfully size enriched into different size bins by low speed centrifugation or a combination of gravitational sedimentation and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS). The size-fractionated mAb particles were assessed for their ability to elicit the release of cytokines from a population of donor-derived human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) at two phases of the immune response. Fractions enriched in nanometer-sized particles showed a lower response than those enriched in micron-sized particles in this assay. Particles of 5–10 μm in size displayed elevated cytokine release profiles compared to other size ranges. Stir-stressed mAb particles had amorphous morphology, contained protein with partially altered secondary structure, elevated surface hydrophobicity (compared to controls), and trace levels of elemental fluorine. FACS size-enriched the mAb particle samples, yet did not notably alter the overall morphology or composition of particles as measured by Microflow imaging, Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. The utility and limitations of FACS for size separation of mAb particles and potential of in-vitro PBMC studies to rank order the immunogenic potential of various types of mAb particles is discussed. PMID:25753756

  7. Complementary use of flow and sedimentation field-flow fractionation techniques for size characterizing biodegradable poly(lactic acid) nanospheres

    PubMed Central

    Contado, Catia; Dalpiaz, Alessandro; Leo, Eliana; Zborowski, Maciej; Williams, P. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles were synthesized using a modified evaporation method, testing two different surfactants (sodium cholate and Pluronic F68) for the process. During their formulation the prodrug 5′-octanoyl-CPA (Oct-CPA) of the antiischemic N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) was encapsulated. Three different purification methods were compared with respect to the influence of surfactant on the size characteristics of the final nanoparticle product. Flow and sedimentation field-flow fractionation techniques (FlFFF and SdFFF, respectively) were used to size characterize the five poly(lactic acid) particle samples. Two different combinations of carrier solution (mobile phase) were employed in the FlFFF analyses, while a solution of poly(vinyl alcohol) was used as mobile phase for the SdFFF runs. The separation performances of the two techniques were compared and the particle size distributions, derived from the fractograms, were interpreted with the support of observations by scanning electron microscopy. Some critical aspects, such as the carrier choice and the channel thickness determination for the FlFFF, have been investigated. This is the first comprehensive comparison of the two FFF techniques for characterizing non standard particulate materials. The two FFF techniques proved to be complementary and gave good, congruent and very useful information on the size distributions of the five poly(lactic acid) particle samples. PMID:17482199

  8. Kinetics of Thermal Denaturation and Aggregation of Bovine Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Borzova, Vera A.; Markossian, Kira A.; Chebotareva, Natalia A.; Kleymenov, Sergey Yu.; Poliansky, Nikolay B.; Muranov, Konstantin O.; Stein-Margolina, Vita A.; Shubin, Vladimir V.; Markov, Denis I.; Kurganov, Boris I.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal aggregation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied using dynamic light scattering, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation and analytical ultracentrifugation. The studies were carried out at fixed temperatures (60°C, 65°C, 70°C and 80°C) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, at BSA concentration of 1 mg/ml. Thermal denaturation of the protein was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Analysis of the experimental data shows that at 65°C the stage of protein unfolding and individual stages of protein aggregation are markedly separated in time. This circumstance allowed us to propose the following mechanism of thermal aggregation of BSA. Protein unfolding results in the formation of two forms of the non-native protein with different propensity to aggregation. One of the forms (highly reactive unfolded form, Uhr) is characterized by a high rate of aggregation. Aggregation of Uhr leads to the formation of primary aggregates with the hydrodynamic radius (Rh,1) of 10.3 nm. The second form (low reactive unfolded form, Ulr) participates in the aggregation process by its attachment to the primary aggregates produced by the Uhr form and possesses ability for self-aggregation with formation of stable small-sized aggregates (Ast). At complete exhaustion of Ulr, secondary aggregates with the hydrodynamic radius (Rh,2) of 12.8 nm are formed. At 60°C the rates of unfolding and aggregation are commensurate, at 70°C the rates of formation of the primary and secondary aggregates are commensurate, at 80°C the registration of the initial stages of aggregation is complicated by formation of large-sized aggregates. PMID:27101281

  9. Effect of water deficit and domestic storage on the procyanidin profile, size, and aggregation process in pear-jujube (Z. jujuba) fruits.

    PubMed

    Collado-González, J; Cruz, Z N; Rodríguez, P; Galindo, A; Díaz-Baños, F G; García de la Torre, J; Ferreres, F; Medina, S; Torrecillas, A; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2013-07-03

    No information exists on the proanthocyanidin content of pear-jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill) fruit, their polymeric types and sizes, and their self-aggregation, or on the effect of different water deficit levels during the fruit maturation period on these compounds. Two trimers, two tetramers, and six B type procyanidin pentamers were identified and quantified for the first time. Water deficit increased the content of procyanidins of low molecular mass, improving their potential bioavailability and possible physiological effects on human health. The tendency of procyanidins to self-aggregate was similar in the edible portion and pit, and was not affected by water deficit. The procyanidin content of fruit from well watered trees increased during domestic cold storage, whereas the fruits from trees suffering severe water stress lost some of their procyanidin content.

  10. Particle-size fractionation of aeolian sand along a climatic and geomorphic gradient of the Sinai-Negev erg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskin, Joel; Katra, Itzhak; Blumberg, Dan G.

    2015-04-01

    This study examines changes in the aeolian sand fractions along the west-east aeolian transport path of the northern Sinai Peninsula - northwestern (NW) Negev erg of Egypt and Israel. This erg originates from the Nile Delta and is composed of currently active linear (seif) dunes in northern Sinai (its western part), and currently stabilized vegetated linear dunes (VLDs) in the NW Negev dunefield (its eastern part). Sand samples from the Nile Delta, northern Sinai and NW Negev were analyzed for particle-size distribution and sand grain morphology in accordance to their Eastern Mediterranean INQUA Dunes Atlas luminescence and radiocarbon chronologies. Linear seif dunes differ from VLDs in their vegetation cover, linearity, and dynamics. Although both are continuous landforms with similar orientations and sand-grain roundness values, the linear dunes of Sinai are coarser-grained than the Negev VLDs. The VLDs have a significantly higher proportion of very fine sand (125-50 μm) content and a varying but lower sand fining ratio defined as the ratio of fine sand percentage to very fine sand percentage. Very fine sands are suggested to have been winnowed by saltation and low suspension from source deposits and sand sheets. Detailed semi-quantitative examinations of sand grains by a SEM of a Negev VLD shows that most grains do not exhibit features that can be attributed to aeolian abrasion by sand grain-grain collisions. From these observations we infer that fractionation of sand was a major process leading to downwind fining along the studied aeolian transport path. We suggest that the very fine sand fraction of Nile Delta and Sinai sands has been transported downwind since the late middle Pleistocene. In the late Pleistocene, sand reached the NW Negev in the form of VLDs due to last-glacial period windiness of intensities unprecedented today and probably larger sediment supply. Generally current and inferred past decreasing wind velocities and increasing precipitation

  11. Effects of dry bulk density and particle size fraction on gas transport parameters in variably saturated landfill cover soil.

    PubMed

    Wickramarachchi, Praneeth; Kawamoto, Ken; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Nagamori, Masanao; Moldrup, Per; Komatsu, Toshiko

    2011-12-01

    Landfill sites are emerging in climate change scenarios as a significant source of greenhouse gases. The compacted final soil cover at landfill sites plays a vital role for the emission, fate and transport of landfill gases. This study investigated the effects of dry bulk density, ρ(b), and particle size fraction on the main soil-gas transport parameters - soil-gas diffusivity (D(p)/D(o), ratio of gas diffusion coefficients in soil and free air) and air permeability (k(a)) - under variably-saturated moisture conditions. Soil samples were prepared by three different compaction methods (Standard and Modified Proctor compaction, and hand compaction) with resulting ρ(b) values ranging from 1.40 to 2.10 g cm(-3). Results showed that D(p) and k(a) values for the '+gravel' fraction (<35 mm) became larger than for the '-gravel' fraction (<2mm) under variably-saturated conditions for a given soil-air content (ε), likely due to enhanced gas diffusion and advection through less tortuous, large-pore networks. The effect of dry bulk density on D(p) and k(a) was most pronounced for the '+gravel' fraction. Normalized ratios were introduced for all soil-gas parameters: (i) for gas diffusivity D(p)/D(f), the ratio of measured D(p) to D(p) in total porosity (f), (ii) for air permeability k(a)/k(a)(,pF4.1), the ratio of measured k(a) to k(a) at 1235 kPa matric potential (=pF 4.1), and (iii) for soil-air content, the ratio of soil-air content (ε) to total porosity (f) (air saturation). Based on the normalized parameters, predictive power-law models for D(p)(ε/f) and k(a)(ε/f) models were developed based on a single parameter (water blockage factor M for D(p) and P for k(a)). The water blockage factors, M and P, were found to be linearly correlated to ρ(b) values, and the effects of dry bulk density on D(p) and k(a) for both '+gravel' and '-gravel' fractions were well accounted for by the new models.

  12. Size-exclusion chromatography for the determination of the boiling point distribution of high-boiling petroleum fractions.

    PubMed

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kamiński, Marian

    2015-03-01

    The paper describes a new procedure for the determination of boiling point distribution of high-boiling petroleum fractions using size-exclusion chromatography with refractive index detection. Thus far, the determination of boiling range distribution by chromatography has been accomplished using simulated distillation with gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. This study revealed that in spite of substantial differences in the separation mechanism and the detection mode, the size-exclusion chromatography technique yields similar results for the determination of boiling point distribution compared with simulated distillation and novel empty column gas chromatography. The developed procedure using size-exclusion chromatography has a substantial applicability, especially for the determination of exact final boiling point values for high-boiling mixtures, for which a standard high-temperature simulated distillation would have to be used. In this case, the precision of final boiling point determination is low due to the high final temperatures of the gas chromatograph oven and an insufficient thermal stability of both the gas chromatography stationary phase and the sample. Additionally, the use of high-performance liquid chromatography detectors more sensitive than refractive index detection allows a lower detection limit for high-molar-mass aromatic compounds, and thus increases the sensitivity of final boiling point determination.

  13. Distribution, diversity and abundance of bacterial laccase-like genes in different particle size fractions of sediments in a subtropical mangrove ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ling; Zhou, Zhi-Chao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the diversity and abundance of bacterial lacasse-like genes in different particle size fractions, namely sand, silt, and clay of sediments in a subtropical mangrove ecosystem. Moreover, the effects of nutrient conditions on bacterial laccase-like communities as well as the correlation between nutrients and, both the abundance and diversity indices of laccase-like bacteria in particle size fractions were also studied. Compared to bulk sediments, Bacteroidetes, Caldithrix, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi were dominated in all 3 particle-size fractions of intertidal sediment (IZ), but Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were lost after the fractionation procedures used. The diversity index of IZ fractions decreased in the order of bulk > clay > silt > sand. In fractions of mangrove forest sediment (MG), Verrucomicrobia was found in silt, and both Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes appeared in clay, but no new species were found in sand. The declining order of diversity index in MG fractions was clay > silt > sand > bulk. Furthermore, the abundance of lacasse-like bacteria varied with different particle-size fractions significantly (p < 0.05), and decreased in the order of sand > clay > silt in both IZ and MG fractions. Additionally, nutrient availability was found to significantly affect the diversity and community structure of laccase-like bacteria (p < 0.05), while the total organic carbon contents were positively related to the abundance of bacterial laccase-like genes in particle size fractions (p < 0.05). Therefore, this study further provides evidence that bacterial laccase plays a vital role in turnover of sediment organic matter and cycling of nutrients.

  14. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  15. Structural composition of organic matter in particle-size fractions of soils along a climo-biosequence in the main range of Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarzadeh-Haghighi, Amir Hossein; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Hamdan, Jol; Zainuddin, Norhazlin

    2016-09-01

    Information on structural composition of organic matter (OM) in particle-size fractions of soils along a climo-biosequence is sparse. The objective of this study was to examine structural composition and morphological characteristics of OM in particle-size fractions of soils along a climo-biosequence in order to better understand the factors and processes affecting structural composition of soil organic matter. To explore changes in structural composition of OM in soils with different pedogenesis, the A-horizon was considered for further analyses including particle-size fractionation, solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Due to the increase in the thickness of organic layer with increasing elevation, the A-horizon was situated at greater depth in soils of higher elevation. The relationship between relative abundances of carbon (C) structures and particle-size fractions was examined using principal component analysis (PCA). It was found that alkyl C (20.1-73.4%) and O-alkyl C (16.8-67.7%) dominated particle-size fractions. The proportion of alkyl C increased with increasing elevation, while O-alkyl C showed an opposite trend. Results of PCA confirmed this finding and showed the relative enrichment of alkyl C in soils of higher elevation. Increase in the proportion of alkyl C in 250-2000 μm fraction is linked to selective preservation of aliphatic compounds derived from root litter. SEM results showed an increase in root contribution to the 250-2000 μm fraction with increasing elevation. For the <53 μm fraction, pedogenic process of podzolization is responsible for the relative enrichment of alkyl C. This study demonstrates that changes in structural composition of OM in particle-size fractions of soils along the studied climo-biosequence are attributed to site-specific differences in pedogenesis as a function of climate and vegetation.

  16. Size fractionation and size characterization of nanoemulsions of lipid droplets and large unilamellar lipid vesicles by asymmetric-flow field-flow fractionation/multi-angle light scattering and dynamic light scattering.

    PubMed

    Vezočnik, Valerija; Rebolj, Katja; Sitar, Simona; Ota, Katja; Tušek-Žnidarič, Magda; Štrus, Jasna; Sepčić, Kristina; Pahovnik, David; Maček, Peter; Žagar, Ema

    2015-10-30

    Asymmetric-flow field-flow fractionation technique coupled to a multi-angle light-scattering detector (AF4-MALS) was used together with dynamic light-scattering (DLS) in batch mode and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study the size characteristics of the trioleoylglycerol lipid droplets covered by a monolayer of sphingomyelin and cholesterol, in water phase. These lipid droplet nanoemulsions (LD) were formed by ultrasonication. In parallel, the size characteristics of large unilamellar lipid vesicles (LUV) prepared by extrusion and composed of sphingomyelin and cholesterol were determined. LD and LUV were prepared at two different molar ratios (1/1, 4/1) of sphingomyelin and cholesterol. In AF4-MALS, various cross-flow conditions and mobile phase compositions were tested to optimize the separation of LD or LUV particles. The particle radii, R, as well as the root-mean-square radii, Rrms, of LD and LUV were determined by AF4-MALS, whereas the hydrodynamic radii, Rh, were obtained by DLS. TEM visualization revealed round shape particles of LD and LUV.

  17. Aggregate breakup in a contracting nozzle.

    PubMed

    Soos, Miroslav; Ehrl, Lyonel; Bäbler, Matthäus U; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2010-01-05

    The breakup of dense aggregates in an extensional flow was investigated experimentally. The flow was realized by pumping the suspension containing the aggregates through a contracting nozzle. Variation of the cluster mass distribution during the breakage process was measured by small-angle light scattering. Because of the large size of primary particles and the dense aggregate structure image analysis was used to determine the shape and structure of the produced fragments. It was found, that neither aggregate structure, characterized by a fractal dimension d(f) = 2.7, nor shape, characterized by an average aspect ratio equal to 1.5, was affected by breakage. Several passes through the nozzle were required to reach the steady state. This is explained by the radial variation of the hydrodynamic stresses at the nozzle entrance, characterized through computational fluid dynamics, which implies that only the fraction of aggregates whose strength is smaller than the local hydrodynamic stress is broken during one pass through the nozzle. Scaling of the steady-state aggregate size as a function of the hydrodynamic stress was used to determine the aggregate strength.

  18. Vertical distribution of heavy metals in grain size fractions in sedimentary rocks: Mosina-Krajkowo water well field, Poland.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, M; Siepak, M; Zioła, A; Novotný, K; Vaculovic, T; Siepak, J

    2009-08-01

    The paper presents the results of heavy metals determination in samples of sedimentary rocks from the Mosina-Krajkowo water well field (Poland). The concentration of heavy metals was analysed by type of rock (sand, gravel, warp, silt, till, and clay). Variation of heavy metal concentrations with depth was studied taking into account the age series of the rocks (fluvial sediments of the modern Warta River valley, sediments of the Baltic Glaciation, tills of the Middle-Polish Glaciation, sediments of the Masovian Interglacial (Holstein), tills of the Poznań series) and granulometric fractions. The grain sizes considered included: >2.0, 2.0-1.0, 1.0-0.5, 0.5-0.25, 0.25-0.1, 0.1-0.063, and <0.063 mm. The concentrations of the heavy metals studied were found to change with the type of rock, age series, and granulometric fraction. The levels of the metals were determined by the technique of atomic absorption spectrometry with flame atomisation (F-AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES).

  19. Distribution patterns of phthalic acid esters in soil particle-size fractions determine biouptake in soil-cereal crop systems

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wenbing; Zhang, Yuan; He, Xiaosong; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; Mao, Xuhui; Huang, Caihong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan; Liang, Qiong; Cui, Dongyu; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2016-01-01

    The use of wastewater irrigation for food crops can lead to presence of bioavailable phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soils, which increase the potential for human exposure and adverse carcinogenic and non-cancer health effects. This study presents the first investigation of the occurrence and distribution of PAEs in a maize-wheat double-cropping system in a wastewater-irrigated area in the North China Plain. PAE levels in maize and wheat were found to be mainly attributed to PAE stores in soil coarse (250–2000 μm) and fine sand (53–250 μm) fractions. Soil particle-size fractions with higher bioavailability (i.e., coarse and fine sands) showed greater influence on PAE congener bioconcentration factors compared to PAE molecular structures for both maize and wheat tissues. More PAEs were allocated to maize and wheat grains with increased soil PAE storages from wastewater irrigation. Additional findings showed that levels of both non-cancer and carcinogenic risk for PAE congeners in wheat were higher than those in maize, suggesting that wheat food security should be prioritized. In conclusion, increased soil PAE concentrations specifically in maize and wheat grains indicate that wastewater irrigation can pose a contamination threat to food resources. PMID:27555553

  20. Distribution patterns of phthalic acid esters in soil particle-size fractions determine biouptake in soil-cereal crop systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wenbing; Zhang, Yuan; He, Xiaosong; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; Mao, Xuhui; Huang, Caihong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan; Liang, Qiong; Cui, Dongyu; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2016-08-01

    The use of wastewater irrigation for food crops can lead to presence of bioavailable phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soils, which increase the potential for human exposure and adverse carcinogenic and non-cancer health effects. This study presents the first investigation of the occurrence and distribution of PAEs in a maize-wheat double-cropping system in a wastewater-irrigated area in the North China Plain. PAE levels in maize and wheat were found to be mainly attributed to PAE stores in soil coarse (250–2000 μm) and fine sand (53–250 μm) fractions. Soil particle-size fractions with higher bioavailability (i.e., coarse and fine sands) showed greater influence on PAE congener bioconcentration factors compared to PAE molecular structures for both maize and wheat tissues. More PAEs were allocated to maize and wheat grains with increased soil PAE storages from wastewater irrigation. Additional findings showed that levels of both non-cancer and carcinogenic risk for PAE congeners in wheat were higher than those in maize, suggesting that wheat food security should be prioritized. In conclusion, increased soil PAE concentrations specifically in maize and wheat grains indicate that wastewater irrigation can pose a contamination threat to food resources.

  1. Determining organic carbon distributions in soil particle size fractions as a precondition of lateral carbon transport modeling at large scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindewolf, Marcus; Seher, Wiebke; Pfeffer, Eduard; Schultze, Nico; Amorim, Ricardo S. S.; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    The erosional transport of organic carbon has an effect on the global carbon budget, however, it is uncertain, whether erosion is a sink or a source for carbon in the atmosphere. Continuous erosion leads to a massive loss of top soils including the loss of organic carbon historically accumulated in the soil humus fraction. The colluvial organic carbon could be protected from further degradation depending on the depth of the colluvial cover and local decomposing conditions. Another part of eroded soils and organic carbon will enter surface water bodies and might be transported over long distances. The selective nature of soil erosion results in a preferential transport of fine particles while less carbonic larger particles remain on site. Consequently organic carbon is enriched in the eroded sediment compared to the origin soil. As a precondition of process based lateral carbon flux modeling, carbon distribution on soil particle size fractions has to be known. In this regard the present study refers to the determination of organic carbon contents on soil particle size separates by a combined sieve-sedimentation method for different tropical and temperate soils Our results suggest high influences of parent material and climatic conditions on carbon distribution on soil particle separates. By applying these results in erosion modeling a test slope was simulated with the EROSION 2D simulation software covering certain land use and soil management scenarios referring to different rainfall events. These simulations allow first insights on carbon loss and depletion on sediment delivery areas as well as carbon gains and enrichments on deposition areas on the landscape scale and could be used as a step forward in landscape scaled carbon redistribution modeling.

  2. Relationships between molecular weight and fluorescence properties for size-fractionated dissolved organic matter from fresh and aged sources.

    PubMed

    Cuss, C W; Guéguen, C

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between the molecular weight (MW) and fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are important considerations for studies seeking to connect these properties to water treatment processes. Relationships between the size and fluorescence properties of nine allochthonous DOM sources (i.e. leaf leachates, grass, and headwaters) were measured using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) with on-line absorbance and fluorescence detectors. Correlations between optical properties and MW were readily apparent using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) coupled to self-organizing maps (SOM): protein/polyphenol-like fluorescence (peaks B and T) was highest at lower molecular weights (<0.5 kDa), fulvic/humic-like fluorescence (peaks A, C, and M) was highest at mid-weights (0.5-1 kDa), and humic-like fluorescence (Peaks A + C) was highest at larger molecular weights (>1 kDa). Proportions of peaks B, T, and A + C were significantly correlated with MW (p < 0.001). The first principal component (PC1, 42% of variation in fluorescence properties) was a significant predictor of sample MW (R² = 0.63, p < 0.05), while scores on PC2 (27% of total variance) traced a source-based gradient from deciduous leachates/headwaters through to coniferous leachates/headwaters. PC3 (13% of var.) was also correlated with MW (p < 0.005). A secondary peak in peak T fluorescence was associated with larger size fractions in aged sources, and scores on PC1 also traced a path from the leachates of fresher leaves, through more humified leaves, to headwaters. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the structure of aged DOM arises through supramolecular assembly.

  3. Optimization of protein fractionation by skim milk microfiltration: Choice of ceramic membrane pore size and filtration temperature.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Camilla Elise; Abrahamsen, Roger K; Rukke, Elling-Olav; Johansen, Anne-Grethe; Schüller, Reidar B; Skeie, Siv B

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how ceramic membrane pore size and filtration temperature influence the protein fractionation of skim milk by cross flow microfiltration (MF). Microfiltration was performed at a uniform transmembrane pressure with constant permeate flux to a volume concentration factor of 2.5. Three different membrane pore sizes, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20µm, were used at a filtration temperature of 50°C. Furthermore, at pore size 0.10µm, 2 different filtration temperatures were investigated: 50 and 60°C. The transmission of proteins increased with increasing pore size, giving the permeate from MF with the 0.20-µm membrane a significantly higher concentration of native whey proteins compared with the permeates from the 0.05- and 0.10-µm membranes (0.50, 0.24, and 0.39%, respectively). Significant amounts of caseins permeated the 0.20-µm membrane (1.4%), giving a permeate with a whitish appearance and a casein distribution (αS2-CN: αS1-CN: κ-CN: β-CN) similar to that of skim milk. The 0.05- and 0.10-µm membranes were able to retain all caseins (only negligible amounts were detected). A permeate free from casein is beneficial in the production of native whey protein concentrates and in applications where transparency is an important functional characteristic. Microfiltration of skim milk at 50°C with the 0.10-µm membrane resulted in a permeate containing significantly more native whey proteins than the permeate from MF at 60°C. The more rapid increase in transmembrane pressure and the significantly lower concentration of caseins in the retentate at 60°C indicated that a higher concentration of caseins deposited on the membrane, and consequently reduced the native whey protein transmission. Optimal protein fractionation of skim milk into a casein-rich retentate and a permeate with native whey proteins were obtained by 0.10-µm MF at 50°C.

  4. Using fourier-transform mid-infrared spectroscopy to distinguish soil organic matter composition dynamics in aggregate fractions of two agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between soil organic carbon (SOC) content and quality of SOC as impacted by land management is not well understood and may influence long-term storage of SOC. To better understand the potential for SOC storage in specific aggregate pools (i.e. physically protected intra-aggregate C)...

  5. Influence of size-fractioning techniques on concentrations of selected trace metals in bottom materials from two streams in northeastern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koltun, G.F.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    1986-01-01

    Identical stream-bottom material samples, when fractioned to the same size by different techniques, may contain significantly different trace-metal concentrations. Precision of techniques also may differ, which could affect the ability to discriminate between size-fractioned bottom-material samples having different metal concentrations. Bottom-material samples fractioned to less than 0.020 millimeters by means of three common techniques (air elutriation, sieving, and settling) were analyzed for six trace metals to determine whether the technique used to obtain the desired particle-size fraction affects the ability to discriminate between bottom materials having different trace-metal concentrations. In addition, this study attempts to assess whether median trace-metal concentrations in size-fractioned bottom materials of identical origin differ depending on the size-fractioning technique used. Finally, this study evaluates the efficiency of the three size-fractioning techniques in terms of time, expense, and effort involved. Bottom-material samples were collected at two sites in northeastern Ohio: One is located in an undeveloped forested basin, and the other is located in a basin having a mixture of industrial and surface-mining land uses. The sites were selected for their close physical proximity, similar contributing drainage areas, and the likelihood that trace-metal concentrations in the bottom materials would be significantly different. Statistically significant differences in the concentrations of trace metals were detected between bottom-material samples collected at the two sites when the samples had been size-fractioned by means of air elutriation or sieving. Statistical analyses of samples that had been size fractioned by settling in native water were not measurably different in any of the six trace metals analyzed. Results of multiple comparison tests suggest that differences related to size-fractioning technique were evident in median copper, lead, and

  6. Small angle X-ray scattering study of the effect of pressure on the aggregation of asphaltene fractions in petroleum fluids under near-critical solvent conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, N.F.; Quintero, L. ); Pfund, D.M.; Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D. ); Capel, M. ); Leontaritis, K. )

    1993-08-01

    Small angle X-ray scattering was used to determine the effect of pressure on the extent of asphaltene aggregation for a system under near-critical conditions. A mixture containing 60 vol% Crude Oil A in n-pentane was studied at 110[degree]C, at pressures ranging from 25 to 400 bar. As the pressure of the near-critical solution is isothermally decreased, these results indicate (1) an increase in the extent of asphaltene aggregation and/or; (2) increased attractive interactions among aggregates. Information derived from different regions of the X-ray scattering curve indicate increasing aggregation with decreasing pressure. From these experimental results, together with theoretical interpretation, we infer that as the pressure is reduced, increased aggregation of asphaltenes results which may contribute to formation damage in hydrocarbon reservoirs, and to fouling in hydrotreatment and cracking catalysts. 71 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Unbonded Aggregate Surface Roads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    are sufficiently angular and rough in texture, thus ensuring mixture stability. A popular asphalt mixture design method called Superpave Level 1...would not pass either of the Superpave aggregate requirements. Table 18 Additional Characteristics for the Fine Fraction Abbreviated Common Name...CBR values when compacted wet of optimum. This is likely attributable to their relatively high permeabilities . For soaked CBR tests, the aggregates

  8. Cryopreservation of embryonic stem cell-derived multicellular neural aggregates labeled with micron-sized particles of iron oxide for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yuanwei; Sart, Sébastien; Calixto Bejarano, Fabian; Muroski, Megan E; Strouse, Geoffrey F; Grant, Samuel C; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides an effective approach to track labeled pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) for neurological disorder treatments after cell labeling with a contrast agent, such as an iron oxide derivative. Cryopreservation of pre-labeled neural cells, especially in three-dimensional (3D) structure, can provide a uniform cell population and preserve the stem cell niche for the subsequent applications. In this study, the effects of cryopreservation on PSC-derived multicellular NPC aggregates labeled with micron-sized particles of iron oxide (MPIO) were investigated. These NPC aggregates were labeled prior to cryopreservation because labeling thawed cells can be limited by inefficient intracellular uptake, variations in labeling efficiency, and increased culture time before use, minimizing their translation to clinical settings. The results indicated that intracellular MPIO incorporation was retained after cryopreservation (70-80% labeling efficiency), and MPIO labeling had little adverse effects on cell recovery, proliferation, cytotoxicity and neural lineage commitment post-cryopreservation. MRI analysis showed comparable detectability for the MPIO-labeled cells before and after cryopreservation indicated by T2 and T2* relaxation rates. Cryopreserving MPIO-labeled 3D multicellular NPC aggregates can be applied in in vivo cell tracking studies and lead to more rapid translation from preservation to clinical implementation.

  9. Stable and Size-Tunable Aggregation-Induced Emission Nanoparticles Encapsulated with Nanographene Oxide and Applications in Three-Photon Fluorescence Bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenfeng; Qian, Jun; Zhao, Xinyuan; Qin, Wei; Hu, Rongrong; Zhang, Hequn; Li, Dongyu; Xu, Zhengping; Tang, Ben Zhong; He, Sailing

    2016-01-26

    Organic fluorescent dyes with high quantum yield are widely applied in bioimaging and biosensing. However, most of them suffer from a severe effect called aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ), which means that their fluorescence is quenched at high molecular concentrations or in the aggregation state. Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) is a diametrically opposite phenomenon to ACQ, and luminogens with this feature can effectively solve this problem. Graphene oxide has been utilized as a quencher for many fluorescent dyes, based on which biosensing can be achieved. However, using graphene oxide as a surface modification agent of fluorescent nanoparticles is seldom reported. In this article, we used nanographene oxide (NGO) to encapsulate fluorescent nanoparticles, which consisted of a type of AIE dye named TPE-TPA-FN (TTF). NGO significantly improved the stability of nanoparticles in aqueous dispersion. In addition, this method could control the size of nanoparticles' flexibly as well as increase their emission efficiency. We then used the NGO-modified TTF nanoparticles to achieve three-photon fluorescence bioimaging. The architecture of ear blood vessels in mice and the distribution of nanoparticles in zebrafish could be observed clearly. Furthermore, we extended this method to other AIE luminogens and showed it was widely feasible.

  10. Evolution of volume fractions and droplet sizes by analysis of electrical conductance curves during destabilization of oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Kostoglou, M; Varka, E-M; Kalogianni, E P; Karapantsios, T D

    2010-09-01

    Destabilization of hexane-in-water emulsions is studied by a continuous, non-intrusive, multi-probe, electrical conductance technique. Emulsions made of different oil fractions and surfactant (C(10)E(5)) concentrations are prepared in a stirred vessel using a Rushton turbine to break and agitate droplets. During the separation of phases, electrical signals from pairs of ring electrodes mounted at different heights onto the vessel wall, are recorded. The evolution of the local water volume fractions at the locations of the electrodes is estimated from these signals. It is found that in the absence of coalescence, the water fraction evolution curve from the bottom pair of electrodes is compatible with a bidisperse oil droplet size distribution. The sizes and volume fractions of the two droplet modes are estimated using theoretical arguments. The electrically determined droplet sizes are compared to data from microscopy image analysis. Results are discussed in detail.

  11. Levels and Speciation of Platinum in Size-Fractionated Atmospheric Aerosol in Urban and Rural Sites across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, Martin; Antkiewicz, Dagmara; Overdier, Joel; Schauer, James

    2016-04-01

    In this study we characterized the levels and speciation of platinum in a unique set of size-resolved atmospheric aerosol (PM) samples obtained from urban environments across Europe. From April-July 2012 we collected PM from roadside canyon, roadside motorway, and background urban sites in each of six European cities (Amsterdam, Frankfurt, London, Milan, Stockholm, and Thessaloniki). A Hi-Vol sampler was used to collect PM in three size classes (>PM7, PM7-PM3, PM3) and characterized for total platinum, soluble platinum (in a suite of physiologically relevant fluids - lung fluid (ALF), Gambles saline, 0.07M HCl, and MQ) and speciated forms (colloidal and anionic) within the soluble fractions. In addition we measured 50 other elements by SF-ICPMS, soluble ions by IC, and soluble organic carbon in the PM. Order-of-magnitude differences in air concentrations of total platinum were observed between urban sites, ranging from 4 to over 45 pg/m3; with a median level of 6 pg/m3. When platinum concentrations are normalized to PM mass the cross Europe and site-to-site variability was substantially reduced - a 3-fold variation from 200 to 600 ng/g was observed. Roadside canyon sites in London, Stockholm and Thessaloniki exhibited the highest concentrations; however levels at urban background sites were remarkably similar across the cities. Relatively consistent and low concentrations (1 to 2 pg/m3) of total platinum were observed at rural background sites across Europe. The contribution of coarse particles (>7 micron and 7-3 micron) to air concentrations of total platinum was very significant (>35% at nearly all sites). Soluble platinum fractions ranged from 2 to 6% (MQ to HCl) in rural background sites to 5 to 20% (MQ to HCl) in roadway canyon sites in London and Thessaloniki; with the extractable platinum fractions a strong function of pH. With the exception of urban canyon sites in London and Thessaloniki, soluble platinum concentrations in the fine aerosol (PM3) were all

  12. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated clayey soils from a sub-arctic site: the role of aggregate size and microstructure.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wonjae; Akbari, Ali; Snelgrove, Jessica; Frigon, Dominic; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of non-volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (C16-C34) and the associated microbial activity in predominant aggregate sizes during a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15 °C, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. The in situ aggregate microstructure was characterized by N2 adsorption and X-ray CT scanning. The soils in the nutrient (N)-amended and unamended biopile tanks were comprised of macroaggregates (>2 mm) and mesoaggregates (0.25-2 mm). Nutrient addition significantly enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in macroaggregates, but not in mesoaggregates. At the end of 65-d biopile experiment, 42% of the C16-C34 hydrocarbons were degraded in the nutrient-amended macroaggregates, compared to 13% in the mesoaggregates. Higher microbial activity in the macroaggregates of the nutrient amended biopile was inferred from a larger increase in extractable protein concentrations, compared to the other aggregates. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes showed that there was no selection of bacterial populations in any of the aggregates during biopile treatment, suggesting that the enhanced biodegradation in nutrient-amended macroaggregates was likely due to metabolic stimulation. X-ray micro CT scanning revealed that the number of pores wider than 4 μm, which would be easily accessible by bacteria, were an order of magnitude higher in macroaggregates. Also, N2 adsorption analyses showed that pore surface areas and pore volumes per unit weight were four to five-times larger, compared to the mesoaggregates. Thus the higher porosity microstructure in macroaggregates allowed greater hydrocarbon degradation upon biostimulation by nutrient addition and aeration.

  13. Effects of dry bulk density and particle size fraction on gas transport parameters in variably saturated landfill cover soil

    SciTech Connect

    Wickramarachchi, Praneeth; Kawamoto, Ken; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Nagamori, Masanao; Moldrup, Per; Komatsu, Toshiko

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > The effects of soil physical properties on gas transport parameters were investigated. > Higher values of D{sub p} and k{sub a} exhibited in the '+gravel' than the '-gravel' fraction at same soil-air content ({epsilon}). > Recent power law models for D{sub p} (WLR) and k{sub a} (RPL) were modified. > Model parameters were linearly related to easily measurable dry bulk density ({rho}{sub b}). - Abstract: Landfill sites are emerging in climate change scenarios as a significant source of greenhouse gases. The compacted final soil cover at landfill sites plays a vital role for the emission, fate and transport of landfill gases. This study investigated the effects of dry bulk density, {rho}{sub b}, and particle size fraction on the main soil-gas transport parameters - soil-gas diffusivity (D{sub p}/D{sub o}, ratio of gas diffusion coefficients in soil and free air) and air permeability (k{sub a}) - under variably-saturated moisture conditions. Soil samples were prepared by three different compaction methods (Standard and Modified Proctor compaction, and hand compaction) with resulting {rho}{sub b} values ranging from 1.40 to 2.10 g cm{sup -3}. Results showed that D{sub p} and k{sub a} values for the '+gravel' fraction (<35 mm) became larger than for the '-gravel' fraction (<2 mm) under variably-saturated conditions for a given soil-air content ({epsilon}), likely due to enhanced gas diffusion and advection through less tortuous, large-pore networks. The effect of dry bulk density on D{sub p} and k{sub a} was most pronounced for the '+gravel' fraction. Normalized ratios were introduced for all soil-gas parameters: (i) for gas diffusivity D{sub p}/D{sub f}, the ratio of measured D{sub p} to D{sub p} in total porosity (f), (ii) for air permeability k{sub a}/k{sub a,pF4.1}, the ratio of measured k{sub a} to k{sub a} at 1235 kPa matric potential (=pF 4.1), and (iii) for soil-air content, the ratio of soil-air content ({epsilon}) to total porosity (f) (air

  14. Comparison of trace elements in size-fractionated particles in two communities with contrasting socioeconomic status in Houston, TX.

    PubMed

    Han, Inkyu; Guo, Yuncan; Afshar, Masoud; Stock, Thomas H; Symanski, Elaine

    2017-02-01

    Levels of ambient air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), are often higher in low-socioeconomic status (SES) communities than in high-SES communities. Houston is the fourth largest city in the USA and is home to a large petrochemical industry, an active port, and congested roadways, which represent significant emission sources of air pollution in the region. To compare levels of air pollution between a low-SES and a high-SES community, we simultaneously collected a 7-day integrated size-fractionated PM between June 2013 and November 2013. We analyzed PM mass and elements for three particle size modes: quasi-ultrafine particles (quasi-UFP) (aerodynamic diameter <0.25 μm), accumulation mode particles (0.25-2.5 μm), and coarse mode particles (>2.5 μm). Concentrations of vanadium, nickel, manganese, and iron in the quasi-UFP mode were significantly higher in the low-SES community than in the high-SES community. In the accumulation and coarse modes, concentrations of crustal elements and barium were also significantly higher in the low-SES community compared to the high-SES community. These findings suggest that people living in the low-SES community may experience higher exposures to some toxic elements as compared to people in the high-SES community.

  15. Characterizing mortality effects of particulate matter size fractions in the two capital cities of the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    López-Villarrubia, Elena; Iñiguez, Carmen; Peral, Nieves; García, María D; Ballester, Ferran

    2012-01-01

    Most of the studies differentiating the effect of size-classified particulate matter (PM) exposure have been carried out in cities where the average levels of fine particles (PM(2.5)) were higher than those of coarse particles (PM(10-2.5)). These studies have suggested that PM(2.5) is associated with daily mortality, but there is only limited evidence that PM(10-2.5) is independently associated with mortality. The citizens of the Canary Islands are exposed to PM which is highly influenced by mineral dust because of the islands' proximity to the Western Coast of Morocco. This offers an excellent opportunity to analyze in detail the short-term association between PM size fractions and total, respiratory and heart disease mortality. A time-series study from 2001 to 2004 was carried out. For each PM size fraction and mortality outcome, Generalized Additive Poisson Model was performed controlling for potential confounding. Different lag structures, unconstrained distributed lag models and two-pollutant models were examined. After assessing the linearity in the relationship, a piecewise linear analysis for exploring the existence of different slopes for different ranges of PM was carried out. The 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) and PM(10-2.5) levels was associated with a 7.5% (95% confidence interval=0.4-15.0) and a 7.4 (95% CI=1.5-13.7) increase in heart and respiratory disease mortality, respectively. Spline curves were quite linear over the PM concentrations seen on most days (dominated by combustion sources) in these cities, meanwhile on days with higher particulate levels (natural sources) a risk increase above certain PM levels was found, suggesting a curvilinear association and that, at least in some locations, PM(10-2.5) can play an important role in PM-related toxicity. The overall findings suggest that the establishment of new air quality standards for the short-term effect of PM(2.5) and PM(10-2.5) and further limiting levels of PM(10) in European Union is

  16. Size-fractionation of groundwater arsenic in alluvial aquifers of West Bengal, India: the role of organic and inorganic colloids.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Santanu; Nath, Bibhash; Sarkar, Simita; Chatterjee, Debashis; Roman-Ross, Gabriela; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2014-01-15

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and Fe mineral phases are known to influence the mobility of arsenic (As) in groundwater. Arsenic can be associated with colloidal particles containing organic matter and Fe. Currently, no data is available on the dissolved phase/colloidal association of As in groundwater of alluvial aquifers in West Bengal, India. This study investigated the fractional distribution of As (and other metals/metalloids) among the particulate, colloidal and dissolved phases in groundwater to decipher controlling behavior of organic and inorganic colloids on As mobility. The result shows that 83-94% of As remained in the 'truly dissolved' phases (i.e., <0.05 μm size). Strong positive correlation between Fe and As (r(2) between 0.65 and 0.94) is mainly observed in the larger (i.e., >0.05 μm size) colloidal particles, which indicates the close association of As with larger Fe-rich inorganic colloids. In smaller (i.e., <0.05 μm size) colloidal particles strong positive correlation is observed between As and DOC (r(2)=0.85), which highlights the close association of As with smaller organic colloids. As(III) is mainly associated with larger inorganic colloids, whereas, As(V) is associated with smaller organic/organometallic colloids. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirm the association of As with DOC and Fe mineral phases suggesting the formation of dissolved organo-Fe complexes and colloidal organo-Fe oxide phases. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further confirms the formation of As-Fe-NOM organometallic colloids, however, a detailed study of these types of colloids in natural waters is necessary to underpin their controlling behavior.

  17. Modeling transport and aggregation of volcanic ash particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Antonio; Folch, Arnau; Macedonio, Giovanni; Durant, Adam

    2010-05-01

    A complete description of ash aggregation processes in volcanic clouds is an very arduous task and the full coupling of ash transport and ash aggregation models is still computationally prohibitive. A large fraction of fine ash injected in the atmosphere during explosive eruptions aggregate because of complex interactions of surface liquid layers, electrostatic forces, and differences in settling velocities. The formation of aggregates of size and density different from those of the primary particles dramatically changes the sedimentation dynamics and results in lower atmospheric residence times of ash particles and in the formation of secondary maxima of tephra deposit. Volcanic ash transport models should include a full aggregation model accounting for all particle class interaction. However this approach would require prohibitive computational times. Here we present a simplified model for wet aggregation that accounts for both atmospheric and volcanic water transport. The aggregation model assumes a fractal relationship for the number of primary particles in aggregates, average efficiencies factors, and collision frequency functions accounting for Brownian motion, laminar and turbulent fluid shear, and differential settling velocity. We implemented the aggregation model in the WRF+FALL3D coupled modelling system and applied it to different eruptions where aggregation has been recognized to play an important role, such as the August and September 1992 Crater Peak eruptions and the 1980 Mt St Helens eruption. Moreover, understanding aggregation processes in volcanic clouds will contribute to mitigate the risks related with volcanic ash transport and sedimentation.

  18. Comparing the heterogeneity of copper-binding characteristics for two different-sized soil humic acid fractions using fluorescence quenching combined with 2D-COS.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Lee, Bo-Mi

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous distributions of copper-binding characteristics were compared for two ultrafiltered size fractions of a soil HA using fluorescence quenching combined with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). The apparent shapes of the original synchronous fluorescence spectra and the extent of the fluorescence quenching upon the addition of copper were similar for the two fractions. The stability constants calculated at their highest peaks were not significantly different. However, the 2D-COS results revealed that the fluorescence quenching behaviors were strongly affected by the associated wavelengths and the fraction's size. The spectral change preferentially occurred in the wavelength order of 467 nm → 451 nm → 357 nm for the 1-10 K fraction and of 376 nm → 464 nm for the >100 K fraction. The extent of the binding affinities exactly followed the sequential orders interpreted from the 2D-COS, and they exhibited the distinctive ranges of the logarithmic values from 5.86 to 4.91 and from 6.48 to 5.95 for the 1-10 K and the >100 K fractions, respectively. Our studies demonstrated that fluorescence quenching combined with 2D-COS could be successfully utilized to give insight into the chemical heterogeneity associated with metal-binding sites within the relatively homogeneous HA size fractions.

  19. THE PHYSICS OF PROTOPLANETESIMAL DUST AGGLOMERATES. VI. EROSION OF LARGE AGGREGATES AS A SOURCE OF MICROMETER-SIZED PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Schraepler, Rainer; Blum, Juergen

    2011-06-20

    Observed protoplanetary disks consist of a large amount of micrometer-sized particles. Dullemond and Dominik pointed out for the first time the difficulty in explaining the strong mid-infrared excess of classical T Tauri stars without any dust-retention mechanisms. Because high relative velocities in between micrometer-sized and macroscopic particles exist in protoplanetary disks, we present experimental results on the erosion of macroscopic agglomerates consisting of micrometer-sized spherical particles via the impact of micrometer-sized particles. We find that after an initial phase, in which an impacting particle erodes up to 10 particles of an agglomerate, the impacting particles compress the agglomerate's surface, which partly passivates the agglomerates against erosion. Due to this effect, the erosion halts for impact velocities up to {approx}30 m s{sup -1} within our error bars. For higher velocities, the erosion is reduced by an order of magnitude. This outcome is explained and confirmed by a numerical model. In a next step, we build an analytical disk model and implement the experimentally found erosive effect. The model shows that erosion is a strong source of micrometer-sized particles in a protoplanetary disk. Finally, we use the stationary solution of this model to explain the amount of micrometer-sized particles in the observational infrared data of Furlan et al.

  20. Metal(loid) speciation and size fractionation in sediment pore water depth profiles examined with a new meso profiling system.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Henning; Fabricius, Anne-Lena; Ecker, Dennis; Ternes, Thomas A; Duester, Lars

    2017-03-23

    In an exemplary incubation study with an anaerobic sediment sampled at an oxbow of the river Lahn in Germany (50°18'56.87″N; 7°37'41.25″E) and contaminated by former mining activity, a novel meso profiling and sampling system (messy) is presented. Messy enables a low invasive, automated sampling of pore water profiles across the sediment water interface (SWI), down to ∼20 cm depth with a spacial resolution of 1 cm. In parallel to the pore water sampling it measures physicochemical sediment parameters such as redox potential and pH value. In an incubation experiment of 151 days the ability of the setup was proven to address several different aspects relevant for fresh water and marine sediment studies: (i) The influence of mechanical disturbance and oxygen induced acidification on the mobility of 13 metals and metalloids (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, U, V, Zn) was quantified based on 11 profiles. The analytes were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Three groups of elements were identified with respect to the release into the pore water and the overlying water under different experimental conditions. (ii) The capability to investigate the impacts of changing physicochemical sediment properties on arsenic and antimony (III/V) speciation is shown. (iii) An approach to obtain information on size fractionation effects and to address the colloidal pore water fractions (0.45 μm-16 μm) was successfully conducted for the elements Ag, As, Cu, Fe and Mn.

  1. Structural characterization of charcoal size-fractions from a burnt Pinus pinea forest by FT-IR, Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francioso, Ornella; Sanchez-Cortes, Santiago; Bonora, Sergio; Roldán, Maria Lorena; Certini, Giacomo

    2011-05-01

    Charcoal is mainly composed by aromatic C but is characterized by several degrees of aromaticity, which complicate its identification and quantification in natural environments by conventional analyses. Charcoal is an almost ubiquitous component of soil, although often occurring in minor amounts. Hence, there is a great interest in studying the charcoal structure and understanding the behavior of charcoal in soils. In soil, it has been demonstrated that the chemical structure of charcoal is also dependant on its particle-size. In this paper we have applied infrared, normal Raman, SERS and SEF spectroscopies to study four size-fractions of charcoal (>2 mm, 2-1 mm, 1-0.5 mm and <0.5 mm) and their alkaline extracts from a burnt Pinus pinea forest. Second derivative FT-IR in agreement with the normal Raman spectroscopy have given information about the size of aromatic rings and the nature of substituted groups in size-fractions of charcoal. Carbon cluster size progressively decreased in the smallest fractions suggesting that higher graphitization and crystallization occurred in the coarsest fraction (>2 mm). The presence of organic N was well evidenced by the vibration of iso-cyanate and cyanamide groups in the fractions. This result is of great environmental importance because N may be immobilized in form of stable molecules like N-heterocyclic poliaromatic structures, and so persists in soils. The soluble organic C (SOC) extracted from charcoal size-fractions did not differ from the bulk charcoal in terms of IR and Raman spectra. Instead SERS and SEF provided further information regarding the ratio between the aromatic component and the aliphatic cross-linking one in studied fractions.

  2. Titanium dioxide food additive (E171) induces ROS formation and genotoxicity: contribution of micro and nano-sized fractions.

    PubMed

    Proquin, Héloïse; Rodríguez-Ibarra, Carolina; Moonen, Carolyn G J; Urrutia Ortega, Ismael M; Briedé, Jacob J; de Kok, Theo M; van Loveren, Henk; Chirino, Yolanda I

    2017-01-01

    Since 1969, the European Union approves food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO2), also known as E171 colouring food additive. E171 is a mixture of micro-sized particles (MPs) and nano-sized particles (NPs). Previous studies have indicated adverse effects of oral exposure to E171, i.e. facilitation of colon tumour growth. This could potentially be partially mediated by the capacity to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present study is to determine whether E171 exposure induces ROS formation and DNA damage in an in vitro model using human Caco-2 and HCT116 cells and to investigate the contribution of the separate MPs and NPs TiO2 fractions to these effects. After suspension of the particles in Hanks' balanced salt solution buffer and cell culture medium with either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or foetal bovine serum, characterization of the particles was performed by dynamic light scattering, ROS formation was determined by electron spin/paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and DNA damage was determined by the comet and micronucleus assays. The results showed that E171, MPs and NPs are stable in cell culture medium with 0.05% BSA. The capacity for ROS generation in a cell-free environment was highest for E171, followed by NPs and MPs. Only MPs were capable to induce ROS formation in exposed Caco-2 cells. E171, MPs and NPs all induced single-strand DNA breaks. Chromosome damage was shown to be induced by E171, as tested with the micronucleus assay in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, E171 has the capability to induce ROS formation in a cell-free environment and E171, MPs and NPs have genotoxic potential. The capacity of E171 to induce ROS formation and DNA damage raises concerns about potential adverse effects associated with E171 (TiO2) in food.

  3. Determination of mineralogy and grain size of the magnetic fraction from outdoor and indoor urban dust from several Bulgarian cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Petar; Jordanova, Neli; Jordanova, Diana

    2014-05-01

    Dust is the most important factor determining urban air quality. The identification of magnetic minerals, carriers of magnetic signal of dust samples, is important for a correct interpretation of concentration, domain state and grain-size indicative parameters. The aim of the present study is to characterize magnetically indoor and outdoor dusts from six big cities in Bulgaria and to link them to degree of pollution of the environment. The aim is also to propose the most effective methods for characterization: thermomagnetic analysis of magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), hysteresis loops. Dust material was collected monthly during the period May 2009- November 2010. The main magnetic mineral in outdoor and indoor dust, identified by thermomagnetic analysis of magnetic susceptibility, is magnetite (Fe3O4). The dominant role of magnetite in determination of magnetic signal of the studied dusts allows the use of hysteresis parameters as proxies for the effective magnetic grain size of ferrimagnetic grains. The calculated ratios Mrs/Ms and Bcr/Bc vary in the intervals (0.055 - 0.1) and (3.08 - 5.14), respectively. The coercivity of magnetic fraction in indoor dust is lower compared to that of outdoor dust. This dependence probably shows that the main source of dust is the outside pollution with PM10. Higher values typical for outdoor dust in comparison with respective sample from indoor dust show that quantity of the paramagnetic minerals is higher in outdoor dust. Probable source of such particles is dust from erosion of soils in the area.

  4. Effects of mixing-induced irradiance fluctuations on nitrogen uptake in size-fractionated coastal phytoplankton communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguer, Jean-François; L'Helguen, Stéphane; Waeles, Matthieu

    2015-03-01

    In coastal waters subjected to strong tidal forcing, phytoplankton populations are exposed to highly variable light regimes. To grow under such fluctuating light environments, phytoplankton adjust their physiological properties. Here, we investigated nitrogen (N) uptake patterns in the western English Channel to determine whether phytoplankton modify their physiological processes involved in N uptake in response to changing irradiance conditions induced by spring-neap tidal cycles. Nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) uptake kinetics as a function of irradiance (VN-E curves) were assessed using 15N tracer techniques on two size fractions (<10 and >10 μm) of phytoplankton collected at 50% and 1% of surface irradiance during two spring-neap tidal cycles. Overall, the results showed that both small and large phytoplankton, whatever their vertical position in the water column, increased their maximum uptake capacity and their light utilization efficiency for the two N substrates following the decrease in vertical mixing intensity. Moreover, the improvement of irradiance conditions at neap tides was of greater benefit for the larger cells than for the smaller ones and was more favorable for NO3- uptake than for NH4+ uptake. These findings show that the light regime fluctuation resulting from the relaxation of tidal mixing during spring-neap tidal cycle leads to profound physiological adjustments of N uptake processes in phytoplankton communities. They suggest that the changes in NO3- uptake by large phytoplankton associated with the fortnightly spring-neap tidal cycle can account for most of the deviation in background productivity in the western English Channel which is based on NH4+ and is dominated by small cells. The dynamic light regime inherent to macrotidal coastal ecosystems could therefore determine, to a large extent, the importance of new vs. regenerated production as well as the size structure of the phytoplankton community.

  5. Particulate organic carbon export fluxes and size-fractionated POC/ 234Th ratios in the Ligurian, Tyrrhenian and Aegean Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speicher, E. A.; Moran, S. B.; Burd, A. B.; Delfanti, R.; Kaberi, H.; Kelly, R. P.; Papucci, C.; Smith, J. N.; Stavrakakis, S.; Torricelli, L.; Zervakis, V.

    2006-11-01

    Measurements of 234Th/ 238U disequilibria and particle size-fractionated (1, 10, 20, 53, 70, 100 μm) organic C and 234Th were made to constrain estimates of the export flux of particulate organic C (POC) from the surface waters of the Ligurian, Tyrrhenian and Aegean Seas in March-June 2004. POC exported from the surface waters (75-100 m depth) averaged 9.2 mmol m -2 d -1 in the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian Seas (2.3±0.5-14.9±3.0 mmol m -2 d -1) and 0.9 mmol m -2 d -1 in the Aegean Sea. These results are comparable to previous measurements of 234Th-derived and sediment-trap POC fluxes from the upper 200 m in the Mediterranean Sea. Depth variations in the POC/ 234Th ratio suggest two possible controls. First, decreasing POC/ 234Th ratios with depth were attributed to preferential remineralization of organic C. Second, the occurrence of maxima or minima in the POC/ 234Th ratio near the DCM suggests influence by phytoplankton dynamics. To assess the accuracy of these data, the empirical 234Th-method was evaluated by quantifying the extent to which the 234Th-based estimate of POC flux, PPOC, deviates from the true flux, FPOC, defined as the p-ratio ( p-ratio= PPOC/FPOC= STh/SPOC, where S=particle sinking rate). Estimates of the p-ratio made using Stokes' Law and the particle size distributions of organic C and 234Th yield values ranging from 0.93-1.45. The proximity of the p-ratio to unity implies that differences in the sinking rates of POC- and 234Th-carrying particles did not bias 234Th-normalized POC fluxes by more than a factor of two.

  6. Organic carbon, water repellency and soil stability to slaking under different crops and managements: a case study at aggregate and intra-aggregate scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordán, A.; García-Moreno, J.; Gordillo-Rivero, Á. J.; Zavala, L. M.; Cerdà, A.

    2014-08-01

    This research studies the distribution of organic C and intensity of water repellency in soil aggregates with different size and in the interior of aggregates from Mediterranean soils under different crops (apricot, citrus and wheat) and management (conventional tilling and no tilling/mulching). For this, undisturbed aggregates were sampled and carefully divided in size fractions (0.25-0.5, 0.5-1, 1-2, 2-5, 5-10 and 10-15 mm) or peeled to obtain separated aggregate layers (exterior, transitional and interior). Organic C content in the fine earth fraction of soils under different crops did not show important variations, although it increased significantly from conventionally tilled to mulched soils. The distribution of organic C content in aggregates with different size varied among soils under different crops, generally increasing with decreasing size. At the intra-aggregate level, organic C concentrated preferably in the exterior layer of aggregates from conventionally tilled soils, probably because of recent organic inputs or leachates. In the case of mulched soils, higher concentrations were observed, but no significant differences among aggregate regions were found. The intensity of water repellency, determined by the ethanol method, did not show great variations among crops, but increased significantly from conventionally tilled to mulched soils. Coarser aggregates were generally wettable, while finer aggregates showed slight water repellency. Regardless of variations in the distribution of organic C in aggregate layers from conventionally tilled soils, great or significant differences in the distribution of water repellency at the intra-aggregate level were not found in any case. Finally, the intensity of water repellency was much more important than the concentration of organic C in the stability to slaking of aggregates.

  7. Acute toxicity of crude oil water accommodated fraction on marine copepods: the relative importance of acclimatization temperature and body size.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhibing; Huang, Yijun; Chen, Quanzhen; Zeng, Jiangning; Xu, Xiaoqun

    2012-10-01

    Recent oil spillage accidents around the world greatly increase harmful risks to marine ecology. This study evaluated the influences of petroleum water accommodated fraction (WAF) on 15 typical species of marine copepods collected from a subtropical bay in East China Sea at different seasons. Copepods showed impaired swimming ability, restlessness, loss of balance, anoxic coma, and even death when they were acutely exposed to the crude oil WAF under laboratory conditions. The LC(50) values (expressed in total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration) indicated that the tolerances of copepods to WAF decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increased exposure duration and natural water temperatures (acclimatization temperature). The sensitivity of the copepods was species-specific (P < 0.01), and there was a significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation between the 48-h LC(50) and body size. Therefore, the small copepod species confront more survival challenges under oil contamination stress, especially in the warm months or regions.

  8. Effects of Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter on Cellular Oxidant Radical Generation in Human Bronchial Epithelial BEAS-2B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Longfei; Rui, Wei; Bai, Ru; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Fang; Ding, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of size-fractionated (i.e., <1; 1–2.5, and 2.5–10 µm in an aerodynamic diameter) ambient particulate matter (PM) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity and cell viability in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). The PM samples were collected from an urban site (uPM) in Beijing and a steel factory site (sPM) in Anshan, China, from March 2013 to December 2014. Metal elements, organic and elemental carbon, and water-soluble inorganic ions in the uPM and sPM were analyzed. The cell viability and ROS generation in PM-exposed BEAS-2B cells were measured by MTS and DCFH-DA. The results showed that both uPM and sPM caused a decrease in the cell viability and an increase in ROS generation. The level of ROS measured in sPM1.0 was approximately triple that in uPM1.0. The results of correlation analysis showed that the ROS activity and cytotoxicity were related to different PM composition. Moreover, deferoxamine (DFO) significantly prevented the increase of ROS generation and the decrease of cell viability. Taken together, our results suggest that the metals absorbed on PM induced oxidant radical generation in BEAS-2B cells that could lead to impairment of pulmonary function. PMID:27171105

  9. Functional fractionation of platelets.

    PubMed

    Haver, V M; Gear, A R

    1981-02-01

    Studies of platelet populations suggest that they are heterogeneous in size, age, and metabolic parameters. In an attempt to correlate these parameters with efficiency of aggregation, a new technique, functional fractionation, was developed. Platelet populations are separated by their differential reactivity to aggregating agents. For example, low doses of ADP (0.1 to 0.7 microM) are added to stirred PRP, after which gentle centrifugation is used to remove aggregates from single unreacted platelets. The loose aggregates can be readily dispersed for comparison of the physical or biochemical properties of the reacted versus unreacted platelets. It was found that reactive platelets were larger (6.5 micrometer3) than unreacted platelets (5.51 micrometer3). No significant difference in density existed between the two populations, and no release of [14C]serotonin from prelabeled platelets occurred during functional fractionation. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the size difference and revealed that in both populations platelets were structurally intact with a normal discoid shape and no significant difference in organelle content. Human platelets most reactive to ADP were also enriched in glycogen (3.6-fold), ATP (1.6-fold), and ADP (twofold), compared with less reactive cells. These "reactive" cells took up more 51[Cr] and contained 1.9 times more surface sialic acid. In an in vivo aging experiment, rats were injected with 75[Se]methionine. Shortly after labeling (1 day), the most reactive platelets possessed the highest amount of 75[Se]. These results reveal that functionally active platelets, which are also larger, are more active metabolically than less reactive platelets, possess a higher negative surface charge, and may be a younger population.

  10. Characteristics of size-fractionated atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals in two typical episodes in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingqing; Ma, Yongliang; Tan, Jihua; Zheng, Naijia; Duan, Jingchun; Sun, Yele; He, Kebin; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2015-10-01

    The abundance and behaviour of metals and water-soluble metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba and Pb) in size-fractionated aerosols were investigated during two typical episodes in Beijing. Water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+ , F-, Cl-, SO42- and NO3-) were also measured. Atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were both found at high levels; for PM2.5, average As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Mn and Pb concentrations were 14.8, 203.3, 2.5, 18.5, 42.6 and 135.3 ng/m3, respectively, and their water-soluble components were 11.1, 1.7, 2.4, 14.5, 19.8 and 97.8 ng/m3, respectively. Daily concentrations of atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were generally in accordance with particle mass. The highest concentrations of metals and water-soluble metals were generally located in coarse mode and droplet mode, respectively. The lowest mass of metals and water-soluble metals was mostly in Aitken mode. The water solubility of all metals was low in Aitken and coarse modes, indicating that freshly emitted metals have low solubility. Metal water solubility generally increased with the decrease in particle size in the range of 0.26-10 μm. The water solubility of metals for PM10 was: 50% ≤ Cd, As, Sb, Pb; 26% < V, Mn, Cu, Zn and Sr ≤ 50%; others ≤20%. Most metals, water-soluble metals and their water solubility increased when polluted air mass came from the near west, near north-west, south-west and south-east of the mainland, and decreased when clean air mass came from the far north-west and far due south. The influence of dust-storms and clean days on water-soluble metals and size distribution was significant; however, the influence of rainfall was negligible. Aerosols with high concentrations of SO42- , K+ and NH4+ might indicate increased potential for human health effects because of their high correlation with water-soluble metals. Industrial emissions contribute substantially to water-soluble metal pollution as water-soluble metals

  11. Crop size, plant aggregation, and microhabitat type affect fruit removal by birds from individual melastome plants in the Upper Amazon.

    PubMed

    Blendinger, Pedro G; Loiselle, Bette A; Blake, John G

    2008-11-01

    We studied the efficiency (proportion of the crop removed) and quantitative effectiveness (number of fruits removed) of dispersal of Miconia fosteri and M. serrulata (Melastomataceae) seeds by birds in lowland tropical wet forest of Ecuador. Specifically, we examined variation in fruit removal in order to reveal the spatial scale at which crop size influences seed dispersal outcome of individual plants, and to evaluate how the effect of crop size on plant dispersal success may be affected by conspecific fruit abundance and by the spatial distribution of frugivore abundance. We established two 9-ha plots in undisturbed terra-firme understory, where six manakin species (Pipridae) disperse most seeds of these two plant species. Mean levels of fruit removal were low for both species, with high variability among plants. In general, plants with larger crop sizes experienced greater efficiency and effectiveness of fruit removal than plants with smaller crops. Fruit removal, however, was also influenced by microhabitat, such as local topography and local neighborhood. Fruit-rich and disperser-rich patches overlapped spatially for M. fosteri but not M. serrulata, nonetheless fruit removal of M. serrulata was still much greater in fruit-rich patches. Fruit removal from individual plants did not decrease in patches with many fruiting conspecifics and, in fact, removal effectiveness was enhanced for M. fosteri with small crop sizes when such plants were in patches with more conspecifics. These results suggest that benefits of attracting dispersers to a patch balanced or outweighed the costs of competition for dispersers. Spatial pattern of fruit removal, a measure of plant fitness, depended on a complex interaction among plant traits, spatial patterns of plant distribution, and disperser behavior.

  12. Transient shear viscosity of weakly aggregating polystyrene latex dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rooij, R.; Potanin, A. A.; van den Ende, D.; Mellema, J.

    1994-04-01

    The transient behavior of the viscosity (stress growth) of a weakly aggregating polystyrene latex dispersion after a step from a high shear rate to a lower shear rate has been measured and modeled. Single particles cluster together into spherical fractal aggregates. The steady state size of these aggregates is determined by the shear stresses exerted on the latter by the flow field. The restructuring process taking place when going from a starting situation with monodisperse spherical aggregates to larger monodisperse spherical aggregates is described by the capture of primary fractal aggregates by growing aggregates until a new steady state is reached. It is assumed that the aggregation mechanism is diffusion limited. The model is valid if the radii of primary aggregates Rprim are much smaller than the radii of the growing aggregates. Fitting the model to experimental data at two volume fractions and a number of step sizes in shear rate yielded physically reasonable values of Rprim at fractal dimensions 2.1≤df≤2.2. The latter range is in good agreement with the range 2.0≤df≤2.3 obtained from steady shear results. The experimental data have also been fitted to a numerical solution of the diffusion equation for primary aggregates for a cell model with moving boundary, also yielding 2.1≤df≤2.2. The range for df found from both approaches agrees well with the range df≊2.1-2.2 determined from computer simulations on diffusion-limited aggregation including restructuring or thermal breakup after formation of bonds. Thus a simple model has been put forward which may capture the basic features of the aggregating model dispersion on a microstructural level and leads to physically acceptable parameter values.

  13. Characterization of Size-Fractionated Airborne Particles Inside an Electronic Waste Recycling Facility and Acute Toxicity Testing in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Ho; Wyrzykowska-Ceradini, Barbara; Touati, Abderrahmane; Krantz, Q Todd; Dye, Janice A; Linak, William P; Gullett, Brian; Gilmour, M Ian

    2015-10-06

    Disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in landfills, incinerators, or at rudimentary recycling sites can lead to the release of toxic chemicals into the environment and increased health risks. Developing e-waste recycling technologies at commercial facilities can reduce the release of toxic chemicals and efficiently recover valuable materials. While these e-waste operations represent a vast improvement over previous approaches, little is known about environmental releases, workplace exposures, and potential health impacts. In this study, airborne particulate matter (PM) was measured at various locations within a modern U.S.-based e-waste recycling facility that utilized mechanical processing. In addition, composite size fractionated PM (coarse, fine and ultrafine) samples were collected, extracted, chemically analyzed, and given by oropharyngeal aspiration to mice or cultured with lung slices for lung toxicity tests. Indoor total PM concentrations measured during the study ranged from 220 to 1200 μg/m(3). In general, the coarse PM (2.5-10 μm) was 3-4 times more abundant than fine/ultrafine PM (<2.5 μm). The coarse PM contained higher levels of Ni, Pb, and Zn (up to 6.8 times) compared to the fine (0.1-2.5 μm) and ultrafine (<0.1 μm) PM. Compared to coarse PM measurements from a regional near-roadway study, Pb and Ni were enriched 170 and 20 times, respectively, in the indoor PM, with other significant enrichments (>10 times) observed for Zn and Sb, modest enrichments (>5 times) for Cu and Sr, and minor enrichments (>2 times) for Cr, Cd, Mn, Ca, Fe, and Ba. Negligible enrichment (<2 times) or depletion (<1 time) were observed for Al, Mg, Ti, Si, and V. The coarse PM fraction elicited significant pro-inflammatory responses in the mouse lung at 24 h postexposure compared to the fine and ultrafine PM, and similar toxicity outcomes were observed in the lung slice model. We conclude that exposure to coarse PM from the facility caused substantial inflammation in the

  14. Speciation of organic matter in sandy soil size fractions as revealed by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) and FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; de la Rosa, José M.; González-Pérez, José A.

    2015-04-01

    This research deals with the assessment of organic matter structural differences in soil physical fractions before and after lipid extractions. Soil samples were collected in sandy soils, Arenosols (WRB 2006) from the Doñana National Park (SW Spain) under different vegetation cover: cork oak (Quercus suber, QS), eagle fern (Pteridium aquilinum, PA), pine (Pinus pinea, PP) and rockrose (Halimium halimifolium, HH). Two size fractions; coarse (C: 1-2 mm) and fine (F: 0.05-0.25 mm) were studied from each soil. . In addition, the two fractions from each soil were exhaustively Soxhlet extracted with a Dichlorometane-Methanol (3:1) mixture to obtain the lipid-free fractions (LF) from each size fraction (LFC and LFF). The composition of the organic matter at a molecular level in the different soil fractions was approached by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) and FT-IR spectroscopy. These techniques are complementary and have been found suitable for the structural characterization of complex organic matrices (Moldoveanu, 1998; Piccolo and Stevenson, 1982); whereas Py-GC/MS provides detailed structural information of individual compounds present and a finger-printing of soil organic matter, FT-IR is informative about major functional groups present. The advantages of these techniques are well known: no need for pretreatment are fast to perform, highly reproducible and only small amount of samples are needed. Soil size fractions show contrasting differences in organic matter content (C 4-7 % and F > 40 %) and conspicuous differences were found in the pyrolysis products released by the fractions studied. The main families of pyrolysis compounds have well defined macromolecular precursors, such as lignin, polypeptides, polysaccharides and lipids (González-Vila et al., 2001). The C fractions yield higher relative abundance of lignin and polysaccharide derived pyrolysis compounds. Regarding the differences in the soil organic matter as affected by the different vegetation covers

  15. Aggregation kinetics of latex microspheres in alcohol-water media.

    PubMed

    Odriozola, G; Schmitt, A; Callejas-Fernández, J; Hidalgo-Alvarez, R

    2007-06-15

    We report zeta potential and aggregation kinetics data on colloidal latex particles immersed in water-alcohol media. Zeta potential values show absolute maxima for volume fractions of alcohol of 0.10 and 0.05 for ethanol and 1-propanol, respectively. For methanol, no maximum of the absolute value of the zeta potential was found. Aggregation kinetics was studied by means of a single-cluster optical sizing equipment and for alcohol volume fractions ranging from 0 to 0.1. The aggregation processes are induced by adding different potassium bromide concentrations to the samples. We expected to find a slowdown of the overall aggregation kinetics for ethanol and 1-propanol, and no significant effect for methanol, as compared with pure water data. That is, we expected the zeta potential to govern the overall aggregation rate. However, we obtained a general enhancement of the aggregation kinetics for methanol and 1-propanol and a general slowdown of the aggregation rate for ethanol. In addition, aggregation data under ethanol show a slower kinetics for large electrolyte concentration than that obtained for intermediate electrolyte concentration. We think that these anomalous behaviors are linked to layering, changes in hydrophobicity of particle surfaces due to alcohol adsorption, complex ion-water-alcohol-surface structuring, and competition between alcohol-surface adsorption and alcohol-alcohol clustering.

  16. Grain size determination in nano-scale polycrystalline aggregates by precession illumination-hollow cone dark field imaging in the transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Kulovits, A.K. Facco, G.; Wiezorek, J.M.K.

    2012-01-15

    Precession illumination hollow cone dark field (PI-HCDF) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provides high contrast multi-beam dark field images, which are suitable for effective and robust grain size measurements in nano-scale polycrystalline aggregates. Precession illumination with slightly converged electron beam probes and precession angles up to 3 Degree-Sign has been produced using a computer-controlled system using a JEOL JEM 2000FX TEM instrument. Theoretical and practical aspects of the experimental technique are discussed using example precession illumination hollow cone diffraction patterns from single crystalline NiAl and the importance of selecting the appropriate precession angle for PI-HCDF image formation and interpretation is described. Results obtained for precession illumination are compared with those of conventional parallel beam illumination experiments. Nanocrystalline Al has been used to evaluate the influence of the precession angle on PI-HCDF image contrast with a focus on grain size analysis. PI-HCDF imaging has been applied for grain size measurements in regions of a nanocrystalline Al thin film adjacent to the edge of a pulsed laser melted and rapidly solidified region and determined the dimensions of a heat-affected zone. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New TEM method for grain size measurements combines TEM resolution with obtainability of statistically significant data sets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use precession illumination to produce time precession illumination hollow cone diffraction patterns PI-HCDP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contrast in dark field images (PI-HCDF) formed from PI-HCDP is easy to interpret as dynamical effects are reduced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PI-HCDFs use several time-averaged g-rings simultaneously and contain more information than conventional DF-images. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Easy contrast interpretation and less dark field images required, allows fast, robust and

  17. Properties and inflammatory effects of various size fractions of ambient particulate matter from Beijing on A549 and J774A.1 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Li, Kexin; Jin, Wenjie; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Yuzhong; Shen, Guofeng; Wang, Rong; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Huang, Ye; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Xilong; Li, Xiqing; Liu, Wenxin; Cao, Hongying; Tao, Shu

    2013-09-17

    Particulate matter (PM) is a major ambient air pollutant causing millions of premature deaths each year in China. The toxicity of PM is property and size dependent. In this study, ambient PM samples collected in Beijing were divided into five size fractions with nominal aerodynamic ranges of <0.40, 0.40-1.1, 1.1-3.3, 3.3-5.8, and 5.8-10 μm. Individual size fractions were characterized for a number of properties including particle size distribution, specific surface area, zeta potential, dithiothreitol (DTT)-based redox ability, and contents of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), selected metals, and endotoxin. Human adenocarcinomic alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and small mouse monocyte-macrophage cell line J774A.1 were tested for their relative viabilities and inflammatory effects (interleukine-8 for A549 and tumor necrosis factor-α for J774A.1) after exposure to PM of various sizes. It was found that PM specific area was positively correlated with WSOC, high molecular weight PAHs, DTT-based redox ability, negatively correlated with surface zeta potential and lithophile metals. Several trace metals from combustion sources were enriched in intermediate size fractions. For both endotoxin concentrations of the PM and PM induced inflammatory cytokine expressions by the two cell lines, there were general increasing trends as PM size increased with an exception of the finest fraction, which induced the highest inflammatory effects. It seems that the size dependence of cytokine expression was associated with a number of properties including endotoxin content, zeta potential, settling velocity, metal content, and DTT-based redox ability.

  18. Artificial soil studies reveal domain-specific preferences of microorganisms for the colonisation of different soil minerals and particle size fractions.

    PubMed

    Hemkemeyer, Michael; Pronk, Geertje J; Heister, Katja; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Martens, Rainer; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2014-12-01

    Artificial soils were used in this study to analyse the importance of different mineral compositions for the diversity of soil microorganisms. Variants containing montmorillonite (MT), illite (IL) and illite + ferrihydrite (IL+FH) were compared to each other. Bulk material and their particle size fractions, as obtained by ultracentrifugation and wet-sieving, were characterised for abundance and diversity of Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi. Samples were analysed 6 and 18 months after inoculation with sterilised manure and a soil-extracted microbial community. Generally, IL, and even more pronouncedly IL+FH, supported the growth of more Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi, than MT. This trend was most pronounced in the finest fraction (< 20 μm). The structural diversity of Fungi responded more strongly to the different mineral compositions than the Bacteria, for which particle size fractions were more important. Archaea established a specific community in the finest fraction and showed no response to the different mineral compositions. Overall, this study demonstrates that the mineral composition and the particle size fractions have specific and different selective effects on the three domains and, thus, suggests that these factors strongly contribute to niche separation and the high diversity of microbial communities in natural soils with complex mineral compositions.

  19. Size Dependent Lipidomic Analysis of Urinary Exosomes from Patients with Prostate Cancer by Flow Field-Flow Fractionation and Nanoflow Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Joon Seon; Lee, Jong Cheol; Byeon, Seul Kee; Rha, Koon Ho; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2017-02-21

    Exosomes are membrane-bound extracellular vesicles involved in intercellular communication and tumor cell metastasis. In this study, flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF) was utilized to separate urinary exosomes by size, demonstrating a significant difference in exosome sizes between healthy controls and patients with prostate cancer (PCa). Exosome fractions of different sizes were collected for microscopic analysis during an FlFFF run and evaluated with exosome marker proteins using Western blot analysis. The results indicated that exosomes of different sizes originated from different types of cells. Collected exosome fractions were further examined using nanoflow ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nUPLC-ESI-MS/MS) for lipidomic analysis. A total of 162 lipids (from 286 identified) were quantified using a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method. The overall amount of lipids increased by 1.5- to 2-fold in patients with PCa and degree of increase was more significant in the smaller fractions (diameter <150 nm) than in the larger ones (diameter >150 nm) some classes of lipids. In addition, neutral lipids like diacylglycerol (DAG) and triacylglycerol (TAG) decreased in all exosomes without size dependency. Moreover, a dramatic increase in 22:6/22:6-phosphatidylglycerol (PG) was observed and significant decrease in (16:0,16:0)- and (16:1, 18:1)-DAG species (nearly 5-fold) and high abundant TAG species (>2.5-fold) was observed in patients with PCa. The results of this study indicate that FlFFF can be employed for the high-speed screening of urinary exosome sizes in patients with PCa and lipidomic analysis of the fractionated exosomes has potential for developing and distinguishing biomarkers of PCa.

  20. [Nitrogen Fraction Distributions and Impacts on Soil Nitrogen Mineralization in Different Vegetation Restorations of Karst Rocky Desertification].

    PubMed

    Hu, Ning; Ma, Zhi-min; Lan, Jia-cheng; Wu, Yu-chun; Chen, Gao-qi; Fu, Wa-li; Wen, Zhi-lin; Wang, Wen-jing

    2015-09-01

    In order to illuminate the impact on soil nitrogen accumulation and supply in karst rocky desertification area, the distribution characteristics of soil nitrogen pool for each class of soil aggregates and the relationship between aggregates nitrogen pool and soil nitrogen mineralization were analyzed in this study. The results showed that the content of total nitrogen, light fraction nitrogen, available nitrogen and mineral nitrogen in soil aggregates had an increasing tendency along with the descending of aggregate-size, and the highest content was occurred in < 0. 25 mm. The content of nitrogen fractions for all aggregate-classes followed in the order of abandoned land < grass land < brush land < brush-arbor land < arbor land in different sample plots. Artificial forest lands had more effects on the improvement of the soil nitrogen than honeysuckle land. In this study it also showed the nitrogen stockpiling quantity of each aggregate-size class was differed in all aggregate-size classes, in which the content of nitrogen fraction in 5-10 mm and 2-5 mm classes of soil aggregate-size were the highest. And it meant that soil nutrient mainly was stored in large size aggregates. Large size aggregates were significant to the storage of soil nutrient. For each class of soil aggregate-size, the contribution of the nitrogen stockpiling quantity of 0. 25-1 mm class to soil net nitrogen mineralization quantity was the biggest, and following >5mm and 2-5 mm classes, and the others were the smallest. With the positive vegetation succession, the weight percentage of > 5 mm aggregate-size classes was improved and the nitrogen storage of macro-aggregates also was increased. Accordingly, the capacity of soil supply mineral nitrogen and storage organic nitrogen were intensified.

  1. Aggregate distribution and associated organic carbon influenced by cover crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barquero, Irene; García-González, Irene; Benito, Marta; Gabriel, Jose Luis; Quemada, Miguel; Hontoria, Chiquinquirá

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow with cover crops during the non-cropping period seems to be a good alternative to diminish soil degradation by enhancing soil aggregation and increasing organic carbon. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of replacing fallow by different winter cover crops (CC) on the aggregate distribution and C associated of an Haplic Calcisol. The study area was located in Central Spain, under semi-arid Mediterranean climate. A 4-year field trial was conducted using Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Vetch (Vicia sativa L.) as CC during the intercropping period of maize (Zea mays L.) under irrigation. All treatments were equally irrigated and fertilized. Maize was directly sown over CC residues previously killed in early spring. Composite samples were collected at 0-5 and 5-20 cm depths in each treatment on autumn of 2010. Soil samples were separated by wet sieving into four aggregate-size classes: large macroaggregates ( >2000 µm); small macroaggregates (250-2000 µm); microaggregates (53-250 µm); and < 53 µm (silt + clay size). Organic carbon associated to each aggregate-size class was measured by Walkley-Black Method. Our preliminary results showed that the aggregate-size distribution was dominated by microaggregates (48-53%) and the <53 µm fraction (40-44%) resulting in a low mean weight diameter (MWD). Both cover crops increased aggregate size resulting in a higher MWD (0.28 mm) in comparison with fallow (0.20 mm) in the 0-5 cm layer. Barley showed a higher MWD than fallow also in 5-20 cm layer. Organic carbon concentrations in aggregate-size classes at top layer followed the order: large macroaggregates > small macroaggregates > microaggregates > silt + clay size. Treatments did not influence C concentration in aggregate-size classes. In conclusion, cover crops improved soil structure increasing the proportion of macroaggregates and MWD being Barley more effective than Vetch at subsurface layer.

  2. Effective thermal conductivity of metal and non-metal particulate composites with interfacial thermal resistance at high volume fraction of nano to macro-sized spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Faroughi, Salah Aldin; Huber, Christian

    2015-02-07

    In this study, we propose a theoretical model to compute the effective thermal conductivity of metal and dielectric spherical particle reinforced composites with interfacial thermal resistance. We consider a wide range of filler volume fraction with sizes ranging from nano- to macro-scale. The model, based on the differential effective medium theory, accounts for particle interactions through two sets of volume fraction corrections. The first correction accounts for a finite volume of composite and the second correction introduces a self-crowding factor that allows us to develop an accurate model for particle interaction even for high volume fraction of fillers. The model is examined to other published models, experiments, and numerical simulations for different types of composites. We observe an excellent agreement between the model and published datasets over a wide range of particle volume fractions and material properties of the composite constituents.

  3. Stimulus-responsive Au@(MeO2MAx-co-OEGMAy) nanoparticles stabilized by non-DLVO interactions: implications of ionic strength and copolymer (x:y) fraction on aggregation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Gambinossi, Filippo; Chanana, Munish; Mylon, Steven E; Ferri, James K

    2014-02-25

    Functionalized nanoparticles can assist in stabilizing fluid-fluid interfaces; however, developing and applying the appropriate surface modification presents a challenge because successful application of these nanomaterials for biotechnological, food processing, and environmental applications requires their long-term stability in elevated ionic strength media. This work studies stimulus responsive polymeric materials based on random copolymers of di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (x = MeO2MA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (y= OEGMA) which, when grafted to gold nanoparticles, show significant, tunable, colloidal stability. The nanoparticles Au@(MeO2MAx-co-OEGMAy) display tunable, reversible aggregation that is highly dependent on the (x:y) ratio and ionic strength. Effects of these parameters on the initial rate constant of aggregation (k11) are studied by time-resolved dynamic light scattering (TR-DLS) experiments. At the same nanoparticle concentration, a strong sensitivity to salt concentration is observed. Over less than 300 mM increase in NaCl concentration, we observed a two-order of magnitude increase in aggregation rate constants, 4.2 × 10(-20) < k11 < 1.8 × 10(-18) m(3)s(-1). Additionally, for the same gold nanoparticles, a higher fraction of OEGMA requires a higher salt concentration to induce aggregation. A linear relationship between the critical NaCl coagulation concentration (CCC) and the copolymer composition is observed. Analysis of the experimental data with an extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (xDLVO) theory that includes hydration and osmotic forces is used to explain the stability of these systems. We find the hydration pressure, 2.4 < P(h,0) < 7.2 MPa, scales linearly both with the osmotic pressure and the OEGMA monomer concentration (5 < y < 20%). Specific knowledge of P(h,0)(y, C(NaCl)) enables design of both aggregation kinetics and stability as a function of the copolymer ratio and external

  4. Determination of degradation rates of organic substances in the unsaturated soil zone depending on the grain size fractions of various soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Thomas; Stefan, Catalin; Goersmeyer, Nora

    2015-04-01

    Rate and extent of the biological degradation of organic substances during transport through the unsaturated soil zone is decisively influenced by the chemical and physical properties of the pollutants such as water solubility, toxicity and molecular structure. Furthermore microbial degradation processes are also influenced by soil-specific properties. An important parameter is the soil grain size distribution on which the pore volume and the pore size depends. Changes lead to changes in air and water circulation as well as preferred flow paths. Transport capacity of water inclusive nutrients is lower in existing bad-drainable fine pores in soils with small grain size fractions than in well-drainable coarse pores in a soil with bigger grain size fractions. Because fine pores are saturated with water for a longer time than the coarse pores and oxygen diffusion in water is ten thousand times slower than in air, oxygen is replenished much slower in soils with small grain size fractions. As a result life and growth conditions of the microorganisms are negatively affected. This leads to less biological activity, restricted degradation/mineralization of pollutants or altered microbial processes. The aim of conducted laboratory column experiments was to study the correlation between the grain size fractions respectively pore sizes, the oxygen content and the biodegradation rate of infiltrated organic substances. Therefore two columns (active + sterile control) were filled with different grain size fractions (0,063-0,125 mm, 0,2-0,63 mm and 1-2 mm) of soils. The sterile soil was inoculated with a defined amount of a special bacteria culture (sphingobium yanoikuae). A solution with organic substances glucose, oxalic acid, sinaphylic alcohol and nutrients was infiltrated from the top in intervals. The degradation of organic substances was controlled by the measurement of dissolved organic carbon in the in- and outflow of the column. The control of different pore volumes

  5. Development and application of an inhalation bioaccessibility method (IBM) for lead in the PM10 size fraction of soil.

    PubMed

    Boisa, Ndokiari; Elom, Nwabueze; Dean, John R; Deary, Michael E; Bird, Graham; Entwistle, Jane A

    2014-09-01

    An approach for assessing the inhalation bioaccessibility of Pb in the PM10 size fraction is presented, using an in vitro simulated epithelial lung fluid to represent the extracellular environment of the lung. The developed inhalation bioaccessibility method (IBM) is applied to a range of urban surface soils and mining wastes obtained from Mitrovica, Kosovo, a site where impacts upon human health following exposure to Pb have been internationally publicised. All Pb determinations were undertaken by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The pseudo-total concentration of Pb (microwave acid digestion using aqua-regia) varied between matrices: smelter (20,900-72,800mgkg(-1)), topsoil (274-13,700mgkg(-1)), and tailings (2990mgkg(-1)-25,300mgkg(-1)). The in vitro inhalation bioaccessibility was typically several orders of magnitude lower: smelter (7.0-965mgkg(-1)), topsoil (9.8-1060mgkg(-1)), and tailings (0.7mgkg(-1)-49.2mgkg(-1)). The % inhalation bioaccessibility ranged from 0.02 to 11.0%, with the higher inhalation bioaccessible Pb concentrations being observed for samples from the Bosniak Mahalla area of Mitrovica (an area proposed for the relocation of internally displaced peoples). The estimated inhalation dose (for adults) calculated from the PM10 pseudo-total Pb concentration ranged from 0.369 to 1.284μgkg(-1)BWday(-1) (smelter), 0.005-0.242μgkg(-1)BWday(-1) (topsoil), and 0.053-0.446μgkg(-1)BWday(-1) (tailings). When daily inhalation doses were calculated using the bioaccessible Pb concentration the modelled exposure doses were much lower: smelter (0.0001-0.0170μgkg(-1)BWday(-1)), topsoil (0.0002-0.0187μgkg(-1)BWday(-1)) and tailings (0.0001-0.0009μgkg(-1)BWday(-1)). Modelled for the neutral pH conditions of the interstitial lung environment, the results indicate a low potential inhalation bioaccessibility for Pb in these samples. Given the already elevated environmental Pb burden experienced by the local population, where significant

  6. The potential of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation hyphenated to multiple detectors for the quantification and size estimation of silica nanoparticles in a food matrix.

    PubMed

    Heroult, Julien; Nischwitz, Volker; Bartczak, Dorota; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi

    2014-06-01

    This work represents a first systematic approach to the size-based elemental quantification and size estimation of metal(loid) oxide nanoparticles such as silica (SiO2) in a real food matrix using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled online with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and multi-angle light scattering (MALS) and offline with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Coffee creamer was selected as the model sample since it is known to contain silica as well as metal oxides such as titania at the milligramme per kilogramme levels. Optimisation of sample preparation conditions such as matrix-to-solvent ratio, defatting with organic solvents and sonication time that may affect nanoparticle size and size distribution in suspensions was investigated. Special attention was paid to the selection of conditions that minimise particle transformation during sample preparation and analysis. The coffee creamer matrix components were found to stabilise food grade SiO2 particles in comparison with water suspensions whilst no significant effect of defatting using hexane was found. The use of sample preparation procedures that mimic food cooking in real life was also investigated regarding their effect on particle size and particle size distribution of silica nanoparticles in the investigated food matrix; no significant effect of the water temperature ranging from ambient temperature to 60 °C was observed. Field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (FFF-ICP-MS) analysis of extracts of both unspiked coffee creamer and coffee creamer spiked with food grade silicon dioxide, using different approaches for size estimation, enabled determination of SiO2 size-based speciation. Element-specific detection by ICP-MS and post-FFF calibration with elemental calibration standards was used to determine the elemental composition of size fractions separated online by FFF

  7. Organic carbon, water repellency and soil stability to slaking at aggregate and intra-aggregate scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordán López, Antonio; García-Moreno, Jorge; Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel J.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Cerdà, Artemi; Alanís, Nancy; Jiménez-Compán, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    (about 10 mm in size) selected per treatment (mulched or conventional tillage) and crop (apricot, citrus and wheat). In this case, every set of aggregates was randomly divided in three groups (n = 30) for assessing stability to slaking, WR and OC, respectively. OC content in the fine earth fraction of soils under different crops did not show important variations, although it increased significantly from conventionally tilled to mulched soils. The distribution of OC content in aggregates with different size varied among soils under different crops, generally increasing with decreasing size. At the intra-aggregate level, OC concentrated preferably in the exterior layer of differently sized aggregates and of aggregate coatings and interior from conventionally tilled soils, probably because of recent organic inputs or leachates. In the case of mulched soils, higher concentrations were observed, but no significant differences among aggregate regions were found. The intensity of water repellency, determined by the ethanol method, did not show great variations among differently sized aggregates under different crops in the 0-10 cm layer, but increased significantly from conventionally tilled to mulched soils. Coarser aggregates were generally wettable, while finer aggregates showed slight water repellency. Regardless of variations in the distribution of OC in different layers of aggregate from conventionally tilled soils, great or significant differences in the distribution of water repellency at the intra-aggregate level were not found. In case of mulched soils such differences were not significant. Finally, the intensity of water repellency was much more important than the concentration of OC in the stability to slaking of aggregates.

  8. Tracking the behavior of different size fractions of dissolved organic matter in a full-scale advanced drinking water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Quang, Viet Ly; Choi, Ilhwan; Hur, Jin

    2015-11-01

    In this study, five different dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions, defined based on a size exclusion chromatography with simultaneous detection of organic carbon (OCD) and ultraviolet (UVD), were quantitatively tracked with a treatment train of coagulation/flocculation-sand filtration-ozonation-granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration in a full-scale advanced drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). Five DOM samples including raw water were taken after each treatment process in the DWTP every month over the period of three years. A higher abundance of biopolymer (BP) fraction was found in the raw water during spring and winter than in the other seasons, suggesting an influence of algal bloom and/or meltwater on DOM composition. The greater extent of removal was observed upon the coagulation/flocculation for high-molecular-weight fractions including BP and humic substances (HS) and aromatic moieties, while lower sized fractions were preferentially removed by the GAC filtration. Ozone treatment produced the fraction of low-molecular-weight neutrals probably resulting from the breakdown of double-bonded carbon structures by ozone oxidation. Coagulation/flocculation was the only process that revealed significant effects of influent DOM composition on the treatment efficiency, as revealed by a high correlation between the DOM removal rate and the relative abundance of HS for the raw water. Our study demonstrated that SEC-OCD-UVD was successful in monitoring size-based DOM composition for the advanced DWTP, providing an insight into optimizing the treatment options and the operational conditions for the removal of particular fractions within the bulk DOM.

  9. Particle Aggregation During Fe(III) Bioreduction in Nontronite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaisi, D. P.; Dong, H.; Hi, Z.; Kim, J.

    2005-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the rate and mechanism of particle aggregation during bacterial Fe (III) reduction in different size fractions of nontronite and to investigate the role of different factors contributing to particle aggregation. To achieve this goal, microbial Fe(III) reduction experiments were performed with lactate as an electron donor, Fe(III) in nontronite as an electron acceptor, and AQDS as an electron shuttle in bicarbonate buffer using Shewanella putrefaceins CN32. These experiments were performed with and without Na- pyrophosphate as a dispersant in four size fractions of nontronite (0.12-0.22, 0.41-0.69, 0.73-0.96 and 1.42-1.8 mm). The rate of nontronite aggregation during the Fe(III) bioreduction was measured by analyzing particle size distribution using photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and SEM images analysis. Similarly, the changes in particle morphology during particle aggregation were determined by analyses of SEM images. Changes in particle surface charge were measured with electrophoretic mobility analyzer. The protein and carbohydrate fraction of EPS produced by cells during Fe(III) bioreduction was measured using Bradford and phenol-sulfuric acid extraction method, respectively. In the presence of the dispersant, the extent of Fe(III) bioreduction was 11.5-12.2% within the first 56 hours of the experiment. There was no measurable particle aggregation in control experiments. The PCS measurements showed that the increase in the effective diameter (95% percentile) was by a factor of 3.1 and 1.9 for particle size of 0.12-0.22 mm and 1.42-1.80 mm, respectively. The SEM image analyses also gave the similar magnitude of increase in particle size. In the absence of the dispersant, the extent of Fe(III) bioreduction was 13.4-14.5% in 56 hours of the experiment. The rate of aggregation was higher than that in the presence of the dispersant. The increase in the effective diameter (95% percentile) was by a factor of 13.6 and 4.1 for

  10. Carbon and nitrogen contents in particle-size fractions of topsoil along a 3000 km aridity gradient in grasslands of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Guang; Sistla, Seeta A.; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Lü, Xiao-Tao; Han, Xing-Guo

    2016-06-01

    Climate factors such as aridity significantly influence soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks in terrestrial ecosystems. Further, soil texture plays an important role in driving changes of soil C and N contents at regional scale. However, it remains uncertain whether such changes resulted from the variation of different soil particle-size factions and/or the C and N concentrations in those fractions. We examined the distribution of total C and N in both bulk soil and different soil particle-size fractions, including sand (53-2000 µm), silt (2-53 µm), and clay (< 2 µm), along a 3000 km transect in arid and semi-arid grasslands of northern China. Across the whole transect, sand content was positively and silt content was negatively correlated with increasing aridity. Carbon content in bulk soils (0-10 cm) ranged from 4.36 to 46.16 Mg C ha-1, while N content ranged from 0.22 to 4.28 Mg N ha-1 across different sampling sites on the transect. The total C and N concentrations and contents in bulk soils as well as in the three particle-size fractions tended to be negatively correlated with aridity. The concentrations and contents of total C and N in bulk soils were positively correlated with silt and clay contents and negatively correlated with sand content. Positive correlations were observed between the concentrations and contents of C or N in bulk soils and the C or N concentrations in the three soil particle-size fractions. By characterizing such a large scale aridity gradient, our results highlight that aridity would decrease soil C and N contents both by favoring increased sand content and by decreasing C and N concentrations in all the three soil fractions. These patterns thus have significant implications for understanding soil C and N sequestration under scenarios of increasing aridity in global drylands that are predicted to occur this century.

  11. The influence of SiC particle size and volume fraction on the thermal conductivity of spark plasma sintered UO2-SiC composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Sunghwan; Baney, Ronald; Subhash, Ghatu; Tulenko, James

    2013-11-01

    This study examines the influence of Silicon Carbide (SiC) particle addition on thermal conductivity of UO2-SiC composite pellets. UO2 powder and β-SiC particles of different sizes and of different volume fractions were mechanically mixed and sintered at 1350-1450 °C for 5 min by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The particle size (0.6-55 μm diameter) and volume fraction (5-20%) of SiC were systematically varied to investigate their influence on the resulting UO2-SiC composite pellet microstructure and the thermal properties. It was found that SiC particle size less than 16.9 μm with larger volume fraction is more effective for improving the thermal conductivity of the fuel pellets. Scanning Electron Microscopy examination revealed micro-cracking and interfacial debonding in the composites containing larger size SiC particles (16.9 and 55 μm) which resulted in reduced thermal conductivity. For the UO2-SiC composite pellets containing 1 μm diameter SiC particles, the thermal conductivity increased almost linearly with volume fraction of particles. However, the addition of a larger volume fraction of SiC reduces the amount of heavy metal in the composite pellet and therefore a higher U-235 enrichment is necessary to compensate for the heavy metal loss. The experimental thermal conductivity values of the UO2-SiC composite pellets are in good agreement with the theoretical values based on the available model in the literature.

  12. Study of speciation and size fractionation of trace element between soil solution, bog, river and lake within a boreal watershed (North Karelia, NW Russia) using fractional filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilina, Svetlana M.; Lapitsky, Sergey A.; Alekhin, Yuriy V.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Viers, Jerome

    2010-05-01

    the range of 0.1 micron - 100 kDa. The changing of REEs concentrations occurred in the fraction smaller than 100 kDa for river water and in the fraction larger than 100 kDa in the soil solution. Concerning the evolution of element concentration in the system "soil solution - nourishing bog - river - lake", the concentration of Ca and Mg increases (with a little decrease in the stage "the nourishing bog - the middle current - the mouth"), and the concentration of Cu, Ni, Cr, Ti, Al decreases (with a slight increase in the interval "the nourishing swamp - the middle current - the mouth). The lanthanides have a maximum of their concentration in the river mouth and the minimum in the lake. Concentration of Fe, Zn in the soil solution is an order of magnitude higher than in the river and lake water. The ratio Fe / Me (where Me = Al, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, Mn) naturally decreases in the course of filtration, whereas the ratio of Fe to Ti increases in a series of consecutive filtrates of soil solution. These observations can be interpreted as a result of interplay between the processes of TE leaching from soil and peat, complexation with colloids in the lake water and microbiological transformation of colloids in the course of the river flow and in the lake water. Results of the present study allow straightforward evaluation of the transformation of TE colloidal status between the site of their origin, migration and consumption (deposition) The work is executed at a Russian Federal Property Fund and CNRS support (№№ 08-05-00312_a, 07-05-92212-CNRS_a).

  13. Size-based speciation of iron in clay mineral particles by gravitational field-flow fractionation with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantiwas, Rattikan; Beckett, Ronald; Grudpan, Kate

    2005-01-01

    Gravitational field-flow fractionation (FFF) coupled to UV and ETAAS detectors has been tested for micron-size particles in the range of 5-20 μm using three Fe-rich clay samples. The iron content estimated after aqua regia extraction was about 20-40 mg kg -1. The ETAAS analysis was performed both off-line from collected fractions and in an online continuous sampling mode using a specially designed flow through vial placed in the autosampler of the ETAAS. Comparison of the direct injection method with total analysis after aqua regia digestion shows that slurry injection of the dilute samples in the gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF) effluent is quite efficient in these samples. In the majority of cases, more than 90% recovery was obtained for the slurry injection method. Fe mass-based particle size distributions and Fe concentration versus particle diameter plots can be generated using certain assumptions. This provides detailed information on size-based speciation of particulate samples. Generally, the Fe concentrations in the particles decreased slightly with an increase in particle size as is often found for soil and sediment samples.

  14. Carbon storage potential in size-density fractions from semi-natural grassland ecosystems with different productivities over varying soil depths.

    PubMed

    Breulmann, Marc; Boettger, Tatjana; Buscot, François; Gruendling, Ralf; Schulz, Elke

    2016-03-01

    Researchers have increasingly recognised a profound need for more information on SOC stocks in the soil and the factors governing their stability and dynamics. Many questions still remain unanswered about the interplay between changes in plant communities and the extent to which changes in aboveground productivity affect the carbon dynamics in soils through changes in its quantity and quality. Therefore, the main aim of this research was to examine the SOC accumulation potential of semi-natural grasslands of different productivities and determine the distribution of SOM fractions over varying soil depth intervals (0-10, 10-20, 20-30 30-50 50-80 and 80+cm). SOM fractionation was considered as a relative measure of stability to separate SOM associated with clay minerals from SOM of specific light densities less than 2 g cm(-3) (size-density fractionation). Two clay-associated fractions (CF1, <1 μm; and CF2, 1-2 μm) and two light fractions (LF1, <1.8 g cm(-3); and LF2, 1.8-2.0 g cm(-3)) were separated. The stability of these fractions was characterised by their carbon hot water extractability (CHWE) and stable carbon isotope composition. In the semi-natural grasslands studied, most OC was stored in the top 30 cm, where turnover is rapid. Effects of low productivity grasslands became only significantly apparent when fractional OC contributions of total SOM was considered (CF1 and LF1). In deeper soil depths OC was largely attributed to the CF1 fraction of low productivity grasslands. We suggest that the majority of OM in deeper soil depth intervals is microbially-derived, as evidenced by decreasing C/N ratios and decreasing δ(13)C values. The hot water extraction and natural δ(13)C abundance, employed here allowed the characterisation of SOM stabilisation properties, however how climatic changes affect the fate of OM within different soil depth intervals is still unknown.

  15. Impact of aggregate formation on the viscosity of protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Nicoud, Lucrèce; Lattuada, Marco; Yates, Andrew; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2015-07-21

    Gaining knowledge on the stability and viscosity of concentrated therapeutic protein solutions is of great relevance to the pharmaceutical industry. In this work, we borrow key concepts from colloid science to rationalize the impact of aggregate formation on the changes in viscosity of a concentrated monoclonal antibody solution. In particular, we monitor the kinetics of aggregate growth under thermal stress by static and dynamic light scattering, and we follow the rise in solution viscosity by measuring the diffusion coefficient of tracer nanoparticles with dynamic light scattering. Moreover, we characterize aggregate morphology in the frame of the fractal geometry. We show that the curves of the increase in viscosity with time monitored at three different protein concentrations collapse on one single master curve when the reaction profiles are normalized based on an effective volume fraction occupied by the aggregates, which depends on the aggregate size, concentration and morphology. Importantly, we find that the viscosity of an aggregate sample is lower than the viscosity of a monomeric sample of a similar occupied volume fraction due to the polydispersity of the aggregate distribution.

  16. The Smallest Lunar Grains: Analytical TEM Characterization of the Sub-micron Size Fraction of a Mare Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, M.; Christoffersen, R.

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition, mineralogical type, and morphology of lunar regolith grains changes considerably with decreasing size, and below the approx.25 m size range the correlation between these parameters and remotely-sensed lunar surface properties connected to space weathering increases significantly. Although trends for these parameters across grain size intervals greater than 20 m are now well established, the 0 to 20 m size interval remains relatively un-subdivided with respect to variations in grain modal composition, chemistry and microstructure. Of particular interest in this size range are grains in the approximate < 1 m diameter class, whose fundamental properties are now the focus of lunar research pertaining to electrostatic grain transport, dusty plasmas, and lunar dust effects on crew health and exploration systems. In this study we have used analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize the mineralogy, microstructure and major element composition of grains below the 1 m size threshold in lunar soil 10084.

  17. Fractionation of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) through a narrowing of particle size distribution followed by aspiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may have more value and utility if they can be separated into high protein and high fiber fractions. A variety of such separation processes have been proposed; two of the most promising processes involve 3 screening and 3 air classification unit operatio...

  18. Measurement of dissolved organic nitrogen in a drinking water treatment plant: size fraction, fate, and relation to water quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Ye, Tao; Li, Da-Peng; Hu, Chen-Yan; Lin, Yi-Li; Xia, Sheng-Ji; Tian, Fu-Xiang; Gao, Nai-Yun

    2011-02-15

    This paper investigates the characteristics of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in raw water from the Huangpu River and also in water undergoing treatment in the full-scale Yangshupu drinking water treatment plant (YDWTP) in Shanghai, China. The average DON concentration of the raw water was 0.34 mg/L, which comprised a relatively small portion (~5%) of the mass of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN). The molecular weight (MW) distribution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) was divided into five groups: >30, 10-30, 3-10, 1-3 and <1 kDa using a series of ultrafiltration membranes. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV absorbance at wavelength of 254 nm (UV254) and DON of each MW fraction were analyzed. DON showed a similar fraction distribution as DOC and UV254. The <1 kDa fraction dominated the composition of DON, DOC and UV254 as well as the major N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential (NDMAFP) in the raw water. However, this DON fraction cannot be effectively removed in the treatment line at the YDWTP including pre-ozonation, clarification and sand filtration processes. The results from linear regression analysis showed that DON is moderately correlated to DOC, UV254 and trihalomethane formation potential (FP), and strongly correlated to haloacetic acids FP and NDMAFP. Therefore, DON could serve as a surrogate parameter to evaluate the reactivity of DOM and disinfection by-products FP.

  19. Size characterization of barley starch granules by gravitational field-flow fractionation: a rapid, low-cost method to assess the brewing capability of different strains.

    PubMed

    Reschiglian, Pierluigi; Zattoni, Andrea; Casolari, Sonia; Krumlova, Andrea; Budinska, Marcela; Chmelík, Josef

    2002-04-01

    Cereal starch occurs as two types of micrometer-sized granules, large and small. Large starch granules are more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis. When cereal starch is used for fermentation processes, as in brewing of barley malt, the barley strains with the highest content of large starch granules should be preferred. Gravitational field-flow fractionation (GFFF) is a separation method able to fractionate starch samples at low cost and short analysis time. In this work, the search for the best GFFF conditions for the analytical separation of barley starch within an inter-laboratory approach is presented. For different barley strains cultivated under monitored conditions the size distributions of starch granules is here quickly monitored and characterized by GFFF. As a consequence, dimensional characterization of barley starch can allow for the selection of the most suitable strains with the lowest content of non-degradable starch.

  20. Spectroscopic characterization by photodiode array detection of human urinary and amniotic protein HC subpopulations fractionated by anion-exchange and size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Calero, M; Escribano, J; Soriano, F; Grubb, A; Brew, K; Méndez, E

    1996-01-05

    A procedure for spectroscopic characterization and partial fractionation of human protein HC populations by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array ultraviolet-visible detection is reported. Human protein HC from urine or amniotic fluid fractionated by anion-exchange HPLC in a protein Pak DEAE 5PW appeared to be heterogeneous as judged by the asymmetric elution pattern, consisting of a continuous irregular broad peak with several shoulders distributed along the whole chromatogram. Selected fractions containing shoulders were rechromatographed and finally six symmetrical homogeneous peaks with different retention times were obtained from each protein HC preparation. The direct automatic absorption spectra analyses at each peak maximum, indicated that all of the homogeneous peaks seemed to be protein HC, all of them associated to the same chromophore although with different stoichiometry ratios. Isoelectric focusing showed that each peak was composed of a limited number of subpopulations of protein HC with different isoelectric points. Size microheterogeneity has been also demonstrated in both urinary and amniotic protein HC preparations by a combination of size-exclusion HPLC on a TSK 3000 SW6 column and photodiode array detection. Partial fractionation of human albumin on an analytical anion-exchange Mono-Q PC 1.6/5 column, has allowed the identification of heterogeneous chromophore-containing populations displaying significant absorption in the visible region in resemblance to that of protein HC.

  1. Size-fraction partitioning of community gene transcription and nitrogen metabolism in a marine oxygen minimum zone

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Sangita; Bristow, Laura A; Larsen, Morten; Sarode, Neha; Thamdrup, Bo; Stewart, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    The genetic composition of marine microbial communities varies at the microscale between particle-associated (PA; >1.6 μm) and free-living (FL; 0.2–1.6 μm) niches. It remains unclear, however, how metabolic activities differ between PA and FL fractions. We combined rate measurements with metatranscriptomics to quantify PA and FL microbial activity in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific, focusing on dissimilatory processes of the nitrogen (N) cycle. Bacterial gene counts were 8- to 15-fold higher in the FL compared with the PA fraction. However, rates of all measured N cycle processes, excluding ammonia oxidation, declined significantly following particle (>1.6 μm) removal. Without particles, rates of nitrate reduction to nitrite (1.5–9.4nMNd−1) fell to zero and N2 production by denitrification (0.5–1.7nMNd−1) and anammox (0.3–1.9nMNd−1) declined by 53–85%. The proportional representation of major microbial taxa and N cycle gene transcripts in metatranscriptomes followed fraction-specific trends. Transcripts encoding nitrate reductase were uniform among PA and FL fractions, whereas anammox-associated transcripts were proportionately enriched up to 15-fold in the FL fraction. In contrast, transcripts encoding enzymes for N2O and N2 production by denitrification were enriched up to 28-fold in PA samples. These patterns suggest that the majority of N cycle activity, excluding N2O and N2 production by denitrification, is confined to a FL majority that is critically dependent on access to particles, likely as a source of organic carbon and inorganic N. Variable particle distributions may drive heterogeneity in N cycle activity and gene expression in OMZs. PMID:25848875

  2. Resolution of the mediators of in vitro oxidative reactivity in size-segregated fractions that may be masked in the urban PM(10) cocktail.

    PubMed

    Price, Heather D; Jones, Tim P; BéruBé, Kelly A

    2014-07-01

    PM10 (particulate matter 10 μm or less in aerodynamic diameter) has consistently been linked with adverse human health effects, but the physicochemical properties responsible for this effect have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential for carbon black (CB) particles and PM to generate ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) and to identify the physicochemical properties of the particles responsible for in vitro oxidative reactivity (OR). PM10 was collected in 11 size fractions at a traffic site in Swansea, UK, using an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI). The PM physicochemical properties (including size, morphology, type, and transition metals) were tested. The plasmid scission assay (PSA) was used for OR testing of all particles. The ultrafine and fine PM fractions (N28-2399; 28-2399 nm) caused more DNA damage than coarse PM (N2400-10,000), and the increased capacity of the smaller particles to exhibit enhanced (OR) was statistically significant (p<0.05). The most bioreactive fraction of PM was N94-155 with a toxic dose (TD50; mass dose capable of generating 50% plasmid DNA damage) of 69 μg/ml. The mean TD35 was lower for PM than CB particles, indicating enhanced OR for PM. A difference between CB and PM in this study was the higher transition metal content of PM. Zn was the most abundant transition metal (by weight) in the ultrafine-fine PM fractions, and Fe in the fine-coarse PM. Through this comparison, part of the observed increased PM OR was attributed to Zn (and Fe). In this study PM-derived DNA damage was dependent upon; 1) particle size, 2) surface area, and 2) transition metals. This study supports the view that ROS formation by PM10 is related to physicochemistry using evidence with an increased particle size resolution.

  3. Combined use of total metal content and size fractionation of metal biomolecules to determine the provenance of pine nuts (Pinus pinea).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ariza, J L; Arias-Borrego, A; García-Barrera, T

    2007-07-01

    Four essential elements (Mn, Ni, Zn, and Cu) and their molecular-size distribution patterns have been determined, for twenty four samples of pine nuts from eight areas in Spain and Portugal (Huelva, Cádiz, Badajoz, Cataluña, Castilla, Madrid, Faro, and Coimbra), by size-exclusion liquid chromatography (SEC) coupled on-line to UV and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection. The variability observed in total element content and the size-exclusion profiles of elements in samples from distant areas were considered as chemical descriptors for characterization of geographic origin. A pattern-recognition technique, the display method principal component analysis, was used as visualization technique to determine the provenance of the pine nuts collected. The results obtained confirmed that size fractionation profiles give more information for assessing the provenance of pine nuts than the total elements composition traditionally used for this purpose. Combination of these chemical descriptors was the most suitable choice for the samples studied. Figure This paper shows the application of an analytical approach based on total elements concentrations and the relative abundance of metal-biomolecules, estimated by the size-exclusion fractions, as chemical descriptors to determine the provenance of pine nuts. Principal component analysis (PCA) has been used as a visualization technique.

  4. Evaluations of the TiO2/simulated solar UV degradations of XAD fractions of natural organic matter from a bog lake using size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Sergio; Marín, Juan M; Restrepo, Gloria; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2013-09-15

    This work reports on the changes in compositions of humic acids (HAs) and fulvic acids (FAs) during photocatalytic degradation. The HAs and FAs were obtained from the XAD-resin fractionation of natural-organic matter (NOM) from a bog lake (Lake Hohloh, Black Forest, Germany). Degussa P-25 titanium dioxide (TiO2) in a suspension and a solar UV simulator (batch reactor) were used in the experiments. The photocatalytic degradation of the HAs and FAs were monitored using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) equipped with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ultraviolet (UV254) detection (SEC-DOC and SEC-UV254) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The evolutions of the photocatalytic degradations of the HA and FA fractions were selective. The photocatalytic degradation started with the degradations of high molecular weight compounds with relatively high UV254 absorbances in the HA and FA fractions to yield low molecular weight compounds showing less specific UV254 absorbances. Observance of the same tendency for the original NOM from Lake Hohloh indicates that these XAD-fractions still having complex compound mixtures. However, the larger molecular weight fractions of the FAs showed higher preferential adsorptions onto TiO2, which caused their faster degradation rates. Furthermore, FAs showed a greater reduction of the total THM formation potential (TTHMFP) and the organic halogen compounds adsorbable on activated carbon formation potential (AOXFP), in comparison with the HAs.

  5. Gram-scale fractionation of nanodiamonds by density gradient ultracentrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wei; Mahfouz, Remi; Pan, Jun; Hou, Yuanfang; Beaujuge, Pierre M.; Bakr, Osman M.

    2013-05-01

    Size is a defining characteristic of nanoparticles; it influences their optical and electronic properties as well as their interactions with molecules and macromolecules. Producing nanoparticles with narrow size distributions remains one of the main challenges to their utilization. At this time, the number of practical approaches to optimize the size distribution of nanoparticles in many interesting materials systems, including diamond nanocrystals, remains limited. Diamond nanocrystals synthesized by detonation protocols - so-called detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) - are promising systems for drug delivery, photonics, and composites. DNDs are composed of primary particles with diameters mainly <10 nm and their aggregates (ca. 10-500 nm). Here, we introduce a large-scale approach to rate-zonal density gradient ultracentrifugation to obtain monodispersed fractions of nanoparticles in high yields. We use this method to fractionate a highly concentrated and stable aqueous solution of DNDs and to investigate the size distribution of various fractions by dynamic light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation, transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. This fractionation method enabled us to separate gram-scale amounts of DNDs into several size ranges within a relatively short period of time. In addition, the high product yields obtained for each fraction allowed us to apply the fractionation method iteratively to a particular size range of particles and to collect various fractions of highly monodispersed primary particles. Our method paves the way for in-depth studies of the physical and optical properties, growth, and aggregation mechanism of DNDs. Applications requiring DNDs with specific particle or aggregate sizes are now within reach.Size is a defining characteristic of nanoparticles; it influences their optical and electronic properties as well as their interactions with molecules and macromolecules. Producing nanoparticles with narrow size

  6. Clay sized fraction and powdered whole-rock X-ray analyses from alluvial basin deposits in central and southern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    As part of the study of the water quality and geochemistry of Southwest Alluvial Basins (SWAB) in parts of Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas, which is a Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) program, whole rock x-ray analysis and clay-size fraction mineralogy (x-ray) analysis of selected samples from alluvial basin deposits were done to investigate the types of minerals and clay types present in the aquifers. This was done to determine the plausible minerals and clay types in the aquifers that may be reacting with groundwater and affecting the water quality. The purpose of this report is only to present the whole rock x-ray and clay-fraction mineralogy data. Nineteen surface samples or samples from outcrop of Tertiary and Quaternary alluvial basin deposits in the central and southern Rio Grande rift were collected and analyzed. The analysis of the samples consisted of grain size analysis, and clay-size fraction mineralogy and semiquantitative analysis of the relative abundance of different clay mineral groups present. (USGS)

  7. TiO2 in commercial sunscreen lotion: flow field-flow fractionation and ICP-AES together for size analysis.

    PubMed

    Contado, Catia; Pagnoni, Antonella

    2008-10-01

    A new method for determining the size of titanium dioxide particles is proposed and assayed in a commercial sunscreen product. Today many sun protection cosmetics incorporate physical UV filters as active ingredients, and there are no official methods for determining these compounds in sunscreen cosmetics. Here flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF) has been tested, first to sort two different types of TiO2 nano- and microstandard materials (AeroxideTiO2 Degussa P-25 and TiO2 rutile 0.1-0.2-microm size) and then to fractionate TiO2 particles, extracted from a commercial sunscreen lotion. All the TiO2 FlFFF separations were detected by UV but during elution fractions were collected and their Ti content measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES); the Ti concentration profiles obtained by ICP-AES were well correlated with the UV signals. The TiO2 particle mass-size distribution were calculated from the UV profiles. This methodology is relatively simple and rapid, and the sample treatment is as a whole easy and low cost.

  8. Robustness of the Process of Nucleoid Exclusion of Protein Aggregates in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Neeli-Venkata, Ramakanth; Martikainen, Antti; Gupta, Abhishekh; Gonçalves, Nadia; Fonseca, Jose

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Escherichia coli segregates protein aggregates to the poles by nucleoid exclusion. Combined with cell divisions, this generates heterogeneous aggregate distributions in subsequent cell generations. We studied the robustness of this process with differing medium richness and antibiotics stress, which affect nucleoid size, using multimodal, time-lapse microscopy of live cells expressing both a fluorescently tagged chaperone (IbpA), which identifies in vivo the location of aggregates, and HupA-mCherry, a fluorescent variant of a nucleoid-associated protein. We find that the relative sizes of the nucleoid's major and minor axes change widely, in a positively correlated fashion, with medium richness and antibiotic stress. The aggregate's distribution along the major cell axis also changes between conditions and in agreement with the nucleoid exclusion phenomenon. Consequently, the fraction of aggregates at the midcell region prior to cell division differs between conditions, which will affect the degree of asymmetries in the partitioning of aggregates between cells of future generations. Finally, from the location of the peak of anisotropy in the aggregate displacement distribution, the nucleoid relative size, and the spatiotemporal aggregate distribution, we find that the exclusion of detectable aggregates from midcell is most pronounced in cells with mid-sized nucleoids, which are most common under optimal conditions. We conclude that the aggregate management mechanisms of E. coli are significantly robust but are not immune to stresses due to the tangible effect that these have on nucleoid size. IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli segregates protein aggregates to the poles by nucleoid exclusion. From live single-cell microscopy studies of the robustness of this process to various stresses known to affect nucleoid size, we find that nucleoid size and aggregate preferential locations change concordantly between conditions. Also, the degree of influence of the nucleoid

  9. IfkA, a presumptive eIF2α kinase of Dictyostelium, is required for proper timing of aggregation and regulation of mound size

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Rui; Xiong, Yanhua; Singleton, Charles K

    2003-01-01

    Background The transition from growth to development in Dictyostelium is initiated by amino acid starvation of growing amobae. In other eukaryotes, a key sensor of amino acid starvation and mediator of the resulting physiological responses is the GCN2 protein, an eIF2α kinase. GCN2 downregulates the initiation of translation of bulk mRNA and enhances translation of specific mRNAs by phosphorylating the translation initiation factor eIF2α. Two eIF2α kinases were identified in Dictyostelium and studied herein. Results Neither of the eIF2α kinases appeared to be involved in sensing amino acid starvation to initiate development. However, one of the kinases, IfkA, was shown to phosphorylate eIF2α from 1 to 7 hours after the onset of development, resulting in a shift from polysomes to free ribosomes for bulk mRNA. In the absence of the eIF2α phosphorylation, ifkA null cells aggregated earlier than normal and formed mounds and ultimately fruiting bodies that were larger than normal. The early aggregation phenotype in ifkA null cells reflected an apparent, earlier than normal establishment of the cAMP pulsing system. The large mound phenotype resulted from a reduced extracellular level of Countin, a component of the counting factor that regulates mound size. In wild type cells, phosphorylation of eIF2α by IfkA resulted in a specific stabilization and enhanced translational efficiency of countin mRNA even though reduced translation resulted for bulk mRNA. Conclusions IfkA is an eIF2α kinase of Dictyostelium that normally phosphorylates eIF2α from 1 to 7 hours after the onset of development, or during the preaggregation phase. This results in an overall reduction in the initiation of protein synthesis during this time frame and a concomitant reduction in the number of ribosomes associated with most mRNAs. For some mRNAs, however, initiation of protein synthesis is enhanced or stabilized under the conditions of increased eIF2α phosphorylation. This includes countin

  10. Sterically-directed consecutive and size-selective self-assembly of palladium diphosphane complexes with an Ar-BIAN ligand: unexpected formation of pentameric and hexameric aggregates.

    PubMed

    Holló-Sitkei, Eszter; Szalontai, Gábor; Lois, Isabella; Gömöry, Agnes; Pollreisz, Ferenc; Párkányi, László; Jude, Hershel; Besenyei, Gábor

    2009-10-12

    The coordination properties of N,N'-bis[4-(4-pyridyl)phenyl]acenaphthenequinonediimine (L(1)) and N,N'-bis[4-(2-pyridyl)phenyl]acenaphthenequinonediimine (L(2)) were investigated in self-assembly with palladium diphosphane complexes [Pd(P;P)(H(2)O)(2)](OTf)(2) (OTf = triflate) by using various analytical techniques, including multinuclear ((1)H, (15)N, and (31)P) NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (P;P = dppp, dppf, dppe; dppp = bis(diphenylphosphanyl)propane, dppf = bis(diphenylphosphanyl)ferrocene, and dppe = bis(diphenylphosphanyl)ethane). Beside the expected trimeric and tetrameric species, the interaction of an equimolar mixture of [Pd(dppp)](2+) ions and L(1) also generates pentameric aggregates. Due to the E/Z isomerism of L(1), a dimeric product was also observed. In all of these species, which correspond to the general formula [Pd(dppp)L(1)](n)(OTf)(2n) (n = 2-5), the L(1) ligand is coordinated to the Pd center only through the terminal pyridyl groups. Introduction of a second equivalent of the [Pd(dppp)](2+) tecton results in coordination to the internal, sterically more encumbered chelating site and induces enhancement of the higher nuclearity components. The presence of higher-order aggregates (n = 5, 6), which were unexpected for the interaction of cis-protected palladium corners with linear ditopic bridging ligands, has been demonstrated both by mass-spectrometric and DOSY NMR spectroscopic analysis. The sequential coordination of the [Pd(dppp)](2+) ion is attributed to the dissimilar steric properties of the two coordination sites. In the self-assembled species formed in a 1:1:1 mixture of [Pd(dppp)](2+)/[Pd(dppe)](2+)/L(1), the sterically more demanding [Pd(dppp)](2+) tectons are attached selectively to the pyridyl groups, whereas the more hindered imino nitrogen atoms coordinate the less bulky dppe complexes, thus resulting in a sterically directed, size-selective sorting of the metal tectons. The propensity of the new ligands to incorporate

  11. Charge-based fractionation of oxyanion-forming metals and metalloids leached from recycled concrete aggregates of different degrees of carbonation: a comparison of laboratory and field leaching tests.

    PubMed

    Mulugeta, Mesay; Engelsen, Christian J; Wibetoe, Grethe; Lund, Walter

    2011-02-01

    The release and charge-based fractionation of As, Cr, Mo, Sb, Se and V were evaluated in leachates generated from recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) in a laboratory and at a field site. The leachates, covering the pH range 8.4-12.6, were generated from non-carbonated, and artificially and naturally carbonated crushed concrete samples. Comparison between the release of the elements from the non-carbonated and carbonated samples indicated higher solubility of the elements from the latter. The laboratory leaching tests also revealed that the solubility of the elements is low at the "natural pH" of the non-carbonated materials and show enhancement when the pH is decreased. The charge-based fractionation of the elements was determined by ion-exchange solid phase extraction (SPE); it was found that all the target elements predominantly existed as anions in both the laboratory and field leachates. The high fraction of the anionic species of the elements in the leachates from the carbonated RCA materials verified the enhanced solubility of the oxyanionic species of the elements as a result of carbonation. The concentrations of the elements in the leachates and SPE effluents were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

  12. Biotic and abiotic controls on sediment aggregation and consolidation: implications for geochemical fluxes and coastal restoration.

    PubMed

    Land, Lauren E; Kolker, Alexander S; Gambrell, Robert P

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the influence of particle size and organic matter on aggregation and compaction of 3 hydraulically dredged sediments from coastal Louisiana (clay, silt loam, sandy loam) saturated under a range of salinity regimes (1 and 5 PSU, 5 and 10 PSU, and 15 and 25 PSU) for 4 time periods (1, 8, 16, and 26 weeks). Particle sizes were determined using a laser diffraction particle size analyzer, which allowed us to develop high-resolution results indicating changes in aggregate size across a spectrum of experimental conditions. The sediments with greater organic matter content exhibited approximately 60% aggregation, as indicated by fewer aggregates in the clay size fraction, and subsequently more aggregates in the sand size fraction, when organic matter remained in the sediment. Additionally, the sandy sediment compacted more than the organic sediments in the first 16 weeks. These findings suggest that sediments with greater clay and organic matter content behave as larger particles and may undergo particle rearrangement and compaction over longer time scales than sandy sediments with low organic matter. For coastal wetland restoration, models should include the effect of organic matter on particle aggregation to understand sediment dynamics over geologic time.

  13. Seasonal characteristics of size-fractionated phytoplankton community and fate of photosynthesized carbon in a sub-Antarctic area (Straits of Magellan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decembrini, Franco; Bergamasco, Alessandro; Mangoni, Olga

    2014-08-01

    Phytoplankton community size drives the rates of biogenic carbon and the overall structure and dynamics of the marine pelagic food web. The Straits of Magellan, an inland passage between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, can be separated into three main sub-basins: the western-Pacific, the V-shaped central zone, and the eastern-Atlantic. To provide insights into the food structure of the phytoplankton community, size-fractionated chlorophyll a concentration and primary production rates were measured across the three sectors of the Magellan Straits in four periods between 1989 and 1995 in the Straits. Phytoplanktonic biomass and production ratios provided ecological insights into the food web structure, including the relevance of grazing in its largest fraction. The micro-phytoplanktonic fraction (> 10 μm) in the Pacific sub-basin is significantly less abundant than in the Central and Atlantic ones. Conversely, the lowest abundance of the pico-fraction (< 2.0 μm) is encountered in the Atlantic sub-basin. The observed patterns agree with the diffusion of smaller-size fractions from the western towards the easternmost sector of the Straits, and suggest that the largest phytoplankton tend to accumulate in the inner stretch of the Straits, being constrained by a clockwise gyre generated by tidal phases or partially spilling out into the Atlantic sector. The most active grazing activities occur in the Central sub-basin during the spring bloom and appear even stronger in summer. Our results pinpoint also that the basic levels of the planktonic food web rely on the nanophytoplankton (10-2 μm) fraction, which is the main contributor to the continuum multivorous food web. When external energy (e.g. nutrient pulses from land freshwater and water mixing) enters the system, the structure of the plankton in the Straits shifts towards the herbivorous food web and is characterized by the presence of large-size diatoms. This dynamics keeps the system in a persistent mesotrophic

  14. Calculation of molecular weights of humic substances from colligative data: Application to aquatic humus and its molecular size fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, J. H.; Perdue, E. M.

    1981-11-01

    A rigorous mathematical expression for the dependence of colligative properties on acid dissociation of water soluble humic substances is presented. New data for number average molecular weights of a river derived humic material and its gel permeation Chromatographic fractions are compared with M¯n values obtained by a reevaluation of previously published experimental observations on soil and water fulvic acids. The results reveal a remarkable similarity of fulvic acids from widely different sources with respect to number-average molecular weight.

  15. Heavy metals relationship with water and size-fractionated sediments in rivers using canonical correlation analysis (CCA) case study, rivers of south western Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Vosoogh, Ali; Saeedi, Mohsen; Lak, Raziyeh

    2016-11-01

    Some pollutants can qualitatively affect aquatic freshwater such as rivers, and heavy metals are one of the most important pollutants in aquatic fresh waters. Heavy metals can be found in the form of components dissolved in these waters or in compounds with suspended particles and surface sediments. It can be said that heavy metals are in equilibrium between water and sediment. In this study, the amount of heavy metals is determined in water and different sizes of sediment. To obtain the relationship between heavy metals in water and size-fractionated sediments, a canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was utilized in rivers of the southwestern Caspian Sea. In this research, a case study was carried out on 18 sampling stations in nine rivers. In the first step, the concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ni, and Cd) were determined in water and size-fractionated sediment samples. Water sampling sites were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) utilizing squared Euclidean distance with Ward's method. In addition, for interpreting the obtained results and the relationships between the concentration of heavy metals in the tested river water and sample sediments, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was utilized. The rivers were grouped into two classes (those having no pollution and those having low pollution) based on the HCA results obtained for river water samples. CCA results found numerous relationships between rivers in Iran's Guilan province and their size-fractionated sediments samples. The heavy metals of sediments with 0.038 to 0.125 mm size in diameter are slightly correlated with those of water samples.

  16. Aggregates dynamic in contrasting soils with different fertilizations and role of humic carbon as binding agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugato, E.; Simonetti, G.; Nardi, S.; Berti, A.; Giardini, L.; Morari, F.

    2009-04-01

    In the last years aggregates fractionation has become a very common approach to study the close linkage between aggregate formation and SOM turnover. According to the hierarchical theory microaggregates are assumed to be stabilized by persisting binding agents whereas macroaggregates by transient or temporary organic materials. Humic substances, considered to be recalcitrant, should likely act as persistent binding agents but their role, also because of their heterogeneity and discussed origin, is still unclear. In a long-term experiment established in the early 1960s in north-eastern Italy, we wet-sieved large macroaggregates to separate three aggregate sizes (2000-250 mm, 250-53 mm and <53 mm) in contrasting soil (clay, sandy and peaty), fertilized with manure and mineral fertilizers. We analysed organic (OC) and humic (HC) carbon of each aggregate fraction, also investigating the molecular weight of the humic substances extracted (>60 KDa,60-30 KDa, <30 KDa). The aim were to evaluate the effect of the different fertilisations type in the aggregate and organic matter distribution and investigate the composition and role of HC as binding agent. The results evidenced that the addition of manure significantly increased the proportion of macroaggregates respect to the mineral fertilization but only in the clay soil. Aggregate hierarchy, according to which SOC concentration increase with increasing aggregates size, was generally supported by our data. The HC values followed the same pattern of the OC, with a very high correlation between these parameters (r >0.95). The HC/OC ratio, ranging narrowly among the aggregates fractions, indicated no hierarchical role of HC as persisting binding agents. However HC extracted in the silt-clay fraction showed higher proportion of low molecular weight fraction in peaty and clay soil, respect to HC of larger aggregates.

  17. Hydraulic and mechanical properties of soil aggregates under organic and conventional soil management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójciga, A.; Kuś, J.; Turski, M.; Lipiec, J.

    2009-04-01

    Variation in hydraulic and mechanical properties of soil aggregates is an important factor affecting water storage and infiltration because the large inter-aggregate pores are dewatered first and the transport of water and solutes is influenced by the properties of the individual aggregates and contacts between them. A high mechanical stability of soil aggregates is fundamental for the maintenance of proper tilth and provides stable traction for farm implements, but limit root growth inside aggregates. The aggregate properties are largely influenced by soil management practices. Our objective was to compare the effects of organic and conventional soil management on hydraulic and mechanical properties of soil aggregates. Experimental fields subjected to long-term organic (14 years) and conventional managements were located on loamy soil at the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - National Research Institute in Pulawy, Poland. Soil samples were collected from two soil depths (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm). After air-drying, two size fractions of soil aggregates (15-20 and 30-35 mm) were manually selected and kept in the dried state in a dessicator in order to provide the same boundary conditions. Following properties of the aggregates were determined: porosity (%) using standard wax method, cumulative infiltration Q (mm3 s-1) and sorptivity S (mm s -1/2) of water and ethanol using a tube with a sponge inserted at the tip, wettability (by comparison of sorptivity of water and ethanol) using repellency index R, crushing strength q (MPa) using strength testing device (Zwick/Roell) and calculated by Dexter's formula. All properties were determined in 15 replicates for each treatment, aggregates size and depth. Organic management decreased porosity of soil aggregates and ethanol infiltration. All aggregates revealed rather limited wettability (high repellency index). In most cases the aggregate wettability was lower under conventional than organic soil management

  18. Accurate Size and Size-Distribution Determination of Polystyrene Latex Nanoparticles in Aqueous Medium Using Dynamic Light Scattering and Asymmetrical Flow Field Flow Fractionation with Multi-Angle Light Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Haruhisa; Nakamura, Ayako; Takahashi, Kayori; Kinugasa, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    Accurate determination of the intensity-average diameter of polystyrene latex (PS-latex) by dynamic light scattering (DLS) was carried out through extrapolation of both the concentration of PS-latex and the observed scattering angle. Intensity-average diameter and size distribution were reliably determined by asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AFFFF) using multi-angle light scattering (MALS) with consideration of band broadening in AFFFF separation. The intensity-average diameter determined by DLS and AFFFF-MALS agreed well within the estimated uncertainties, although the size distribution of PS-latex determined by DLS was less reliable in comparison with that determined by AFFFF-MALS.

  19. An experimental study of the size effect on adiabatic gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns and void fraction in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Renqiang; Chung, J. N.

    2007-03-01

    Adiabatic gas-liquid flow patterns and void fractions in microchannels were experimentally investigated. Using nitrogen and water, experiments were conducted in rectangular microchannels with hydraulic diameters of 0.209mm, 0.412mm and 0.622mm, respectively. Gas and liquid superficial velocities were varied from 0.06-72.3m/s and 0.02-7.13m/s, respectively. The main objective is focused on the effects of microscale channel sizes on the flow regime map and void fraction. The instability of flow patterns was observed. Four groups of flow patterns including bubbly slug flow, slug-ring flow, dispersed-churn flow, and annular flow were observed in microchannels of 0.412mm and, 0.622mm. In the microchannel of 0.209mm, the bubbly slug flow became the slug flow and the dispersed-churn flow disappeared. The current flow regime maps showed the transition lines shifted to higher gas superficial velocity due to a dominant surface tension effect as the channel size was reduced. The regime maps presented by other authors for minichannels were found to not be applicable for microchannels. Time-averaged void fractions were measured by analyzing 8000 high speed video images for each flow condition. The void fractions hold a nonlinear relationship with the homogeneous void fraction as opposed to the relatively linear trend for the minichannels. A new correlation was developed to predict the nonlinear relationship that fits most of the current experimental data and those of the 0.1mm diameter tube reported by Kawahara et al. [Int. J. Multiphase Flow 28, 1411 (2002)] within ±15%.

  20. Size-fractionated characterization and quantification of nanoparticle release rates from a consumer spray product containing engineered nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagendorfer, Harald; Lorenz, Christiane; Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Gehrig, Robert; Goetz, Natalie V.; Scheringer, Martin; Ludwig, Christian; Ulrich, Andrea

    2010-09-01

    This study describes methods developed for reliable quantification of size- and element-specific release of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) from consumer spray products. A modified glove box setup was designed to allow controlled spray experiments in a particle-minimized environment. Time dependence of the particle size distribution in a size range of 10-500 nm and ENP release rates were studied using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). In parallel, the aerosol was transferred to a size-calibrated electrostatic TEM sampler. The deposited particles were investigated using electron microscopy techniques in combination with image processing software. This approach enables the chemical and morphological characterization as well as quantification of released nanoparticles from a spray product. The differentiation of solid ENP from the released nano-sized droplets was achieved by applying a thermo-desorbing unit. After optimization, the setup was applied to investigate different spray situations using both pump and gas propellant spray dispensers for a commercially available water-based nano-silver spray. The pump spray situation showed no measurable nanoparticle release, whereas in the case of the gas spray, a significant release was observed. From the results it can be assumed that the homogeneously distributed ENP from the original dispersion grow in size and change morphology during and after the spray process but still exist as nanometer particles of size <100 nm. Furthermore, it seems that the release of ENP correlates with the generated aerosol droplet size distribution produced by the spray vessel type used. This is the first study presenting results concerning the release of ENP from spray products.

  1. Long-term combined chemical and manure fertilizations increase soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in aggregate fractions at three typical cropland soils in China.

    PubMed

    He, Y T; Zhang, W J; Xu, M G; Tong, X G; Sun, F X; Wang, J Z; Huang, S M; Zhu, P; He, X H

    2015-11-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) are important factors of soil fertility. However, effects of the combined chemical fertilizer and organic manure or straw on these factors and their relationships are less addressed under long-term fertilizations. This study addressed changes in SOC, TN, MBC and MBN at 0-20 cm soil depth under three 17 years (September 1990-September 2007) long-term fertilization croplands along a heat and water gradient in China. Four soil physical fractions (coarse free and fine free particulate organic C, cfPOC and ffPOC; intra-microaggregate POC, iPOC; and mineral associated organic C, MOC) were examined under five fertilizations: unfertilized control, chemical nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) (NPK), NPK plus straw (NPKS, hereafter straw return), and NPK plus manure (NPKM and 1.5NPKM, hereafter manure). Compared with Control, manure significantly increased all tested parameters. SOC and TN in fractions distributed as MOC > iPOC > cfPOC > ffPOC with the highest increase in cfPOC (329.3%) and cfPTN (431.1%), and the lowest in MOC (40.8%) and MTN (45.4%) under manure. SOC significantly positively correlated with MBC, cfPOC, ffPOC, iPOC and MOC (R(2) = 0.51-0.84, P < 0.01), while TN with cfPTN, ffPTN, iPTN and MTN (R(2) = 0.45-0.79, P < 0.01), but not with MBN, respectively. Principal component analyses explained 86.9-91.2% variance of SOC, TN, MBC, MBN, SOC and TN in each fraction. Our results demonstrated that cfPOC was a sensitive SOC indicator and manure addition was the best fertilization for improving soil fertility while straw return should take into account climate factors in Chinese croplands.

  2. The heavy metal partition in size-fractions of the fine particles in agricultural soils contaminated by waste water and smelter dust.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haibo; Luo, Yongming; Makino, Tomoyuki; Wu, Longhua; Nanzyo, Masami

    2013-03-15

    The partitioning of pollutant in the size-fractions of fine particles is particularly important to its migration and bioavailability in soil environment. However, the impact of pollution sources on the partitioning was seldom addressed in the previous studies. In this study, the method of continuous flow ultra-centrifugation was developed to separate three size fractions (<1 μm, <0.6 μm and <0.2 μm) of the submicron particles from the soil polluted by wastewater and smelter dust respectively. The mineralogy and physicochemical properties of each size-fraction were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope etc. Total content of the polluted metals and their chemical speciation were measured. A higher enrichment factor of the metals in the fractions of <1 μm or less were observed in the soil contaminated by wastewater than by smelter dust. The organic substance in the wastewater and calcite from lime application were assumed to play an important role in the metal accumulation in the fine particles of the wastewater polluted soil. While the metal accumulation in the fine particles of the smelter dust polluted soil is mainly associated with Mn oxides. Cadmium speciation in both soils is dominated by dilute acid soluble form and lead speciation in the smelter dust polluted soil is dominated by reducible form in all particles. This implied that the polluted soils might be a high risk to human health and ecosystem due to the high bioaccessibility of the metals as well as the mobility of the fine particles in soil.

  3. A mass closure and PMF source apportionment study on the sub-micron sized aerosol fraction at urban sites in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchi, R.; Chiari, M.; D'Alessandro, A.; Fermo, P.; Lucarelli, F.; Mazzei, F.; Nava, S.; Piazzalunga, A.; Prati, P.; Silvani, F.; Valli, G.

    Sub-micron sized particles are of increasing concern owing to their effects on human health and on the environment. Up to now there are still very few studies on PM1 (i.e. particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1 μm) chemical characterisation; the sub-micron sized fraction is not under regulations although it is of interest because it is almost exclusively associated to anthropogenic sources. To perform the first large-scale assessment of sub-micron sized aerosol concentrations, composition and sources, two monitoring campaigns at three urban sites in Italy were carried out during the wintertime and summertime of 2004. Chemical characterisation (elements, soluble ionic fraction, elemental and organic carbon) was carried out on PM1 samples: major contributions were due to organic matter (about 30% in summer and 50% in winter) and ammonium sulphate (about 10% in winter and 40% in summer). During the cold season, nitrates also contributed up to 30% in Milan (lower contributions were registered at the other two urban sites). Chemical mass closure was achieved with an unaccounted mass in the range 14-22%. Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) was applied to identify the major sub-micron sized particles' sources.

  4. Size exclusion chromatography for the unambiguous detection of aliphatics in fractions from petroleum vacuum residues, coal liquids, and standard materials, in the presence of aromatics

    SciTech Connect

    Eiman M. Al-Muhareb; Fatma Karaca; Trevor J. Morgan; Alan A. Herod; Ian D. Bull; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2006-05-15

    A method has been developed using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) in heptane eluent that can detect aliphatics unambiguously without fractionation to remove aromatics. Spherical molecules such as colloidal silicas elute at the exclusion limit, while alkanes up to C{sub 50} elute through the porosity of the column. Detection of aliphatics was defined by use of an evaporative light scattering (ELS) detector with the simultaneous absence of UV absorbance at 300 nm. Alkanes smaller than C{sub 12} were not detected because the conditions of operation of the ELS caused their evaporation. All aromatics eluted after the permeation limit of about 25 min and were not detected until well after 45 min by their UV absorbance. The SEC method was applied to petroleum vacuum residues and coal liquids, and their fractions were soluble in pentane or heptane. High-temperature (HT) GC-MS confirmed the presence of alkanes in the pentane- and heptane-soluble fractions of petroleum vacuum residues, but did not elute any of the aromatics known to be present from SEC. Alkanes were examined in pentane-soluble fractions of a coal digest and a low-temperature coal tar; alkanes up to C{sub 40} were detected in the low-temperature tar and, although present in the digest, were masked by aromatics. No alkanes were detected by either SEC or HT GC-MS in fractions from a coal tar pitch. Aromatics in coal liquids and one petroleum residue were also examined by SEC using NMP as eluent and by UV fluorescence spectroscopy. The SEC method will find application to pentane- and heptane-soluble fractions of petroleum liquids and coal liquids where the alkanes are concentrated relative to the more abundant aromatics. 43 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Asphaltene nanoparticle aggregation in mixtures of incompatible crude oils.

    PubMed

    Mason, T G; Lin, M Y

    2003-05-01

    We study the structure and phase behavior of asphaltenes comprised of large polyaromatic molecules in blends of naturally occurring crude oils using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). When two compatible oils are blended together, the asphaltenes remain dispersed as colloidal nanoparticles; however, when two incompatible oils are blended together, these asphaltene nanoparticles can aggregate to form microscale structures. We show that SANS directly probes asphaltene aggregation in unmodified (i.e., nondeuterated) crude oil mixtures due to a significant neutron scattering length density difference between the hydrogen-poor asphaltenes and the surrounding oil. Moreover, the small length scales probed by SANS are ideally suited for studying asphaltene aggregation: SANS simultaneously provides the average size and concentration of nanoscale asphaltene particles and also the volume fraction of microscale asphaltene aggregates. These discoveries yield a practical means for directly assessing the compatibility of crude oils and for diagnosing refinery fouling problems resulting from blending incompatible oils.

  6. Provenance of KREEP and the exotic component - Elemental and isotopic studies of grain size fractions in lunar soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evensen, N. M.; Murthy, V. R.; Coscio, M. R., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Sieve fraction analyses of lunar soils reveal the presence of a fine-grained exotic component enriched in K, Rb, Sr, Ba, and in radiogenic Sr in all soils. The probable source of this exotic component is the areas of high-surficial radioactivity observed by orbital gamma ray spectrometry, such as those at Fra Mauro and Archimedes. If the exotic component is fine-grained KREEP, the origin and distribution of KREEP fragments in the soils are identified. It is suggested that the exotic component represents trace element enriched material located at some depth in the Imbrium area which was surficially deposited during Imbrium excavation.

  7. Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Relation to Soil Particle-Size Fractions after 32 Years of Chemical and Manure Application in a Continuous Maize Cropping System

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xingfang; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Wenju; Xu, Minggang; Murphy, Daniel V.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term manure application is recognized as an efficient management practice to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and nitrogen (N) mineralization capacity. A field study was established in 1979 to understand the impact of long-term manure and/or chemical fertilizer application on soil fertility in a continuous maize cropping system. Soil samples were collected from field plots in 2012 from 9 fertilization treatments (M0CK, M0N, M0NPK, M30CK, M30N, M30NPK, M60CK, M60N, and M60NPK) where M0, M30, and M60 refer to manure applied at rates of 0, 30, and 60 t ha−1 yr−1, respectively; CK indicates no fertilizer; N and NPK refer to chemical fertilizer in the forms of either N or N plus phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soils were separated into three particle-size fractions (2000–250, 250–53, and <53 μm) by dry- and wet-sieving. A laboratory incubation study of these separated particle-size fractions was used to evaluate the effect of long-term manure, in combination with/without chemical fertilization application, on the accumulation and mineralization of SOC and total N in each fraction. Results showed that long-term manure application significantly increased SOC and total N content and enhanced C and N mineralization in the three particle-size fractions. The content of SOC and total N followed the order 2000–250 μm > 250–53μm > 53 μm fraction, whereas the amount of C and N mineralization followed the reverse order. In the <53 μm fraction, the M60NPK treatment significantly increased the amount of C and N mineralized (7.0 and 10.1 times, respectively) compared to the M0CK treatment. Long-term manure application, especially when combined with chemical fertilizers, resulted in increased soil microbial biomass C and N, and a decreased microbial metabolic quotient. Consequently, long-term manure fertilization was beneficial to both soil C and N turnover and microbial activity, and had significant effect on the microbial metabolic quotient

  8. Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Relation to Soil Particle-Size Fractions after 32 Years of Chemical and Manure Application in a Continuous Maize Cropping System.

    PubMed

    Cai, Andong; Xu, Hu; Shao, Xingfang; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Wenju; Xu, Minggang; Murphy, Daniel V

    2016-01-01

    Long-term manure application is recognized as an efficient management practice to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and nitrogen (N) mineralization capacity. A field study was established in 1979 to understand the impact of long-term manure and/or chemical fertilizer application on soil fertility in a continuous maize cropping system. Soil samples were collected from field plots in 2012 from 9 fertilization treatments (M0CK, M0N, M0NPK, M30CK, M30N, M30NPK, M60CK, M60N, and M60NPK) where M0, M30, and M60 refer to manure applied at rates of 0, 30, and 60 t ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively; CK indicates no fertilizer; N and NPK refer to chemical fertilizer in the forms of either N or N plus phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soils were separated into three particle-size fractions (2000-250, 250-53, and <53 μm) by dry- and wet-sieving. A laboratory incubation study of these separated particle-size fractions was used to evaluate the effect of long-term manure, in combination with/without chemical fertilization application, on the accumulation and mineralization of SOC and total N in each fraction. Results showed that long-term manure application significantly increased SOC and total N content and enhanced C and N mineralization in the three particle-size fractions. The content of SOC and total N followed the order 2000-250 μm > 250-53 μm > 53 μm fraction, whereas the amount of C and N mineralization followed the reverse order. In the <53 μm fraction, the M60NPK treatment significantly increased the amount of C and N mineralized (7.0 and 10.1 times, respectively) compared to the M0CK treatment. Long-term manure application, especially when combined with chemical fertilizers, resulted in increased soil microbial biomass C and N, and a decreased microbial metabolic quotient. Consequently, long-term manure fertilization was beneficial to both soil C and N turnover and microbial activity, and had significant effect on the microbial metabolic quotient.

  9. An aggregation model for ash particles in volcanic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, A.; Folch, A.; Macedonio, G.; Durant, A.

    2009-12-01

    A large fraction of fine ash particles injected into the atmosphere during explosive eruptions aggregate through complex interactions of surface liquid layers, electrostatic forces, and differences in particle settling velocities. The aggregates formed have a different size and density compared to primary particles formed during eruption which dramatically changes the dynamics of sedimentation from the volcanic cloud. Consequently, the lifetime of ash particles in the atmosphere is reduced and a distal mass deposition maximum is often generated in resulting tephra deposits. A complete and rigorous description of volcanic ash fallout requires the full coupling of models of volcanic cloud dynamics and dispersion, and ash particle transport, aggregation and sedimentation. Furthermore, volcanic ash transport models should include an aggregation model that accounts for the interaction of all particle size classes. The problem with this approach is that simulations would require excessively long computational times thereby prohibiting its application in an operational setting during an explosive volcanic eruption. Here we present a simplified model for ash particle transport and aggregation that includes the effects of water in the volcanic cloud and surrounding atmosphere. The aggregation model assumes a fractal relationship for the number of primary particles in aggregates, average sticking efficiency factors, and collision frequency functions that account for Brownian motion, laminar and turbulent fluid shear, and differential settling velocity. A parametric study on the key parameters of the model was performed. We implemented the aggregation model in the WRF+FALL3D coupled modelling system and applied it to different eruptions where aggregation has been recognized to play an important role, including the August and September 1992 Crater Peak eruptions and the 1980 Mt St Helens eruption. In these cases, mass deposited as a function of deposit area and the particle

  10. Effects of Macroporous Resin Size on Candida antarctica Lipase B Adsorption, Fraction of Active Molecules, and Catalytic Activity for Polyester Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen,B.; Miller, E.; Miller, L.; Maikner, J.; Gross, R.

    2007-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate resins with identical average pore diameter (250 {angstrom}) and surface area (500 m{sup 2}/g) but with varied particle size (35 to 560-710 {mu}m) were employed to study how immobilization resin particle size influences Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB) loading, fraction of active sites, and catalytic properties for polyester synthesis. CALB adsorbed more rapidly on smaller beads. Saturation occurred in less than 30 s and 48 h for beads with diameters 35 and 560-710 {mu}m, respectively. Linearization of adsorption isotherm data by the Scatchard analysis showed for the 35 {mu}m resin that: (1) CALB loading at saturation was well below that required to form a monolayer and fully cover the support surface and (2) CALB has a high affinity for this resin surface. Infrared microspectroscopy showed that CALB forms protein loading fronts for resins with particle sizes 560-710 and 120 {mu}m. In contrast, CALB appears evenly distributed throughout 35 {mu}m resins. By titration with p-nitrophenyl n-hexyl phosphate (MNPHP), the fraction of active CALB molecules adsorbed onto resins was <50% which was not influenced by particle size. The fraction of active CALB molecules on the 35 {mu}m support increased from 30 to 43% as enzyme loading was increased from 0.9 to 5.7% (w/w) leading to increased activity for {epsilon}-caprolactone ({epsilon}-CL) ring-opening polymerization. At about 5% w/w CALB loading, by decreasing the immobilization support diameter from 560-710 to 120, 75, and 35 {mu}m, conversion of {epsilon}-CL % to polyester increased (20 to 36, 42, and 61%, respectively, at 80 min). Similar trends were observed for condensation polymerizations between 1,8-octanediol and adipic acid.

  11. Land use effects on phosphorus sequestration in soil aggregates in western Iran.

    PubMed

    Sheklabadi, M; Mahmoudzadeh, H; Mahboubi, A A; Gharabaghi, B; Ahrens, B

    2014-10-01

    Cultivating native lands may alter soil phosphorus (P) distribution and availability. The present study aimed to determine the distribution of P in soil aggregates for different long-term land management practices. The partitioned P in labile (L), Fe/Al-bound, Ca-bound, organic pools, and total P in four aggregate size fractions were determined for five land uses (forest, vineyard after 30 years, wetland, alfalfa, and wheat cultivated soil after 20 years). Both native land uses (forest and wetland) were distinguished by high and low amounts of large macro- and micro-aggregates, respectively, compared with disturbed soils (vineyard, alfalfa, and wheat soils). Labile P in large macro-aggregates were higher in native land use when compared with the other land uses, which led to increasing lability of P and accelerated water pollution. Soils under native conditions sequestered more Ca-bound P in large macro-aggregates than the soils in disturbed conditions. Conversion of native lands to agricultural land caused enhanced organic P storage in aggregates smaller than the 2 mm from 31.0 to 54.3%. Soils under forest had 30% total P more than the vineyard for the aggregates >2 mm after 30 years land use change. However, the amount of P in smaller (<2 mm) sized aggregates was increased by 29% for the vineyard when compared with the forest. The P storage as bound Ca particles for the large macro-aggregates had negative correlation with the micro-aggregates.

  12. Size determination and quantification of engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles by flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, L; Bolea, E; Laborda, F; Cubel, C; Ferrer, P; Gianolio, D; da Silva, I; Castillo, J R

    2016-03-18

    Facing the lack of studies on characterization and quantification of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs), whose consumption and release is greatly increasing, this work proposes a method for their sizing and quantification by Flow Field-flow Fractionation (FFFF) coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two modalities of FFFF (Asymmetric Flow- and Hollow Fiber-Flow Field Flow Fractionation, AF4 and HF5, respectively) are compared, and their advantages and limitations discussed. Experimental conditions (carrier composition, pH, ionic strength, crossflow and carrier flow rates) are studied in detail in terms of NP separation, recovery, and repeatability. Size characterization of CeO2 NPs was addressed by different approaches. In the absence of feasible size standards of CeO2 NPs, suspensions of Ag, Au, and SiO2 NPs of known size were investigated. Ag and Au NPs failed to show a comparable behavior to that of the CeO2 NPs, whereas the use of SiO2 NPs provided size estimations in agreement to those predicted by the theory. The latter approach was thus used for characterizing the size of CeO2 NPs in a commercial suspension. Results were in adequate concordance with those achieved by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and dynamic light scattering. The quantification of CeO2 NPs in the commercial suspension by AF4-ICP-MS required the use of a CeO2 NPs standards, since the use of ionic cerium resulted in low recoveries (99 ± 9% vs. 73 ± 7%, respectively). A limit of detection of 0.9 μg L(-1) CeO2 corresponding to a number concentration of 1.8 × 1012 L(-1) for NPs of 5 nm was achieved for an injection volume of 100 μL.

  13. Glycation precedes lens crystallin aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, M.S.; Perry, R.E.; Abraham, E.C.

    1987-05-01

    Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) seems to have the potential to alter the structure of crystallins and make them susceptible to thiol oxidation leading to disulfide-linked high molecular weight (HMW) aggregate formation. They used streptozotocin diabetic rats during precataract and cataract stages and long-term cell-free glycation of bovine lens crystallins to study the relationship between glycation and lens crystallin aggregation. HMW aggregates and other protein components of the water-soluble (WS) and urea-soluble (US) fractions were separated by molecular sieve high performance liquid chromatography. Glycation was estimated by both (/sup 3/H)NaBH/sub 4/ reduction and phenylboronate agarose affinity chromatography. Levels of total glycated protein (GP) in the US fractions were about 2-fold higher than in the WS fractions and there was a linear increase in GP in both WS and US fractions. This increase was parallelled by a corresponding increase in HMW aggregates. Total GP extracted by the affinity method from the US fraction showed a predominance of HMW aggregates and vice versa. Cell-free glycation studies with bovine crystallins confirmed the results of the animals studies. Increasing glycation caused a corresponding increase in protein insolubilization and the insoluble fraction thus formed also contained more glycated protein. It appears that lens protein glycation, HMW aggregate formation, and protein insolubilization are interrelated.

  14. The optical properties of hygroscopic soot aggregates with water coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu; Cheng, Tianhai; Zheng, Lijuan

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols, such as soot, have modified the Earth's radiation balance by scattering and absorbing solar and long-wave radiative transmission, which have largely influenced the global climate change since the industrial era. Based on transmission electron microscope images (TEM), soot particles are shown as the complex, fractal-like aggregate structures. In humid atmospheric environments, these soot aggregates tend to acquire a water coating, which introduces further complexity to the problem of determining the optical properties of the aggregates. The hygroscopic growth of soot aggregates is important for the aging of these absorbing aerosols, which can significantly influence the optical properties of these kinds of soot particles. In this paper, according to the specific volume fractions of soot core in the water coated soot particle, the monomers of fractal soot aggregates are modeled as semi-external mixtures (physical contact) with constant radius of soot core and variable size of water coating. The single scattering properties of these hygroscopic soot particles, such as scattering matrices, the cross sections of extinction, absorption and scattering, single scattering albedo (SSA), and asymmetry parameter (ASY), are calculated using the numerically exact superposition T-matrix method. The morphological effects are compared with different monomer numbers and fractal dimensions of the soot aggregates, as well as different size of water coating for these concentric spherical monomers. The results have shown that SSA, cross sections of extinction and absorption are increased for soot aggregates with thicker weakly absorbing coating on the monomers. It is found that the SSA of aged soot aggregates with hygroscopic grown are remarkably (~50% for volume fraction of soot aggregates is 0.5, at 0.670μm) larger than fresh soot particles without the consideration of water coating, due to the size of water coating and the morphological features, such as the

  15. Erosion of dust aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seizinger, A.; Krijt, S.; Kley, W.

    2013-12-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to gain a deeper insight into how much different aggregate types are affected by erosion. Especially, it is important to study the influence of the velocity of the impacting projectiles. We also want to provide models for dust growth in protoplanetary disks with simple recipes to account for erosion effects. Methods: To study the erosion of dust aggregates we employed a molecular dynamics approach that features a detailed micro-physical model of the interaction of spherical grains. For the first time, the model has been extended by introducing a new visco-elastic damping force, which requires a proper calibration. Afterwards, different sample generation methods were used to cover a wide range of aggregate types. Results: The visco-elastic damping force introduced in this work turns out to be crucial to reproduce results obtained from laboratory experiments. After proper calibration, we find that erosion occurs for impact velocities of 5 ms-1 and above. Though fractal aggregates as formed during the first growth phase are most susceptible to erosion, we observe erosion of aggregates with rather compact surfaces as well. Conclusions: We find that bombarding a larger target aggregate with small projectiles results in erosion for impact velocities as low as a few ms-1. More compact aggregates suffer less from erosion. With increasing projectile size the transition from accretion to erosion is shifted to higher velocities. This allows larger bodies to grow through high velocity collisions with smaller aggregates.

  16. Monitoring of DSP toxins in small-sized plankton fraction of seawater collected in Mutsu Bay, Japan, by ELISA method: relation with toxin contamination of scallop.

    PubMed

    Imai, Ichiro; Sugioka, Hikaru; Nishitani, Goh; Mitsuya, Tadashi; Hamano, Yonekazu

    2003-01-01

    Monitorings were conducted on DSP toxins in mid-gut gland of scallop (mouse assay), cell numbers of toxic dinoflagellate species of Dinophysis, and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in small-sized (0.7-5 microm) plankton fraction of seawater collected from surface (0 m) and 20 m depth at a station in Mutsu Bay, Aomori Prefecture, Japan, in 2000. A specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed for the analysis of DSP toxins in small-sized plankton fraction using a mouse monoclonal anti-okadaic acid antibody which recognizes okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1, and dinophysistoxin-3. DSP toxins were detected twice in the mid-gut gland of scallops at 1.1-2.3 MU (mouse units) g(-1) on 26 June and at 0.6-1.2 MU g(-1) on 3 July, respectively. Relatively high cell densities of D. fortii were observed on 26 June and 11 September, and may only contribute to the bivalve toxicity during late June to early July. D. acuminata did not appear to be responsible for the toxicity of scallops in Mutsu Bay in 2000. ELISA monitoring of small-sized plankton fraction in seawater could detect DSP toxins two weeks before the detection of the toxin in scallops, and could do so two weeks after the loss of the bivalve toxicity by mouse assay. On 17 July, toxic D. fortii was detected at only small number, <10 cells l(-1), but DSP toxins were detected by the ELISA assay, suggesting a presence of other toxic small-sized plankton in seawater. For the purpose of reducing negative impacts of DSP occurrences, monitorings have been carried out hitherto on DSP toxins of bivalve tissues by mouse assay and on cell densities of "toxic" species of Dinophysis. Here we propose a usefulness of ELISA monitoring of plankton toxicity, especially in small-sized fraction, which are possible foods of mixotrophic Dinophysis, as a practical tool for detecting and predicting DSPs in coastal areas of fisheries grounds of bivalve aquaculture.

  17. Surface Chemical Composition of Size-fractionated Urban Walkway Aerosols Determined by XPS and ToF-SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenjuan, Cheng; Lu-Tao, Weng; Yongjie, Li; Arthur, Lau; Chak, Chan; Chi-Ming, Chan

    2013-04-01

    In this study, aerosol particles with sizes ranging from 0.056 to 10 ?m were collected using a ten-stage impactor sampler (MOUDI) from a busy walkway of Hong Kong. The aerosol samples of each stage were examined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Size dependent distributions of the detected six key elements (N, S, Ca, Si, O, and C) were revealed together with the chemical states of N, S and C. The results indicated that aliphatic hydrocarbons were the dominant species on the surface of all particles while a small portion of graphitic carbon (due to elemental and aromatic hydrocarbons) was also detected on the surface of the particles with sizes ranging from 0.056 to 0.32 ?m. Organic oxygen- and nitrogen-containing surface groups as well as sulfates were more abundant on the surface of the particles with sizes ranging from 0.32 to 1 μm. Organic oxygen- and nitrogen-containing surface groups as well as sulfates were more abundant on the surface of the particles with sizes ranging from 0.32 to 1 μm. Inorganic salts and nitrates were found in coarse-mode particles. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used for detailed surface and near surface composition analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the ToF-SIMS spectra confirmed the XPS results that aromatic hydrocarbons were associated with the nucleation-mode particles. Aliphatic hydrocarbons with O- and N-containing functional groups were associated with accumulation-mode particles and inorganic salts were related to the coarse-mode particles. Depth-profiling experiments were performed on three specific sets of samples (nucleation-, accumulation- and coarse-mode particles) to study their near-surface structures. It showed that organic compounds were concentrated on the very top surface of the coarse-mode particles with inorganics in the core. The accumulation-mode particles had thick coatings of diverse organic compositions. The nucleation-mode particles, which contained

  18. Gram-scale fractionation of nanodiamonds by density gradient ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Mahfouz, Remi; Pan, Jun; Hou, Yuanfang; Beaujuge, Pierre M; Bakr, Osman M

    2013-06-07

    Size is a defining characteristic of nanoparticles; it influences their optical and electronic properties as well as their interactions with molecules and macromolecules. Producing nanoparticles with narrow size distributions remains one of the main challenges to their utilization. At this time, the number of practical approaches to optimize the size distribution of nanoparticles in many interesting materials systems, including diamond nanocrystals, remains limited. Diamond nanocrystals synthesized by detonation protocols - so-called detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) - are promising systems for drug delivery, photonics, and composites. DNDs are composed of primary particles with diameters mainly <10 nm and their aggregates (ca. 10-500 nm). Here, we introduce a large-scale approach to rate-zonal density gradient ultracentrifugation to obtain monodispersed fractions of nanoparticles in high yields. We use this method to fractionate a highly concentrated and stable aqueous solution of DNDs and to investigate the size distribution of various fractions by dynamic light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation, transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. This fractionation method enabled us to separate gram-scale amounts of DNDs into several size ranges within a relatively short period of time. In addition, the high product yields obtained for each fraction allowed us to apply the fractionation method iteratively to a particular size range of particles and to collect various fractions of highly monodispersed primary particles. Our method paves the way for in-depth studies of the physical and optical properties, growth, and aggregation mechanism of DNDs. Applications requiring DNDs with specific particle or aggregate sizes are now within reach.

  19. Experimental investigation of the aggregation-disaggregation of colliding volcanic ash particles in turbulent, low-humidity suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Bello, Elisabetta; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Giacalone, Emanuele; Cesaroni, Claudio

    2015-02-01

    We present the results of laboratory experiments on the aggregation and disaggregation of colliding volcanic ash particles. Ash particles of different composition and size <90 µm were held in turbulent suspension and filmed in high speed while colliding, aggregating, and disaggregating, forming a growing layer of electrostatically bound particles along a vertical plate. At room conditions and regardless of composition, 60-80% of the colliding particles smaller than 32 µm remained aggregated. In contrast, aggregation of particles larger than 63 µm was negligible, and, when a layer formed, periods when disaggregation (mainly by collisions or drag) exceeded aggregation occurred twice as frequently than for smaller particles. An empirical relationship linking the aggregation index, i.e., the effective fraction of aggregated particles surviving disaggregation, to the mean particle collision kinetic energy is provided. Our results have potential implications on the dynamics of volcanic plumes and ash mobility in the environment.

  20. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Part of the 1994 Industrial Minerals Review. The production, consumption, and applications of construction aggregates are reviewed. In 1994, the production of construction aggregates, which includes crushed stone and construction sand and gravel combined, increased 7.7 percent to 2.14 Gt compared with the previous year. These record production levels are mostly a result of funding for highway construction work provided by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Demand is expected to increase for construction aggregates in 1995.

  1. [Heavy metal adsorption research on different size fractions of sediment in the Baotou section of the Yellow River by using modified fractal dimension model].

    PubMed

    Xue, Hong-Xi; He, Jiang; Fan, Qing-Yun; Lü, Chang-Wei; Wang, Xia; Liang, Ying; Sun, Ying; Shen, Li-Li; Sa, Ru-Li

    2008-01-01

    The expression of surface fractal dimension (SFD) for size fractions of the Yellow River sediment was deduced. Based on the expression, the SFD value of different size fractions of the sediment was calculated. The SFD value of the sediment in the Baotou section of the Yellow River is 1.91, and the SFD value of the sediment smaller than 63 microm is 1.36, indicating strong ablation and separating ability of the Yellow River water. Using the modified fractal model, Freundlich model and Langmuir model to fit the data of heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd) adsorption, it is found that the modified fractal model is more available. And the adsorptive thermodynamics is better described by combining the modified fractal model and metastable equilibrium adsorption (MEA) theory. The variation extents of equilibrium adsorption capacity influenced by different grain size are ranked as Cu > Pb > Zn approximately equal to Cd. For each selected heavy metal, the higher initial concentration is, the stronger variation of adsorption capacity will be. The adsorptions of Cu and Pb are mainly associated with mineral composition of the sediment, while the adsorptions of Zn and Cd are mainly associated with physical characteristics of the sediment surface.

  2. Effect of particle size, fraction and carbide banding on deformation and damage behavior of ferrite-cementite steel under tensile/shear loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Xincun; Ma, Siming; Zhao, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Deformation and damage behavior of ferrite-cementite steel was investigated using microstructure-based representative volume element (RVE) methodology. A series of automatically generated 2D RVEs with ferrite matrix and globular cementite particles were generated as representative of various microstructures. The geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) accumulation at the ferrite-cementite interphase was also studied by introducing an intermediate layer around the cementite particles. Damage mechanisms such as ductile fracture in ferrite matrix, brittle fracture in cementite, and decohesion at ferrite-cementite interphase were considered to study the fracture modes. The relationships between interface strength and particle size were estimated according to the modified Argon criterion and showed satisfactory agreement with related works. The influences of microstructural features, such as particle size, particle fraction and carbide banding, on deformation and damage evolution were investigated under tensile and shear loads. Simulation results indicated that small particle size and particle fraction could postpone the initial decohesion under both tensile and shear loads, while carbide banding can lead to early fracture due to local stress concentration, which has potential to cause the loss of ductility and premature failure. These adverse effects become more severe when more cementite particles remain in the band or the gather density of the cementite particles in the band becomes higher.

  3. Branched polymers characterized by comprehensive two-dimensional separations with fully orthogonal mechanisms: molecular-topology fractionation×size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Edam, Rob; Mes, Edwin P C; Meunier, David M; Van Damme, Freddy A; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2014-10-31

    Polymer separations under non-conventional conditions have been explored to obtain a separation of long-chain branched polymers from linear polymers with identical hydrodynamic size. In separation media with flow-through channels of the same order as the size of the analyte molecules in solution, the separation and the elution order of polymers are strongly affected by the flow rate. At low flow rates, the largest polymers are eluted last. At high flow rates, they are eluted first. By tuning the channel size and flow rate, conditions can be found where separation becomes independent of molar mass or size of linear polymers. Long-chain branched polymers did experience lower migration rates under these conditions and can be separated from linear polymers. This type of separation is referred to as molecular-topology fractionation (MTF) at critical conditions. Separation by comprehensive two-dimensional molecular-topology fractionation and size-exclusion chromatography (MTF×SEC) was used to study the retention characteristics of MTF. Branching selectivity was demonstrated for three- and four-arm "star" polystyrenes of 3-5×10(6)g/mol molar mass. Baseline separation could be obtained between linear polymer, Y-shaped molecules, and X-shaped molecules in a single experiment at constant flow rate. For randomly branched polymers, the branching selectivity inevitably results in an envelope of peaks, because it is not possible to fully resolve the huge numbers of different branched and linear polymers of varying molar mass. It was concluded that MTF involves partial deformation of polymer coils in solution. The increased coil density and resistance to deformation can explain the different retention behavior of branched molecules.

  4. Bulk vs. amino acid stable N isotope estimations of metabolic status and contributions of nitrogen fixation to size-fractionated zooplankton biomass in the subtropical N Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mompeán, Carmen; Bode, Antonio; Gier, Elizabeth; McCarthy, Matthew D.

    2016-08-01

    A comparative analysis of natural abundance of stable N isotopes (δ15N) in individual amino acids and bulk organic matter of size-fractionated plankton revealed the differential impact of nitrogen fixation through the food web in a transect across the subtropical North Atlantic. All δ15N measurements showed low values in the central region, followed by the western zone, while maximum δ15N values were found in the eastern zone. These results were consistent with the prevalence of nitrogen fixation in the central and western zones, and the influence of the west Africa upwelling in the eastern zone. Use of compound-specific amino acid isotope data (CSI-AA) revealed relatively low variability in the impact of diazotrophic nitrogen within the different plankton size fractions, while δ15N of bulk organic matter showed high variability with size. Explicit CSI-AA trophic position estimates showed a small increase with mean plankton size class and varied in a relatively narrow range 1.8-2.5), with the lowest values in the central zone. High correlations between bulk plankton δ15N and individual amino acids (in particular Phe and Thr), as well as reconstructed total protein δ15N values, suggest a set of new relationships that may be important to tracing direct plankton contributions to nitrogen recycling in the ocean, including detrital organic nitrogen pools. Overall, these new results represent the most detailed investigation of CSI-AA data in plankton size classes to date, and indicated a greater importance of diazotrophic N than suggested by concurrent measurements of bulk δ15N, abundance of large nitrogen fixing organisms or nitrogen fixation rates.

  5. Pyrolysis compound specific isotopic analysis (δ13C and δD Py-CSIA) of soil organic matter size fractions under four vegetation covers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Almendros, Gonzalo; De la Rosa, José M.; González-Pérez, José A.

    2015-04-01

    A chemical characterization of soil organic matter (SOM) under different ground cover from a Mediterranean climate (Doñana National Park, Andalusia, Spain) is approached using bulk δ15N, δ13C, δ18O and δD isotopic analysis (C/TC-IRMS) and δ13C and δD pyrolysis compound specific isotopic analysis (Py-CSIA: Py-GC-C/TC-IRMS). Soil samples were collected in sandy soils, Arenosols (WRB 2006) from the Doñana National Park (SW Spain) under different vegetation cover: cork oak (Quercus suber, QS), eagle fern (Pteridium aquilinum, PA), pine (Pinus pinea, PP) and rockrose (Halimium halimifolium, HH). Two size fractions; coarse (C: 1-2 mm) and fine (F: <0.05 mm) were studied from each soil. A complete conventional analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) of these samples have been studied in detail (Jiménez-Morillo et al., 2015). Bulk isotopic analysis of stable light elements (δ15N, δ13C, δ18O and δD) revealed particular isotopic signatures showing differences related with the main vegetation cover and the different soil size fraction. All samples had a carbon isotopic signature between -26 and -29 ‰, which indicated that the organic matter in the two fractions of each soil sample derived from C3-type plants. The bulk δD isotopic signature in whole soil sample indicate a lower deuterium fractionation occurs in SOM under arboreal than under no-arboreal vegetation, this can be caused by the occurrence of a higher water evaporation rate under bush vegetation and/or to differences due to leaf morphology as previously described (Leaney